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  1. Rao, Prof. Valipe Ramgopal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2009 Section: Engineering & Technology. Rao, Prof. Valipe Ramgopal FNAE, FNASc, FNA, FIEEE. Date of birth: 16 August 1965. Specialization: Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology Address: Director, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, U.T.. Contact:

  2. Jyoti Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Jyoti Rao. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 22 Issue 9 September 2017 pp 829-833 General Article. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 · Shekhar C Mande Jyoti Rao · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The Nobel ...

  3. Photon Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72 Feature Article. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1303-1306. Molecule of the Month - Molecular-Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best!

  4. Invisible Delhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to talk about Delhi that is not Lutyen's or Shajahan's Delhi? Where are the lives of ordinary people of Delhi in this empty wishful landscape?......Is it possible to talk about Delhi that is not Lutyen's or Shajahan's Delhi? Where are the lives of ordinary people of Delhi in this empty wishful landscape?...

  5. Prasada Rao, Dr Turaga Sundara Rama

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1994 Section: Engineering & Technology. Prasada Rao, Dr Turaga Sundara Rama Ph.D. (Andhra), FNAE. Date of birth: 20 January 1939. Specialization: Petroleum Refining and Heterogeneous Catalysis Address: SFS Flat No. 600, DDA/HIG Flats, Sector 13, Phase 2, Pocket B, Dwaraka, New Delhi 110 045, U.T.

  6. B Venkateswara Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. B Venkateswara Rao. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 4 June 2015 pp 897-908. Equatorial wave activity during 2007 over Gadanki, a tropical station · Salauddin Mohammad Gopa Dutta B Venkateswara Rao P Vinay Kumar.

  7. H Surya Prakash Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. H Surya Prakash Rao. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 3 Issue 11 November 1998 pp 82-86 Feature Article. Molecule of the Month - Corannulene – A Bucky Bowl · H Surya Prakash Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 ...

  8. B Jayachander Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. B Jayachander Rao. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 119 Issue 5 September 2007 pp 401-407. Reactive chemical dynamics through conical intersections · S Ghosal B Jayachander Rao S Mahapatra · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Reaction ...

  9. P R Vasudeva Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. P R Vasudeva Rao. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 27 Issue 5 October 2002 pp 527-558. Development of fuels and structural materials for fast breeder reactors · Baldev Raj S L Mannan P R Vasudeva Rao M D Mathew · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Fast breeder reactors (FBRs) are ...

  10. C N R Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. C N R Rao. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 7 Issue 3 March 2002 pp 2-5 Article-in-a-Box. Tribute to Michael Faraday · C N R Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 14 Issue 5 May 2009 pp 508-517 Reflections. Chemistry ...

  11. C N R Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C N R Rao. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 112 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 83-95 Physical and Theoretical. An indigenous cluster beam apparatus with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer · G Raina G U Kulkarni R T Yadav V S Ramamurthy C N R Rao · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  12. R Vittal Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. R Vittal Rao. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 78-80 Book Review. A Mathematician's Apology Mathematics and Creativity · R Vittal Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  13. Desirazu N Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Desirazu N Rao. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 3 Issue 6 June 1998 pp 31-39 General Article. Enzyme Kinetics? Elementary, my dear... - Kinetics of Enzyme-Catalysed Reactions · Desirazu N Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 38-44 General Article.

  14. V Koteswara Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Koteswara Rao. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 70 Issue 4 April 2008 pp 747-752 Brief Reports. K X-ray satellite spectra of Ti, V, Cr and Mn induced by photons · M V R Murti S S Raju B Seetharami Reddy V Koteswara Rao L S Mombaswala T Seshi Reddy S Lakshminarayana K Premachand.

  15. K R Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. K R Rao. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 54-59 General Article. The Liquid State - The Arrangement of Atoms · K R Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 2 Issue 8 August 1997 pp 26-31 General ...

  16. U R Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. U R Rao. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 12 December 2001 pp 10-18 General Article. Vikram Sarabhai, the Scientist · U R Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  17. Rao, Prof. Calyampudi Radhakrishna

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 10 September 1920. Specialization: Statistics with Applications to Biology, Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition Address: Distinguished Professor Emeritus, CR Rao Advanced Institute, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. CR Rao Road, Hyderabad 500 046, A.P.. Contact: Office: (040) 2313 1170

  18. T Ramakrishna Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Ramakrishna Rao. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 85-90 General Article. A Curve for all Reasons - The Rectangular Hyperbola in Biology · T Ramakrishna Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 5 Issue 12 December 2000 pp 41-47 General Article.

  19. P Sanjeeva Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P Sanjeeva Rao. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 2 June 2000 pp 207-209. Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) — A component of the Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP) · D R Sikka P Sanjeeva Rao · More Details ...

  20. Rama Rao Nadendla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Rama Rao Nadendla. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60 General Article. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking · Rama Rao Nadendla · More Details Fulltext ...

  1. K J RAO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. K J RAO. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 461-466 Material Synthesis. Microwave synthesis of electrode materials for lithium batteries · M Harish Bhat B P Chakravarthy P A Ramakrishnan A Levasseur K J RAO.

  2. Sankara Rao, Prof. Kolluri

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankara Rao, Prof. Kolluri Ph.D. (Bangalore). Date of birth: 15 December 1939. Specialization: Plant Developmental Biology, Biotechnology, Biodiversity Informatics & Plant Systematics Address: Distinguished Fellow, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka Contact:

  3. MSG RAO Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol-Pibernat, E.; Govaerts, Y.

    2004-11-01

    BACKGROUND The Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Research Announcement of Opportunity (RAO) was released by ESA and EUMETSAT in 1999, after a first warning issued in September 1998. The RAO main objective is to promote the scientific use of the new MSG satellites outside the operational meteorological user community, also in synergy with ERS and Envisat data. The variety and quality of the selected proposals proved the usefulness of such joint initiative. 2. STATUS OF THE RAO A total of 43 proposals were selected in 1999. Following the delay in the MSG-1 launch (which operational name is Meteosat-8), the PIs were contacted in early 2003 in order to confirm the interest to continue with the project. There were 5 withdrawals due to various reasons. The PIs have been receiving news through a dedicated WEB site or by emails. Each PI has been assigned a correspondent from ESA or EUMETSAT to follow up the project through the site: http://eopi.esa.int/esa/esa where the papers presented at this Workshop will be included as the first report. 3. THE MSG RAO WORKSHOPS In the framework of the MSG RAO, a series of workshops are organised which goal is to establish a structured dialogue and interactions among the MSG Principal Investigators (PIs) and ESA/EUMETSAT, respectively. Each of these workshops is focusing on a specific aspect, in addition to the necessary exchange of information. 4. OBJECTIVES OF THE BOLOGNA WORKSHOP The focus of the first workshop (17-19 May 2000) was on the presentation of MSG features and of all selected RAO projects. It was a starting point for continued interaction within the MSG RAO community (selected PIs and their co-Investigators, Co-Is). The first MSG RAO workshop provided a forum for discussion among scientists, and ESA and EUMETSAT, leading to a continuous scientific co-operation. Requirements and possibilities with regard to data delivery were formulated and discussed at this workshop. In particular, PIs were asked to specify the minimal and

  4. Rao, Prof. Madan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 2011 Section: Physics. Rao, Prof. Madan Ph.D. (IISc). Date of birth: 11 July 1960. Specialization: Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics, Soft Condensed Matter Physics, Biological Physics Address: Theoretical Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, CV Raman Avenue, Bengaluru 560 080, Karnataka Contact:

  5. Venkateswara Rao, Dr Gundabathula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2003 Section: Engineering & Technology. Venkateswara Rao, Dr Gundabathula Ph.D. (IISc), FNAE. Date of birth: 9 November 1944. Specialization: Finite Element Methods, Structural Analysis (Linear & Nonlinear) and Smart Structures Address: No. 502, Reliance Mariam Villa, Street No. 6, Plot No.

  6. Rao, Prof. Sumathi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rao, Prof. Sumathi Ph.D. (SUNY, Stony Brook), FNASc. Date of birth: 5 December 1956. Specialization: Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Quantum field Theory Address: Harish Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, U.P.. Contact: Office: (0532) 227 4303. Residence: (0532) 227 4002

  7. Rao, Dr Pendyala Balarama

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1996 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Rao, Dr Pendyala Balarama Ph.D. (Andhra). Date of birth: 15 February 1938. Specialization: Space Physics, Radiowave Propagation and Radar Systems Address: Member, ADCOS-DOS, National Remote Sensing Centre, Bldg No. 10, Balanagar, Hyderabad 500 037, A.P.

  8. Rao, Prof. Basuthkar Jagadeeshwar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rao, Prof. Basuthkar Jagadeeshwar Ph.D. (IISc), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 13 March 1956. Specialization: Genome Dynamics, Biology of Cellular Adaptations, Computational Biology Address: Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, Maharashtra

  9. Rao, Prof. Palle Rama

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rao, Prof. Palle Rama Ph.D. (Banaras), F.Eng. (UK), FNA, FNASc, FNAE, FASM, FTWAS, Foreign Member - US Natl. Acad. Engg. Council Service: 1989-2000; Vice-President: 1992-94; President: 1995-97. Date of birth: 30 June 1937. Specialization: Deformation, Fracture and Materials Development Address: Chairman ...

  10. Purnachandra Rao, Dr Venigalla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Purnachandra Rao, Dr Venigalla Ph.D. (Andhra), FNA. Date of birth: 10 October 1955. Specialization: Marine Geology, Authigenic Minerals and Palaeoclimate, Palaeo-sea-levels. Address: Emeritus Scientist, Department of Civil Engineering, Vignan's University, Vadlamudi 522 213, A.P.. Contact: Office: (0863) 234 4761

  11. Rao, Prof. Aroor Pramesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rao, Prof. Aroor Pramesh Ph.D. (Mumbai). Date of birth: 18 January 1948. Specialization: Sun & Solar Wind, Wave Propagation in Random Media, Aperture Synthesis and Radio Imaging Address: Flat 7, Khagol Housing Society, Panchavati, Pashan, Pune 411 008, Maharashtra Contact: Residence: (020) 6628 0183

  12. Srinivasa Rao Amanchi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Srinivasa Rao Amanchi. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 126 Issue 6 November 2014 pp 1641-1645 Regular Articles. Polyoxometalate coordinated transition metal complexes as catalysts: Oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde/benzoic acid · Srinivasa ...

  13. Rao, Prof. Kalya Jagannatha

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rao, Prof. Kalya Jagannatha Ph.D. (IIT, Kanpur), D.Sc. (IISc), FNA, FNASc, D.Sc. (h.c., Univ. Bordeaux, France) Council Service: 1998-2003. Date of birth: 7 December 1940. Specialization: Amorphous Solids & Ceramics and Phase Transitions Address: 187/1, Tadvanam Estate, Halasinganahalli Road, Kalya Post, Magadi ...

  14. Pushpa M Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. Pushpa M Rao. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 67 Issue 6 December 2006 pp 1087-1097 Research Articles. Measurement of storage time, estimation of ion number and study of absorption line profile in a Paul trap · Soumen Bhattacharyya Anita ...

  15. Rao, Prof. Arikkala Raghurama

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 2012 Section: Physics. Rao, Prof. Arikkala Raghurama Ph.D. (Mumbai). Date of birth: 14 June 1954. Specialization: X-ray Astronomy, X-ray Instrumentation, High Energy Astrophysics Address: Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, ...

  16. Rao, Prof. Chebrolu Pulla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rao, Prof. Chebrolu Pulla Ph.D. (IISc), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 13 May 1954. Specialization: Bioinorganic Chemistry, Supramolecular Chemistry, Ion & Molecular Receptors, Metalloproteins & Metalloenzymes Address: Institute Chair Professor, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400 ...

  17. Rao, Prof. Kaza Kesava

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1992 Section: Engineering & Technology. Rao, Prof. Kaza Kesava Ph.D. (Houston). Date of birth: 12 April 1956. Specialization: Flow of Granular Materials and Defluoridation of Drinking Water Address: Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka

  18. Nageswara Rao, Dr Gullapalli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nageswara Rao, Dr Gullapalli M.D. (Opthal.) (AIIMS), FAMS, FACS, FRCS, FNASc. Date of birth: 1 September 1945. Specialization: Cornea, Community Eye Health and Eye Care Policy & Planning Address: Distinguished Chair of Eye Health, LV Prasad Eye Institute, LV Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad 500 034, A.P.

  19. Rao, Prof. Addicam Jagannadha

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rao, Prof. Addicam Jagannadha Ph.D. (IISc), FNA, FNASc, FAMS. Date of birth: 11 July 1942. Specialization: Regulation of Placental Function, Cellular Differentiation, Primate Biology, Oocyte Maturation Address: INSA Senior Scientist, Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka

  20. L V G Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. L V G Rao. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 2 June 2000 pp 255-265. Thermohaline structure and circulation in the upper layers of the southern Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot (October — November 1998) · V Ramesh Babu V S N ...

  1. V V S Gurunadha Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V V S Gurunadha Rao. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 855-867. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India · G Tamma Rao V V S Gurunadha Rao K ...

  2. V S C Manga Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. V S C Manga Rao. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 61 Issue 3 September 2003 pp 563-575 Research Articles. Phase conjugation of gap solitons: A numerical study · V S C Manga Rao S Dutta Gupta · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. We study the ...

  3. Rao, Prof. Paranandi Venkata Suryanarayana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1974 Section: Engineering & Technology. Rao, Prof. Paranandi Venkata Suryanarayana Ph.D. (Mumbai), FNA, FNASc, FNAE. Date of birth: 17 July 1936. Specialization: Computer Science & Speech Research, Natural Language Processing and Cursive Script Recognition Address: Flat No. 601, Vigyan, Sector 17, ...

  4. and KPS BHASKARA RAO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. A Kłopotowski1 M G Nadkarni2 K P S Bhaskara Rao3. Université Paris XIII, Institut Galilée, 93430 Villetaneuse Cedex, France; Department of Mathematics, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai 400 098, India; Stat-Math Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, R.V. College Post, Banglore 560 059, India ...

  5. Rao, Prof. Manchanahalli Rangaswamy Satyanarayana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1988 Section: General Biology. Rao, Prof. Manchanahalli Rangaswamy Satyanarayana Ph.D. (IISc), FNA, FNASc, FTWAS, FAMS Council Service: 2013-; Vice President: 2013-. Date of birth: 21 January 1948. Specialization: RNA Biology, Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, Neurooncology Address: Honorary ...

  6. Rao, Dr Kanury Venkata Subba

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rao, Dr Kanury Venkata Subba Ph.D. (Baroda), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 27 September 1958. Specialization: Synthetic Peptides, Cell Signalling, Biology of Tuberculosis Infection, Systems Biology Address: Head, DDRC, Translational Health Science & Technbology Institute, NCR Biotech, Science Cluster, Faridabad 121 ...

  7. Sumathi Rao | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumathi Rao. Sumathi Rao. Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad. Sumathi Rao received her PhD from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1983 in particle physics. She joined the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar in 1987, after postdoctoral jobs at Fermi Lab and at the University of Wisconsin in ...

  8. Delhi: India's urban example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B

    1988-06-01

    Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels.

  9. Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickola, Marisa; Gaylard, Mike; Quick, Jonathan; Combrinck, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    HartRAO provides the only fiducial geodetic site in Africa, and it participates in global networks for VLBI, GNSS, SLR, and DORIS. This report provides an overview of geodetic VLBI activities at HartRAO during 2012, including the conversion of a 15-m alt-az radio telescope to an operational geodetic VLBI antenna.

  10. Prakasa Rao, Prof. Bhagavatula Lakshmi Surya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakasa Rao, Prof. Bhagavatula Lakshmi Surya Ph.D. (Michigan State), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 6 October 1942. Specialization: Statistics Address: Ramanujan Chair Professor, CR Rao Advanced Institute of Mathematics,, Statistics & Computer Science, University of Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad 500 046, A.P.

  11. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  12. Bhaskar Rao: far from resigned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, S

    1992-03-01

    In 1972, Dr. Bhaskar Rao 1st worked for Operations Research Group (ORG), a market research agency. He resigned as its President in December 1991 after it was sold to Business India. He was able to life ORG from just an audit organization to an organization that could conduct analyses and formulate strategies, and that was doing well financially. He was not willing to let this well-respected, independent, professional, and nonprofit group be viewed as part of a for-profit magazine company, however. After finishing his undergraduate education, he became involved in the social service organization directed by Nehru. In 1962, he worked full time for its mass awareness group and then worked to combat rumors during the India-China war. In 1963, he worked with farmers to educate them on how to use fertilizers to increase yield. This experience brought him a scholarship to study social science at Kansas State University in 1967. In the US, he took a course at Martin Luther King's School for Social Change to further his political interests. He received a Ph.D. in mass communications from the University of Iowa then returned to India. In 1970, he worked for the Ford Foundation as a consultant to the Ministry of Health and Family Planning which wanted to survey 25,000 people to learn their perceptions of family planning. He dealt with ORG. The owner convinced him to leave the Ford Foundation and work for ORG where he worked on the family planning survey and the national readership survey. In 1973, he challenged remarks made by the minister of information and broadcast during a public speech. Impressed, the minister offered him an evaluation advisor position. In 1977, however, he left and returned to ORG where he became widely known as a media analyst. In 1983, he became vice president of ORG and president in 1985.

  13. Deepak Pental, Univ. Delhi South Campus, New Delhi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    Delhi South Campus, New Delhi. Breeding of oilseed mustard: Tales from some marathon runners. Oilseed mustard is grown in around 6-7 million hectares of land, mostly in the north- western dryland regions of India during the winter season. In 1993 our group made a major observation that hybrids between mustard lines ...

  14. Predominant Tuberculosis Spoligotypes, Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Urvashi Balbir; Suresh, Naga; Bhanu, N.Vijaya; Arora, Jyoti; Pant, Hema; Sinha, Sanjeev; Aggarwal, Ram Charan; Singh, Sushma; Pande, Jitendra Nath; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin; Seth, Pradeep

    2004-01-01

    One hundred five Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from the Delhi area were typed by spoligotyping; 45 patterns were identified. Comparison with an international spoligotype database showed type 26, Delhi type (22%), type 54 (12%), and type 1, Beijing type (8%), as the most common. Eighteen spoligotypes did not match any existing database pattern.

  15. Rao Heidmets tegi eestlaste traagilised elulood filmiks / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Joonisfilm "Elulood" : stsenaristid Rao Heidmets ja Mats Traat : režissöör Rao Heidmets : kunstnik Ave Nahkur : helilooja Olav Ehala : esilinastus Torontos, oktoober 2007 : Eesti esilinastus 25. nov. 2007. Lisatud "Filmis kõlavaid elulookatkeid"

  16. Weierstrass semigroups and the Feng-Rao Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillo, Antonio; Farran, Ignacio

    2000-01-01

    We detrmine the Feng-Rao distance for several claases of codes from algebraic geometry usingthe weierstrass semigroups......We detrmine the Feng-Rao distance for several claases of codes from algebraic geometry usingthe weierstrass semigroups...

  17. Density variation and piezoelectric properties of Ba(Ti1−xSnx)O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    847–852. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Density variation and piezoelectric properties of Ba(Ti1−xSnx)O3 ceramics prepared from nanocrystalline powders. A K NATH. ∗ and NIRMALI MEDHI. Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110 021, India. MS received 25 September 2011.

  18. On the Feng-Rao bound for generalized hamming weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Thommesen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The Feng-Rao bound gives good estimates of the minimum distance of a large class of codes. In this work we are concerned with the problem of how to extend the Feng-Rao bound so that it deals with all the generalized Hamming weights. The problem was solved by Heijnen and Pellikaan in [7] for a lar...

  19. Optimum Cooperative UAV Sensing Based on Cramer-Rao Bound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gu, G; Chandler, P. R; Schumacher, C. J; Sparks, A; Pachter, M

    2005-01-01

    .... Based on the Cramer-Rao bound, we are able to derive the minimum achievable error variance in estimation of the position and the velocity of the GMT, and obtain the optimal geometries of the UAV...

  20. On the Feng-Rao bound for generalized Hamming weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Olav; Thommesen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The Feng-Rao bound gives good estimates of the minimum distance of a large class of codes. In this work we are concerned with the problem of how to extend the Feng-Rao bound so that it deals with all the generalized Hamming weights. The problem was solved by Heijnen and Pellikaan in [7] for a large...... family of codes that includes the duals of one-point geometric Goppa codes and the q-ary Reed-Muller codes, but not the Feng-Rao improved such ones. We show that Heijnen and Pellikaan’s results holds for the more general class of codes for which the traditional Feng-Rao bound can be applied. We also...... establish the connection to the Shibuya-Sakaniwa bound for generalized Hamming weights ([15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20]). More precisely we show that the Shibuya-Sakaniwa bound is a consequence of the extended Feng-Rao bound. In particular the extended Feng-Rao bound gives always at least as good...

  1. Appa Rao Podile | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Appa Rao Podile, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, elected to Fellowship in 2015. Podile is interested in plant–microbe interactions. His research group focuses on molecular interactions of rhizosphere bacteria with plants. In the past decade, domain shuf- fling/swapping of recombinant bacterial chitinases, bioprocess ...

  2. Straight talk with... Mahendra Rao by Dolgin Elie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mahendra

    2011-10-11

    In October 2005, Mahendra Rao shocked the scientific community when he quit his job as head of the US National Institute on Aging's stem cell section and announced plans to go into industry. Rao felt that a ban at the time on federal funding for most human embryonic stem cell research hampered researchers in his division and prohibited him from doing the job he was hired to do. So he joined the research-tool giant Invitrogen (which later became Life Technologies) as vice president of regenerative medicine at the company's Maryland facility. Six years on, times have changed in the field of stem cell biology: rules governing taxpayer-backed research involving embryonic stem (ES) cells have been relaxed in the US, and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have come into the fray. Prompted by those changes, Rao opted to return to the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) in August to head the new Intramural Center for Regenerative Medicine. The $52 million center was launched in early 2010 by the agency to develop new therapies using stem cell approaches. With a heightened focus at the NIH on translational medicine, Elie Dolgin spoke to Rao to find out how he plans to turn stem cell discoveries into cell-based therapies.

  3. 150 K. Visweswara Rao and T. R. Seshadri

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    150 K. Visweswara Rao and T. R. Seshadri was then effected under ordinary pressure up to a temperature of 240°. It was connected again to the pump and the distillation carried out at a pressure of 40 mm. Three fractions were collected: (1) below 160", (2) 160—70“ and (3) 17045". The last fraction corresponded to ...

  4. Uptake of Elements From Aerosols by Humans ~ A Case Study From Delhi & Bangalore Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S.; Yadav, S.; Jain, V. K.

    2006-05-01

    Aerosol research has gained tremendous importance globally due to the cumulative effects of increasing industrialization and urbanization on aerosol production which can have an alarming impact on the climate of the planet as well as the health of its inhabitants. Therefore, there is an increasing need to study aerosols for all of their physicochemical and biological aspects on both local and global scales. World over extensive research has gone into studying the physical and the chemical aspects of aerosols. However, little information is yet available on the health impacts of aerosols particularly in the Asian context. Here we report uptake of various elements that are concentrated in aerosols by the human body in Delhi and Bangalore cities and their possible health effects. In many urban areas, for example in Delhi, inhalable fractions of aerosols are known to have high concentrations of elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Ba, Ni and Cr (Yadav and Rajamani 2004). Also aerosols in the North West part of India seem to be particularly enriched in these elements. If so, there is a high possibility of these elements getting into the human system either directly or indirectly through water and food. To determine the concentrations of these elements that are present in significant concentrations in the inhalable fractions of aerosols, human hair and blood samples are used as proxies. Both these regions have contrasting geographic and climatic conditions. Delhi (altitude : 213-305m above MSL) located on the fringes of the Thar desert which supplies considerable amount of dust, is semi-arid with annual rainfall of 60-80 cms & temperatures varying between 1° - 45°. Bangalore (altitude of 900m above MSL) receives a high annual rainfall of 80-100 cms and being located on the fringes of tropical forests of the Sahyadri Mountains (Western Ghats) receives little crustal contribution to the aerosols. Samples from least polluted mountainous areas of Himalayas (Gangothri) and Sahyadri

  5. Caffeine intake among adolescents in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Gera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys, 291 (97% were consuming caffeine [mean (SD: 121.0 (98.2 mg/day]. Nineteen (6% students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets.

  6. Caffeine intake among adolescents in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mridul Gera; Swati Kalra; Piyush Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age...

  7. Fast Erasure and Error decoding of Algebraic Geometry Codes up to the Feng-Rao Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helge Elbrønd; Sakata, S.; Leonard, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an errata(that is erasure-and error-) decoding algorithm of one-point algebraic geometry codes up to the Feng-Rao designed minimum distance using Sakata's multidimensional generalization of the Berlekamp-massey algorithm and the votin procedure of Feng and Rao.......This paper gives an errata(that is erasure-and error-) decoding algorithm of one-point algebraic geometry codes up to the Feng-Rao designed minimum distance using Sakata's multidimensional generalization of the Berlekamp-massey algorithm and the votin procedure of Feng and Rao....

  8. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  9. Estimating the Cramer-Rao bound for restored astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccheo, T. S.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Ebstein, S. M.; Nisenson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of assigning confidence intervals to estimated photometry data obtained from astronomical observations. The proposed solution is to estimate the Cramer-Rao bound, which is an analytical expression that describes the minimum obtainable mean square error associated with a given estimate of a parameter. This Letter presents a compact and simple form for the bound associated with a linear estimator such as a Wiener filter estimator. A prescription for estimating the variance associated with each element in a restored object was developed using an analytical model for observed data corrupted by either Poisson or Gaussian noise. Both one- and two-dimensional examples are presented.

  10. Descriptive Epidemiology of Female Breast Cancer in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Nalliah; Nair, Omana; Shukla, N K; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in females worldwide. The Population Based Cancer Registry data of Delhi were here used to describe the epidemiology and trends in breast cancer incidence in Delhi. Methods: Crude rate, age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) and age-specific incidence rates were calculated using the data collected by Delhi PBCR for the year 2012. The time trend of breast cancer incidence was evaluated by joinpoint regression using the PBCR data...

  11. Dengue fever among Israeli expatriates in Delhi, 2015: implications for dengue incidence in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Turgeman, Avigail; Lustig, Yaniv; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-03-01

    We present the data of 13 dengue cases diagnosed between 1 August and 15 September 2015 among 240 Israeli expatriates residing in Delhi. Attack rates were similar between adults (6/128, 4.7%) and children (7/112, 6.3%). dengue virus (DENV-2) was identified in two and DENV-1 in one dengue-seropositive sample. Another febrile patient was diagnosed with chikungunya virus infection. The reported incidence of dengue fever among people living in Delhi was lower than 0.1% as of September 2015. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the incidence of dengue fever in Delhi is grossly underestimated. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Page 1 320 B L Brinda, U V Varadaraju and G V Subba Rao 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1988a in Chemistry of oxide superconductors (Oxford: Blackwell Sci. Publ.) Rao CNR (ed.) 1988b in Chemical and structural aspects of high temperature superconductors, (Singapore: World Scientific). Rao C N R and Raveau B 1989 Acc. Chem. Res. 22 106. Siegrist T, Zahurak S M, Murphy D W and Roth RS 1988 Nature ...

  13. Plasma cortisol concentration increases within 6 hours of stabling in RAO-affected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaba, J J; Behan Braman, A; Robinson, N E

    2014-09-01

    In many inflammatory diseases plasma cortisol concentration (CORT) increases at the onset of acute inflammation, but the situation in recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) of horses is unknown. Split-plot repeated measures design with one grouping factor (disease) and two repeated factors (day and 3-hour intervals). To test the hypothesis that CORT increases as acute exacerbations of RAO develop. Four RAO-susceptible and 4 control horses were placed in a low dust environment (LDEnv) for 2 days followed by 2 days in a high dust environment (HDEnv). Exacerbations of RAO were indicated by increases in maximal change in pleural pressure (ΔPplmax) and decreases in breathing frequency variability (BFV), which was continuously measured by respiratory inductance plethysmography. Plasma samples for determination of CORT were collected every 6 h. In control horses, ΔPplmax and BFV were unaffected by the HDEnv, whereas in RAO-affected horses ΔPplmax increased and BFV decreased significantly. In the LDEnv, there was a circadian variation in CORT in both control and RAO-affected horses. In HDEnv, CORT was unaffected in control horses, but increased significantly in RAO-affected horses between 6 and 12 h after entering the HDEnv. Plasma cortisol concentration increases concurrently with the development of acute exacerbations of RAO. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Oxidant-antioxidant status in the blood of horses with symptomatic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, A; Jaworski, Z

    2014-01-01

    Systemic oxidative stress in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to investigate whether equine RAO is associated with systemic disturbances in the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium. Seven healthy horses and 7 horses with symptomatic RAO. A prospective study. Healthy and RAO-affected horses were exposed to a 48-hour challenge with moldy hay and straw to induce clinical exacerbation of RAO. Venous blood was collected and the activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) in equine erythrocyte lysates were measured. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARSs) was assessed both in erythrocyte lysates and in plasma. A significant increase in the activities of GPx and SOD was detected in RAO-affected horses compared with the control animals. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of the erythrocyte lysate activities of CAT, GR, or TBARs or the plasma concentration of TBARs. Our results support the hypothesis that RAO in horses is associated with systemic oxidative stress. Future studies are needed to assess whether horses suffering from RAO can benefit from antioxidant supplementation. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. AIP-Primeca RAO Remote Laboratories in Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Coquard

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decade, Internet and related webtechnology development enabled the arising of e-learningservices and made distant learning a reality. As traditionalface to face classroom became virtual classroom throughInternet, traditional laboratories found their image inElectronic Laboratories (ELABs. These ones enablelearners to train themselves on remote real or virtualsystems. They represent essential components in e-learningenvironments, especially in scientific and technicaldisciplines.In this context, AIP-Primeca RAO is a pool of resources andcompetencies about industrial topics for many universitiesin Rhône-Alpes french Region. Due to the constraintsinherent in using heavy and shared industrial resources,AIP is setting up new laboratories related to automation asboth local and distant resources. After recalling the globalcontext of e-laboratories, this paper describes this platform.It evokes first returns of use and it details evolutions tocome.

  16. Stochastic processes and functional analysis a volume of recent advances in honor of M. M. Rao

    CERN Document Server

    Krinik, Alan C

    2004-01-01

    This extraordinary compilation is an expansion of the recent American Mathematical Society Special Session celebrating M. M. Rao's distinguished career and includes most of the presented papers as well as ancillary contributions from session invitees. This book shows the effectiveness of abstract analysis for solving fundamental problems of stochastic theory, specifically the use of functional analytic methods for elucidating stochastic processes, as made manifest in M. M. Rao's prolific research achievements. Featuring a biography of M. M. Rao, a complete bibliography of his published works,

  17. Source apportionment of ambient VOCs in Delhi City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Sengupta, B; Dutta, S A

    2005-05-01

    Source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) model was carried using a data set of 360 four hourly samples collected at 15 locations of five categories namely residential, commercial, industrial, traffic intersections and petrol pumps during August 2001-July 2002 in Delhi. The results indicate that emissions from diesel internal combustion engines dominate in Delhi. Vehicular exhaust and evaporative emissions also contribute significantly to VOCs in ambient air. Emission of VOCs associated with sewage sludge was also found to contribute to VOCs in Delhi's air. This points to the fact that open defecation and leaking sewage manholes are a problem in all categories of locations.

  18. Source apportionment of ambient VOCs in Delhi City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Anjali [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, 89/B, Dr.A.B.Road, Worli, Mumbai-400 018 (India); Sengupta, B.; Dutta, S.A. [Central Pollution Control Board, Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar, Delhi-110032 (India)

    2005-05-01

    Source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) model was carried using a data set of 360 four hourly samples collected at 15 locations of five categories namely residential, commercial, industrial, traffic intersections and petrol pumps during August 2001-July 2002 in Delhi. The results indicate that emissions from diesel internal combustion engines dominate in Delhi. Vehicular exhaust and evaporative emissions also contribute significantly to VOCs in ambient air. Emission of VOCs associated with sewage sludge was also found to contribute to VOCs in Delhi's air. This points to the fact that open defecation and leaking sewage manholes are a problem in all categories of locations. (author)

  19. Dwelling in New Delhi, dwelling in hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Roselli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available I wake up in a ground floor bedroom of a fourth floor building. In the near dining room, the tv is kicking out loud Hindi voices, the musical refrain of a phone company ad. The family hosting me is a family of immigrants. The grandfather and the grandmother arrived in Delhi during the partition time. They originally grew up in Pakistan and met in the place where they live today, when the land was organized as a refugees camp. At the beginning, the refugees camp was only a wasteland. Then, with the passage of time, people started to build small pakka houses, a kind of self-built architecture made of simple oven-cooked red bricks, with a thatched roof.

  20. Calculation of P,T-odd interaction effect in ^{225}RaO

    CERN Document Server

    Kudashov, A D; Skripnikov, L V; Mosyagin, N S; Titov, A V

    2012-01-01

    The 10-electron generalized relativistic effective core potential and the corresponding correlation spin-orbital basis sets are generated for the Ra atom and the relativistic coupled cluster calculations for the RaO molecule are performed. The main goal of the study is to evaluate the P,T-odd parameter X characterized by the molecular electronic structure and corresponding to a "volume effect" in the interaction of the ^{225}Ra nucleus Schiff moment with electronic shells of RaO. Our final result for X(^{225}RaO) is -7532 which is surprisingly close to that in ^{205}TlF but has different sign. The obtained results are discussed and the quality of the calculations is analyzed. The value is of interest for a proposed experiment on RaO [PRA 77, 024501 (2008)] due to a very large expected Schiff moment of the ^{225}Ra nucleus.

  1. Coarrays, MUSIC, and the Cramér-Rao Bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mianzhi; Nehorai, Arye

    2017-02-01

    Sparse linear arrays, such as co-prime arrays and nested arrays, have the attractive capability of providing enhanced degrees of freedom. By exploiting the coarray structure, an augmented sample covariance matrix can be constructed and MUSIC (MUtiple SIgnal Classification) can be applied to identify more sources than the number of sensors. While such a MUSIC algorithm works quite well, its performance has not been theoretically analyzed. In this paper, we derive a simplified asymptotic mean square error (MSE) expression for the MUSIC algorithm applied to the coarray model, which is applicable even if the source number exceeds the sensor number. We show that the directly augmented sample covariance matrix and the spatial smoothed sample covariance matrix yield the same asymptotic MSE for MUSIC. We also show that when there are more sources than the number of sensors, the MSE converges to a positive value instead of zero when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) goes to infinity. This finding explains the "saturation" behavior of the coarray-based MUSIC algorithms in the high SNR region observed in previous studies. Finally, we derive the Cram\\'er-Rao bound (CRB) for sparse linear arrays, and conduct a numerical study of the statistical efficiency of the coarray-based estimator. Experimental results verify theoretical derivations and reveal the complex efficiency pattern of coarray-based MUSIC algorithms.

  2. Empirical likelihood inference for the Rao-Hartley-Cochran sampling design

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Yves G.

    2016-01-01

    The Hartley-Rao-Cochran sampling design is an unequal probability sampling design which can be used to select samples from finite populations. We propose to adjust the empirical likelihood approach for the Hartley-Rao-Cochran sampling design. The approach proposed intrinsically incorporates sampling weights, auxiliary information and allows for large sampling fractions. It can be used to construct confidence intervals. In a simulation study, we show that the coverage may be better for the emp...

  3. Empirical Likelihood Confidence Intervals under the Rao-Hartley-Cochran Sampling Design

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Yves G.

    2014-01-01

    The Hartley-Rao-Cochran (RHC) sampling design (Rao et al., 1962) is a popular unequal probability sampling design. We show how empirical likelihood confidence intervals can be derived under this sampling design. Berger and De La Riva Torres (2012) proposed an empirical likelihood approach which can be used for point estimation and to construct confidence intervals under complex sampling designs. We show how this approach can be adjusted for the RHC sampling design. The proposed approach intri...

  4. A unification of Cramer-Rao type bounds. [in signal parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rife, D. C.; Goldstein, M.; Boorstyn, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    This correspondence examines multiparameter generalizations of the Cramer-Rao (C-R) bound and related bounds from a new viewpoint. We derive a general class of bounds and show that Rao's generalization is the tightest (best) of the class. A bound reported by Zacks is another member of the class. This derivation of the C-R bound emphasizes its optimum nature. The relationship of the general class to Barankin bounds is also discussed.

  5. Northeast Migrants in Delhi : Race, Refuge and Retail

    OpenAIRE

    McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Northeast Migrants in Delhi: Race, Refuge and Retail is an ethnographic study of migrants from India's north-east border region living and working in Delhi, the nation's capital. Northeast India borders China, the Himalayas, and Southeast Asia. Despite burgeoning interest in the region, little attention is given to the thousands of migrants leaving the region for Indian cities for refuge, work, and study. The stories of Northeast migrants reveal an everyday Northeast India rarely captured els...

  6. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  7. Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    each component weight during the nonlinear propagation stage an approximation of the true pdf can be successfully reconstructed. Particle filtering (PF) methods have gained popularity recently for solving nonlinear estimation problems due to their straightforward approach and the processing capabilities mentioned above. The basic concept behind PF is to represent any pdf as a set of random samples. As the number of samples increases, they will theoretically converge to the exact, equivalent representation of the desired pdf. When the estimated qth moment is needed, the samples are used for its construction allowing further analysis of the pdf characteristics. However, filter performance deteriorates as the dimension of the state vector increases. To overcome this problem Ref. [5] applies a marginalization technique for PF methods, decreasing complexity of the system to one linear and another nonlinear state estimation problem. The marginalization theory was originally developed by Rao and Blackwell independently. According to Ref. [6] it improves any given estimator under every convex loss function. The improvement comes from calculating a conditional expected value, often involving integrating out a supportive statistic. In other words, Rao-Blackwellization allows for smaller but separate computations to be carried out while reaching the main objective of the estimator. In the case of improving an estimator's variance, any supporting statistic can be removed and its variance determined. Next, any other information that dependents on the supporting statistic is found along with its respective variance. A new approach is developed here by utilizing the strengths of the adaptive Gaussian sum propagation in Ref. [2] and a marginalization approach used for PF methods found in Ref. [7]. In the following sections a modified filtering approach is presented based on a special state-space model within nonlinear systems to reduce the dimensionality of the optimization problem in

  8. Centro de conferencias en Nueva Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwal, S.

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available Vigyan Bhavan, in New Delhi, is a centre specially built to hold in it national and international meetings and congresses. The north, east and west faces of the building follow closely the traditional local Indian style. The main frontage, to the south, has a simple but fine Buddhist arch in green marble and wide steps leading to it in white marble. This centre consists of three distinct, but well integrated, buildings. The main facilities of this project are: an auditorium with seating accommodation for 706 delegates, a public gallery, and two meeting rooms for 20 people each, on the first floor. A separate section houses 5 committee rooms, two rooms for other group meetings, and a cafeteria, on the lower floor. The offices and other administrative services have been placed in the east wing, which is three storeys high, and is separated from the rest of the centre by a paved patio. The peculiar beauty of this project and the surrounding landscape's picturesque charm induce a sense of relaxation that is indeed conducive to the better success of international meetings.El Vigyan Bhavan, de Nueva Delhi, constituye un Centro especialmente construido para la celebración de conferencias nacionales e internacionales. Sus alzados norte, este y oeste fueron concebidos siguiendo el estilo tradicional indio, y muestran interesantes efectos de claro-oscuro. La fachada principal —sur— presenta un sencillo pero distinguido arco budista en mármol verde, y una escalinata realizada con mármol blanco. Este conjunto está constituido por tres cuerpos diferenciados, pero conectado con fáciles comunicaciones. Como dependencias importantes del Centro figuran: un auditorio con capacidad para 706 delegados sentados, una galería para el público y dos salas de reunión para 20 personas en el primer piso. El cuerpo posterior del edificio, aislado del auditorio por un patio, contiene cinco salas de juntas y dos salas para comisiones; en la planta baja hay una

  9. Cramér-Rao bounds for metasurfaces susceptibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Thomas; Kodigala, Ashok; Kante, Boubacar

    2015-09-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a lot of efforts have been focused on understanding the effective properties of metamaterials [1]. In the last few years, metasurfaces in particular have been widely investigated [2]. Several homogenization methods dedicated to them have been proposed but, due to the topic's complexity, none have yet to be widely accepted. We considered a specific homogenization method dedicated to metasurfaces, namely Generalized Sheet Transition Conditions (GSTC, [3]). This method was chosen because it is compatible with retrieval from reflection and transmission coefficients. In this method, metasurfaces are characterized by electric and magnetic susceptibilities. In the literature, retrieved effective parameters have been shown to violate causality around resonances and this has been attributed to spatial dispersion [4]. In order to determine if spatial dispersion is the only source of this phenomenon, we have investigated the statistical properties of estimators that have been put forward for these susceptibilities. We have thus computed the Cramér-Rao lower bounds on the variance of these estimators. We have shown that this bound increases substantially around resonances making retrieval possible only for very high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR, [5]). Therefore, in experiments, issues arising from spatial dispersion and noise compound and result in non-physical effective parameters. To mitigate this, we have proposed a least-squares estimator for susceptibilities that has a better performance with respect to noise. Sensitivity to noise is particularly acute for low-loss metasurfaces. It often results in required SNRs that are unachievable in practice. The present work is thus relevant to the development of loss-compensated metasurfaces for which the issues posed by retrieval will have to be closely considered for accurate and robust device characterization.

  10. General morbidity prevalence in the Delhi slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.

  11. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among school children of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, C S; Mallik, A; Anand, K; Pandav, S; Karmarkar, M G

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) are an important cause of mental handicap and poor educability of children. Though Delhi does not lie in the classical Himalayan goitre belt, it has been shown that IDD was endemic in Delhi. Studies of school children in Delhi reported a total goitre rate of 55% which indicates severe endemicity. The sale of uniodized salt has been banned in Delhi since July 1989. This study was done five years later to assess the impact of this measure on IDD prevalence in Delhi. A cross-sectional study was done among class VI students studying in government schools of Delhi. A complete list of government middle schools in Delhi was obtained and 30 were selected on the basis of 'probability proportion to size'. A sample size of 1200 was decided based on an expected prevalence of 50% with 5% error and design effect of three. All children in class VI of each school were clinically examined by a trained doctor for the presence of goitre and casual urine samples were collected in capped plastic tubes. The urinary iodine estimation was done by the wet ashing method. The total goitre rate was 20.5%. If the results were limited to children in the age group of 10-12 years it was 19.7%. The urinary iodine was less than the recommended 100 micrograms/L of urine in 23.6% of the children; 7.6% had no iodine in the urine. It is possible that some children could have substituted water in place of urine. The median urinary iodine level was 198 micrograms/L of urine. The study showed that IDD continues to be prevalent in mild endemic proportions. Compared to the results of previous surveys, the IDD rates have declined in the last few years. However, it continues to be an important public health problem in Delhi. It is essential to monitor the iodine content of salt on a regular basis. IDD control activities should be strengthened in Delhi and repeat surveys should be done every 3-5 years to monitor the progress achieved in eliminating IDD.

  12. Quantitative cine-left ventriculography - Superiority of 45 .deg. RAO view to straight AB view -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Han, Man Chung [Seoul Natinal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    The volumetry by cineangiocardiography is known to have the most diagnostic and prognostic value in the evaluation of various valvular heart diseases and ischemic heart diseases. Although many authors favor the area-length method for the volumetry of left ventricle, 45 .deg. RAO projection seems to be more simple, inexpensive and accurate technique, considering the positional relationship of cardiac valves and obliquity of the long axis of left ventricle within the chest cage. Authors present the anatomical, geometrical and radiological basis for the superiority of 45 .deg. RAO protection by analyzing 20 normal heart specimen and 115 cineangiocardiograms of valvular heart diseases, and the results as follows: 1. Blood flow and motility of the mitral and aortic valves can be more clearly demonstrated by 45 .deg. RAO projection than by AP view. 2. The long diameter of left ventricular silhouette made 45 .deg. RAO projection reflects 90% or more of real diameter. 3. In RAO 45 .deg. position, patient's left nipple is optimal and convenient level for the ruler offering accurate magnification coefficient of left ventricle. 4. Ejection fraction after the extrasystole is exaggerated regardless of the left ventricular function, so it is desirable to exclude the 2 or 3 beats after extrasystole.

  13. Indian Himalayan Glaciology Research Programme - An Overview POPURI SANJEEVA RAO Department of Science and Technology, Technology Bhawan, New Delhi-110016, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva Rao, P.

    2013-12-01

    Himalayan Glaciers are unique in many respects. Glaciers are expected to be sensitive to variations in weather and climate forcing. In view of their socio economic importance and unique environmental settings, prepared a scientific report on the `Dynamics of Glaciers in the Indian Himalaya - The Science Plan' synthesizing the available knowledge on the Glaciers in the high mountain regions. Various thrust areas for in-depth studies in glaciology were recognized to generate the necessary scientific information to devise suitable science and technology based intervention strategies. Based on the accessibility, length, aspect, altitude, etc. identified nine bench-mark glaciers, out of 9500 glaciers, across the Indian Himalaya for continuous monitoring in collaboration with different institutions and organizations. Recognizing the fact that the snow melt and glacier melt runoff from the Gangotri Glacier is the hydrological source of Ganga River basin national significance, prepared a status report on `Gangotri Glacier'. In order to understand the role of atmospheric forcing on various aspects of glacier dynamics, including hydrological processes evolved an `Integrated Program on Gangotri Glacier'. This program is to utilize modern in-situ observational systems, advanced remote sensing techniques and modeling to undertake snow cover, mass balance, hydrological, geochemical, geomorphological and aerosols over Himalaya. Efforts are in place towards establishing of a `National Centre for Himalayan Glaciology' at Mussoorie for undertaking long-term monitoring of the glaciers, strengthening of integrated observational systems in the glaciated environments. Capacity building in the form of infrastructure and human resources through multidisciplinary research projects in Himalayan Glaciology is in progress. The presentation shall enlighten the details of these new initiatives to understand the `Dynamics of Glaciers in the Indian Himalaya'.

  14. Fruit and vegetable purchasing patterns and preferences in South Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    FINZER, LAUREN E.; AJAY, VAMADEVAN S.; ALI, MOHAMMED K.; SHIVASHANKAR, ROOPA; GOENKA, SHIFALIKA; PILLAI, DIVYA S.; KHANDELWAL, SHWETA; TANDON, NIKHIL; REDDY, K. SRINATH; NARAYAN, K.M. VENKAT; PRABHAKARAN, DORAIRAJ

    2017-01-01

    This study examines associations between consumer characteristics, beliefs, and preferences and fruit and vegetable (FV) purchasing and intake in South Delhi, India. Home interviews were conducted with 245 households, using a structured questionnaire to assess FV consumption and purchasing frequency, spending, place of purchase, mode of travel, knowledge and attitudes towards organics, and beliefs about barriers to FV consumption. In-depth interviews with 62 experts and key informants validated survey findings that street vendors and markets are currently the dominant source of FV in South Delhi and that affordability, not accessibility, is the main barrier to increasing FV intake. PMID:23282188

  15. Fruit and vegetable purchasing patterns and preferences in South Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzer, Lauren E; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Ali, Mohammed K; Shivashankar, Roopa; Goenka, Shifalika; Sharma, Praggya; Pillai, Divya S; Khandelwal, Shweta; Tandon, Nikhil; Reddy, K Srinath; Narayan, K M Venkat; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-01-01

    This study examines associations between consumer characteristics, beliefs, and preferences and fruit and vegetable (FV) purchasing and intake in South Delhi, India. Home interviews were conducted with 245 households, using a structured questionnaire to assess FV consumption and purchasing frequency, spending, place of purchase, mode of travel, knowledge and attitudes toward organics, and beliefs about barriers to FV consumption. In-depth interviews with 62 experts and key informants validated survey findings that street vendors and markets are currently the dominant source of FV in South Delhi and that affordability, not accessibility, is the main barrier to increasing FV intake.

  16. Power engineering and environment protection. The environmental policy of OAO RAO EES Rossii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhukhovskii, I. S.; Novoselova, O. A.

    2007-06-01

    The main problems pertinent to the shaping and implementation of the environmental policy of OAO RAO EES Rossii are considered. A brief review is given of the situation with environment protection in the power industry of Russia taking into account the results from analyzing the main world trends. The main objectives and tasks that had to be achieved through conducting the Holding’s environmental policy in 2006 are described, and the most important lines of activities within the framework of the Program for Implementing the Environmental Policy of RAO are briefly reviewed.

  17. Computing the Feng-Rao distances for codes from order domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruano Benito, Diego

    2007-01-01

    We compute the Feng–Rao distance of a code coming from an order domain with a simplicial value semigroup. The main tool is the Apéry set of a semigroup that can be computed using a Gröbner basis.......We compute the Feng–Rao distance of a code coming from an order domain with a simplicial value semigroup. The main tool is the Apéry set of a semigroup that can be computed using a Gröbner basis....

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the French version of the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, Aurelie; Maillefert, Jean Francis; Gossec, Laure

    2010-01-01

    The Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) was recently developed to evaluate functional disability and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients suffering from lower limb symptoms. The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the RAOS into French and to assess its...

  19. Fast Erasure-and error decoding of algebraic geometry codes up to the Feng-Rao bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd; Sakata, Shojiro

    1998-01-01

    This correspondence gives an errata (that is erasure-and error-) decoding algorithm of one-point algebraic-geometry codes up to the Feng-Rao designed minimum distance using Sakata's multidimensional generalization of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the voting procedure of Feng and Rao....

  20. RSCABS: An R package for performing the Rao-Scott Adjusted Cochran-Armitage trend test By Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSCABS[3] (Rao-Scott adjusted Cochran-Armitage trend test By Slices) is a modification to the Rao-Scott[5] adjusted Cochran-Armitage trend test[1, 2] that allows for testing at each individual severity score often seen in histopathological data. The test was originally developed ...

  1. Preschool Education in the Union Territory of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Carole Cummings

    This master's thesis gives an overview of education in India from ancient times to the present and presents data from brief visits to seven schools which provide early childhood education in the Union Territory of Delhi. The schools visited were either parochial, public, government corporation, or private schools. Data collection problems…

  2. New Delhi Metallo – beta lactamase – 1 containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-13

    Feb 13, 2012 ... understand that the variability in susceptibility of cabapenem seems to depend on the type of automated system used [26]. .... An active surveillance system encompassing various microorganisms should be put in place. .... New Delhi metallo - beta -lactamase and multidrug resistance: A global SOS?

