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Sample records for ranunculus sceleratus petioles

  1. Seed development in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Populus nigra L., and Ranunculus sceleratus L. with special reference to the microtubular cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XuHan, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, seed development is investigated in celery-leafed buttercup ( Ranunculus sceleratus L.), bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and poplar ( Populus nigra L.). Developing embryos, endosperms and seed coats are

  2. Ranunculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Ranunculus is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Thirty-one species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical an...

  3. SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matthias H.; von Hagen, K. Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V.

    2010-01-01

    The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and Halerpestes. Two clades of Ranunculus are species-rich in the Arctic, i.e., Ranunculus sect. Ranunculus and R. sect. Auricomus (both from R. subg. Ranunculus), but this is due to a number of arctic “microtaxa” morphologically barely separate from R. acris in the former clade and the widely agamospermic species complex of R. auricomus in the latter. Lineages with species adapted to wetlands or aquatic habitats are significant groups represented in the arctic flora (R. subg. Ranunculus sectt. Flammula and Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, R. subg. Batrachium, genus Coptidium) but show no clear signs of radiation in the Arctic or the northern boreal zone, except for sectt. Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, with R. hyperboreus and R. sceleratus subsp. reptabundus. Astonishingly few of the otherwise numerous lineages of Ranunculus with distributions in the higher mountain systems of Eurasia and North America have acted as “founding sources” for the arctic flora. The only clear example is that of the arctic-alpine R. glacialis and the Beringian R. chamissonis from the lineage of subg. R. sectt. Aconitifolii/Crymodes, although there might be others in sect. Auricomus not recovered in the current molecular data. Lineages that gave rise to arctic taxa diverged from each other from the early Miocene (R. glacialis/R. chamissonis, Coptidium, lineages in Halerpestes) and continued at an even rate throughout the Tertiary. There are no signs that the intense climate changes of the late Pliocene

  4. Ecological characteristics of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea – a case study from Rhodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KALOGIROU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ecological and societal impact of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus on coastal habitats of an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Rhodes Island was investigated. Seasonal quantitative samplings in two common coastal habitats were used to investigate habitat use of different life-stages. Sandy areas were found to be highly important for the early life stages of L. sceleratus. In contrast, Posidonia oceanica habitats were mainly preferred by larger (> 29 cm reproductive adults, not exceeding 64 cm. Lagocephalus sceleratus was found to feed on invertebrates and fish while size classification revealed a tendency for a diet shift with increased size. During early life stages, L. sceleratus inhabits sandy bottoms where it feeds on various invertebrates. The predominant molluscan species found in the diet of larger (> 20 cm L. sceleratus individuals were the economically important Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. The size at which 50% of individuals reach maturity was estimated to 19 cm. With increased size, habitat shift to seagrass meadows most possibly occurs to meet both the increased demand in prey availability and requirement of appropriate spawning ground. Condition factor of L. sceleratus showed significantly higher values during summer than all other seasons and this was attributed to spawning season and increase in feeding. Societal impacts were alarming due to increased public attention concerning its lethal effects (presence of tetrodotoxin, if consumed. Its high abundance in the coastal fish communities of the studied area combined with ecological and societal impacts, clearly classify L. sceleratus a pest for fisheries and potential threat for biodiversity.

  5. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance.

  6. Consequences of the increasing prevalence of the poisonous Lagocephalus sceleratus in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beköz, Alev Banu; Beköz, Sera; Yilmaz, Elanur; Tüzün, Suna; Beköz, Uner

    2013-11-01

    The increasing Indo-Pacific migration has affected the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea, and the prevalence of the puffer fish (Lagocephalus sceleratus), a well-known poisonous migrant, is increasing. The fish, which contains tetrodotoxin, is lethally poisonous when consumed. As its population increases it becomes more available in the markets of southern Turkey, but local people seem to be unaware of the danger. Probably because of the depressed stocks of the surrounding waters and demand on affordable seafood, local anglers are catching the fish. The situation constitutes an alert for the local emergency medicine organisation and is a public health issue. Local fishermen, fish sellers/dealers/brokers, buyers and emergency department physicians were interviewed about the fishery and consumption facts of the puffer fish in the region, the number of cases reported in the regional state run hospitals and the 112 Emergency Medical Response Service, and the knowledge and practice of the doctors in the emergency departments. General health organisations are unprepared for the serious health hazards caused by this fish, including fatalities. Health workers should have sufficient knowledge regarding the clinical manifestations, complications and management of puffer fish poisoning. Official authorities should make the public aware of the potential risk of consuming puffer fish.

  7. Molecular phylogeny and biometrics of lessepsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 from Mediterranean and Red Seas, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M.S. Farrag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparison for lessepsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 from the Egyptian waters (Mediterranean and Red Seas was performed using morphological and genetic characteristics to confirm its identification and to recognize any variations due to differences in both habitats. A similar identity in body description from both habitats was observed. Slight phenotyping variations in some morphological measurements were observed with no significant difference. The correlation between the reference length and most of morphological indices was similar (0.99 for both habitats. Molecular phylogeny, using two primers (16S rRNA and Cytochrome b showed similar size bands at 600 bp and 400 bp ladders for both primers respectively in both habitats. The obtained sequences were aligned showing an identity (more than 99% to the published sequences of L. sceleratus indicating high genetic resemblance. So, the present populations from both habitats don’t appear to be separated species, indicating no obvious genetic variations after its migration into new habitat, expecting that, genetic differentiation may occur very slowly. This supported the idea that both morphological and genetic characteristics are recommended to be used together in identification and phylogenetic relations of the population from two habitats. The specific primers 16S rRNA and Cyt b showed confirmable tools to support the same target where the environmental variations may alter phenotypic variations.

  8. SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Matthias H.; von Hagen, K. Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V.

    2010-01-01

    The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and...

  9. Direct shoot organogenesis from petiole and leaf discs of Withania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and reproducible procedure is described for direct shoot regeneration using petiole and leaf explants of Withania somnifera (L.). The shoots were mainly induced from the distal end of the petiole, whereas in leaf explants, shoot regeneration was initiated from the basal part and wounded tissue. The regeneration ...

  10. Antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Ranunculus arvensis L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Muhammad Zeeshan; Ali, Amjad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Saeed, Asma; Malik, Salman Akbar

    2015-06-30

    Ranunculus arvensis L. (R. arvensis) has long been used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as arthritis, asthma, hay fever, rheumatism, psoriasis, gut diseases and rheumatic pain. Here, we screened R. arvensis for antioxidant activity, phytochemical and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. The chloroform, chloroform:methanol, methanol, methanol:acetone, acetone, methanol:water and water extracts of R. arvensis were examined for DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, reducing power assay, flavonoid content, phenolic content and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Significant antioxidant activity was displayed by methanol extract (IC 50 34.71 ± 0.02) in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Total flavonoids and phenolics ranged 0.96-6.0 mg/g of extract calculated as rutin equivalent and 0.48-1.43 mg/g of extract calculated as gallic acid equivalent respectively. Significant value of rutin and caffeic acid was observed via high performance liquid chromatography. These results showed that extracts of R. arvensis exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Moreover, R. arvensis is a rich source of rutin, flavonoids and phenolics.

  11. Metabolism of Tryptophan in Petioles of Coleus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Jack G.; Perley, James E.

    1966-01-01

    Auxin precursors retard abscission when applied to debladed petioles of Coleus blumei Benth. The d and l forms of tryptophan are equally effective in retarding abscission. Tryptamine is more effective than is tryptophan. Both compounds apparently are converted to auxin through an aldehyde intermediate. The evidence presented suggests that a major pathway of tryptophan metabolism proceeds through tryptamine, as can be demonstrated by the use of amine oxidase inhibitors in the petiole tissue. Cell free preparations of the tissues metabolize tryptophan-1-14C with the release of carbon dioxide. The rate of tryptophan mtabolism in abscission tissue is 5 times that in distal petiole tissue. Radioactivity is associated with basic indole conversion products as well as with neutral and acidic fractions. The radioactivity is most concentrated in the neutral fraction. The results indicate that the Coleus petiole itself is capable of producing auxin. PMID:16656450

  12. Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Dulk-Ras, A D; Hooykaas, P J

    2000-01-01

    In a screen for leaf developmental mutants we have isolated an activator T-DNA-tagged mutant that produces leaves without a petiole. In addition to that leafy petiole phenotype this lettuce (let) mutant shows aberrant inflorescence branching and silique shape. The LEAFY PETIOLE (LEP) gene is loca...

  13. Complex Self-Incompatibility Systems in Ranunculus acris L. and Beta vulgaris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, A.; Østerbye, U.; Larsen, K.

    1973-01-01

    -genes acting on the haploid pollen grain be matched in the pistil. This type of incompatibility system was previously considered to be unique for the grasses. However, whereas two S-loci with such complementary interaction have been established in the grasses, there are at least three S-loci in Ranunculus...

  14. RANUNCULUS-HEDERACEUS L AS INDICATOR OF LAND-USE CHANGES IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diggelen, R.; Beukema, Hendrien; Noorman, Klaas

    In The Netherlands Ranunculus hederaceus is a rare species that occurs in running waters. It appears to be confined to zones with a constant supply of mineral-poor groundwater, originating from highly fertilized fields. The relation between species performance and chemical composition of the water

  15. Genetic stability among date palm plantlets regenerated from petiole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The regeneration capacity between the shoot tip and petiole explants that excised from two date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cutivar namely Unknown and Ferhi was compared. It was noted that the shoot tip explants started to swill after several subculture when placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented ...

  16. Notes on genome size in the hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae and its parents by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Prieto, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Notes on genome size in the hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae and its parents by flow cytometry.- Flow cytometry was used to estimate the nuclear DNA content in the natural hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii and its parents. Our results indicate that the genome size of the hybrid R. x luizetii is closer to R. pyrenaeus than to R. parnassiifolius, providing an evidence of genome downsizing.Notas sobre el tamaño del genoma en el híbrido Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae y sus progenitores mediante citometría de flujo.- Se ha empleado la citometría de flujo para estimar el contenido de ADN nuclear en el híbrido Ranunculus x luizetii y sus progenitores. Nuestros resultados indican que el tamaño del genoma del híbrido R. x luizetii se acerca más a R. pyrenaeus que a R. parnassiifolius, con una evidencia de reducción del genoma.

  17. Comparative anatomy of the petioles of different genomic Cydonia × Malus hybrids

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    Elisaveta Onica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper morphological and anatomical structure of the petioles of 15 different genomic hybrids between quince and apple are compared with other hybrids and the initial forms. Specific and common anatomic peculiarities of the petiole for the studied hybrids in comparison to other hybrids and parental forms are given.

  18. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

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    Bi-Ling Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1 and B (2, and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3, were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were established to be (2S-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher’s method.

  19. Comparative chloroplast genomics: Analyses including new sequencesfrom the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubeso, Linda A.; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W.; Dziubek,Chris; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2007-03-01

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This new array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is most useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the new genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (from the basal group of eudicots). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition.

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF THREATENED SPECIES TRIFOLIUM LUPINASTER L., HERACLEUM CARPATICUM PORCIUS AND RANUNCULUS THORA L. IN ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS

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    Attila BARTÓK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maramureşului Mountains Nature Park is widely known as one of the last wilderness areas in Europe and also represents a real oasis for naturalists eager to explore the flora and fauna of this special land not very researched. During a botanical trip in the area of Farcău Peak (on 19 July 2014 the authors of this paper found three very rare species (all 3 threatened, included in Romanian Red Book of Vascular Plants: Trifolium lupinaster L., Heracleum carpaticum Porcius and Ranunculus thora L. Based on field studies, analyses of herbarium material and literature data, the authors managed to record the occurrence of Trifolium lupinaster, Heracleum carpaticum and Ranunculus thora in the Romanian Carpathians and determined the threatened status of species according to criteria and categories of IUCN.

  1. Petiolate wings: effects on the leading-edge vortex in flapping flight

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, N.; Knowles, K.; Bomphrey, R J

    2017-01-01

    The wings of many insect species including crane flies and damselflies are petiolate (on stalks), with the wing planform beginning some distance away from the wing hinge, rather than at the hinge. The aerodynamic impact of flapping petiolate wings is relatively unknown, particularly on the formation of the lift-augmenting leading-edge vortex (LEV): a key flow structure exploited by many insects, birds and bats to enhance their lift coefficient. We investigated the aerodynamic implications of ...

  2. Petiolate wings: effects on the leading-edge vortex in flapping flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan; Knowles, Kevin; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2017-02-06

    The wings of many insect species including crane flies and damselflies are petiolate (on stalks), with the wing planform beginning some distance away from the wing hinge, rather than at the hinge. The aerodynamic impact of flapping petiolate wings is relatively unknown, particularly on the formation of the lift-augmenting leading-edge vortex (LEV): a key flow structure exploited by many insects, birds and bats to enhance their lift coefficient. We investigated the aerodynamic implications of petiolation P using particle image velocimetry flow field measurements on an array of rectangular wings of aspect ratio 3 and petiolation values of P = 1-3. The wings were driven using a mechanical device, the 'Flapperatus', to produce highly repeatable insect-like kinematics. The wings maintained a constant Reynolds number of 1400 and dimensionless stroke amplitude Λ* (number of chords traversed by the wingtip) of 6.5 across all test cases. Our results showed that for more petiolate wings the LEV is generally larger, stronger in circulation, and covers a greater area of the wing surface, particularly at the mid-span and inboard locations early in the wing stroke cycle. In each case, the LEV was initially arch-like in form with its outboard end terminating in a focus-sink on the wing surface, before transitioning to become continuous with the tip vortex thereafter. In the second half of the wing stroke, more petiolate wings exhibit a more detached LEV, with detachment initiating at approximately 70% and 50% span for P = 1 and 3, respectively. As a consequence, lift coefficients based on the LEV are higher in the first half of the wing stroke for petiolate wings, but more comparable in the second half. Time-averaged LEV lift coefficients show a general rise with petiolation over the range tested.

  3. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot. We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and longer dispersed repeats (SDR, and patterns of nucleotide composition. Results The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. Conclusion SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A

  4. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubeson, Linda A; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W; Dziubek, Chris; Fourcade, H Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2007-06-15

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition. The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A+T richness", an A+T bias is not apparent upon more in

  5. Cytotype segregation on regional and microgeographic scales in snow buttercups (Ranunculus adoneus: Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baack, Eric J

    2004-11-01

    Polyploid speciation is an important source of angiosperm diversity. Insights into the origin and establishment of new polyploid species may be gained by studying the distributions of ancestral and derivative cytotypes at multiple spatial scales. Diploid (2n = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 32) snow buttercups (Ranunculus adoneus: Ranunculaceae) occur in the alpine of the central and southern Rocky Mountains. Root-tip squashes and flow cytometry were used to determine the ploidy of 1618 individuals from 35 populations. Samples from 31 of the 35 sites were entirely of one cytotype, either diploid or tetraploid. Diploid and tetraploid snow buttercups have nonoverlapping regional distributions. Where both cytotypes occur on the same site, the two are spatially segregated despite no apparent change in habitat. Triploid snow buttercups were only found at a diploid/tetraploid contact zone, while two hexaploid plants were found in tetraploid populations. Tetraploid establishment once or twice in the history of the species complex could account for the regional distribution of the two cytotypes. Habitat differentiation between cytotypes or reproductive exclusion of minority cytotypes may explain the observed segregation at both microgeographic and regional scales.

  6. The native and naturalised species of Peltocalathos and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae: Ranunculeae in southern Africa

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    J. C. Manning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The five native and naturalised species of Ranunculus L. and Peltocalathos Tamaru (Ranunculaceae: Ranunculeae from southern Africa are reviewed, with full descriptions and nomenclature, taxonomic history, ecological notes, and distribution data. All species are illustrated. Peltocalathos, a monotypic genus based on R. baurii MacOwan, has been overlooked in the regional literature until now. The new name R. dregei J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is proposed as a replacement name for the later homonym R. meyeri Harv., non Lowe. We conclude that the poorly known R. capensis Thunb. represents juvenile forms of the widespread and variable R. multifidus Forssk. and we synonymise the name, along with the three trivial epithets R. pinnatus var. hermannii DC., R. pubescens var. glabrescens Burtt Davy and R. pubescens var. harveyanus Burtt Davy, which have been overlooked in the recent literature. Based on number (mostly < 40 achenes per head and size (mostly 1.2–1.8 mm long of achenes, we conclude that the southern African material of the aquatic species recently re-identified as R. rionii Lagger is more appropriately treated as R. trichophyllus Chaix.

  7. Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

    2013-11-01

    Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (λ = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (λ = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase λ for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

  8. Uptake of cadmium by the invasive perennial weeds Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Juliette; Bendell-Young, L I

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accumulation and partitioning of cadmium (Cd) in a fibrous versus a tap root weed, Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum respectively. To meet this objective, we compared the accumulation by and the partitioning of Cd in R repens versus G. robertianum grown in soils spiked with 0.015 grams of Cd for a period of three weeks. The rate of Cd uptake was also compared by following the fate of 109Cd within the root, stem and leaf of the two weeds. Prior to Cd exposure, leaf and stem of control R. repens contained significantly greater amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum, whereas Cd concentrations in roots of the control plants for the two species were not significantly different (p > 0.05, student's t-test). Post Cd exposure the two species contained similar amounts of Cd in leaf and stem, however, roots of R. repens contained almost two-fold the amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum. Comparison of k (h(-1), rate of 109Cd uptake) for stem, leaf and root of the two species indicated that G. robertianum accumulated 109Cd over the first 24-48 h at a faster rate as compared to R. repens. For both species and all three organs, maximum accumulation of 109Cd occurred within the first 24-48 h. Our findings indicate that the fate of Cd within these two species is quite different with the fibrous root of R. repens serving to accumulate and store Cd whereas in G. robertianum, Cd is rapidly taken up and tends to be accumulated within its leaf.