  3. RFID Technology Implementation in Two Libraries in New Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, Margam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use and implementation of RFID technology at the Indian Law Institute Library and National Social Science Documentation Centre Library, New Delhi. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted at the two libraries, using a structured questionnaire comprising 20 questions. Findings: It was…

  4. Source attribution and mitigation strategies for air pollution in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Gregor; Purohit, Pallav; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Liu, Jun; Amann, Markus; Bhanarkar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Indian cities, and the megacity of Delhi in particular, have suffered from high air pollution for years. Recent observations show that ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Delhi strongly exceed the Indian national ambient air quality standards as well as the World Health Organization's interim target levels. At the same time, India is experiencing strong urbanization, and both Delhi's emissions as well as the exposed population are growing. Therefore the question arises how PM2.5 concentrations will evolve in the future, and how they can be improved efficiently. In the past, typical responses of the Delhi government to high pollution episodes have been restrictions on motorized road traffic, on power plant operations and on construction activities. However, to design sustainable and efficient pollution mitigation measures, the contribution of different source sectors and spatial scales needs to be quantified. Here we combine the established emission calculation scheme of the Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model with regional chemistry-transport model simulations (0.5° resolution) as well as local particle dispersion (2 × 2 km resolution) to arrive at a source attribution of ambient PM2.5 in Delhi. Calculated concentrations compare well to observations. We find that roughly 60% of total population-weighted PM2.5 originates from sources outside the national capital territory of Delhi itself. Consequently, mitigation strategies need to involve neighboring states and address the typical sources there. We discuss the likely evolution of ambient concentrations under different scenarios which assume either current emission control legislation, or application of a Clean Air Scenario foreseeing additional regulations in non-industrial sectors which are often overlooked, such as phase-out of solid fuel cookstoves, and road paving. Only in the case where the Clean Air Scenario is applied both in Delhi as well as in

  5. Wideband DOA Estimation via Sparse Bayesian Learning over a Khatri-Rao Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujian Pan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the wideband direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation by exploiting the multiple measurement vectors (MMV based sparse Bayesian learning (SBL framework. First, the array covariance matrices at different frequency bins are focused to the reference frequency by the conventional focusing technique and then transformed into the vector form. Then a matrix called the Khatri-Rao dictionary is constructed by using the Khatri-Rao product and the multiple focused array covariance vectors are set as the new observations. DOA estimation is to find the sparsest representations of the new observations over the Khatri-Rao dictionary via SBL. The performance of the proposed method is compared with other well-known focusing based wideband algorithms and the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB. The results show that it achieves higher resolution and accuracy and can reach the CRLB under relative demanding conditions. Moreover, the method imposes no restriction on the pattern of signal power spectral density and due to the increased number of rows of the dictionary, it can resolve more sources than sensors.

  6. 21 A Srinivasa Rao1, V Sarath2, B Mrudhula3 1Corresponding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IMTU Medical Journal Volume 6- July, 2015. 21. A Srinivasa Rao1, V Sarath2, B Mrudhula3. 1Corresponding Author, , Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, Katuri Medical College &. Hospital, Guntur 522 019, Andhra Pradesh, India,. Phone: 9490115156, e mail drsriortho@yahoo. co.in. 2Associate Professor, Department ...

  7. Age-Specific Citation Rates and the Egghe-Rao Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Quentin L.

    2003-01-01

    Extends connections between retrospective citation age studies and reliability theory by considering the failure rate function from reliability, re-interpreted as the age-specific citation rate (ASCR). This is linked to earlier studies of retrospective citation distributions by Egghe and Ravichandra Rao who introduced a function claimed to…

  8. Cramér–Rao bounds for three‐point decomposition of water and fat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pineda, Angel R; Reeder, Scott B; Wen, Zhifei; Pelc, Norbert J

    2005-01-01

    .... This generalization leads to a nonlinear estimation problem. The Crámer–Rao bound (CRB) was used to study the variance of the estimates of the magnitude, phase, and field map by computing the maximum effective number of signals averaged (NSA...

  9. Prof. C. N. R. Rao | History | About IASc | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    _1991). Name: RAO, Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Elected 1965; Council Service: 1971-94; President: 1989-91; Vice-President: 1974-76, 1983-85; Secretary: 1977-82; Editor of Publi-cations 1983-88. Hon. Prof., IISC and Linus Pauling ...

  10. Expression of surface platelet receptors (CD62P and CD41/61) in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszko-Simonik, Alicja; Niedzwiedz, Artur; Graczyk, Stanislaw; Slowikowska, Malwina; Pliszczak-Krol, Aleksandra

    2015-03-15

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an allergic disease of horses similar to human asthma, which is characterized by airway inflammation and activation of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets. Platelet activation and an increase in circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates may lead to airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate platelet status in RAO-affected horses based on the platelet morphology and platelet surface expression of CD41/61 and CD62P. Ten RAO-affected horses and ten healthy horses were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained to determine the platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR). Expression of CD62P and CD41/61 was detected by flow cytometry on activated platelets. The median PLT was significantly reduced in horses with RAO compared to the controls. The MPV and the P-LCR values were significantly higher in RAO horses than controls. Expression of CD41/61 on platelets was increased in RAO horses, while CD62P expression was reduced. This study demonstrated the morphological changes in platelets and expression of platelet surface receptors. Despite the decrease of CD62P expression, the observed increased surface expression of CD41/61 on platelets in horses with RAO may contribute to the formation of platelet aggregates in their respiratory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Descriptive Epidemiology of Female Breast Cancer in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Nalliah; Nair, Omana; Shukla, N K; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in females worldwide. The Population Based Cancer Registry data of Delhi were here used to describe the epidemiology and trends in breast cancer incidence in Delhi. Methods: Crude rate, age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) and age-specific incidence rates were calculated using the data collected by Delhi PBCR for the year 2012. The time trend of breast cancer incidence was evaluated by joinpoint regression using the PBCR data from 1988-2012. Results: A total of 19,746 cancer cases were registered in 2012, 10,148 in males and 9,598 in females. Breast cancer was the leading site of cancer in females accounting for 2,744 (28.6%) of cases with a median age of 50 years. The crude and age standardized incidence rates for breast cancer were 34.8 and 41.0 per 100,000 females, respectively. Age specific incidence rates increased with age and attained a peak in the 70-74 years age group..A statistically significant increase in ASR with an annual percentage change (APC) of 1.44% was observed. Conclusions: The breast, which was the second most common cancer site in Delhi in 1988, has now surpassed cancer of cervix to become the leading site over the years. A similar trend has also been noted for other metropolitan cities viz. Bangalore, Bhopal and Chennai. Though the ASRs in these are comparable, they are still low compared to Western countries. Changing life styles in metropolitan cities like delayed marriage, late age at first child birth, lower parity and higher socio-economic status, may be some of the probable primary cause for higher incidences of breast cancer in urban as opposed to rural areas. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. Westernization and Tobacco Use Among Young People in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Stigler, Melissa H.; Dhavan, Poonam; Van Dusen, Duncan; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have explored the relationship between acculturation and health in non-immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between “westernization” and tobacco use among adolescents living in Delhi, India. A bi-dimensional model of acculturation was adapted for use in this study to examine (a) whether young people's identification with Western culture in this setting is related to tobacco use and (b) whether their maintenance of more traditional In...

  13. Gadget Dependency among Medical College Students in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; V Krishnamurthy; J Majhi; Gupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gadget holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Gadgets usage has both pros and cons. Objective: To assess the magnitude of gadget utilization among medical college students in Delhi and to estimate the burden of gadget dependency. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in three medical colleges. The participants were 957 medical students selected by systematic ra...

  14. Studies on victims of bite by a dog in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, S; Bhattacharya, D; Bhardwaj, M; Parsi, V

    1994-01-01

    Ninety persons were bitten by a single rabid dog on 23rd January, 1992 in Central Delhi area. All patients were given immediate first-aid, prophylactic tetanus toxoid injection and post-exposure antirabies treatment i.e., hyperimmune antirabies serum (ARS) and antirabies vaccination in different Hospitals of Delhi. Fifteen (15) patients received tissue culture antirabies vaccine (Rabipur or Verorab) and rest 75 patients were given nervous tissue vaccine. ARS was given to all patients as all had severe (Class-III) bite. Altogether there were 76 male and 14 female and 80 adult and 10 children bitten by the dog. All patients well tolerated the vaccines excepting a few, who developed very minor side-effects. Investigation regarding post-exposure antirabies antibody assessment were carried out in twenty-four patients at WHO Collaborative Centre for Rabies. Epidemiology for South-east Asia at National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Delhi. Paired blood samples were obtained from these patients and all of them had protective antibody titre (0.5 IU/ml) with mean titre of 1.81 IU/ml and 2.11 IU/ml in first and second samples, respectively. All patients were followed after six months and there were no death or vaccine failure reported.

  15. Cramer-Rao bounds for signal-to-noise ratio and combiner weight estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Cramer-Rao lower bounds on estimator variance are calculated for arbitrary unbiased estimates of signal-to-noise ratio and combiner weight parameters. Estimates are assumed to be based on a discrete set of observables obtained by matched filtering of a biphase modulated signal. The bounds are developed first for a problem model based on one observable per channel symbol period, and then extended to a more general problem in which subperiod observables are also available.

  16. Nanoparticulate CpG immunotherapy in RAO-affected horses: phase I and IIa study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, J; Lehmann, B; Fuchs, S; Reese, S; Hirschmann, A; Coester, C; Winter, G; Gehlen, H

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), an asthma-like disease, is 1 of the most common allergic diseases in horses in the northern hemisphere. Hypersensitivity reactions to environmental antigens cause an allergic inflammatory response in the equine airways. Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are known to direct the immune system toward a Th1-pathway, and away from the pro-allergic Th2-line (Th2/Th1-shift). Gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) are biocompatible and biodegradable immunological inert drug delivery systems that protect CpG-ODN against nuclease degeneration. Preliminary studies on the inhalation of GNP-bound CpG-ODN in RAO-affected horses have shown promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and immunological effects of GNP-bound CpG-ODN in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, prospective, randomized clinical trial and to verify a sustained effect post-treatment. Twenty-four RAO-affected horses received 1 inhalation every 2 days for 5 consecutive administrations. Horses were examined for clinical, endoscopic, cytological, and blood biochemical variables before the inhalation regimen (I), immediately afterwards (II), and 4 weeks post-treatment (III). At time points I and II, administration of treatment rather than placebo corresponded to a statistically significant decrease in respiratory effort, nasal discharge, tracheal secretion, and viscosity, AaDO2 and neutrophil percentage, and an increase in arterial oxygen pressure. Administration of a GNP-bound CpG-ODN formulation caused a potent and persistent effect on allergic and inflammatory-induced clinical variables in RAO-affected horses. This treatment, therefore, provides an innovative, promising, and well-tolerated strategy beyond conventional symptomatic long-term therapy and could serve as a model for asthma treatment in humans. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. A shape distance based on the Fisher-Rao metric and its application for shapes clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattone, Stefano Antonio; De Sanctis, Angela; Russo, Tommaso; Pulcini, Domitilla

    2017-12-01

    In the clustering of shapes, which is a longstanding challenge in the framework of geometric morphometrics and shape analysis, is crucial the selection and application of a suitable and appropriate measurement of distance among observations (i.e. individuals). The aim of this study is to model shapes from complex systems using Information Geometry tools. It is well-known that the Fisher information endows the statistical manifold, defined by a family of probability distributions, with a Riemannian metric, called the Fisher-Rao metric. With respect to this, geodesic paths are determined, minimizing information in Fisher sense. The geodesic distance induced by the Fisher-Rao metric can be used to define a shape metric which enables us to quantify differences between shapes. The discriminative power of the proposed Fisher-Rao distance is tested in the context of shapes clustering on both simulated and real data sets. Results show a better ability in recovering the true cluster structure with respect to the standard Kendall's shape metric.

  18. Air pollution and public health: the challenges for Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Baliyan, Palak; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-12-21

    Mitigating the impact of pollution on human health worldwide is important to limit the morbidity and mortality arising from exposure to its effect. The level and type of pollutants vary in different urban and rural settings. Here, we explored the extent of air pollution and its impacts on human health in the megacity of Delhi (India) through a review of the published literature. The study aims at describing the extent of air pollution in Delhi, the magnitude of health problems due to air pollution and the risk relationship between air pollution and associated health effects. We found 234 published articles in the PubMed search. The search showed that the extent of air pollution in Delhi has been described by various researchers from about 1986 onwards. We synthesized the findings and discuss them at length with respect to reported values, their possible interpretations and any limitations of the methodology. The chemical composition of ambient air pollution is also discussed. Further, we discuss the magnitude of health problem with respect to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), bronchial asthma and other illnesses. The results of the literature search showed that data has been collected in last 28 years on ambient air quality in Delhi, though it lacks a scientific continuity, consistency of locations and variations in parameters chosen for reporting. As a result, it is difficult to construct a spatiotemporal picture of the air pollution status in Delhi over time. The number of sites from where data have been collected varied widely across studies and methods used for data collection is also non-uniform. Even the parameters studied are varied, as some studies focused on particulate matter ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and those ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), and others on suspended particulate matter (SPM) and respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM). Similarly, the locations of data collection have varied widely. Some of the

  19. Review of medal predictions for South Africa in the Delhi 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This paper reviews South Africa's performance in the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games relative to predicted medal success. Methods. Forecasts based on the nation's previous success are compared against medals won in Delhi. Results. Actual performance is in line with predicted performance in terms of gold ...

  20. The footprints of relapsing malaria in southwest Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savargaonkar, Deepali; Nagpal, B N; Srivastava, Bina; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Valecha, Neena

    2015-12-01

    Control of vivax malaria is challenging due to persistence of hypnozoites causing relapses and safety concerns with primaquine in G6PD deficient individuals. We present the epidemiology of malaria with emphasis on recurrence of vivax malaria over a period of four years in southwest Delhi among patients reporting to malaria clinic. Microscopic examination of stained blood smears of fever patients attending malaria clinic was performed. Confirmed malaria cases were treated as per the national treatment guidelines. The epidemiological data of confirmed malaria cases including demographic characteristics, age, gender and past history of malaria were analysed. Patients were asked to report in case of occurence of fever. From January 2011 to December 2014, 429 Plasmodium vivax, 24 P. falciparum and three mixed infection cases were reported to the Malaria Clinic at National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi. Malaria cases peaked in the months of August and September during all the four years. Recurrent episodes of vivax malaria were observed in 14.72% patients to whom primaquine was not dispensed, while the prevalence was 4.02% among those who received primaquine. The relapsing patterns observed were of both short as well as long latency P. vivax phenotypes. The entomological survey of area from where malaria patients reported, showed prevalence of Anopheles stephensi. The study showed presence of persistent P. vivax malaria with strains causing both frequent and long latency recurrences (probable relapses) in southwest Delhi. This highlights the need to evaluate primaquine regimens against both these strains and formulate strategies to improve compliance to 14-days primaquine treatment.

  1. Hydro-chemical Survey of Groundwater of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Alam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters and trace metal contents of water samples from Delhi were assessed. A total of 20 water samples were collected from boring, tube well and hand pump and analyzed for the various physicochemical parameters like pH, conductivity, total dissolved solid, total alkalinity, Ca2+ and Mg2+ hardness, chloride ion, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, sulphate and heavy metal contents like Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Zn and Ni. The results were compared with BIS standards for drinking water. The quality of water samples under study were within the maximum permissible limits. Therefore, the groundwater samples are fit for human consumption without prior treatment.

  2. ICOM commitee for conservation, 15th Triennial Conference New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A l’automne dernier s’est tenue, à New-Delhi, la 15 session d’ICOM-CC, le plus important des groupes de travail d’ICOM. Plusieurs ateliers ont fonctionné simultanément et ont rassemblé une moisson d’informations relatives à tous les champs de la conservation-restauration. Traditionnellement, les Preprints du symposium mettent l’ensemble des communications à disposition du lecteur. La version électronique de la publication nous étant parvenue alors que l’édition du présent numéro était en cour...

  3. Fisher Information and the Quantum Cramér-Rao Sensitivity Limit of Continuous Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements with quantum systems rely on our ability to trace the differences between experimental signals to variations in unknown physical parameters. In this Letter we derive the Fisher information and the ensuing Cramér-Rao sensitivity limit for parameter estimation by continuous...... measurements on an open quantum system. We illustrate our theory by its application to resonance fluorescence from a laser-driven two-state atom; we show that photon counting and homodyne detection records yield different sensitivity to the atomic parameters, while none of them exceed our general result....

  4. Cramer-Rao Bound for Gaussian Random Processes and Applications to Radar Processing of Atmospheric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehlich, Rod

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of the exact Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) for unbiased estimates of the mean frequency, signal power, and spectral width of Doppler radar/lidar signals (a Gaussian random process) are presented. Approximate CRB's are derived using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). These approximate results are equal to the exact CRB when the DFT coefficients are mutually uncorrelated. Previous high SNR limits for CRB's are shown to be inaccurate because the discrete summations cannot be approximated with integration. The performance of an approximate maximum likelihood estimator for mean frequency approaches the exact CRB for moderate signal to noise ratio and moderate spectral width.

  5. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  6. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A B; Mohanan, Sandeep; Damodaran, Deepak; Soneja, Manish; Jain, Neetu; Mohan, Anant; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Sood, Rita

    2012-10-01

    This article reports the accidental public radiation exposure in a scrap market in Delhi, India, on March 2010. The source, a gamma unit containing Cobalt-60 pencils, was improperly disposed of by a research institution in violation of national regulations for radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. The unit was sold off to unsuspecting scrap dealers who dismantled the equipment. This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. The clinical course of five of the patients treated at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, is summarised in this report. All five patients suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents.

  7. Geriatric oral health predicaments in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M; Masih, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze geriatric oral health predicaments in India. Specifically, to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among the geriatric population attending health camps in New Delhi, Northern India. The sample size for the cross-sectional study comprised of 248 elderly participants aged 60 years having attended the health check-up camps organized in New Delhi, India. The community periodontal index was used for assessment of periodontal disease. The World Health Organization's criterion was used for detection of dentition status and treatment needs. The χ(2) -test was used to compare between categorical variables. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare between two groups for quantitative variables. Regression analysis was carried out to identify the factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease status. The mean number of affected sextants with the highest community periodontal index score of 4 was 3.54 ± 2.45. Mean decayed, missing and filled teeth score of 16.39 ± 8.97 was recorded among the elderly. Prosthetic need was noted among 206 (83.1%) participants. Age and literacy status contributed to 27% and 12% of the variance respectively in the decayed, missing and filled teeth model. (P periodontal disease model for the 37%, 11% and 11% variance were age, sex and tobacco consumption (P India. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Double burden of malnutrition among elderly population of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Goswami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional status is an important determinant for elderly, directly influencing their susceptibility to diseases, adversely affecting their quality of life.  Aim & Objective: To assess the nutritional status of elderly persons aged ≥60 years residing in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a resettlement colony in Delhi. Cluster random sampling was used. Three out of ten blocks were selected randomly. All elderly persons present in the selected blocks were included.  Information on socio-demographic variables was collected. Arm span and weight were measured by trained investigators. Data was entered in MS Excel 2007 and analyzed in Stata 11.0. Multiple logistic regression was done to determine the association between nutritional status and socio-demographic variables Results: A total of 711 elderly persons were recruited. About half (53.2% had normal nutritional status, 20.8% were underweight and 19.4% were overweight and 6.6% were obese. Under-nutrition was significantly associated with gender, while overweight/obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p<0.001, gender (p<0.001, occupation (p<0.001 and economic dependency (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Dual burden of malnutrition was seen, so there is a need to promote healthy eating and lifestyle to address both spectrum of malnutrition.

  9. Chronic Toxicity Of High Molecular Weight Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon- Pyrene On Freshwater Cyanobacterium Anabaena Fertlissima Rao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasha G Patel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the consequences of Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon – Pyrene in response to growth, pigments and metabolic study on Anabaena fertilissima Rao. Test organisms were treated at different doses and encountered LC50 (Lethal concentration at which 50% growth reduction occur concentration separately at 1.5 mg/l, 3.0 mg/l and 6.0 mg/l respectively for Anabaena fertilissima Rao. The influence of Pyrene on growth, pigments, release of metabolites such as carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, phenols was carried out. The test doses caused a concentration dependent decrease in pigments like carotenoids and phycobilliproteins and showed more sensitivity to pyrene. Depletion of carbohydrate by 13% to 81% and proteins by 47% to 93% was encountered with rise in pyrene concentrations after 16th day of exposure. However, phenols were found to rise by 27% to 50% with increased pyrene concentrations on the contrary, amino acids were reported to decline by 79% to 92%. This study therefore suggests high molecular weight pyrene that decreases in metabolite content and enzyme activity can be used as a signal of PAHs toxicity in cyanobacteria. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 175-183 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9220

  10. Particle rejuvenation of Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo smoothers for conditionally linear and Gaussian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Corff, Sylvain Le; Moulines, Éric

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on sequential Monte Carlo approximations of smoothing distributions in conditionally linear and Gaussian state spaces. To reduce Monte Carlo variance of smoothers, it is typical in these models to use Rao-Blackwellization: particle approximation is used to sample sequences of hidden regimes while the Gaussian states are explicitly integrated conditional on the sequence of regimes and observations, using variants of the Kalman filter/smoother. The first successful attempt to use Rao-Blackwellization for smoothing extends the Bryson-Frazier smoother for Gaussian linear state space models using the generalized two-filter formula together with Kalman filters/smoothers. More recently, a forward-backward decomposition of smoothing distributions mimicking the Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother for the regimes combined with backward Kalman updates has been introduced. This paper investigates the benefit of introducing additional rejuvenation steps in all these algorithms to sample at each time instant new regimes conditional on the forward and backward particles. This defines particle-based approximations of the smoothing distributions whose support is not restricted to the set of particles sampled in the forward or backward filter. These procedures are applied to commodity markets which are described using a two-factor model based on the spot price and a convenience yield for crude oil data.

  11. A retrospective study of clinico-pathological spectrum of carcinoma breast in a West Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Singh Nigam; Poonam Yadav; Neelam Sood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on the demographic profile of breast cancer patients from Delhi is scarce and whatever is available is from higher referral center. Our hospital caters to patients from an urban population of the lower socioeconomic strata and is a representation of cases at a tertiary care hospital in west Delhi. In Delhi, breast cancer (26.8%) is commonest cancer among the female followed by cervix (12.5%), gallbladder (7.2%), ovary (7.1%), and uterus (3.3%). Aims and Objectives: A retrospe...

  12. Westernization and tobacco use among young people in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Melissa; Dhavan, Poonam; Van Dusen, Duncan; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K S; Perry, Cheryl L

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have explored the relationship between acculturation and health in non-immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between "westernization" and tobacco use among adolescents living in Delhi, India. A bi-dimensional model of acculturation was adapted for use in this study to examine (a) whether young people's identification with Western culture in this setting is related to tobacco use, and (b) whether their maintenance of more traditional Indian ways of living is related to tobacco use. Multiple types of tobacco commonly used in India (e.g., cigarettes, bidis, chewing tobacco) were considered. Socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and grade level were examined as potential effect modifiers of the relationship between "westernization" and tobacco use. The study was cross-sectional by design and included 3512 students in eighth and tenth grades who were enrolled in 14 Private (higher SES) and Government (lower SES) schools in Delhi, India. A self-report survey was used to collect information on tobacco use and "westernization." The results suggest that young people's identification with Western influences may increase their risk for tobacco use, while their maintenance of traditional Indian ways of living confers some protection. Importantly, these effects were independent of one another. Boys benefitted more from protective effects than girls, and tenth graders gained more consistent benefits than eighth graders in this regard, too. Negative effects associated with identification with Western ways of living were, in contrast, consistent across gender and grade level. The positive and negative effects of acculturation on adolescent tobacco use held for all tobacco products considered here. Future interventions designed to curb youth tobacco use in India may benefit by paying closer attention to cultural preferences of these young consumers. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indoor air pollution and asthma in children at Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Jitendra K; Goel, Nitin; Kumar, Pawan; Kushwah, Alka S; Gaur, Shailendra N

    2015-01-01

    Several studies in developed countries have shown association between indoor air pollution and asthma in children. The present research was undertaken to study this association at Delhi, India. This study took place at Delhi, capital of India. Eight locations based on the source of pollution such as industrial, residential and villages were included. Recording of the demographic profile and clinical examination of each child was conducted at their residence. Indoor SO₂, NO₂ and SPM (suspended particulate matter) levels were measured by using Handy Air Sampler (Low Volume Sampler). A total of 3104 children were examined of which 60.3% were male and 39.7% were female. 32.4% children were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. 31.5 % children's families were using biomass fuels for cooking. History of respiratory symptoms included cough (43.9%), phlegm production (21.9%), shortness of breath (19.3%) and wheezing (14.0%). 7.9% children were diagnosed as having asthma, which was highest in industrial areas (11.8%), followed by residential (7.5%) and village areas (3.9%). The mean indoor SO₂, NO₂ and SPM levels were 4.28 ± 4.61 mg/m³, 26.70 ± 17.72 mg/m³ and 722.0 ± 457.6 mg/m³ respectively. Indoor SPM was the highest in industrial area followed by residential area and urban village area. Indoor SPM level was significantly (p indoor suspended particulate matter and occurrence of asthma in children in developing countries like India.

  14. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ˜10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  15. Survey of helmet influences of female pillions in New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Selma; Arora, Sumant; Peipert, John; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie; Swaroop, Mamta

    2013-09-01

    In India, female motorized two-wheeler users involved in road traffic accidents account for 70,000 injuries and fatalities annually. Despite federal helmet laws, New Delhi exempted female pillion riders (backseat passengers) from mandatory helmet usage in response to religious and cultural opposition. This study attempts to elucidate factors influencing female pillion riders' helmet usage, hypothesizing religious-based opposition and poor understanding of helmet efficacy. A cross-section of female pillion riders in five areas of New Delhi were approached by trained surveyors. Surveys were self-completed (n = 52) or completed with assistance (n = 243). Demographics, helmet use habits, opinions, and media influence data were collected. Data were analyzed using χ(2), Fisher exact test, and multivariable logistic regression. Of 305 women surveyed, 69.8% were Hindus (n = 213), 10.8% Muslims (n = 33), and 10.4% Sikhs (n = 32). More Muslim (33.3%, P = 0.001) and Sikh (25%, P = 0.04) women opposed mandatory helmet use compared with Hindu women (10.6%). There were 66 women who self-reported helmet use, with one woman (Sikh) who abstained from helmets for religious practices (0.9%). The most common reason for helmet disuse was discomfort (n = 40, 36.7%). Most respondents reported media positively influenced helmet use (57.7%). Despite arguments of infringement on religious rights, women pillions ride without helmets for comfort and appearance purposes primarily. Furthermore, though significantly fewer Sikh and Muslim women support mandatory helmet laws, supporters remain a clear majority in both groups. Most women report media outlets as influential on helmet use, principally television, suggesting that mass media campaigns may improve helmet compliance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scavenging of urban air emissions by Fog at Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P.; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2015-12-01

    The present study focuses upon the understanding of fog water chemistry in Delhi city. Total seventy fog water samples were collected at two different sites in Delhi during December 2014 to March 2015. Selected parameters such as pH, major anions (Cl-, F-, NO3- and SO42-) and major cations (NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) were determined in the samples. The pH of the fog water collected during the monitoring period at Site I (traffic intersection) varied from 4.68 to 5.58 indicating the acidic nature of fog water while at the site II (green cover area), it ranged from 6.11 to 6.88 having slightly lower acidity. At the Site I, the average concentration of Cl-, Na+, SO42-, NH4+ was recorded as 1.5 X 10-2, 8 X 10-3, 4 X 10-3 and 1 X 10-2 μEqu/L respectively. Such values of ionic species may be attributed to the local sources, including factories, motor vehicle emissions and civil construction etc. However, non-local sources such as moderate- and long-range transport of sea salt also had significant influence on ionic content of fog water. In general the Na+ ratio values were found to be higher side suggesting the influence of non-marine sources. Extremely high values of Cl-/ Na+ ratios indicated the contribution from combustion of organochlorine compounds. Hence, the higher ratios of inorganic ions and acidic pH revealed that fog is an effective mechanism for the scavenging of various pollutants emitted by different sources in the city.

  17. Hypertension and its risk factors among postmenopausal women in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular disorder, posing a major public health challenge to population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age and is more common in men as compared to women. But women loose this advantage after menopause due to estrogen deficiency. Objectives: 1. To assess the prevalence of hypertension and risk factors for hypertension among postmenopausal women in an urban community in Delhi. 2. To study association of risk factors with hypertension. Methodology: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted at Palam, an urbanized village in Delhi. A total 416 postmenopausal women were interviewed, examined and investigated. Results: Majority (78% of postmenopausal women were in the age group of 45-65 years. More than three fourth 342 (82.4% of women belonged to lower middle and upper lower socio-economic status. The prevalence of hypertension in these women was 39.6%, another one third (37% were pre-hypertensive. All women had one or more than one risk factor for hypertension. The most common risk factors were high salt intake (82.7%, low vegetable and fruit intake (64.2%, stress (53.2% and truncal obesity (36.1%. Risk factors like diabetes, obesity, smoking and physical inactivity were significantly more common in hypertensive as compared to non-hypertensive. Conclusion: Burden of hypertension among postmenopausal women in the present study was found to be high. Interventions integrating promotive, preventive and curative care for postmenopausal women should be provided to them.

  18. CYP2D6 phenotyping in North Indian subjects in Delhi | Malik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CYP2D6 phenotyping in North Indian subjects in Delhi. Humera Malik, Nayyar Parvez, Tausif Ahmed, Anirudh Gautam, Brijesh Varshney, Gurpreet S Saini, Jaya Sagar, Krishna K Pillai, Jyoti K Paliwal, Pyare L Sharma ...

  19. A Cramer Rao analysis on receiver placement in a FM band commensal radar system based on doppler only measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maasdorp, FDV

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available to derive the theoretical achievable bound for a given receiver configuration and used as a basis to select the optimal receiver placement. Theoretical concepts such as Shannon entropy and Cramer-Rao analysis are explained and used in the selection process...

  20. Comment on a paper of Rao et al., an entry of Ramanujan and a new 3F2(1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Michael

    2007-04-01

    A hypergeometric transformation formula is developed that simultaneously simplifies and generalizes arguments and identities in a previous paper of Rao et al. [An entry of Ramanujan on hypergeometric series in his notebooks, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 173(2) (2005) 239-246].

  1. The influence of random element displacement on DOA estimates obtained with (Khatri-Rao-)root-MUSIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghelbrecht, Veronique; Verhaevert, Jo; van Hecke, Tanja; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-11-11

    Although a wide range of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms has been described for a diverse range of array configurations, no specific stochastic analysis framework has been established to assess the probability density function of the error on DOA estimates due to random errors in the array geometry. Therefore, we propose a stochastic collocation method that relies on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion to connect the statistical distribution of random position errors to the resulting distribution of the DOA estimates. We apply this technique to the conventional root-MUSIC and the Khatri-Rao-root-MUSIC methods. According to Monte-Carlo simulations, this novel approach yields a speedup by a factor of more than 100 in terms of CPU-time for a one-dimensional case and by a factor of 56 for a two-dimensional case.

  2. The Influence of Random Element Displacement on DOA Estimates Obtained with (Khatri–Rao-)Root-MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghelbrecht, Veronique; Verhaevert, Jo; van Hecke, Tanja; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Although a wide range of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms has been described for a diverse range of array configurations, no specific stochastic analysis framework has been established to assess the probability density function of the error on DOA estimates due to random errors in the array geometry. Therefore, we propose a stochastic collocation method that relies on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion to connect the statistical distribution of random position errors to the resulting distribution of the DOA estimates. We apply this technique to the conventional root-MUSIC and the Khatri-Rao-root-MUSIC methods. According to Monte-Carlo simulations, this novel approach yields a speedup by a factor of more than 100 in terms of CPU-time for a one-dimensional case and by a factor of 56 for a two-dimensional case. PMID:25393783

  3. Cramér-Rao Bound Study of Multiple Scattering Effects in Target Separation Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Marengo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The information about the distance of separation between two-point targets that is contained in scattering data is explored in the context of the scalar Helmholtz operator via the Fisher information and associated Cramér-Rao bound (CRB relevant to unbiased target separation estimation. The CRB results are obtained for the exact multiple scattering model and, for reference, also for the single scattering or Born approximation model applicable to weak scatterers. The effects of the sensing configuration and the scattering parameters in target separation estimation are analyzed. Conditions under which the targets' separation cannot be estimated are discussed for both models. Conditions for multiple scattering to be useful or detrimental to target separation estimation are discussed and illustrated.

  4. Cramer-Rao Bound for Blind Channel Estimators in Redundant Block Transmission Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yen-Huan; Yeh, Ping-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for blind channel estimation in redundant block transmission systems, a lower bound for the mean squared error of any blind channel estimators. The derived CRB is valid for any full-rank linear redundant precoder, including both zero-padded (ZP) and cyclic-prefixed (CP) precoders. A simple form of CRBs for multiple complex parameters is also derived and presented which facilitates the CRB derivation of the problem of interest. A comparison is made between the derived CRBs and performances of existing subspace-based blind channel estimators for both CP and ZP systems. Numerical results show that there is still some room for performance improvement of blind channel estimators.

  5. Gating Techniques for Rao-Blackwellized Monte Carlo Data Association Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the Rao-Blackwellized Monte Carlo data association (RBMCDA filter for multiple target tracking. The elliptical gating strategies are redesigned and incorporated into the framework of the RBMCDA filter. The obvious benefit is the reduction of the time cost because the data association procedure can be carried out with less validated measurements. In addition, the overlapped parts of the neighboring validation regions are divided into several separated subregions according to the possible origins of the validated measurements. In these subregions, the measurement uncertainties can be taken into account more reasonably than those of the simple elliptical gate. This would help to achieve higher tracking ability of the RBMCDA algorithm by a better association prior approximation. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed gating techniques.

  6. Automatic Detection and Classification of Variability for the RAO Variable Star Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael D.; Milone, E. F.

    2006-06-01

    The RAO Variable Star Search (RAOVS) can sample on the order of 30000 stars in a single field. With so many light curves it is important to have an automated process for detecting variability and classifying the detections. To detect periodic variations we use an epoch shifting technique, based on an analysis of variance technique, ANOVA, described by S. R. Davis. This technique allows us to increase the signal to noise for periodic signals and requires no assumption about the shape of the intrinsic light curve. As well as automatically detecting variables we have also developed an automatic classification system. This work has been supported in part by Canadian NSERC grants to E. F. Milone.

  7. Cramer-Rao Bounds for M-PSK Packets with Random Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we derive new Cramer-Rao bounds (CRBs) for the estimation of phase from a block of random M-PSK (M=8) symbols for the case where the phase to be estimated is a random variable(r.v.). Existing bounds for 2 and 4-PSK which model the phase as non-random are extended to obtain a new 8-PSK CRB. The new bound which models the phase as a r.v. is compared to the new 8-PSK bound which models the phase as non-random. With 8-PSK we see clearly that use of the random phase CRB more accurately models the behavior if the phase, as normally happens, is supposed to be constrained to the interval [-pi/M,pi/M).

  8. From Indianness to Humanness: Raja Rao and the Politics of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mercanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Raja Rao is not merely a metaphysical writer, as many scholars of the first Commonwealth generation depict him, but rather a much more complex one whose literary dimensions transcend the commonplace essentializing ‘Hinduness’ conveyed by many critics over three decades. I offer instead an amplification of Rao’s idea of India by framing his novels in a cross-cultural space which evolves during the course of his entire oeuvre on both philosophical and political levels. This dynamic ambivalence has its foremost predecessor in Mahatma Gandhi’s politico-spiritual legacy, Satyagraha (‘the force of Truth’ which becomes the centripetal and cohesive force of Raja Rao’s fiction.

  9. Development of Geospatial Map Based Portal for New Delhi Municipal Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Sharma, P. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Portal (GMP) for New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) of NCT of Delhi. The GMP has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for planning and development of NDMC area to the NDMC department and It's heaving the inbuilt information searching tools (identifying of location, nearest utilities locations, distance measurement etc.) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using Arc GIS Server 10.0 with .NET (pronounced dot net) technology. The GMP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMP includes Circle, Division, Sub-division boundaries of department pertaining to New Delhi Municipal Council, Parcels of residential, commercial, and government buildings, basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools, Banks, ATMs and Fire Stations etc.), Over-ground and Underground utility network lines, Roads, Railway features. GMP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for development and management of MCD area. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  10. Long term ionospheric electron content variations over Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Gupta

    Full Text Available Ionospheric electron content (IEC observed at Delhi (geographic co-ordinates: 28.63°N, 77.22°E; geomagnetic co-ordinates: 19.08°N, 148.91°E; dip Latitude 24.8°N, India, for the period 1975–80 and 1986–89 belonging to an ascending phase of solar activity during first halves of solar cycles 21 and 22 respectively have been used to study the diurnal, seasonal, solar and magnetic activity variations. The diurnal variation of seasonal mean of IEC on quiet days shows a secondary peak comparable to the daytime peak in equinox and winter in high solar activity. IECmax (daytime maximum value of IEC, one per day shows winter anomaly only during high solar activity at Delhi. Further, IECmax shows positive correlation with F10.7 up to about 200 flux units at equinox and 240 units both in winter and summer; for greater F10.7 values, IECmax is substantially constant in all the seasons. IECmax and magnetic activity (Ap are found to be positively correlated in summer in high solar activity. Winter IECmax shows positive correlation with Ap in low solar activity and negative correlation in high solar activity in both the solar cycles. In equinox IECmax is independent of Ap in both solar cycles in low solar activity. A study of day-to-day variations in IECmax shows single day and alternate day abnormalities, semi-annual and annual variations controlled by the equatorial electrojet strength, and 27-day periodicity attributable to the solar rotation.

    Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions · Radio science (ionospheric physics

  11. INVENTORY OF GREEN HOUSE GASES AND OTHER POLLUTANTS FROM THE TRANSPORT SECTOR: DELHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SHARMA, R. PUNDIR

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Delhi is the most urbanized city in India. Inventory estimates for the emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants like CO2, CO, NOx, and volatile organic compound from transport sector in Delhi, has been developed using bottom up approach provided by Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC-1996. The impacts of policy option in transport sector like introduction of Compressed Natural Gas for public transport in Delhi and introduction of Euro-1 norms for vehicles have also been estimated. The emission inventory reveals that total emission of pollutants from different categories vehicles have increased during the period 1990-2000. For example, the CO2 emission (1000, tones from gasoline driven vehicle (MC/SC in Delhi has increased from 766 in 1990-91 to 1187 in 1999-00. The diesel driven vehicles Light commercial vehicles in Delhi has contributed to 577 CO2 in 1990-91, which increased to 9779 in 1999-00. For other pollutants also, which have been estimated here, an increase in total emission from gasoline and diesel driven vehicles has been observed during this 1990-2000 periods. This study shows that the over all contribution of pollutants in the total emissions from gasoline and diesel driven vehicles have increased in Delhi during this period. The present study also shows that the implementation of Euro-1 in 2000 in Delhi has resulted in the decrease of total emission of CO, HC, NOx, and volatile organic compound for all the classes of vehicle for which the revised vehicle emissions norms were implemented. However this decrease in emission has become inefficient due to increase in vehicle population.

  12. Characterization of silicon detectors through TCT at Delhi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, G.; Lalwani, K.; Dalal, R.; Bhardwaj, A.; Ranjan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) is one of the important methods to characterize silicon detectors and is based on the time evolution of the charge carriers generated when a laser light is shone on it. For red laser, charge is injected only to a small distance from the surface of the detector. For such a system, one of the charge carriers is collected faster than the readout time of the electronics and therefore, the effective signal at the electrodes is decided by the charge carriers that traverse throughout the active volume of the detector, giving insight to the electric field profile, drift velocity, effective doping density, etc. of the detector. Delhi University is actively involved in the silicon detector R&D and has recently installed a TCT setup consisting of a red laser system, a Faraday cage, a SMU (Source Measuring Unit), a bias tee, and an amplifier. Measurements on a few silicon pad detectors have been performed using the developed system, and the results have been found in good agreement with the CERN setup.

  13. People's perception of leprosy--a study in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harvinder; Gandhi, Anjali

    2003-01-01

    Leprosy is considered to cause more social than medical problems. The present study focussed on this aspect in order to investigate the level of awareness among people--about their attitude towards the disease and the afflicted. The results are based on interviews with 104 persons in Delhi. The sample data revealed that the level of knowledge of leprosy was inadequate. The cause of the disease was known to 44.2% of those interviewed, while 31.7% were completely ignorant; 6.7% believed it to be the consequence of an individual's past misdeeds, and 1.9% believed it to have been caused by divine curse. 63.1% were aware that the disease is curable. 73.1% of the persons interviewed sympathised with leprosy-afflicted beggars. 61.5% favoured leprosy patients to stay with their families and within their communities. 67.3% felt that the cured could marry, while 25% felt that the leprosy-afflicted should stay in leprosy colonies away from the society. 54.8% were reluctant to employ the leprosy-afflicted as domestic help, and 31.7% were reluctant to establish matrimonial relationship with a family having a leprosy-afflicted person. The data call for intensification ofpublic awareness regarding the aetiology of leprosy. Positive and scientific information should be disseminated to minimize the social prejudices associated with the disease.

  14. DDT residues in human milk samples from Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, S S; Bhatnagar, V K; Banerjee, B D; Balakrishnan, G; Shah, M P

    1989-03-01

    Possible contamination of human milk through the excretion of DDT and its metabolites is a concern in India, where DDT is widely used as an insecticide. To assess this risk, milk samples collected from 60 lactating women admitted to hospitals in Delhi were quantitatively analyzed. 55 of the 60 milk samples showed evidence of residues of pp'DDE (mean, 0.176 + or - 0.382 ppm), op'DDT (mean, 0.046 + or - 0.011 ppm), and pp'DDT (mean, 0.122 + or - 0.434 ppm). The mean residue level in milk fat (mg/kg fat) was 7.280 + or - 23.240, 1.428 + or - 2.697, and 1.597 + or - 5.936, respectively. A large variation in individual values was observed. The finding that pp'DDE is the DDT metabolite excreted into human milk at the highest level is consistent with previous research. Daily intake of total DDT averaged 0.062 mg/kg of body weight--a value that is 12 times higher than the acceptable level of DDT (0.005 mg/kg/day) set by the World Health Organization. Although no harmful effects of DDT have been recorded to date in breastfed infants in India, preventive measures aimed at reducing the body burden of DDT in lactating women are urged.

  15. Gadget Dependency among Medical College Students in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gadget holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Gadgets usage has both pros and cons. Objective: To assess the magnitude of gadget utilization among medical college students in Delhi and to estimate the burden of gadget dependency. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in three medical colleges. The participants were 957 medical students selected by systematic random sampling, interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. Result: The sample consisted of 485 (50.7% males and 472 (49.3% females, aged 17-25 years. Gadgets of at least one variety were uniformly used by all the students, 22.4% of the students surveyed were found to be gadget dependent.  Conclusion: Our study shows high prevalence of gadget dependency among medical students. There is need to create awareness regarding the problem of gadget dependency and its social and health effects. 

  16. Challenges of mainstreaming: Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Sharmistha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients). Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Challenges of mainstreaming: Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government health institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Mallick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients.

  18. Climate science, denial and the Declaration of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laking, George; Woodward, Alistair; Metcalfe, Scott; Macmillan, Alexandra; Lindsay, Graeme; Santa Barbara, Joanna; Maclennan, Anne; Thompson, Imogen; Wells, Susan

    2009-12-11

    Human-induced climate change is now the central health issue facing humanity. The World Medical Association recently adopted the Declaration of Delhi, committing the medical profession to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. This is new professional territory for many doctors. Even so, the profession has often engaged with issues outside 'the health sector' when the stakes are high, for example leaded petrol, road safety, tobacco, and nuclear weapons. The scientific basis to the declaration merits scrutiny in light of commonly used contrary arguments. Decisions in medicine, as elsewhere, must be taken on the evidence to hand, weighing up the risks, given that complete knowledge is seldom available and time is precious. There are strong analogies between clinical experience and our approach to planetary climate. The relevant context for scientific observations on climate is the world's multi-gigatonne annual CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions drive changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases, which matters when they are rapid or prolonged. The current variation in global temperature is alarming, even when within 'normal range'. Climate models inform and guide present-day decision-making, and perform well in explaining observed warming. They corroborate other evidence that tells us that CO2 and other greenhouse gases are harmful at current atmospheric concentrations. As a profession and as global citizens, we need to move beyond dissent and denial about anthropogenic climate change. The WMA correctly says that circumstances now require us all to take action.

  19. Evaluation of Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Earthquake: A Case Study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    prasad, Suraj

    2016-04-01

    With changing paradigms of disaster preparedness, the safety and security of critical infrastructure in the event of a geo-hazard has become increasingly important. In a developing and densely populated country like India, which is vulnerable to many different geo-hazards, a lack of clear policy directive regarding safety of such infrastructure could be especially damaging both in terms of life and property. The problem is most acute in India's mega cities, where inefficient infrastructure means that facilities like transportation, communication, and electricity generation are obsolete and vulnerable to sudden disruptions. The present study takes the case of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and attempts to examine the critical infrastructures of the city in the event of an earthquake. Delhi lies in a very active seismic zone with various faults in and around the city. The Government of India has classified Delhi in Zone 4 (High Risk Zone) based on past and expected seismic activities in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. With a population of over 20 Million in the Urban Agglomeration of Delhi, any major earthquake in an already overstretched infrastructure could have a devastating impact. This study will test the critical infrastructures of the city in terms of their disaster preparedness and suggest ways and measures to increase the same. Keywords: Geo-hazards, Critical Infrastructure, vulnerable, Earthquakes, Delhi

  20. Pepsi and Coca Cola in Delhi, India: availability, price and sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fiona C; Satija, Ambika; Khurana, Swati; Singh, Gurpreet; Ebrahim, Shah

    2011-04-01

    India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of 'Pepsi' and 'Coca Cola' in their 'regular' and 'diet' forms in Delhi and London. A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a survey of food and drink outlets within a 100 m radius of randomly selected Metro stations was conducted in both cities. Store vendors, owners and staff of food and drink outlets. Delhi, India; London, United Kingdom. In Delhi, of the outlets stocking regular Pepsi and Coca Cola, only 34% sold diet versions and these were more readily available in the most affluent areas than in the poorest areas (34% v. 6%, Z=3.67, PCoca Cola was observed in Delhi; however, profit margins were better for regular, relative to diet, Coca Cola. Sales of regular products were significantly greater than those of diet products (PCoca Cola in less affluent areas of Delhi is likely to exacerbate the obesity and diabetes trends. Price differentials to promote diet versions and other healthier or traditional low-energy drinks may be beneficial.

  1. Remote sensing quantification and change detection of natural resources over Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J. K.; Aarathi, R.; Joshi, M. D.

    Delhi has witnessed a recent spurt in urbanization. The depletion in the forest and natural vegetation cover has reduced water availability in the river Yamuna. The present study quantifies these changes. Satellite data from SPOT and Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-1B) from 1987 to 1992 have been combined with rainfall data and ground truth to assess both the spatial and the temporal degradation in the region. The total Delhi area has been subdivided into four equal regions and each of these have been analyzed separately. Further, the Delhi city region has been subdivided and analyzed for quantifying the spatial changes. A rainfall ratio has been introduced to account for normalising the rainfall occurring in each year. This ratio has been used to estimate the vegetation cover and the water availability in the river under the same normal rainfall conditions in each of the years under consideration. Results indicate that the forest cover is constantly declining with the most severe depletion occurring in northeast Delhi. However, due to increase in rains over the past few years, the forest and the vegetation covers in 1992 have increased in some parts of south Delhi.

  2. The Cramer-Rao Bound and DMT Signal Optimisation for the Identification of a Wiener-Type Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Koeppl

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In linear system identification, optimal excitation signals can be determined using the Cramer-Rao bound. This problem has not been thoroughly studied for the nonlinear case. In this work, the Cramer-Rao bound for a factorisable Volterra model is derived. The analytical result is supported with simulation examples. The bound is then used to find the optimal excitation signal out of the class of discrete multitone signals. As the model is nonlinear in the parameters, the bound depends on the model parameters themselves. On this basis, a three-step identification procedure is proposed. To illustrate the procedure, signal optimisation is explicitly performed for a third-order nonlinear model. Methods of nonlinear optimisation are applied for the parameter estimation of the model. As a baseline, the problem of optimal discrete multitone signals for linear FIR filter estimation is reviewed.

  3. Several new inequalities on operator means of non-negative maps and Khatri–Rao products of positive definite matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Abdel Aziz Al-Zhour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide some interested operator inequalities related with non-negative linear maps by means of concavity and convexity structure, and also establish some new attractive inequalities for the Khatri–Rao products of two or more positive definite matrices. These results lead to inequalities for Hadamard product and Ando’s and α-power geometric means, as a special case.

  4. Novel Mobile Robot Simultaneous Loclization and Mapping Using Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Maohai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the novel method of mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, which is implemented by using the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF for monocular vision-based autonomous robot in unknown indoor environment. The particle filter is combined with unscented Kalman filter (UKF to extending the path posterior by sampling new poses that integrate the current observation. The landmark position estimation and update is implemented through the unscented transform (UT. Furthermore, the number of resampling steps is determined adaptively, which seriously reduces the particle depletion problem. Monocular CCD camera mounted on the robot tracks the 3D natural point landmarks, which are structured with matching image feature pairs extracted through Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. The matching for multi-dimension SIFT features which are highly distinctive due to a special descriptor is implemented with a KD-Tree in the time cost of O(log2N. Experiments on the robot Pioneer3 in our real indoor environment show that our method is of high precision and stability.

  5. Novel Mobile Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Bingrong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the novel method of mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, which is implemented by using the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF for monocular vision-based autonomous robot in unknown indoor environment. The particle filter is combined with unscented Kalman filter (UKF to extending the path posterior by sampling new poses that integrate the current observation. The landmark position estimation and update is implemented through the unscented transform (UT. Furthermore, the number of resampling steps is determined adaptively, which seriously reduces the particle depletion problem. Monocular CCD camera mounted on the robot tracks the 3D natural point landmarks, which are structured with matching image feature pairs extracted through Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. The matching for multi-dimension SIFT features which are highly distinctive due to a special descriptor is implemented with a KDTree in the time cost of O(log2N. Experiments on the robot Pioneer3 in our real indoor environment show that our method is of high precision and stability.

  6. Cram\\'er-Rao Bounds for Polynomial Signal Estimation using Sensors with AR(1) Drift

    CERN Document Server

    Kar, Swarnendu; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2012-01-01

    We seek to characterize the estimation performance of a sensor network where the individual sensors exhibit the phenomenon of drift, i.e., a gradual change of the bias. Though estimation in the presence of random errors has been extensively studied in the literature, the loss of estimation performance due to systematic errors like drift have rarely been looked into. In this paper, we derive closed-form Fisher Information matrix and subsequently Cram\\'er-Rao bounds (upto reasonable approximation) for the estimation accuracy of drift-corrupted signals. We assume a polynomial time-series as the representative signal and an autoregressive process model for the drift. When the Markov parameter for drift \\rho<1, we show that the first-order effect of drift is asymptotically equivalent to scaling the measurement noise by an appropriate factor. For \\rho=1, i.e., when the drift is non-stationary, we show that the constant part of a signal can only be estimated inconsistently (non-zero asymptotic variance). Practica...

  7. Perturbed soliton excitations of Rao-dust Alfvén waves in magnetized dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, L., E-mail: louiskavitha@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 610 101 (India); The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Lavanya, C.; Senthil Kumar, V. [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu 636 011 (India); Gopi, D. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011 (India); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu 636 011 (India); Pasqua, A. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the propagation dynamics of the perturbed soliton excitations in a three component fully ionized dusty magnetoplasma consisting of electrons, ions, and heavy charged dust particulates. We derive the governing equation of motion for the two dimensional Rao-dust magnetohydrodynamic (R-D-MHD) wave by employing the inertialess electron equation of motion, inertial ion equation of motion, the continuity equations in a plasma with immobile charged dust grains, together with the Maxwell's equations, by assuming quasi neutrality and neglecting the displacement current in Ampere's law. Furthermore, we assume the massive dust particles are practically immobile since we are interested in timescales much shorter than the dusty plasma period, thereby neglecting any damping of the modes due to the grain charge fluctuations. We invoke the reductive perturbation method to represent the governing dynamics by a perturbed cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (pCNLS) equation. We solve the pCNLS, along the lines of Kodama-Ablowitz multiple scale nonlinear perturbation technique and explored the R-D-MHD waves as solitary wave excitations in a magnetized dusty plasma. Since Alfvén waves play an important role in energy transport in driving field-aligned currents, particle acceleration and heating, solar flares, and the solar wind, this representation of R-D-MHD waves as soliton excitations may have extensive applications to study the lower part of the earth's ionosphere.

  8. Quantum Cramer–Rao Bound for a Massless Scalar Field in de Sitter Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Rotondo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available How precisely can we estimate cosmological parameters by performing a quantum measurement on a cosmological quantum state? In quantum estimation theory, the variance of an unbiased parameter estimator is bounded from below by the inverse of measurement-dependent Fisher information and ultimately by quantum Fisher information, which is the maximization of the former over all positive operator-valued measurements. Such bound is known as the quantum Cramer –Rao bound. We consider the evolution of a massless scalar field with Bunch–Davies vacuum in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime, which results in a two-mode squeezed vacuum out-state for each field wave number mode. We obtain the expressions of the quantum Fisher information as well as the Fisher informations associated to occupation number measurement and power spectrum measurement, and show the specific results of their evolution for pure de Sitter expansion and de Sitter expansion followed by a radiation-dominated phase as examples. We will discuss these results from the point of view of the quantum-to-classical transition of cosmological perturbations and show quantitatively how this transition and the residual quantum correlations affect the bound on the precision.

  9. Cramér-Rao lower bound calculations for image registration using simulated phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, David W; Dank, Jeffrey A

    2015-08-01

    The Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is a valuable tool to quantify fundamental limits to estimation problems associated with imaging systems, and has been used previously to study image registration performance bounds. Most existing work, however, assumes constant-variance noise; for many applications, noise is signal-dependent. Further, linear filters applied after detection can potentially yield reduced registration error, but prior work has not treated the CRLB behavior caused by filter-imposed noise correlation. We have developed computational methods to efficiently generalize existing image registration CRLB calculations to account for the effect of both signal-dependent noise and linear filtering on the estimation of rigid-translation ("shift") parameters. Because effective use of the CRLB requires radiometrically realistic simulated imagery, we have also developed methods to exploit computer animation software and available optical properties databases to conveniently build and modify synthetic objects for radiometric image simulations using DIRSIG. In this paper, we present the generalized expressions for the rigid shift Fisher information matrix and discuss the properties of the associated CRLB. We discuss the methods used to synthesize object "sets" for use in DIRSIG, and then demonstrate the use of simulated imagery in the CRLB code to choose an error-minimizing filter and optimal integration time for an image-based tracker in the presence of random platform jitter.

  10. Estimation of parameters of a laser Doppler velocimeter and their Cramer--Rao lower bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Long, Xingwu

    2011-08-01

    Considering the influence of acceleration and the Gaussian envelope for a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), parameter estimation of a Doppler signal with a Gaussian envelope was investigated based on introducing acceleration. According to the theory of mathematics statistics, the Cramer--Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) of Doppler circular frequency and its first order rate were analyzed, formulas of CRLBs were given, and the power spectrum estimation with adjustment was discussed. The results of theory and the simulation show that the CRLBs are related to the data length, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the width of the Gaussian envelope, and they can be decreased by increasing the data length or improving the SNR; the larger the acceleration is and the narrower the Gaussian envelope is, the larger the CRLBs of Doppler circular frequency and its first order rate are; the gap between the variances of the measuring results and the CRLBs narrows when the SNR of the signal is improved, and is almost eliminated when the SNR is higher than 6dB. It is concluded that the model presented is much more suitable for a LDV than that acquired by Rife and Boorstyn [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 20, 591 (1974)].

  11. Attitude of doctors toward euthanasia in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deliberation over euthanasia has been enduring for an extended period of time. On one end, there are populaces talking for the sacrosanctity of life and on the other end, there are those, who promote individual independence. All over the world professionals from different areas have already spent mammoth period over the subject. A large number of cases around the world have explored the boundaries of current legal distinctions, drawn between legitimate and nonlegitimate instances of ending the life. The term euthanasia was derived from the Greek words "eu" and "thanatos" which means "good death" or "easy death." It is also known as mercy killing. Euthanasia literally means putting a person to painless death especially in case of incurable suffering or when life becomes purposeless as a result of mental or physical handicap. Objective: To study the attitude of doctors toward euthanasia in Delhi. Methodology: It was a questionnaire based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between July 2014 and December 2014. The study population included Doctors from 28 hospitals in Delhi both public and private. Equal numbers of doctors from four specialties were included in this study (50 oncologists, 50 hematologists, 50 psychiatrists, and 50 intensivists. Demographic questionnaire, as well as the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was used to measure attitude toward Euthanasia. The scale uses both positively (16 items and negatively (14 items worded statements to control the effect of acquiescence. The scale also has four response categories, namely "definitely agree," "agree," "disagree," and "definitely disagree." The total score for the EAS was generated by adding all the sub-scales (question′s responses. The demographic questionnaire and EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was distributed

  12. Noncommunicable disease risk profile of factory workers in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Kohli, Charu; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Ekta

    2012-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming more prevalent in India. The data for presence of NCDs and its risk factors among factory workers is deficient in India. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among 37 factory workers and equal number of comparable subjects from general population. Screening for presence of diabetes along with its risk factors was made in both the groups using pretested predesigned World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO STEPS) questionnaire in rural area of Delhi. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. The estimation of risk in two groups was done with calculation of odds ratio (OR). P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. A total of 74 participants were included in the present study. Hypertension and diabetes was present in 13.5 and 5.4% of factory workers and four (10.8%) and three (8.8%) subjects in comparative group, respectively. Seven (18.9%) factory and eight (21.6%) non-factory subjects fell in the category of current smoker or smokeless tobacco users. High density lipoprotein levels were found abnormal among one (2.7%) factory worker and nine (24.3%) subjects in comparative group (P-value = 0.01). Behavioral risk factors, alcohol consumption, and fruits and vegetable intake were significantly different among two groups. Factory workers were having better profile than non-factory subjects except for risk factors such as alcohol intake and inadequate fruits and vegetable intake. However, healthy worker effect phenomenon cannot be ruled out.

  13. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms-Rodriguez, Camille-Ann; Mazzulli, Tony; Christian, Nicole; Willey, Barbara M; Boyd, David A; Mataseje, Laura F; Mulvey, Michael R; Christie, Celia D C; Nicholson, Alison M

    2016-02-28

    The global dissemination of the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM) gene among certain strains of bacteria has serious implications since the infections caused by such organisms pose a therapeutic challenge. Although the NDM gene has been detected in various parts of the world, this is the first report of its detection in the English-speaking Caribbean. The NDM producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from an Indian patient who had recently relocated to Jamaica. Identification and susceptibility testing of the K. pneumoniae isolate was performed using the Vitek 2 automated system) in keeping with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards. It was identified as a metallobetalactamase producer using the Rosco KPC+MBL kit. Genotypic screening for common betalactamase (including carbapenemase) genes, was carried out  using two multiplex PCRs: one for SHV-, TEM-, CTX-M-, OXA-1-, and CMY-2-types, and one for VIM-, KPC-, IMP-, OXA-48, GES-, and NDM-types. Strain typing was conducted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI and multi-locus sequencing (MLS). Plasmid isolation and analysis was also performed. K. pneumoniae (N11-02395), not previously associated with the dissemination of the NDM in India, Sweden or the UK, was found to harbor the NDM-1 gene on plasmid pNDM112395. The identification of the NDM-1 gene underscores the need for effective surveillance and infection control measures to identify and prevent spread of multidrug resistant Gram negative bacilli. Strict infection control measures implemented for this patient helped to prevent the spread of this organism to other patients.

  14. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  15. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, P; Chawla, Rohit; Garg, S; Singh, M M; Raina, U; Bhalla, Ruchira; Sodhanit, Pushpa

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal discharge among women in reproductive age. Surveillance studies on bacterial vaginosis are mostly based on specialist clinic settings. As few population-based prevalence surveys of bacterial vaginosis have been conducted, we studied the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the urban and rural communities in Delhi, and to associate the presence of bacterial vaginosis with demographic profile, risk factors and presence of other reproductive tract infections (RTIs)/ sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Vaginal specimens for Gram-stain evaluation of vaginal flora for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and culture of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida spp, blood samples for HIV and syphilis serology, and urine for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were collected from women (15-49 yr) from rural and urban areas. Information on demographic characteristics, risk factors and clinical symptoms was obtained. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 70 (32.8%) subjects. A high percentage though asymptomatic (31.2%) were found to have bacterial vaginosis. Highest prevalence was seen in urban slum (38.6%) followed by rural (28.8%) and urban middle class community (25.4%). All women with vaginal trichomoniasis were found to have bacterial vaginosis while 50 per cent of subjects having syphilis also had bacterial vaginosis.. The study showed high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis. The asymptomatic women having bacterial vaginosis are less likely to seek treatment for the morbidity and thus are more likely to acquire other STIs. Women attending various healthcare facilities should be screened and treated for bacterial vaginosis to reduce the risk of acquisition of other STIs.

  16. Beta-thalassaemia mutations in northern India (Delhi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, N; Sharma, S; Rusia, U; Sen, S; Sood, S K

    1998-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to define beta-thalassaemia mutations prevalent in northern India (Delhi). Forty six children of beta-thalassaemia major and their families were investigated. DNA was extracted from leucocytes and screened for mutations prevalent in the Indian population. These mutations included 619bp deletion, IVS 1-1 (G-T), IVS 1-5 (G-C), frameshift mutations FS 8/9 (+G), FS 41/42 (-CTTT), Codon 16(-C), Codon 15 (G-A), codon 30 (G-C), IVS 1-110 (G-A) and -88 (C-T). 619 bp deletion mutation was detected directly by amplification of DNA by PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Other mutations were studied by DNA amplification and dot blot hybridization using synthetic normal and mutant oligonucleotide probes labelled at 5' end with gamma-32 P-ATP. Five mutations accounted for all the chromosomes in 46 patients. 619 bp deletion mutation was found to be the commonest mutation (34.8%) followed by IVS 1-5 (G-C) in 22.8 per cent, IVS 1-1 (G-T) in 19.6 per cent, FS 8/9 (+G) in 13 per cent and FS 41/42 (-CTTT) in 9.8 per cent. Nineteen (41.3%) patients were homozygous and 27 (58.7%) double heterozygous for different beta-thalassaemia mutations. This observation of limited number of mutations is significant and will be useful in planning strategies for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia in northern India.

  17. 78 FR 76818 - U.S. Healthcare Education Trade Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ..., Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice cancellation. SUMMARY: The United States Department of Commerce... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Education Trade Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and... Register of November 13, 2013 regarding the U.S. Healthcare Education Trade Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad...

  18. Alleen BA vaak niet voldoende

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.; Poldervaart, G.

    2007-01-01

    Voor de vruchtdunning bij appel is in 2007 MaxCel toegelaten. Dit middel, met de werkzame stof benzyladenine (BA), is in de plaats van carbaryl gekomen. Proeven met BA op Elstar, in 2001 en 2003 uitgevoerd door PPO-fruit, bieden nu waardevolle informatie over de (on)mogelijkheden van benzyladenine

  19. Resident Knowledge and Willingness to Engage in Waste Management in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Bhawal Mukherji

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Delhi generates about 8360 tons of municipal solid waste per day, and there is low compliance to rules regarding waste management. The objective of this paper was to understand the situation in Delhi with respect to the segregation, storage, collection, and disposal of household waste, and to assess the knowledge of the residents of Delhi, and their willingness to engage in solid-waste management. A stratified random sample, comprising 3047 respondents, was chosen for a questionnaire survey, covering all municipalities of Delhi, with socio-economic classification as the stratifying variable. Survey results indicate that 60% of residents do not know the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste, and only 2% of them segregate waste. Fifty-eight percent of respondents reported that the waste collector mixes the segregated waste, 97% of respondents reported that they sold items to an itinerant waste buyer, and 87% of households are covered by doorstep waste collection services. Abstract knowledge (general knowledge about waste management is seen to have a significant correlation with willingness to engage in waste management. Differences between the socio-economic groups indicate that the highest (most educated and wealthy, as well as the lowest socio-economic category (least educated and poor, older age-groups, and women, have greater abstract knowledge. Socio-economic categories having higher abstract knowledge can be active participants in decentralized models of waste management.

  20. Emergence of New Delhi metalo-β- lactamase (NDM-1) – producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The New Delhi metallo-beta- lactamase (NDM-1) gene is an emerging well acknowledged public health threats among human and animal pathogens worldwide. Since its first description in 2009, a lot of animal and human associated reports have been documented around the world, including some parts of Africa. There is ...

  1. Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To improve water and sanitation services for women in New Delhi's low-income communities by understanding the needs of women and girls in relation to basic service delivery, and facilitating better relationships between residents and their local governments. The challenge. In low-income resettlement areas on the fringes ...

  2. Cities in transition: monitoring growth trends in Delhi urban agglomeration 1991-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath Mookherjee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis based on census data for the decade 1991-2001 indicates change in the urban structure of the Delhi Urban Agglomeration, India. The number and rate of growth of cen-sus towns and the urban core are examined. The pattern shows emerging traits of urban spread and provides an investigative framework for future research.

  3. Discourses on Language, Class, Gender, Education, and Social Mobility in Three Schools in New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Lavanya Murali

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the ideological connections between schooling, mobility, and social difference among students in New Delhi. In it, I argue that educational mobility, especially with regard to English-language education, is an ideology which seems to offer a path to reduce social difference while in fact protecting it. I also argue that…

  4. Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Research focus To improve water and sanitation services for women in New Delhi's low-income communities by understanding the needs of women and girls in relation to basic service delivery, and facilitating better relationships between residents and their local governments.

  5. English Language Teaching Strategies Used by Primary Teachers in One New Delhi, India School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Bonnie; Skillings, Mary Jo

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated teacher behaviors, lesson delivery and sequence of content and learning expectations used by K-5 teachers at one school in New Delhi, India. This research brings broader understanding of strategies for teaching English reading and writing to students whose first language is not English. The rationale for the study stems…

  6. Surface ozone scenario at Pune and Delhi during the decade of 1990s

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Data on surface ozone concentration compiled for a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999 for Pune and Delhi are analyzed in terms of its frequency distribution, annual trend, diurnal variation and its relation with various meteorological and chemical parameters. It is found that the surface ozone concentration range showing ...

  7. Cash or In-kind Transfers? Evidence from a Randomised Controlled Trial in Delhi, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangopadhyay, Shubhashis; Lensink, Robert; Yadav, Bhupesh

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a randomised intervention in Delhi, India, that provided unconditional cash transfers to a group of households as a replacement for the food security offered by a below-poverty-level card. The experimental approach can differentiate beneficial effects due to either

  8. Cash or In-kind Transfers? Evidence from a Randomised Controlled Trial in Delhi, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangopadhyay, Shubhashis; Lensink, Robert; Yadav, Bhupesh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article examines a randomised intervention in Delhi, India, that provided unconditional cash transfers to a group of households as a replacement for the food security offered by a below-poverty-level card. The experimental approach can differentiate beneficial effects due to either

  9. Parenting and Adolescent Identity: A Study of Indian Families in New Delhi and Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapru, Saloni

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the ancestral and acculturated cultural meanings in immigrant Indian parenting and adolescent identity using the independence-interdependence dimension as the focus. Forty Indian parents and their adolescents in Delhi, India, and Geneva, Switzerland, were interviewed using open-ended questions and scenarios. Adolescents also…

  10. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  11. Mapping urban poverty for local governance in an Indian mega-city: The case of Delhi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.; Sridharan, N.; Pfeffer, K.

    2008-01-01

    The article maps urban poverty, using the `livelihoods assets framework' to develop a new index of multiple deprivation, examining the implications for area and sector targeting by policy-makers. This article deals with the index and the results for Delhi. The study maps: the spatial concentration

  12. Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Objective India's majority of patients—including those living with diabetes—seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India. Methods A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics. Results In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin phials. Domestically manufactured human phial and cartridge insulin (produced for foreign and Indian companies) was less expensive than their imported counterparts. The lowest paid unskilled government worker in Delhi would work about 1.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, to be able to pay OOP for a monthly supply of human phial and analogue cartridge insulin. Interviews suggest that the Delhi insulin market is dominated by a few multinational companies that import and/or license in-country production. Several factors influence insulin uptake by patients, including doctor's prescribing preference. Wholesalers have negative perceptions about domestic insulin manufacturing. Conclusions The Delhi insulin market is an oligopoly with limited market competition. Increasing competition from Indian companies is going to require some additional policies, not presently in place. As more Indian companies produce biosimilars, brand substitution policies are needed to be able to benefit from market competition. PMID:28588966

  13. A progress report on the RAO binaries-in-clusters program and its relevance for distance scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, E. F.; Schiller, S. J.

    Active studies of selected double-lined spectroscopic and eclipsing binary star systems in open clusters have been carried out at the RAO of the University of Calgary in order to improve knowledge of the absolute parameters of individual stars at discernible stages of stellar evolution and of the Galactic clusters of which these systems are members. Here, the basic theoretical approaches used in this study are summarized, and the criteria for selecting cluster candidate binaries are reviewed. Active target systems, their clusters, magnitudes, and other information are given.

  14. Cramer-Rao lower bound optimization of an EM-CCD-based scintillation gamma camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Marc A N; Goorden, Marlies C; Beekman, Freek J

    2013-04-21

    Scintillation gamma cameras based on low-noise electron multiplication (EM-)CCDs can reach high spatial resolutions. For further improvement of these gamma cameras, more insight is needed into how various parameters that characterize these devices influence their performance. Here, we use the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) to investigate the sensitivity of the energy and spatial resolution of an EM-CCD-based gamma camera to several parameters. The gamma camera setup consists of a 3 mm thick CsI(Tl) scintillator optically coupled by a fiber optic plate to the E2V CCD97 EM-CCD. For this setup, the position and energy of incoming gamma photons are determined with a maximum-likelihood detection algorithm. To serve as the basis for the CRLB calculations, accurate models for the depth-dependent scintillation light distribution are derived and combined with a previously validated statistical response model for the EM-CCD. The sensitivity of the lower bounds for energy and spatial resolution to the EM gain and the depth-of-interaction (DOI) are calculated and compared to experimentally obtained values. Furthermore, calculations of the influence of the number of detected optical photons and noise sources in the image area on the energy and spatial resolution are presented. Trends predicted by CRLB calculations agree with experiments, although experimental values for spatial and energy resolution are typically a factor of 1.5 above the calculated lower bounds. Calculations and experiments both show that an intermediate EM gain setting results in the best possible spatial or energy resolution and that the spatial resolution of the gamma camera degrades rapidly as a function of the DOI. Furthermore, calculations suggest that a large improvement in gamma camera performance is achieved by an increase in the number of detected photons or a reduction of noise in the image area. A large noise reduction, as is possible with a new generation of EM-CCD electronics, may improve the

  15. The BaBar Mini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David N.

    2003-07-11

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs.

  16. A = Ba, Sr or Pb

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion in the transmission mode. The samples were rotated ... The profiles were fitted using a pseudo-Voigt function. The Chebyshev ... Crystal data for ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr or Pb) at. 298 K. Formula. BaBi4Ti4O15. SrBi4Ti4O15. PbBi4Ti4O15. Formula weight. 1404⋅85. 1355⋅13. 1474⋅70. Colour. Yellow. Yellow. Yellow.

  17. A GIS based emissions inventory at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution for air pollution analysis in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Calori, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In Delhi, between 2008 and 2011, at seven monitoring stations, the daily average of particulates with diameter GIS based spatial inventory coupled with temporal resolution of 1 h, was utilized for chemical transport modeling using the ATMoS dispersion model. The modeled annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 122 ± 10 μg m-3 for South Delhi; 90 ± 20 μg m-3 for Gurgaon and Dwarka; 93 ± 26 μg m-3 for North-West Delhi; 93 ± 23 μg m-3 for North-East Delhi; 42 ± 10 μg m-3 for Greater Noida; 77 ± 11 μg m-3 for Faridabad industrial area. The results have been compared to measured ambient PM pollution to validate the emissions inventory.

  18. ECOHYDROLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES OF DEGRADING BAOLIS DURING MEDIEVAL PERIOD IN DELHI: traditional practices of water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Anand

    2017-03-01

    Baolis es el depósito de agua en los monumentos arquitectónicos que habían sido construidos por varios sultanato de Delhi en diferentes períodos de tiempo y la mayoría de Baolis fueron construidos durante el período de tiempo medieval. Los Baolis se encuentran en todo el país, pero todos son diferentes en lo que respecta al arte y la arquitectura. Los sultanatos de Delhi habían construido una serie de Baolis en Delhi para mostrar su control y prestigio en la sociedad. Hay alrededor de 12 Baolis existentes en Delhi y de ellos, cuatro Baolis están a punto de extinguirse y pocos Baolis como Nizamuddin, Firoz Shah y Rajon ki Baolis están siendo utilizados por la gente local. Este artículo comprende la información relacionada con Baolis que fue construida por sultanatos de Delhi durante el período de tiempo medieval en Delhi. El presente trabajo intenta describir el método tradicional de gestión del agua como Baolis en época medieval y su estado actual. El estudio se basa en fuentes primarias y secundarias de información y se realizó una encuesta primaria y personal y se han utilizado fuentes secundarias de datos e información en este documento. El artículo concluyó que Baolis no está teniendo buenas condiciones y estas están muy contaminadas y degradadas y su degradación también conduce a la pérdida ecológica hidrológica en sus áreas adyacentes. Los acercamientos descuidados de la gente hacia estos Baolis son causas principales detrás de la extinción y de la degradación de estos Baolis. La conciencia de la comunidad y la participación es la única manera de proteger a estos Baolis de la extinción. Palabras clave: Baolis; Arquitectónico; Monumento; Medieval; Degradación; Eco hidrología; Contaminación; Manejo.

  19. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj Singh Senjam; Praveen Vashist; Noopur Gupta; Sumit Malhotra; Vasundhara Misra; Amit Bhardwaj; Vivek Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's E chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was

  20. Delhi: dynamique démographique et spatiale d'une grande métropole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Dupont

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available algré un fléchissement au cours des dernières décennies, le rythme de croissance démographique de Delhi depuis 1947 est remarquable pour une ville de cette taille. Cette dynamique globale recouvre une tendance au desserrement de la population, avec un dépeuplement du vieux centre historique et une croissance accélérée des zones périphériques. Cette croissance déborde les limites administratives du Territoire de Delhi. La migration, surtout depuis les États voisins, a joué un rôle majeur.

  1. The Practically Minded: Strategizing for Upward Mobility Among the Punjabi Middle Class of Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Markoe, Cassandra Summer

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation I reconsider the temporality of modernity by problematizing the idea of progress through an ethnographic illustration of how competitive pressures between middle class families in Delhi, India, striving for transnational social mobility, serve to redouble caste and patriarchal forms of domination and subordination within the family economy. My research intersects mobility and kinship studies with its theoretical focus on the ways that middle class identity is mobilized st...

  2. At the Margins of Law: Adjudicating Muslim Families in Contemporary Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Lemons, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores questions of religion, law and gender in contemporary Delhi. The dissertation is based on eighteen months of fieldwork I conducted in four types of Muslim family law institutions: sharia courts (dar ul qaza institutions), women's arbitration centers (mahila panchayats), a mufti's authoritative legal advice (fatawa), and a mufti's healing practice. All of these institutions adjudicate cases and attend to problems that fall under the definition of "Personal Law." Acco...

  3. Family caregivers' burden: A hospital based study in 2010 among cancer patients from Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Lukhmana, S; S K Bhasin; Chhabra, P; Bhatia, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A large number of patients with chronic diseases like, cancer are cared for in homes by the family members in India. The vital role that these family members play as “caregivers” is well recognized, however, the burden on them is poorly understood. Aims: To assess burden and to determine the predictors of burden on family caregivers of cancer patients. Setting And Design: A cross-sectional, hospital based study conducted in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Materials And Method...

  4. Quantifying the effect of air quality control measures during the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Gufran; Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin. D.; Mahajan, A. S.; Srinivas, R.; Ali, K.; Sahu, S. K.; Parkhi, N.; Surendran, D.; Trimbake, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the XIX Commonwealth Games (CWG-2010) were held in India for the first time at Delhi and involved 71 commonwealth nations and dependencies with more than 6000 athletes participating in 272 events. This was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in India and strict emission controls were imposed during the games in order to ensure improved air quality for the participating athletes as a significant portion of the population in Delhi is regularly exposed to elevated levels of pollution. The air quality control measures ranged from vehicular and traffic controls to relocation of factories and reduction of power plant emissions. In order to understand the effects of these policy induced control measures, a network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across different areas in Delhi under the Government of India's System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. Simultaneous measurements of aerosols, reactive trace gases (e.g. NOx, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters were made before, during and after CWG-2010. Contrary to expectations, the emission controls implemented were not sufficient to reduce the pollutants, instead in some cases, causing an increase. The measured pollutants regularly exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality limits over the games period. The reasons for this increase are attributed to an underestimation of the required control measures, which resulted in inadequate planning. The results indicate that any future air quality control measures need to be well planned and strictly imposed in order to improve the air quality in Delhi, which affects a large population and is deteriorating rapidly. Thus, the presence of systematic high resolution data and realistic emission inventories through networks such as SAFAR will be directly useful for the future.

  5. Pepsi and Coca Cola in Delhi, India: availability, price and sales.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, FC; Satija, A; S; Khurana; Singh, G.; Ebrahim, S

    2010-01-01

    : India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of 'Pepsi' and 'Coca Cola' in their 'regular' and 'diet' forms in Delhi and London. : A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a surv...

  6. Niobium quarter-wave cavity for the New Delhi booster linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P.N. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India)

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports the completion of development of a 97 Mhz niobium coaxial quarter-wave cavity to be used in a booster linac for the New Delhi 16UD pellatron electrostatic accelerator. A prototype cavity, which incorporates a niobium-bellows tuning device, has been completed and operated at 4.2 K at accelerating gradients above 4 MV/m for extended periods of time.

  7. Rotavirus diversity among diarrheal children in Delhi, India during 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiku, Vasundhara Razdan; Sharma, Sumit; Verma, Anil; Kumar, Praveen; Raghavendhar, Siva; Aneja, Satinder; Paul, Vinod Kumar; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan; Ray, Pratima

    2014-08-11

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children worldwide and is responsible for around 100,000 deaths in India annually. Vaccination against rotavirus (RV) is a high priority: 'ROTAVAC' an indigenous vaccine will soon be licensed in India. Surveillance to determine the impact of vaccines on emerging RV strains is required. In this study we compared the pattern of RV strains circulating in Delhi over a 5 year period with the strains over the past 12 years. The most commonly detected G genotypes were G1 (22.4%), G2 (17.2%), and G9 (25.2%) with P[4] (25.5%), P[6] (20%) and P[8] (16.9%) specificity. G12 genotype was found to be the fourth common G-type with 14.8% prevalence. Among the G-P combinations; G1P[8], G2P[4], G9P[8] and G12P[6] were detected at 7.2%, 7.2%, 5.2% and 10%, respectively. Of note, G9P[4] and G2P[6] that were rarely detected during 2000-2007 in Delhi, were observed quite frequently with prevalence of 6.5% and 3.4%, respectively. In total, 16 different G-P combinations were detected in the present study demonstrating the rich diversity of rotavirus strains in Delhi. Our data from the 12 year period indicate wide circulation of G1 and G9 genotypes in combination with P[8], G2 with P[4] and G12 with P[6] with high frequency of RV strains having rare G-P combinations in Delhi. Since the indigenous vaccine 'ROTAVAC' has a monovalent formulation, the impact of vaccines on strains and the effect of strain diversity on the efficacy of the vaccine should be monitored. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Evolutionary Analysis of Dengue Serotype 2 Viruses Using Phylogenetic and Bayesian Methods from New Delhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Afreen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most important arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Delhi, the metropolitan capital state of India, has reported many dengue outbreaks, with the last outbreak occurring in 2013. We have recently reported predominance of dengue virus serotype 2 during 2011-2014 in Delhi. In the present study, we report molecular characterization and evolutionary analysis of dengue serotype 2 viruses which were detected in 2011-2014 in Delhi. Envelope genes of 42 DENV-2 strains were sequenced in the study. All DENV-2 strains grouped within the Cosmopolitan genotype and further clustered into three lineages; Lineage I, II and III. Lineage III replaced lineage I during dengue fever outbreak of 2013. Further, a novel mutation Thr404Ile was detected in the stem region of the envelope protein of a single DENV-2 strain in 2014. Nucleotide substitution rate and time to the most recent common ancestor were determined by molecular clock analysis using Bayesian methods. A change in effective population size of Indian DENV-2 viruses was investigated through Bayesian skyline plot. The study will be a vital road map for investigation of epidemiology and evolutionary pattern of dengue viruses in India.

  9. Current practice variations in the management of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Ingole, Sachin; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current practices and preferences of the arthroscopic surgeons of Delhi in the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among arthroscopic surgeons of Delhi. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire that was sent either by e-mail or by direct contact to all sixty arthroscopic surgeons of Delhi. Forty-eight (80%) surgeons responded to our questionnaire. Maximum participants (83.3%) used semitendinosus/gracilis tendon autograft for ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and only 2.1% were using bone-patellar-tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft. Most preferred method of graft fixation was an 'interference screw' on the tibial side and an 'endobutton' on the femoral side, which was preferred by 95.83% and 93.75% surgeons, respectively. Almost all respondents (97%) used a bio-absorbable interference screw for tibial side graft fixation. Postoperative bracing was advised for timing of surgery, rehab after surgery, pain management, etc.

  10. Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000 and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000. Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India.

  11. Managing future air quality in megacities: A case study for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Markus; Purohit, Pallav; Bhanarkar, Anil D.; Bertok, Imrich; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Cofala, Janusz; Heyes, Chris; Kiesewetter, Gregor; Klimont, Zbigniew; Liu, Jun; Majumdar, Dipanjali; Nguyen, Binh; Rafaj, Peter; Rao, Padma S.; Sander, Robert; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Srivastava, Anjali; Vardhan, B. Harsh

    2017-07-01

    Megacities in Asia rank high in air pollution at the global scale. In many cities, ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been exceeding both the WHO interim targets as well as respective national air quality standards. This paper presents a systems analytical perspective on management options that could efficiently improve air quality at the urban scale, having Delhi as a case study. We employ the newly developed GAINS-City policy analysis framework, consisting of a bottom up emission calculation combined with atmospheric chemistry-transport calculation, to derive innovative insights into the current sources of pollution and their impacts on ambient PM2.5, both from emissions of primary PM as well as precursors of secondary inorganic and organic aerosols. We outline the likely future development of these sources, quantify the related ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health impacts, and explore potential policy interventions that could effectively reduce environmental pollution and resulting health impacts in the coming years. The analysis demonstrates that effective improvement of Delhi's air quality requires collaboration with neighboring States and must involve sources that are less relevant in industrialized countries. At the same time, many of the policy interventions will have multiple co-benefits on development targets in Delhi and its neighboring States. Outcomes of this study, as well as the modelling tools used herein, are applicable to other urban areas and fast growing metropolitan zones in the emerging Asian regions.

  12. Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Talwar, Richa; Roy, Neelam; Raut, Deepak; Singh, Saudan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey) to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000) and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000). Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India.

  13. Impact Of IEC Intervention On Knowledge Regarding AIDS Amongst Senior Secondary School Children Of East Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhasin S. K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What is the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst school children in East Delhi? 2. What is the impact of IEC intervention on the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS in these children? Objective: To find out the impact of IEC intervention on awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst senior secondary boys and girls in schools of East Delhi. Study design: Pre and post IEC interventional study. Settings: In four randomly selected senior secondary schools in East Delhi. Participants: 294 boys and 333 girls of class XI and XII in pre IEC group and 239 boys and 203 girls in post IEC group. Intervention: An IEC package of exhibition of posters, videotapes and intra group open discussion. Outcome variables: Proportion (prevalence of school children having correct knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS after IEC intervention. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test. Results: IEC intervention significantly generated an enhancing effect on most aspects of their awareness towards HIV/AIDS among both boys and girls. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to impart health education for dispelling misconceptions regarding this disease.

  14. Local government finance: challenges in revenue-raising at the Municipal Corporation of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simanti Bandyopadhyay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the extent to which the capital city of Delhi has gained financial autonomy over the years. In order to better understand its progress, the paper compares the periods before and after the submission of the Third State Finance Commission Report of Delhi. The main findings suggest there have been some efforts to reduce reliance on transfers from upper tiers of government and to strengthen ‘own revenues’ atthe Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD. A greater diversification of tax and non-tax revenue sources is responsible for this improvement. In the second period, other tax sources such as corporation tax and electricity tax gained in importance.  Non-tax revenues were also strengthened by higher collection of certain components such as conversion charges. However, own revenues have been inadequate to meet growing expenditure requirements, resulting in high revenue expenditure gaps. Further, the growth in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP has not led to a rise in own revenues for MCD.Rather, the paper finds that higher GSDP and its tertiary sector components are associated with higher expenditures in MCD. As far as local revenues are concerned, higher GSDP is associated with higher transfers, but has no discernible impact on own revenues. 

  15. AHP 45: REVIEW: PHYUR BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    'Brug mo skyid འབྲུག་མོ་སྐྱིད། (Zhoumaoji 周毛吉

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mkha' mo rgyal was born in Dgon gong ma Village, 'Ba' (Tongde County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province. While attending the Tibetan Studies College of Mtsho sngon Nationalities University she began writing. In addition to editing and translating teaching materials for primary and secondary schools, she has also published short stories and poetry (Mkha' mo rgyal, 2015. Phyur ba is the first Tibetan women's novel (Robin 2016:86 and was recognized as an Outstanding Work by the Qinghai Writers Guild in 2014 (Duojiecairang and Limaoyou 2014. 1 The name, which translates as 'dried cheese' is a food eaten daily by many Tibetans. Made from fermented milk without cream, it is dried in the sun by women in pastoral areas. Both sweet and sour, phyur ba brings to mind the happiness and sadness, ups and downs, laughter and tears that life brings. ...

  16. Taxonomic Relationship between Tylototriton daweishanensis Zhao, Rao, Liu, Li and Yuan, 2012 and T. yangi Hou, Li and Lu, 2012 (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Rao, Ding-Qi; MATSUI, MASAFUMI; Eto, Koshiro

    2015-01-01

    We assessed taxonomic relationship of Tylototriton daweishanensis Zhao, Rao, Liu, Li and Yuan, 2012 and T. yangi Hou, Li and Lu, 2012 using mitochondrial DNA sequence data and found them to be as closely related as to be regarded as conspecific. This result, together with available morphological information, strongly indicates that T. daweishanensis is a junior synonym of T. Yangi.

  17. The Spread of Dengue in an Endemic Urban Milieu--The Case of Delhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Telle

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major international public health concern, one of the most important arthropod-borne diseases. More than 3.5 billion people are at risk of dengue infection and there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections annually. This prolific increase has been connected to societal changes such as population growth and increasing urbanization generating intense agglomeration leading to proliferation of synanthropic mosquito species. Quantifying the spatio-temporal epidemiology of dengue in large cities within the context of a Geographic Information System is a first step in the identification of socio-economic risk factors.This Project has been approved by the ethical committee of Institut Pasteur. Data has been anonymized and de-identified prior to geolocalisation and analysis. A GIS was developed for Delhi, enabling typological characterization of the urban environment. Dengue cases identified in the Delhi surveillance system from 2008 to 2010 were collated, localised and embedded within this GIS. The spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases and extent of clustering were analyzed. Increasing distance from the forest in Delhi reduced the risk of occurrence of a dengue case. Proximity to a hospital did not increase risk of a notified dengue case. Overall, there was high heterogeneity in incidence rate within areas with the same socio-economical profiles and substantial inter-annual variability. Dengue affected the poorest areas with high density of humans, but rich areas were also found to be infected, potentially because of their central location with respect to the daily mobility network of Delhi. Dengue cases were highly clustered in space and there was a strong relationship between the time of introduction of the virus and subsequent cluster size. At a larger scale, earlier introduction predicted the total number of cases.DENV epidemiology within Delhi has a forest fire signature. The stochastic nature of this invasion process

  18. The Spread of Dengue in an Endemic Urban Milieu--The Case of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telle, Olivier; Vaguet, Alain; Yadav, N K; Lefebvre, B; Cebeillac, A; Nagpal, B N; Daudé, Eric; Paul, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major international public health concern, one of the most important arthropod-borne diseases. More than 3.5 billion people are at risk of dengue infection and there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections annually. This prolific increase has been connected to societal changes such as population growth and increasing urbanization generating intense agglomeration leading to proliferation of synanthropic mosquito species. Quantifying the spatio-temporal epidemiology of dengue in large cities within the context of a Geographic Information System is a first step in the identification of socio-economic risk factors. This Project has been approved by the ethical committee of Institut Pasteur. Data has been anonymized and de-identified prior to geolocalisation and analysis. A GIS was developed for Delhi, enabling typological characterization of the urban environment. Dengue cases identified in the Delhi surveillance system from 2008 to 2010 were collated, localised and embedded within this GIS. The spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases and extent of clustering were analyzed. Increasing distance from the forest in Delhi reduced the risk of occurrence of a dengue case. Proximity to a hospital did not increase risk of a notified dengue case. Overall, there was high heterogeneity in incidence rate within areas with the same socio-economical profiles and substantial inter-annual variability. Dengue affected the poorest areas with high density of humans, but rich areas were also found to be infected, potentially because of their central location with respect to the daily mobility network of Delhi. Dengue cases were highly clustered in space and there was a strong relationship between the time of introduction of the virus and subsequent cluster size. At a larger scale, earlier introduction predicted the total number of cases. DENV epidemiology within Delhi has a forest fire signature. The stochastic nature of this invasion process likely smothers any

  19. High spin properties of Ba

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The 124Ba nucleus is investigated on the basis of the method of statistical mechanics by assuming the nucleons to move in triaxially deformed Nilsson potential. The variation in the Fermi energies of protons and neutrons is studied as a function of spin and temperature. The Fermi energies determined as a function ...

  20. TRANSITIVITY AND THE BA CONSTRUCTION

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    Pei-Jung Kuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the legitimacy of positing a Transitivity Projection (= TrP cf. Bowers 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2002 in the BA construction in Mandarin Chinese. BA has been proposed to be a semantically-bleached verb, inserted in the v position (Huang 1997 and Lin 2001. Several pieces of evidence such as manner adverbial placement (cf. Huang, Li and Li 2009 and GEI-insertion (cf. Tang 2001 indicate that there must be a functional projection between the vP and VP to host the BA NP. I propose that a TrP is probably the most apt candidate for the XP. I also argue, in contrast to the proposal by Huang, Li and Li (2009, that the present proposal which employs a TrP captures most of the properties of the BA construction. A comparison with the structure of the BEI construction also shows that the TrP proposal fits into the general picture of current linguistic theory on transitive constructions without extra stipulations.

  1. Ba isotopic signature for early differentiation between Cs and Ba in natural fission reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2008-08-01

    Ba isotopic studies of the Oklo and Bangombé natural fission reactors in east Gabon provide information on the geochemical behavior of radioactive Cs ( 135Cs and 137Cs) in a geological medium. Large isotopic deviations derived from fissiogenic Ba were found in chemical leachates of the reactor uraninites. The fissiogenic Ba isotopic patterns calculated by subtracting the non-fissiogenic component are classified into three types that show different magnifications of chemical fractionation between Cs and Ba. In addition, the isotopic signatures of fissiogenic 135Ba, 137Ba and 138Ba suggest an early differentiation between Cs and Ba of less than 20 years after the production of fissiogenic Cs and Ba. On the other hand, only small excesses of 135Ba ( ɛ reactors by differentiation.

  2. Spatio-temporal variability of urban heat islands in local climate zones of Delhi-NCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Bakul; Pathak, Prasad; Agrawal, Girish

    2017-10-01

    Land use change is at the nexus of human territory expansion and urbanization. Human intrusion disturbs the natural heat energy balance of the area, although a new equilibrium of energy flux is attained but with greater diurnal range and adversely affecting the geo/physical variables. Modification in the trend of these variables causes a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island (UHI) i.e. a dome of heat is formed around the city which has 7-10 °C high temperature than the nearby rural area at night. The study focuses on Surface UHI conventionally studied using thermal band of the remotely sensed satellite images. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is determined for the year 2015 using Landsat 8 for Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). This region was chosen because it is the biggest urban agglomeration in India, many satellite cities are coming in periphery and it has temperate climate. Quantification of UHI is predictably done using UHI intensity that is the difference between representative Urban and rural temperature. Recently the definition of urban and rural has been questioned because of various kinds of configurations of urban spaces across the globe. Delhi NCR urban configurations vary spatially- thus one UHI intensity does not give a deep understanding of the micro-climate. Advancement was made recently to standardize UHI intensity by dividing city into Local Climate Zones (LCZ), comes with 17 broad categories. LCZ map of Delhi NCR has been acquired from World Urban Database. The seasonality in LST across LCZ has been determined along with identifying warmest and coolest LCZ.

  3. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Vyas

    Full Text Available Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are observed during air purifier use, indoor air quality while using an air purifier is frequently worse than in cities with moderate pollution, and often worse than levels observed even in polluted cities. When outdoor pollution levels are higher, on average, indoor pollution levels while using an air purifier are also higher. Moreover, the ratio of indoor air quality during air purifier use to two comparison measures of air quality without an air purifier are also positively correlated with outdoor pollution levels, suggesting that as ambient air quality worsens there are diminishing returns to improvements in indoor air quality during air purifier use. The findings of this study indicate that although the most affordable air purifiers currently available are associated with significant improvements in the indoor environment, they are not a replacement for public action in regions like Delhi. Although private solutions may serve as a stopgap, reducing ambient air pollution must be a public health and policy priority in any region where air pollution is as high as Delhi's during the winter.

  4. Universal access to DOTS in Delhi Prisons: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Meera; Sharma, Nandini; Chopra, K K; Chandra, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Universal access implies that all tuberculosis (TB) patients in the community should have access to early, good quality diagnosis and treatment services that are affordable and convenient to the patient in time, place, and person. To achieve universal access, all affected vulnerable and marginalized population like prison inmates should have access to TB diagnostic and treatment services. To assess the TB control activities in prisons of Delhi, the capital of India, and to suggest interventions for strengthening the program based on the observations. Study was conducted at Tihar Prison, Delhi. TB case notification data from the Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) between 2008 and 2012 and log process framework were used to assess various parameters. Mean number of patients initiated on TB treatment was 120.6 annually between 2008 and 2012. The RNTCP has been implemented in Delhi Prisons since 2002; however, gaps were identified in human resource, training needs, case finding, diagnostic and treatment services, and supervision on situational analysis. Coordination between prison authorities and RNTCP authorities in relation to initial screening and discharge process appeared to be weak. Because of the restricted access, vulnerability of the prison population, increase in drug-resistant TB, the TB control activities in the prison require restructuring. Initial screening for early diagnosis and treatment and "Discharge planning" needs to be devised so that there is sufficient time before release or transfer of individuals from prison. This needs strong commitment from the prison health authorities and RNTCP staff. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  6. Emission estimates of particulate matter and heavy metals from mobile sources in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, R.; K Arun; Int Panis, Luc; Bhola, R

    2013-01-01

    An attempt has been made to make a comprehensive emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) of various size fractions and also of heavy metals (HMs) emitted from mobile sources (both exhaust and non-exhaust) from the road transport of Delhi, India (1991-2006). COPERT-III and 4 models were mainly used toestimate these emissions. Results show that the annual exhaust emission of PM of size upto 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) has increased from 3Gg to 4.5Gg during 1991-2006 irrespective of'improvement...

  7. Gaseous emissions from agricultural activities and wetlands in national capital territory of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Gurjar, BR; Nagpure, AS; Kumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This work aims to develop an emission inventory of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) and CO2 from various agricultural activities and wetlands in Delhi area using an emission factor and activity based approach between the years 2001 and 2011. Among all agricultural activities, livestock enteric fermentation (LEF) was found to be the main source, contributing up to 90% of total CH4. This is followed by livestock manure management (LMM) (6–7%)...

  8. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjam, Suraj Singh; Vashist, Praveen; Gupta, Noopur; Malhotra, Sumit; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit; Gupta, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  9. The Real-Valued Sparse Direction of Arrival (DOA Estimation Based on the Khatri-Rao Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a problem that complex operation which leads to a heavy calculation burden is required when the direction of arrival (DOA of a sparse signal is estimated by using the array covariance matrix. The solution of the multiple measurement vectors (MMV model is difficult. In this paper, a real-valued sparse DOA estimation algorithm based on the Khatri-Rao (KR product called the L1-RVSKR is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on the sparse representation of the array covariance matrix. The array covariance matrix is transformed to a real-valued matrix via a unitary transformation so that a real-valued sparse model is achieved. The real-valued sparse model is vectorized for transforming to a single measurement vector (SMV model, and a new virtual overcomplete dictionary is constructed according to the KR product’s property. Finally, the sparse DOA estimation is solved by utilizing the idea of a sparse representation of array covariance vectors (SRACV. The simulation results demonstrate the superior performance and the low computational complexity of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Statistical resolution limit for the multidimensional harmonic retrieval model: hypothesis test and Cramér-Rao Bound approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Korso Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The statistical resolution limit (SRL, which is defined as the minimal separation between parameters to allow a correct resolvability, is an important statistical tool to quantify the ultimate performance for parametric estimation problems. In this article, we generalize the concept of the SRL to the multidimensional SRL (MSRL applied to the multidimensional harmonic retrieval model. In this article, we derive the SRL for the so-called multidimensional harmonic retrieval model using a generalization of the previously introduced SRL concepts that we call multidimensional SRL (MSRL. We first derive the MSRL using an hypothesis test approach. This statistical test is shown to be asymptotically an uniformly most powerful test which is the strongest optimality statement that one could expect to obtain. Second, we link the proposed asymptotic MSRL based on the hypothesis test approach to a new extension of the SRL based on the Cramér-Rao Bound approach. Thus, a closed-form expression of the asymptotic MSRL is given and analyzed in the framework of the multidimensional harmonic retrieval model. Particularly, it is proved that the optimal MSRL is obtained for equi-powered sources and/or an equi-distributed number of sensors on each multi-way array.

  11. The Real-Valued Sparse Direction of Arrival (DOA) Estimation Based on the Khatri-Rao Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Huanxin; Zhao, Zhongkai

    2016-05-14

    There is a problem that complex operation which leads to a heavy calculation burden is required when the direction of arrival (DOA) of a sparse signal is estimated by using the array covariance matrix. The solution of the multiple measurement vectors (MMV) model is difficult. In this paper, a real-valued sparse DOA estimation algorithm based on the Khatri-Rao (KR) product called the L₁-RVSKR is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on the sparse representation of the array covariance matrix. The array covariance matrix is transformed to a real-valued matrix via a unitary transformation so that a real-valued sparse model is achieved. The real-valued sparse model is vectorized for transforming to a single measurement vector (SMV) model, and a new virtual overcomplete dictionary is constructed according to the KR product's property. Finally, the sparse DOA estimation is solved by utilizing the idea of a sparse representation of array covariance vectors (SRACV). The simulation results demonstrate the superior performance and the low computational complexity of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Analysis of sensor impulse response effects on Cramèr–Rao lower bounds for signal parameter estimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim S. Gower

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a generic analysis of sensor impulse response effects on linearly filtered channel noise is presented to illustrate the resulting variations to the Cramèr–Rao lower bounds (CRLBs of signal parameter estimators in signal processing and communication applications. The authors start by deriving the density function of a filtered signal, which is shown to be a mixture density, and hence the exact expressions for the mean and variance. Simulation results are used to confirm the derivations, which are then used to investigate the effects of impulse response length and variance, as well as channel noise length and variance effects on the resulting CRLBs. Results indicate that for non-zero-mean channel noise and impulse responses, the resulting mean of filtered noise can be relatively large causing adverse deviations to parameter estimations. The filtered noise variance is shown to be proportional to the impulse response energy, where for long duration of signal capture the CRLB is significantly increased.

  13. Cramer-Rao Lower Bound Evaluation for Linear Frequency Modulation Based Active Radar Networks Operating in a Rice Fading Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the joint target parameter (delay and Doppler estimation performance of linear frequency modulation (LFM-based radar networks in a Rice fading environment. The active radar networks are composed of multiple radar transmitters and multichannel receivers placed on moving platforms. First, the log-likelihood function of the received signal for a Rician target is derived, where the received signal scattered off the target comprises of dominant scatterer (DS component and weak isotropic scatterers (WIS components. Then, the analytically closed-form expressions of the Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs on the Cartesian coordinates of target position and velocity are calculated, which can be adopted as a performance metric to access the target parameter estimation accuracy for LFM-based radar network systems in a Rice fading environment. It is found that the cumulative Fisher information matrix (FIM is a linear combination of both DS component and WIS components, and it also demonstrates that the joint CRLB is a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, target’s radar cross section (RCS and transmitted waveform parameters, as well as the relative geometry between the target and the radar network architectures. Finally, numerical results are provided to indicate that the joint target parameter estimation performance of active radar networks can be significantly improved with the exploitation of DS component.

  14. An internal reference model-based PRF temperature mapping method with Cramer-Rao lower bound noise performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Pan, Xinyi; Ying, Kui; Zhang, Qiang; An, Jing; Weng, Dehe; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng

    2009-11-01

    The conventional phase difference method for MR thermometry suffers from disturbances caused by the presence of lipid protons, motion-induced error, and field drift. A signal model is presented with multi-echo gradient echo (GRE) sequence using a fat signal as an internal reference to overcome these problems. The internal reference signal model is fit to the water and fat signals by the extended Prony algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to estimate the chemical shifts between water and fat which contain temperature information. A noise analysis of the signal model was conducted using the Cramer-Rao lower bound to evaluate the noise performance of various algorithms, the effects of imaging parameters, and the influence of the water:fat signal ratio in a sample on the temperature estimate. Comparison of the calculated temperature map and thermocouple temperature measurements shows that the maximum temperature estimation error is 0.614 degrees C, with a standard deviation of 0.06 degrees C, confirming the feasibility of this model-based temperature mapping method. The influence of sample water:fat signal ratio on the accuracy of the temperature estimate is evaluated in a water-fat mixed phantom experiment with an optimal ratio of approximately 0.66:1. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A Novel Frequency Synchronization Algorithm and its Cramer Rao Bound in Practical UWB Environment for MB-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chakrabarti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient time-domain coarse frequency offset (FO synchronizer (TCFS for multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM systems effective for practical ultra-wideband (UWB environment. The proposed algorithm derives its estimates based on phase differences in the received subcarrier signals of several successive OFDM symbols in the preamble. We consider different carrier FOs and different channel responses in different bands to keep the analysis and simulation compatible for practical multiband UWB scenario. Performance of the algorithm is studied by means of bit error rate (BER analysis of MBOFDM system. We derive the Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB of the estimation error variance and compare it with the simulated error variance both in additive white Gaussian noise and UWB channel model (CM environments, CM1-CM4. Both analysis and simulation show that TCFS can estimate coarse carrier FO more efficiently in UWB fading channels for MB-OFDM applications compared to the other reported results in literature. Also, computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is analyzed for its usability evaluation.