  9. Plant regeneration from petiole and leaf of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichada Sunpui

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A regeneration procedure was developed for in vitro grown African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.. Adventitious shoot regeneration was compared among petioles, leaves and stems cultured on MS basal medium. High frequency regeneration was obtained from leaves and petioles supplemented with plant growth regulators (BA, KN, 2,4-D, and NAA. Regeneration media that induced the highest number of shoots in petiole explants was either MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l BA alone or 1 mg/l NAA plus 3 mg/l BA. Adventitious shoots were also regenerated from callus that was derived from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing several concentrations of TDZ. Callus induced on medium with 0.5 mg/l TDZ showed the best shoot induction. Regenerated shoots could be rooted on 1/2 MS medium or MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l IBA. Complete plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to glasshouse conditions.

  10. Differences in mechanical and structural properties of surface and aerial petioles of the aquatic plant Nymphaea odorata subsp. tuberosa (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, Shelley A; Villani, Philip J

    2007-07-01

    Lily pads (Nymphaea odorata) exhibit heterophylly where a single plant may have leaves that are submerged, floating, or above (aerial) the surface of the water. Lily pads are placed in a unique situation because each leaf form is exposed to a distinctly different set of mechanical demands. While surface petioles may be loaded in tension under conditions of wind or waves, aerial petioles are loaded in compression because they must support the weight of the lamina. Using standard techniques, we compared the mechanical and morphological properties of both surface and aerial leaf petioles. Structural stiffness (EI) and the second moment of area (I) were higher in aerial petioles, although we detected no differences in other mechanical values (elastic modulus [E], extension ratio, and breaking strength). Morphologically, aerial petioles had a thicker rind, with increased collenchyma tissue and sclereid cell frequency. Aerial petioles also had a larger cross-sectional area and were more elliptical. Thus, subtle changes in the distribution of materials, rather than differences in their makeup, differentiate petiole forms. We suggest that the growth of aerial petioles may be an adaptive response to shading, allowing aerial leaves to rise above a crowded water surface.

  11. Ethylene regulates fast apoplastic acidification and expansin A transcription during submergence-induced petiole elongation in Rumex palustris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, RAM; Benschop, JJ; Peeters, AJM; Colmer, TD; Ammerlaan, AHM; Staal, M; Elzenga, TM; Staals, RHJ; Darley, CP; McQueen-Mason, SJ; Voesenek, LACJ

    The semi-aquatic dicot Rumex palustris responds to complete submergence by enhanced elongation of young petioles. This elongation of petiole cells brings leaf blades above the water surface, thus reinstating gas exchange with the atmosphere and increasing survival in flood-prone environments. We

  12. Interrelationships of petiole air canal architecture, water depth and convective air flow in Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the study--Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer, larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiole air canals are in the conv...

  13. In Vivo Measurement of Indole-3-acetic Acid Decarboxylation in Aging Coleus Petiole Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Thomas; Jacobs, William P.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in plant tissues is regulated, in part, by its rate of decarboxylation. However, the commonly used in vitro assays for IAA oxidase may not accurately reflect total in vivo decarboxylation rates. A method for measuring in vivo decarboxylation was utilized in which 14CO2 is collected following uptake of [1-14C]IAA by excised tissue sections. After a 30-minute equilibration period, the evolution of 14CO2 was found to follow an approximately linear course with respect to both time and tissue weight. Decarboxylation rates were measured by this method in petiole sections of the Princeton clone of Coleus blumei Benth. Both the 14CO2 evolved per milligram tissue and the percent of [1-14C]IAA uptake decarboxylated were highest in sections from the youngest petioles tested, and declined in the older tissue. Thin layer chromatography of acetonitrile extracts from the [1-14C]IAA-treated petioles showed a decreasing amount of free IAA and an increase at the retardation factor of indoleacetylaspartate in the older sections. The decreased decarboxylation rates in the older petioles may be attributable to a generally lower metabolic rate and increased protection of the IAA by conjugation. PMID:16663153

  14. Ethylene Production and Petiole Growth in Rumex Plants Induced by Soil Waterlogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Bögemann, Gerald M.; Blom, Cornelius W. P. M.; Reuss, Jörg

    1990-01-01

    Petiole growth of Rumex acetosa L., Rumex crispus L., and Rumex palustris Sm. in response to soil waterlogging was studied in relation to production of the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. Ethylene production was monitored in a flow-through system and a recently developed laser driven photoacoustic detection system, which allowed ethylene measurements as low as 6 picoliters per liter. R. acetosa showed a two-fold increase in ethylene production correlated with a slight enhancement of the growth of the petiole that developed during the waterlogging treatment. Both R. crispus and R. palustris showed a strong petiole elongation of existing as well as newly formed petioles, which was correlated with a 20-fold increase in ethylene production after approximately 7 days. Increased rates of ethylene production in R. palustris were related to a strong increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and a slight, but detectable, increase in ethylene forming enzyme activity. In R. acetosa on the other hand, only a very small increase in ACC concentration was observed. Changes in ethylene production in Rumex are strongly correlated with variation in ACC content and ethylene forming enzyme activity. The interaction between ethylene production/internal concentration and ethylene sensitivity of the three Rumex species is discussed in relation to their field location in a flooding gradient and their differential resistance toward waterlogging and submergence. PMID:16667798

  15. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents: The role of the cotyledonary petiole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W; Agosta, Salvatore J; Steele, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak (Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  16. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  17. Isolation and properties of cellulose nanofibrils from coconut palm petioles by different mechanical process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyan Xu

    Full Text Available In this study, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs were successfully isolated from coconut palm petiole residues falling off naturally with chemical pretreatments and mechanical treatments by a grinder and a homogenizor. FTIR spectra analysis showed that most of hemicellulose and lignin were removed from the fiber after chemical pretreatments. The compositions of CNFS indicated that high purity of nanofibrils with cellulose contain more than 95% was obtained. X-ray diffractogram demonstrated that chemical pretreatments significantly increased the crystallinity of CNFs from 38.00% to 70.36%; however, 10-15 times of grinding operation followed by homogenizing treatment after the chemical pretreatments did not significantly improve the crystallinity of CNFs. On the contrary, further grinding operation could destroy crystalline regions of the cellulose. SEM image indicated that high quality of CNFs could be isolated from coconut palm petiole residues with chemical treatments in combination of 15 times of grinding followed by 10 times of homogenization and the aspect ratio of the obtained CNFs ranged from 320 to 640. The result of TGA-DTG revealed that the chemical-mechanical treatments improved thermal stability of fiber samples, and the CNFs with 15 grinding passing times had the best thermal stability. This work suggests that the CNFs can be successfully extracted from coconut palm petiole residues and it may be a potential feedstock for nanofiber reinforced composites due to its high aspect ratio and crystallinity.

  18. [Anatomical characteristics of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia and their taxonomic significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Shi-Yong; Wang, Long; Wang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Li

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical features of the lamina and petiole of 11 species of Salvia had been compared. The microstructures of 11 species of Salvia were observed by paraffin method, and indexes such as the epidermis, xylems and phloems were measured. The data set was analyzed by principal components analysis method and cluster analysis method. The results indicated that the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were bifacial leaf, and the surface of laminae and petioles were covered with villous. The upper epidermis and lower epidermis of the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were constituted by a dense cuticular layer without stratum corneum. Differences existed in the structure of cross sectio mn of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia. Among them, upper epidermal thickness of nine different micromorphological characters could serve as one of the criteria to identify species of taxonomic Salvia. The identification of genetic relationship of these characters in Salvia were discussed in the paper to provide an evidence of anatomy in Salvia.

  19. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Brad W; Zhu, Yun J; Webb, David T; Christopher, David A

    2009-04-01

    Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch

  20. Efficient culture protocol for plant regeneration from cotyledonary petiole explants of Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency and reproducible protocol for induction of adventitious shoot buds and plant regeneration from cotyledonary petiole explants of Jatropha curcas L. has been developed. The cotyledonary petiole explants of J. curcas cultured directly on medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ induce regeneration of poor quality shoot buds that have a low regeneration frequency. However, treating the explants with high concentrations (10–60 mg/L of TDZ solution for certain time periods (5–80 min significantly increased the regeneration frequency and improved the quality of the regenerated shoot buds. The best shoot buds induction (88.42% and number of shoot buds (12.67 per explant were observed when in vitro explants were treated with 20 mg/L TDZ solution for 20 min before being transferred on hormone-free medium after 30 days. Regeneration was also influenced by the orientation (horizontal or vertical of the explants on the medium, and by the origin of the cotyledonary petioles (in vitro or in vivo used for the preparation of explants. We performed subsequent experiments for elongation and rooting of the regenerated shoot buds. Addition of L-arginine to the medium was conducive to the elongation of the shoot buds. A concentration of 7.5 mg/L L-arginine yielded the best results. The elongated shoots could initiate roots to become intact plantlets in half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0.1 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. After acclimatization, these plantlets could be transplanted to the soil and the growth was normal. Therefore, application of the methods described here helped to increase plant regeneration efficiency.

  1. Out of the Alps: colonization of Northern Europe by East Alpine populations of the Glacier Buttercup Ranunculus glacialis L. (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönswetter, P; Paun, O; Tribsch, A; Niklfeld, H

    2003-12-01

    Ranunculus glacialis ssp. glacialis is an arctic-alpine plant growing in central and southern European and Scandinavian mountain ranges and the European Arctic. In order to elucidate the taxon's migration history, we applied amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to populations from the Pyrenees, Tatra mountains and Northern Europe and included data from a previous study on Alpine accessions. Populations from the Alps and the Tatra mountains were genetically highly divergent and harboured many private AFLP fragments, indicating old vicariance. Whereas nearly all Alpine populations of R. glacialis were genetically highly variable, the Tatrean population showed only little variation. Our data suggest that the Pyrenees were colonized more recently than the separation of the Tatra from the Alps. Populations in Northern Europe, by contrast, were similar to those of the Eastern Alps but showed only little genetic variation. They harboured no private AFLP fragments and only a subset of East Alpine ones, and they exhibited no phylogeographical structure. It is very likely therefore that R. glacialis colonized Northern Europe in postglacial times from source populations in the Eastern Alps.

  2. Extra petals in the buttercup (Ranunculus repens) provide a quick method to estimate the age of meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John

    2009-09-01

    There is a widely used crude method to estimate the age of hedgerows (Hooper's rule) based on species' richness. The aim of this study was to try and establish a similar field method for estimating the age of grasslands based on the accumulation of macro-somatic mutations. A countrywide survey was carried out by the British public to investigate the relationship between grassland age and the number of Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) plants with extra petals. In addition the relationship between grassland age and R. repens pollen viability was also investigated. Each plant with flowers with additional petals in a sample of 100 was found to equate to approx. 7 years. A higher significant correlation was observed between pollen viability and population age; however, this is not amenable to providing field estimates. The age of British grasslands can be easily and reliably estimated in the field by counting the number flowers with additional petals in R. repens in meadows up to 200 years old. An attempt to estimate the heritability of extra petals suggests that the phenotype results from the slow accumulation of somatic mutations in a species that primarily reproduces vegetatively.

  3. Proteomic analysis of residual proteins in blades and petioles of fallen leaves of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclos-Théveniau, M; Coquet, L; Jouenne, T; Etienne, P

    2015-03-01

    Brassica napus L. is an important crop plant, characterised by high nitrogen (N) levels in fallen leaves, leading to a significant restitution of this element to the soil, with important consequences at the economic and environmental levels. It is now well established that the N in fallen leaves is due to weak N remobilisation that is especially related to incomplete degradation of foliar proteins during leaf senescence. Identification of residual proteins in a fallen leaf (i.e. incompletely degraded in the last step of the N remobilisation process) constitutes important information for improving nutrient use efficiency. Proteome analysis of the vascular system (petioles) and blades from fallen leaves of Brassica napus was performed, and the 30 most abundant residual proteins in each tissue were identified. Among them, several proteins involved in N recycling remain in the leaf after abscission. Moreover, this study reveals that some residual proteins are associated with energy metabolism, protection against oxidative stress, and more surprisingly, photosynthesis. Finally, comparison of blade and petiole proteomes show that, despite their different physiological roles in the non-senescing leaf, both organs redirect their metabolism in order to ensure catabolic reactions. Taken together, the results suggest that a better degradation of these leaf proteins during the senescence process could enable improvements in the N use efficiency of Brassica napus. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein composition. A simple, efficient, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from petiole explants of non-toxic J. curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ). The best induction of shoot buds (57.61%), and number of shoot buds (4.98) per explant were obtained when in vitro petiole explants were placed horizontally on MS medium supplemented with 2.27 mu M TDZ. The Induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 mu M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 mu M 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 mu M alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation and subsequent elongation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 mu M BA and 8.5 mu M IAA. The elongated shoots could be rooted on half-strength MS medium with 15 mu M IBA, 11.4 mu M IAA and 5.5 mu M NAA with more than 90% survival rate. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An efficient method for transgenic callus induction from Vitis amurensis petiole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Zhao

    Full Text Available Transformation is the main platform for genetic improvement and gene function studies in plants. However, the established somatic embryo transformation system for grapevines is time-consuming and has low efficiency, which limits its utilization in functional genomics research. Vitis amurensis is a wild Vitis species with remarkable cold tolerance. The lack of an efficient genetic transformation system for it has significantly hindered the functional identification of cold stress related genes in the species. Herein, an efficient method was established to produce transformed calli of V. amurensis. Segments of petioles from micropropagated plantlets of V. amurensis exhibited better capacity to differentiate calli than leaf-discs and stem segments, and thus was chosen as target tissue for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP genes were used for simultaneous selection of transgenic calli based on kanamycin resistance and eGFP fluorescence. Several parameters affecting the transformation efficiency were optimized including the concentration of kanamycin, Agrobacterium stains, bacterial densities, infection treatments and co-cultivation time. The transgenic callus lines were verified by checking the integration of NPTII gene into calli genomes, the expression of eGFP gene and the fluorescence of eGFP. Up to 20% of the petiole segments produced transformed calli after 2 months of cultivation. This efficient transformation system will facilitate the functional analysis of agronomic characteristics and related genes not only in V. amurensis but also in other grapevine species.

  6. Tomato yield and potassium concentrations in soil and in plant petioles as affected by potassium fertirrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FONTES PAULO CEZAR REZENDE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara was grown on a silt clay soil with 46 mg dm-3 Mehlich 1 extractable K, to evaluate the effects of trickle-applied K rates on fruit yield and to establish K critical concentrations in soil and in plant petioles. Six potassium rates (0, 48, 119, 189, 259 and 400 kg ha-1 K were applied in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil and plant K critical levels were determined at two plant growth stages (at the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering. Total, marketable and weighted yields increased with K rates, reaching their maximum of 86.4, 73.4, and 54.9 ton ha-1 at 198, 194, and 125 kg ha-1 K , respectively. At the first soil sampling date K critical concentrations in the soil associated with K rates for maximum marketable and weighted yields were 92 and 68 mg dm-3, respectively. Potassium critical concentrations in the dry matter of the petioles sampled by the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering time, associated with maximum weighted yield, were 10.30 and 7.30 dag kg-1, respectively.

  7. Detection of Colletotrichum acutatum Latent Infections in Strawberry Petioles and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum acutatum is the most significant agent of anthracnose strawberry fruit rot. Besides being a necrotrophic pest, it can spend a part of its life cycle as an epiphyte, in a form of latent infection. The presence of the fungi on symptomless plant tissue is considered one of the main ways of distribution of this economically harmful pathogen in the world. Investigation of latent C. acutatum infection was carried out on artificially inoculated strawberries. The initiation of fungi sporulation on symptomless petioles and leaves was carried out by exposing them to the herbicide paraquat (0.25% and low temperatures, which caused plant tissue decay in different ways. Surface sterilization with 0.5% NaOCl precedes the exposure of plant material to paraquat. The freezing procedure was carried out by exposure of plant material to the temperature of -20°C for 2h. After the freezing, one group was rinsed in Tween 20 (18 μl/l, and another group underwent surface sterilization in 0.0525% NaOCl with an addition of Tween 20 (18 μl/l. After 6 days of incubation, the appearance of acervuli and conidia was detected in 93.33 to 100% plant parts exposed to paraquat treatment and freezing procedure. In inoculated parts which were not exposed to herbicides or low temperatures, the presence of acervuli was detected in 3.33% tested petioles and 6.67% leaves.

  8. Regeneration of whole plants of geranium from petioles cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Stefaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were made on the morphogenetic potential of petioles of Pelargonium hortorum (1 variety, 2 clones and Pelargonium peltatum (1 variety, 1 clone grown on the medium of Murashige and Skoog (MS supplemented with auxins (IAA, IBA, NAA and cytokinins (KIN, BAP, zeatin. The most intensive growth of callus of both species was observed on medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 10 mg/l KIN, both under constant illumination and in darkness. Differentiation of callus and regeneration of plants occurred in P. peltatum variety "PAC Dresdner Amethyst" and in P. hortorum clone 3766/4 on medium containing 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l IAA and exposed to a photoperiod (L:D = 16:8.

  9. Leaf blade versus petiole nutrient tests as predictors of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium status of ‘Pinot noir’ grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape growers rely on tissues tests of leaf blades or petioles for routine monitoring of vine nutritional health and for diagnosing potential nutrient deficiency or toxicity. There has been a long standing debate as to which tissue better reflects the nutrient status of vines. A comparison of leaf b...