  16. Cramer-RAO lower bounds for sinusoidal models from Topex/Poseidon data in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Ballesteros, M.; Medina, C.; Alonso del Rosario, J. J.; Villares-Durán, P.; Gómez-Enri, J.; Catalán Pérez-Urquiola, M.; Labrador Costero, I.

    2007-10-01

    The Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the estimations of the cosine and sine amplitudes of multi-tone sinusoidal model is derived and applied on TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry data sets covering the Indian Ocean. The CRLB depends on the variance of the White Gaussian Noise that it is computed by Modern Parametric Autoregressive Adaptative Spectral Analysis. Determining CRLB parameters it is possible to establish the minimal error associated to any model built to work in the study area what improves the intrinsic bias of the generated time series. The noise that appears in the altimetric data depends strongly on the errors from the atmospheric and geophysical corrections, so the role of the inverted barometer and tidal corrections are also analyzed. The results is summarized as: a) the spatial structure of the order of the parametric model considering the application or not of the above corrections and its relationship to the surface dynamical system of currents in Indian Ocean; b) the spatial structure of the variance of the WGN in the area and its meaning; c) the CRLB for the Geoid's estimators and the CRLB for the estimators of the semiannual and annual waves.

  17. Gibbs Sampler-Based λ-Dynamics and Rao-Blackwell Estimator for Alchemical Free Energy Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinqiang; Vilseck, Jonah Z; Hayes, Ryan L; Brooks, Charles L

    2017-06-13

    λ-dynamics is a generalized ensemble method for alchemical free energy calculations. In traditional λ-dynamics, the alchemical switch variable λ is treated as a continuous variable ranging from 0 to 1 and an empirical estimator is utilized to approximate the free energy. In the present article, we describe an alternative formulation of λ-dynamics that utilizes the Gibbs sampler framework, which we call Gibbs sampler-based λ-dynamics (GSLD). GSLD, like traditional λ-dynamics, can be readily extended to calculate free energy differences between multiple ligands in one simulation. We also introduce a new free energy estimator, the Rao-Blackwell estimator (RBE), for use in conjunction with GSLD. Compared with the current empirical estimator, the advantage of RBE is that RBE is an unbiased estimator and its variance is usually smaller than the current empirical estimator. We also show that the multistate Bennett acceptance ratio equation or the unbinned weighted histogram analysis method equation can be derived using the RBE. We illustrate the use and performance of this new free energy computational framework by application to a simple harmonic system as well as relevant calculations of small molecule relative free energies of solvation and binding to a protein receptor. Our findings demonstrate consistent and improved performance compared with conventional alchemical free energy methods.

  18. Justice in Urban Climate Change Adaptation: Criteria and Application to Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hughes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities around the world are increasingly developing plans to adapt to the consequences of climate change. These plans will have important consequences for urban populations because they are likely to reshape and reconfigure urban infrastructures, services, and decision making processes. It is critical that these adaptation plans are developed in a way that is just. Criteria was developed that can be used to assess justice in adaptation so that the processes, priorities, and impacts address the needs of the most vulnerable urban populations. Further, mechanisms are outlined that have been proposed as responsible for producing urban injustice. The justice criteria are applied to the case of adaptation planning in Delhi and the extent to which poor and informal populations are included and affected by this planning. The analysis shows that adaptation planning in Delhi does not meet the justice criteria in part because of a lack of capacity and the political economy of poverty in the city. The criteria for justice and mechanisms of injustice offer an important step toward developing a greater understanding of not only whether city-level adaptation planning is just, but also why it is or is not.

  19. Frequency dependent attenuation of seismic waves for Delhi and surrounding area, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The attenuation properties of Delhi & surrounding region have been investigated using 62 local earthquakes recorded at nine stations. The frequency dependent quality factors Qa (using P-waves and Qb (using S-waves have been determined using the coda normalization method. Quality factor of coda-waves (Qc has been estimated using the single backscattering model in the frequency range from 1.5 Hz to 9 Hz. Wennerberg formulation has been used to estimate Qi (intrinsic attenuation parameter and Qs (scattering attenuation parameter for the region. The values Qa, Qb, Qc, Qi and Qs estimated are frequency dependent in the range of 1.5Hz-9Hz. Frequency dependent relations are estimated as Qa=52f1.03, Qb=98f1.07 and Qc=158f0.97. Qc estimates lie in between the values of Qi and Qs but closer to Qi at all central frequencies. Comparison between Qi and Qs shows that intrinsic absorption is predominant over scattering for Delhi and surrounding region. 

  20. A Study of Emotional Intelligence Among Postgraduate Medical Students in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Rajkrishna; Rajoura, O P; Sharma, Rahul; Bhatia, Manjeet S

    2017-01-22

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in the successful practice of medicine has been well established. However, efforts to study the same in India, especially in doctors and medical students, are lacking. This study has measured the emotional intelligence of postgraduate medical students in Delhi and aimed to identify some of the factors affecting it. A cross-sectional analytical study, using the Schutte's Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test, to measure the EI of 200 postgraduate medical students of two medical colleges in Delhi. Students working in clinical specialties were selected randomly and contacted by the first author. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The mean scores of EI among the study participants was 124.4 with a standard deviation of 12.8. The total scores possible in the scale range from 33 to 165, with higher scores representing higher EI. The age of the participants was positively associated with emotional intelligence (r = 0.187, p = 0.008). EI was also found to decrease with the increase in total workload (p=0.013), having night duty hours (p = 0.019), and having emergency duty (p = 0.037).   Conclusions: More studies to measure the EI of doctors, the factors affecting it, and possible measures to improve it, are needed. The workload of the resident doctors needs to be assessed with appropriate changes made in the total work done and the quality of work done.

  1. Knowledge and attitude about leprosy in Delhi in post elimination phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, I; Negi, Y; Kishore, J; Adhish, S V

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic communicable disease since age associated with stigma and suffering. India claims its elimination but in some districts it remains a public health problem. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 60 persons were interviewed with an objective to assess the knowledge and attitude about leprosy among sample of 30 adults each from leprosy colony dwellers and urban slum dwellers in South District of Delhi. Knowledge about the leprosy among leprosy colony dwellers was significantly lower than the slum dwellers. Both the groups still believed that leprosy could be due to curse of God, past misdeeds, and could spontaneously occur. Respondents of leprosy colony had significantly less adverse attitude such as leprosy patient should never get married (12% vs 57%), patient should be kept in leprosy colony (0 vs 30%) and should not be allowed to enter religious places (0 vs 23%). Surprisingly 73% of them had not heard about MDT and only (68%) knew that treatment is available free of cost in all Govt. hospitals. Only about half of the respondents knew that deformities could be corrected. This study reflects the poor awareness and negative attitudes towards leprosy particularly among leprosy patients themselves, which could be one of the reasons for slow progress in Leprosy Elimination Program in Delhi.

  2. Health Literacy Levels among Outpatients at a Tertiary Hospital in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sahoo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health literacy is defined as the cognitive and social skills which determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand, and use information in ways which promote and maintain good health. This study was conducted to determine health literacy levels and the associated factors among patients attending the outpatient departments of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Delhi over a period of four months. A total of 150 patients were included in the study. Fifty patients from the Diabetes Clinic, 50 patients from the Hypertension Clinic, and 50 patients with anemia from the Antenatal Outpatient Department (OPD were selected using a convenience sampling method. Data was analyzed using Epi Info software. Statistical analysis was conducted with the chi-square test and the Fisher’s exact test. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Out of 50 diabetic subjects, 37 (74% understood the information about their blood sugar levels as explained to them by the doctor. Similar results were found among hypertensive subjects as well. Furthermore, education status was significantly associated with health literacy. In terms of understanding the regimen of medications, significant association was seen with age, sex, and education. Conclusion: Education status, age, and gender are important determinants of health literacy. Our results support that innovative strategies of communication should be used to improve health literacy among patients.

  3. Seroprevalence and incidence of rubella in and around Delhi (1988-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhoke I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD has been engaged in rubella testing for serodiagnosis of the infection and screening for immunity status. The compiled and evaluated data of the work done on rubella testing for the past fifteen years has been presented here to show the trend and changing scenario of the disease in Delhi. Blood samples were from 7424 patients referred to NICD, Delhi for serodiagnosis of congenital Rubella s yndrome (CRS in malformed babies, in utero rubella infection in women and immunity status of pregnant women and women with bad obstetric history. They were tested for rubella IgG and/or rubella IgM antibodies using commercially available reagents and kits. The data from the 15 years of testing was then compiled and evaluated. From the available data it was seen that immunity status against rubella in childbearing age group of women increased steadily from 49% in 1988 to 87% in 2002. Reported cases of CRS at NICD are also on the decline over the time period. There is periodic indication of high incidence of rubella in the year 1988; 1991and 1998 as the reported cases of acute rubella infection in childbearing age group is high during these years.

  4. Prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children in NCT of Delhi

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    Umesh Kapil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anemia amongst children has been associated with impaired cognitive functions, developmental delays, behavioral and learning disturbances. Young children from high-income groups could be also being affected from anemia. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children in the age group of 5-18 years residing in National Capital Territory (NCT of Delhi. Material and Methods: Total of 413 children was included in the present study. The hemoglobin (Hb estimation was done by cyanmethemoglobin method. Results: In the age group of 5-11 years, the prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children was found to be 38.4% and 29.2%. And in the age group of 12-18 years, the prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children was found to be 33.3% and 21.7%; respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that there is a high prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children in the age group of 5-18 years in NCT, Delhi.

  5. Firecracker injuries during Diwali festival: The epidemiology and impact of legislation in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting and Design: A hospital-based retrospective study of firecracker-related injuries was carried out at a government sponsored hospital in Delhi. Materials and Methods: 1373 patients attended the emergency burn care out-patients clinic during 2002-2010 pre-Diwali, Diwali and post-Diwali days. Every year, a disaster management protocol is revoked during these 3 days under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Results: There was an increase in the number of patients of firecracker-related injuries in Delhi national capital region from the year 2002 to 2010, based on the hospital statistics. During the study period, the hospital received approximately one patient with firecracker-related injury per 100,000 population of the city. 73.02% of the victims were 5-30 years old. Majority (90.87% of them sustained <5% total body surface area burn. Conclusions: In spite of legislations and court orders, the number of patients is on the rise. The implementation agencies have to analyse the situation to find a way to control this preventable manmade accident. Websites, emails, SMS, social sites, etc. should be used for public education, apart from conventional methods of public awareness.

  6. Cardiovascular risk behavior among students of a Medical College in Delhi

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    N Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life style related behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for increased burden of cardio- vascular diseases. Research related to these risk behaviours especially among medical students is essential, considering their role as future physicians and role models in public health intervention programmes. Objective: To evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk behaviours among students of a medical college of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Delhi. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information on identification data and risk behaviours in relation to cardiovascular diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to calculate adjusted odds ratio to assess association between risk behaviours and covariates. Results: The minimum recommendation of taking at least five servings per day of fruits and vegetables was complied only by 12% of students. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks either once or more on daily basis was present in 23.7% students and 32.0% reported frequent consumption of fast foods in past week. Consumption of alcohol was present in 28.8% students but only small proportion of students (7% was current tobacco users. Large proportions of students (42.6% were either not carrying out or were involved in only occasional physical activity in past week. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavioural practises are present and may progress as student advance through medical college. Developing strategies targeting at these risk behaviours and determining factors is necessary to promote healthy life style among medical students.

  7. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  8. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 Escherichia coli isolated from household vacuum cleaner—Oregon, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve L. Buser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Oregon case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli was reported during November 2013. Epidemiologic investigation revealed only local outpatient medical care and no travel outside Oregon for both the patient and his household contact. Environmental sampling discovered a matching isolate from the patient’s household vacuum cleaner, suggesting environmental persistence.

  9. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) Escherichia coli isolated from household vacuum cleaner-Oregon, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Genevieve L; Cassidy, P Maureen; Pfeiffer, Christopher D; Townes, John M; Morey, Karim E; Rayar, Jaipreet; Kutumbaka, Kirthi K; Han, Sukkyun; Nadala, Cesar; Samadpour, Mansour; Weissman, Scott J; Vega, Robert; Beldavs, Zintars G

    2017-01-01

    The first Oregon case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Escherichia coli was reported during November 2013. Epidemiologic investigation revealed only local outpatient medical care and no travel outside Oregon for both the patient and his household contact. Environmental sampling discovered a matching isolate from the patient's household vacuum cleaner, suggesting environmental persistence.

  10. Choosing Schools, Choosing Selves: Exploring the Influence of Parental Identity and Biography on the School Choice Process in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interview data from a group of lower income parents in Delhi, India, this paper focuses on the dynamic relationship between parental choice of a particular school and parents' own identity construction. The data indicate that choice of school is for some parents a symbolic expression of identity, influenced by family…

  11. 78 FR 68030 - U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    .... ACTION: Amendment. SUMMARY: The United States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration is amending the Notice published at 78 FR 42505, July 16, 2013, regarding the U.S. Healthcare... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad...

  12. 78 FR 66336 - U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    .... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration is amending the Notice published at 78 FR 42505, July 16, 2013, regarding the U.S. Healthcare Education... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad...

  13. 78 FR 42505 - U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    .... & Foreign Commercial Service, is organizing a healthcare education trade mission to India (New Delhi... in India. The mission will be an opportunity for participants to meet with policy makers, visit... students coming to the United States. Students from India make up approximately 13.1% of the total foreign...

  14. Virulence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain carrying the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Schøler, Lone Vedel; Hansen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare and evaluate virulence in five strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, including an isolate carrying New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1). In vivo virulence was assessed using a murine sepsis model and using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans killing model...

  15. Thermodynamic study of BaCuO2 and BaCu2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Ryokichi; Nakamura, Yasushi

    1994-06-01

    The Gibbs energy changes for the syntheses of the interceramic compounds of BaCuO2 and BaCu2O2 were investigated as a basic study in the Y-Ba-Cu-O system that includes a superconductor, YBa2Cu3O6.5+ x . For the compound BaCuO2, thermogravimetry with CO2-O2-N2 gas mixtures was employed, and equilibrium temperatures were determined at which CO2 partial pressures in the gas mixtures were equilibrated with mixed powder of BaCuO2, CuO, and BaCO3. The Gibbs energy change for the reaction of BaCO3 + CuO = BaCuO2 + CO2 was determined from the relation between CO2 partial pressure and equilibrium temperature, taking into consideration the effect of CO2 dissolution in BaCuO2. For the study on BaCu2O2, electromotive force (emf) measurement using yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte was conducted. A technique using two cells was applied to the emf measurement for minimizing the effect of dispersion of oxygen from samples, and the Gibbs energy change for the reaction of BaCuO2 + CuO = BaCu2O2 + 1/2O2 was decided from the measured O2 partial pressure.

  16. Delhi's Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Véronique; Govinda, Radhika; Joshi, Ruchir; Sriraman, Tarangini; Webb, Martin

    2013-01-01

    SAMAJ-EASAS Series Series editors: Margret Frenz and Roger Jeffery. This thematic issue is the first in a series of issues jointly co-edited by SAMAJ and the European Association for South Asian Studies (EASAS). More on our partnership with EASAS here.

  17. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  18. Documenting a long-term development model in the slums of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Armstrong, Greg; Dayal, Prarthna; Kermode, Michelle

    2016-04-28

    Achieving development outcomes requires the inclusion of marginalised populations that have the least opportunity to participate in and benefit from development. Slum dwellers often see little of the 'urban advantage', suffering more from infectious diseases, increasing food costs, poor access to education and health care, inadequate water and sanitation, and informal employment. A recent Cochrane Review of the impact of slum upgrading strategies found a dearth of unbiased studies, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The Review calls for greater use of process data, and qualitative alongside quantitative methods of evaluation. India is a lower middle income nation with large gender disparities and around 65 million slum inhabitants. The Asha Community Health and Development Society, a non-governmental organisation based in Delhi, has delivered a multi-sectoral program across 71 slums since 1988. This article reports on a mixed-method study to document measureable health and social impacts, along with Asha's ethos and processes. Several observational visits were made to 12 Asha slums where informal discussions were had with staff and residents (n = 50). Asha data records were analysed for change over time (and differences with greater Delhi) in selected indicators (maternal-child health, education, child sex ratio) using descriptive statistics. 34 semi-structured individual/small group interviews and 14 focus group discussions were held with staff, residents, volunteers, elected officials, civil servants, bankers, diplomats, school principals, slumlords and loan recipients (n = 147). Key indicators of health and social equity improved over time and compared favourably with those for greater Delhi. The Asha model emphasises rights, responsibilities, equity and non-violence. It employs strategies characterised by long-term involvement, systematic protocols and monitoring, development of civil society (especially women's and children's groups) to

  19. A Novel Strain of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus Has Spread to the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Fortes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV is a whitefly-transmitted bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae that causes damage to multiple cultivated plant species mainly belonging to the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae families. ToLCNDV was limited to Asian countries until 2012, when it was first reported in Spain, causing severe epidemics in cucurbit crops. Here, we show that a genetically-uniform ToLCNDV population is present in Spain, compatible with a recent introduction. Analyses of ToLCNDV isolates reported from other parts of the world indicated that this virus has a highly heterogeneous population genetically with no evident geographical, plant host or year-based phylogenetic groups observed. Isolates emerging in Spain belong to a strain that seems to have evolved by recombination. Isolates of this strain seem adapted to infecting cucurbits, but poorly infect tomatoes.

  20. Seasonal Variation and Dengue Burden in Paediatric Patients in New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manas Pratim; Gupta, Ratan; Chopra, Nidhi; Meena, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Kailash Chander

    2017-10-17

    We conducted a study to find a relationship between main weather parameters with admission of positive dengue cases in a tertiary hospital. Retrospective analysis was undertaken to identify epidemiological trend of dengue in 2016 from paediatric wards of a tertiary hospital in New Delhi. Data were collected on patient particulars and daily weather from January to December 2016. A total of 266 confirmed cases of dengue were considered. Relative humidity (RH) was associated with burden of positive dengue cases. On week-wise analysis, each surge of dengue admission was preceded by heavy rain 4-6 weeks earlier. Monthly averaged daily temperature range and RH were noted to have strong correlations with dengue burden, keeping an interval of 2 months in between. Weather parameters seem to influence magnitude of dengue epidemic, particularly in dengue season. There is need to have an in-depth study about developing a prediction model for dengue epidemic.

  1. New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriacae Isolated From Bronchial Washings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullivan, S

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of Carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriacae species is increasing and poses a potential major public health risk. In recent years, several new carbapenemases have been identified, including New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM). A 78-year-old non-smoking female with prior medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and prior coronary artery bypass grafting was referred to our respiratory outpatient service for evaluation of a chronic cough and dyspnoea in 2013. Clinical examination revealed bibasal pulmonary crepitations but was otherwise unremarkable. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated atelectasis of the lingula and right middle lobe. She underwent bronchoscopy, which demonstrated laryngeal mucosa inflammation, consistent with her GERD. There was no growth on bacterial, fungal or mycobacterial bronchial washings cultures.

  2. Risk factors and costs of oral cancer in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sandeep; Tiwari, Vijay Kumar; Nair, Kesavan Sreekantan; Raj, Sherin

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted with 100 oral cancer patients at a private tertiary care hospital in Delhi demonstrated that stage III cancer was associated with longer use of tobacco and poor oral hygiene. There was also statistically significant association (ptobacco and alcohol. More than 60% treatment expenditure was on surgery followed by accommodation (9%) and investigations (8%). The effect of tobacco was well known among patients as 76% of the patients knew that common cancer in tobacco chewer is 'oral cancer', 22% of the patients however responded that they did not know which cancer is common in tobacco chewers. 58% said that they learnt about ill effects of tobacco from media while 24% said they learnt from family and friends. Out of 78 tobacco users, 60 (77%) said that they never received help to quit tobacco while 18(23%) have received help to quit.

  3. Comparison Of Irms Delhi Methodology With Who Methodology On Immunization Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Padam

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the merits of IRMS Model over WHO Model for Coverage Evaluation Survey? Which method is superior and appropriate for coverage evolution survey of immunization in our setting? Objective: To compare IRMS Delhi methodology with WHO methodology on Immunization Coverage. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Setting: Urban and Rural both. Participants: Mothers& Children Sample Size: 300 children between 1-2 years and 300 mothers in rural areas and 75 children and 75 mothers in urban areas. Study Variables: Rural, Urban, Cast-Group, Size of the stratum, Literacy, Sex and Cost effectiveness. Outcome Variables: Coverage level of immunization. Analysis: Routine Statistical Analysis. Results: IRMS developed methodology scores better rating over WHO methodology, especially when coverage evolution is attempted in medium size villages with existence of socio-economic seggregation-which remains the main characteristic of the Indian villages.

  4. Reproductive Ethics in Commercial Surrogacy: Decision-Making in IVF Clinics in New Delhi, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi

    2015-01-01

    Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from...... December 2011 to November 2012, issues of decision-making on embryo transfer, fetal reduction, and mode of delivery were identified. Interviews were carried out with doctors in eighteen ART clinics, agents from four agencies, and fourteen surrogates. In aiming to fulfil the commissioning parents’ demands......, doctors were willing to go to the greatest extent possible in their medical practice. Autonomy and decision-making regarding choice of the number of embryos to transfer and the mode of delivery lay neither with commissioning parents nor surrogate mothers but mostly with doctors. In order to ensure higher...

  5. Relatives' attitudes towards medico-legal investigation and forensic autopsy: a study from South Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, C; Rautji, R; Dogra, T D

    2008-04-01

    Relatives of deceased persons on whose bodies a medico-legal autopsy had been performed at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India were personally asked to complete a questionnaire. The aim of study was to determine surviving family members' attitudes towards medico-legal investigation and forensic autopsy. The majority of the relatives showed a positive attitude towards forensic autopsy but were not aware of the detailed procedure of the autopsy. They wanted sufficient information to be provided before the autopsy. They showed a great interest in autopsy results i.e. the cause of death. It was concluded that sufficient relevant explanations given before the autopsy improves the relatives' acceptance and helps alleviate the suffering of the bereaved. The experience and opinions of relatives may help an autopsy surgeon in more effective management of medico-legal cases.

  6. Low back pain and associated risk factors among undergraduate students of a medical college in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Nupur; Anand, Tanu; Kishore, Jugal; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is the most common orthopedic problem worldwide and is known to affect both younger and older adults. The stressful and time consuming curriculum of medical students predisposes them to this problem. Few statistics are available on prevalence rates of LBP among medical students in India. This study assesses the prevalence and risk factors of LBP in students of a medical college in Delhi. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a medical college in Delhi. The study subjects (n = 160; 100% participation) were selected via stratified random sampling from all undergraduate medical students (aged 17-25 years). A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The overall prevalence of LBP among the students over the past one year was 47.5% (n = 76) with a prevalence of 32.5% at the time of data collection. Prevalence among males and females was 45.3% and 50%, respectively. Significant associations were found between LBP in the past year and coffee drinking (Regular = 57%, Occasional = 38.9%, Never = 65.2%, χ2 = 7.24, P= 0.02), body posture (Normal = 32.6%, Abnormal = 75%, χ2 = 18.97, P work (3.9 vs. 1.8) were found to be significantly higher in group with LBP than in the non-LBP group. However, no association with LBP was seen for weight lifting, watching television/working on computers, driving, wearing heels, or body mass index. The high prevalence of LBP among medical students and its association with poor study habits, lifestyle habits, and psychological factors highlight a need for life skills training, education, counseling, and restructuring of the medical curriculum.

  7. Role of meteorology in seasonality of air pollution in megacity Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Gurjar, Bhola R

    2012-05-01

    The winters in megacity Delhi are harsh, smoggy, foggy, and highly polluted. The pollution levels are approximately two to three times those monitored in the summer months, and the severity is felt not only in the health department but also in the transportation department, with regular delays at airport operations and series of minor and major accidents across the road corridors. The impacts felt across the city are both manmade (due to the fuel burning) and natural (due to the meteorological setting), and it is hard to distinguish their respective proportions. Over the last decade, the city has gained from timely interventions to control pollution, and yet, the pollution levels are as bad as the previous year, especially for the fine particulates, the most harmful of the criteria pollutants, with a daily 2009 average of 80 to 100 μg/m(3). In this paper, the role of meteorology is studied using a Lagrangian model called Atmospheric Transport Modeling System in tracer mode to better understand the seasonality of pollution in Delhi. A clear conclusion is that irrespective of constant emissions over each month, the estimated tracer concentrations are invariably 40% to 80% higher in the winter months (November, December, and January) and 10% to 60% lower in the summer months (May, June, and July), when compared to annual average for that year. Along with monitoring and source apportionment studies, this paper presents a way to communicate complex physical characteristics of atmospheric modeling in simplistic manner and to further elaborate linkages between local meteorology and pollution.

  8. Most probable mixing state of aerosols in Delhi NCR, northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    Unknown mixing state is one of the major sources of uncertainty in estimating aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). Aerosol DRF in India is usually reported for external mixing and any deviation from this would lead to high bias and error. Limited information on aerosol composition hinders in resolving this issue in India. Here we use two years of aerosol chemical composition data measured at megacity Delhi to examine the most probable aerosol mixing state by comparing the simulated clear-sky downward surface flux with the measured flux. We consider external, internal, and four combinations of core-shell (black carbon, BC over dust; water-soluble, WS over dust; WS over water-insoluble, WINS and BC over WINS) mixing. Our analysis reveals that choice of external mixing (usually considered in satellite retrievals and climate models) seems reasonable in Delhi only in the pre-monsoon (Mar-Jun) season. During the winter (Dec-Feb) and monsoon (Jul-Sep) seasons, 'WS coating over dust' externally mixed with BC and WINS appears to be the most probable mixing state; while 'WS coating over WINS' externally mixed with BC and dust seems to be the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) season. Mean seasonal TOA (surface) aerosol DRF for the most probable mixing states are 4.4 ± 3.9 (- 25.9 ± 3.9), - 16.3 ± 5.7 (- 42.4 ± 10.5), 13.6 ± 11.4 (- 76.6 ± 16.6) and - 5.4 ± 7.7 (- 80.0 ± 7.2) W m- 2 respectively in the pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Our results highlight the importance of realistic mixing state treatment in estimating aerosol DRF to aid in policy making to combat climate change.

  9. An epidemiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A community-based study in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. Methodology: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was used to interview all subjects and screen for symptoms of COPD. Postbronchodilator spirometry was done to confirm COPD. Statistical Analysis: Adjusted odds ratio (aOR was calculated by multivariable analysis to examine the association of risk factors with COPD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was developed to assess predictability. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.9%. Tobacco smoking was the strongest risk factor associated (aOR 9.48; 95% CI 4.22, 14.13 followed by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, occupational exposure, age, and biomass fuel. Each pack-year of smoking increased 15% risk of COPD. Ex-smokers had 63% lesser risk compared to current smokers. Clinical allergy seems to preclude COPD (aOR 0.06; 95% CI 0.02, 0.37. ROC analysis showed 94.38% of the COPD variability can be assessed by this model (sensitivity 57.4%; positive predictive value 93.3%. Only 48% patients were on treatment. Treatment continuation was impeded by its cost. Conclusion: COPD prevalence in the region of Delhi, India, is high, and our case-finding population study identified a high rate of patients who were not on any treatment. Our study adds to creating awareness on the importance of smoking cessation, early diagnosis of COPD, and the need for regular treatment.

  10. On-road PM2.5 pollution exposure in multiple transport microenvironments in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; Gani, Shahzad; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Wilson, Daniel; Tiwari, Geetam

    2015-12-01

    PM2.5 pollution in Delhi averaged 150 μg/m3 from 2012 through 2014, which is 15 times higher than the World Health Organization's annual-average guideline. For this setting, we present on-road exposure of PM2.5 concentrations for 11 transport microenvironments along a fixed 8.3-km arterial route, during morning rush hour. The data collection was carried out using a portable TSI DustTrak DRX 8433 aerosol monitor, between January and May (2014). The monthly-average measured ambient concentrations varied from 130 μg/m3 to 250 μg/m3. The on-road PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the ambient measurements by an average of 40% for walking, 10% for cycle, 30% for motorised two wheeler (2W), 30% for open-windowed (OW) car, 30% for auto rickshaw, 20% for air-conditioned as well as for OW bus, 20% for bus stop, and 30% for underground metro station. On the other hand, concentrations were lower by 50% inside air-conditioned (AC) car and 20% inside the metro rail carriage. We find that the percent exceedance for open modes (cycle, auto rickshaw, 2W, OW car, and OW bus) reduces non-linearly with increasing ambient concentration. The reduction is steeper at concentrations lower than 150 μg/m3 than at higher concentrations. After accounting for air inhalation rate and speed of travel, PM2.5 mass uptake per kilometer during cycling is 9 times of AC car, the mode with the lowest exposure. At current level of concentrations, an hour of cycling in Delhi during morning rush-hour period results in PM2.5 dose which is 40% higher than an entire-day dose in cities like Tokyo, London, and New York, where ambient concentrations range from 10 to 20 μg/m3.

  11. Incidence and risk factors for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Delhi region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Porwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India with a major burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB does not have national level data on this hazardous disease. Since 2006, emergence of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB is considered a serious threat to global TB control. This study highlights the demographic and clinical risk factors associated with XDR-TB in Delhi. METHODS: The study was conducted during April 2007 to May 2010. Six hundred eleven MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from four tertiary care hospitals, treating TB patients in Delhi and the demographic details recorded. Sputum samples were cultured using rapid, automated liquid culture system (MGIT 960. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for Rifampicin (RIF and Isoniazid (INH was performed for all positive M. tuberculosis (M.tb cultures. All MDR-TB isolates were tested for sensitivity to second-line drugs [Amikacin (AMK, Capreomycin (CAP, Ofloxacin (OFX, Ethionamide (ETA]. RESULTS/FINDINGS: Of 611, 483 patients were infected with MDR M. tuberculosis (M.tb strains. Eighteen MDR-TB isolates (3.7% were XDR M.tb strains. Family history of TB (p 0.045, socioeconomic status (p 0.013, concomitant illness (p 0.001 and previous intake of 2(nd line injectable drugs (p 0.001 were significantly associated with occurrence of XDR-TB. Only two of the patients enrolled were HIV seropositive, but had a negative culture for M. tuberculosis. 56/483 isolates were pre-XDR M. tuberculosis, though the occurrence of pre-XDR-TB did not show any significant demographical associations. CONCLUSIONS: The actual incidence and prevalence rate of XDR-TB in India is not available, although some scattered data is available. This study raises a concern about existence of XDR-TB in India, though small, signaling a need to strengthen the TB control program for early diagnosis of both tuberculosis and drug resistance in order to break the chains of transmission.

  12. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is one of the major health concerns worldwide and World Health Organization has laid emphasis on correctly investigating and controlling it. There is much public and professional concern regarding self-medication practices, which has dramatically increased in the last few decades, especially in the developing countries. Hence, this study was designed to study the prevalence and practice of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2013 and data were collected by personal interviews using pretested questionnaires. An urban colony in the south district of Delhi was chosen and the eldest member of the family, present at the time of the visit was interviewed. Data were collected from 236 persons and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 92.8% (95 confidence interval: 66.5-79.4. 74.9% preferred allopathic medicines. Self-medication was found to be practiced more among younger persons than older age group persons (P = 0.000. Graduates and postgraduates practiced self-medication more than others (P = 0.002. Common cold (61.6% and fever (51.8% were the most common ailments for which self-medication were practiced. Paracetamol and cough syrups were the most commonly used class of drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication in this study was high. Drugs especially antimicrobials were not taken for the proper length of time. Awareness regarding self-medication practices to help patients decide on the appropriateness of self-medication is required.

  13. Social Security Measures for Elderly Population in Delhi, India: Awareness, Utilization and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Charu; Gupta, Kalika; Banerjee, Bratati; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2017-05-01

    World population of elderly is increasing at a fast pace. The number of elderly in India has increased by 54.77% in the last 15 years. A number of social security measures have been taken by Indian government. To assess awareness, utilization and barriers faced while utilizing social security schemes by elderly in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 individuals aged 60 years and above in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi. A pre-tested, semi-structured schedule prepared in local language was used. Data was analysed using SPSS software (version 17.0). Chi-square test was used to observe any statistical association between categorical variables. The results were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 0.05. A majority of study subjects were females (54.2%), Hindu (89.7%), married (60.3%) and were not engaged in any occupation (82.8%). Awareness about Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) was present among 286 (79.4%) and Annapurna scheme in 193 (53.6%) subjects. Among 223 subjects who were below poverty line, 179 (80.3%) were aware of IGNOAPS; while, 112 (50.2%) were utilizing the scheme. There was no association of awareness with education status, occupation, religion, family type, marital status and caste (p>0.05). Corruption and tedious administrative formalities were major barriers reported. Awareness generation, provision of information on how to approach the concerned authority for utilizing the scheme and ease of administrative procedures should be an integral part of any social security scheme or measure. In the present study, about 79.4% of elderly were aware and 45% of the eligible subjects were utilizing pension scheme. Major barriers reported in utilization of schemes were corruption and tedious administrative procedures.

  14. Health risks of NO 2, SPM and SO 2 in Delhi (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jai Shanker; Kumar, Rakesh; Devotta, Sukumar

    There is increasingly growing evidence linking urban air pollution to acute and chronic illnesses amongst all age groups. Therefore, monitoring of ambient concentrations of various air pollutants as well as quantification of the dose inhaled becomes quite important, specially in view of the fact that in many countries, policy decisions for reducing pollutant concentrations are mainly taken on the basis of their health impacts. The dose when gets combined with the likely responses, indicates the ultimate health risk (HR). Thus, as an extension of our earlier studies, HR has been estimated for three pollutants, namely, suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) for Delhi City in India. For estimation and analyses, three zones have been considered, namely, residential, industrial and commercial. The total population has been divided into three age classes (infants, children and adults) with different body weights and breathing rates. The exercise takes into account age-specific breathing rates, body weights for different age categories and occupancy factors for different zones. Results indicate that health risks due to air pollution in Delhi are highest for children. For all age categories, health risks due to SO 2 (HR_SO 2) are the lowest. Hence, HR_SO 2 has been taken as the reference with respect to which HR values due to SPM and NO 2 have been compared. Taking into account all the age categories and their occupancy in different zones, average HR values for NO 2 and SPM turn out to be respectively 22.11 and 16.13 times more than that for SO 2. The present study can be useful in generating public awareness as well as in averting and mitigating the health risks.

  15. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  16. Occurrence of co-infection with dengue viruses during 2014 in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazeen, A; Afreen, N; Abdullah, M; Deeba, F; Haider, S H; Kazim, S N; Ali, S; Naqvi, I H; Broor, S; Ahmed, A; Parveen, S

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever is an arthropod-borne viral infection that has become endemic in several parts of India including Delhi. We studied occurrence of co-infection with dengue viruses during an outbreak in New Delhi, India in 2014. For the present study, blood samples collected from symptomatic patients were analysed by RT-PCR. Eighty percent of the samples were positive for dengue virus. The result showed that DENV-1 (77%) was the predominant serotype followed by DENV-2 (60%). Concurrent infection with more than one serotype was identified in 43% of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis clustered DENV-1 strains with the American African and DENV-2 strains in Cosmopolitan genotypes. Four common amino-acid mutations were identified in the envelope gene of DENV-1 sequences (F337I, A369T, V380I and L402F) and one common mutation (N390S) in the DENV-2 sequences. Further analysis revealed purifying selection in both the serotypes. A significant number of patients were co-infected with DENV-1 and DENV-2 serotypes. Although we do not have direct evidence to demonstrate co-evolution of these two stereotypes, nonetheless their simultaneous occurrence does indicate that they are favoured by evolutionary forces. An ongoing surveillance and careful analysis of future outbreaks will strengthen the concept of co-evolution or otherwise. Whether the concurrent dengue viral infection is correlated with disease severity in a given population is another aspect to be pursued. This study is envisaged to be useful for future reference in the context of overall epidemiology.

  17. Resistant patterns of bacteria isolated from bloodstream infections at a university hospital in Delhi

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    M S Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The choice of antimicrobial therapy for bloodstream infections is often empirical and based on the knowledge of local antimicrobial activity profiles of the most common bacteria causing such infections. Aims : The present study was aimed to investigate frequency of bacterial pathogens causing septicemia and their antimicrobial resistant pattern in hospital admitted patients. Settings and Design : It was a prospective study, conducted at Majeedia Hospital, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India. Material and Methods : We examined prospectively, 168 bacterial strains isolated from 186 clinically diagnosed septicemia cases admitted at a University Hospital in New Delhi, over a period of six months from July 2009 to December 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, USA guidelines. Results : The most frequently identified Gram-positive bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci 63.5%, Staphylococcus aureus 23.1%, enterococci 5.8% and alpha-haemolytic streptococci 5.8%. The most frequently Gram-negative bacteria identified were Acinetobacter species 31%, Salmonella typhi 24.1%, Escherichia coli 23.3% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 13.8%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci showed maximum resistance to cefaclor 57.1% and ampicillin 46.9%. Staphylococcus aureus showed maximum resistance to amoxicillin 100% and ampicillin 91.7%. Acinetobacter species showed maximum resistance to amoxicillin 89.7%, amoxiclav 87.1% and ampicillin 85.7%. Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed maximum resistance to ampicillin, 46.4%, 92%, 93.8% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions : Gram-negative pathogens predominated in bloodstream infections. Resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents for a number of pathogens implicated in bloodstream infections, especially in Gram-negative bacteria, has reached worrisome levels and continues to increase.

  18. Maurizio Isabella & Konstantina Zanou (eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long 19th Century (London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páll Björnsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of: Maurizio Isabella and Konstantina Zanou (eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long 19th Century (London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

  19. Seasonal impact of regional outdoor biomass burning on air pollution in three Indian cities: Delhi, Bengaluru, and Pune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjia; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Xia, Karen R.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Cusworth, Daniel H.; Milly, George

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution in many of India's cities exceeds national and international standards, and effective pollution control strategies require knowledge of the sources that contribute to air pollution and their spatiotemporal variability. In this study, we examine the influence of a single pollution source, outdoor biomass burning, on particulate matter (PM) concentrations, surface visibility, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from 2007 to 2013 in three of the most populous Indian cities. We define the upwind regions, or ;airsheds,; for the cities by using atmospheric back trajectories from the HYSPLIT model. Using satellite fire radiative power (FRP) observations as a measure of fire activity, we target pre-monsoon and post-monsoon fires upwind of the Delhi National Capital Region and pre-monsoon fires surrounding Bengaluru and Pune. We find varying contributions of outdoor fires to different air quality metrics. For the post-monsoon burning season, we find that a subset of local meteorological variables (air temperature, humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed and direction) and FRP as the only pollution source explained 39% of variance in Delhi station PM10 anomalies, 77% in visibility, and 30% in satellite AOD; additionally, per unit increase in FRP within the daily airshed (1000 MW), PM10 increases by 16.34 μg m-3, visibility decreases by 0.155 km, and satellite AOD increases by 0.07. In contrast, for the pre-monsoon burning season, we find less significant contributions from FRP to air quality in all three cities. Further, we attribute 99% of FRP from post-monsoon outdoor fires within Delhi's average airshed to agricultural burning. Our work suggests that although outdoor fires are not the dominant air pollution source in India throughout the year, post-monsoon fires contribute substantially to regional air pollution and high levels of population exposure around Delhi. During 3-day blocks of extreme PM2.5 in the 2013 post-monsoon burning season, which coincided

  20. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management ' SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' ' RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data

  1. P Ramachandra Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The well-organised multifunctional structures, systems and biogenic materials found in nature have attracted the interest of scientists working in many disciplines. The efforts have resulted in the development of a new and rapidly growing field of scientific effort called biomimetics. In this article we present a few natural ...

  2. Appaji Rao, Prof. Naropantul

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naropantul Ph.D. (Rajasthan), FNA. Date of birth: 25 September 1934. Specialization: Enzyme Regulation and Inborn Errors of Metabolism Address: 9, Sharada Colony, Basaveshwara Nagar, Bengaluru 560 079, Karnataka Contact: Residence: (080) 2348 6560. Mobile: 96118 35935. Email: bcbcnar@gmail.com. YouTube ...

  3. Jagirdar, Prof. Balaji Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Date of birth: 9 September 1965. Specialization: Organometallic Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Catalysis Address: Department of Inorganic & Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka Contact:

  4. Rao, Prof. Ravi Achutha

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Classical Algebraic K-Theory, Commutative Algebra, Linear Algebra Address: Professor H, School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, Maharashtra Contact: Office: (022) 2278 2470. Residence: (022) 2430 9827. Mobile: 98333 63678. Fax: (022) ...

  5. Rao, Prof. Maddali Nageswara

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    How to combat infectious diseases: The role of Science Academies · Academy Public Lecture and INSA–Leopoldina Lecture by Prof. Jörg Hacker, President, German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. 4 December, 2017, 4 PM Faculty Hall, Indian Institute ...

  6. G V Subba Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more. ... Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  7. Field tests of Sub-Synchronous Oscillation damping and frequency controllers of the Rihand-Delhi HVDC bipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Mata [ABB, New Delhi (India); Rao, L.V.; Chakravorty, S.; Moni, R.S.; Dass, R. [National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., New Delhi (India); Mishra, R.B.; Tripathi, D.B. [Powergrid (India); Bjorklund, Hans; Duchen, Hugo; Westling, Soren [ABB Power Systems, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The Rihand-Delhi Hvdc transmission system comprises of two poles in bipolar mode, each of 750 MW nominal capacity. The length of the transmission line is 814 km and the main objective of the link is the transmission of bulk power from the Singrauli/Rihand thermal generating complex to the major load centers near the National Capital region. As in all major Hvdc schemes, the Rihand-Delhi Hvdc project has also been provided with a SSO damping controller which was extensively tested in the simulator prior to installation. This paper describes some of the important field tests conducted to ascertain actual performance and compares the same with corresponding simulator cases. Also covered is the performance of the frequency controller. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Beyond a state-centric approach to urban informality: Interactions between Delhi's middle class and the informal service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Seth

    2017-03-01

    This article presents original research on relations between middle-class residents and informal-sector workers in Delhi, India. It shows how middle-class associations used their consumption preferences as well as relationships with local authorities to legitimize the work of street hawkers and waste workers. These findings suggest that the toleration of informality can be traced to governance regimes comprised of both state and non-state powerbrokers.

  9. Cancer related knowledge and behavior among women across various socio-economic strata: A study from Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Sharma; Bhasin, Sanjiv K; Sandeep Agrawal; Reeti Tewari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the next few decades worldwide. One important step in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancers is awareness among the population about the causes and prevention of cancers. Objective: To study the knowledge and preventive behavior regarding common cancers among the women from an area of Delhi, India. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Four purposively selected resi...

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding caries risk assessment and management in Delhi - National Capital Region: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mousumi Goswami; Priyanka Sachdeva; Sanchit Paul; Vidhi Walia; Sagar Chawla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluating a patients' risk is an essential primary step in the prevention of dental caries. Based on its results, different preventive strategies catering to patients' specific needs should be advised. Aim: To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice among dentists who are either attached with an institute or running a private practice or both in Delhi-National Capital Region regarding caries risk assessment (CRA) and management. Materials and Methods: Knowledge...

  11. Risk of internet addiction among undergraduate medical, nursing, and lab technology students of a health institution from Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Anika Sulania; Sandeep Sachdeva; Nidhi Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess prevalence, usage pattern, and risk of internet addiction (IA) among undergraduate students of a health institution from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out during March-April 2015 using 20-item Young′s IA test, a Likert scale-based interview schedule with scores ranging from 0 to 100 points with a higher score indicating greater internet dependency. Background variables included sociodemographic details, general health practi...

  12. Measurement Of Solar Radiation at New Delhi, High Altitude Observatory, Hanle and Maitri Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. L.; Arya, B. C.

    The measurement of solar radiation plays an important role in climate and environmental change studies. The enhanced UV-B radiations at the ground level has the potential to cause adverse biological and environmental impacts. The amount of UV-B radiation at ground level depends on various temporal, spatial and meteorological factors such as time of the day, season, altitude, clouds, surface albedo, ozone, aerosols, etc. The risks for the human health, plant, animals and material are growing because of high exposition of the solar radiation which is caused by ozone depletion and other anthropogenic activities. A limited measurements have been made at high altitudes and Antarctica which are very crucial to inhabitants of these locations. In view of the above, measurements of solar radiation along with other parameters were carried out at Leh (34°77' N, 77°36' E), 3311 meter above mean sea level as well as at Indian Astronomical Observatory , Leh / Hanle ( Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore), Hanle (Mount Saraswati), Jammu and Kashmir (India) (32°43' N, 77°34' E), 4467 meter above mean sea level during July 13-31, 1999, June 2000 and July 2003 in a campaign mode. These measurements are first of its kind at a unique location well deep inside the troposphere as it happens to be one of the highest observatory in the world. The regular measurements are also being carried out at NPL, New Delhi(280 65^' N, 770 21^' E) and Maitri, Antarctica(70.440 S, 11.450 E). Also the data were collected during our voyage to Antarctica to cover latitudinal distribution of these parameters from Goa, India (15.240 N, 73.420 E) to Maitri, Antarctica (70.440 S, 11.450 E) using a highly sophisticated and microprocessor based compact hand held sun photometer consisting of five filter channels at 300, 305, 312, 940 and 1020 nm to measure solar radiation at all the sites. The measurements were used to derive total column ozone, water vapour and aerosol optical depth etc. The solar

  13. Comparative prevalence of otitis media in children living in urban slums, non-slum urban and rural areas of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Poornima; Kaur, Suminder; Sodhi, Alka

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition), skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th ) studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3%) study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033) and in anemic children (Pdental fluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth) among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  15. An evaluation of outdoor school environments to promote physical activity in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children’s physical activity in Delhi, India. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY audit tool. The SPEEDY school audit measured six categories, including (1 access to the school; (2 surrounding area; (3 school grounds; (4 aesthetics; (5 usage; and (6 overall environment. Six trained data collectors conducted the audit independently in the summer of 2012 while schools were in session. Results Of the 16 schools, one had cycle lanes separated from the road while two schools had cycle lanes on the road. Two schools had pavement on both sides of the road for pedestrians. One school had marked pedestrian crossings. No schools had school warning signs, road safety signs, or route signs for cyclists that would help calm vehicular traffic. Fifteen schools had playground equipment and nine had courts, an assault course (a sequence of equipment designed to be used together, and a quadrangle (an enclosed or semi-enclosed courtyard for outdoor physical activity. The majority of schools were shielded from the surrounding area by hedges, trees, or fences (n = 13 and were well maintained (n = 10. One school had evidence of vandalism. Two schools had graffiti, seven had litter, and 15 had murals or art. Conclusions The majority of schools did not have infrastructure to support physical activity, such as cycle lanes, marked pedestrian crossings, or traffic calming mechanisms such as

  16. Mohalla Clinics of Delhi, India: Could these become platform to strengthen primary healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2017-01-01

    The mohalla or community clinics in Delhi, India aims to provide basic health services to underserved population in urban settings. This article reviews and analyzes the strengths & limitations of the concept and explores the role these clinics can play in (1) reforming urban health service delivery, (2) addressing health inequities, and (3) strengthening primary health care. These clinics provide basic healthcare services to people, in underserved areas, in a responsive manner, have brought health higher on the political agenda and the governments of a number of Indian states have shown interest in adoption (of a variant) of this concept. Strengths notwithstanding, the limitations of these clinics are: curative or personal health services focus and relatively less attention on public/population health services. It is proposed that while setting up these clinics, the government should built upon existing health system infrastructure such as dispensaries, addressing the existing challenges. The new initiative need not to be standalone infrastructure, rather should aimed at health system strengthening. These need to have a functional linkage with existing programs, such as Urban Primary Health Centres (U-PHCs) under national urban health mission (NUHM) and could be supplemented with overall efforts for innovations and other related reforms. The author proposes a checklist 'Score-100' or 'S-100', which can be used to assess the readiness and preparedness for such initiative, should other state governments and/or major city in India or other countries, plan to adopt and implement similar concept in their settings. In last 18 months, the key contribution of these clinics has been to bring health to public and political discourse. Author, following the experience in Delhi, envisions that these clinics have set the background to bring cleanliness-health-education-sanitation-social sectors (C-H-E-S-S or CHESS) as an alternative to Bijli-Sadak-Paani (B-S-P) as electoral

  17. Mohalla Clinics of Delhi, India: Could these become platform to strengthen primary healthcare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mohalla or community clinics in Delhi, India aims to provide basic health services to underserved population in urban settings. This article reviews and analyzes the strengths & limitations of the concept and explores the role these clinics can play in (1 reforming urban health service delivery, (2 addressing health inequities, and (3 strengthening primary health care. These clinics provide basic healthcare services to people, in underserved areas, in a responsive manner, have brought health higher on the political agenda and the governments of a number of Indian states have shown interest in adoption (of a variant of this concept. Strengths notwithstanding, the limitations of these clinics are: curative or personal health services focus and relatively less attention on public/population health services. It is proposed that while setting up these clinics, the government should built upon existing health system infrastructure such as dispensaries, addressing the existing challenges. The new initiative need not to be standalone infrastructure, rather should aimed at health system strengthening. These need to have a functional linkage with existing programs, such as Urban Primary Health Centres (U-PHCs under national urban health mission (NUHM and could be supplemented with overall efforts for innovations and other related reforms. The author proposes a checklist 'Score-100' or 'S-100', which can be used to assess the readiness and preparedness for such initiative, should other state governments and/or major city in India or other countries, plan to adopt and implement similar concept in their settings. In last 18 months, the key contribution of these clinics has been to bring health to public and political discourse. Author, following the experience in Delhi, envisions that these clinics have set the background to bring cleanliness-health-education-sanitation-social sectors (C-H-E-S-S or CHESS as an alternative to Bijli-Sadak-Paani (B-S-P as

  18. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, D.S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Dumka, U.C., E-mail: dumka@aries.res.in [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital (India); Kaskaoutis, D.G. [School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Tehsil Dadri (India); Pipal, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M. [India Meteorology Department, Lodhi Road, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India)

    2015-07-15

    Particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM{sub 2.5} samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM{sub 2.5} (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM{sub 2.5} (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m{sup −3} (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m{sup −3}) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m{sup −3}) than daytime (103.8 μg m{sup −3}) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO{sub 3}{sup −}and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day{sup −1}) due to agricultural burning effects

  19. An evaluation of outdoor school environments to promote physical activity in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Samiksha; Arora, Monika; Rawal, Tina; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-01-05

    Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children's physical activity in Delhi, India. For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) audit tool. The SPEEDY school audit measured six categories, including (1) access to the school; (2) surrounding area; (3) school grounds; (4) aesthetics; (5) usage; and (6) overall environment. Six trained data collectors conducted the audit independently in the summer of 2012 while schools were in session. Of the 16 schools, one had cycle lanes separated from the road while two schools had cycle lanes on the road. Two schools had pavement on both sides of the road for pedestrians. One school had marked pedestrian crossings. No schools had school warning signs, road safety signs, or route signs for cyclists that would help calm vehicular traffic. Fifteen schools had playground equipment and nine had courts, an assault course (a sequence of equipment designed to be used together), and a quadrangle (an enclosed or semi-enclosed courtyard) for outdoor physical activity. The majority of schools were shielded from the surrounding area by hedges, trees, or fences (n = 13) and were well maintained (n = 10). One school had evidence of vandalism. Two schools had graffiti, seven had litter, and 15 had murals or art. The majority of schools did not have infrastructure to support physical activity, such as cycle lanes, marked pedestrian crossings, or traffic calming mechanisms such as school warning signs. However, most had playground equipment

  20. Short term effects of criteria air pollutants on daily mortality in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Sanjoy; Ahmed, Sirajuddin; Siddiqui, Weqar Ahmad; Ghosh, Santu

    2017-02-01

    Various epidemiological studies conducted in different parts of the world have conclusively established that the adverse health effects are associated with common urban air pollutants. Although several recent studies revealed the poor air quality status in Delhi, but limited evidence of the impact of criterion air pollutants on human health remains a big limitation for relevant policy changes. So we conducted a time series to estimate the short term effects of ambient air pollution on all-natural-cause mortality in Delhi for the period 2008 to 2010. The study examined the impact of criteria air pollutants [particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), sulphur di-oxide (SO2), Nitrogen di-oxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Ozone (O3)] on daily all-cause-mortality rate. A semi-parametric regression model was developed to estimate the short term effects of air pollutants on daily all-natural-cause-mortality adjusting nonlinear confounding of time, temperature and relative humidity. A significant association of all-natural-cause mortality in association with short-term exposure to particulate as well as the gaseous pollutants were observed. The study estimated 0.14% (95% CI 0.02%-0.26%) increase in all-cause-mortality for every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentration. Among the gaseous pollutants, NO2 has been found to show most significant positive association of 1.00% (95% CI 0.07%-1.93%) increase in all-cause-mortality with every 10 μg/m3 increase in daily NO2 concentration. The effect of O3 and CO has been observed to be significant after controlling the effects of NO2. Analysis by different age groups reveals that particulate matter has maximum effect estimate in the age group ≥65 years (RR 1.002, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.004) whereas gaseous pollutants have been found to exhibit maximum effect estimate (RR 1.016, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.030) in the age group 5-44 years. The results of the present effect estimates appeared consistent with previous findings and

  1. Study of a Variable Star Discovered with the 0.5-M F/1 Baker-nunn Patrol Camera of the RAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Tyler; Williams, M.; Milone, E.; Langill, P.

    2006-06-01

    At the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory (RAO) of the University of Calgary, the Baker-Nunn Patrol Camera (BNPC) has discovered dozens of variable stars. Follow-up observations on RAOVS001-000107, a close binary system, were carried out using the 0.4-m telescope at the RAO. Whereas the BNPC is limited to a single passband ( RJ) the 0.4-m telescope provides observations in UBVRI passbands, fills in gaps in the BNPC light curve, and provides higher-resolution images. The measured light curve will be analyzed with a version of the Wilson-Devinney program (WD2006) developed by J. Kallrath and EM to attempt to determine as many of this stellar systems' fundamental properties. RAOVS001-000107 was discovered by MW, who developed the pipeline process to carry out image processing, identify variables, and produce preliminary light curves. The field of the camera is 19 square degrees.The BNPC was developed under a provincial research infrastructure improvement grant from the Alberta Science Research Authority to EM and A. Hildebrand, with major contributions from several partners and other agencies. The FLI CCD has been available by special arrangement with Peter Brown, UWO. This work has been funded in part with Canadian NSERC grants to EM and a federal SCPP grant, for which TL is appreciative.

  2. Controls on SEDEX Mineralization in the Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt: Insights from Integrated 3D Geological and Geophysical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shilpi; Porwal, Alok

    2017-04-01

    3D modelling provides a representation of the uncertainty when sparse or no data are available for a region. 3D geological model can provide important insights on the geometrical behavior of the rock units and also the locations of the crustal scale structures which in turn can provide the 3D (depth) and 4D (time) geodynamic evolution of the region. The Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt which is located in the state of Rajasthan, India covers the geological history from Archaean to Recent. It underwent two stage tectonic evolution during Proterozoic, which lead to the formation of substantial Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc deposits i.e. Rampura-Agucha deposit ( 1800 Ma.), Rajpura-Dariba deposit ( 1800 Ma), Pur-Banera deposit ( 1800 Ma) and Zawar deposit ( 1700 Ma). The Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc deposits with easy surface expressions have already been discovered based on the conventional 2D conceptual geological models approach, therefore now it is very important to discover and explore the deep-seated deposits which have no or indirect surface expressions. These deposits are formed due to the mineralization process which run in three dimensional space and time, and hence are the result of the 3D and 4D geodynamic processes operating in the region. The 3D geological modelling of the Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt and the mineral system of the Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc deposit will identify the new controls of mineralization for the Lead-Zinc deposits in the fold belt.. A 3D crustal model for Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt will be created for an area of about 275×200 square kilometers of Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt, which will convert into a 3D block of about 275×200×60 cubic kilometers by applying forward gravity modelling technique. The 3D geological model will be based on the detailed geological and structural mapping, and the use of the 2D forward gravity models created for the entire fold belt. Keywords: Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt; 3D Geological Modelling; 3D and 4D Geological Evolution

  3. Learning to Be Gendered: Gender Socialization in Early Adolescence Among Urban Poor in Delhi, India, and Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sharmistha; Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Acharya, Rajib; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti for coding and thematic analysis. Boys and girls growing up in the same community were directed onto different pathways during their transition from early to late adolescence. Adolescents and parents in both sites identified mothers as the primary actor, socializing adolescents into how to dress and behave and what gender roles to play, although fathers were also mentioned as influential. Opposite-sex interactions were restricted, and violations enforced by physical violence. In Delhi, gender roles and mobility were more strictly enforced for girls than boys. Restrictions on opposite-sex interactions were rigid for both boys and girls in Delhi and Shanghai. Sanctions, including beating, for violating norms about boy-girl relationships were more punitive than those related to dress and demeanor, especially in Delhi. Education and career expectations were notably more equitable in Shanghai. Parents teach their children to adhere to inequitable gender norms in both Delhi and Shanghai. However, education and career expectations for boys and girls in the two sites differed. Although gender norms varied by site according to the particular cultural and historical context, similar patterns of gender inequity reflect the underlying patriarchal system in both settings. The tendency of parents to pass on the norms they grew up with is evident, yet these results illustrate the social construction of gender through children

  4. Air quality of Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and impact on Human Health and Climate in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S.; Singh, R. P.; Wu, Y.; Wu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution has been estimated to represent a significant fraction of the total mortality attributable to 26 risk factors assessed by the World Health Organization global burden of disease project. Delhi is distributed over 1484 km2 with population density of 11297/km2 (as in 2011) and surrounded by highly industrialized National Capital region (NCR) with population density of 1050/km2. Beijing covers an area of 16,800 km2, with population density of 1300/km2 (upto 2014). It is located at the foothills of Yan Mountains and Taihang Mountains, in the North China Plain. Both these cities suffer with poor air quality and are severely affected by dense haze, fog and smog during summer and winter seasons. Earlier studies in developing countries have concentrated on limited air quality parameters. Detailed results from trace gases (O3, NO, NO2, and CO) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in two Asian megacities, Delhi (India) and Beijing (China), will be presented. Trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing were collected at 31 sites during 2013-2014. The measurements in Delhi were carried out at 8 sites during October 2010 - March 2013. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO, NO2, and CO over Delhi in 2013 is 199 ug/m3, 123 ug/m3, 25.6 ppb, 21.5 ppb, 15.8 ppb, 1.7 ppb, respectively. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, CO, and SO2 over Beijing is 113 ug/m3, 85 ug/m3, 51 ug/m3, 46 ug/m3, 1.3 mg/m3, 23 ug/m3, respectively. The annual and seasonal variations of trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing and Delhi are also analyzed, as well as spatial changes of air pollution in these two cities. A comparative analysis in these two cities and the sources of pollution and their impact on human health and Asian climate will be discussed.

  5. Artificial intelligence based approach to forecast PM2.5 during haze episodes: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.; Upadhyay, Abhishek

    2015-02-01

    Delhi has been listed as the worst performer across the world with respect to the presence of alarmingly high level of haze episodes, exposing the residents here to a host of diseases including respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and lung cancer. This study aimed to analyze the haze episodes in a year and to develop the forecasting methodologies for it. The air pollutants, e.g., CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 as well as meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction index, relative humidity, visibility, dew point temperature, etc.) have been used in the present study to analyze the haze episodes in Delhi urban area. The nature of these episodes, their possible causes, and their major features are discussed in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and relative humidity. The correlation matrix shows that temperature, pressure, wind speed, O3, and dew point temperature are the dominating variables for PM2.5 concentrations in Delhi. The hour-by-hour analysis of past data pattern at different monitoring stations suggest that the haze hours were occurred approximately 48% of the total observed hours in the year, 2012 over Delhi urban area. The haze hour forecasting models in terms of PM2.5 concentrations (more than 50 μg/m3) and relative humidity (less than 90%) have been developed through artificial intelligence based Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) techniques and compared with the other modeling techniques e.g., multiple linear regression (MLR), and artificial neural network (ANN). The haze hour's data for nine months, i.e. from January to September have been chosen for training and remaining three months, i.e., October to December in the year 2012 are chosen for validation of the developed models. The forecasted results are compared with the observed values with different statistical measures, e.g., correlation coefficients (R), normalized mean square error (NMSE), fractional bias (FB) and index of agreement (IOA). The performed

  6. Status of the development of Delhi Light Source (DLS) at IUAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Joshi, V.; Urakawa, J.; Terunuma, N.; Aryshev, A.; Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, M.; Sahu, B. K.; Patra, P.; Abhilash, S. R.; Karmakar, J.; Karmakar, B.; Kabiraj, D.; Kumar, N.; Sharma, A.; Chaudhari, G. K.; Pandey, A.; Tripathi, S.; Deshpande, A.; Naik, V.; Roy, A.; Rao, T.; Bhandari, R. K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2017-07-01

    A project to construct a compact pre-bunched Free Electron Laser by using a normal conducting photocathode electron gun has been undertaken at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. In this facility, the short laser pulses from a high power laser system will be split into many pulses (2-16) commonly known as 'Comb beam' and will strike the photocathode material (metal and semiconductor) to produce electron beam bunches. The electrons will be accelerated up to an energy of ∼8 MeV by a copper cavity operated at a frequency of 2860 MHz and the beam will be injected into a compact, planar permanent undulator magnet to produce THz radiation. The radiation frequency designed to be tuned in the range of 0.15-3 THz by varying the magnetic field of the undulator and/or changing the energy of the electron. The separation of the laser micro-pulses will be varied by adjusting the path length difference to alter the separation of the electron micro-bunches and to maximise the radiation intensity.

  7. New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase around the world: an eReview using Google Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrazeg, M; Diene, Sm; Medjahed, L; Parola, P; Drissi, M; Raoult, D; Rolain, Jm

    2014-05-22

    Gram-negative carbapenem-resistant bacteria, in particular those producing New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase-1 (NDM-1), are a major global health problem. To inform the scientific and medical community in real time about worldwide dissemination of isolates of NDM-1-producing bacteria, we used the PubMed database to review all available publications from the first description in 2009 up to 31 December 2012, and created a regularly updated worldwide dissemination map using a web-based mapping application. We retrieved 33 reviews, and 136 case reports describing 950 isolates of NDM-1-producing bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 359) and Escherichia coli (n=268) were the most commonly reported bacteria producing NDM-1 enzyme. Several case reports of infections due to imported NDM-1 producing bacteria have been reported in a number of countries, including the United Kingdom, Italy, and Oman. In most cases (132/153, 86.3%), patients had connections with the Indian subcontinent or Balkan countries. Those infected were originally from these areas, had either spent time and/or been hospitalised there, or were potentially linked to other patients who had been hospitalised in these regions. By using Google Maps, we were able to trace spread of NDM-1-producing bacteria. We strongly encourage epidemiologists to use these types of interactive tools for surveillance purposes and use the information to prevent the spread and outbreaks of such bacteria.

  8. Knowledge and practices regarding animal bite management and rabies prophylaxis among doctors in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Kumar, Rajesh; Ingle, Gopal Krishan

    2013-01-01

    It was envisaged to study the knowledge and practices of doctors regarding management of animal bites and rabies. By dividing Delhi into 5 geographic zones, a representative sample of doctors was selected from government hospitals, dispensaries, and private settings. Many gaps were seen in the knowledge and practices of doctors regarding animal bite management. Less than half were aware of the intradermal rabies prophylaxis schedule (39.1%), site (42.2%), and dose (48.4%). The majority (81.4%) knew of the postexposure schedule in unimmunized patients. However, only 40.4% knew of the postexposure schedule in previously immunized patients, and 47.8% knew of the preexposure prophylaxis schedule. Government doctors had significantly better knowledge than private doctors with respect to the postexposure intramuscular schedule in unimmunized individuals, intramuscular site, dose, and classification of animal bites. There is a need for doctors in all health care settings to update their knowledge on different aspects related to animal bite management.

  9. Evaluation of pharmacists' services for dispensing emergency contraceptive pills in Delhi, India: A mystery shopper study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI, has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57% or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%; 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  10. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-Mediated Carbapenem Resistance: Origin, Diagnosis, Treatment and Public Health Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen-Juan; Yang, Hai-Fei; Ye, Ying; Li, Jia-Bin

    2015-07-20

    To review the origin, diagnosis, treatment and public health concern of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing bacteria. We searched database for studies published in English. The database of PubMed from 2007 to 2015 was used to conduct a search using the keyword term "NDM and Acinetobacter or Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa." We collected data including the relevant articles on international transmission, testing methods and treatment strategies of NDM-positive bacteria. Worldwide NDM cases were reviewed based on 22 case reports. The first documented case of infection caused by bacteria producing NDM-1 occurred in India, in 2008. Since then, 13 blaNDM variants have been reported. The rise of NDM is not only due to its high rate of genetic transfer among unrelated bacterial species, but also to human factors such as travel, sanitation and food production and preparation. With limited treatment options, scientists try to improve available therapies and create new ones. In order to slow down the spread of these NDM-positive bacteria, a series of measures must be implemented. The creation and transmission of blaNDM are potentially global health issues, which are not issues for one country or one medical community, but for global priorities in general and for individual wound care practitioners specifically.

  11. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-Mediated Carbapenem Resistance: Origin, Diagnosis, Treatment and Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the origin, diagnosis, treatment and public health concern of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-producing bacteria. Data Sources: We searched database for studies published in English. The database of PubMed from 2007 to 2015 was used to conduct a search using the keyword term "NDM and Acinetobacter or Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa." Study Selection: We collected data including the relevant articles on international transmission, testing methods and treatment strategies of NDM-positive bacteria. Worldwide NDM cases were reviewed based on 22 case reports. Results: The first documented case of infection caused by bacteria producing NDM-1 occurred in India, in 2008. Since then, 13 blaNDM variants have been reported. The rise of NDM is not only due to its high rate of genetic transfer among unrelated bacterial species, but also to human factors such as travel, sanitation and food production and preparation. With limited treatment options, scientists try to improve available therapies and create new ones. Conclusions: In order to slow down the spread of these NDM-positive bacteria, a series of measures must be implemented. The creation and transmission of blaNDM are potentially global health issues, which are not issues for one country or one medical community, but for global priorities in general and for individual wound care practitioners specifically.

  12. Maternal and cord blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin in Delhi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Md; Pathak, Rahul; Tripathi, A K; Ahmed, Rafat S; Guleria, Kiran; Banerjee, B D

    2010-12-01

    Aldrin and dieldrin, structurally similar organochlorine pesticides belong to cyclodiene family and were widely used for agriculture and public health program in India. Although the manufacturing, use and import of aldrin and dieldrin have been banned in India since 2003, these pesticides are still persistent in environment and may be associated with adverse neurological and reproductive effects. The aim of this study is to assess the recent exposure level of aldrin and dieldrin and their placental transfer to fetus in normal healthy full-term pregnant women belonging to north Indian population undergoing normal delivery at Obstetrics and Gynecology department of UCMS and GTB hospital, Delhi. Quantitative analysis of aldrin and dieldrin residues in maternal and cord blood samples were carried out by gas chromatography system equipped with electron capture detector. The results of our study clearly revealed that maternal and cord blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin of pregnant women are age and dietary habit dependent. The aldrin level in maternal blood and dieldrin level in cord blood are higher in women in the age group 25-30 years than in women in age group of 19-24 years. Similarly, aldrin level in maternal blood is significantly higher in women with non-vegetarian dietary habit than in women with vegetarian dietary habit. No significant association is found for maternal and cord blood level. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate prenatal uptake of aldrin and dieldrin and provide recent information on the subsequent transplacental transfer.

  13. Monitoring variation in greenhouse gases concentration in urban environment of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Samraj; Ghosh, Chirashree

    2013-01-01

    Cities across the globe are considered as major anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), yet very few efforts has been made to monitor ambient concentration of GHG in cities, especially in a developing country like India. Here, variations in the ambient concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) in residential, commercial, and industrial areas of Delhi are determined from fortnightly daytime observations from July, 2008 to March, 2009. Results indicate that the average daytime ambient concentration of CO(2) varied from 495 to 554 ppm in authorized residential areas, 503 to 621 ppm in the slums or jhuggies in the unauthorized residential areas, 489 to 582 ppm in commercial areas, and 512 to 568 ppm in industrial areas with an average of 541 ± 27 ppm. CH(4) concentration varied from 652 to 5,356 ppbv in authorized residential areas, 500 to 15,220 ppbv in the unauthorized residential areas, 921 to 11,000 ppbv in the commercial areas, and 250 to 2,550 ppbv in the industrial areas with an average of 3,226 ± 1,090 ppbv. A low mid-afternoon CO(2) concentration was observed at most of the sites, primarily due to strong biospheric photosynthesis coupled with strong vertical mixing.

  14. Factors associated with Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients attending Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Tiwari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide increasing prevalence of DM may counteract the positive effects of improved curative services for TB. Aims & Objectives: To identify factors associated with Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients attending Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi. Material & Methods: This study was conducted among 220 TB patients. Results: It was found that 16% were co-morbid. Among co-morbid patients, the age distribution skewed towards higher age groups as compared with only TB patients. Co-morbidity was higher among females (64% as compared to males (36%. Higher percentage among Co-morbid patients (78% belonged to lower socio-economic class compared to TB patients (58%. Statistically significant association of comorbidity was found with physical activity, dietary habits and tobacco/alcohol consumption. However, only one third of patients who were aware about DM, knew that diabetic patients are more prone to acquire TB infection. Among co-morbid cases, only 50% were aware that uncontrolled DM delays the cure of TB. Findings also suggested that the sputum conversion rate among the co-morbid patients was low compared with the only TB patients. Conclusion: The study concludes that counseling of patient with DM against higher risk of contracting TB and TB patients against delayed cure should be made as a part of national strategy to manage DM-TB comorbidity.

  15. Evaluation of heavy metal contamination using environmetrics and indexing approach for River Yamuna, Delhi stretch, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Bhardwaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to investigate the current status of heavy metal pollution in River Yamuna, Delhi stretch. The concentrations of Nickel, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Lead, and Zinc in water samples have been studied during December 2013–August 2015. The overall mean concentration of heavy metals was observed in the following order Fe > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cr > Pb > Cd. Correlation analysis formed two distinct groups of heavy metals highlighting similar sources. This was further corroborated by results from principal components analysis that showed similar grouping of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd into PC1 having one common source for these heavy metals and PC2 (Cu, Cr having another common source. Further, our study pointed out two sites i.e. Najafgarh drain and Shahdara drain outlet in river Yamuna as the two potential sources responsible for the heavy metal contamination. Based on heavy metal pollution index value (1491.15, we concluded that our study area as a whole is critically polluted with heavy metals under study due to pollutant load from various anthropogenic activities.

  16. Effect of dietary habits on prevalence of anemia in pregnant women of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Soni, Dimple; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa; Malhotra, Monika

    2003-04-01

    To see the effect of various dietary habits, such as a vegetarian diet or various types of meat, on the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women. A study was carried out in Delhi to determine the effect of different dietary habits on prevalence of anemia during pregnancy by questioning the women during pregnancy regarding their dietary habits (vegetarian diet, jhatka or halal meat) and assessing their hemoglobin levels. The data was compiled and chi2 test was employed for understanding the associations between the effect of food habits on prevalence of anemia. Mean age was 26.5 years. Most women were in the second (26%) or third trimester (63.2%) of pregnancy. Prevalence of anemia was found to be very high. Of 1150 women, 96% were anemic (89.8% mildly anemic, 5.3% severely anemic). Anemia was seen in 96.18% cases in vegetarian women, 95.3% in halal meat eaters, and 96.2% in jhatka meat eaters (not significant). Although the percentage of women with India. Different types of dietary habits had no effect on the prevalence of anemia in pregnant Indian women.

  17. A Study Of Infant Feeding Practices And The Underlying Factors In A Rural Area Of Delhi

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    Taneja D. K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What are the infant feeding practices in a rural area? 2. What are the reasons underlying the harmful infant feeding practices? Objectives: 1. To study feeding practices among infants. 2. To find out the factors underlying various harmful practices. 3. To find out the sources of information/advice for the prevailing practices. 4. To determine Whether the Practice of giving diluted animal milk to infants is associated with type of family, caste or educational status of mother. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Rural field practice center of a Medical College in Delhi. Participants: Mothers of infants 6-9 Months of age, attending immunization clinic. Statistical analysis: Percentage, chi square test. Results: Water was commonly given to breast fed babies and top feeds introduced early. Consequently exclusive breast-feeding was uncommon. Semisolids were started late and diluted animal milk was commonly given to infants; as mothers often thought that child can not digest semisolids or undiluted milk. Milk was also diluted for economic reasons. Insufficient breast milk, illness of mother or child were cited as main reasons for early introduction of top milk.

  18. Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus: An Emerging Virus Complex Threatening Vegetable and Fiber Crops

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    Enrique Moriones

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae represents an important constraint to tomato production, as it causes the most predominant and economically important disease affecting tomato in the Indian sub-continent. However, in recent years, ToLCNDV has been fast extending its host range and spreading to new geographical regions, including the Middle East and the western Mediterranean Basin. Extensive research on the genome structure, protein functions, molecular biology, and plant–virus interactions of ToLCNDV has been conducted in the last decade. Special emphasis has been given to gene silencing suppression ability in order to counteract host plant defense responses. The importance of the interaction with DNA alphasatellites and betasatellites in the biology of the virus has been demonstrated. ToLCNDV genetic variability has been analyzed, providing new insights into the taxonomy, host adaptation, and evolution of this virus. Recombination and pseudorecombination have been shown as motors of diversification and adaptive evolution. Important progress has also been made in control strategies to reduce disease damage. This review highlights these various achievements in the context of the previous knowledge of begomoviruses and their interactions with plants.

  19. Patient safety in obstetrics and gynecology departments of two teaching hospitals in Delhi

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    Bindiya Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A healthy safety culture is integral to positive health care. A sound safety climate is required in Obstetrics and Gynecology to prevent adverse outcomes. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and compare patient safety culture in two departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Materials and Methods: Using a closed-ended standard version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS, respondents were asked to answer 42 survey items, grouped into 10 dimensions and two outcome variables in two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Delhi. Qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test wherever applicable. Mean values were calculated and compared using unpaired t-test. Results: The overall survey response rate was 55%. A positive response rate of 57% was seen in the overall perception of patient safety that ranged from very good to acceptable. Sixty-four percent showed positive teamwork across hospital departments and units, while 36% gave an affirmative opinion with respect to interdepartmental handoffs. However, few adverse events (0-10 were reported in the last 12 months and only 38% of mistakes by doctors were reported. Half of the respondents agreed that their mistakes were held against them. There was no statistical difference in the safety culture between the two hospitals. Conclusions: Although the perception of patient safety and standards of patient safety were high in both the hospitals' departments, there is plenty of scope for improvement with respect to event reporting, positive feedback, and nonpunitive error.

  20. Clinical Variants of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase Are Evolving To Overcome Zinc Scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alesha C; Bethel, Christopher R; VanPelt, Jamie; Bergstrom, Alex; Cheng, Zishuo; Miller, Callie G; Williams, Cameron; Poth, Robert; Morris, Matthew; Lahey, Olivia; Nix, Jay C; Tierney, David L; Page, Richard C; Crowder, Michael W; Bonomo, Robert A; Fast, Walter

    2017-10-11

    Use and misuse of antibiotics have driven the evolution of serine β-lactamases to better recognize new generations of β-lactam drugs, but the selective pressures driving evolution of metallo-β-lactamases are less clear. Here, we present evidence that New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is evolving to overcome the selective pressure of zinc(II) scarcity. Studies of NDM-1, NDM-4 (M154L), and NDM-12 (M154L, G222D) demonstrate that the point mutant M154L, contained in 50% of clinical NDM variants, selectively enhances resistance to the penam ampicillin at low zinc(II) concentrations relevant to infection sites. Each of the clinical variants is shown to be progressively more thermostable and to bind zinc(II) more tightly than NDM-1, but a selective enhancement of penam turnover at low zinc(II) concentrations indicates that most of the improvement derives from catalysis rather than stability. X-ray crystallography of NDM-4 and NDM-12, as well as bioinorganic spectroscopy of dizinc(II), zinc(II)/cobalt(II), and dicobalt(II) metalloforms probe the mechanism of enhanced resistance and reveal perturbations of the dinuclear metal cluster that underlie improved catalysis. These studies support the proposal that zinc(II) scarcity, rather than changes in antibiotic structure, is driving the evolution of new NDM variants in clinical settings.

  1. Poverty indicators and mental health functioning among adults living with HIV in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; McNamara, Paul E; Cuffey, Joel; Cherian, Anil; Matthew, Saira

    2016-01-01

    Poor mental health functioning among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) has gained considerable attention particularly in low-income countries that disproportionately carry the global HIV/AIDS burden. Fewer studies, however, have examined the relationship between poverty indicators and mental health among PHLIV in India. Based on this cross-sectional study of 196 HIV-seropositive adults who received medical services at Shalom AIDS Project in Delhi, India, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis were employed to estimate the associations between poverty indices (household asset index, food security, unemployment, water treatment, sanitation), HIV-health factors (illness in the past 3 months, co-morbid medical conditions), and psychological distress. In the final model, ownership of fewer household assets was associated with higher levels of food insecurity, which in turn was associated with higher psychological distress. Also, the household asset index, food insecurity, and unemployment had a larger effect on psychological distress than new opportunistic infections. These findings build on increasing evidence that support concerted efforts to design, evaluate, and refine HIV mental health interventions that are mainstreamed with livelihood programming in high poverty regions in India.

  2. Dietary regimens of athletes competing at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary regimens reported by athletes competing at a major international competition and report whether these were based on nutrient composition, religious beliefs, cultural eating style, food intolerance or avoidance of certain ingredients. A questionnaire was randomly distributed to 351 athletes in the main dining hall of the athletes' village over the three main meal periods during the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games (23rd Sept-14th Oct, 2010). The majority (n = 218, 62%) of athletes reported following one or more dietary regimens, with 50% (n = 174) following a diet based on the nutrient composition of the food. Significantly more athletes from weight category and aesthetic sports (28%, p = .005) and from power/sprint sports (41%, p = .004) followed low fat and high protein regimens respectively. Other specialized dietary regimens were followed by 33% of participants, with avoidance of red meat (13%), vegetarian (7%), Halal (6%), and low lactose regimens (5%) reported most frequently. Significantly more athletes from non-Western regions followed a vegetarian diet (p nutrition support and food items are available at similar events.

  3. Emergence of Acinetobacter pittii harboring New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase genes in Daejeon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenemase production has been reported worldwide in gram-negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter species. We detected carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter pittii in clinical isolates in Daejeon, Korea. Twenty-one ertapenem-resistant A. pittii isolates screened with a disk diffusion method were characterized by using the Epsilon test, four multiplex PCR assays, and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. A total of 21 A. pittii isolates harbored the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene bla(IMP-1) or bla(NDM-1). Nineteen isolates containing bla(IMP-1) were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, but two isolates harboring bla(NDM-1) were susceptible to them. The sequence types (STs) of the two New Delhi MBL (NDM-1)-producing A. pittii isolates were ST70 and ST207, which differed from the STs (ST63, ST119, ST396, and a novel ST) of the IMP-1-producing A. pittii. This is the first report on NDM-1-producing A. pittii isolates in Korea. Our results emphasize that the study of NDM-1-producing gram-negative bacteria should involve carbapenem-susceptible as well as carbapenem-resistant isolates.

  4. Evaluation of computer usage in healthcare among private practitioners of NCT Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshkumar, P; Arun Kumar, Sharma; Rajoura, O P

    2011-01-01

    1. To evaluate the usage and the knowledge of computers and Information and Communication Technology in health care delivery by private practitioners. 2. To understand the determinants of computer usage by them. A cross sectional study was conducted among the private practitioners practising in three districts of NCT of Delhi between November 2007 and December 2008 by stratified random sampling method, where knowledge and usage of computers in health care and determinants of usage of computer was evaluated in them by a pre-coded semi open ended questionnaire. About 77% of the practitioners reported to have a computer and had the accessibility to internet. Computer availability and internet accessibility was highest among super speciality practitioners. Practitioners who attended a computer course were 13.8 times [OR: 13.8 (7.3 - 25.8)] more likely to have installed an EHR in the clinic. Technical related issues were the major perceived barrier in installing a computer in the clinic. Practice speciality, previous attendance of a computer course, age of started using a computer influenced the knowledge about computers. Speciality of the practice, presence of a computer professional and gender were the determinants of usage of computer.

  5. Adherence to diabetes care processes at general practices in the National Capital Region-Delhi, India

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    Roopa Shivashankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the level of adherence to diabetes care processes, and associated clinic and patient factors at general practices in Delhi, India. Methods: We interviewed physicians (n = 23 and patients with diabetes (n = 406, and reviewed patient charts at general practices (government = 5; private = 18. We examined diabetes care processes, specifically measurement of weight, blood pressure (BP, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, lipids, electrocardiogram, dilated eye, and a foot examination in the last one year. We analyzed clinic and patient factors associated with a number of care processes achieved using multilevel Poisson regression model. Results: The average number of clinic visits per patient was 8.8/year (standard deviation = 5.7, and physicians had access to patient's previous records in only 19.7% of patients. Dilated eye exam, foot exam, and electrocardiogram were completed in 7.4%, 15.1%, and 29.1% of patients, respectively. An estimated 51.7%, 88.4%, and 28.1% had ≥1 measurement of HbA1c, BP, and lipids, respectively. Private clinics, physician access to patient's previous records, use of nonphysicians, patient education, and the presence of diabetes complication were positively associated with a number of care processes in the multivariable model. Conclusion: Adherence to diabetes care processes was suboptimal. Encouraging implementation of quality improvement strategies like Chronic Care Model elements at general practices may improve diabetes care.

  6. Sporotrichosis in India: First case in a Delhi resident and an update

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    Randhawa H

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the first case of sporotrichosis in a Delhi resident without history of travel to any known endemic area, and to present an update of the disease with special reference to India. METHODS: OThe case was tentatively diagnosed by clinical features, and confirmed by culture and histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen. The update on the disease is based upon literature review (1932-2001. RESULTS: A 40-year-old female hospital employee developed lymphocutaneous lesions, involving her right middle finger, wrist and forearm following accidental pricking with a hypodermic syringe needle. A definitive diagnosis of sporotrichosis was established by culture of S. schenckii, verification of its dimorphic character, morphology in histopathologic sections and a positive pathogenicity test (intratesticular inoculation in male white mice. The patient was successfully treated with saturated solution of potassium iodide. Of 205 cases compiled from literature, 91 (44% came from West Bengal, 56 (28% from Himachal Pradesh and 45 from Assam whereas the remaining 13 (6.3% occurred sporadically in other states, including Bihar, Punjab and Karnataka. CONCLUSIONS: The available literature does not provide a true index of regional distribution of sporotrichosis in India. More correctly, it seems to reflect the distribution of groups of investigators with a special interest or expertise in sporotrichosis and S. schenckii. Further studies are likely to reveal new endemic areas for sporotrichosis.

  7. "I am witness to": a profile of Sakshi Violence Intervention Centre in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, A

    1998-11-01

    Sakshi, a group formed in New Delhi, India, in 1992, seeks to create awareness of violence against women and promote justice for its victims. Its creation was spurred by the gang rape by police officers of a girl in custody and the subsequent minimization on the part of the Supreme Court of India of the seriousness of the crime. Program activities have included informational workshops for governmental and nongovernmental organizations, feminist legal research into violations of women's human rights, counseling for victims of violence, and sensitization programs for police and the judiciary. As a result of Sakshi's lobbying, the Supreme Court passed a set of Guidelines on Sexual Harassment at the Workplace in 1997. An ongoing problem has been Sakshi's dependence on donor funding and the related requirement of adopting development agencies' agendas rather than allowing development to be a demand-driven, needs-based process. Sakshi's experience has led to the awareness that violence cannot be countered by intervention measures alone; rather, program activities must be linked with other forms of gender development. The group has adopted use of the term "substantive equality" to form links between different systems in society and to empower women.

  8. Our lives, our say: Street and working children talk about their rights in Delhi

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    Jen Couch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently a “new sociology of childhood” has been proposed arguing that childhood must be seen as a social construct and considered like race, class and gender as an important analytical variable. It is asserted that children and their life worlds are  topics worthy of study and that children must be seen as active agents in creating their own social worlds and society at large. The main implication of such a conceptualization is that childhood takes a multiplicity of forms over time and across cultures.  Essentially these approaches privilege the perspectives of children and reject the representation of them as passive vessels into which the rules of society are poured as merely adults in training. This paper examines this new discourse by drawing upon the experiences of Butterflies, a non-government organization working for the empowerment of street and working children in Delhi. In particular the paper will explore Butterflies’ rights-based approach to working with street and working children and give space to children’s own experiences and perceptions in regards to this approach. The article focuses on four key areas: the right to participation; the right to freedom of assembly; the right to protection from economic exploitation and the right to work. Keywords: children, work, rights, poverty, marginalisation, participation

  9. Family caregivers' burden: A hospital based study in 2010 among cancer patients from Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhmana, S; Bhasin, S K; Chhabra, P; Bhatia, M S

    2015-01-01

    A large number of patients with chronic diseases like, cancer are cared for in homes by the family members in India. The vital role that these family members play as "caregivers" is well recognized, however, the burden on them is poorly understood. To assess burden and to determine the predictors of burden on family caregivers of cancer patients. A cross-sectional, hospital based study conducted in National Capital Territory of Delhi. 200 family caregivers of cancer patients were selected by systematic random sampling and interviewed using standard, validated Hindi version of Zarit Burden Interview. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 17.0). The study population consisted of 90 (45%) males and 110 (55%) female caregivers aged 18-65 years. 113 (56.5%) caregivers reported no or minimal burden while 75 (37.5%) caregivers reported mild to moderate burden. Using logistic regression marital status, education and type of family of caregivers, occupation of cancer patients and type of treatment facility were found to be the predictors of burden on caregivers. In view of the substantial burden on family caregivers coupled with lack of adequate number of cancer hospitals, there is a public-health imperative to recognize this important group. All levels of health-staff in cancer hospitals in developing countries should be sensitized to the various burdens faced by family caregivers.

  10. Nosocomial transmission of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher F; Kus, Julianne V; Salt, Natasha; Callery, Sandra; Louie, Lisa; Khan, Mohammed A; Vearncombe, Mary; Simor, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of a cluster of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (NDM1-Kp) and a retrospective case-cohort analysis of risk factors for acquisition in contacts of NDM1-Kp-positive patients. A 1,100-bed Canadian academic tertiary care center. Two index patients positive for NDM1-Kp as well as 45 contacts (roommates, ward mates, or environmental contacts) were investigated. Retrospective chart reviews of all patients colonized or infected with NDM1-Kp as well as contacts of these patients were performed in order to describe the epidemiology and impact of infection prevention and control measures. A case-cohort analysis was conducted investigating 45 contacts of NDM1-Kp-positive patients to determine risk factors for acquisition of NDM1-Kp. Rectal swabs were screened for NDM1-Kp using chromogenic agar. Presence of bla(NDM-1) was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Clonality was assessed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using restriction enzyme XbaI. Two index cases carrying NDM1-Kp with different PFGE patterns were identified. Nosocomial transmission to 7 patients (4 roommates, 2 ward mates, and 1 environmental contact) was subsequently identified. Risk factors for acquisition of NDM1-Kp were a history of prior receipt of certain antibiotics (fluoroquinolones [odds ratio (OR), 16.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-58.8); [Formula: see text

  11. Inhibitor discovery of full-length New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1.

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    Bingzheng Shen

    Full Text Available New Delhi metallo-β-lactmase-1 (NDM-1 has recently attracted extensive attention for its biological activities to catalyze the hydrolysis of almost all of β-lactam antibiotics. To study the catalytic property of NDM-1, the steady-kinetic parameters of NDM-1 toward several kinds of β-lactam antibiotics have been detected. It could effectively hydrolyze most β-lactams (k cat/K m ratios between 0.03 to 1.28 µmol⁻¹.s⁻¹, except aztreonam. We also found that thiophene-carboxylic acid derivatives could inhibit NDM-1 and have shown synergistic antibacterial activity in combination with meropenem. Flexible docking and quantum mechanics (QM study revealed electrostatic interactions between the sulfur atom of thiophene-carboxylic acid derivatives and the zinc ion of NDM-1, along with hydrogen bond between inhibitor and His189 of NDM-1. The interaction models proposed here can be used in rational design of NDM-1 inhibitors.

  12. Treatment pathways of extrapulmonary patients diagnosed at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India

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    Manoj Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to put extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients early on treatment, it is important to study pathways, which these patients adopt in for seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: In order to study the treatment pathways of extrapulmonary patients and assess appropriate points for intervention, a cross-sectional study was conducted in chest clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Results: Factors associated with longer paths included reason for going to first health facility (nearness and known provider, availing more than one health facilities, presenting symptoms of fever, joint pain, nodular skin swelling and skin lesion. Self-referral to the chest clinic was associated with shorter paths. Lower level of education, occupation, non-serious perception of the disease and visiting five health facilities were significantly associated with patient delay of more than 3.5 weeks. Symptoms of fever, joint pain and skin lesion, visiting private health facility first, availing more than two health facilities and travelling distance of more than 100 km to reach chest clinic were significantly associated with the health facility delay of more than 4.5 weeks. Conclusions: Increasing public awareness, training of private practitioners and capacity building of government facilities will help in reducing delay.

  13. Patient safety in maternal healthcare at secondary and tertiary level facilities in Delhi, India

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    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is insufficient information on causes of unsafe care at facility levels in India. This study was conducted to understand the challenges in government hospitals in ensuring patient safety and to propose solutions to improve patient care. Materials and Methods: Desk review, in-depth interviews, and focused group discussions were conducted between January and March 2014. Healthcare providers and nodal persons for patient safety in Gynecology and Obstetrics Departments of government health facilities from Delhi state of India were included. Data were analyzed using qualitative research methods and presented adopting the "health system approach." Results: The patient safety was a major concern among healthcare providers. The key challenges identified were scarcity of resources, overcrowding at health facilities, poor communications, patient handovers, delay in referrals, and the limited continuity of care. Systematic attention on the training of care providers involved in service delivery, prescription audits, peer reviews, facility level capacity building plan, additional financial resources, leadership by institutional heads and policy makers were suggested as possible solutions. Conclusions: There is increasing awareness and understanding about challenges in patient safety. The available local information could be used for selection, designing, and implementation of measures to improve patient safety at facility levels. A systematic and sustained approach with attention on all functions of health systems could be beneficial. Patient safety could be used as an entry point to improve the quality of health care services in India.

  14. Diaryl-substituted azolylthioacetamides: Inhibitor discovery of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Lin; Yang, Ke-Wu; Zhou, Ya-Jun; LaCuran, Alecander E; Oelschlaeger, Peter; Crowder, Michael W

    2014-11-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a global public health problem. Metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) such as New Delhi MβL-1 (NDM-1) are principle contributors to the emergence of resistance because of their ability to hydrolyze almost all known β-lactam antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. A clinical inhibitor of MBLs has not yet been found. In this study we developed eighteen new diaryl-substituted azolylthioacetamides and found all of them to be inhibitors of the MβL L1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Ki < 2 μM), thirteen to be mixed inhibitors of NDM-1 (Ki < 7 μM), and four to be broad-spectrum inhibitors of all four tested MβLs CcrA from Bacteroides fragilis, NDM-1 and ImiS from Aeromonas veronii, and L1 (Ki < 52 μM), which are representative of the B1a, B1b, B2, and B3 subclasses, respectively. Docking studies revealed that the azolylthioacetamides, which have the broadest inhibitory activity, coordinate to the Zn(II) ion(s) preferentially via the triazole moiety, while other moieties interact mostly with the conserved active site residues Lys224 (CcrA, NDM-1, and ImiS) or Ser221 (L1). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Associateship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship; Associateship. Associate Profile. Period: 1983–1988. Ramanuja Rao, Dr I V . Date of birth: 23 May 1954. Specialization: Plant Physiology Address during Associateship: Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007.

  16. Assessment of cognition using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests on a group of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis

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    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.

  17. The Fisher-information-based uncertainty relation, Cramer-Rao inequality and kinetic energy for the D-dimensional central problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Gonzalez-Ferez, R [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain)

    2007-02-23

    The inequality >= (l+1/2){sup 2}, with L being the grand orbital quantum number, and its conjugate relation for ((r{sup 2}) (p{sup -2})) are shown to be fulfilled in the D-dimensional central problem. Their use has allowed us to improve the Fisher-information-based uncertainty relation (I{sub {rho}}I{sub {gamma}}{>=} const) and the Cramer-Rao inequalities ((r{sup 2})I{sub {rho}} {>=} D{sup 2}; (p{sup 2})I{sub {gamma}} {>=} D{sup 2}). In addition, the kinetic energy and the radial expectation value (r{sup 2}) are shown to be bounded from below by the Fisher information in position and momentum spaces, denoted by I{sub {rho}} and I{sub {gamma}}, respectively.

  18. Uterine rupture: A seven year review at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India

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    Maruti Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the obstetric risk factors, incidence, and causes of uterine rupture, management modalities, and the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in one of the largest tertiary level women care hospital in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A 7-year retrospective analysis of 47 cases of uterine rupture was done. The charts of these patients were analyzed and the data regarding demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, risk factors, management, operative findings, maternal and fetal outcomes, and postoperative complications was studied. Results: The incidence of rupture was one in 1,633 deliveries (0.061%. The vast majority of patients had prior low transverse cesarean section (84.8%. The clinical presentation of the patients with rupture of the unscarred uterus was more dramatic with extensive tears compared to rupture with scarred uterus. The estimated blood loss ranged from 1,200 to 1,500 cc. Hemoperitoneum was identified in 95.7% of the patient and 83% of the patient underwent repair of rent with or without simultaneous tubal ligation. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed in five cases. There were no maternal deaths in our series. However, there were 32 cases of intrauterine fetal demise and five cases of stillbirths. Conclusions: Uterine rupture is a major contributor to maternal morbidity and neonatal mortality. Four major easily identifiable risk factors including history of prior cesarean section, grand multiparity, obstructed labor, and fetal malpresentations constitute 90% of cases of uterine rupture. Identification of these high risk women, prompt diagnosis, immediate transfer, and optimal management needs to be overemphasized to avoid adverse fetomaternal complications.

  19. Accuracy of body weight perceptions among students in a medical school in Central Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Tanwar, Sneh; Kumar, Rajesh; Meena, G S; Ingle, G K

    2015-01-01

    Body image is an important aspect of the complex creation of one's self-identity. The relationship between nutritional disorders, like obesity, and one's perception of her or his body is well documented. Obesity among medical students and health personnel is on the rise. Identifying and measuring the magnitude of distortion in body image self-perception among medical students is particularly relevant, as they are future healthcare providers. This paper assesses self-perceptions of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity among medical undergraduate students in an Indian medical school. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 161 sixth semester medical undergraduate students in a school in Delhi, India. A pretested questionnaire was used. Anthropometric measurements were taken. The participation rate was 93.6%. Out of the total 161 students, there were 60.9% males and 39.1% females. Most participants were classified as normal (55.9%) according to BMI. The proportions of actual obese, overweight and underweight students were 4.4%, 30.4% and 9.3%, respectively. However, the proportion of students perceiving themselves as obese or overweight was only 37.3%. A significantly higher proportion of females (57.2%) than males (20.4%) perceived themselves as overweight (P students, only one-third were physically active. Students who were overweight or obese often failed to perceive themselves as such and, perhaps consequently, were not engaging in weight control practices. There is a need to develop health promotion interventions that help build healthy body habitus perceptions among this group of Indian medical students.

  20. Allergic Rhinitis: A neglected disease - A community based assessment among adults in Delhi

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    B Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Allergic Rhinitis is rather erroneously viewed as a trivial disease. It is important in that it can significantly affect quality of life. There is paucity of community based prevalence studies on the disease in India. This study was planned to assess the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in adults, the proportion of asthmatics among them, risk factors associated and treatment seeking behaviour among the patients. Materials and Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Mehrauli, South Delhi among 1200 adults, aged 30 years and over selected by systematic random sampling from two randomly selected wards. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information regarding symptoms, risk factors and treatment seeking behaviour. Allergic Rhinitis was diagnosed as per ARIA guidelines. Spirometry was done to diagnose asthma among them. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to find the association of risk factors with disease. Results: The prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis was found to be 11% (132 subjects and 33.3% (44 patients among them also had asthma. Overcrowding (aOR = 6.4, absence of cross-ventilation (aOR = 2.5, occupational exposure to dust/ smoke (aOR = 2.1, tobacco smoking (aOR = 2.1, family history of allergic diseases (aOR = 2.7 and clinical allergy (aOR = 10.2 were found to be independent risk factors associated with Rhinitis. More patients of Rhinitis with asthma (75% took treatment, relative to those without asthma (40% who, mostly relied on home remedies (42% or, did not seek any treatment (18% (P = 0.031. Interpretations and Conclusion: The burden of Allergic Rhinitis is high with a considerable overlap with asthma. These allergic diseases and emphasize the importance of early and regular treatment.

  1. Current status of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital of East Delhi

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    T Sagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is caused by infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is resistant to both isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF. It is caused by selection of resistant mutant strains due to inadequate treatment and poor compliance. MDR-TB is a major public health problem as the treatment is complicated, cure rates are well below those for drug susceptible tuberculosis and patient remains infectious for months despite receiving the best available therapy. The drug susceptibility pattern of M. tuberculosis is essential for proper control of MDR-TB in every health care setting, hence the study was initiated with the aim of studying the prevalence of MDR-TB in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in east Delhi. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and forty-three pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples from suspected cases of tuberculosis received in the mycobacteriology laboratory from November 2009 through October 2010 were investigated for M. tuberculosis. All the samples were subjected to direct microscopic examination for demonstration of acid fast bacilli followed by culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ medium to isolate M. tuberculosis. Identification was done by conventional biochemical methods. Drug susceptibility of isolated M. tuberculosis strains was done by conventional 1% proportion method followed by sequencing of RIF resistant isolates to detect mutations to confirm resistance. Results and Conclusions: M. tuberculosis was isolated from 75 out of 543 suspected cases of pulmonary/extrapulmonary TB. Three of the total 75 M. tuberculosis isolates (4% showed resistance to any one of the first line drugs. Prevalence of MDR-TB was 1.3%. The sequencing of single MDR strain showed mutations at codons 516, 517, and 518. Amplification of rpoB and sequential analysis of the amplicon is a better way of detection of mutation and the evidence of new mutation in this study indicate that

  2. Numerical simulation of a rare winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013

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    Chevuturi, A.

    2014-12-19

    This study analyzes the cause of the rare occurrence of a winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, a recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00–18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options: hail and graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with a comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. Upon evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that the hail option shows a more similar precipitation intensity with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observation than the graupel option does, and it is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model-simulated output with the hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on a numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached up to the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of a western disturbance (WD). Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

  3. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Among Elderly Persons in an Urban Slum of Delhi

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    Arvind Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The increasing proportion of elderly persons is contributing to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. The residents of urban slums are more vulnerable due to poverty and lack of access to health care. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes in elderly persons in an urban slum and to assess their awareness, treatment and control of this condition. Materials and Methods : All persons aged 60 years and above, residing in an urban slum of Delhi, were included in this cross-sectional community- based study. Data were collected on sociodemographic variables. The participants′ awareness and treatment of diabetes was recorded. Their fasting blood sugar was estimated using an automated glucometer. Diabetes was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was ≥126 mg/dL, or if the participant was taking treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting blood glucose was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was 110-125 mg/dL. Results: Among the 474 participants studied, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 18.8% (95% CI 15.3-21.5. It decreased with increasing age, and was higher among women. The prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 19.8% (95% CI 16.3-23.7. It was higher among women. One-third of the diabetic participants were aware of their condition; two-thirds of these were on treatment and three-fourths of those on treatment had controlled fasting blood sugar level. The awareness, treatment and control were better among women. Conclusions : Diabetes is common among elderly persons in urban slums. Its magnitude and low awareness warrant effective public health interventions for their treatment and control.

  4. Natural Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Iranian Cucurbit Crops

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    Sara Yazdani-Khameneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main areas for field-grown vegetable production in Iran were surveyed during the years of 2012–2014 to determine the occurrence of begomoviruses infecting these crops. A total of 787 leaf samples were collected from vegetables and some other host plants showing virus-like symptoms and tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using polyclonal antibodies produced against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. According to the ELISA results, 81 samples (10.3% positively reacted with the virus antibodies. Begomovirus infections were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using previously described TYLCV-specific primer pair TYLCV-Sar/TYLCV-Isr or universal primer pair Begomo-F/Begomo-R. The PCR tests using the primer pair TYLCV-Sar/TYLCV-Isr resulted in the amplification of the expected fragments of ca. 0.67-kb in size for ELISA-positive samples tested from alfalfa, pepper, spinach and tomato plants, confirming the presence of TYLCV. For one melon sample, having a week reaction in ELISA and no reaction in PCR using TYLCV-specific primers, the PCR reaction using the primer pair Begomo-F/Begomo-R resulted in the amplification fragments of the expected size of ca. 2.8 kb. The nucleotide sequences of the DNA amplicons derived from the isolate, Kz-Me198, were determined and compared with other sequences available in GenBank. BLASTN analysis confirmed the begomovirus infection of the sample and showed 99% identities with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV; phylogenetic analysis supported the results of the database searches. This study reports the natural occurrence of TYLCV in different hosts in Iran. Our results also reveal the emergence of ToLCNDV in Iranian cucurbit crops.

  5. Identification of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 in Acinetobacter lwoffii of food animal origin.