  10. Leaf and petiole anatomical characters of the genus Alchemilla (Rosaceae in Iran and their use in Numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Beygom Faghir

    2016-09-01

    A. pseudocartalinica, A. rechingeri, A. melancholica, A. hyrcana, A. microscopica and A. erythropoda, formation of 3 main groups and two subgroups. Our findings revealed that leaf and petiole anatomical characters are limited taxonomic value. The numerical analysis of these traits has disability in revealing the species relationship.

  11. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional evolution and variability throughout the crop season for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, N.; García-Escudero, N.; Romero, I.; Benito, A.; Martín, I.

    2015-07-01

    An adequate nutritional state of a crop can be kept by means of a well-designed fertilization plan based on the assessment of the nutrient availability throughout the growing season. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of leaf blade and petiole diagnosis and the period of validity of their references at both flowering and veraison by means of systematic monitoring throughout the complete growing season. The study was carried out in two plots planted with Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano within the AOC Rioja (Spain). Blades and petioles were collected throughout a growing season (2006) and total N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B concentrations were analyzed in both tissues. Results suggest, in general, that petioles have higher variability and lower analysis reproducibility than blades. Therefore, blade could be a more appropriate tissue to evaluate N, P, K, Ca, and Mg at both flowering and veraison in this variety. Micronutrients in blade and petiole showed different variability behaviour in each of the vineyards studied, therefore, based on our results, it was difficult to determine which one could be the best tissue for the nutritional diagnosis of the ‘Graciano’ variety. Seasonal changes of nutrient concentration in both tissues also confirmed the need for reference values for each tissue and each phenological stage. (Author)

  12. Amount of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Petiole of Some Iranian and Imported Grape Cultivars

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    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is one of the oldest and most important perennial crops in the world. Several native grapevine genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential are still cultivated in Iran. Developing viticulture requires the conservation of autochthonous varieties that have evolved several mechanisms enabling them to cope with the local bioclimatic and edaphic conditions. Nutrition is a key component of vineyard management that has the potential to influence various factors in vine production that includes fruit set and quality. To develop suitable nutrient plant growers need to have an understanding of the factors such as cultivars, rootstocks, soil type, irrigation type and nutrients that they are applying in the vineyard. The uptake of nutrients from the soil depends on different factors namely; their soluble content in it, soil pH, plant growth stage, plant genetics and types of soil and fertilizers. Plant species have a variety of capacities in removing and accumulating elements. Vigorous genotypes are more capable of finding the necessary nutrients from the surrounding soil environment. This indicates that it does not require as much nutrient as poor vigor genotypes. So, for sustainable viticulture, it is important to know the interactive influences of cultivars, soil characters, climatic conditions, and irrigation type on vine productivity. Materials and Methods: To evaluate and compare the amount of macronutrient elements (N, P, K, Mg and Ca and micronutrient elements (B, Zn and Mn in petiole of some Iranian grapevine cultivars including Bidanesefid Qazvin- Peikany Kashmar- Khalili Shiraz-Rasha and four foreign cultivars Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Perlette and Black seedless,This study was carried out as –randomized complete blocks design -with-four replications in the Kahriz Horticulture Research station -.A total of 30 adult leaves per cultivar were

  13. Failure of Ethylene to Change the Distribution of Indoleacetic Acid in the Petiole of Coleus blumei X frederici during Epinasty 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, John H.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of ethylene on the distribution of applied indoleacetic acid in the petiole of Coleus blumei Benth. X C. frederici G. Taylor has been investigated during the development of epinastic curvature. Using intact plants, 14C-IAA was applied to the distal region of the leaf lamina and the accumulation of label in the abaxial and adaxial halves of 5 mm petiole sections was determined after 1.5, 3, and 6 hours. Over this period the label was transported out of the lamina into the petiole at a rate of at least 66 mm hr−1. Of the total amount of label in the petiole sections, 24 to 30% was located in the adaxial half and this distribution was not altered significantly by exposing plants to an atmosphere containing 50 μl/l ethylene. Thus when epinastic curvature is induced by ethylene there is no associated increase in the IAA content of the expanding adaxial half. The role of endogenous IAA in petiole epinasty was studied by restricting its movement with DPX 1840 (3,3a-dihydro-2-[p-methoxyphenyl]-8H-pyrozolo{5,1-a}isoindol-8-one). The leaf petioles still showed an initial epinastic response to ethylene. It is concluded that ethylene-induced epinasty is not dependent upon either any change in the transport of IAA or its redistribution within the petiole. PMID:16659707

  14. Polysaccharide compositions of collenchyma cell walls from celery (Apium graveolens L.) petioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Harris, Philip J; Sims, Ian M; Zujovic, Zoran; Melton, Laurence D

    2017-06-15

    Collenchyma serves as a mechanical support tissue for many herbaceous plants. Previous work based on solid-state NMR and immunomicroscopy suggested collenchyma cell walls (CWs) may have similar polysaccharide compositions to those commonly found in eudicotyledon parenchyma walls, but no detailed chemical analysis was available. In this study, compositions and structures of cell wall polysaccharides of peripheral collenchyma from celery petioles were investigated. This is the first detailed investigation of the cell wall composition of collenchyma from any plant. Celery petioles were found to elongate throughout their length during early growth, but as they matured elongation was increasingly confined to the upper region, until elongation ceased. Mature, fully elongated, petioles were divided into three equal segments, upper, middle and lower, and peripheral collenchyma strands isolated from each. Cell walls (CWs) were prepared from the strands, which also yielded a HEPES buffer soluble fraction. The CWs were sequentially extracted with CDTA, Na 2 CO 3 , 1 M KOH and 4 M KOH. Monosaccharide compositions of the CWs showed that pectin was the most abundant polysaccharide [with homogalacturonan (HG) more abundant than rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II)], followed by cellulose, and other polysaccharides, mainly xyloglucans, with smaller amounts of heteroxylans and heteromannans. CWs from different segments had similar compositions, but those from the upper segments had slightly more pectin than those from the lower two segments. Further, the pectin in the CWs of the upper segment had a higher degree of methyl esterification than the other segments. In addition to the anticipated water-soluble pectins, the HEPES-soluble fractions surprisingly contained large amounts of heteroxylans. The CDTA and Na 2 CO 3 fractions were rich in HG and RG-I, the 1 M KOH fraction had abundant heteroxylans, the 4 M KOH fraction was rich in xyloglucan and

  15. Thidiazuron-induced morphogenetic response in petiole cultures of Pelargonium x hortorum and Pelargonium x domesticum and its histological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haensch, K-T

    2004-10-01

    The possibility of inducing somatic embryogenesis in petiole cultures of two cultivars of Pelargonium x hortorum and of one cultivar of Pelargonium x domesticum using thidiazuron (TDZ) was investigated. Petioles were cultivated on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and application periods of TDZ. Regeneration was achieved with all TDZ treatments for all cultivars and was highly variable. Shoots of different shapes and somatic embryo-like structures were observed. Histological examination revealed that no somatic embryos were formed, and regenerants had to be classified as shoots and shoot-like or leaf-like structures. The importance of these results on the classification of regeneration induced by TDZ in these species and on the propagation of these pelargoniums is discussed.

  16. Effect of Coupling Agent on Mechanical Properties of Palm Petiole Nanofiber Reinforced Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, T.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Santhanam, V.; Sudharsan, V. D.

    2017-03-01

    Composites have replaced conventional materials due to their advantages such as low cost, low density, high strength, etc. recently the research has been focused on natural fibers as a suitable replacement for synthetic fibers for reinforcement in composites. Hence, in this work, natural fiber is extracted from palm petiole and this fiber is investigated for reinforcement in epoxy polymer. The fiber is subjected to different chemical treatments for enhancing the surface wetting and Nano cellulose will also be extracted from the fiber. The composite will be fabricated by using handlay-up method by using 1%, 2%, 3% volume fraction of cellulose nanofiber in the epoxy resin. It is observed that the increase of the nanofiber in 3% volume fraction gives the good tensile, flexural and impact strength. So they obtained chemically treated cellulose nanofiber was treated with the amino propyl triethoxysilane and 3% of the silanesilane treated nano-fiber fabricated. Then the mechanical testings of this is compared with the 3% of chemically treated nano-fiber composite. The silane treated nanofiber gives the best results.

  17. Induction of Tetraploids from Petiole Explants through Colchicine Treatments in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanayake Nilanthi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiole explants were obtained from in vitro grown diploid (2x=22 Echinacea purpurea plantlets. Shoots were regenerated by culturing the explants on MS basal medium containing 0.3 mg/L benzyladenine (BA, 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and four concentrations (30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/L of colchicine for 30 days, or 120 mg/L of colchicine for various durations (7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The regenerated shoots were induced to root on MS basal medium with 0.01 mg/L NAA, and then the root-tips of the regenerated shoots were sampled for count of chromosome number. It was found that a treatment duration of >7 days was necessary for induction of tetraploid (4x=44 shoots, and treatment with 120 mg/L colchicine for 28 days was the most efficient for induction of tetraploids, yielding 23.5% of tetraploids among all the regenerated shoots. Chimeras were observed in almost all the treatments. However, the ratio of tetraploid to diploid cells in a chimeric plant was usually low. In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature.

  18. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-01-01

    ... organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12...

  19. A Comparison of Petiole Hydraulics and Aquaporin Expression in an Anisohydric and Isohydric Cultivar of Grapevine in Response to Water-Stress Induced Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Megan C; Vandeleur, Rebecca; Kaiser, Brent N; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    We report physiological, anatomical and molecular differences in two economically important grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars cv. Grenache (near-isohydric) and Chardonnay (anisohydric) in their response to water-stress induced cavitation. The aim of the study was to compare organ vulnerability (petiole and stem) to cavitation by measuring ultrasonic acoustic emissions (UAE) and percent loss of conductance of potted grapevines subject to the onset of water-stress. Leaf (ψ L ) and stem water potential (ψ S ), stomatal conductance ( g s ), transpiration ( E ), petiole hydraulics ( K Pet ), and xylem diameter were also measured. Chardonnay displayed hydraulic segmentation based on UAE, with cavitation occurring at a less negative ψ L in the petiole than in the stem. Vulnerability segmentation was not observed in Grenache, with both petioles and stems equally vulnerable to cavitation. Leaf water potential that induced 50% of maximum UAE was significantly different between petioles and stems in Chardonnay (ψ 50Petiole = -1.14 and ψ 50Stem = -2.24 MPa) but not in Grenache (ψ 50Petiole = -0.73 and ψ 50Stem = -0.78 MPa). Grenache stems appeared more susceptible to water-stress induced cavitation than Chardonnay stems. Grenache displayed (on average) a higher K Pet likely due to the presence of larger xylem vessels. A close relationship between petiole hydraulic properties and vine water status was observed in Chardonnay but not in Grenache. Transcriptional analysis of aquaporins in the petioles and leaves ( VvPIP1;1, VvPIP2;1, VvPIP2;2 VvPIP2;3, VvTIP1;1 , and VvTIP2;1 ) showed differential regulation diurnally and in response to water-stress. VvPIP2;1 showed strong diurnal regulation in the petioles and leaves of both cultivars with expression highest predawn. Expression of VvPIP2;1 and VvPIP2;2 responded to ψ L and ψ S in both cultivars indicating the expression of these two genes are closely linked to vine water status. Expression of several aquaporin

  20. Effect of heat shock on the chilling sensitivity of trichomes and petioles of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltveit, Mikal E.; Hepler, Peter K.

    2004-05-01

    Chilling at 6 degrees C caused an immediate cessation of protoplasmic streaming in trichomes from African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha), and a slower aggregation of chloroplasts in the cells. Streaming slowly recovered upon warming to 20 degrees C, reaching fairly stable rates after 4, 15, 25 and 35 min for tissue chilled for 2 min and for 2, 14 and 24 h, respectively. The rate of ion leakage from excised petioles into an isotonic 0.2 M mannitol solution increased after 12 h of chilling and reached a maximum after 3 days of chilling. A heat shock at 45 degrees C for 6 min reduced chilling-induced rates of ion leakage from excised 1-cm petiole segments by over 50%, namely to levels near that from non-chilled control tissue. Heat-shock treatments themselves had no effect on the rate of ion leakage from non-chilled petiole segments. Protoplasmic streaming was stopped by 1 min of heat shock at 45 degrees C, but slowly recovered to normal levels after about 30 min Chloroplasts aggregation was prevented by a 1 or 2 min 45 degrees C heat-shock treatment administered 1.5 h before chilling, but heat-shock treatments up to 6 min only slightly delayed the reduction in protoplasmic streaming caused by chilling. Tradescantia virginiana did not exhibit symptoms associated with chilling injury in sensitive species (i.e. cessation of protoplasmic streaming in stamen hairs and increased ion leakage from leaf tissue).

  1. Historical divergence versus contemporary gene flow: evolutionary history of the calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group (Ranunculaceae) in the European Alps and the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, O.; Schönswetter, P.; Winkler, M.; Tribsch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many species have similar total distributional ranges, they might be restricted to very different habitats and might have different phylogeographic histories. In the European Alps, our excellent knowledge of the evolutionary history of silicate-dwelling (silicicole) plants is contrasted by a virtual lack of data from limestone-dwelling (calcicole) plants. These two categories exhibit fundamentally different distribution patterns within the Alps and are expected to differ strongly with respect to their glacial history. The calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group comprises three diploid species of alpine habitats. Ranunculus alpestris s. str is distributed over the southern European mountain system, while R. bilobus and R. traunfellneri are Southern Alpine narrow endemics. To explore their phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic history, we investigated the correlation between information given by nuclear and chloroplast DNA data. Analyses of AFLP fingerprints and matK sequences gave incongruent results, indicative for reticulate evolution. Our data highlight historical episodes of range fragmentation and expansion, occasional long distance dispersal and on-going gene flow as important processes shaping the genetic structure of the group. Genetic divergence, expressed as a rarity index (“frequency-down-weighted marker values”) seems a better indicator of historical processes than patterns of genetic diversity, which rather mirror contemporary processes as connectivity of populations and population sizes. Three phylogeographical subgroups have been found within the R. alpestris group, neither following taxonomy nor geography. Genetic heterogeneity in the Southern Alps contrasts with Northern Alpine uniformity. The Carpathians have been stepwise colonised from the Eastern Alpine lineage resulting in a marked diversity loss in the Southern Carpathians. The main divergence within the group, separating the ancestor of the two endemic species from R

  2. Studies on Callus Induction and Regeneration of Medicinal Plant Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. from Leaf and Petiole Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hadizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. belongs to Asteraceae family is commonly known as witloof chicory. The leaves and the roots of this medicinal plant are edible and commonly used as salad. Some varieties are also cultivated as coffee substitute after roasting the roots. All parts of the plant contain these volatile oils, with the majority of the toxic components concentrated in the plant's root. In folk medicine, the plant is used for the treatment of diarrhea, spleen enlargement, fever, and vomiting. Antihepatotoxic activity on damaged rat’s liver sections and anti-bacterial activity of this crop has been recently reported. In vitro regeneration from leaf explants with various hormonal combinations has been reported previously. Moreover, in vitro regeneration of Chicory from cotyledon explants using different combinations of plant growth regulators has been studied. Also, a protocol for the regeneration of plantlets from leaf and petiole explants of witloof chicory has been developed. The aim of the present investigation was optimization of callus induction and shoot regeneration from leaf and petiole tissues of Chicory (Esfahan genotype. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, Esfahan genotype was used for callus induction and direct shoot regeneration. Seeds were first washed with running tap water for 30 min then seeds were surface sterilized by dipping in 70% ethanol for 90 s and rinsed with sterile distilled water, followed by immersing in 5% sodium hypochlorite solution for 25 min and thereafter rinsed for 30 min with sterile distilled water. The basal medium used in this investigation was MS. For shoot regeneration, leaf and petiole explants (5 mm segments were excised from 4-week-old sterile seedlings and cultured on MS medium containing different combinations of NAA / BA and KIN / BA in two separate experiments. Experiments were performed factorial based on completely randomized design. Cultures were incubated at 25

  3. Plant regeneration from in vitro-derived leaf and petiole explants of Viola cornuta L. 'Lutea Splendens'

    OpenAIRE

    Antonić, Dragana; Trajković, Milena; Cingel, Aleksandar; Subotić, Angelina; Jevremović, Slađana

    2017-01-01

    In vitro-derived petiole and leaf explants of Viola cornuta L. 'Lutea Splendens' were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with several concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN), N-phenyl-N'(1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl) urea (TDZ) or N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'phenylurea (CPPU) alone or supplemented with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The most efficient direct adventitious shoot induction (21%) without callus formation w...

  4. Grapevine acclimation to water deficit: the adjustment of stomatal and hydraulic conductance differs from petiole embolism vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Bonel, Andrea Giulia; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Degu, Asfaw; Fait, Aaron; Cochard, Hervé; Peterlunger, Enrico; Herrera, Jose Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Drought-acclimated vines maintained higher gas exchange compared to irrigated controls under water deficit; this effect is associated with modified leaf turgor but not with improved petiole vulnerability to cavitation. A key feature for the prosperity of plants under changing environments is the plasticity of their hydraulic system. In the present research we studied the hydraulic regulation in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) that were first acclimated for 39 days to well-watered (WW), sustained water deficit (SD), or transient-cycles of dehydration-rehydration-water deficit (TD) conditions, and then subjected to varying degrees of drought. Vine development under SD led to the smallest leaves and petioles, but the TD vines had the smallest mean xylem vessel and calculated specific conductivity (k ts). Unexpectedly, both the water deficit acclimation treatments resulted in vines more vulnerable to cavitation in comparison to WW, possibly as a result of developmental differences or cavitation fatigue. When exposed to drought, the SD vines maintained the highest stomatal (g s) and leaf conductance (k leaf) under low stem water potential (Ψs), despite their high xylem vulnerability and in agreement with their lower turgor loss point (ΨTLP). These findings suggest that the down-regulation of k leaf and g s is not associated with embolism, and the ability of drought-acclimated vines to maintain hydraulic conductance and gas exchange under stressed conditions is more likely associated with the leaf turgor and membrane permeability.