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    Yang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL genes and the genetic environment of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene bla(NDM-1 in bacteria of food animal origin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gram-negative bacteria with low susceptibility to imipenem (MIC>8 µg/mL were isolated from swab samples collected from 15 animal farms and one slaughterhouse in eastern China. These bacteria were selected for phenotypic and molecular detection of known MBL genes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For the bla(NDM-1 positive isolate, conjugation and transformation experiments were carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the bla(NDM-1 genes, and DNA sequencing was performed to determine the sequences of bla(NDM-1 and the flanking genes. In total, nine gram-negative bacteria of four different species presented a MBL phenotype. bla(NDM-1 was identified on a mobile plasmid named pAL-01 in an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate of chicken origin. Transfer of pAL-01 from this isolate to E. coli J53 and JM109 resulted in resistance to multiple β-lactams. Sequence analysis revealed that the bla(NDM-1 gene is attached to an intact insertion element ISAba125, whose right inverted repeat (IR-R overlaps with the promoter sequence of bla(NDM-1. Thus, insertion of ISAba125 likely enhances the expression of bla(NDM-1. CONCLUSION: The identification of a bla(NDM-1- carrying strain of A. lwoffii in chickens suggests the potential for zoonotic transmission of bla(NDM-1 and has important implications for food safety.

  6. Workplace violence against resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

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    Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Madhan; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers particularly doctors are at high risk of being victims of verbal and physical violence perpetrated by patients or their relatives. There is a paucity of studies on work-related violence against doctors in India. We aimed to assess the exposure of workplace violence among doctors, its consequences among those who experienced it and its perceived risk factors. This study was done among doctors working in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire containing items for assessment of workplace violence against doctors, its consequences among those who were assaulted, reporting mechanisms and perceived risk factors. Of the 169 respondents, 104 (61.4%) were men. The mean (SD) age of the study group was 28.6 (4.2) years. Sixty-nine doctors (40.8%) reported being exposed to violence at their workplace in the past 12 months. However, there was no gender-wise difference in the exposure to violence (p=0.86). The point of delivery of emergency services was reported as the most common place for experiencing violence. Verbal abuse was the most common form of violence reported (n=52; 75.4%). Anger, frustration and irritability were the most common symptoms experienced by the doctors who were subjected to violence at the workplace. Only 44.2% of doctors reported the event to the authorities. 'Poor communication skills' was considered to be the most common physician factor responsible for workplace violence against doctors. A large proportion of doctors are victims of violence by their patients or relatives. Violence is being under-reported. There is a need to encourage reporting of violence and prepare healthcare facilities to tackle this emerging issue for the safety of physicians.

  7. Reproductive Ethics in Commercial Surrogacy: Decision-Making in IVF Clinics in New Delhi, India.

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    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

    2015-09-01

    As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from December 2011 to November 2012, issues of decision-making on embryo transfer, fetal reduction, and mode of delivery were identified. Interviews were carried out with doctors in eighteen ART clinics, agents from four agencies, and fourteen surrogates. In aiming to fulfil the commissioning parents' demands, doctors were willing to go to the greatest extent possible in their medical practice. Autonomy and decision-making regarding choice of the number of embryos to transfer and the mode of delivery lay neither with commissioning parents nor surrogate mothers but mostly with doctors. In order to ensure higher success rates, surrogates faced the risk of multiple pregnancy and fetal reduction with little information regarding the risks involved. In the globalized market of commercial surrogacy in India, and with clinics compromising on ethics, there is an urgent need for formulation of regulative law for the clinical practice and maintenance of principles of reproductive ethics in order to ensure that the interests of surrogate mothers are safeguarded.

  8. Prevalence of dental fear and its causes using three measurement scales among children in New Delhi

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    Anju Singh Rajwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a great need for identifying fearful children, who often present problems in patient management, thus affecting the quality of dental care rendered to them. This study is unique in the way that dental fear was assessed through three fear scales as research has suggested the use of more than one scale because each scale has its own restrictions and is open to criticism. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate dental fear and anxiety (DFA among children aged 3–14 years using three fear measurement scales. Methods: The study was conducted on children (3–14 years who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. The DFA levels were measured using three fear measurement scales, i.e., facial image scale (FIS, dental fear scale (DFS, and children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS. The dental behavior was estimated using the Frankl's behavior rating scale (FBRS. Results: The prevalence of dental fear according to FIS was 14.3%, according to DFS was 22.6%, and according to CFSS-DS was 7.4%. In assessment of the behavior of children in the clinics through FBRS, it was observed that he maximum number of respondents (69.8% showed Frankl's Rating 3 i.e. positive. In the DFS and CFSS-DS, the factor which caused most fear was “feeling the needle injected” and “injections,” respectively. Conclusion: Assessment of dental fear is an extremely useful tool for the dental practitioner, who can use it to customize the behavioral treatment and management for child patients.

  9. Mechanical characterization of municipal solid waste from two waste dumps at Delhi, India.

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    Ramaiah, B J; Ramana, G V; Datta, Manoj

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the physical and mechanical properties of the emplaced municipal solid waste (MSW) recovered from different locations of the Ghazipur and Okhla dumps both located at Delhi, India. Mechanical compressibility and shear strength of the collected MSW were evaluated using a 300×300mm direct shear (DS) shear box. Compression ratio (Cc') of MSW at these two dumps varied between 0.11 and 0.17 and is falling on the lower bound of the range (0.1-0.5) of the data reported in the literature for MSW. Low Cc' of MSW is attributed to the relatively low percentages of compressible elements such as textiles, plastics and paper, coupled with relatively high percentages of inert materials such as soil-like and gravel sized fractions. Shear strength of MSW tested is observed to be displacement dependent. The mobilized shear strength parameters i.e., the apparent cohesion intercept (c') and friction angle (ϕ') of MSW at these two dumps are best characterized by c'=13kPa and ϕ'=23° at 25mm displacement and c'=17kPa and ϕ'=34° at 55mm displacement and are in the range reported for MSW in the literature. A large database on the shear strength of MSW from 18 countries that includes: the experimental data from 277 large-scale DS tests (in-situ and laboratory) and the data from back analysis of 11 failed landfill slopes is statistically analyzed. Based on the analysis, a simple linear shear strength envelope, characterized by c'=17kPa and ϕ'=32°, is proposed for MSW for preliminary use in the absence of site-specific data for stability evaluation of the solid waste landfill under drained conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Awareness and practices regarding needle stick injuries among nurses in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

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    Priyanka .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Needle stick injuries are an important occupational hazard for nursing personnel as they form an important mechanism for transmission of blood borne pathogens. Hence the knowledge of nurses about the prevention and management of needle stick injuries and practicing standard precautions is critical. Methodology: This was a hospital based cross sectional study conducted among nursing staff during the month of December, 2011. A semi structured questionnaire was administered to 320 nurses working in a tertiary care hospital of New Delhi by adopting systematic random sampling methodology. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 12. Percentages of categorical variables were computed. Results: Only 31.1% nurses had adequate knowledge about steps for prevention of needle stick injuries. 259(88.4% nurses had adequate knowledge about the authority to whom they should report needle stick injuries while almost three fourth i.e. 73.4% had adequate knowledge about management of needle stick injuries. Majority of nurses (69.6% reported the use of gloves very often before venipuncture, 80.2% never recapped needles while 77.5% disposed sharps in puncture proof containers very often. Only one fourth (24.6% nurses always used personal protective equipment in case of emergencies. 85.7% of nurses had received all three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. 51(17.4% had a history of needle stick injury in the last one year out of which 49(96.1% took adequate measures immediately after the injury and 37 (72.5% reported the incidence to the concerned authority. Conclusion:  The knowledge and practices of nurses regarding prevention and management of needle stick injuries were found to be unsatisfactory

  11. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi

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    Charu Kohli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher’s Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5% subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%. Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%. Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%, sore throat (2.7%, allergy (1.3%, and eye irritation (0.9% predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  12. Groundwater Quality Assessment by Using Hydrogeochemical Methods in the National Capital Territory -Delhi, India

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    Kumar, M.; Ramanathan, A.

    2006-05-01

    Present study has been carried out to assess the real status of groundwater, second major water resource for the drinking water supply in the National Capital Territory (NCT) of India, Delhi. Salinity and nitrate contamination are the two major problems in the area which is alarming for drinking purpose. Various graphical plots and statistical analysis has been carried out to understand the geochemical processes and its relation to the groundwater quality based on the ionic constituents, water types, hydrochemical facies and to understand nutrient chemistry (nitrate, phosphate and potassium) with spatial and seasonal variations in the groundwater nature in the study area. The concentration of nutrients in groundwater acts as an indicator to identify the nature and influence of agricultural and urban runoff on the shallow subsurface environment. Results of the study suggests that leaching from the various unlined landfill sites is the prime cause of nitrate contamination along with other factors like agricultural activities, soil mineralization processes and irrigation return flow. The result also indicates a different source of origin for the nitrate and potassium and not a common source for their origin as it was thought earlier. Local recharge is associated with low salinity of Ca- Mg-HCO3 type which is through rainfall and surface water body especially by west Yamuna canal and Yamuna River. Large lateral variation of conservative elements shows that recharge through lateral flow is not dominant in the area. Highly saline and brackish groundwater in the discharge zones like northwestern and southwestern parts of the area seem to be associated with long history of evaporation and oxidation of sulfur gases in low lying areas. In view of increasing demand of drinking water in the area, present study is vital and suggests the need of immediate management action for landfill sites.

  13. Premarital romantic partnerships: attitudes and sexual experiences of youth in Delhi, India.

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    Jaya, Jaya; Hindin, Michelle J

    2009-06-01

    Despite restrictive social norms, there is increasing evidence that youth in India engage in premarital romantic and sexual partnerships. However, information on how they initiate and build these relationships is scarce, even though it is vital for addressing the needs of young people. Attitudes toward and behavior within romantic partnerships were examined using data collected in 2004 from unmarried youth (583 males and 475 females, aged 15-19) living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Delhi, India. Associations between specific attitudes or behaviors and age, gender and sexual experience were determined using Fisher's exact tests. Sixty-two percent of males and 53% of females reported that someone of the opposite sex had expressed an interest in them; 86% of males and 63% of females reported feeling good about it. In addition, 67% of males and 47% of females reported that they liked someone from the opposite sex. Compared with females, males were more likely to seek information about the person they were interested in (76% vs. 61%), and to engage in heterosexual premarital sex (32% vs. 6%). Females were less likely than males to report that it is okay to engage in premarital sex if the male and female love one another (14% vs. 33%). For both males and females, television and films were the most popular source of information on issues related to sexual health. Gender disparities in premarital romantic partnership formation and the experience of sexual relations make a strong case for sexuality education programs tailored to the different experiences and circumstances of young men and women.

  14. Genomic characterization of nontypeable rotaviruses and detection of a rare G8 strain in Delhi, India.

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    Sharma, Sumit; Paul, Vinod K; Bhan, Maharaj K; Ray, Pratima

    2009-12-01

    In the present investigation we molecularly characterized nontypeable rotavirus strains previously identified during surveillance in New Delhi, India. The majority of strains were demonstrated to belong to genotype G1 (54.5%) or P[8] (77.8%) on the basis of nucleotide sequencing of fragments from their VP7 and VP4 genes. The other genotypes detected included G2, G8, G9, G12, and P[4]. A G8P[6] strain, strain DS108, was detected for the first time in northern India. The VP7 gene of DS108 was most homologous with the VP7 gene of a bovine G8 strain, strain A5 (98.9%), indicating its bovine parentage. In contrast, the VP4 gene had a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology (92.9% to 99.1%) with the VP4 genes of human P[6] strains. The VP6 gene and nonstructural genes (NSP1 to NSP3 and NSP5) were most homologous with the VP6 gene and nonstructural genes of human rotaviruses belonging to the DS1 genogroup. Interestingly, the NSP4 gene of DS108 clustered within genotype E6 that until now had only two representative strains, both with G12P[6] specificity (strains RV176-00 and N26-02). Together, these results indicate that G8 strain DS108 belongs to the DS1 genogroup and could be the result of the acquisition of the VP7, VP4, and NSP4 genes by a human G2P[4] strain from more than one donor, similar to the evolution of G12P[6] strain RV176-00. The present study highlights the importance of characterizing multiple genes of nontypeable rotavirus strains to detect novel strains and get a more complete picture of rotavirus evolution.

  15. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water sold by roadside vendors of Delhi, India

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    Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Pankaj; Varma, Ajit; Jindal, Tanu

    2017-07-01

    Delhi has emerged as one of the greenest capital city of the world. Microbiological assessment of drinking water emphasizes estimation of the hygienic quality of the water sold with reference to community health significance. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors in east, west, north and south zones of capital of India. A total number of 36 samples (nine from each zone) were collected as per national guidelines and studied for microbiological assessment. All the drinking water samples were collected in gamma-sterilized bottles and were kept in an ice pack to prevent any significant change in the microbial flora of the samples during the transportation. The water samples were transported to the laboratory in vertical position maintaining the temperature 1-4 °C with ice pack enveloped conditions. Samples were analyzed for total MPN coliform per 100 ml and for the presence and absence of common human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the samples were found to be contaminated with coliform organisms in the range of 14 to >1600 per 100 ml of sample. Out of 36 water samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 61 %, Salmonella 25 % S. aureus 14 % and P. aeruginosa 53 % as 22, 9, 5 and 19 samples were found contaminated, respectively. The numbers of coliform bacteria and presence of some common pathogenic bacteria suggested that the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors is not within the Indian standard and WHO guidelines laid down for drinking water quality. Hence, there is a vital need to study the root cause in terms of hygiene, sanitation of vendors and source of contamination to prevent waterborne diseases.

  16. Association between indoor fungi in Delhi homes and sensitization in children with respiratory allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Gaur, Shailendra N; Singh, Ved P; Singh, Anand B

    2012-04-01

    Indoor fungi are potential sensitizing agents in children and their detection and quantification in indoor air are important in the diagnosis and environmental management of fungal allergies. The objective of this investigation was to assess the prevalence of fungal allergies in children in Delhi and to study the association between mold counts in the homes of children and their sensitization to respective fungal extracts. Fungal concentrations and seasonality were studied at two-week intervals for one year using Andersen Volumetric and Burkard Slide samplers. Sensitization to fungi frequently encountered in patients' homes was assessed by Skin Prick Tests (SPTs). Total fungal specific IgE was measured by ELISA in the sera of patients positive to fungal extracts. Skin Prick Tests revealed that 39.3% (33/84) of patients were markedly positive (2 + and above) to one or the other fungal allergens. Raised serum IgE to predominant indoor fungal species was observed in patients with marked SPT results. Highest marked skin reactivity (2 + and above) was obtained with Alternaria alternata allergens in 17.9% of the children, which was followed by the response to fungal antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium citrinum (15.5%). Exposure to high fungal counts of some dominant fungi (Penicillium, A. nidulans and A. fumigatus) was found associated with increased fungal sensitization in the patients. Total serum IgE level was revealed to be significantly linked with the intensity of skin reactions, as well as with skin index (r(2) = 0.052; P allergies were connected with higher prevalence of skin sensitization.

  17. 134Ba diffusion in polycrystalline BaMO3 (M = Ti, Zr, Ce)

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    Sažinas, Rokas; Sakaguchi, Isao; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann; Grande, Tor

    2017-11-01

    Cation diffusion in functional oxide materials is of fundamental interest, particularly in relation to interdiffusion of cations in thin film heterostructures and chemical stability of materials in high temperature electrochemical devices. Here we report on 134Ba tracer diffusion in polycrystalline BaMO3 (M = Ti, Zr, Ce) materials. The dense BaMO3 ceramics were prepared by solid state sintering, and thin films of 134BaO were deposited on the polished pellets by drop casting of an aqueous solution containing the Ba-tracer. The samples were subjected to thermal annealing and the resulting isotope distribution profiles were recorded by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The depth profiles exhibited two distinct regions reflecting lattice and grain boundary diffusion. The grain boundary diffusion was found to be 4-5 orders of magnitude faster than the lattice diffusion for all three materials. The temperature dependence of the lattice and grain boundary diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius type behaviour, and the activation energy and pre-exponential factor demonstrated a clear correlation with the size of the primitive unit cell of the three perovskites. Diffusion of Ba via Ba-vacancies was proposed as the most likely diffusion mechanism.

  18. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

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    S Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world.

  19. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study

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    Suraj Singh Senjam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI due to uncorrected refractive error (URE and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was <20/60 in either eye and ocular examination to ascertain the cause of VI. Barriers to utilization of services for refractive error were recorded with questionnaires. Results: Of 2421 individuals enumerated, 2331 (96% individuals were examined. Females were 50.7% among them. The mean age of all examined subjects was 51.32 ± 10.5 years (standard deviation. VI in either eye due to URE was present in 275 individuals (11.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.5-13.1. URE was identified as the most common cause (53.4% of VI. The overall prevalence of VI due to URE in the study population was 6.1% (95% CI: 5.1-7.0. The elder population as well as females were more likely to have VI due to URE (odds ratio [OR] = 12.3; P < 0.001 and OR = 1.5; P < 0.02. Lack of felt need was the most common reported barrier (31.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of VI due to URE among the urban adult population of Delhi is still high despite the availability of abundant eye care facilities. The majority of reported barriers are related to human behavior and attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  20. A failure of the Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae butterfly to colonize Delhi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv K. Singh Bais

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 is a butterfly of the semi-arid plains. Its historical distribution range includes Sri Lanka, southern India, northeastern India and Myanmar. It was recently reported from a few places in northern India far away from its known range boundaries in India. Dehradun, Kumaon Himalaya, Delhi and Kalatop are the places from where it has been reported in the recent past. Talicada nyseus nyseus appeared in the Delhi area in 2008, survived and bred for more than a year and then suddenly disappeared in the summer of 2009. The appearance of T.n. nyseus in Dehradun has been linked to the introduction of Kalanchoe ornamental plants in the newly developed residential areas. This paper examines the likely reasons for its disappearance from the Delhi area.

  1. Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study.

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    Rohit Saxena

    Full Text Available Assess prevalence of myopia and identify associated risk factors in urban school children.This was a cross-sectional study screening children for sub-normal vision and refractive errors in Delhi. Vision was tested by trained health workers using ETDRS charts. Risk factor questionnaire was filled for children with vision 11 years children (p 5 hours per day (p 2 hours / day (p 2 hours in a day.Myopia is a major health problem in Indian school children. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors associated with its development and try to develop cost effective intervention strategies.

  2. A report on 5th congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society, New Delhi, India, 6-9 March 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The 5th Congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society was held in New Delhi from 6-9 March 2014. This article describes the journey of preparing and hosting one of the largest international events in the specialty of Pediatric Cardiac Care ever held in India. A total of 938 delegates, including 400 from outside India, participated. The scientific program was inclusive keeping in mind the diverse background of delegates from the member nations. Large numbers of research papers were presented, mostly by fellows in training. PMID:25684899

  3. A report on 5 th congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society, New Delhi, India, 6-9 March 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh K Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 5 th Congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society was held in New Delhi from 6-9 March 2014. This article describes the journey of preparing and hosting one of the largest international events in the specialty of Pediatric Cardiac Care ever held in India. A total of 938 delegates, including 400 from outside India, participated. The scientific program was inclusive keeping in mind the diverse background of delegates from the member nations. Large numbers of research papers were presented, mostly by fellows in training.

  4. Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bhagawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW, which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%, intermediate (50–80% and unsatisfactory (less than 50%. Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%, mercury waste disposal (37.56% and definition of BMW (47%.

  5. Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rohit; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Pandey, R M; Bhardawaj, Amit; Menon, Vimala; Mani, Kalaivani

    2015-01-01

    Assess prevalence of myopia and identify associated risk factors in urban school children. This was a cross-sectional study screening children for sub-normal vision and refractive errors in Delhi. Vision was tested by trained health workers using ETDRS charts. Risk factor questionnaire was filled for children with vision vs. boys (p = 0.004) and among older (> 11 years) children (pvs. government schools (preading > 5 hours per day (p watching television > 2 hours / day (p 2 hours in a day. Myopia is a major health problem in Indian school children. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors associated with its development and try to develop cost effective intervention strategies.

  6. High spin properties of 124 Ba

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 124Ba nucleus is investigated on the basis of the method of statistical mechanics by assuming the nucleons to move in triaxially deformed Nilsson potential. The variation in the Fermi energies of protons and neutrons is studied as a function of spin and temperature. The Fermi energies determined as a function of ...

  7. Magnetic comparison of BaCa and BaSr substituted hexaferrite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Angeles, A [Alvaro Gonzalez-Angeles, Facultad de IngenierIa, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, (UABC), Blvd. Benito Juarez s/n, Cp 21280 Mexicali, B. C. (Mexico); Lipka, J; Gruskova, A; Slama, J; Jancarik, V; Slugen, V, E-mail: gangelesa@yahoo.com.m [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, (FEEIT), Slovak University of Technology, (SUT), Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-03-01

    Results on magnetic studies of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12-2x}(ZnTi){sub x}O{sub 19} and Ba{sub 0.75}Ca{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 12-2x}(ZnTi){sub x}O{sub 19}, where x = 0.2 to 0.6, ferromagnetic powders prepared by mechanical alloying are discussed. The structural and magnetic properties of the resulting powders were analyzed by thermo-magnetic analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Curie temperature, T{sub c} decreased dramatically (drop {approx} 39%) for BaCa samples, whilst for BaSr samples remained almost without change (diminution {approx} 2%) at x {<=} 0.2. SEM studies showed that all the particles present nearly hexagonal platelet shape.

  8. Spectroscopy of Ba and Ba$^+$ deposits in solid xenon for barium tagging in nEXO

    CERN Document Server

    Mong, B; Walton, T; Chambers, C; Craycraft, A; Benitez-Medina, C; Hall, K; Fairbank, W; Albert, J B; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Basque, V; Beck, D; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Cao, G F; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Daniels, T; Daugherty, S J; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fabris, L; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Heffner, M; Hughes, M; Jiang, X S; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krucken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Moore, D; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Retiere, F; Rowson, P C; Rozo, M P; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Walton, J; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zhao, Y B

    2014-01-01

    Progress on a method of barium tagging for the nEXO double beta decay experiment is reported. Absorption and emission spectra for deposits of barium atoms and ions in solid xenon matrices are presented. Excitation spectra for prominent emission lines, temperature dependence and bleaching of the fluorescence reveal the existence of different matrix sites. A regular series of sharp lines observed in Ba$^+$ deposits is identified with some type of barium hydride molecule. Lower limits for the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the principal Ba emission transition are reported. Under current conditions, an image of $\\le10^4$ Ba atoms can be obtained. Prospects for imaging single Ba atoms in solid xenon are discussed.

  9. Thermoluminescence of Ba 0.97Ca 0.03SO 4:Eu irradiated with 48 MeV 7Li ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochab, S. P.; Salah, Numan; Sahare, P. D.; Chauhan, R. S.; Ranjan, Ranju

    2007-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) of Ba0.97Ca0.03SO4:Eu phosphor, irradiated with 48 MeV 7Li ions at different fluences in the range 1 × 109-1 × 1012 ions/cm2, has been studied. The phosphor was prepared by the chemical co-precipitation technique. Its pellets were irradiated using a 16 MV Tandem Van de-Graff type Electrostatic Pelletron Accelerator at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. The samples from the same batch were also irradiated with γ-rays from a Cs137 source for comparative studies. It has been found that the TL glow peak at 460 K, seen prominently in γ-irradiated sample, appeared as a small shoulder at around 465 K in 7Li3+ ion irradiated sample, while that observed as a shoulder in the former at 430 K, dominantly appeared in the latter at around 435 K. Trapping parameters of both, ion beam and γ-irradiated materials, were also obtained after the deconvolution of the glow curves and discussed in the paper. The TL response curve of the ion beam irradiated samples has a linear ion beam fluence response over the range 1 × 109-1 × 1010 ions/cm2. This property along with its low fading and simple glow curve structure makes Ba0.97Ca0.03SO4:Eu phosphor a suitable dosimeter for heavy charged particles (HCP).

  10. Analysis of Urban Heat Island (UHI in Relation to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI: A Comparative Study of Delhi and Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakriti Grover

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation and occurrence of urban heat island (UHI is a result of rapid urbanization and associated concretization. Due to intensification of heat combined with high pollution levels, urban areas expose humans to unexpected health risks. In this context, the study aims at comparing the UHI in the two largest metropolitan cities of India, i.e., Delhi and Mumbai. The presence of surface UHI is analyzed using the Landsat 5 TM image of 5 May 2010 for Delhi and the 17 April 2010 image for Mumbai. The validation of the heat island is done in relation to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI patterns. The study reveals that built-up and fallow lands record high temperatures, whereas the vegetated areas and water bodies exhibit lower temperatures. Delhi, an inland city, possesses mixed land use and the presence of substantial tree cover along roads; the Delhi Ridge forests and River Yamuna cutting across the city have a high influence in moderating the surface temperatures. The temperature reaches a maximum of 35 °C in West Delhi and a minimum of 24 °C in the east at the River Yamuna. Maximum temperature in East Delhi goes to 30 °C, except the border areas. North, Central and south Delhi have low temperatures (28 °C–31 °C, but the peripheral areas have high temperatures (36 °C–37 °C. The UHI is not very prominent in the case of Delhi. This is proven by the correlations of surface temperature with NDVI. South Delhi, New Delhi and areas close to River Yamuna have high NDVI and, therefore, record low temperatures. Mumbai, on the other hand, is a coastal city with lower tree cover than Delhi. The Borivilli National Park (BNP is in the midst of dense horizontal and vertical growth of buildings. The UHI is much stronger where the heat is trapped that is, the built-up zones. There are four small rivers in Mumbai, which have low carrying capacity. In Mumbai suburban district, the areas adjoining the creeks, sea and the lakes act as

  11. Providers′ knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of E-Pills in government dispensaries of south district in Delhi, India

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    Kishore Vertika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  12. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF AN URBAN AREA OF DELHI, INDIA

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    Rajesh Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The problem of overweight and obesity is not confined only to developed countries. It may lead to adverse metabolic changes and increased risk of non communicable diseases. Most studies conducted in India are school based. The present community based study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its sociodemographic correlates among adolescents of an urban area of Delhi.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional, community based study, using systematic random sampling was carried out during 2011 on 811 adolescents of both sexes from an urban area in South-West Delhi. A pre-designed and pre-tested proforma was used to collect information on socio-demographic and anthropometric variables. Subjects were classified as overweight or obese on the basis of NCHS/CDC 2000 Age and Sex Specific Percentile Growth Charts.Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.1% and 7.2% respectively. When analyzed by gender, prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.4% and 7.7% among boys and 12.4% and 6.7% among girls respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prevalence was significantly higher among subjects studying in private schools (OR: 2.56; CI: 1.77 – 3.71Conclusion: Overnutrition is an emerging health problem in adolescent population which needs to be addressed with priority.

  13. Weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors among overweight adolescents in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

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    Shrivastav Radhika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is emerging as a public health problem among adolescents in India. The aim of this study was to describe specific weight-related concerns among school-going youth in Delhi, India and to assess the prevalence of weight control behaviors, including healthy and unhealthy ones. Differences by weight status, gender, grade level, and school-type (a proxy for SES in this setting are considered. Methods This study is cross-sectional by design. A sample of eighth and tenth graders (n = 1818 enrolled in Private (middle-high SES and Government (low SES schools (n = 8 in Delhi, India participated. All students' height and weight were measured. Students participated in a survey of weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors, as well. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test for differences in weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors across key factors of interest (i.e., weight status, gender, grade level, and SES. Results The combined prevalence of obesity and overweight was 16.6%, overall. Controlling one's weight was important to overweight and non-overweight youth, alike (94.2% v. 84.8%, p p Conclusions Interventions to promote healthy weight control should be pertinent to and well-received by school-going youth in India. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly encouraged and unhealthy practices reduced. Future interventions should address issues specific to body image, too, as body dissatisfaction was not uncommon among youth.

  14. Land-Air Interactions over Urban-Rural Transects Using Satellite Observations: Analysis over Delhi, India from 1991–2016

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    Madhavi Jain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades Delhi, India, has witnessed rapid urbanization and change in land use land cover (LULC pattern, with most of the cultivable areas and wasteland being converted into built-up areas. Presently around 40% land is under built-up area, a drastic rise of 30% from 1977. The effect of changing LULC, at a local scale, on various variables-land surface temperature (LST, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, emissivity, albedo, evaporation, Bowen ratio, and planetary boundary layer (PBL height, from 1991–2016, is investigated. To assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of land-air interactions, we select two different 100 km transects covering the NE-SW and NW-SE expanse of Delhi and its adjoining areas. High NDVI and emissivity is found for regions with green cover and drastic reduction is noted in built-up area clusters. In both of the transects, land surface variations manifest itself in patterns of LST variation. Parametric and non-parametric correlations are able to statistically establish the land-air interactions in the city. NDVI, an indirect indicator for LULC classes, significantly helps in understanding the modifications in LST and ultimately air temperature. Significant, strong positive relationships exist between skin temperature and evaporation, skin temperature and PBL height, and PBL height and evaporation, providing insights into the meteorological changes that are associated with urbanization.

  15. Direct Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper Metal in Tap Water of Delhi (India by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

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    Raj J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salts of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead and Copper are taken incidentally or accidently and has become of great toxicological importance having toxic effect. In the present study direct determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu metal was carried out from tap water of Delhi (India using differential pulse anodic stripping Voltammeter (DPASV at Hanging mercury dropping electrode (HMDE.Determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu was done using Ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.6 with a sweep rate (scan rate of 59.5 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50mV by HMDE by standard addition method. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at -1150mV (vs. Ag/AgCl for 90 seconds and the potential was scanned from -1150V to +100V (vs..Ag/AgCl. As a result the minimum level of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu was Zero and the concentration observed in the tap water sample of Delhi (India was determined as 0.174 mg/L-1, 0.001 mg/L-1, 0.002 mg/L-1, 0.011 mg/L-1 respectively.

  16. Over the counter sale of drugs for medical abortion- Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of pharmacists of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Mishra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the well defined law and highly liberal policy Government approved medical facilities are not the leading provider of abortion in Indian Scenario. Whether legally or not Pharmacists are already acting as provider of medical abortion for large number of women in India. Dispense of Medical abortion drugs via pharmacist has the advantages of convenience, relative anonymity, hasty transaction, easy accessibility and saving cost.Aims and Objectives: Objective of present study was to assess the over the counter sale of medical abortion in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices of pharmacists of Delhi, India.Material and Methods: It was a cross sectional interview based study conducted in 110 pharmacies of 6 districts of State of Delhi.Results: A total of 75 pharmacists and 35 pharmacy workers were interviewed. Knowledge and practices of all of them was inadequate in some aspects. 68% knew Medical abortion is legal and 57% thought that over the counter sale of drugs of medical abortion is also legal. Only 40.9% knew the correct regimen of mifepristone + misoprostol combination.Most of them is not aware of any serious side effects and failure rate. Their attitude is indifferent towards the clients but positive towards training in updating knowledge if given option.Conclusion: Their knowledge, attitude and practices while dispensing drugs for medical abortion were inappropriate to qualify them as an independent mid level provider in present scenario. Unregulated OTC sale of abortifacients is responsible for high number of self induced abortion related complications.

  17. Inter-Seasonal Variations of Surface Temperature in the Urbanized Environment of Delhi Using Landsat Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Babu Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex land use/cover patterns in urban areas significantly influence their prevailing surface temperature conditions. As a result of differential cooling and heating of various land use/cover, large temperature ranges are associated with bare land, built-up land, etc. and low ranges are found in vegetation cover and water bodies. Extremely high and low temperature conditions in built-up land have direct and negative impacts on health conditions, and therefore are imperative to study. Thus, an attempt has been made in this research to analyze seasonal variations in surface temperature in city of Delhi. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM 5 satellite images for the four seasons, viz., 16 January (winter, 5 March (spring, 8 May (summer and 29 September (autumn 2011 have been used to interpret the distribution and changes in surface temperature. A total of 80 samples from all land use/cover categories were taken to generalize the patterns along with north-south and west-east profiles. The extracted surface temperature patterns reflect the spatial and temporal dynamics of temperature over different land use/cover. The north-south and west-east gradient of temperature demonstrates that the core of Delhi has a much lower temperature and weak urban heat island (UHI phenomenon.

  18. Tobacco consumption and awareness of their health hazards amongst lower income group school children in National Capital Territory of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinita; Pal, Hem Raj; Mehta, Manju; Kapil, Umesh

    2007-04-01

    Consumption of tobacco is a complex and multidimensional problem faced by the country. It is the main culprit behind oral cancer. The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of consumption of tobacco amongst adolescent school children of low-income group in National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi and to study the perception of the children regarding the health hazards of tobacco. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 3,422 children in the age group of 10-18 years studying in government schools in NCT of Delhi. About 9.8% of the study children had at least once experimented with any form of tobacco in their lifetime. The proportion of children who were "current users" of tobacco products was 5.4% (boys: 4.6%, Girls: 0.8%). Nearly eighty percent of the study subjects knew that, tobacco consumption is injurious to health. The parents of 59% of the children discussed the harmful effects of tobacco consumption with their children.

  19. CLIENT SATISFACTION AND PERCEPTIONS ABOUT QUALITY OF HEALTH CARE AT A PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE OF DELHI, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rasheed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of services shows a variation between the client and the provider. Therefore, it needs to be explored whether the quality of care or the lack of quality can explain the utilization of government health care. Objectives:This paper attempts to assess the utilization of health services and client satisfaction for services provided by a Primary Health Centre (PHC at Delhi, India. Setting and design: The study was a facility based cross sectional study. Exit interviews were conducted among 400 patients seeking outdoor patient department (OPD services of thePHC Palam, New Delhi from May 2010 to November 2010. Material and Methods: Exit interviews were conducted among the patients at each of the service delivery points in the PHC to assess the utilization of services and the satisfaction of clients with the available services. Results: Most respondents rated the services to be of good quality on various parameters of health delivery. The PHC was the preferred health facility (98% for treatment seeking in comparison to other healthcare facilities in the area.The main factors affecting utilization of primary health care services provided by the government were easy accessibility, low cost, less waiting time, and presence of co-operative health personnel. Conclusion:Provision of quality primary healthcare services to clients can result in better utilization of services at the primary level, thereby reducing the unnecessary burden of secondary and tertiary level facilities in addition to improving the health status of the community.

  20. Risk behaviors related to inter-personal violence among school and college-going adolescents in south Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injuries are a major cause of death and disability among the adolescents in the world. Objective: To study risk behavior related to interpersonal violence amongst school- and college-going adolescents in South Delhi and its epidemiological correlates. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Three schools and two colleges in South Delhi. Participants: Five hundred and fifty adolescents aged 14-19 years. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test, multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among the study participants, 65 (11.8% reported having carried a weapon in past 30 days. Seventy-four (13.5% respondents had threatened or injured someone with a weapon in past 12 months. Almost one in every two boys (49.1% reported being involved in a physical fight in past 12 months. Involvement in interpersonal violence was found to be significantly more amongst males than females. Adolescents who were working part time were more likely to be ′at risk′ (67.5% than those not working (48.5%. In logistic regression analysis, the significant correlates of interpersonal violence were male gender, lower age, number of close friends, having seen role models smoke/drink, and residing in resettlement colonies, slums or villages. The findings regarding violence-related behaviors among adolescents are remarkably similar to those in other countries.

  1. Thermodynamic study of BaCuO[sub 2] and BaCu[sub 2]O[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimpo, Ryokichi; Nakamura, Yasushi (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The Gibbs energy changes for the syntheses of the interceramic compounds of BaCuO[sub 2] and BaCu[sub 2]O[sub 2] were investigated as a basic study in the Y-Ba-Cu-O system that includes a superconductor, YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6.5+x]. For the compound BaCuO[sub 2], thermogravimetry with CO[sub 2[minus

  2. Transfusion transmittable infections - Seroprevalence among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Transfusion transmittable infections (TTI continue to be a major threat to safe transfusion practices. Blood is one of the major sources of transmission of infectious diseases viz. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, syphilis, malaria, and many other infections in India. Screening assays for the infectious diseases with excellent sensitivity and specificity helps to enhance the safety of the blood transfusions reducing the diagnostic window period as much as possible. Aims: The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of TTIs viz., HIV, HCV, and HBV, among the blood donors in Max Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi, India based on dual testing strategy using high sensitive screening assays such as enhanced chemiluminescence assay and nucleic acid testing (NAT. Materials and Methods: A total of 41207 blood units collected from the donors (both voluntary and replacement donors were screened for the TTI s, viz., anti HIV 1 and 2 antibody, anti HCV antibody, anti HBcore antibody, and HBsAg by enhanced chemiluminescence assay on VITROS ® ECiQ immunodiagnostics system. NAT was performed using Roche Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX assay, which can detect simultaneously HIV 1 (groups M and O, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV on Roche Cobas ® s201 system. Results: The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, anti HBcore antibody, and HCV based on enhanced chemiluminescence assay was found to be 0.25, 0.2, 7.06, and 0.7%, respectively. A total number of 6587 samples from July 2010 to December 2010 were tested on NAT, of which 3 samples were reactive for HBV in NAT; this was missed by enhanced chemiluminescence assay. Conclusions: Based on the seroprevalence study of infectious diseases viz., HIV, HBV, and HCV, we conclude that screening of blood and blood components by dual testing strategy using high sensitivity serological assay like enhanced chemiluminescence technology and NAT helps in detecting the

  3. Assessment of land surface temperature and heat fluxes over Delhi using remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Surya Deb; Kant, Yogesh; Mitra, Debashis

    2015-01-15

    Surface energy processes has an essential role in urban weather, climate and hydrosphere cycles, as well in urban heat redistribution. The research was undertaken to analyze the potential of Landsat and MODIS data in retrieving biophysical parameters in estimating land surface temperature & heat fluxes diurnally in summer and winter seasons of years 2000 and 2010 and understanding its effect on anthropogenic heat disturbance over Delhi and surrounding region. Results show that during years 2000-2010, settlement and industrial area increased from 5.66 to 11.74% and 4.92 to 11.87% respectively which in turn has direct effect on land surface temperature (LST) and heat fluxes including anthropogenic heat flux. Based on the energy balance model for land surface, a method to estimate the increase in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) has been proposed. The settlement and industrial areas has higher amounts of energy consumed and has high values of Has in all seasons. The comparison of satellite derived LST with that of field measured values show that Landsat estimated values are in close agreement within error of ±2 °C than MODIS with an error of ±3 °C. It was observed that, during 2000 and 2010, the average change in surface temperature using Landsat over settlement & industrial areas of both seasons is 1.4 °C & for MODIS data is 3.7 °C. The seasonal average change in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) estimated using Landsat & MODIS is up by around 38 W/m(2) and 62 W/m(2) respectively while higher change is observed over settlement and concrete structures. The study reveals that the dynamic range of Has values has increased in the 10 year period due to the strong anthropogenic influence over the area. The study showed that anthropogenic heat flux is an indicator of the strength of urban heat island effect, and can be used to quantify the magnitude of the urban heat island effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, D S; Dumka, U C; Kaskaoutis, D G; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Attri, S D; Sateesh, M; Tiwari, S

    2015-07-15

    Particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO4(2-) and NO3(-)) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM2.5 samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO4(2-) and NO3(-)). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM2.5 (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM2.5 (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6μgm(-3) (annual mean of 124.6±87.9μgm(-3)) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4μgm(-3)) than daytime (103.8μgm(-3)) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO3(-)and SO4(2-), which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R(2)=0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~1.8-2.0Kday(-1)) due to agricultural burning effects during the 2012 post-monsoon season. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Resurrecting social infrastructure as a determinant of urban tuberculosis control in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shivani; Sharma, Nandini; Joshi, Kulanand; Aggarwal, Nishi; Kannan, Anjur Tupil

    2014-01-17

    The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings. A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes. The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita income, literacy, and net

  6. How can power discourses be changed? - Contrasting the ‘daughter deficit’ policy of the Delhi government with Gandhi and King’s transformational reframing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); M. Sinha (Manisha)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSocial policy impact is partly determined by how policy is articulated and advocated, including which values are highlighted and how. In this paper, we examine the influence of policy framing and reframing on outcomes, with particular reference to the policies of the Delhi state

  7. How can power discourses be changed? : Contrasting the ‘daughter deficit’ policy of the Delhi government with Gandhi and King’s transformational reframing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sinha (Manisha); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSocial policy impact is partly determined by how policy is articulated and advocated, including which values are highlighted and how. We examine the influence of policy framing and reframing on outcomes, with particular reference to policies of the Delhi state government in India that

  8. 76 FR 80334 - U.S. Medical Trade Mission to India; Mumbai, New Delhi and Hyderabad March 2-8, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... of healthcare serviced required have changed due to the change in the demographic profile of India... practices in India to security; Embassy/Consulate briefings on the business climate, political scenario... Mission to India; Mumbai, New Delhi and Hyderabad March 2-8, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade...

  9. Occurrence and characterization of multidrugresistant new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1- producing bacteria isolated between 2003 and 2010 in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Islam (Mohammad S.); M.N. Huq (Mohammed); A. Nabi (Ashikun); P.K. Talukdar (Prabhat Kumar); D. Ahmed (Dilruba); K.A. Talukder (Kaisar); A. Cravioto (Alejandro); H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to screen for reduced susceptibility against imipenem and the presence of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) gene in a collection of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Shigella spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae) from different surveillance studies

  10. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  11. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  12. New Spectroscopy at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoni, M.A.; /INFN, Rome

    2007-04-18

    The Babar experiment at the SLAC B factory has accumulated a high luminosity that offers the possibility of systematic studies of quarkonium spectroscopy and of investigating rare new phenomena. Recent results in this field are presented. In recent times spectroscopy has become exciting again, after the discovery of new states that are not easily explained by conventional models. States such as the X(3872) and the Y(4260) could be new excited charmonium states, but require precise measurements for positive identification. The BaBar experiment [1] is installed at the asymmetric storage ring PEP-II. 90% of the data accumulated by BaBar are taken at the Y(4S) (10.58 GeV) and 10% just below (10.54 GeV). The BaBar detector includes a 5-layer, double-sided silicon vertex tracker and a 40-layer drift chamber in a 1.5 T solenoidal magnetic field, which detect charged particles and measures their momenta and ionization energy losses. Photons, electrons, and neutral hadrons are detected with a CsI(Tl)-crystal electromagnetic calorimeter. An internally reflecting ring-imaging Cherenkov is also used for particle id. Penetrating muon and neutral hadrons are identified by an array of resistive-plate chambers embedded in the steel of the flux return. The detector allows good track and vertex resolution, good particle id and good photon detection so it is especially suited for spectroscopy studies.

  13. Integrated hydrogeochemical, isotopic and geomorphological depiction of the groundwater salinization in the aquifer system of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Rao, M. Someshwar; Deka, Jyoti Prakash; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Bhishm

    2015-11-01

    The problem of salinization in the Delhi aquifer, that currently exhibits rapid landuse change, is conspicuous and severe. Salinization may be caused either by a single process, or a combination of different processes; including anthropogenic related activities, water logging and evaporative concentration of salts, influx of natural saline water, upconing of brines from the deeper parts of the aquifer, and airborne salts depositions. However, there is a lack of well-proven theory that can explain the salinity of the order of 5000 μS/cm in the deeper aquifers of Delhi. This work identifies inconclusiveness in the previous theories of marine ingression, evaporation enrichment and subsequent leaching of salt. Further, the study depicts a conceptual understanding of the origin of salinity in groundwater based on the integrated investigations of groundwater quality, age and stable isotopic fingerprinting as well as GIS based mapping of geomorphic features. In order to explain the salinity observed in groundwater of NCT Delhi, a phenomenological scenario is illustrated and supported by additional evidences. The highest average EC value was for the shallow aquifer and is strongly symptomatic of anthropogenic influences on groundwater chemistry. Piper diagram showed heterogeneous water type and sufficient recharge/mixing of the groundwater from different aquifers. The relationship between Cl-/Br- ratios vs. Cl- indicated dissolution of salt deposits containing evaporative fraction present in the unsaturated zones or in the sediments of deeper aquifers and leaching of evaporative minerals from dunes of the adjacent Thar Desert. Cl-/SO42- ratio suggested the presence of connate seawater, halite dissolution and concentration of dissolved salts by evapo-transpiration of river water diverted for irrigation. The results show, that the closed inland marine conditions developed and buried with the active sedimentation in the geological past in this region, and further intensive

  14. Prevalence of Cardio-metabolic Risk Factors: A Cross-sectional Study among Employed Adults in Urban Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeen, Deepa; Aeri, Bani Tamber

    2017-08-01

    Many studies have shown increasing prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) among employed adults. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) which is a predictor of increasing CVD is a cluster of risk factors like central obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension. Heredity, poor dietary choice, unhealthy lifestyle, job stress are some of the causes responsible for increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk among employed adults. To measure the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among employed adults in urban Delhi, India. Study design was cross-sectional with purposive sampling of 200 apparently healthy adults (both males and females) working in urban Delhi, India. Sociodemographic profile, anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist circumference) and biochemical measurements (lipid profile and fasting glucose) and blood pressure were documented. Physical activity pattern was assessed using WHO Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Univariate and multivariate regression analysis for associating cardio-metabolic risk factors among adults were performed using the SPSS 18.0 software. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome among males (66.6%) and females (57.2%) of 25 to 45 years of age was reported. Overall prevalence of MS was 62% among the study population. Central obesity (50.5%, p<0.04), low HDL (62%, p<0.05), hypertriglyceridemia (56.5%, p<0.00), hypertension (39%, p<0.00) and high fasting glucose (10.5%, p<0.76) were the most common abnormalities among males and females. Incidence of high BMI (54.5%, p<0.05) was positively correlated with MS risk factors. Associated cardio-metabolic risk factors besides MS were family history (43.5%, p<0.72), smoking (17.6%, p<0.001), drinking (18%, p<0.001) and physical inactivity. It was found that 32.8% of the subjects had low, 60.4% had moderate and only 7.0% had high physical activity. Employed adults in urban Delhi, India are at high risk of developing CVD due to high prevalence of MS and high

  15. Association between full service and fast food restaurant density, dietary intake and overweight/obesity among adults in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Opal; Shahulhameed, Safraj; Shivashankar, Roopa; Tayyab, Mohammad; Rahman, Atiqur; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil; Jaacks, Lindsay M

    2017-07-19

    The food environment has been implicated as an underlying contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between the food environment, dietary intake, and overweight/obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to assess the association of full service and fast food restaurant density with dietary intake and overweight/obesity in Delhi, India. Data are from a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Delhi. Using multilevel cluster random sampling, 5364 participants were selected from 134 census enumeration blocks (CEBs). Geographic information system data were available for 131 CEBs (n = 5264) from a field survey conducted using hand-held global positioning system devices. The number of full service and fast food restaurants within a 1-km buffer of CEBs was recorded by trained staff using ArcGIS software, and participants were assigned to tertiles of full service and fast food restaurant density based on their resident CEB. Height and weight were measured using standardized procedures and overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 . The most common full service and fast food restaurants were Indian savory restaurants (57.2%) and Indian sweet shops (25.8%). Only 14.1% of full service and fast food restaurants were Western style. After adjustment for age, household income, education, and tobacco and alcohol use, participants in the highest tertile of full service and fast food restaurant density were less likely to consume fruit and more likely to consume refined grains compared to participants in the lowest tertile (both p food restaurant density were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese: odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.44 (1.24, 1.67). After adjustment for age, household income, and education, the effect was attenuated: 1.08 (0.92, 1.26). Results were consistent with further adjustment for tobacco and alcohol use, moderate physical

  16. A cross-sectional study of QOL of diabetic patients at tertiary care hospitals in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Yogesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to WHO estimates India will be the global capital of diabetes by 2025, accounting for 57.2 million diabetics. Worsening the situation is the fact that diabetes affects the economically productive age-group (45-65 years in developing countries. Objective : To measure quality of life (QOL and study the clinical profiles and associated sociodemographic factors affecting diabetic patients aged 20 years and above. Materials and Methods: We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study using a generic instrument, Short-Form 36 (SF-36 of the Medical Outcome Study Group to measure QOL of diabetic subjects aged ≥20 years. Two hundred and sixty diabetics, including 91 males and 169 females, were selected from the clinics of SSK Hospital and Dr RML Hospital of New Delhi. Data was analysed using SPSS for Windows, version 12. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 years, with 80% of respondents being in the age-group of 40-69 years. The majority (52.1% of female respondents were illiterate and 91.1% were economically dependent. Of the male respondents, 65.9% were skilled workers. Substance abuse was present among 41.8% male subjects. Type 2 diabetes was the commonest, with 94.6% of the subjects having this form. The mean duration of diabetes was 6.96 ± 6.08 years. Oral hypoglycemic agents were being taken by 70.77% of the respondents. Among the diabetics the most common comorbidity was hypertension (30.8% and the commonest complication was neuropathy (26.2%. We calculated the body mass index (BMI of all subjects and found that, 46.2% of the male and 59.8% of the female respondents were either overweight or obese. As predicted by the waist/hip ratio (WHR, 53.8% of the male and 66.9% of the female respondents had high risk for CHD. Regular physical activity was undertaken by less than half of the subjects (46.5%. Out of eight domains of QOL in the SF-36, the two most affected were ′General Health′ and

  17. Comprehensive analysis of the Cramer–Rao bounds for magnetic resonance temperature change measurement in fat–water voxels using multi-echo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Cory; Soher, Brian J.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; MacFall, James

    2012-01-01

    Object The aim of this paper is to characterize the noise propagation for MRI temperature change measurement with emphasis on finding the best echo time combinations that yield the lowest temperature noise. Materials and methods A Cramer–Rao lower-bound (CRLB) calculation was used to estimate the temperature noise for a model of the MR signal in fat–water voxels. The temperature noise CRLB was then used to find a set of echo times that gave the lowest temperature change noise for a range of fat–water frequency differences, temperature changes, fat/water signal ratios, and T2* values. CRLB estimates were verified by Monte Carlo simulation and in phantoms using images acquired in a 1.5 T magnet. Results Results show that regions exist where the CRLB predicts minimal temperature variation as a function of the other variables. The results also indicate that the CRLB values calculated in this paper provide excellent guidance for predicting the variation of temperature measurements due to changes in the signal parameters. For three echo scans, the best noise characteristics are seen for TE values of 20.71, 23.71, and 26.71 ms. Results for five and seven echo scans are also presented in the text. Conclusion The results present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of different scan parameters on temperature noise, potentially benefiting the selection of scan parameters for clinical MRI thermometry. PMID:21442434

  18. Derivation of the Cramér-Rao Bound in the GNSS-Reflectometry Context for Static, Ground-Based Receivers in Scenarios with Coherent Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Miguel Angel; Botteron, Cyril; Farine, Pierre-André

    2016-12-05

    The use of the reflected Global Navigation Satellite Systems' (GNSS) signals in Earth observation applications, referred to as GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R), has been already studied for more than two decades. However, the estimation precision that can be achieved by GNSS-R sensors in some particular scenarios is still not fully understood yet. In an effort to partially fill this gap, in this paper, we compute the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) for the specific case of static ground-based GNSS-R receivers and scenarios where the coherent component of the reflected signal is dominant. We compute the CRB for GNSS signals with different modulations, GPS L1 C/A and GPS L5 I/Q, which use binary phase-shift keying, and Galileo E1 B/C and E5, using the binary offset carrier. The CRB for these signals is evaluated as a function of the receiver bandwidth and different scenario parameters, such as the height of the receiver or the properties of the reflection surface. The CRB computation presented considers observation times of up to several tens of seconds, in which the satellite elevation angle observed changes significantly. Finally, the results obtained show the theoretical benefit of using modern GNSS signals with GNSS-R techniques using long observation times, such as the interference pattern technique.