  5. No Genetic Diversity at Molecular Markers and Strong Phenotypic Plasticity in Populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, an Endangered Plant Species in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Florence; Machon, Nathalie; Porcher, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Although conservation biology has long focused on population dynamics and genetics, phenotypic plasticity is likely to play a significant role in population viability. Here, an investigation is made into the relative contribution of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity to the phenotypic variation in natural populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, a rare annual plant inhabiting temporary puddles in the Fontainebleau forest (Paris region, France) and exhibiting metapopulation dynamics. Methods The genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity of quantitative traits (morphological and fitness components) were measured in five populations, using a combination of field measurements, common garden experiments and genotyping at microsatellite loci. Key Results It is shown that populations exhibit almost undetectable genetic diversity at molecular markers, and that the variation in quantitative traits observed among populations is due to a high level of phenotypic plasticity. Despite the lack of genetic diversity, the natural population of R. nodiflorus exhibits large population sizes and does not appear threatened by extinction; this may be attributable to large phenotypic plasticity, enabling the production of numerous seeds under a wide range of environmental conditions. Conclusions Efficient conservation of the populations can only be based on habitat management, to favour the maintenance of microenvironmental variation and the resulting strong phenotypic plasticity. In contrast, classical actions aiming to improve genetic diversity are useless in the present case. PMID:17468109

  6. Molecular cloning of the BLADE-ON-PETIOLE gene and expression analyses during nodule development in Lupinus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Kamil; Wilmowicz, Emilia; Kućko, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) genes have been recently shown to play an essential role in many physiological processes, including embryogenesis, meristem determinacy, leaf patterning and nodule development. In our research we used Lupinus luteus, a plant with great agronomic potential due to its high protein content and nitrogen fixation ability. In this work, LlBOP in L. luteus was identified for the first time and its expression during nodule development was analyzed. The high expression levels of LlBOP and LlLbI (LEGHEMOGLOBIN), essential to nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, were noted in the developing root nodules and were correlated with the occurrence of leghemoglobin. All of these data indicate that LlBOP is an important regulator of root nodule formation and functioning in L. luteus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional diagnosis for Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Tempranillo' by deviation from optimum percentage method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, I.; Benito, A.; Dominguez, N.; Garcia-Escudero, E.

    2014-06-01

    Deviation from optimum percentage (DOP) is a diagnosis methodology for leaf analyses which expresses the deviation for each element with respect to its optimal concentration. This deviation is an individual index for each nutrient and allows the sorting of all the analyzed nutrients according to their limitations. A nutritional survey was undertaken over eleven years in La Rioja (Spain), to establish reference concentrations for the nutritional diagnosis of Vitis vinifera L., cv. 'Tempranillo' grafted on Richter-110. Reference concentrations for DOP methodology are proposed, and sensibility for the nutritional diagnosis was evaluated for blade and petiole analysis of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B at flowering and veraison phenological stages by comparison between DOP and sufficiency ranges (SR) methods. Results suggest that petiole has lower sensibility than blade to detect deficiencies or excesses of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Mn at veraison. In addition, petiole is a better tissue than blade to detect Fe and B deficiencies or excesses. Therefore, our results make possible the right choice between tissues, leaf blade or petiole, for a general nutritional diagnosis of 'Tempranillo' grapevines. On the other hand, it is possible to evaluate the status of each nutrient in each phonological stage analyzing both tissues and comparing the nutrient status to its references, DOP or SR, in the most adequate tissue. (Author)

  8. Ethylene production and petiole growth in rumex plants induced by soil waterlogging: the application of a continuous flow system and a laser driven intracavity photoacoustic detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voesenek, L A; Harren, F J; Bögemann, G M; Blom, C W; Reuss, J

    1990-11-01

    Petiole growth of Rumex acetosa L., Rumex crispus L., and Rumex palustris Sm. in response to soil waterlogging was studied in relation to production of the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. Ethylene production was monitored in a flow-through system and a recently developed laser driven photoacoustic detection system, which allowed ethylene measurements as low as 6 picoliters per liter. R. acetosa showed a two-fold increase in ethylene production correlated with a slight enhancement of the growth of the petiole that developed during the waterlogging treatment. Both R. crispus and R. palustris showed a strong petiole elongation of existing as well as newly formed petioles, which was correlated with a 20-fold increase in ethylene production after approximately 7 days. Increased rates of ethylene production in R. palustris were related to a strong increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and a slight, but detectable, increase in ethylene forming enzyme activity. In R. acetosa on the other hand, only a very small increase in ACC concentration was observed. Changes in ethylene production in Rumex are strongly correlated with variation in ACC content and ethylene forming enzyme activity. The interaction between ethylene production/internal concentration and ethylene sensitivity of the three Rumex species is discussed in relation to their field location in a flooding gradient and their differential resistance toward waterlogging and submergence.

  9. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses. Genetic manipulation is becoming an important method for broccoli improvement. In the present study, a reproducible and highly efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12 days old aseptically grown seedlings whereas leaf and petiole explants were excised from 18 to 20 days old green house grown seedlings and surface sterilized. These explants were cultured on shoot induction medium containing different concentration and combination of BAP and NAA. High efficiency shoot regeneration has been achieved in hypocotyl (83.33 %), cotyledon (90.11 %), leaf (62.96 %) and petiole (91.10 %) explants on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA 2.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA, 4.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA respectively. Petiole explants showed maximum shoot regeneration response as compared to other explants. MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA was found best for root regeneration (100 %) from in vitro developed shoots. The regenerated complete plantlets were transferred to the pots containing cocopeat and successfully acclimatized. This optimized regeneration protocol can be efficiently used for genetic transformation in broccoli. This is the first comparative report on multiple shoot induction using four different types of explants viz. hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole.

  10. Male meiosis, morphometric analysis and distribution pattern of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834 (Ranunculaceae from the cold regions of northwest Himalayas (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number, detailed male meiosis, microsporogenesis, pollen fertility and morphological features and distribution of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834. The majority of the populations scored now from cold regions of the northwest Himalayas showed tetraploid (n=16 meiotic chromosome count and one of the populations studied from the Manimahesh hills existed at diploid level (n=8. The individuals of diploid cytotype exhibited perfectly normal meiotic course resulting in 100% pollen fertility and pollen grains of uniform sizes. On the other hand, the plants of the tetraploid cytotype from all the populations in spite of showing normal bivalent formation and equal distribution to the opposite poles at anaphases showed various meiotic abnormalities. The most prominent among these meiotic abnormalities was the cytomixis which involved inter PMC (pollen mother cell chromatin material transfer at different stages of meiosis-I. The phenomenon of cytomixis induced various meiotic abnormalities which include chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, laggards and chromatin bridges, out of plate bivalents at metaphase-I, disoriented chromatin material at anaphase/telophase and micronuclei. Consequently, these populations exhibited varying percentages of pollen sterility (24 - 77 % and pollen grains of heterogeneous sizes. Analysis of various morphometric features including the stomata in 2× and 4× cytotypes showed that increase in ploidy level in the species is correlated with gigantism of vegetative and floral characters and the two cytotypes can be distinguished from each other on the basis of morphological characters. The distribution patterns of the 2× and 4× cytotypes now detected and 2×, 3×, 4× cytotypes detected earlier by workers from other regions of the Indian Himalayas have also been discussed.

  11. Mannitol-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytosis in storage parenchyma cells of celery (Apium graveolens; Apiaceae) petioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2007-06-01

    We recently demonstrated the occurrence of a sucrose-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytic (FPE) mechanism of nutrient uptake in heterotrophic cells. In the present work, the possible enhancement/induction of FPE by photoassimilates other than sucrose was investigated by measuring the incorporation of the fluorescent endocytosis marker d-TR (dextran-Texas red, 3000 mw) into celery (Apium graveolens) petiole storage parenchyma (CSP), a tissue that transports and accumulates mannitol. Mannitol uptake in these cells is biphasic, with a hyperbolic phase at concentrations below 20 mM and a linear phase above 20 mM external solute concentration. In the absence of mannitol, or in its presence at concentrations within the hyperbolic phase, CSP cells accumulated low levels of d-TR. Conversely, d-TR accumulation by CSP cells was greatly enhanced in the presence of mannitol at concentrations within the linear phase. At high external mannitol concentration, d-TR accumulation was prevented by the endocytic inhibitors LY294002 and latrunculin B. In addition, d-TR uptake was temperature dependent under high mannitol concentration. Microscopic observations revealed that d-TR accumulated in the vacuole. These data support the occurrence of an FPE mechanism in CSP cells that participates in trapping and transport of photoassimilates to the vacuole. The FPE mechanism is enhanced by high mannitol concentrations.

  12. О находке Ranunculus punctatus (Ranunculaceae в Республика Тыва

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Erst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Сообщается о находке на территории Республики Тыва (хребты Чайлалыг-Даг и Обручева нового для Сибири вида Ranunculus punctatus (Ranunculaceae, считавшегося до настоящего времени эндемиком Чукотки.

  13. Evaluation of genetic homogeneity of Jatropha curcas L. hybrid at an early stage of shoot bud formation from petioles using ISSR marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Anis Nadhirah Md Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic homogeneity is known to be the most important prerequisite in the micropropagation of Jatropha curcas L. to produce true-to-type plants. The detection of genetic homogeneity in clonal micropropagation for elite plants at an early stage is required, to avoid any increase in variation in the next stage of micropropagation. The genetic homogeneity was assessed during shoot bud formation from petiole explants of J.curcas (P1 × P3 hybrid with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ in a range of 0.5–4.0 mg/L using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Out of 23 ISSR primers, 16 primers produced clear, distinct and reproducible bands. A total of 96 bands, ranging in size from 100 to 1013 bp were generated. Based on the band data, a total of 94 bands were monomorphic (98% and two bands were polymorphic (2%. All banding patterns from the shoot buds induced by 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L TDZ were monomorphic, but 4.0 mg/L gave 2% polymorphism. These findings indicated that concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L TDZ did not trigger any somaclonal variation and could, therefore, be considered suitable for application in clonal micropropagation of J. curcas hybrid using petioles as explant material.

  14. Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, J; Hall, J C; Victor, J M R; Saxena, P K

    2003-01-01

    Regeneration via shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was observed from thidiazuron (TDZ)-treated leaf and petiole explants of greenhouse- and in vitro-grown African violet plants. The response of cultures to other growth regulators over a range of 0.5 microM to 10 microM was 50% less than that observed with TDZ. A comparative study among several cultivars of African violet indicated that "Benjamin" and "William" had the highest regeneration potential. In "Benjamin", higher frequencies of shoot organogenesis (twofold) and somatic embryogenesis (a 50% increase) were observed from in vitro- and greenhouse-grown plants, respectively. At concentrations lower than 2.5 microM, TDZ induced shoot organogenesis, whereas at higher doses (5-10 microM) somatic embryos were formed. These findings provide the first report of simultaneous shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of African violet explants in response to TDZ.

  15. The partial sequence of RNA 1 of the ophiovirus Ranunculus white mottle virus indicates its relationship to rhabdoviruses and provides candidate primers for an ophiovirus-specific RT-PCR test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaira, A M; Accotto, G P; Costantini, A; Milne, R G

    2003-06-01

    A 4018 nucleotide sequence was obtained for RNA 1 of Ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV), genus Ophiovirus, representing an incomplete ORF of 1339 aa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed significant similarities with RNA polymerases of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae and a conserved domain of 685 aa, corresponding to the RdRp domain of those in the order Mononegavirales. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Ophiovirus is not related to the genus Tenuivirus or the family Bunyaviridae, with which it has been linked, and probably deserves a special taxonomic position, within a new family. A pair of degenerate primers was designed from a consensus sequence obtained from a relatively conserved region in the RNA 1 of two members of the genus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) and RWMV. The primers, used in RT-PCR experiments, amplified a 136 bp DNA fragment from all the three recognized members of the genus, i.e. CPsV, RWMV and Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus (TMMMV) and from two tentative ophioviruses from lettuce and freesia. The amplified DNAs were sequenced and compared with the corresponding sequences of CPsV and RWMV and phylogenetic relationships were evaluated. Assays using extracts from plants infected by viruses belonging to the genera Tospovirus, Tenuivirus, Rhabdovirus and Varicosavirus indicated that the primers are genus-specific.

  16. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface

  17. The extreme disjunction between Beringia and Europe in Ranunculus glacialis s. l. (Ranunculaceae) does not coincide with the deepest genetic split - a story of the importance of temperate mountain ranges in arctic-alpine phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronikier, M; Schneeweiss, G M; Schönswetter, P

    2012-11-01

    The arctic-alpine Ranunculus glacialis s. l. is distributed in high-mountain ranges of temperate Europe and in the North, where it displays an extreme disjunction between the North Atlantic Arctic and Beringia. Based on comprehensive sampling and employing plastid and nuclear marker systems, we (i) test whether the European/Beringian disjunction correlates with the main evolutionary diversification, (ii) reconstruct the phylogeographic history in the Arctic and in temperate mountains and (iii) assess the susceptibility of arctic and mountain populations to climate change. Both data sets revealed several well-defined lineages, mostly with a coherent geographic distribution. The deepest evolutionary split did not coincide with the European/Beringian disjunction but occurred within the Alps. The Beringian lineage and North Atlantic Arctic populations, which reached their current distribution via rapid postglacial colonization, show connections to two divergent pools of Central European populations. Thus, immigration into the Arctic probably occurred at least twice. The presence of a rare cpDNA lineage related to Beringia in the Carpathians supports the role of these mountains as a stepping stone between temperate Europe and the non-European Arctic, and as an important area of high-mountain biodiversity. The temperate and arctic ranges presented contrasting phylogeographic histories: a largely static distribution in the former and rapid latitudinal spread in the latter. The persistence of ancient lineages with a strictly regional distribution suggests that the ability of R. glacialis to survive repeated climatic changes within southern mountain ranges is greater than what recently was predicted for alpine plants from climatic envelope modelling. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. An external heat pulse method for measurement of sap flow through fruit pedicels, leaf petioles and other small-diameter stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Michael J; Luo, Zhiwei; Mazzeo, Mariarosaria; Dichio, Bartolomeo

    2009-12-01

    The external heat ratio method is described for measurement of low rates of sap flow in both directions through stems and other plant organs, including fruit pedicels, with diameters up to 5 mm and flows less than 2 g h(-1). Calibration was empirical, with heat pulse velocity (v(h)) compared to gravimetric measurements of sap flow. In the four stem types tested (Actinidia sp. fruit pedicels, Schefflera arboricola petioles, Pittosporum crassifolium stems and Fagus sylvatica stems), v(h) was linearly correlated with sap velocity (v(s)) up to a v(s) of approximately 0.007 cm s(-1), equivalent to a flow of 1.8 g h(-1) through a 3-mm-diameter stem. Minimum detectable v(s) was approximately 0.0001 cm s(-1), equivalent to 0.025 g h(-1) through a 3-mm-diameter stem. Sensitivity increased with bark removal. Girdling had no effect on short-term measurements of in vivo sap flow, suggesting that phloem flows were too low to be separated from xylem flows. Fluctuating ambient temperatures increased variability in outdoor sap flow measurements. However, a consistent diurnal time-course of fruit pedicel sap flow was obtained, with flows towards 75-day-old kiwifruit lagging behind evaporative demand and peaking at 0.3 g h(-1) in the late afternoon.

  19. Repression of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE genes by KNOX homeodomain protein BREVIPEDICELLUS is essential for differentiation of secondary xylem in Arabidopsis root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerlen, Natalie; Allam, Gamalat; Popescu, Adina; Corrigan, Laura; Pautot, Véronique; Hepworth, Shelley R

    2017-06-01

    Repression of boundary genes by KNOTTED1-like homeodomain transcription factor BREVIPEDICELLUS promotes the differentiation of phase II secondary xylem in Arabidopsis roots. Plant growth and development relies on the activity of meristems. Boundaries are domains of restricted growth that separate forming organs and the meristem. Class I KNOX homeodomain transcription factors are important regulators of meristem maintenance. Members of this class including BREVIDICELLUS also called KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA1 (BP/KNAT1) fulfill this function in part by spatially regulating boundary genes. The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that allows for radial expansion of organs during secondary growth. We show here that BP/KNAT1 repression of boundary genes plays a crucial role in root secondary growth. In particular, exclusion of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1/2 (BOP1/2) and other members of this module from xylem is required for the differentiation of lignified fibers and vessels during the xylem expansion phase of root thickening. These data reveal a previously undiscovered role for boundary genes in the root and shed light on mechanisms controlling wood development in trees.

  20. Influence of rootstock on nutrient content in grape petioles Influência do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes nos pecíolos de videiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Dalbó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of rootstocks can affect nutrient uptake and the nutrient status of grapevines. The rootstock influence on nutrient content in grape petioles was evaluated on three rootstocks competition experiments carried out at Vale do Rio do Peixe region, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with the cultivars Niagara Rosada, Concord, and Isabella, grafted on different rootstocks. Two soil liming depths were also evaluated in the Isabella experiment. The greatest rootstock effect was observed on K and Mg content and K/Mg ratio in the petioles. The Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia hybrid rootstocks VR 043-43 and VR 044-4 provided the highest K/Mg values and self rooted Isabella the lowest K/Mg ratio. The other tested rootstocks resulted in intermediate values. There was also significant effect on P content, but only in Niagara Rosada and Concord experiments. The depth of soil liming did not significantly affect K and Mg content in the Isabella experiment. The results indicate that rootstock must be considered for nutritional status evaluation and fertilizer recommendation regarding to K and Mg.A diversidade genética dos porta-enxertos de videira pode afetar a absorção de nutrientes e o estado nutricional dos vinhedos. A influência do porta-enxerto nos teores de nutrientes em pecíolos de videira foi avaliada em três experimentos de competição de porta-enxertos instalados na região do Vale do Rio do Peixe-SC. As cultivares-copa foram Niagara Rosada e Concord, enxertadas sobre diversos porta-enxertos. Para a cultivar Isabel, além do efeito do porta-enxerto, avaliou-se também a influência de duas profundidades de calagem do solo. Os maiores efeitos do porta-enxerto foram verificados nos teores de K e Mg e na relação K/Mg nos pecíolos. Os porta-enxertos híbridos de Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia (VR 043-43 e VR 044-4 induziram as maiores relações K/Mg, ao passo que a cultivar Isabel (pé-franco resultou nos menores valores

  1. DIRECT ORGANOGENESIS IN Phoenix dactylifera L. THROUGH COTILEDONAR PETIOLE ORGANOGÊNESE DIRETA DE Phoenix dactylifera L. VIA PECÍOLO COTILEDONAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najara Maria de Sena Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    There is much interest with respect to the success of the application of tissue culture for propagation of palm family members. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is originary from the Middle East, where climate is hot and dry, and due to its botanical characteristics constitutes a good option for cultivation of adapted fruits to Brazilian Northeast. This study had as objective to test 6-Benzilaminopurine (BAP and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA growth regulators for date palm micropropagation by direct organogenesis, using Khadrawy cultivar. Cotiledonar petioles were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with four combinations of IAA and BAP, on equal concentrations (0 mg.L-1, 0.5 mg.L-1, 1.0 mg.L-1 and 2.0 mg.L-1. The hormonal concentrations used did not propitiate the multiple buds, but showed relative efficiency in aerial parts and primary roots differentiation, contributing for in vitro conservation strategiesof this species.

    KEY-WORDS: Date palm; regeneration; growth regulators.

    Existe hoje bastante interesse com respeito ao sucesso da aplicação da cultura de tecidos para propagação de membros da família das palmeiras. A tamareira (Phoenix dactylifera L. é uma planta originária do Oriente Médio, cujo clima é quente e árido, e devido aos seus caracteres botânicos constitui-se numa boa opção para a cultura de frutas adaptadas ao Nordeste brasileiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo testar os hormônios ácido indolacético (IAA e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP com a finalidade de micropropagar a tamareira por organogênese direta, utilizando a cultivar Khadrawy. Pecíolos cotiledonares foram inoculados em meio MS suplementado com quatro combinações de BAP e IAA, em iguais concentrações (0 mg.L-1, 0,5 mg.L-1, 1,0 mg.L-1 e 2,0 mg.L-1. As concentrações hormonais utilizadas não propiciaram a formação de brotos, mas mostraram-se relativamente

  2. Análise de folíolos e pecíolos na diagnose da nutrição da batatinha Analysis of leaves and petioles for nutritional diagnosis of potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata da primeira fase dc estudo que visa adaptar a técnica de análise foliar à diagnose da nutrição mineral da batatinha. Foram comparadas as produções de tubérculos com a composição de pecíolos e folíolos colhidos em três fases do ciclo vegetativo dc plantas cultivadas em vasos, adubados com NPK, em doses crescentes de um elemento na presença da dose máxima dos outros dois. Houve resposta a nitrogênio e fósforo na produção, apresentando ainda as plantas sintomas típicos de deficiências quando se omitiram êsses elementos. A análise foliar forneceu uma noção precisa do estado nutricional das plantas. A omissão do potássio não afetou significativamente a produção, e diferenças na concentração de potássio nas fôlhas só foram notadas quando as plantas se aproximaram da fase de maturação. Em vista da maior sensibilidade nas análises e para simplificar a amostragem, podem ser recomendadas as determinações do nitrogênio solúvel (N-NO3, fósforo solúvel (P-PO4 e potássio (K, nos pecíolos das terceiras fôlhas. Considera-se, para êsse fim, apenas a porção da fôlha entre o caule e a inserção do primeiro folíolo desenvolvido.This article deals with the preliminary phases of a study aimed at adapting the technique of foliar analysis for diagnosing the mineral nutrition of potatoes. In a pot experiment, analytical results for petioles and leaflets were obtained at three sampling dates and yields of tubers were measured. There were three series of fertilizer treatments with graded amounts of N, P, or K in the presence of the highest level of the other two elements. Yield responses were obtained to nitrogen and phosphorus, the plants showing typical deficiency symptoms when either of these elements was omitted. For both N and P the nutritional status of the plants was clearly reflected in the results of foliar analysis. The omission of potassium had no significant effect on yield, and differences

  3. Citrus sinensis leaf petiole and blade colonization by Xylella fastidiosa: details of xylem vessel occlusion Colonização de pecíolo e folha de Citrus sinensis por Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is an important disease of citrus in Brazil. X. fastidiosa is restricted to xylem vessels of plants and knowledge regarding xylem colonization is still limited. Our goal was to verify how this bacterium colonizes and spreads within xylem vessels of sweet orange Citrus sinensis cv. Pêra. Petioles and pieces of leaf blades from naturally infected plant exhibiting characteristic symptoms were prepared for light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and immunogold labeling (IGL. Petioles from healthy plants were used as control. IGL results, using an antibody against wall hemicelluloses, revealed that the pit membrane of vessels was altered. Bacterial cells were observed in the pit between adjacent vessels. Results support the contention that X. fastidiosa produces cellulases to reach adjacent vessels. SEM revealed that colonization of sweet orange started with X. fastidiosa cells attaching to the xylem wall, followed by an increase in the number of bacterial cells, the production of fibrous material, and finally vessel occlusion by biofilm composed of copious amounts of amorphous material, strands and cells. Phenolic materials, hyperplasia and hypertrophy were noticed in leaves with gummy material. Xylem vessels frequently contained an unknown needle-like, crystallized matter blocking the vessel.A clorose variegada dos citrus (CVC, causada por uma bactéria restrita ao xilema (Xylella fastidiosa, é uma importante doença de citros no Brasil, entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a colonização dos vasos do xilema pela bactéria. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar como X. fastidiosa invade os vasos adjacentes do xilema e algumas das alterações expressas por plantas de laranja Pêra. Foram coletadas 15 amostras de pecíolos e áreas das folhas de plantas com sintomas característicos da doença, as quais foram preparadas para

  4. Análise química do pecíolo e limbo foliar como indicadora do estado nutricional dos mamoeiros 'solo' e 'formosa' Petiole and leaf blade analyses as nutritional status indicators of 'solo' and 'formosa' papaya trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sales Marinho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de um consenso na literatura sobre qual parte da folha, limbo ou pecíolo, seria a mais indicada para avaliação do estado nutricional do mamoeiro, dificulta o uso da análise foliar como ferramenta de diagnose para a cultura. Assim, foi conduzido um experimento para comparar a diagnose do estado nutricional efetuada pela análise do limbo e do pecíolo foliar de mamoeiros pertencentes aos grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa'. Foi adotado o delineamento em blocos casualizados para avaliar seis variedades de mamoeiros, três de cada grupo. Foram retiradas amostras foliares em cinco épocas, a cada três meses. A folha recém-madura foi dividida em limbo e pecíolo, onde foram determinados os teores de N, NO3-, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cl, Fe, Mn e Zn. Estes teores foram comparados com os citados na literatura como adequados para a cultura. A diagnose do estado nutricional do mamoeiro quando efetuada por meio da análise do limbo ou do pecíolo foliar levou a diferentes diagnósticos mostrando a necessidade de definição de um único padrão. A análise do limbo foliar mostrou-se mais efetiva que a do pecíolo para diagnosticar o estado nutricional, diferenciando melhor as variedades de mamoeiro, em relação a N, P, K e Cl, não diferindo em relação aos demais nutrientes. Sendo assim, o limbo foliar deve ser utilizado como indicador do estado nutricional do mamoeiro.The absence of a literature consensus about parts of leaves, blade or petiole which would be most indicative of the nutritional status of papaya trees, has hindered the use of foliar analysis as a diagnosis tool for this crop. An experiment was carried out to compare the nutricional status evaluated using blades and petioles of 'solo' and 'formosa' papaya groups. A completely randomized block design was used to test six varieties, three of each group. Leaves were sampled every three months in five occasions. Recently matured leaves were separated in petioles and blades for the

  5. The safety of using the aqueous extract of Ranunculus multifidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marizvikuru

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Res. 72:129–134. Molento BM (2009). Parasite control in the age of drug resistance and changing agricultural practices. Vet. Parasitol. 163: 229-234. Murray JA, Slater DN, Parsons MA, Fox M, Smith S, Platts MM (1984). Splenic siderosis and parenteral iron dextran in maintenance haemodialysis patients.

  6. Nutrient concentrations in potato stem, petiole and leaflet in response to potassium fertilizer Teores de nutrientes no caule, pecíolo e limbo da batateira em função da adubação potássica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto dos Anjos Reis Jr.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of potato stem, petiole and leaflet were evaluated in response to the application of K fertilizer. Potassium was applied at six different rates (0, 60, 120, 240, 480 and 960 kg ha-1 of K2O, as K2SO4 and was placed in the furrow during planting. Two plants per plot were sampled 48 days after plant emergence to evaluate N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations in stems, petioles and leaflets of the youngest fully expanded leaf. It is recommended using potato petioles to evaluate the N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu status and using potato leaflet to evaluate the S, Mn and Zn status. The stem was not a good indicator of S nutritional status. Petiole N, P and Cu concentrations associated with the maximum tuber yield (30.5 t ha-1, with 353.4 kg ha-1 of K2O were 25.9 g kg-1, 1.4 g kg-1 and 9.7 mg kg-1, respectively, while, the leaflet S, Mn and Zn concentrations associated with the maximum tuber yield were 4.0 g kg-1, 155.2 mg kg-1 and 59.4 mg kg-1, respectively. This information should be used to build data banks of adequate nutrient concentration at different portions of potato plant and like this, to aid the nutrient diagnosis in potato crops.Para avaliar a composição mineral em órgãos da batateira em função da adubação potássica, foi realizado experimento com doses de potássio (0, 60, 120, 240, 480 e 960 kg ha-1 de K2O delineado em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Duas plantas por parcela foram amostradas aos 48 dias após emergência das plantas para avaliar teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Mn e Zn no caule, pecíolo e limbo da folha recém madura. Recomenda-se utilizar o pecíolo da batateira para avaliar o status de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu e utilizar o limbo da batateira para avaliar o status de S, Mn e Zn. O caule não foi um bom indicador do estado nutricional em relação ao S. A aplicação de 353,4 kg ha-1 de K2O proporcionou a máxima produtividade de tubérculos (30,5 t ha-1 e teores de N, P e Cu no

  7. Teores foliares de nutrientes, índice relativo de clorofila e teores de nitrato e de potássio na seiva do pecíolo na videira 'Niagara Rosada' Nutrients levels, relative chlorophyll index and concentration of nitrate and of potassium in the petiole of grapevine 'Niagara rosada'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento nutricional em 93 vinhedos nas regiões vitícolas de Jundiaí, São Miguel Arcanjo e Jales, no Estado de São Paulo, tendo por objetivo comparar os teores de nutrientes em amostras foliares, o teor de nitrato e de potássio na seiva do pecíolo e o índice relativo de clorofila (IRC da videira 'Niagara Rosada'. Em 20 plantas selecionadas de cada vinhedo, amostraram-se folha inteira, limbo e pecíolo no pleno florescimento da videira. Posteriormente, realizou-se a medição do IRC no limbo e dos teores de NO3- e de K+ na seiva dos pecíolos. Nas amostras foliares, foram determinados os teores de macro e micronutrientes. Os vinhedos amostrados foram agrupados em função da região de estudo, sendo que cada vinhedo representou uma repetição, totalizando 45; 24 e 24 repetições, respectivamente, nas regiões de Jundiaí, São Miguel Arcanjo e Jales. Nos vinhedos selecionados da região de Jales, as plantas apresentaram maiores teores foliares de P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe e Mn, além de maiores IRC e teores de nitrato e potássio no pecíolo. Estas variações nos teores foliares foram relacionadas aos porta-enxertos utilizados nas regiões de estudo, sendo o 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572' e 'Ripária do Traviú', respectivamente, nas regiões de Jundiaí, Jales e São Miguel Arcanjo. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de se adequarem as faixas de concentração de nutrientes nas análises foliares, mediante ensaios regionais, levando em consideração o porta-enxerto e a região em estudo.A nutritional survey was carried out in 93 vineyards of the wine regions of Jundiaí, São Miguel Arcanjo and Jales (state of São Paulo-Brazil, aiming to compare the nutrient concentration in leaf samples, the concentration of nitrate and potassium in the petiole sap and the relative chlorophyll index (IRC of 'Niagara Rosada' vineyard. Leaves, blade and petiole in full bloom vines were sampled in 20 plants selected from each vineyard, and evaluations of

  8. Potássio em uvas II: análise peciolar e sua correlação com o teor de potássio em uvas viníferas Potassium in grapes II: analysis of petioles and their correlation with the potassium content of wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Oliveira Fogaça

    2007-09-01

    decline in total acidity. This finding confirms that high pH values, low titrable acidity and potassium are correlated. In addition, the analysis of petiole samples (collected during inflorescence and 30 days later proved to be an efficient tool not only for monitoring the potassium content in winegrapes but also for evaluating the need for soil amendments involving this mineral. The potassium content in petioles and in winegrapes was found to be directly correlated; therefore, this method may be useful in future diagnoses of the potassium content in grapes and wines.

  9. An efficient plant regeneration protocol from petiole explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saini

    2012-08-07

    Aug 7, 2012 ... medium supplemented with 1.0 mgL-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 0.2 mgL-1 IBA. The rooted plantlets were established in soil ... number of options for the production of liquid fuel as an alternative source have been ..... Symposium on Jatropha, Managua, Nicaragua, Mexico, p. 15. Deore AC, Johnson TS ...

  10. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-15

    Apr 15, 2013 ... Shah B. 2009 Textbook of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, pp. 47. Elsevier, India. Shah M. and Wilcock C. C. 1991 Taxonomic Studies in the fru- ticosae group of Potentilla from Pakistan and Kashmir and P. ochreata Lindl.: A forgotten species. Folia Geobotanica Phyto- taxonomica 26, 107–109.

  11. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NIPGR), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India; Singhania University, Pacheribari, Jhunjhunu 333 515, India; SKA Institution for Research, Education and Development (SKAIRED), 4/11 Sarv Priya Vihar, New Delhi 110 016, India ...

  12. Exploitation of petiole, nodal segment, bulbil and tuber anatomy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This practice, which may be as a result of mis-identification, may be very injurious to users of herbal products. The present study investigated anatomical characters of three wild and ... could serve as diagnostic taxonomic tools for their standardization. Keywords: Anatomy, Dioscorea spp., Identification, Medicinal application ...

  13. An efficient plant regeneration protocol from petiole explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest percentage of shoot buds induction (64.0%) was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.52 mgL-1 TDZ with organic additives; adenine sulphate (50 mgL-1) + glutamine (100 mgL-1) + L-arginine (25 mgL-1) + citric acid (0.0025%) + ascorbic acid (0.005%). A maximum of six shoots per explant were ...

  14. Genetic stability among date palm plantlets regenerated from petiole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... propagated via seeds, vegetatively propagated via offshoots or via mass production in a sterile artificial laboratory environment using in vitro techniques. ..... heritable (genetic) and non-heritable (epigenetic). A better understand for somaclonal variation is necessary to assess the potential usefulness of the ...

  15. New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Bhutan

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    Tshering Nidup

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855, Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan. 

  16. In vitro regeneration from different ages of petioles of physic nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... J. curcas is a drought tolerant plant, growing in the marginal lands (Kheira and Atta,. 2009) and as a hedge plant are not browsed by animals. (Reinhard and Henning, 2004). The plant can survive more than 50 years (Takeda, 1982). The different parts of the plant like shoot, stem, leaves fruit, seed, bark and.

  17. A Stringent and Broad Screen of Solanum spp. tolerance Against Erwinia Bacteria Using a Petiole Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, H.; Finkers, H.J.; Evers, L.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    Blackleg and stem rot caused by coliform bacteria belonging to Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium spp. (both referred to as Erwinia in this paper) are a problem for potato growers worldwide and no sources of high tolerance are currently present in the cultivated S. tuberosum gene pool. To find sources

  18. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  19. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Muhammad; Altaf, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Present paper offers considerable information on traditional uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study from the area comprising popularity level of medicinal plant species intendedby using relative popularity level (RPL) and rank order priority (ROP) indices.Ethnobotanical data were collected by interviewing 166 local informants and 35 traditional health practioners (THPs) from different localities of Hafizabad district. Demographic features of informants; life form, part used, methods of preparation, modes of application and ethnomedicinal uses were documented. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using quantitative tools, i.e. Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) fidelity level (FL), RPL and ROP indices. A total of 85 species belonging to 71 genera and 34 families were documented along with ethnomedicinal uses. Solanum surattense, Withania somnifera, Cyperus rotundus, Solanum nigrum and Melia azedarach were the most utilized medicinal plant species with highest used value. The reported ailments were classified into 11 disease categories based on ICF values and highest number of plant species was reported to treat dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders. Withania somnifera and Ranunculus sceleratus with maximum FL (100%), were used against gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, respectively. The RPL and ROP values were calculated to recognize the folk medicinal plant wealth; six out of 32 plant species (19%) were found popular, based on citation by more than half of the maximum number of informant viz. 26. Consequently, the ROP value for these species was more than 75. The comparative assessment with reported literature revealed 15% resemblance and 6% variation to previous data;however79% uses of the reported species were recorded for the first time. The diversity of medicinal plant species and associated traditional

  20. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across 41 Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life-forms. However, recent reports suggest that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. Methods To examine this possi...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03159-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gracilis voucher J.T. Johansson s.n. t... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954170 ) Ranunculus psilostachys voucher J.T. Johansson...6 1 ( AY954169 ) Ranunculus sprunerianus voucher J.T. Johansson 23... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954168 ) Ranunculus...6 1 ( AY954166 ) Ranunculus millefoliatus voucher J.T. Johansson 2... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954164 ) Ranunculus...cortusifolius voucher J.T. Johansson 2... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954159 ) Ranunculus gregarius voucher J.T. Johansson 232...46 1.6 1 ( AY954158 ) Ranunculus spicatus voucher J.T. Johansson s.n. t... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954154 ) Ranunculus

  2. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses...