  19. Radiological protection regulation during spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'SevRAO'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, A V; Sneve, M K; Abramov, Yu V; Kochetkov, O A; Smith, G M; Tsovianov, A G; Romanov, V V

    2008-12-01

    The site of temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, situated at Andreeva Bay in Northwest Russia, was developed in the 1960s, and it has carried out receipt and storage of fresh and spent nuclear fuel, and solid and liquid radioactive waste generated during the operation of nuclear submarines and nuclear-powered icebreakers. The site is now operated as the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, SevRAO. In the course of operation over several decades, the containment barriers in the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste storage facilities partially lost their containment effectiveness, so workshop facilities and parts of the site became contaminated with radioactive substances. This paper describes work being undertaken to provide an updated regulatory basis for the protection of workers during especially hazardous remediation activities, necessary because of the unusual radiation conditions at the site. It describes the results of recent survey work carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, within a programme of regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia. The survey work and subsequent analyses have contributed to the development of special regulations setting out radiological protection requirements for operations planned at the site. Within these requirements, and taking account of a variety of other factors, a continuing need arises for the implementation of optimisation of remediation at Andreeva Bay.

  20. Carrier and Clock Recovery in (Turbo-Coded Systems: Cramér-Rao Bound and Synchronizer Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moeneclaey

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB for joint carrier phase, carrier frequency, and timing estimation from a noisy linearly modulated signal with encoded data symbols. We obtain a closed-form expression for the CRB in terms of the marginal a posteriori probabilities of the coded symbols, allowing efficient numerical evaluation of the CRB for a wide range of coded systems by means of the BCJR algorithm. Simulation results are presented for a rate 1/2 turbo code combined with QPSK mapping. We point out that the synchronization parameters for the coded system are essentially decoupled. We find that, at the normal (i.e., low operating SNR of the turbo-coded system, the true CRB for coded transmission is (i essentially the same as the modified CRB and (ii considerably smaller than the true CRB for uncoded transmission. Comparison of actual synchronizer performance with the CRB for turbo-coded QPSK reveals that a “code-aware” soft-decision-directed synchronizer can perform very closely to this CRB, whereas “code-unaware” estimators such as the conventional non-data-aided algorithm are substantially worse; when operating on coded signals, the performance of the latter synchronizers is still limited by the CRB for uncoded transmission.

  1. Chemical characterization of PM1.0 aerosol in Delhi and source apportionment using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash; Singhai, Amrita; Habib, Gazala; Raman, Ramya Sunder; Gupta, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Fine aerosol fraction (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter refining in Punjab, and thermal power plants in Pakistan, Punjab, and NCR Delhi were likely contributors to secondary sulfate, nitrate, and secondary chloride at the receptor site. The agricultural residue burning after harvesting season (Sept-Dec and Feb-Apr) in Punjab, and Haryana contributed to potassium at receptor site during November-December and March 2010. The soil dust from North and East Pakistan, and Rajasthan, North-East Punjab, and Haryana along with the local dust contributed to soil dust at the receptor site, during February and March 2010. A combination of temporal behavior and air parcel trajectory ensemble analyses indicated that the iron-rich source was most likely a local source attributed to emissions from metal processing facilities. Further, as expected, the vehicular emissions source did not show any seasonality and was local in origin.

  2. Prevalence of Basidiobolus ranarum Eidam in the intestinal tract of an insectivorous bat, Rhinopoma hardwickei hardwickei Gray, in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, V P; Randhawa, H S; Khan, Z U; Singh, N; Kini, S

    1984-01-01

    The prevalance of Basidiobolus ranarum Eidam is reported from the intestinal contents of 14 (7%) of 200 bats belonging to Rhinopoma hardwickei hardwickei Gray ('the lesser rat-tailed bat'), an insectivorous species captured from Delhi area. Eleven of the positive bats were captured during August/September whereas the remaining three came from collections made during November or April. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were found in the intestine of the bats yielding B. ranarum. This is believed to be the first report on the association of B. ranarum with bats. A more extensive sampling of bat species including their guano is indicated to elucidate the role of Chiroptera in the biological cycle of B. ranarum.

  3. Effect of life skills training on physical activity patterns amongst school adolescents in Delhi: a non-randomized interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Ingle, Gopal Krishna; Meena, Gajendra Singh; Kishore, Jugal; Yadav, Sangita

    2014-01-01

    Effect of life skills on physical activity behavior of adolescents is little explored. To assess impact of life-skills training on the level of physical activity amongst adolescents. A nonrandomized interventional study with a control group. All students studying in Class IX and XI of two schools in Delhi were included. Data was collected at baseline, 15 days and 3 months after the life-skills training. Two life-skills training sessions were conducted for each standard following collection of baseline data. There were 180 students in the intervention and 183 students in the control group. A significant increase was noted in the level of light-moderate, vigorous physical activity, and stretching and strengthening exercises (pskills-based approach helped to improve the level of physical activity amongst the school adolescents.

  4. Effect of life skills training on dietary behavior of school adolescents in Delhi: a nonrandomized interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Ingle, G K; Meena, Gajendra Singh; Kishore, Jugal; Yadav, Sangita

    2015-03-01

    Skill-based education has been shown to reduce high-risk behavior among adolescents, but in India, life skills have often been looked at only from the reproductive health perspective. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of life skills training on dietary behavior of adolescents studying in grades 9 and 11 of 2 schools in Delhi. This was a nonrandomized interventional study with a control group. A self-administered questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary behavior at baseline, 15 days, and 3 months after the life skills training. Two life skills training sessions were imparted to the intervention group, focusing on the use of life skills in making healthy choices. Participants in the intervention group (n = 180) showed significant improvement in knowledge (P life skills training. To conclude, a skills-based approach does help improve the dietary behavior in adolescents. © 2013 APJPH.

  5. Economic value of safe water for the infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household: A case study in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Purnamita; Dasgupta, Rajib

    2004-11-01

    Delhi has witnessed rapid urbanization during the past 50 years, with ever increasing growth in population and economic activity leading to water stress in several parts of the city. This paper looks at the valuation of water as an economic resource in the context of a low-income, infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household, through the results of a primary survey. In doing so, it examines several issues, often interlinked, concerning the quality and quantity of water being "accessed" by households. While there is no one perfect way of estimating household demand for improved water services, the study uses the contingent valuation approach and evaluates the findings in terms of the health benefits from safe water and the costs of provision of safe supplies.

  6. Cancer related knowledge and behavior among women across various socio-economic strata: A study from Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the next few decades worldwide. One important step in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancers is awareness among the population about the causes and prevention of cancers. Objective: To study the knowledge and preventive behavior regarding common cancers among the women from an area of Delhi, India. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Four purposively selected residential areas representing various socio-economic strata, in North-East Delhi. Participants: One thousand two hundred and six women in the age group 18-60 years. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test. Results: Majority of the women (43.9% were graduates while 10.4% were illiterate. The awareness about breast cancer was maximum with 73.8% of the respondents being aware about it. The proportions of women aware about the other cancers were low. Only 52 (4.3% had ever been for a preventive check-up for cancer. The most common cancer checkup for which the respondents reported visiting a hospital was, breast cancer. Among the respondents, 46 (3.8% reported having a female member in their family who ever had cancer. Five hundred and seventy seven (47.8% had not seen any message regarding cancers common in females in any mass media. Women with a higher education level, having a female family member with cancer, and those who could recall mass media message regarding cancers, were significantly more likely to have had a preventive cancer checkup for self. Conclusion: The knowledge and actual preventive behavior about cancers was found to be low among the women. Increased mass media exposure and targeted strategies can possibly increase the awareness and the cancer-related health behavior among the women.

  7. Size distributions of n-alkanes, fatty acids and fatty alcohols in springtime aerosols from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mingjie; Fu, Pingqing; Aggarwal, Shankar G; Kumar, Sudhanshu; Zhao, Ye; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa

    2016-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in New Delhi, India from March 6 to April 6, 2012. Homologous series of n-alkanes (C19C33), n-fatty acids (C12C30) and n-alcohols (C16C32) were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed a high-variation in the concentrations and size distributions of these chemicals during non-haze, haze, and dust storm days. In general, n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and n-alcohols presented a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm for fine modes and coarse modes, respectively. Overall, the particulate matter mainly existed in the coarse mode (≥2.1 μm), accounting for 64.8-68.5% of total aerosol mass. During the haze period, large-scale biomass burning emitted substantial fine hydrophilic smoke particles into the atmosphere, which leads to relatively larger GMDs (geometric mean diameter) of n-alkanes in the fine mode than those during the dust storms and non-haze periods. Additionally, the springtime dust storms transported a large quantity of coarse particles from surrounding or local areas into the atmosphere, enhancing organic aerosol concentration and inducing a remarkable size shift towards the coarse mode, which are consistent with the larger GMDs of most organic compounds especially in total and coarse modes. Our results suggest that fossil fuel combustion (e.g., vehicular and industrial exhaust), biomass burning, residential cooking, and microbial activities could be the major sources of lipid compounds in the urban atmosphere in New Delhi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on air pollution trends (2010-2015 due to fireworks during Diwali festival in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Pandey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The burning of massive amount of fire crackers on the evening(s of a nation-wide celebrated festival called ‘Diwali’ in India, gives rise to a remarkably high concentration of criteria air pollutants and it is of utmost importance to investigate the impact of such high loads originated during a relatively shorter time span in a mega-city like Delhi where the situation of ambient air quality has already been alarming almost through-out the year. In view of the same, the present study analyzes available concentration data during this festival’s night for five criteria pollutants namely PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO (Particulate Matter, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide respectively along with NH3 at six key locations of Delhi. Following the analysis, PM10 concentration in Anand Vihar during nighttime of Diwali was reported to be ~8 times higher than the 24 hours values prescribed by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS. On the other hand, the same at IGI airport was recorded lowest even though about 3.5 times that of the guiding standard. PM2.5 concentrations were reported as highest and lowest at RK Puram and Civil lines respectively, in both the cases quite exceeding the comparable standard values. Interestingly, remaining criteria pollutants, namely, SO2, NO2 and CO along with NH3 measured in 2015 showed no values in excess of corresponding 24-hrs guidelines, thereby reporting a better scenario compared to previous years. Further, the extensive use of firecrackers during Diwali festival leads to substantial increase in air pollutants necessitating special measures to control.

  9. Characteristics and programme-defined treatment outcomes among childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under the national TB programme in Delhi.

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    Srinath Satyanarayana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP are managed using diagnostic algorithms and directly observed treatment with intermittent thrice-weekly short-course treatment regimens for 6-8 months. The assignment into pre-treatment weight bands leads to drug doses (milligram per kilogram that are lower than current World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for some patients. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of our study was to describe the baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes reported under RNTCP for registered childhood (age <15 years TB patients in Delhi. Additionally, we compared the reported programmatic treatment completion rates between children treated as per WHO recommended anti-TB drug doses with those children treated with anti-TB drug doses below that recommended in WHO guidelines. METHODS: For this cross-sectional retrospective study, we reviewed programme records of all 1089 TB patients aged <15 years registered for TB treatment from January to June, 2008 in 6 randomly selected districts of Delhi. WHO disease classification and treatment outcome definitions are used by RNTCP, and these were extracted as reported in programme records. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among 1074 patients with records available, 651 (61% were females, 122 (11% were <5 years of age, 1000 (93% were new cases, and 680 (63% had extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB--most commonly peripheral lymph node disease [310 (46%]. Among 394 pulmonary TB (PTB cases, 165 (42% were sputum smear-positive. The overall reported treatment completion rate was 95%. Similar reported treatment completion rates were found in all subgroups assessed, including those patients whose drug dosages were lower than that currently recommended by WHO. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the low proportion of under-5 years of age TB case notifications, address challenges in reaching all childhood TB patients by RNTCP, the

  10. Cancer related knowledge and behavior among women across various socio-economic strata: A study from Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Bhasin, Sanjiv K.; Agrawal, Sandeep; Tewari, Reeti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the next few decades worldwide. One important step in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancers is awareness among the population about the causes and prevention of cancers. Objective: To study the knowledge and preventive behavior regarding common cancers among the women from an area of Delhi, India. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Four purposively selected residential areas representing various socio-economic strata, in North-East Delhi. Participants: One thousand two hundred and six women in the age group 18-60 years. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test. Results: Majority of the women (43.9%) were graduates while 10.4% were illiterate. The awareness about breast cancer was maximum with 73.8% of the respondents being aware about it. The proportions of women aware about the other cancers were low. Only 52 (4.3%) had ever been for a preventive check-up for cancer. The most common cancer checkup for which the respondents reported visiting a hospital was, breast cancer. Among the respondents, 46 (3.8%) reported having a female member in their family who ever had cancer. Five hundred and seventy seven (47.8%) had not seen any message regarding cancers common in females in any mass media. Women with a higher education level, having a female family member with cancer, and those who could recall mass media message regarding cancers, were significantly more likely to have had a preventive cancer checkup for self. Conclusion: The knowledge and actual preventive behavior about cancers was found to be low among the women. Increased mass media exposure and targeted strategies can possibly increase the awareness and the cancer-related health behavior among the women. PMID:24455555

  11. An urban systems framework to assess the trans-boundary food-energy-water nexus: implementation in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Anu; Boyer, Dana; Singh Nagpure, Ajay; Fang, Andrew; Bogra, Shelly; Bakshi, Bhavik; Cohen, Elliot; Rao-Ghorpade, Ashish

    2017-02-01

    This paper develops a generalizable systems framework to analyze the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus from an urban systems perspective, connecting in- and trans-boundary interactions, quantifying multiple environmental impacts of community-wide FEW provisioning to cities, and visualizing FEW supply-chain risks posed to cities by the environment. Delhi’s community-wide food demand includes household consumption by socio-economic-strata, visitors- and industrial food-use. This demand depends 90%, 76%, and 86% on trans-boundary supply of FEW, respectively. Supply chain data reveal unique features of trans-boundary FEW production regions (e.g. irrigation-electricity needs and GHG intensities of power-plants), yielding supply chain-informed coupled energy-water-GHG footprints of FEW provisioning to Delhi. Agri-food supply contributes to both GHG (19%) and water-footprints (72%-82%) of Delhi’s FEW provisioning, with milk, rice and wheat dominating these footprints. Analysis of FEW interactions within Delhi found >75% in-boundary water-use for food is for urban agriculture and >76% in-boundary energy-use for food is from cooking fuels. Food waste-to-energy and energy-intensity of commercial and industrial food preparation are key data gaps. Visualizing supply chains shows >75% of water embodied in Delhi’s FEW supply is extracted from locations over-drafting ground water. These baseline data enable evaluation of future urban FEW scenarios, comparing impacts of demand shifts, production shifts, and emerging technologies and policies, within and outside of cities.

  12. Empirical model for estimating dengue incidence using temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity: a 19-year retrospective analysis in East Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vishnampettai G; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Mogha, Narendra Singh; Bansal, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting the dengue virus. The mosquito lifecycle is known to be influenced by temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity. This retrospective study was planned to investigate whether climatic factors could be used to predict the occurrence of dengue in East Delhi. The number of monthly dengue cases reported over 19 years was obtained from the laboratory records of our institution. Monthly data of rainfall, temperature, and humidity collected from a local weather station were correlated with the number of monthly reported dengue cases. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyse whether the climatic parameters differed significantly among seasons. Four models were developed using negative binomial generalized linear model analysis. Monthly rainfall, temperature, humidity, were used as independent variables, and the number of dengue cases reported monthly was used as the dependent variable. The first model considered data from the same month, while the other three models involved incorporating data with a lag phase of 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. The greatest number of cases was reported during the post-monsoon period each year. Temperature, rainfall, and humidity varied significantly across the pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon periods. The best correlation between these three climatic factors and dengue occurrence was at a time lag of 2 months. This study found that temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity significantly affected dengue occurrence in East Delhi. This weather-based dengue empirical model can forecast potential outbreaks 2-month in advance, providing an early warning system for intensifying dengue control measures.

  13. Mineralogical Mapping using Field and Image Based Spectra in Parts of Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Khatun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to retrieve reflectance utilizing the raw (radiance data from EO-1 Hyperion dataset and to evaluate its application potential in mineral exploration in parts of Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt region of western India. The area is marked by basement Precambrian gneissic rocks, overlain by supra crustal cover of the Aravalli Super group, Delhi Super group, Vindhyan Super group and younger rocks. These rocks are highly metamorphosed, structurally deformed and show sporadic occurrences of important ore minerals deposits of metallic (Pb, Zn, Cu and non metallic minerals (Apatite and Marbles. This paper involves generation of hyperspectral image spectra and field spectra to identify spectral characteristics of minerals. FLAASH (expansion atmospheric correction model was applied to retrieve reflectance image from the radiance data. Preprocessing techniques involved selection of good spectral bands, correction of missing lines and pixels before application of FLAASH atmospheric model. Using image processing techniques suitable for hyperspectral image analysis (Spectral Angle Mapper, MNF, End-member matching, Hyperion data over Udaipur, Dungarpur and Chittorgarh districts was analysed and minerals were identified such as rectorite, pyrope, dolomite, montmorillonite, erionite, talc, phologopite, pyrrohite, hematite,olivine, diopside, pyrite, tephrite, lepidolite, andalusite and Fe-rich chlorite. The end member map generated by using advance techniques like SAM was validated using ground truth and spot sample collected, therein, was further analyzed using spectro radiometer in VNIR range. Keeping view on the ubiquitous hydrothermal origin of base metals, special emphasis was put to clay-mica group of minerals as they often proxy for the zone of alteration. This lead to defining the exact zone of hydrothermal alteration throwing light on proximity with igneous intrusion and type associated of metal. Application of such technology

  14. Geoenvironmental weathering/deterioration of landfilled MSWI-BA glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunmei; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Zhao, Chun; Peng, Xuya; Gao, Junmin

    2014-08-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA) glass serves as a matrix of assorted bottom ash (BA) compounds. Deterioration of the BA glass phases is quite important as they regulate the distribution of a series of toxic elements. This paper studied landfilled MSWI-BA samples from the mineralogical and geochemical viewpoint to understand the deterioration behavior of the BA glass phases as well as mechanisms involved. Bulk analysis by PXRD as well as micro-scale analysis by optical microscopy and SEM/EDX was conducted for such purposes. The results revealed that dissolution of the BA glass phases has resulted in a deterioration layer of 10(0)-10(2)μm thickness after years of disposal. This rapid weathering process is highly relevant to the specific glass characteristics and solution pH. The BA glass phases with more embedded compounds and cracks/fissures tend to be more vulnerable. Moreover, the generally alkaline pH in ash deposit favors a rapid disruption of the glass phase. The weathering products are mainly gel phases (including Al-Si gel, Ca-Al-Si gel, Fe-Al-Si gel etc.) with iron oxide/hydroxide as accessory products. Breakdown of the BA glass phases triggers chemical evolution of the embedded compounds. Based on all the findings above, a model is proposed to illustrate a general evolution trend for the landfilled MSWI-BA glass phases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Syntheses and crystal structures of BaAgTbS{sub 3}, BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Jai; Beard, Jessica C.; Ibers, James A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Mesbah, Adel [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); ICSM-UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/UM2/ENSCM, Bat 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France)

    2015-06-15

    Five new quaternary chalcogenides of the 1113 family, namely BaAgTbS{sub 3}, BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3}, were synthesized by the reactions of the elements at 1173-1273 K. For CsAgUTe{sub 3} CsCl flux was used. Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The sulfide BaAgTbS{sub 3} crystallizes in the BaAgErS{sub 3} structure type in the monoclinic space group C{sup 3},{sub 2h}-C2/m, whereas the tellurides BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3} crystallize in the KCuZrS{sub 3} structure type in the orthorhombic space group D{sup 1},{sub 2}{sup 7},{sub h}-Cmcm. The BaAgTbS{sub 3} structure consists of edge-sharing [TbS{sub 6}{sup 9-}] octahedra and [AgS{sub 5}{sup 9-}] trigonal pyramids. The connectivity of these polyhedra creates channels that are occupied by Ba atoms. The telluride structure features {sup 2}{sub ∞}[MLnTe{sub 3}{sup 2-}] layers for BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and {sup 2}{sub ∞}[AgUTe{sub 3}{sup 1-}] layers for CsAgUTe{sub 3}. These layers comprise [MTe{sub 4}] tetrahedra and [LnTe{sub 6}] or [UTe{sub 6}] octahedra. Ba or Cs atoms separate these layers. As there are no short Q..Q (Q = S or Te) interactions these compounds achieve charge balance as Ba{sup 2+}M{sup +}Ln{sup 3+}(Q{sup 2-}){sub 3} (Q = S and Te) and Cs{sup +}Ag{sup +}U{sup 4+}(Te{sup 2-}){sub 3}. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Revisiting the Cramér Rao Lower Bound for Elastography: Predicting the Performance of Axial, Lateral and Polar Strain Elastograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prashant; Doyley, Marvin M

    2017-09-01

    We derived the Cramér Rao lower bound for 2-D estimators employed in quasi-static elastography. To illustrate the theory, we modeled the 2-D point spread function as a sinc-modulated sine pulse in the axial direction and as a sinc function in the lateral direction. We compared theoretical predictions of the variance incurred in displacements and strains when quasi-static elastography was performed under varying conditions (different scanning methods, different configuration of conventional linear array imaging and different-size kernels) with those measured from simulated or experimentally acquired data. We performed studies to illustrate the application of the derived expressions when performing vascular elastography with plane wave and compounded plane wave imaging. Standard deviations in lateral displacements were an order higher than those in axial. Additionally, the derived expressions predicted that peak performance should occur when 2% strain is applied, the same order of magnitude as observed in simulations (1%) and experiments (1%-2%). We assessed how different configurations of conventional linear array imaging (number of active reception and transmission elements) influenced the quality of axial and lateral strain elastograms. The theoretical expressions predicted that 2-D echo tracking should be performed with wide kernels, but the length of the kernels should be selected using knowledge of the magnitude of the applied strain: specifically, longer kernels for small strains (<5%) and shorter kernels for larger strains. Although the general trends of theoretical predictions and experimental observations were similar, biases incurred during beamforming and subsample displacement estimation produced noticeable differences. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions with BaO and MgO/BaO barriers

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    J. Rogge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We succeed to integrate BaO as a tunneling barrier into Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs. By means of Auger electron spectroscopy it could be proven that the applied annealing temperatures during BaO deposition and afterwards do not cause any diffusion of Ba neither into the lower Heusler compound lead nor into the upper Fe counter electrode. Nevertheless, a negative tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR ratio of -10% is found for Co2FeAl (24 nm / BaO (5 nm / Fe (7 nm MTJs, which can be attributed to the preparation procedure and can be explained by the formation of Co- and Fe-oxides at the interfaces between the Heusler and the crystalline BaO barrier by comparing with theory. Although an amorphous structure of the BaO barrier seems to be confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it cannot entirely be ruled out that this is an artifact of TEM sample preparation due to the sensitivity of BaO to moisture. By replacing the BaO tunneling barrier with an MgO/BaO double layer barrier, the electric stability could effectively be increased by a factor of five. The resulting TMR effect is found to be about +20% at room temperature, although a fully antiparallel state has not been realized.

  18. On the occurrence of Common Baron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae: Euthalia aconthea Cramer, 1777 in the Delhi area and analysis of abiotic factors affecting its distribution in India

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    Rajv K. Singh Bais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives details of the occurrence of Euthalia aconthea from Delhi area situated in the Indo-Gangetic plains.  Occurrence records of this species suggest that it is most frequent in five zones of India, despite the fact that its main larval food plant Mango Mangifera indica is abundantly available almost throughout India.  Possible abiotic factors are hypothesized for this distribution. 

  19. Association between full service and fast food restaurant density, dietary intake and overweight/obesity among adults in Delhi, India

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    Opal Patel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food environment has been implicated as an underlying contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between the food environment, dietary intake, and overweight/obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The aim of this study was to assess the association of full service and fast food restaurant density with dietary intake and overweight/obesity in Delhi, India. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Delhi. Using multilevel cluster random sampling, 5364 participants were selected from 134 census enumeration blocks (CEBs. Geographic information system data were available for 131 CEBs (n = 5264 from a field survey conducted using hand-held global positioning system devices. The number of full service and fast food restaurants within a 1-km buffer of CEBs was recorded by trained staff using ArcGIS software, and participants were assigned to tertiles of full service and fast food restaurant density based on their resident CEB. Height and weight were measured using standardized procedures and overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Results The most common full service and fast food restaurants were Indian savory restaurants (57.2% and Indian sweet shops (25.8%. Only 14.1% of full service and fast food restaurants were Western style. After adjustment for age, household income, education, and tobacco and alcohol use, participants in the highest tertile of full service and fast food restaurant density were less likely to consume fruit and more likely to consume refined grains compared to participants in the lowest tertile (both p < 0.05. In unadjusted logistic regression models, participants in the highest versus lowest tertile of full service and fast food restaurant density were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese: odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 1.44 (1.24, 1.67. After adjustment for age

  20. Determination of wood burning and fossil fuel contribution of black carbon at Delhi, India using aerosol light absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, A K; Bisht, D S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive measurement program of effective black carbon (eBC), fine particle (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) was undertaken during 1 December 2011 to 31 March 2012 (winter period) in Delhi, India. The mean mass concentrations of eBC, PM2.5, and CO were recorded as 12.1 ± 8.7 μg/m(3), 182.75 ± 114.5 μg/m(3), and 3.41 ± 1.6 ppm, respectively, during the study period. Also, the absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) was estimated from eBC and varied from 0.38 to 1.29 with a mean value of 1.09 ± 0.11. The frequency of occurrence of AAE was ~17 % less than unity whereas ~83 % greater than unity was observed during the winter period in Delhi. The mass concentrations of eBC were found to be higher by ~34 % of the average value of eBC (12.1 μg/m(3)) during the study period. Sources of eBC were estimated, and they were ~94 % from fossil fuel (eBCff) combustion whereas only 6 % was from wood burning (eBCwb). The ratio between eBCff and eBCwb was 15, which indicates a higher impact from fossil fuels compared to biomass burning. When comparing eBCff during day and night, a factor of three higher concentrations was observed in nighttime than daytime, and it is due to combustion of fossil fuel (diesel vehicle emission) and shallow boundary layer conditions. The contribution of eBCwb in eBC was higher between 1800 and 2100 hours due to burning of wood/biomass. A significant correlation between eBC and PM2.5 (r = 0.78) and eBC and CO (r = 0.46) indicates the similarity in location sources. The mass concentration of eBC was highest (23.4 μg/m(3)) during the month of December when the mean visibility (VIS) was lowest (1.31 km). Regression analysis among wind speed (WS), VIS, soot particles, and CO was studied, and significant negative relationships were seen between VIS and eBC (-0.65), eBCff (-0.66), eBCwb (-0.34), and CO (-0.65); however, between WS and eBC (-0.68), eBCff (-0.67), eBCwb (-0.28), and CO (-0.53). The regression analysis indicated

  1. A Dubious Distinction? The BA versus the BS in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, Rory A.; Norcross, John C.; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S.; Stamm, Karen E.; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have documented small differences between the bachelor of arts (BA) and the bachelor of science (BS) psychology degrees in their general education core requirements, particularly mathematics and science courses. But are there differences between the BA and BS degrees within the psychology curriculum? Using data from the…

  2. Exotic decay in Ba isotopes via 12 C emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Considering Coulomb and proximity potentials as barriers, we have calculated the half lives for 12C emission from various Ba isotopes using different mass tables. The half life for 112Ba isotope calculated by us is 6.020 × 103 s which is comparable with the experimental value 5.620 × 103 s. From our study it is found that ...

  3. Ba II 4554 Å speckle imaging as solar Doppler diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sütterlin, P.; Rutten, R.J.; Skomorovsky, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    We present observations testing the Dopplergram capability of a narrow-band (80 mÅ) Lyot filter imaging the solar surface in the wings of the Ba II 4554 Å resonance line in combination with speckle reconstruction to obtain high angular resolution. The Ba II line is found to be an excellent tool

  4. Using heronry birds to monitor urbanization impacts: a case study of painted stork Mycteria leucocephala nesting in the Delhi Zoo, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2010-03-01

    Although urbanization is a frequently cited cause of biodiversity loss (Czech and Krausman 1997) our understanding about urban ecology is severely limited (Marzluff et al. 2001). Birds are popular bio-indicators of environmental change because they are ecologically versatile, their populations as well as select fitness parameters can be conveniently monitored, often with the voluntary involvement of local nature enthusiasts across large geographical scales, and their presence/absence in a particular area is consequential (Bibby et al. 1992; Urfi 2004). In India, while several studies have focused on changes in bird populations and distributions in natural habitats (Urfi et al. 2005), very few have actually attempted to study either the impacts of urbanization on birds or how different species have adjusted to environmental change. However, many Indian cities offer foraging and nesting habitat for birds, especially colonial waterbirds such as stork, ibis, spoonbill, heron, egret, cormorant, and spoonbill. Some notable examples in this regard are Piele Gardens in Bhavnagar city (Parasharya and Naik 1990), Karanji Tank in Mysore (Jamgaonkar et al. 1994) and the National Zoological Park (hence forth Delhi Zoo) in India's capital city New Delhi (Urfi 1997). In this article, I focus on the opportunities for meaningful ecological research offered by the wild waterbirds nesting in the Delhi Zoo premises and discuss the significance for initiating novel, long term conservation monitoring programs, involving volunteers and bird watchers, to create data bases that will be useful for understanding urbanization and climate change impacts on biodiversity.

  5. Radioactive contamination of BaF2 crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Polischuk, O G; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Di Marco, A; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I

    2013-01-01

    Barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal scintillators are promising detectors to search for double beta decay processes in $^{130}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 2619(3) keV) and $^{132}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 844(1) keV). The $^{130}$Ba isotope is of particular interest because of the indications on 2${\\beta}$ decay found in two geochemical experiments. The radioactive contamination of BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 113.4 hours in a low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was estimated as $T_{1/2}$ = 298.8 $\\pm$ 0.8(stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events pulse profiles.

  6. Snakebites in Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Albuquerque

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiological data on snakebites in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, is scarce. This accounts for the difficulties in helping the victims. Hence, to obtain the clinical and epidemic profile of the snakebite accidents in Paraíba, we studied the number of cases recorded in this state between January 1995 and December 2000. The data was collected from these sources: Center for Toxicological Assistance (Centro de Assistência Toxicológica - CEATOX and State Secretariat of Health (Secretaria Estadual de Saude, João Pessoa; 3rd Regional Health Center (3º Núcleo Regional de Saúde - NRS and the Division of Epidemiological Vigilance of the Municipal Secretariat of Health (Divisão de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde - DVE/SMS, Campina Grande. The annual distribution of the snakebite incidence showed an irregularity and an increase in March, May and August; followed by a large reduction in November and December. It was also observed that snakebites occurred more frequently in the rural area, mainly among the male laborers between 10-49 years. In most cases, the bite occurred on the leg or foot. The interval between the snakebite and the medical assistance was less than six hours. The most common symptoms were pain, edema, erythema, and bleeding. The low lethality index and the high frequency of healing, without sequels, suggest that the treatment with serum neutralized the poison, indicating the efficacy of this treatment against snakebites by the specific species found in this region.

  7. When one becomes two: Ba12In4Se20, not quite isostructural to Ba12In4S19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenlong; Iyer, Abishek K.; Li, Chao; Yao, Jiyong; Mar, Arthur

    2017-09-01

    The ternary selenide Ba12In4Se20 was synthesized by reaction of BaSe, In2Se3, and Se at 1023 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed a trigonal structure (space group R 3 bar, Z = 6, a = 10.0360(6) Å, c = 78.286(4) Å at room temperature) consisting of one-dimensional stacks of InSe4 tetrahedra, In2Se7 double tetrahedra, selenide Se2- anions, and diselenide Se22- anions, with Ba2+ cations in the intervening spaces. The selenide Ba12In4Se20 can be derived from the corresponding sulfide Ba12In4S19 by replacing one monoatomic Ch2- anion with a diatomic Ch22- anion. An optical band gap of 1.70(2) eV, consistent with the dark red colour of the crystals, was deduced from the UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum.

  8. STUDY OF SERO-PREVALENCE OF DENGUE FEVER AND KNOWLEDGE ON DENGUE INFECTION IN CHALMEDA ANAND RAO INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES (CAIMS TEACHING HOSPITAL KARIMNAGAR, TELANGANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dengue virus infection has emerged as a notable public health problem in recent decades in terms of the mortality and morbidity associated with it Dengue is endemic in many parts of India and epidemics are frequently reported from various parts of India and abroad. This study aimed for finding out the frequency and distribution of dengue fever and its case fatality based on the variables such as age and sex during a time period of monsoon. The present study report communicates us the Sero-prevalence of dengue fever and the knowledge on dengue infection in the study subjects of Chalmeda Anand Rao Institute of Medical Sciences (CAIMS teaching hospital Karimnagar, Telangana, India. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. The present hospital study aims to describe the frequency, distribution and case fatality of dengue fever based on the variables such as age, sex and period of one month in CAIMS Teaching Hospital. 2. To assess the Sero-positive cases among all admitted fever cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS The total number 185 patients were admitted in medical ward and screened for Sero-positive dengue infection. It is across sectional study which is conducted by pre tested & structured questioner to assess knowledge and subjected for study to know the Sero-prevalence of dengue infection from 16th October 2015 to 15th November 2015 (period of 1 month. Blood samples were collected from 185 fever cases, Sera were separated and subjected for(Dengue check anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibody testing by the solid phase immune-chromatographic assay,( a commercial dengue virus rapid test kit manufactured by Standard Diagnostics, J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. ltd A 180 -181 Okla. Ind. in the Department of Microbiology CAIMS, Karimnagar. RESULTS Out of 185 admitted fever cases, 97(52.43% were found to be dengue positive for IgM or IgG or for both the antibodies. In 2015, the highest number of suspected dengue patients admitted was in the month of 16th October 2015 to 15th

  9. Rao, Prof. Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Solid State Chemistry, Surface Science, Spectroscopy and Molecular Structure Address: Linus Pauling Research Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bengaluru 560 064, Karnataka Contact: Office: (080) 2365 3075, (080) 2208 2761. Residence: (080) 2360 1410

  10. Prof. Bookinkere Channakeshavaiah Subba Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bookinkere Channakeshavaiah Ph.D. (Purdue). Date of birth: 8 December 1923. Date of death: 9 August 2017. Specialization: Applied Organic Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Last known address: 'Sri Ganga', No. 8, Temple Road, Jayalakshmipuram, Mysore 570 012, Karnataka. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  11. Rama Rao, Dr Alla Venkata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 2 April 1935. Specialization: Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Technology Address: Chairman & Managing Director, AVRA Laboratories Pvt. Ltd., AVRA House, 7-102/54, Sai Enclave, Habshiguda, Hyderabad 500 007, A.P.. Contact: Office: (040) 2717 8568-9. Residence: (040) 2717 3360. Mobile: 98481 35163

  12. B J Rao, TIFR, Mumbai

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    With the knowledge of discrete spatial chromosome territory organization within interphase nuclei, our current studyinvestigates the effect of DNA damage at the whole chromosome level. DNA damage,in a dose dependent manner,indeed induces a spatial repositioning of chromosomes specifically with higher gene density.

  13. Rao, Prof. Nittala Venkata Chalapathi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 23 May 1969. Specialization: Mineralogy, Igneous Petrology, Mantle Geochemistry, Geodynamics, Mineral Resources Address: Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, U.P.. Contact: Mobile: 99356 47365. Email: nvcr100@gmail.com, nvcraobhu@gmail.com.

  14. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romero-Alvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. Methods: The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem–EDTA disk method (synergy, and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. Results: An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. Conclusions: This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Keywords: NDM, South America, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Antibiotic resistance, Plasmid

  15. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Reyes, Jorge; Quezada, Viviana; Satán, Carolina; Cevallos, Nelson; Barrera, Sofía; Trueba, Gabriel; Escobar, Luis E; Villacís, José E

    2017-12-01

    To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem-EDTA disk method (synergy), and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding caries risk assessment and management in Delhi - National Capital Region: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluating a patients' risk is an essential primary step in the prevention of dental caries. Based on its results, different preventive strategies catering to patients' specific needs should be advised. Aim: To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice among dentists who are either attached with an institute or running a private practice or both in Delhi-National Capital Region regarding caries risk assessment (CRA and management. Materials and Methods: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of dentists' regarding CRA and management were assessed through a 30-item questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software 21.5. Frequencies were used to assess the demographic information, knowledge, attitude, and risk assessment practices. Results: Dental professionals with institutional attachment were better aware of the importance of CRA and practised it more frequently as compared to the dentists who were solely attached with a private practice. This attitude could be due to lack of time and inclination to treat more number of patients in a working day. Pedodontists were more aware than other specialists. Conclusions: There is a need to update knowledge regarding CRA and incorporate preventive practices in daily work schedule among dentists of all specialties.

  17. Exploration of health perceptions and assistive technology use by driving status as related to transportation independence in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Nahom M; Steinfeld, Aaron; Pearlman, Jon; Cooper, Rory A

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates travel tendencies among people with disabilities and senior citizens in New Delhi, India to reveal relationships between the desire for transportation independence, use of assistive technology for mobility, travel frequency, and satisfaction with available modes of transportation. Study volunteers received invitations to complete a one-time, three-part questionnaire. The survey included an assessment battery developed by the Quality of Life Technology Engineering Research Center, questions featured in the 2002 National Transportation Availability and Use Survey, and a variation on the PARTS/M and FABS/M questionnaires. 80 study participants completed the questionnaire, and were grouped according to driving status as No Driving Experience (NDE), Ceased Driving (CD), and Continue To Drive (CTD). Participants in the NDE group were less likely to use transportation more than twice daily. However, the CD group had the lowest perceived value for available transportation options, with transportation use comparable to the CTD group and an enduring desire to continue driving. Study findings suggest an inner drive for transportation independence. The rise of driving culture internationally presents driver rehabilitation services with challenges due to the need for vehicle modifications and driving assessment using manual transmission automobiles, scooters, and motorcycles.

  18. A seasonal assessment of the impact of coal fly ash disposal on the River Yamuha, Delhi. II. Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, A.; Mehra, N.K. [University of Delhi, Delhi (India). Dept. of Zoology

    1998-04-01

    The impact of fly ash on the biology of the Yamuna River, Delhi, was studied. Effluent come from a 200 MW capacity I.P. thermal power station. Seasonal variations in biological features in the non-impacted (Y-1) and the impacted (Y-2) segments of the river receiving fly ash effluents were studied. 60 genera of phytoplankton including 29 Chlorophyceae, 19 Bacillariophyceae, 8 Cyanobacteria, and 4 Egulenophyceae were recorded. Phytoplankton diversity was reduced at the impacted site in comparison to the non-impacted site of the river and substantial changes in the composition of various groups inhabiting these areas were observed. Zooplankton were also reduced at Y-2 compared to Y-1, especially rotifers and protozoans, while copepods and nauplii larvae were not affected to the same degree. Species diversity was not significantly different at Y-2 and Y-1 but similarity index varied from low to high between the two stations. Thus, not only was the density, number of genera and diversity reduced, even the generic composition of the plankton was markedly affected in the impacted waters. The observed perturbations could be due to sedimentation of ash particles, pH or elevated metal or salt concentration. A change in the concentration of one or more constituents disturbs the relationship between biota and could be the possible cause of reduced densities in the impacted waters. 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mr; Taylor, Fc; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2013-12-01

    Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Women's key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.

  20. A quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study on the hydrolysis mechanism of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kongkai; Lu, Junyan; Liang, Zhongjie; Kong, Xiangqian; Ye, Fei; Jin, Lu; Geng, Heji; Chen, Yong; Zheng, Mingyue; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun-Qian; Luo, Cheng

    2013-03-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) has emerged as a major global threat to human health for its rapid rate of dissemination and ability to make pathogenic microbes resistant to almost all known β-lactam antibiotics. In addition, effective NDM-1 inhibitors have not been identified to date. In spite of the plethora of structural and kinetic data available, the accurate molecular characteristics of and details on the enzymatic reaction of NDM-1 hydrolyzing β-lactam antibiotics remain incompletely understood. In this study, a combined computational approach including molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations was performed to characterize the catalytic mechanism of meropenem catalyzed by NDM-1. The quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics results indicate that the ionized D124 is beneficial to the cleavage of the C-N bond within the β-lactam ring. Meanwhile, it is energetically favorable to form an intermediate if no water molecule coordinates to Zn2. Moreover, according to the molecular dynamics results, the conserved residue K211 plays a pivotal role in substrate binding and catalysis, which is quite consistent with previous mutagenesis data. Our study provides detailed insights into the catalytic mechanism of NDM-1 hydrolyzing meropenem β-lactam antibiotics and offers clues for the discovery of new antibiotics against NDM-1 positive strains in clinical studies.

  1. Athletes' opinions of food provision at the 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games: the influence of culture and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Sarah J; Pelly, Fiona E

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether athletes' opinion of food provision in the main dining hall of the athletes' village at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games varied according to cultural background, sport, stage of competition, and previous experience at similar events. A previously developed questionnaire was distributed over 3 meal periods to 351 athletes dining in the main dining hall during the course of the games (Sept. 23 to Oct. 4, 2010). Despite the challenges of food provision in a non-Western region, the availability of food and beverage items was rated highly. However, athletes from Western regions tended to rate food-provision qualities lower than athletes from non-Western regions. Most athletes found it easy to find items to meet their nutrition needs; however, requests for sports foods, snacks, and culturally specific items were received. Power/sprint athletes were more critical of the food provision, whereas athletes from aesthetic sports tended to rate it more highly. Athletes farther from competition gave higher ratings for taste, while athletes who had more experience in this type of environment also tended to be more critical of the food provision. Overall daily mean opinion scores for taste and menu variety decreased over the games period. The results of this study can help organizers and caterers ensure that appropriate food and beverage are provided for athletes at major competition events.

  2. Public-Private roundtables at the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial, 17-18 April 2013, New Delhi, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, Tracey [Energetics, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-06-30

    The Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) is a high-level global forum to share best practices and promote policies and programs that advance clean energy technologies and accelerate the transition to a global clean energy economy. The CEM works to increase energy efficiency, expand clean energy supply, and enhance clean energy access worldwide. To achieve these goals, the CEM pursues a three-part strategy that includes high-level policy dialogue, technical cooperation, and engagement with the private sector and other stakeholders. Each year, energy ministers and other high-level delegates from the 23 participating CEM governments come together to discuss clean energy, review clean energy progress, and identify tangible next steps to accelerate the clean energy transition. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a crucial role in launching the CEM, hosted the first annual meeting of energy ministers in Washington, DC, in June 2010. The United Arab Emirates hosted the second Clean Energy Ministerial in 2011, and the United Kingdom hosted the third Clean Energy Ministerial in 2012. In April 2013, India hosted the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM4) in New Delhi. Key insights from CEM4 are summarized in the report. It captures the ideas and recommendations of the government and private sector leaders who participated in the discussions on six discussion topics: reducing soft costs of solar PV; energy management systems; renewables policy and finance; clean vehicle adoption; mini-grid development; and power systems in emerging economies.

  3. Leachate composition and toxicity assessment: an integrated approach correlating physicochemical parameters and toxicity of leachates from MSW landfill in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anshu; Paulraj, R

    2017-07-01

    Landfills are considered the most widely practiced method for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 95% of the total MSW collected worldwide is disposed of in landfills. Leachate produced from MSW landfills may contain a number of pollutants and pose a potential environmental risk for surface as well as ground water. In the present study, chemical analysis and toxicity assessment of landfill leachate have been carried out. Leachate samples were collected from Ghazipur landfill site, New Delhi. Leachates were characterized by measuring the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, electrical conductivity and SO4(2)-. For toxicity testing of leachate, Triticum aestivum (wheat) was selected and testing was done in a time- and dose-dependent manner using the crude leachate. Median lethal concentration after 24 and 48 h of exposure was observed. The main objective of this study was to evaluate toxicity of MSW landfill leachate and establish a possible correlation between the measured physicochemical parameters and resultant toxicity. Statistical analysis showed that toxicity was dependent on the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cu), conductivity, and organic matter (COD and BOD5).

  4. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, A. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)]. E-mail: sukumarindia@rediffmail.com; Subramanian, R. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed.

  5. Migration and hypertension: a cross-sectional study among neo-migrants and settled-migrants in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yadlapalli; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pandav, Chandrakant

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the blood pressure (BP) distribution within populations is fundamental to an understanding of the etiology of cardiovascular diseases and to develop effective preventive strategies. This study focuses on whether the BP levels and hypertension prevalence differ between neo-migrants and settled-migrants in the city of Delhi. Data on BP, anthropometry, social variables, and demographic variables were collected from a cross-sectional sample of 226 settled-migrants and 227 neo-migrants. Men possessed significantly higher BP levels than women. Settled-migrants possessed higher BP levels, except diastolic BP in males. The prevalence of hypertension ranges from 15% (neo-migrant women) to 25% (settled-migrant men), with no significant gender differences. Group differences were significant for men. Hypertension was more prevalent in older settled-migrants and younger neo-migrants. Recent migration was found to be a significant contributor to hypertension prevalence. Age contributed significantly to BP variation in both groups except in neo-migrant men. Pulse rate also contributed to systolic BP among neo-migrant women and settled-migrant men. Thus, urban residence and migration to urban areas can be a leading cause of increased prevalence of hypertension. Neo-migrants were subjected to more lifestyle insults and the stress generated during the adjustment process may be contributing to rise of BP even at younger ages.

  6. Perceptions of nonsurgical permanent contraception among potential users, providers, and influencers in Wardha district and New Delhi, India: Exploratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengst, Jennifer C; Harrington, Elizabeth K; Bahulekar, Pramod; Shivkumar, Poonam; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Garg, B S

    2017-01-01

    New permanent contraceptive methods are in development, including nonsurgical permanent contraception (NSPC). In the present study, perceptions of NSPC in India among married women, married men, mothers-in-law, providers, and health advocates in Eastern Maharashtra (Wardha district) and New Delhi were examined. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 married women and 20 mothers-in-law; surveys with 150 married men; and focus group discussions with obstetrics/gynecology providers and advocates. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach, where emerging themes are analyzed during the data collection period. The majority of female respondents expressed support of permanent contraception and interest in NSPC, stating the importance of avoiding surgery and minimizing recovery time. They expressed concerns about safety and efficacy; many felt that a confirmation test would be necessary regardless of the failure rate. Most male respondents were supportive of female permanent contraception (PC) and preferred NSPC to a surgical method, as long as it was safe and effective. Providers were interested in NSPC yet had specific concerns about safety, efficacy, cost, uptake, and government pressure. They also had concerns that a nonsurgical approach could undermine the inherent seriousness of choosing PC. Advocates were interested in NSPC but had concerns about safety and potential misuse in the Indian context. Although perceptions of NSPC were varied, all study populations indicated interest in NSPC. Concerns about safety, efficacy, appropriate patient counseling, and ethics emerged from the present study and should be considered as NSPC methods continue to be developed.

  7. Multi drug resistance and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases in clinical isolates of Shigella: A study from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Prabhav; Uppal, Beena; Ghosh, Roumi; Krishna Prakash, S; Chakravarti, Anita; Jha, Arun Kumar; Rajeshwari, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is an important cause of gastroenteritis in local Indian population, as well as of traveler's diarrhea in the international visitors to India. These patients often require appropriate antimicrobial therapy; however, rapid development of antimicrobial resistance poses a major hurdle in achieving this goal. A prospective study was conducted during 2009-12 in New Delhi, India, including 6339 stool samples from gastroenteritis patients. 121 Shigella strains were identified on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical reactions, serotyping and ipaH gene based PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion, MIC determination by Vitek(®) 2 and phenotypic tests for ESBL/AmpC production were done. Nineteen percent strains (23/121) were found to be resistant to third generation cephalosporins and all were phenotypically confirmed to be ESBL producers; one strain was positive for AmpC. ESBL producing strains were also found to be significantly more resistant (p Shigella is a matter of concern for the local population as well as international travelers. Therefore, better national level antimicrobial management programs are the priority needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The signs of stress: embodiments of biosocial stress among type 2 diabetic women in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lesley Jo; Worthman, Carol M; DeCaro, Jason A; Madhu, S V

    2015-04-01

    Biocultural models of health and illness are increasingly used to trace how social pathways shape biological outcomes. Yet, data on the interactions between social and biological aspects of health are lacking in low- and middle-income regions, where two-thirds of all type 2 diabetes cases occur. This study explored health, social roles, and biological correlates among a group of 280 type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic women (n = 184 diabetic) in New Delhi, India, between 2009 and 2011. Using a biocultural framework, we developed and tested a series of hypotheses about the relationships that might exist between diabetes, psychological distress, social role fulfillment, and biological markers measuring blood sugar control, generalized inflammation, and immune stress. Although blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels indicated that women's diabetes was generally poorly controlled, they lacked the elevated inflammation, immune stress, and mental ill health that often accompany uncontrolled blood sugar. Qualitative work on explanatory models of diabetes and gendered models of appropriate behavior demonstrated that despite living with poorly controlled diabetes, women maintain participation in culturally valued roles involving the care of others. We suggest that behavioral congruence with these gendered roles may buffer diabetic women's mental health and perhaps even their long-term physical health, while simultaneously posing challenges for their diabetes self-care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the experience of type 2 diabetes in India from an integrated biocultural perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae nueva Delhi metalo-betalactamasa en el Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo: Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Resurrección-Delgado

    Full Text Available La emergencia de enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas de tipo Nueva Delhi Metalo beta-lactamasas (NDM, representan, hoy en día, un verdadero problema de salud pública mundial. La presencia de este mecanismo de resistencia limita o anula las opciones terapéuticas para combatir a estas bacterias. En Latinoamérica, las cifras son cada vez más elevadas, pues se reportan en Guatemala, Colombia, Chile, Argentina, entre otros. Perú no ha descrito, hasta la fecha, la presencia de este patrón de resistencia; sin embargo, desde hace varios años se presume de su existencia. Se describen nueve casos de Klebsiella pneumoniae NDM, como agentes infecciosos o colonizantes, en pacientes críticamente enfermos, en su mayoría con patología neuroquirúrgica, del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, en Lima - Perú. Los pacientes de la serie descrita a continuación, representan los primeros reportes de Klebsiella pneumoniae NDM en el Perú.

  10. Toxicity and treatability of leachate: application of UASB reactor for leachate treatment from Okhla landfill, New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Mittal, A K

    2012-01-01

    This study reports applicability of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process to treat the leachate from a municipal landfill located in Delhi. A laboratory scale reactor was operated at an organic loading rate of 3.00 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m(3) d corresponding to a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h for over 8 months. The effect of toxicity of leachate, and feed composition on the treatability of leachate was evaluated. Average COD of the leachate, during the study period varied between 8,880 and 66,420 mg/l. Toxicity of the leachate used during a period of 8 months varied from LC50 1.22 to 12.35 for 96 h. The removal efficiency of soluble COD ranged between 91 and 67% for fresh leachate and decreased drastically from 90 to 35% for old leachate having high toxicity. The efficiency varied from 81 to 65%. The reactor performed more efficiently for the treatment of fresh leachate (less toxic, LC50 11.64, 12.35, and 12.15 for 96 h) as compared with old leachate (more toxic, LC50 1.22 for 96 h). Toxicity of the leachate affected its treatment potential by the UASB.