  3. Biology of Thrypticus truncatus and T. sagittatus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), petiole miners of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Argentina. With morphological descriptions of larvae and pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...

  4. Grapevines petioles are more sensitive to drought induced embolism than stems: evidence from in vivo MRI and microCT observations of hydraulic vulnerability segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept ‘‘hydraulic vulnerability segmentation’’ represents a mechanism in which expendable distal organs (e.g. leaves attached to a woody shoot) are more susceptible to water-stress induced cavitation than the main stem of the plant. In the present work we present the first in-vivo observation ...

  5. Morphometric analysis of young petiole galls on the narrow-leaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, by the sugarbeet root aphid, Pemphigus betae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ryan A; Body, Mélanie; Warmund, Michele R; Schultz, Jack C; Appel, Heidi M

    2017-01-01

    An insect-induced gall is a highly specialized structure resulting from atypical development of plant tissue induced by a reaction to the presence and activity of an insect. The insect induces a differentiation of tissues with features and functions of an ectopic organ, providing nutrition and protection to the galling insect from natural enemies and environmental stresses. In this anatomical and cytological study, we characterized how the gall-inducing aphid Pemphigus betae reshapes the leaf morphology of the narrow-leaf cottonwood Populus angustifolia to form a leaf fold gall. Young galls displayed a bend on one side of the midvein toward the center of the leaf and back to create a fold on the abaxial side of the leaf. This fold was formed abaxially by periclinal and anticlinal divisions, effectively eliminating intercellular spaces from the spongy parenchyma. Galls at this stage exhibited both cell hypertrophy and tissue hyperplasia. Cells on the adaxial surface were more numerous and smaller than cells near the abaxial surface were, creating the large fold that surrounds the insect. Mesophyll cells exhibited some features typical of nutritive cells induced by other galling insects, including conspicuous nucleolus, reduced and fragmented vacuole, smaller and degraded chloroplasts, and dense cytoplasm compared to ungalled tissue. Even though aphids feed on the contents of phloem and do not directly consume the gall tissue, they induce changes in the plant vascular system, which lead to nutrient accumulation to support the growing aphid numbers in mature galls.

  6. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Quevedo García; Martha Esperanza Arévalo González; Giovanni Orlando Cancino Escalante

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo ...

  7. Determination of a mathematical model to estimate the area and dry weight of the leaf limbo of prunus persica cv. jarillo / determinación de un modelo matemático para la estimación del área foliar y peso seco del limbo de prunus persica cv. jarillo

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo García, Enrique; Arévalo González, Martha Esperanza; Cancino Escalante, Giovanni Orlando

    2013-01-01

    study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/ width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. Th...

  8. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-01-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and

  9. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves and sessile leaf-like stipules and architectures of heritable leaf and stipule mutants in Pisum sativum suggest that its simple lobed stipules and compound leaf represent ancestral forms in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Khan, Moinuddin; Hindala, Mali Ram; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-04-01

    In angiosperms, leaf and stipule architectures are inherited species-specific traits. Variation in leaf and stipule sizes, and forms result from the interaction between abiotic and biotic stimuli, and gene regulatory network(s) that underlie the leaf and stipule developmental programme(s). Here, correspondence between variation in leaf and stipule architectures described for extant angiosperms and that induced mutationally and by imposition of stress in model angiosperm species, especially in Pisum sativum, was detected. Following inferences were drawn from the observations. (i) Several leaf forms in P. sativum have origin in fusion of stipule and leaf primordia. Perfoliate (and amplexicaul and connate) simple sessile leaves and sessile adnate leaves are the result of such primordial fusions. Reversal of changes in the gene regulatory network responsible for fusion products are thought to restore original stipule and leaf conditions. (ii) Compound leaf formation in several different model plants, is a result of promotion of pathways for such condition by gene regulatory networks directed by KNOx1 and LEAFY transcription factors or intercalation of the gene networks directed by them. (iii) Gene regulatory network for compound leaves in P. sativum when mutated generates highly complex compound leaves on one hand and simple leaves on other hand. These altered conditions are mutationally reversible. (vi) Simple leaves in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana despite overexpression of KNOx1 orthologues do not become compound. (v) All forms of leaves, including simple leaf, probably have origins in a gene regulatory network of the kind present in P. sativum.

  10. Helminths and Pentastomida of two synanthropic gecko lizards, Hemidactylus mabouia and Phyllopezus pollicaris, in an urban area in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JGG Sousa

    Full Text Available Helminths and pentastomids were examined in exotic Hemidactylus mabouia and native Phyllopezus pollicaris lizards, living synanthropically in an urban area in the municipality of Crato, Ceará state, northeastern Brazil. A total of 194 lizards were collected, being 76 specimens of H. mabouia e 118 specimens of P. pollicaris. Six parasite species were found infecting H. mabouia: the cestode Oochoristica sp., the nematodes Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, and Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis and the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae; while four parasite species were found associated with P. pollicaris: Oochoristica sp., P. sceleratus, P. retusa, and S. oxkutzcabiensis. Three new host records were reported: P. retusa infecting H. mabouia and P. retusa and Oochoristica sp. infecting P. pollicaris. About 75% of the parasites species found were shared by both lizards. Moreover, H. mabouia showed greater diversity than P. pollicaris (6 versus 4 species, while P. pollicaris had higher intensity of infection than H. mabouia (1536 versus 121 specimens.

  11. Helminths and Pentastomida of two synanthropic gecko lizards, Hemidactylus mabouia and Phyllopezus pollicaris, in an urban area in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, J G G; Brito, S V; Ávila, R W; Teles, D A; Araujo-Filho, J A; Teixeira, A A M; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O

    2014-11-01

    Helminths and pentastomids were examined in exotic Hemidactylus mabouia and native Phyllopezus pollicaris lizards, living synanthropically in an urban area in the municipality of Crato, Ceará state, northeastern Brazil. A total of 194 lizards were collected, being 76 specimens of H. mabouia e 118 specimens of P. pollicaris. Six parasite species were found infecting H. mabouia: the cestode Oochoristica sp., the nematodes Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, and Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis and the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae; while four parasite species were found associated with P. pollicaris: Oochoristica sp., P. sceleratus, P. retusa, and S. oxkutzcabiensis. Three new host records were reported: P. retusa infecting H. mabouia and P. retusa and Oochoristica sp. infecting P. pollicaris. About 75% of the parasites species found were shared by both lizards. Moreover, H. mabouia showed greater diversity than P. pollicaris (6 versus 4 species), while P. pollicaris had higher intensity of infection than H. mabouia (1536 versus 121 specimens).

  12. Three new exotic fish records from the SE Aegean Greek waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corsini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Three exotic fish, Iniistius pavo (Labridae and Lagocephalus sceleratus (Tetraodontidae, Lessepsian immigrants, and Seriola fasciata (Carangidae of Atlantic origin, were recorded in the marine area of Rhodes Island (SE Aegean Sea, Greece. The first species is a new record for the Mediterranean Sea, the second is new for Greek waters, while the occurrence of the third is registered for the first time in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  13. A Study on Characteristic Qualities and Chemical Compotion in Spinach Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    犬飼, 道子; 木下, 耕一; 加藤, 成二; 吉田, 雅彦; Michiko, INUKAI; Koichi, KINOSHITA; Seiji, KATO; Yoshida, Norihiro; イヌカイ, ミチコ Inukai, Michiko; キノシタ, コウイチ; Kinoshita, Koichi; カトウ, セイジ; Kato, Seiji; ヨシダ, ノリヒロ

    1996-01-01

    The result of the difference in chemical compotion in the spinach that was cultivated by organic fertilizer. The total vitamin C and ascorbic acid in the spanish left blade and petiole cultivated by organic fertilizer is more than the total vitamin C and ascorbic acid in the spinach leaf blade and petiole cultivated by chemical fertilizer but dehydroasorbic acid is almost the same in both spinaches. The ascorbic acid and dehydroasorbic acid in spinach leaf blade and petiole cultivated by orga...

  14. 78 FR 40136 - Metaldehyde; Amendment To Terminate Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ..., blueberries, caneberries (bingleberry, Technical Molluscicide. black raspberry, blackberry, boysenberry... grass grown for seed, leaf petioles, peppermint, spearmint, wetland, Caneberry subgroup 13-07A...

  15. Accumulation of arsenic by aquatic plants in large-scale field conditions: opportunities for phytoremediation and bioindication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Prasad, M N V

    2012-09-01

    This work focuses on the potential of aquatic plants for bioindication and/or phytofiltration of arsenic from contaminated water. More than 71 species of aquatic plants were collected at 200 sampling points in running waters. The results for the 18 most representative plant species are presented here. The species Ranunculus trichophyllus, Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius, Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana and the leaves of Juncus effusus showed a very highly significant (Pplant species into natural water bodies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TAXONOMICAL POSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF BUSCHIA LATERIFLORA (DC. OVCZ. (RANUNCULACEAE JUSS. SPECIES IN THE BESSARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CANTEMIR VALENTINA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Having the target of taxonomic concretization the Ranunculus L. and Buschia (DC. Ovcz. genera from Bessarabia flora, the Herbarium specimens of Botanical Garden Academy of Sciences, and Moldova State University were investigated and analyzed. Research results attest the priority concept of Ranunculus L. genus and the presence of Buschia lateriflora (DC. Ovcz. species in native flora. Revealing a new habitat for Buschia lateriflora species complete the species area within South-East Europe limits. Morphologic distinctive criteria of studied genus are given.

  17. De nomenclatuur van Speenkruiden (Ficaria verna Huds. s.l.,Ranunculaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, Jan-Frits

    2015-01-01

    Molecular research has shown that Ficaria (Ranunculaceae) is not closely related to Ranunculus. In this study I regard the genus as monospecific with 7 subspecies. It is an arbitrary choice to regard these taxa as species or subspecies. In most of the recent literature a choice has been made for the latter and this is followed here. The type is Ficaria verna (≡ Ranunculus ficaria). Benson (1954: 369)1 was the first to designate a lectotype: Herb. Linn. 715.12 (LINN) without provenance, but mo...

  18. Antifouling activity of crude extracts isolated from two Red Sea puffer fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosry A. Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts were isolated from the ovary and mucus of the puffer fish Amblyrhynchotes hypselogenion and Lagocephalus sceleratus. The crude toxin extracts (from the ovaries of L. sceleratus puffer fish (4.5, 9.0, and 18.0 g crude extract/100 g paint and only one concentration (3.0 g crude extract/100 g paint from the skin mucus of A. hypselogenion puffer fish were mixed with an inert simple paint formulation (consists of (vinyl chloride–vinyl acetate copolymer using tricresyl phosphate as plasticizer. The viscosity of paints was adjusted using a blend of solvents consisting of methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene applied to poly vinyl chloride (PVC plates and exposed to Suez Gulf water for about 24 weeks. Percentage covers of fouling organisms on plates were estimated for coated panels over six weeks, and the wet weight (gram/plate of fouling organisms on experimental plates was recorded till about 24 weeks. The percentage of plates coated by formulation with (2007 for 24 weeks the crude toxic extracts from the ovaries of L. sceleratus and the mucus of A. hypselogenion ranged from 22% to 24% and 11% to 12%, respectively. The wet weights of the plates covered by formulation with the same crude toxic extracts of the previous two species were 124–147 g and 82–93 g, respectively. Antifouling properties were observed for the extracts of the two species under investigation, however, extracts from A. hypselogenion showed better properties.

  19. Construction of genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The morphological markers/genes were found linked with nearest molecular or morphological markers at distances varying from 0.7 to 11.4 cM. Linkage was observed between the morphological markers concerned with lamina shape and petiole size of leaf on LG1 and leaf, stem and petiole pigmentation and pod size on ...

  20. Dicty_cDB: SFA442 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 672.1 CAP0007_IIIR_A11 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Petiole - CAP Vitis vinifera cDNA clo...F_A11 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Petiole - CAP Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAP0007_IIIF_A

  1. Convolvulaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Hoogland, R.D.

    1948-01-01

    Herbs or shrubs, sometimes parasitic, usually with twining stems, occasionally prostrate or creeping, or erect, very rarely trees, often with milky juice. Leaves mostly spirally arranged, in parasitic species absent or nearly so, usually petioled; petiole sometimes with extra-floral nectaries.

  2. Phenotype abnormality: 352 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 352 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u857i increased number... of trichome in organ named petiole ... petiole ... present in greater numbers in organism ... trichome ...

  3. Taxonomic studies on Solanum macrocarpon Linn. and Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The anatomy of mid-ribs and petioles showed bicollateral vascular systems. There are 3 vascular ... At secondary growth phases, their mid-ribs and petioles revealed vascular arcs and the stems have rings of open vascular systems. The cytological studies ...

  4. Water use characteristics of a bambara groundnut (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... petiole facing outside and the bagged leaf inside the chamber. The chamber was sealed and then slowly pressurized with nitrogen gas at 10 kPA∙s-1. During pressurisation, a x16 mag- nifying glass was used to carefully observe the excised surface of the petiole for the appearance of a drop of water (sap).

  5. The role of abscisic acid in ethylene-induced elongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Rumex palustris responds to submergence with an upward bending of the petioles (hyponastic growth) followed by a strong enhancement of elongation of the entire petiole. These two growth responses together help the plant to regain contact with the water surface, so that gas exchange to the submerged

  6. White oak epicotyl emergence and 1-0 seedling growth from surgically altered germinating acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2010-01-01

    Open-pollinated white oak (Quercus alba L.) acorns were collected and stored at 4 °C in November 2004. Three days before sowing in early December, we treated germinating acorns in five ways: no surgery (C); one half of the radical cut off (HR); whole radicle cut off (WR); one cotyledonary petiole severed (OP); and both cotyledonary petioles severed,...

  7. Charting the Visual Space of Insect Eyes - Delineating the Guidance, Navigation and Control of Insect Flight by Their Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    AFOSR. The claimed pollination hypothesis could not be confirmed, and rather it appeared that the theory was unfounded, i.e. built on artificial grounds...Ranunculus ficaria. (e-h) Matricaria chamomilla. (i-l) Bellis perennis. (m-p) Hibiscus trionum. Scale bars: (a,e,i,m) 1 cm, (b,f,j,n) 20 µm. The red

  8. Distribution and production of submerged macrophytes in Tipper Grund (Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark), and the impact of waterfowl grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    . at intermediate depth and Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ranunculus baudauti at greater depth. (2) All macrophyte species showed a unimodal peak of biomass during the summer. Angiosperms with heavy epiphytic load withered 1-2 months earlier than did angiosperms without epiphytes. (3) Annual...

  9. A Literature Survey on the Wetland Vegetation of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    occasionally Ranunculus hyperboreus, R. gmelinii, R. aquatilis, Sparganium hyperboreum, and, rarely, Potamogeton pectinatus and P. filiformis grow...spicatum, Potamogeton spp., and occasionally Lemna trisulca are found. In shallower water Potamogeton -, filiformis, P. pectinatus , Zannichellia palustris...Infrequently, the submerged species Potamogeton alpinus, P. filiformis, and P. pectinatus * are found. The most consistent species in lakes around Umiat

  10. Anti-inflammatory Activities of Extracts of Some Traditionally Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts were obtained from the leaves of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Malva verticillata L. (Malvaceae), Syzygium guineense DC. (Myrtaceae); and from the rhizomes of Ferula communis L. (Apiaceae), and from the aerial part of Ranunculus multifidus Forssk (Ranunculaceae). Except for the extract of F. communis, ...

  11. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Juncus effusus), creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens), purple loose- strife (Lythrum salicaria), Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus), Japanese...factors. Common wetland shrubs in the Rocky Mountains include diamond- leaf willow (Salix planifolia), Geyer willow (S. geyerana), mountain willow...riparian-wetland species include narrow- leaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), Fremont cottonwood (P. fremontii), and

  12. Fort Devens Feasibility Study for Group 1A Sites. Final Feasibility Study Shepley’s Hill Landfill Operable Unit Data Item A009

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    lapathifolium FACW+ Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata OBL Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBL Swamp Buttercup Ranunculus septentrionalis OBL Blackberry Rubus...Polygonum lapathifolium FACW+ Pickereiweed Pontederia cordata OBL Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBLUCommon Cinquefoil Potentilla simplex FACU- Buttercup... cordata ) were all noted in this community and comprise 80-90% of the plant species present. 2* I. I I NEW ENGLAND ENVIRONMENTAL, INC. I Emergent

  13. A Preliminary Investigation On Suspected Plant Poisoning In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they have been reported before to have toxic effects. These were botanically identified as Ranunculus multifidus Forsk, Cassia didymobotrya Fres, Ricinus communis L., Datura stramonium L. and Momordica foetida Schum. It is concluded that some of these plants may be responsible for the poisoning and further studies on ...

  14. Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four medicinal plants including Ranunculus arvensis, Equisetum ravens, Carathamus lanatus and Fagonia critica were used for the study. All the plants were biologically active and were used for different types of ailments. Keeping in view their importance, this work was carried out to investigate the quantitative ...

  15. Twin Valley, Wild Rice River, Minnesota. Addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    in this group are Bidens cernua, Epilobium ciliatum, Ranunculus pensylvanicus, Panicum capillare, Salix interior, Mimulus ringens, Verbena hastata ...and Verbena urticifolia all of which occur throughout much of the area on muddy or sandy shores. Also present in the stand were a number of weedy

  16. Sun et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(6):439 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    .org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i6.6. 439. A STUDY ON THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF POLYSACCHARIDES FROM RADIX RANUNCULUS TERNATI ON. HUMAN BREAST CANCER MCF-7 CELL LINES. De-Li Sun1*, Han-Bing Xie 1, Yun-Zhan Xia1.

  17. Opmerkingen betreffende de interpretatie van de bloemmorfologie bij het speenkruid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.P.

    1971-01-01

    An outline of the possible homologies of the calyx and corolla of the Lesser Celandine on the hand of the flower morphology of both Anemone and Hepatica, and Ranunculus is given. The possible affinities of the species are discussed. The author defends a homology of its calyx to that of Hepatica and

  18. De nomenclatuur van Speenkruiden (Ficaria verna Huds. s.l.,Ranunculaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Jan-Frits

    2015-01-01

    Molecular research has shown that Ficaria (Ranunculaceae) is not closely related to Ranunculus. In this study I regard the genus as monospecific with 7 subspecies. It is an arbitrary choice to regard these taxa as species or subspecies. In most of the recent literature a choice has been made for the

  19. 76 FR 35906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 12 Species in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range; and... 5-year status reviews under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of 2 animal and 10... status reviews under the Act of 2 animal and 10 plant species: Autumn buttercup (Ranunculus acriformis...

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: Callinectes sapidus and Chelidonura fulvipunctata; Monaco: Aplysia dactylomela; Italy: Charybdis (Charybdis feriata, Carcharodon carcharias, Seriola fasciata, and Siganus rivulatus; Malta: Pomacanthus asfur; Croatia: Lagocephalus sceleratus and Pomadasys incisus; Montenegro: Lagocephalus sceleratus; Greece: Amathia (Zoobotryon verticillata, Atys cf. macandrewii, Cerithium scabridum, Chama pacifica, Dendostrea cf. folium, Ergalatax junionae, Septifer cumingii, Syphonota geographica, Syrnola fasciata, Oxyurichthys petersi, Scarus ghobban, Scorpaena maderensis, Solea aegyptiaca and Upeneus pori; Turkey: Lobotes surinamensis, Ruvettus pretiosus and Ophiocten abyssicolum. In the current article, the presence of Taractes rubescens (Jordan & Evermann, 1887 is recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean from Italy. The great contribution of citizen scientists in monitoring biodiversity records is reflected herein, as 10% of the authors are citizen scientists, and contributed 37.5% of the new findings.

  1. Ultrastructure of the early stages of Colletotrichum acutatum infection of strawberry tissues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arroyo, Francisco T; Moreno, Javier; Garcia-Herdugo, Gregorio; Santos, Berta D.l; Barrau, Carmen; Porras, Maria; Blanco, Cesar; Romero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The early stages of the infection of attached leaves and petioles of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. 'Camarosa') by Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy...

  2. Capparidaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1960-01-01

    Herbs or shrubs, often climbing, rarely trees. Indument, if present, consisting of simple (unicellular or multicellular) hairs (sometimes capitate-glandular), stellate hairs, or appendages ( Cleome). Leaves spirally arranged, petioled, simple, palmately dissected, or compound, entire, penninerved,

  3. Nymphaeaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1966-01-01

    Aquatic, annual or commonly perennial herbs, generally with submersed rhizomes. Leaves alternate, floating or emersed, long-petiolate; blade peltate or falsely peltate. Stipules present or wanting. Flowers solitary, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, often fragrant; peduncle long. Sepals 4—15, free,

  4. Biochemical analysis of a papain-like protease isolated from the latex of Asclepias curassavica L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liggieri, Constanza; Obregón, Walter; Trejo, Sebastián; Priolo, Nora

    2009-01-01

    ... and secondary metabolites. A new papain-like endopeptidase (asclepain cII) has been isolated and characterized from the latex extracted from petioles of Asclepias curassavica L. (Asclepiadaceae...

  5. Índices de nitrogênio nas folhas de tomateiro em função do nitrogênio e da adubação orgânica. = Nitrogen index in leaves of tomato plants as a function of nitrogen and organic fertilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magna Maria Macedo Ferreira; Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes

    2011-01-01

    .... Consequently, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of N doses, with and without organic fertilization, on the N-NO3- contents in the sap and in the dry matter of petiole and total...

  6. Effect of ethylene and ionizing radiation on Saintpaulia peroxidase activity. Scientific paper No. 4333. [Peroxidase levels in African violets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warfield, D.L.; Nilan, R.A.; Witters, R.E.

    1973-01-01

    Ethylene gas and x rays, alone and in combination, were applied to petioles of Saintpaulia ionantha to test their effect on peroxidase activity. Both agents increased peroxidase activity, although ethylene was the most effective.

  7. Validation and Comparison of Reference Genes for qPCR Normalization of Celery (Apium graveolens) at Different Development Stages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Meng-Yao; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Guan-Long; Tian, Chang; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes in leaf blade and petiole at different development stages were evaluated using three statistics algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper...

  8. Relationships between stomatal behavior, xylem vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water relations in two cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Farinelli, Daniela; Palliotti, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Current understanding of physiological mechanisms governing stomatal behavior under water stress conditions is still incomplete and controversial. It has been proposed that coordination of stomatal kinetics with xylem vulnerability to cavitation [vulnerability curve (VC)] leads to different levels of isohydry/anisohydry in different plant species/cultivars. In this study, this hypothesis is tested in Vitis vinifera cultivars displaying contrasting stomatal behavior under drought stress. The cv Montepulciano (MP, near-isohydric) and Sangiovese (SG, anisohydric) were compared in terms of stomatal response to leaf and stem water potential, as possibly correlated to different petiole hydraulic conductivity (k(petiole)) and VC, as well as to leaf water relations parameters. MP leaves showed almost complete stomatal closure at higher leaf and stem water potentials than SG leaves. Moreover, MP petioles had higher maximum k(petiole) and were more vulnerable to cavitation than SG. Water potential at the turgor loss point was higher in MP than in SG. In SG, the percentage reduction of stomatal conductance (PLg(s)) under water stress was almost linearly correlated with corresponding percentage loss of k(petiole) (PLC), while in MP PLg(s) was less influenced by PLC. Our results suggest that V. vinifera near-isohydric and anisohydric genotypes differ in terms of xylem vulnerability to cavitation as well as in terms of k(petiole) and that the coordination of these traits leads to their different stomatal responses under water stress conditions. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Macrophytes and suspension-feeding invertebrates modify flows and fine sediments in the Frome and Piddle catchments, Dorset (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Geraldene; Cotton, Jacqueline A.; Wotton, Roger S.; Bass, Jon A. B.; Heppell, Catherine M.; Trimmer, Mark; Sanders, Ian A.; Warren, Luke L.

    2006-10-01

    SummaryThis research investigated the ecosystem engineering by in-stream macrophytes, dominated by Ranunculus spp., and associated suspension-feeding blackfly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) for five reaches in the Frome and Piddle catchments, Dorset (UK) over one annual growth cycle (2003). This paper focuses on the modification of flow velocities and the trapping of fine sediment (particles <2 mm in diameter) by in-stream macrophytes and the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM), fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) and fine inorganic particles into faecal pellets by blackfly larvae attached to the leaves of Ranunculus plants. In-stream macrophyte growth was extensive, with maximum percentage cover of 80% recorded in September and October 2003. The macrophyte cover significantly altered flow patterns and flow velocities within and between the macrophyte stands. The reduced flow velocities within the plants promoted sediment trapping, reaching volumes of 0.085 m 3 of fine sediment trapped per metre square of vegetation at one site. The effective particle sizes of the sediments trapped within Ranunculus stands were dominated by the 250-500 μm fraction from March to July 2003 whereas a higher proportion of smaller fractions occurred from October to December. Faecal pellets were highly abundant in the sediments trapped within Ranunculus stands (up to 2.2 × 10 8 faecal pellets per m 2) and their dimensions (total size range 25-400 μm) fall within the dominant size fraction of the trapped sediments. Our findings demonstrate the need to consider the biogenic component of the fine sediments in chalk streams in future studies of sediment and nutrient dynamics.

  10. Aportaciones a la flora de Galicia, VIII

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Vigide, F.; García Martínez, X.R.; Silva Pando, F.J.; González Domínguez, J.; Blanco Dios, J.B.; Rodríguez González, A.; Rial Pousa, S.; Álvarez Graña, D.; Caamaño Portela, J.L.; Pino Pérez, J.J.; Pino Pérez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Se citan 37 plantas de variado interés para la flora gallega. Se incluyen 8 novedades de carácter regional (Pteris incompleta Cav., Potentilla recta L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam., Knautia integrifolia (L.) Bertol., Senecio inaequidens DC. Melica arrecta G. Kunze y Stipa clausa Trab.), 17 novedades provinciales (Vandenboschia speciosa (Willd.) G. Kunkel, Ranunculus bupleuroides Brot., Silene niceensis All., Armeria transmontana (Samp.) Lawr., Alcea rosea...

  11. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix E. Environment and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    are mixed with basalt cap rock which frequently has only a thin overlayer of soil, poor in fertility and moisture. The valley of the Spokane River...Covered Scablands 87 3-tip Sagebrush-Idaho Fescue ( Artemisia tripartita-Festuca idahoensis) Meadow-Steppe Community 105 Idaho Fescue - Common Snowberry...dogwood Cornus stolonifera Rocky Mountain maple Acer glabnum Douglasii Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata Sagebrush buttercup Ranunculus glaberrimus

  12. New distribution data of some Pontic and submediterranean plant species in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Gordana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the distribution of 11 rare Pontic and submediterranean plant species in Serbia based on field research, herbarium and literature data. These taxa were mapped on 10 x 10 km2 UTM grid. The following taxa were analyzed: Dianthus pinifolius Sibth. & Sm., Doronicum hungaricum Reichenb. fil., Sedum stefco Stefanov, Sempervivum zeleborii Schott, Trifolium pignantii Fauche & Chaub., Ranunculus illyricus L., Potentilla chrysantha Trev., Prunus tenella Batsch, Saxifraga bulbifera L., Linaria pelisseriana (L Miller and Gagea bohemica (Zausc Schul. & Schul.

  13. Notas corológicas sobre el Sistema Ibérico Central (provincia de Guadalajara), I

    OpenAIRE

    Morales del Molino, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    Se presentan nuevas localidades en la provincia de Guadalajara para un conjunto de 40 taxones de plantas vasculares. Entre estas caben destacar el limite meridional en el area de distribution de Erica vagans L. Se indican nuevas poblaciones de especies escasamente representadas en este tramo del Sistema Iberico, entre ellas Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill., Rosa villosa L., Geranium collinum Stephan ex Willd., Pulsatilla rubra Delarbre o Lathyrus pannonicus subsp. longestipulatus M. Lainz. ...

  14. Montane lakes (lagoons) of the New England Tablelands Bioregion

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Dorothy M.; Hunter, John T.; Haworth, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The vegetation of montane lagoons of the New England Tablelands Bioregion, New South Wales is examined using flexible UPGMA analysis of frequency scores on all vascular plant taxa, charophytes and one liverworts. Seven communities are described: 1. Hydrocotyle tripartita – Isotoma fluviatilis – Ranunculus inundatus – Lilaeopsis polyantha herbfield; 2. Eleocharis sphacelata – Potamogeton tricarinatus sedgeland; 3. Eleocharis sphacelata – Utricularia australis – Isolepis fluitans, herbfield; 4....

  15. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. TSIAMIS

    2015-07-01

    The new records of alien species include: the red algae Antithamnionella elegans and Palisada maris-rubri, found for the first time in Israel and Greece respectively; the green alga Codium parvulum reported from Turkey (Aegean Sea; the first record of the alien sea urchin Diadema setosum in Greece; the nudibranch Goniobranchus annulatus reported from South-Eastern Aegean Sea (Greece; the opisthobranch Melibe viridis found in Lebanon; the new records of the blue spotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii in the Alicante coast (Eastern Spain; the alien fish Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus in Lipsi Island, Dodecanese (Greece; the first record of Stephanolepis diaspros from the Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area (western Sicily; a northward expansion of the alien pufferfish Torquigener flavimaculosus along the southeastern Aegean coasts of Turkey; and data on the occurrence of the Lessepsian immigrants Alepes djedaba, Lagocephalus sceleratus and Fistularia commersonii in Zakynthos Island (SE Ionian Sea, Greece.

  16. A review of the Zoogonidae (Digenea: Microphalloidea from fishes of the waters around New Caledonia, with the description of Overstreetia cribbi n. sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Bray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available New and published reports of zoogonid digeneans from New Caledonian waters are recorded, including a description of Overstreetia cribbi n. sp. from Atherinomorus lacunosus. This species differs from its congeners in the detail of its circum-oral spination and some metrical features. Other new records are of: Diphterostomum plectorhynchi Machida, Kamegai & Kuramochi, 2006 in Diagramma pictum; Parvipyrum acanthuri (Pritchard, 1963 in Acanthurus dussumieri; Zoogonoides viviparus (Olsson, 1868 in Lagocephalus sceleratus; Deretrema ? combesorum (Bray & Justine, 2008a; Bray & Justine, 2008b early ovigerous forms in Parupeneus pleurostigma; D? acutum (Pritchard, 1963 in P. barberinus; and an unidentified immature zoogonid in P. multifasciatus. The newly reported specimens are illustrated and measurements given. The distribution of New Caledonian zoogonids is listed.

  17. Karyotype characterization and ZZ/ZW sex chromosome heteromorphism in two species of the catfish genus Ancistrus Kner, 1854 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renildo R. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available We present karyotypic characteristics and report on the occurrence of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Ancistrus ranunculus (rio Xingu and Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" (rio Purus, of the Brazilian Amazon. Ancistrus ranunculus has a modal number of 2n=48 chromosomes, a fundamental number (FN of 82 for both sexes, and the karyotypic formula was 20m+8sm+6st+14a for males and 19m+9sm+6st+14a for females. Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" presented 2n=52 chromosomes, FN= 78 for males and FN= 79 for females. The karyotypic formula was 16m+8sm+2st+26a for males and 16m+9sm+2st+25a for females. The high number of acrocentric chromosomes in karyotype of Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" differs from the majority of Ancistrini genera studied so far, and may have resulted from pericentric inversions and translocations. The lower number of chromosomes in A. ranunculus indicates that centric fusions also occurred in the evolution of Ancistrus karyotypes. We conclude that karyotypic characteristics and the presence of sex chromosomes can constitute important cytotaxonomic markers to identify cryptic species of Ancistrus. However, sex chromosomes apparently arose independently within the genus and thus do not constitute a reliable character to analyze phylogenetic relations among Ancistrus species.

  18. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  19. Principal Component Analysis of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in Iranian Spinach Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebodini Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.

  20. [Genetic transformation of Pinellia ternata with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated sHSP genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Ting-Ting; Xue, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Ai-Min; Sheng, Wei; Teng, Jing-Tong

    2012-12-01

    To establish an efficient genetic transformation system of Pinellia ternata. With petioles from test-tube seedlings of P. ternata as explants, Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediation method was adopted to explore the effect of phenolic substances, A. tumefaciens's concentration, infection time, pre-incubation time and co-cultivation time on genetic transformation efficiency of P. ternata. The genetic transformation efficiency could be effectively enhanced by infecting in A. tumefaciens culture containing AS 40 mg x L(-1) for 15 min for three days. The petioles were put into the differentiation medium containing 150 mg x L(-1) Kan and 350 mg x L(-1) Carb to screening and cultivation. After around 30 days, microtubers could be observed at both sides of the petioles. Gus staining and PCR verification on the regenerated plants showed that the exogenous gene sHSP had been integrated into genome of P. ternata.

  1. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blade presents a heterogenous and hypostomatic mesophyll and a number of vascular bundles in the midrib zone. Remarkable is the presence of the filamentous, uniseriate non-glandular hairs in the stem, petiole and leaf blade. The mechanical tissue is present in the stem, petiole and blade as well.

  2. Anatomy of the vegetative organs at Syngonium podophyllum Schott.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SIPOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has as an objective establishing the structure of the vegetative organs at Syngonium podophyllum. The structure is specific for herbaceous monocotyledonous: root has a primary structure, the stem primary structure is an intermediary form between an aerial stem and a rhizome (the presence in a fundamental parenchyma of the colaterally closed vascular bundles and the leptocentric ones. The leaf petiole has the suberified epidermis. It is characterised by the colaterally closed vascular bundles disposed peripherically and extremely well protected by the sclerenchyma and in the centre of the petiole, in the fundamental parenchyma, the same type of fascicles are placed. The middrib has a structure similar to that of the petiole. The leaf mesophyll is homogenous. The parenchyma of aerial vegetative organs of this species is crossed by aeripherous channels and their cells contain calcium oxalate crystals. The leaf is amphistomatic, the stomatic complexes are an amarilidaceous type, tetracitic or hexacitic.

  3. Fatty acid and sterol contents during methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was showed that JA-Me did not affect or only slightly affected the content of free and bound fatty acids in petioles and blades. ß-Sitosterol, campesterol and ß-amyrin were identified in petioles and blades of K. blossfeldiana; JA-Me decreased the content of campesterol in petioles and increased the content of ß-sitosterol in blades. In blades of plants treated with JA-Me disappearance of olean-12-one was indicated but appearance of 2H-cyclopropa[a]-naphthalen-2-one,l, la, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7a, 7b-octahydro-l, 1, 7, 7a-tetramethyl (aristolone was documented. The significance of these findings in leaf abscission induced by methyl jasmonate in K. blossfeldiana is discussed.