  11. Experience of violence amongst female medical and nursing students and their perception regarding violence against women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Nitika; Anand, Tanu; Kishore, Jugal; Grover, Shekhar

    2017-11-23

    Background Health care providers are often the first point of contact for the victims of violence against women (VAW). Therefore, it is important to understand their perception about VAW. Objective To assess the proportion of female medical students who experienced violence, and elicit their perception regarding the same. Methods It was a cross-sectional study undertaken among 50 medical and 50 nursing students of a medical college in Central Delhi. A self-administered, questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Of the total, 18% had experienced molestation while 77% had experienced eve-teasing during their lifetime. But, only 2% reported the incident to police. Perception regarding the victim's role and self-determination was favorable amongst the female students. However, only 39% knew some basic self-defense techniques. Conclusion The proportion of students who experienced eve-teasing in their lifetime was high. The study highlighted the need to make the female students more pro-active and competent in terms of tackling violence.

  12. Ba-hexaferrite Films for Next Generation Microwave Devices (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris,V.; Chen, Z.; Chen, Y.; Yoon, S.; Sakai, T.; Geiler, A.; Yang, A.; He, Y.; Ziemer, K.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Next generation magnetic microwave devices require ferrite films to be thick (>300 {mu}m), self-biased (high remanent magnetization), and low loss in the microwave and millimeter wave bands. Here we examine recent advances in the processing of thick Ba-hexaferrite (M-type) films using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), liquid-phase epitaxy, and screen printing. These techniques are compared and contrasted as to their suitability for microwave materials processing and industrial production. Recent advances include the PLD growth of BaM on wide-band-gap semiconductor substrates and the development of thick, self-biased, low-loss BaM films by screen printing.

  13. Cognitive impairment in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised with the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juichi Fujimori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 55% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD show cognitive impairment as evaluated using the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery (BRBN, but this frequency appears to be higher than the frequency of specific brain lesions in NMOSD. Objective: We studied whether cognitive impairment could be observed in NMOSD patients with no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Methods: We evaluated cognitive function in 12 NMOSD and 14 MS patients using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, and the BRBN. We judged as cognitively impaired patients whose scores were below the average by 2 standard deviations or greater in 2 or more cognitive domains. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 5 MS patients (35.7% and in the only NMOSD patient (8.3% with symptomatic brain lesions, but not in the other NMOSD patients who had no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Meanwhile, 5 NMOSD (41.7% and 4 MS (28.6% patients who had normal cognition according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R were assessed as cognitively impaired by the BRBN (which is not standardized for age. Conclusions: Cognitive function in NMOSD patients with no or mild non-specific brain lesions was preserved according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R. Keywords: Neuromyelitis Optica, Cognitive impairment, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery, Multiple sclerosis

  14. Structural classification of RAO3( MO) n compounds ( R =Sc, In, Y, or lanthanides; A =Fe(III), Ga, Cr, or Al; M =divalent cation; n = 1-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimizuka, Noboru; Mohri, Takahiko

    1989-01-01

    A series of new compounds RAO3( MO) n ( n = 1-11) having spinel, YbFe 2O 4, or InFeO 3(ZnO) n types of structures were newly synthesized ( R =Sc, In, Y, Lu, Yb, Tm, or Er; A =Fe(III), Ga, Cr, or Al; M =Mg, Mn, Fe(II), Co, Ni, Zn, or Cd) at elevated temperatures. The conditions of synthesis and the lattice constants for these compounds are reported. The stacking sequences of the InO 1.5, (FeZn)O 2.5, and ZnO layers for InFeO 3(ZnO) 10 and the TmO 1.5, (AlZn)O 2.5, and ZnO layers for TmAlO 3(ZnO) 11 are presented, respectively. The crystal structures of the( RAO3) m( MO) n phases ( R =Sc, In, Y, or lanthanide elements; A =Fe(III), Ga, Cr, or Al; M =divalent cation elements; m and n =integer) are classified into four crystal structure types (K 2NiF 4, CaFe 2O 4, YbFe 2O 4, and spinel), based upon the constituent cations R, A, and M

  15. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  16. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  17. Environmental and comfort upgrading through lean technologies in informal settlements: Case study in Nairobi, Kenia and New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Zecchini, Paolo; Milanesi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    Informal settlements, namely slums (or bidonville or favelas) are one of the stronger challenge for urban context in developing countries. The increase of urban population leads to a widespread poverty and critical life conditions for a large segment of population, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a high percentage of people lives in informal settlements. The problems in slums are multiple: people suffer malnutrition and poor sanitation, flooding or drought, and live in shelters providing no thermal comfort in many days of the year, furthermore scarce and highly polluting energy sources are available. Climate change and an unavoidable heat island effect make these living conditions nearly catastrophic. This paper focuses on the main characters of these slums and on how to what promote the improvement of living conditions with a lean, low cost, low impact, feasible upgrading of the housing or more properly shelters. The subject of the analysis is the Mathare 4A Upgrading Programme in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, one of the highest slum-dwellers growing rate. The technological solutions applied in this context have been verified in a different climate condition such as the city of New Delhi, India where the phenomenon of the slums is significantly burdensome. The analysis of the comfort conditions inside a type housing has been carried out using hourly weather data and dynamic heat transfer simulation, without any HVAC system and striving only natural ventilation. Data about internal temperature and relative humidity conditions have been applied to evaluate the comfort hours using the Predicted Mean Vote method, the adaptive thermal comfort principles and the bioclimatic charts for the two climates in Nairobi and New Delhi. The percentage of hours within the comfort range and the amount of degree-hours exceeding comfort values showed for different upgrading strategies, how it is possible to deeply influence the living conditions by technological and

  18. Non-Linearity Explanation in Artificial Neural Network Application with a Case Study of Fog Forecast Over Delhi Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, K.; Dimri, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Fog affects human life in a number of ways by reducing the visibility, hence affecting critical infrastructure, transportation, tourism or by the formation of frost, thus harming the standing crops. Smog is becoming a regular phenomenon in urban areas which is highly toxic to humans. Delhi was chosen as the area of study as it encounters all these hazards of fog stated apart from other political and economic reasons. The complex relationship behind the parameters and processes behind the formation of fog makes it extremely difficult to model and forecast it accurately. It is attempted to forecast the fog and understand its dynamics through a statistical downscaling technique of artificial neural network which is deemed accurate for short-term forecasting and usually outperform time-series models. The backpropagation neural network, which is a gradient descent algorithm where the network weights are moved along the negative of the gradient of the performance function, has been used for our analysis. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) supported National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data had been used for carrying out the simulations. The model was found to have high accuracy but lacking in skill. An attempt has been made to present the data in a binary form by determining a threshold by the contingency table approach followed by its critical analysis. It is found that the calculation of an optimum threshold was also difficult to fix as the parameters of fog formation on which the model has been has been trained had shown some changes in their trend over a period of time.

  19. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  20. Informed consent in medical decision-making in commercial gestational surrogacy: a mixed methods study in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

    2015-05-01

    To investigate ethical issues in informed consent for decisions regarding embryo transfer and fetal reduction in commercial gestational surrogacy. Mixed methods study employing observations, an interview-guide and semi-structured interviews. Fertility clinics and agencies in Delhi, India, between December 2011 and December 2012. Doctors providing conceptive technologies to commissioning couples and carrying out surrogacy procedures; surrogate mothers; agents functioning as links for surrogacy. Interviews using semi-structured interview guides were carried out among 20 doctors in 18 fertility clinics, five agents from four agencies and 14 surrogate mothers. Surrogate mothers were interviewed both individually and in the presence of doctors and agents. Data on socio-economic context and experiences among and between various actors in the surrogacy process were coded to identify categories of ethical concern. Numerical and grounded theory-oriented analyses were used. Informed consent, number of embryos transferred, fetal reduction, conflict of interest among the involved parties. None of the 14 surrogate mothers were able to explain the risks involved in embryo transfer and fetal reduction. The majority of the doctors took unilateral decisions about embryo transfer and fetal reduction. The commissioning parents were usually only indirectly involved. In the qualitative analysis, difficulties in explaining procedures, autonomy, self-payment of fertility treatment and conflicts of interest were the main themes. Clinical procedural decisions were primarily made by the doctors. Surrogate mothers were not adequately informed. There is a need for regulation on decision-making procedures to safeguard the interests of surrogate mothers. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  2. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001-2006

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    Raikamal Ghosh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004-2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004-2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera.

  3. Trend in BMI z-score among Private Schools’ Students in Delhi using Multiple Imputation for Growth Curve Model

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    Vinay K Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the trend in mean BMI z-score among private schools’ students from their anthropometric records when there were missing values in the outcome. Methodology: The anthropometric measurements of student from class 1 to 12 were taken from the records of two private schools in Delhi, India from 2005 to 2010. These records comprise of an unbalanced longitudinal data that is not all the students had measurements recorded at each year. The trend in mean BMI z-score was estimated through growth curve model. Prior to that, missing values of BMI z-score were imputed through multiple imputation using the same model. A complete case analysis was also performed after excluding missing values to compare the results with those obtained from analysis of multiply imputed data. Results: The mean BMI z-score among school student significantly decreased over time in imputed data (β= -0.2030, se=0.0889, p=0.0232 after adjusting age, gender, class and school. Complete case analysis also shows a decrease in mean BMI z-score though it was not statistically significant (β= -0.2861, se=0.0987, p=0.065. Conclusions: The estimates obtained from multiple imputation analysis were better than those of complete data after excluding missing values in terms of lower standard errors. We showed that anthropometric measurements from schools records can be used to monitor the weight status of children and adolescents and multiple imputation using growth curve model can be useful while analyzing such data

  4. Antibiotic prescribing practice for acute, uncomplicated respiratory tract infections in primary care settings in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwani, Anita; Holloway, Kathleen

    2014-07-01

    To obtain information on prescribing rates and choice of antibiotics for acute, uncomplicated respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in the community. Antibiotic use in acute, uncomplicated RTIs consisting of common cold/sore throat/cough for not more than five days was surveyed in the community (December 2007-November 2008) using patient exit interviews at public and private facilities from four localities in New Delhi. Data were collected from 10 public sector facilities and 20 private clinics over one year. The percentage of acute, uncomplicated RTIs patients receiving antibiotics in general and using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification and the Defined Daily Dose (ATS/DDD) were analysed. At public and private facilities, 45% (746/1646) and 57% (259/457) of acute, uncomplicated RTI patients were prescribed at least one antibiotic, respectively. The main antibiotic class calculated as percentage of total antibiotics DDDs/1000 prescribed to acute, uncomplicated RTI patients at private clinics was cephalosporins, J01DA (39%), followed by fluoroquinolones, J01MA (24%), penicillins, J01C (19%) and macrolides, J01FA (15%). Newer members from each class were prescribed; older antibiotics such as co-trimoxazole or tetracyclines were rarely prescribed. At public facilities, the main class of antibiotic prescribed was penicillins (31%), followed by macrolides (25%), fluoroquinolones (20%) and cephalosporins (10%). Study clearly shows overuse and inappropriate choice of antibiotics for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated RTIs which are mainly due to virus and do not require antibiotic treatment. Results of the study warrant interventional strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics to decrease the overgrowing threat of antibiotic resistance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Intrathecal administration of colistin for meningitis due to New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1(NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Oheda, Motoki; Nakae, Shunsuke; Hirose, Yuichi; Yoshida, Shunji

    2016-03-01

    Infection by bacteria carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is becoming a global health problem. We report a case of meningitis caused by NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, for which intrathecal administration of colistin was curative. A previously healthy 38-year-old Japanese man, who lived in Hyderabad, India, suddenly collapsed and was brought to a local hospital. He was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent emergency surgery which included partial skull removal. Approximately 1 month after surgery, he was repatriated to Japan and was admitted to our institution with information that he had been treated for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infection with colistin. A week after admission, he developed aspiration pneumonia due to NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae, which was successfully treated by intravenous (IV) administration of colistin. Subsequently, he underwent a surgical procedure to repair his skull defect. He developed high-grade fever and altered mental status on postoperative day 2. NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid, establishing the diagnosis of meningitis. Although IV colistin was only partially effective, intrathecal colistin (10 mg daily by lumbar puncture for 14 days) successfully eradicated the meningitis. Because of economic globalization, NDM-1-producing bacteria may be brought to Japan by those who are repatriated after sustaining critical illnesses and being treated in foreign countries. This report may provide useful information on the treatment of central nervous system infection by NDM-1-producing bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  7. On-road emissions of CO, CO2 and NOX from four wheeler and emission estimates for Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash; Habib, Gazala; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, Akash; Haider, Minza

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the emission factor of gaseous pollutants (CO, CO2, and NOX) from on-road tailpipe measurement of 14 passenger cars of different types of fuel and vintage. The trolley equipped with stainless steel duct, vane probe velocity meter, flue gas analyzer, Nondispersive infra red (NDIR) CO2 analyzer, temperature, and relative humidity (RH) sensors was connected to the vehicle using a towing system. Lower CO and higher NOX emissions were observed from new diesel cars (post 2010) compared to old cars (post 2005), which implied that new technological advancement in diesel fueled passenger cars to reduce CO emission is a successful venture, however, the use of turbo charger in diesel cars to achieve high temperature combustion might have resulted in increased NOX emissions. Based on the measured emission factors (g/kg), and fuel consumption (kg), the average and 95% confidence interval (CI) bound estimates of CO, CO2, and NOX from four wheeler (4W) in Delhi for the year 2012 were 15.7 (1.4-37.1) , 6234 (386-12,252) , and 30.4 (0.0-103) Gg/year, respectively. The contribution of diesel, gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) to total CO, CO2 and NOX emissions were 7:84:9, 50:48:2 and 58:41:1 respectively. The present work indicated that the age and the maintenance of vehicle both are important factors in emission assessment therefore, more systematic repetitive measurements covering wide range of vehicles of different age groups, engine capacity, and maintenance level is needed for refining the emission factors with CI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A 2016 clinical practice pattern in the management of primary hypothyroidism among doctors from different clinical specialties in New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Vineet; Aggarwal, Sameer; Khandelwal, Deepak; Singla, Rajiv; Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chittawar, Sachin; Kalra, Sanjay; Dutta, Deep

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to document practices in managing hypothyroidism among doctors in New Delhi, with special focus on subclinical hypothyroidism, pregnancy, and old age, and to compare it with global practices. During an academic program attended by 394 doctors, all participants were given a questionnaire designed based on thyroid practices survey done by Burch et al. to evaluate the practice patterns. Questions were based on evaluating doctor's preferred choices in diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of hypothyroidism in different scenarios. Responses from 308 questionnaires (general physicians [n = 204], obstetricians [n = 51], pediatricians [n = 27], surgeons [n = 12], endocrinologists [n = 10], and others [n = 4]) were analyzed. In the evaluation of 52-year-old female patient with primary hypothyroidism, 52% doctors would prefer thyroid ultrasonography, comparable to global rates. Nearly 96.1% doctors would have initiated levothyroxine, with a large majority of doctors (83.77%) preferred using branded levothyroxine. About 58.74% doctors preferred gradual restoration of euthyroidism. Levothyroxine dose of 25 mcg was the most preferred increment dose (46.07%) during follow-up, with 6 weekly being the most frequent dose adjustment frequency (41.57%). Most preferred target thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the 52-year-old female patient was 2.5-4.99 mU/L (63.96%), 25-year-old female patient was 1-2.49 mU/L (53.90%), and in 85-year-old female was 2.5-4.99 mU/L (45.45%). Only 68% of doctors in our study preferred keeping TSH pregnancy, in contrast to global trends of 95% (P hypothyroidism management, near exclusive preference for branded levothyroxine, widespread use of age-specific TSH targets, and low threshold for treating mild thyroid failure, a highly variable approach to both rates and means of restoring euthyroidism for overt primary hypothyroidism. There is a need for spreading awareness regarding TSH targets in pregnancy.

  9. Monitoring of Adverse Drug Reactions Associated with Antihypertensive Medicines at a University Teaching Hospital in New Delhi

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    Fowad Khurshid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To monitor the adverse drug reactions (ADRs caused by antihypertensive medicines prescribed in a university teaching hospital.Methods:he present work was an open, non-comparative, observational study conducted on hypertensive patients attending the Medicine OPD of Majeedia Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India by conducting patient interviews and recording the data on ADR monitoring form as recommended by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO, Government of India.Results:A total of 21 adverse drug reactions were observed in 192 hypertensive patients. Incidence of adverse drug reactions was found to be higher in patients more than 40 years in age, and females experienced more ADRs (n = 14, 7.29 % than males, 7 (3.64 %. Combination therapy was associated with more number of adverse drug reactions (66.7 % as against monotherapy (33.3 %. Calcium channel blockers were found to be the most frequently associated drugs with adverse drug reactions (n = 7, followed by diuretics (n = 5, and beta- blockers (n = 4. Among individual drugs, amlodipine was found to be the commonest drug associated with adverse drug reactions (n = 7, followed by torasemide (n = 3. Adverse drug reactions associated with central nervous system were found to be the most frequent (42.8 % followed by musculo-skeletal complaints (23.8 % and gastro-intestinal disorders (14.3 %. Conclusions:The present pharmacovigilance study represents the adverse drug reaction profile of the antihypertensive medicines prescribed in our university teaching hospital. The above findings would be useful for physicians in rational prescribing. Calcium channel blockers were found to be the most frequently associated drugs with adverse drug reactions.

  10. Estimating Potential Methane Emission from Municipal Solid Waste and a Site Suitability Analysis of Existing Landfills in Delhi, India

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    Chander Kumar Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of rapidly growing municipal solid waste (MSW is one of the major challenges in developing countries. The current study also estimates the suitability of a site through a geographical information system using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA for landfill sites in National Capital Territory (NCT. The results of the suitability index indicate that only 58.7 km2 of the land is suitable for the construction of landfill sites, while 194.27 km2 of the total area is moderately suitable. The existing three landfill sites that are currently functional and used by government organizations as landfills are found to be moderately suitable. A large fraction of MSW is disposed in landfills, which emit one third of the total anthropogenic methane (CH4 and are considered an important contributor of Green House Gases (GHGs to the atmosphere. Thus, there is a need for the proper estimation of GHG emission from landfills, specifically CH4, which contributes 20% of the GHGs that contribute to global warming. The current study aims to estimate the CH4 emission from landfills in the NCT, Delhi, India using GHG inventory guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. The CH4 emission from landfills has doubled from 31.06 Gg/yr to 65.16 Gg/yr from 1999 and 2000 to 2015. The generation of CH4 from MSW is strongly correlated (R2 = 0.58 with the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP, which is an indicator of wellbeing.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi

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    Mamta Parashar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Workers represent half the world′s population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. Objectives: (1 To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2 To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi.Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. Results: The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91% were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc. 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99, smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36,CI:1.30-4.27 and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16 for illiterate. Discussion: The prevalence of tobacco use (91% among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed.

  12. Widespread fear of dengue transmission but poor practices of dengue prevention: A study in the slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudé, Éric; Mazumdar, Sumit; Solanki, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    This study has been conducted to throw light on the knowledge and practices related to dengue fever among the poor population living in Delhi's slums. A household survey was conducted in 2013 among 3,350 households. The households were stratified by a number of variables related to socio-economic status and health events such as hospitalisation. The data collection was completed through face-to-face interviews conducted with the help of 25 field investigators. About 8% of the households had at least one diagnosed dengue case. In comparison to the population surveyed, teenagers (15-19 years) and adults (30-34 years) were more affected whereas children under four years of age were underrepresented. Housewives are more affected by dengue (24%) compared to their share of the population surveyed (17%). Despite the fact that 77% of the respondents are worried about mosquitoes, only 43% of them monitor environment to avoid the presence of breeding sites. One cannot exclude the possibility that though young children under the age of four years are exposed to the virus, either their cases were asymptomatic or family members infected during this period had potentially more serious symptoms leading to hospitalisation. This result could thus be explained by budget-related health choices made by this population which do not favour small children. Educational programs should target housewives to improve their impact, as they are the ones mostly responsible for water storage and cleanliness of the house and its neighbourhood. Even with a dengue experience and potentially an acute perception of the risk and its factors, a proper management of environmental conditions is lacking. This along with the fact that word-of-mouth is the main source of information quoted should be a message for municipality health workers to give door-to-door information on how to prevent breeding sites and dengue infection.

  13. Preearthquake anomalous ionospheric signatures observed at low-mid latitude Indian station, Delhi, during the year 2015 to early 2016: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumedha; Upadhayaya, A. K.

    2017-08-01

    We have analyzed five major earthquake events measuring greater than 6 on Richter scale (M > 6) that occurred during the year 2015 to early 2016, affecting Indian region ionosphere, using F2 layer critical parameters (foF2, hmF2) obtained using Digisonde from a low-mid latitude Indian station, Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E, 19.2°N geomagnetic latitude, 42.4°N dip). Normal day-to-day variability occurring in ionosphere is segregated by calculating F2 layer critical frequency and peak height variations (ΔfoF2, ΔhmF2) from the normal quiet time behavior apart from computing interquartile range. We find that the ionospheric F2 region across Delhi by and large shows some significant perturbations 3-4 days prior to these earthquake events, resulting in a large peak electron density variation of 200%. These observed perturbations indicate towards a possibility of seismo-ionospheric coupling as the solar and geomagnetic indices were normally quiet and stable during the period of these events. It was also observed that the precursory effect of earthquake was predominantly seen even outside the earthquake preparation zone, as given by Dobrovolsky et al. (1979). The thermosphere neutral composition (O/N2) as observed by Global Ultraviolet Imager, across Delhi, during these earthquake events does not show any marked variation. Further, the effect of earthquake events on ionospheric peak electron density is compared to the lower atmosphere meteorological phenomenon of 2015 sudden stratospheric warming event.

  14. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMCs) from rainfall runoff on mixed agricultural land use in the shoreline zone of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Gupta, Ruchi; Singh, Ram Karan; Kansal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    This paper is focused on the monitoring of the diffuse pollution characteristics from the agricultural land confining the River Yamuna in Delhi (capital of India). Agricultural fields surrounding the Yamuna river are direct nonpoint source of pollution impacting the river quality. The study includes watershed delineation for the River Yamuna using SWAT (2005) and land use classification for the city using GIS and remote sensing. Thereafter, the rainfall-runoff pollutant concentrations from the mixed agricultural land use were assessed for the 2006 and 2007 monsoon period (July-September). Runoff was measured using SCS method and grab samples of rainfall runoff were collected at three stations namely Old Delhi Railway Bridge (ODRB), Nizamuddin and Okhla bridge in Delhi. The samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Rainfall runoff and event mean concentrations (EMCs) for different water quality parameters were characterized and the effect of land use was analyzed. The average EMCs for BOD, COD, ammonia, nitrate, TKN, hardness, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfates, phosphate, fluorides and TC were 21.82 mg/L, 73.48 mg/L, 72.68 μg/L, 229.87 μg/L, 15.32 μg/L, 11.36 mg/L, 117.44 mg/L, 77.60 mg/L, 117.64 mg/L, 135.82 mg/L, 0.08 mg/L, 0.85 mg/L and 2,827.47 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The EMCs of TSS, nitrogen and its compounds, phosphate and BOD were high.

  15. Molecular characterization and infectivity of a Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus variant associated with newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India

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    Mukherjee Sunil K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Begomoviruses have emerged as serious problem for vegetable and fiber crops in the recent past, frequently in tropical and subtropical region of the world. The association of begomovirus with eggplant yellow mosaic disease is hitherto unknown apart from one report from Thailand. A survey in Nagpur, Central India, in 2009-2010 showed severe incidence of eggplant yellow mosaic disease. Here, we have identified and characterized a begomovirus responsible for the newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India. Results The complete DNA-A and DNA-B genomic components of the causative virus were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA-A showed that it shared highest 97.6% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:Udaipur:Okra:2007] and lowest 87.9% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:NewDelhi:Papaya:2005], while DNA-B showed highest 94.1% identity with ToLCNDV-IN[IN:UD:Ok:07] and lowest 76.2% identity with ToLCNDV-India[India:Lucknow]. Thus, it appears that this begomovirus is a variant of ubiquitous ToLCNDV and hence, we suggest the name ToLCNDV-India[India:Nagpur:Eggplant:2009] for this variant. The pathogenicity of ToLCNDV-IN[IN:Nag:Egg:09] isolate was confirmed by agroinfiltraion and dimeric clones of DNA-A and DNA-B induced characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms in eggplants and leaf curling in tomato plants. Conclusion This is the first report of a ToLCNDV variant moving to a new agriculturally important host, eggplant and causing yellow mosaic disease. This is also a first experimental demonstration of Koch's postulate for a begomovirus associated with eggplant yellow mosaic disease.

  16. Effect of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Garg; Davendra Kumar Taneja; Suresh Kumar Badhan; Gopal Krishan Ingle

    2013-01-01

    The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, sloga...

  17. Performance of skylight illuminance inside a dome shaped adobe house under composite climate at New Delhi (India: A typical zero energy passive house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Chel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents annual experimental performance of pyramid shaped skylight for daylighting of a dome shaped adobe house located at solar energy park in New Delhi (India. This approach of single story dome shaped building with skylight is more useful for rural and semi-urban sectors for both office and residential buildings reducing artificial lighting energy consumption. The hourly measured data of inside and outside illuminance for three different working surface levels inside the existing rooms are presented for each month of the year. The embodied energy payback time of the skylight is also determined on the basis of lighting energy saving potential.

  18. Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP): Updated evaluation of the 133Ba, 140Ba, 140La and 141Ce decay characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechev, Valerii P.; Kuzmenko, Nikolai K.

    2017-09-01

    Within the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP) an updated comprehensive assessment has been made of the decay characteristics of 133Ba, 140Ba, 140La, and 141Ce. Experimental data published up to 2016 along with other information (new compilations, analyses and corrections) were taken into account. Newly evaluated values of the half-lives and a number of other key decay characteristics are presented in this paper for all four radionuclides.

  19. Syntheses, crystal structures, and optical properties of CsBa5Ti2Se9Cl and CsBa2Cl5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Adel; Prakash, Jai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Lebègue, Sébastien; Badawi, Michael; Ibers, James A.

    2017-09-01

    The mixed-cation compounds CsBa5Ti2Se9Cl and CsBa2Cl5 were synthesized in the same solid-state reaction at 1173 K. CsBa5Ti2Se9Cl adopts the Cs3CoCl5 structure type in the tetragonal crystal system whereas CsBa2Cl5 crystallizes in the PbU2Se5 structure type in the monoclinic crystal system. The CsBa5Ti2Se9Cl structure displays both Cs/Ba and Se/Cl disorder. From optical absorption measurements CsBa5Ti2Se9Cl is an indirect wide-gap semiconductor. From theoretical calculations CsBa2Cl5 has a large band gap of 6.4 eV.

  20. Metaplasia mieloide do baço na Ancilostomose

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    W. O. Cruz

    1934-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesquizamos, no figado e baço de dez casos puros de ancilostomose, elementos hemocitopoieticos; verificamos o peso do baço em 23 casos de individuos com idades compreendidas entre 3 e 60 anos; não encontramos, em nenhum caso, celulas hemoformadoras no figado. Em sete casos, encontramos, no baço, elementos da série vermelha em adiantado estado de evolução (eritroblastos ortocromaticos de nucleo picnotico. Em alguns destes casos observamos megacariocitos e numerosos mielocitos eosinofilos. Os tres casos que não apresentavam metaplasia mieloide no baço, eram os de individuos acima de 50 anos de idade. Entretanto, em outro caso de um individuo com 59 anos esta metaplasia foi verificada. Em individuos acima de 20 anos, o peso médio do baço, em nove casos, mostrou-se igual ao peso normal. Em 14 casos, compreendidos entre 3 e 14 anos, o peso deste orgão foi sempre sensivelmente mais elevado que nos normais de idade correspondente. Estes resultados sugerem a possibilidade de ser a metaplasia mieloide responsavel pelos aumentos de pezo nos baços de individuos jovens, vitimados pela anemia ancilostomica. A notavel proliferação dos eritroblastos ortocromaticos mostra que o grão e a rapidez da regeneração sanguinea, após a administração de ferro, são devidos, essencialmente, á grande quantidade de hemoglobina já preformada no baço e na medula ossea dos organismos ancilostomados.

  1. Prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases, and their association with socio-demographic risk factors among older persons in Delhi, India: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rahul; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Goswami, Anil; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne

    2013-05-01

    Dental health is often neglected in the older persons, and dental conditions associated with aging are complex, adversely affecting the quality of life. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among older persons from Delhi, India, and to study their association with selected socio-behavioral risk factors. We conducted a community-based cross sectional study among persons aged > or = 60 years from Delhi during 2009-2010. A questionnaire was used to interview elderly regarding dental health. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form was used for examining the study participants. A total of 448 participants were examined and included in the study. Of the dentate, 47.1% had active dental caries. The mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score for the study population was 14.4. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets and loss of attachment was 96.6, 89.1, and 80.3%, respectively. The prevalence of tobacco use was 47.9%. Age, frequency of teeth cleaning, and method used for teeth cleaning were statistically associated with the DMFT score. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was high in the study population, and warrants intervention.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Chandra Kr., E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Dr. Shakuntala Misra National Rehabilitation University, Lucknow-229001, U.P India (India); Bhamu, K. C. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Goa-403 206 (India); Sharma, Ramesh, E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Feroze Gandhi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Raebareli-229001, U.P India (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3} by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO{sub 3} doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. The doped BaHfO{sub 3} is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO{sub 3} is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.

  3. Observation of the Nuclear Magnetic Octupole Moment of 137Ba+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew

    Single trapped ions are ideal systems in which to test atomic physics at high precision, which can in turn be used for searches for violations of fundamental symmetries and physics beyond the standard model, in addition to quantum computation and a number of other applications. The ion is confined in ultra-high vacuum, is laser cooled to mK temperatures, and kept well isolated from the environment which allows these experimental efforts. In this thesis, a few diagnostic techniques will be discussed, covering a method to measure the linewidth of a narrowband laser in the presence of magnetic field noise, as well as a procedure to measure the ion's temperature using such a narrowband laser. This work has led to two precision experiments to measure atomic structure in 138Ba+, and 137Ba+ discussed here. First, employing laser and radio frequency spectroscopy techniques in 138Ba+, we measured the Lande- gJ factor of the 5D5/2 level at the part-per-million level, the highest precision to date. Later, the development of apparatus to efficiently trap and laser cool 137Ba+ has enabled a measurement of the hyperfine splittings of the 5D3/2 manifold, culminating in the observation of the nuclear magnetic octupole moment of 137Ba+.

  4. LaBaNiO{sub 4}: a Fermi glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, A; Dell' Amore, R; Mueller, K A [Physics Institute of the Universitaet of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Karpinski, J; Bukowski, Z [Laboratory for Solid-State Physics, ETH Zuerich HPF F-7, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Medarde, M; Pomjakushina, E [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETHZ and PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: schilling@physik.uzh.ch

    2009-01-07

    Polycrystalline samples of LaSr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}NiO{sub 4} show a crossover from a state with metallic transport properties for x = 0 to an insulating state as x{yields}1. The end member LaBaNiO{sub 4} with a nominal nickel Ni 3d{sup 7} configuration might therefore be regarded as a candidate for an antiferromagnetic insulator. However, we do not observe any magnetic ordering in LaBaNiO{sub 4} down to 1.5 K, and despite its insulating transport properties several other physical properties of LaBaNiO{sub 4} resemble those of metallic LaSrNiO{sub 4}. Based on an analysis of electrical and thermal-conductivity data as well as magnetic-susceptibility and low-temperature specific-heat measurements, we suggest that LaBaNiO{sub 4} is a Fermi glass with a finite electron density of states at the Fermi level but these states are localized.

  5. Tikumu vienība Platona sokratiskajos dialogos

    OpenAIRE

    Skvireckis, Eduards

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „Tikumu vienība Platona sokratiskajos dialogos” tiek skatīts viens no Sokrata paradoksiem – kā ir iespējams, ka individuālie tikumi (vīrišķība, taisnīgums, mērenība, dievbijība un saprātība) ir vienlaicīgi nošķirti viens no otra un katru tikumu veido viena un tā pati lieta – morālā zināšana. Šī problēma vistiešāk atklājas divos Platona dialogos, Protagorā un Lahētā, līdz ar to tie tika izmantoti kā pamats šajā darbā veiktajai analīzei. Darbā tika pierādīts, ka starp tiem ir ie...

  6. Irrational use of antibiotics and role of the pharmacist: an insight from a qualitative study in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwani, A; Wattal, C; Joshi, P C; Holloway, K

    2012-06-01

    The overall volume of antibiotic consumption in the community is one of the foremost causes of antimicrobial resistance. In developing countries like India, pharmacists often dispense 'prescription-only' drugs, like antibiotics, to patients who do not have a prescription. Not much data is available regarding detailed information on behaviour of antibiotic use by community pharmacists which is of particular significance to develop a suitable and sustainable intervention programme to promote rational use of antibiotics. A qualitative study was conducted to understand the dispensing practices and behaviour of community pharmacists to develop policy interventions that would improve the use of antibiotics at the community level. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held for five municipal wards of Delhi with retail pharmacists, public sector pharmacists and the office bearers of pharmacists' associations. Data on antibiotic use and resistance were collected earlier from these five wards. FGDs (n = 3 with 40 pharmacists) were analysed through grounded theory. Four broad themes identified were as follows: prescribing and dispensing behaviour; commercial interests; advisory role; and intervention strategies for rational use of antibiotics. FGDs with pharmacists working in the public sector revealed that, besides the factors listed above, overstock and near-expiry, and under-supply of antibiotics promoted antibiotic misuse. Suggestions for interventions from pharmacists were the following: (i) education to increase awareness of rational use and resistance to antibiotics; (ii) involving pharmacists as partners for creating awareness among communities for rational use and resistance to antibiotics; (iii) developing an easy return policy for near-expiry antibiotics in public sector facilities; and (iv) motivating and showing appreciation for community pharmacists who participate in intervention programmes. Inappropriate antibiotic dispensing and use owing to commercial

  7. Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children′s intelligence in high and low fluoride areas of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa Kundu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride is one of the indispensable elements for the living being. However, the intake of F above the threshold level can affect the central nervous system even before causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of fluoride in drinking water on the intelligence quotient (IQ of 8-12 years old school going children residing in high and low Fluoride (F areas of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children were selected, 100 from low F area and 100 from high F area. The IQ of the children was assessed using Ravens Standardized Progressive Matrices Test. Information for each child′s sociodemographic data, mother′s diet during pregnancy, duration of residency in the village, source of drinking water, and duration of drinking water from the source was entered on a specially designed proforma from mothers of children. Height and weight were also recorded for each child to assess the nutritional status. Independent t-test and Chi-square test was used to compare mean IQ scores in high and low fluoridated areas. Pearson′s correlation and multivariate linear regression were used to appraise the issue of all the study variables on IQ. Results: Comparison of mean IQ of children in both high (76.20 ± 19.10 and low F (85.80 ± 18.85 areas showed a significant difference (P = 0.013. Multiple regression analysis between child IQ and all other independent variables revealed that mother′s diet during pregnancy (P = 0.001 along with F in drinking water (P = 0.017 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child IQ variance (r2 = 0.417 without interaction with other variables. Conclusion: Fluoride in the drinking water was significantly related with the IQ of children. Along with fluoride, mother′s diet during pregnancy was also found to be significantly related with IQ of children. Researches in the same field are further advocated with large sample size and over a

  8. Effectiveness of peer-counseling for promoting optimal complementary feeding practices among infants belonging to urban slums of Delhi

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    Sabharwal Vandana, Passi Santosh Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Promotion of appropriate complementary feeding practices is important in reducing malnutrition in infants and young children. Yet, India has dismal rates of optimal complementary feeding practices which are not rising. Aim: This study aimed to find the impact of the educational intervention directed through peer counselors to promote optimal complementary feeding practices. Methods and materials: This is an Interventional study, which has been conducted in an urban slum of Delhi using multi-stage random sampling. From the study area two sectors were randomly selected. From one sector, 54 pregnant women were selected who were not given any counselling forming the non-intervention group. From the other sector, 159 pregnant women were selected to form the intervention group (Igr which were further divided into 3 sub-groups; one sub-group was imparted counselling by a nutrition professional (Igr A; n=53 and the other two (Igr B1;n=53 and Igr B2;n=53 by the peer counselors who where the local health workers trained for promoting optimal infant feeding practices. The infants were followed up till their first birthday and in order to study the impact of counseling, the complementary feeding practices of the intervention and the non-intervention groups have been compared Results: In the intervention groups, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly higher as compared to the non-intervention group (67.5 % vs. 4.2 %. In the intervention groups, 2.6 per cent infants received semi-solid/ solid foods before the age of 6 months, 75.1 percent between 6 – 7 months and the rest by the age of 9 months. However, in the Non-Igr, the respective figures were 48.9, 19.4 and 25.4 per cent; and at the age of one year, 6.4 per cent infants were still being given predominantly mother’s milk. 99.3 per cent infants in the Igrs as compared to 82.3 per cent in the Non-Igr (P<0.05 continued to receive breast milk till the age of

  9. Size-segregated sugar composition of transported dust aerosols from Middle-East over Delhi during March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Fu, P. Q.; Kang, M.; Sarangi, B.; Sinha, D.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    During March 20-22, 2012 Delhi experienced a massive dust-storm which originated in Middle-East. Size segregated sampling of these dust aerosols was performed using a nine staged Andersen sampler (5 sets of samples were collected including before dust-storm (BDS)), dust-storm day 1 to 3 (DS1 to DS3) and after dust storm (ADS). Sugars (mono and disaccharides, sugar-alcohols and anhydro-sugars) were determined using GC-MS technique. It was observed that on the onset of dust-storm, total suspended particulate matter (TSPM, sum of all stages) concentration in DS1 sample increased by > 2.5 folds compared to that of BDS samples. Interestingly, fine particulate matter (sum of stages with cutoff size 2.5 folds as compared to that of BDS samples. Sugars analyzed in DS1 coarse mode (sum of stages with cutoff size > 2.1 μm) samples showed a considerable increase ( 1.7-2.8 folds) compared to that of other samples. It was further observed that mono-saccharides, disaccharides and sugar-alcohols concentrations were enhanced in giant (> 9.0 μm) particles in DS1 samples as compared to other samples. On the other hand, anhydro-sugars comprised 13-27% of sugars in coarse mode particles and were mostly found in fine mode constituting 66-85% of sugars in all the sample types. Trehalose showed an enhanced ( 2-4 folds) concentration in DS1 aerosol samples in both coarse (62.80 ng/m3) and fine (8.57 ng/m3) mode. This increase in Trehalose content in both coarse and fine mode suggests their origin to the transported desert dust and supports their candidature as an organic tracer for desert dust entrainments. Further, levoglucosan to mannosan (L/M) ratios which have been used to predict the type of biomass burning influences on aerosols are found to be size dependent in these samples. These ratios are higher for fine mode particles, hence should be used with caution while interpreting the sources using this tool.

  10. A 2016 clinical practice pattern in the management of primary hypothyroidism among doctors from different clinical specialties in New Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Vineet; Aggarwal, Sameer; Khandelwal, Deepak; Singla, Rajiv; Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chittawar, Sachin; Kalra, Sanjay; Dutta, Deep

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to document practices in managing hypothyroidism among doctors in New Delhi, with special focus on subclinical hypothyroidism, pregnancy, and old age, and to compare it with global practices. Methods: During an academic program attended by 394 doctors, all participants were given a questionnaire designed based on thyroid practices survey done by Burch et al. to evaluate the practice patterns. Questions were based on evaluating doctor's preferred choices in diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of hypothyroidism in different scenarios. Results: Responses from 308 questionnaires (general physicians [n = 204], obstetricians [n = 51], pediatricians [n = 27], surgeons [n = 12], endocrinologists [n = 10], and others [n = 4]) were analyzed. In the evaluation of 52-year-old female patient with primary hypothyroidism, 52% doctors would prefer thyroid ultrasonography, comparable to global rates. Nearly 96.1% doctors would have initiated levothyroxine, with a large majority of doctors (83.77%) preferred using branded levothyroxine. About 58.74% doctors preferred gradual restoration of euthyroidism. Levothyroxine dose of 25 mcg was the most preferred increment dose (46.07%) during follow-up, with 6 weekly being the most frequent dose adjustment frequency (41.57%). Most preferred target thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the 52-year-old female patient was 2.5–4.99 mU/L (63.96%), 25-year-old female patient was 1–2.49 mU/L (53.90%), and in 85-year-old female was 2.5–4.99 mU/L (45.45%). Only 68% of doctors in our study preferred keeping TSH pregnancy, in contrast to global trends of 95% (P hypothyroidism management, near exclusive preference for branded levothyroxine, widespread use of age-specific TSH targets, and low threshold for treating mild thyroid failure, a highly variable approach to both rates and means of restoring euthyroidism for overt primary hypothyroidism. There is a need for spreading awareness regarding TSH targets in pregnancy

  11. A 2016 clinical practice pattern in the management of primary hypothyroidism among doctors from different clinical specialties in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Surana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to document practices in managing hypothyroidism among doctors in New Delhi, with special focus on subclinical hypothyroidism, pregnancy, and old age, and to compare it with global practices. Methods: During an academic program attended by 394 doctors, all participants were given a questionnaire designed based on thyroid practices survey done by Burch et al. to evaluate the practice patterns. Questions were based on evaluating doctor's preferred choices in diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of hypothyroidism in different scenarios. Results: Responses from 308 questionnaires (general physicians [n = 204], obstetricians [n = 51], pediatricians [n = 27], surgeons [n = 12], endocrinologists [n = 10], and others [n = 4] were analyzed. In the evaluation of 52-year-old female patient with primary hypothyroidism, 52% doctors would prefer thyroid ultrasonography, comparable to global rates. Nearly 96.1% doctors would have initiated levothyroxine, with a large majority of doctors (83.77% preferred using branded levothyroxine. About 58.74% doctors preferred gradual restoration of euthyroidism. Levothyroxine dose of 25 mcg was the most preferred increment dose (46.07% during follow-up, with 6 weekly being the most frequent dose adjustment frequency (41.57%. Most preferred target thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH in the 52-year-old female patient was 2.5–4.99 mU/L (63.96%, 25-year-old female patient was 1–2.49 mU/L (53.90%, and in 85-year-old female was 2.5–4.99 mU/L (45.45%. Only 68% of doctors in our study preferred keeping TSH <2.5 mU/L during the first trimester of pregnancy, in contrast to global trends of 95% (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a disproportionately high use of ultrasonography in hypothyroidism management, near exclusive preference for branded levothyroxine, widespread use of age-specific TSH targets, and low threshold for treating mild thyroid failure, a highly variable approach to both rates and means of

  12. Effect of an Educational Booklet on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Major Depressive Disorder in Medical Students in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Goyal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders affecting people in the world. It is also a growing concern in younger population particularly medical students. There are many pharmaceutical interventions for treatment of depression but there is paucity of data to determine the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge, attitude and help seeking behaviour regarding depression among medical students. Methods: An interventional study was carried out among randomly selected 100 medical students except interns over a period of 6 months from March August 2011 in a medical college in Delhi to assess the effect of educational booklet on knowledge and attitude about depression. Data was collected using pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Statistical significance in pre and post intervention proportions was determined using Mc Nemar test (MN and for other proportions Chi-square test. Results: The study shown that only 71% of subjects knew that depression is a disease in pre intervention phase, which rose to 88% in post intervention phase (p=0.01. Knowledge of symptoms and treatment significantly improved such as trouble falling asleep or too much sleep (p=0.03, feeling tired or decreased energy (MN=17.6, p=0.01, feeling bad about self (MN=21.8, p=0.01, speaking slowly other can notice (MN=19.1, p=0.01 and can be treated by improving awareness (MN=8.6, p=0.03, and anti-depressants do not cause much of side effects (MN=17.3, p=0.01. Most common reasons for not seeking help were thinking that there is lack of understanding by other people about the depression (63%, lack of confidentiality (49%, social stigma (30%, fear of rejection (26% and time constraints (6%. Majority of students accepted the booklet for their understanding about depression where 63% considered that it improved their knowledge to great extent. Conclusion:Educational interventional booklet should be promoted at bigger

  13. Application of a partitioning procedure based on Rao quadratic entropy index to characterize the temporal evolution of in situ varietal and genetic diversity of bread wheat in France over the period 1981-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perronne, Rémi; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2017-12-15

    We present and highlight a partitioning procedure based on the Rao quadratic entropy index to assess temporal in situ inter-annual varietal and genetic changes of crop diversity. For decades, Western-European agroecosystems have undergone profound changes, among which a reduction of crop genetic diversity. These changes have been highlighted in numerous studies, but no unified partitioning procedure has been proposed to compute the inter-annual variability in both varietal and genetic diversity. To fill this gap, we tested, adjusted and applied a partitioning procedure based on the Rao quadratic entropy index that made possible to describe the different components of crop diversity as well as to account for the relative acreages of varieties. To emphasize the relevance of this procedure, we relied on a case study focusing on the temporal evolution of bread wheat diversity in France over the period 1981-2006 at both national and district scales. At the national scale, we highlighted a decrease of the weighted genetic replacement indicating that varieties sown in the most recent years were more genetically similar than older ones. At the district scale, we highlighted sudden changes in weighted genetic replacement in some agricultural regions that could be due to fast shifts of successive leading varieties over time. Other regions presented a relatively continuous increase of genetic similarity over time, potentially due to the coexistence of a larger number of co-leading varieties that got closer genetically. Based on the partitioning procedure, we argue that a tendency of in situ genetic homogenization could be compared to some of its potential causes, such as a decrease in the speed of replacement or an increase in between-variety genetic similarity over time.

  14. Synthesis of BaTiO3 nanoparticles from TiO2-coated BaCO3 particles derived using a wet-chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Mochizuki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BaCO3 particles coated with amorphous TiO2 precursor are prepared by a wet chemical method to produce BaTiO3 nanoparticles at low temperatures. Subsequently, we investigate the formation behavior of BaTiO3 particles and the particle growth behavior when the precursor is subjected to heat treatment. The state of the amorphous TiO2 coating on the surface of BaCO3 particles depends on the concentration of NH4HCO3, and the optimum concentration is found to be in the range 0.5–1.0 M. Thermogravimetric curves of the BaCO3 particles coated with the TiO2 precursor, prepared from BaCO3 particles of various sizes, show BaTiO3 formation occurring mainly at 550–650 °C in the case of fine BaCO3 particles. However, as evidenced from the curves, the temperature of formation of BaTiO3 shifts to higher values with an increase in the size of the BaCO3 particles. The average particle size of single phase BaTiO3 at heat-treatment temperature of 650–900 °C is observed to be in the range 60–250 nm.

  15. Epitaxial growth of Fe/BaTiO3 heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brivio, S., E-mail: m.gooley@elsevier.com [LNESS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, 22100, Como (Italy); Rinaldi, C.; Petti, D.; Bertacco, R. [LNESS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, 22100, Como (Italy); Sanchez, F. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193, Catalunya (Spain)

    2011-06-30

    The realization of epitaxial heterostructures involving ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) materials is one of the possible routes towards the realization of devices exploiting sizable magnetoelectric effects. In this paper we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of Fe on BaTiO{sub 3}(001) as this system represents a prototypical example of interface between well known FE and FM materials with bcc and perovskite structure respectively, both with Curie temperature well above 300 K. Fe grows on BaTiO{sub 3} with 45 deg. rotation of its cubic lattice with respect to that of the substrate in order to reduce the lattice mismatch. Negligible interdiffusion of Ba and Ti cations or Fe atoms is found by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, while a sizable Fe oxidation occurs within an interfacial layer with thicknesses thinner than 3 nm.

  16. The BaBar instrumented flux return performance: lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Anulli, F; Baldini, R; Band, H R; Bionta, R; Brau, J E; Brigljevic, V; Buzzo, A; Calcaterra, A; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Crosetti, G; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Eichenbaum, A; Fabozzi, F; Falciai, D; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, F; Frey, R; Gatto, C; Graug; Iakovlev, N I; Iwasaki, M; Johnson, J R; Lange, D J; Lista, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lü, C; Macri, M; Messner, R; Moore, T B; Morganti, S; Neal, H; Neri, N; Palano, A; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piredda, G; Robutti, E; Roodman, A; Santroni, A; Sciacca, C; Sinev, N B; Soha, A; Strom, D; Tosi, S; Vavra, J; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar Collaboration has operated an instrumented flux return (IFR) system covering over 2000 m sup 2 with resistive plate chambers (RPCs) for nearly 3 years. The chambers are constructed of bakelite sheets separated by 2 mm. The inner surfaces are coated with linseed oil. This system provides muon and neutral hadron detection for BaBar. Installation and commissioning were completed in 1998, and operation began mid-year 1999. While initial performance of the system reached design, over time, a significant fraction of the RPCs demonstrated significant degradation, marked by increased currents and reduced efficiency. A coordinated effort of investigations have identified many of the elements responsible for the degradation. This article presents our current understanding of the aging process of the BaBar RPCs along with the action plan to combat performance degradation of the IFR system.

  17. Bi3+ Luminescence in ABiO2Cl (A = Sr, Ba) and BaBiO2Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith E.; Derenzo,Stephen E.

    2007-01-18

    Trivalent bismuth luminescence is reported in three Sillenbismuth oxyhalide phases, SrBiO2Cl, BaBiO2Cl, and BaBiO2Br. Thesecompounds exhibit Bi 6s6->6 s2 emission under UV and X-ray radiation.At room temperature, BaBiO2Cl shows the most intense light emission, withspectral and decay properties similar to those found in Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO).At low temperatures, each phase show an increase in the photoluminescenceintensities and a narrowing of the emission peaks. In contrast to thetemperature dependence of BGO, X-ray excited luminescence intensities ofall three phases remain relatively constant throughout the temperaturerange 10 - 295 K. This result indicates that the Sillen phases undergoless thermal quenching than BGO. The low temperature and room temperatureradio-luminescence decay times were determined from pulsed x-raymeasurements. At room temperature, SrBiO2Cl exhibits faster decays thanBGO, while, BaBiO2Cl and BaBiO2Br have decay times similar toBGO.

  18. Page 1 Electron distributions and NOI in Y-Ba-Cu-O 155 A fourth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science Foundation and IBM Corporation, with additional support from New York. State and members of the Corporate Research Institute. One of the authors (TPD) is very grateful for the kind hospitality of Professor S K Joshi, Director, National. Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India where the initial version of this paper was.

  19. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...... of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health...

  20. Isovector states in /sup 128-134/Ba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harter, H.; Lipas, P.O.; Nojarov, R.; Taigel, T.; Faessler, A.

    1988-04-28

    Phenomenological IBA-2 and microscopic QRPA are applied to predict isovector, or mixed-symmetry, states in /sup 128-134/Ba. The lowest 1/sup +/ state is found at 2.6-3.2 MeV with B(M1)arrow up approx. = 0.1-0.4 ..mu../sub N//sup 2/. IBA predictions are also given for the lowest mixed 2/sup +/ state at 2.2-2.7 MeV. A very strong (up to 5 ..mu../sub N//sup 2/) 1/sup +/ doublet is predicted (QRPA) at 4.7 MeV in /sup 130-134/Ba.