  4. Effective half-lives of ¹³⁷Cs in giant butterbur and field horsetail, and the distribution differences of potassium and ¹³⁷Cs in aboveground tissue parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K in different tissues of edible wild herbaceous plants, that is, leaf blade and petiole for giant butterbur (Petasites japonicas (Siebold et Zucc.) Maxim.), and leaf, stem and strobilus for fertile shoot of field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) were measured in 2012-2014 to clarify the effect in Japan from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of (137)Cs decreased with time with effective half-lives of ca. 450 d and 360 d for giant butterbur and field horsetail, respectively. The ANOVA test revealed that (40)K and (137)Cs distributions in leaf blade and petiole for giant butterbur and leaf and stem for field horsetail were different. Therefore, other plants, leaf and stem for Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr.) and Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.), and leaf blade and petiole for gingko (Ginkgo biloba L.) and Someiyoshino cherry (Cerasus × yedoensis (Matsum.) A.V.Vassil. 'Somei-yoshino') were collected from the same sampling field and their (137)Cs and (40)K concentrations were compared to those in the giant butterbur and field horsetail parts. For (137)Cs, concentrations in leaf blade and leaf parts were 1.1-6.0 times higher than those in petiole and stem parts for all six plants. On the other hand, (40)K concentrations in leaf blade and leaf parts were 0.40-0.97 of those observed in petiole and stem parts. Discrimination ratios of (40)K/(137)Cs of leaf blade to petiole or leaf to stem were then calculated and they ranged from 0.09 to 0.57. These results suggested that Cs and K did not behave similarly in these plants. Thus, to understand the radiocesium fate in plants, K measurement results should not be used as an analog for Cs behavior although Cs is known to have a similar chemical reactivity to that of K. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Arabidopsis thaliana rlp mutations revert the ectopic leaf blade formation conferred by activation tagging of the LEP gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Nussbaumer, C; Keller, Bente

    2003-01-01

    genetic and morphological analyses were performed on a selection of the rlp lines. Of these, the dominant rlp lines display complete reversion of (1) the leafy petiole phenotype, (2) the reduction in the number of rosette leaves and (3) the slower leaf initiation rate caused by the activation-tagged LEP...... gene. Therefore, these lines are potentially mutated in genes for interacting partners of LEP or in downstream regulatory genes. In contrast, the recessive rlp lines exhibit a specific reversion of the leafy petiole phenotype. Thus, these lines are most probably mutated in genes specific...

  6. Res Cover Sep 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    Acacia polycantha Willd. (White cutch) of Fabaceae is a moderate sized deciduous tree with white or ash colored bark that peels off in papery flakes. Leaves are compound with many leaflets, spines on either side of the leafbase and a gland on the petiole. Flowers are small, white or pale yellow and are densely arranged ...

  7. Chrysobalanaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prance, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    Trees or shrubs (or rarely suffrutices outside Malesia). Leaves simple, alternate, often coriaceous, glabrous or with an indumentum on undersurface, margin entire; petioles often with 2 lateral glands. Stipules 2, minute and caducous to large and persistent, usually linear-lanceolate. Inflorescence

  8. Plant tissue culture study on two different races of purslane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed on two races of purslane; agronomic purslane and wild one. All the explants were cultured on MS basal medium supplement with 30 g/l sucrose, 8 g/l agar and different plant growth regulator. Petioles, shoot tips and leaves of wild purslane and also leaves of agronomic purslane were cultured in ...

  9. Herbivory-associated degradation of tomato trichomes and its impact on biological control of Aculops lycopersici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Y.M.; Glas, J.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Rothe, J.; Bolckmans, K.J.F.; Simoni, S.; van Arkel, J.; Alba, J.M.; Kant, M.R.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato plants have their leaves, petioles and stems covered with glandular trichomes that protect the plant against two-spotted spider mites and many other herbivorous arthropods, but also hinder searching by phytoseiid mites and other natural enemies of these herbivores. This trichome cover creates

  10. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and anthocyanin contents of various rhubarb (Rheum-spp.) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...

  11. Morphological characterization and variability study of African yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cluster analysis was conducted to group the accessions into various cluster groups. Quantitative characters such as length, width and area of terminal leaf, petiole length, number of leaves, number of branches, stem length, and stem diameter were significantly different among the accessions. Variation of leaf colour ranging ...

  12. sphenostylis stenocarpa (hochst ex a. rich)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    Cluster analysis was conducted to group the accessions into various cluster groups. Quantitative characters such as length, width and area of terminal leaf, petiole length, number of leaves, number of branches, stem length, and stem diameter were significantly different among the accessions. Variation of leaf colour ranging ...

  13. Studies on genetic diversity in poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... was estimated by Mahalanobis D2 statistics as suggested by Rao. (1962). 14 characters viz. tree height, diameter at breast height, clear bole length, crown length, crown width, bark thickness, length of leaf blade, length of leaf petiole, total leaf length, leaf width, leaf area index, leaf fall duration, volume over ...

  14. Effects of intrapopulation competition on morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The direct effect of competition was investigated on the following agronomic attributes; final height/plant, number of branches/plant, stem girth/plant, number of leaves/plant, total fresh weight, total dry weight, moisture content, total leaf length, leaf petiole length, leaf area, blade length and blade width. A highly significant ...

  15. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis induction in Iranian melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, regeneration of Cucumis melo cv. Khatooni: one specific Iranian melon- via somatic embryogenesis was investigated. Three different types of explant (cotyledon, hypocotyl and cotyledonary petiole) from six days old seedlings were used. Growth regulator treatments were two levels of 6-benzyl aminopurine (0 ...

  16. Somatic embryogenesis and root regeneration in Hyoscyamus niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia. Accepted 29 September, 2009. Embryogenic calli could be induced from the leaf, petiole and .... powder using a mortar and pestle. The macerated powder (1.0 g) was then placed into the extraction thimble and extracted ...

  17. 77 FR 48907 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Petitions for Residues in/on Ginseng, Leafy Petioles Crop Subgroup 4B, Pineapple (post-harvest treatment), Tuberous and Corm Vegetable Subgroup 1C, Tropical Fruit (post-harvest treatment), Bulb Onion Subgroup 3-07A... Vegetable (except Brassica) Subgroup 04A, Dragon Fruit, and Tomato (post-harvest treatment). Human-Health...

  18. Jatropha curcas L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... was dependent on the type of explant source and it varies from 47 to 60%. Key words: Euphorbiaceae, petiole, callus, indirect organogenesis, biodiesel, plant growth regulator. INTRODUCTION. Jatropha curcas or physic nut is widely grown across the world as a biodiesel crop. It is a native of Central and.

  19. Association mapping of leaf traits in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an important leafy vegetable crop grown world-wide. Leaf traits, surface texture (smooth vs. savoy or semi-savoy), petiole color (green vs. purple), and edge shape (serrate vs. entire) are important for spinach. Association mapping of the three traits were conducted...

  20. Morpho-anatomical characterization of diaspores and seedlings of Livistona rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Alessandro Padilha Viana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Livistona rotundifolia (Lam. Mart. (Arecaceae is an ornamentally important species used for landscaping and commonly grown as a potted plant. However, seedling production is hindered by the lack of information available about the species germination process and it could be subsidized by seed and seedling anatomical and morphological studies. Therefore, this study aimed at describing L. rotundifolia diaspore morphology in addition to seedling morphology and anatomy. Germination is tubular remote and begins with the opening of a circular operculum in the fruit endocarp through which the cotyledonary petiole is emitted. The endosperm is consumed as cotyledonary petiole grows. Eophyll is covered by two leaf sheaths and the first L. rotundifolia leaves are simple and lanceolate, with longitudinal and parallel veins. The developing cotyledonary petiole presents root hairs and a typical stem structure. The cotyledonary petiole/root transition region shows secondary root emission, parenchyma cells, and groups of fiber bundles. Roots present a well-defined cortex with polyarc vascular cylinder. Cortex and vascular cylinder are not well-differentiated in the root apex. The results of this study will contribute to the overall biology of L. rotundifolia, as well as to seedling production and species identification, subsidizing regeneration and conservation studies.

  1. A morphometric analysis of the genus Ficus Linn. (moraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometric analysis is based on ten quantitative parameters of the leaves of species. Principal compound analysis produced six groups whose characters are described. Highly significant positive correlation exists between leaf length and leaf width, leaf length and lamina length, leaf length and petiole length, lamina ...

  2. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar, petiole and stem anatomical characters of Thaumatococcus daniellii and Megaphrynium macrostachyum in Ile-Ife and Osogbo, environs, Osun State in Nigeria are reported. The aim is to determine the macro and micro-characters that could facilitate their identification and classification. It is envisaged that this will ...

  3. Formation of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenoorth, Johanna Margriet

    1980-01-01

    n this thesis the development of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is studies. The use of green leaf cuttings has the advantage that the leaf blade provides the developing roots inthe petiole with all the nutrients required, a disadvantage is that the composition of

  4. Dicty_cDB: SFB656 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P0004_IIIF_E05 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Petiole - CAP Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAP00...04_IIIF_E05 5', mRNA sequence. 42 4e-05 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf

  5. 75 FR 53581 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... peppermint, tops at 25 ppm (PP 0E7684) and vegetable, leafy petiole, crop subgroup 4B at 6.0 ppm (PP 9F7602... effects (increased thyroid stimulating hormone, increased thyroxine binding capacity, decreased T3 and T4... vegetables and spearmint and peppermint tops and oil were adjusted upward to account for the metabolite BSN...

  6. Effect of season, explants, growth regulators and sugar level on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... petiolated, long tipped, leathery, heart-shaped leaves. It is very popular as a shade tree because of its good form and easy adaptability to various soil conditions and so very commonly planted as an avenue or roadside tree. The fruits and tender leaf buds are occasionally eaten in times of scarcity. The fruits ...

  7. Petiolar anatomy of eight Nigerian species of Vigna savi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambacensis, V.gracillis, V. racemosa, V. reticulata, V. subterranea, V. triloba, V. unguiculata and V. vexillata were carried out. Anatomically significant features were found in the petioles of the taxa investigated. The presence of crystal sand crystals in ...

  8. The Effect of Designated Pollutants on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    cellular constituents (Lamprecht and Powell, (1977). Poovaiah and Wiebe (1969) considered tylosis formation in the petiole and leaf xylem of geranium...Pathological anatomy of conifer needle necrosis, Can. J. Bot. 51:983-988. Sulzbach, C. W. and M. R. Pack, 1972, Effects of fluoride on pollen germi- nation

  9. Evaluation of cassava foliage as a protein supplement for sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage (leaves and petioles) as a protein supplement for sheep. In the first trial, nylon bag degradability of cassava foliage was studied. Proximate analysis of cassava foliage was conducted before and after the incubation. Rumen ...

  10. Valerianaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, C.A.

    1948-01-01

    Perennial herbs, with a short, often strong-smelling rootstock. Lowest leaves in a basal rosette, higher ones decussate, simple, odd-pinnate or deeply pinnatifid, exstipulate but those of one pair often connected by a raised line, radical ones often long-petioled. Flowers small, ♀ or unisexual,

  11. Alkaloids of Nelumbo lutea (Wild.) pers. (Nymphaeaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, S G

    1977-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of an alcoholic extract of the petioles of Nelumbo lutea resulted in the identification of the alkaloids N-methylasimilobine, anonaine, and roemerine. The alkaloids nuciferine, armepavine, N-nornuciferine, and N-norarmepavine, previously previously reported in the whole plant, were also identified.

  12. Efficient callus induction and indirect plant regeneration from various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jatropha curcas is considered as an important energy plant due to the fact that its seed contains high oil content. Nowadays focus is being placed on J. curcas callus induction and plant regeneration. In this study, explants epicotyl, hypocotyl, petiole and cotyledon of 8-day-old seedlings of J. curcas were utilized for ...

  13. Phenotype-gene: 255 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 255 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u1253i delayed in org.... http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u17704213i delayed in organ named petiole during

  14. Dry Matter Accumulation As A Yield Indicator For Soyabeans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted to assess the efficiency of dry matter accumulation in the leaves, petioles, stems and biomass as a yield indicator for soybean variety TGX 536-02D at different developmental stages in the humid tropical rainforest. Linear regressions of the dry matter at the different growth stages on pod and grain ...

  15. ACTION OF AUXIN ON LEAF ABSCISSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate a two-stage effect of auxin on abscission. The two stages were demonstrated on greenhouse-grown Black...the second stage - the stage which is stimulated by auxin . Similar experiments were performed with petioles of various lengths and ages. The...implications of these results indicate possible sites of auxin action on leaf abscission. (Author)

  16. Assessment of traditional medicinal application of Alchornea cordifolia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGIGHA

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... dry locations; erect or half climbing. The leaves are simple, ovate, basically cordite, acuminate with sessile glands at the base close to the petiole. The flowers are greenish white. The plant is widely used in traditional medicine, in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria to treat wound, rheumatism, arthritis, pile, ...

  17. Morphological and molecular based diversity studies of some cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... length, tuber girth, yield per plant, tuber attachment on parent cuttings, tuber inner skin color, tuber outer skin color, tuber surface texture and pulp color and yield for genetic diversity studies in cassava. From PCA, central lobe length, petiole color, color of root cortex and yield per plant were the most ...

  18. Leaf parts from Greek artichoke genotypes as a good source of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon A; Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-05-24

    Globe artichoke is an important vegetable in the Mediterranean diet. However, the marketable part of the plant constitutes a small portion of its total crop biomass and large amounts of waste are produced during its cultivation. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition and the antioxidant activity of leaf parts [blades (SLB), petioles and midribs (SPM)] from various Greek artichoke genotypes were evaluated. The results showed significant variation in antioxidant activities and bioactive compound contents between the studied genotypes, with the leaf blades of most of the genotypes having a high content of flavonoids (mainly luteolin glycoside derivatives), which ranged between 49 and 78% of total phenolic compounds (TPC). In contrast, in petioles and midribs phenolic acids (mainly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were the main phenolic compounds, ranging between 64 and 76% of TPC. The antioxidant activity of blades was significantly higher than that of petiole and midribs for all the genotypes and the tested assays. In conclusion, artichoke leaves (blades, petioles and midribs) of the studied genotypes showed different bioactive compound profiles and significant antioxidant properties, and could be further used in the food and nutraceuticals industries as a cheap source of phenolic compounds and antioxidants.

  19. High in vitro production of ant-canceric indole alkaloids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most alkaloids amount was produced in new roots and callus roots. The indole alkaloid levels of new roots in new media were higher than in petioles of intact plants. In this study, 10-fold catharanthine, 125-fold serpentine, 0.5-fold vindoline and 0.34-fold ajmalicine were produced by new roots. The most interesting ...

  20. IN VITRO CULTURE OF BAMBARA GROUNDNUT [Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    A technique was developed to induce callus formation and differentiation using leaf, petiole and root explants from Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.]. The combinations and concentrations of different growth regulators were shown to be critical factors in the frequency of callus formation, as well as, in the.

  1. Let’s talk silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    While silicon (Si) has been a known plant nutrient for centuries, how plants use this element is still poorly understood. Researchers have identified how plants acquire Si from the environment and transport the element to all plant tissues, including roots, stems, petioles, leaves and flowers. We ...

  2. Effect of methyl jasmonate on morphology and dormancy developmentin lily bulblets regenerated in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasik, J.; Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Scales of lily bulbs are swollen petioles. Lily scale fragments cultured in vitro regenerate bulblets consisting of scales that may or may not carry a leaf blade. The bulblets are dormant and require a cold treatment to sprout. We added the gaseous plant growth regulator methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA)

  3. シダ植物"ヘビノネゴザ"のphytoremediation効果と銅の分析の研究

    OpenAIRE

    村田, 勝夫; 白石, 奈那

    2008-01-01

    Athyrium yokoscense can grow in the mine area such as copper. In Tokusima, it is grown at the old Hiroishi mine in the Kamiyama-cho. Athyrium yokoscense was analyzed on the each part such as leaf blade, petiol, rhizome, root. The average content of copper was in the order of the leaf blade

  4. Res June 2017 Cover Tp 06.06.17

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    2017-06-06

    Jun 6, 2017 ... Leaves are alternate; petiole 2 cm long; leafblade elliptic-oblong, attenuate at base, acute at apex, pale greenbeneath. Flowers are inclusters in the leaf axils. Perianthlobes 4, silky-hairy on the outerface; filaments hairy. Fruit is a berry, oblong and seated on the perianth cup. Flowering and fruiting occurs ...

  5. Pectin Esterase in Relation to Leaf Abscission in Coleus and Phaseolus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamotte, Clifford E.; Gochnauer, Carl; Lamotte, Lynn R.; Mathur, J. Raj; Davies, Leslie L. R.

    1969-01-01

    Pectin esterase (PE) activities in abscission zones, other portions of leaves, and adjacent stem tissues were compared in attached leaves and abscissing petioles (previously debladed) of Coleus blumei Benth. and Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Canadian Wonder. Earlier findings of Osborne in bean were confirmed and changes in PE activity in coleus were shown to resemble those in bean in some respects. In both plants PE was lower in the distal portion of abscission zones of abscissing petioles than in that portion of attached leaves but this difference was not as large or as consistently clear-cut in coleus as in bean. The general level of PE activity was an order of magnitude lower and changes associated with abscission were smaller in coleus than in bean. Auxin treatment of debladed petioles of coleus prevented abscission and resulted in small increases in PE activity in abscission zones and most of the other regions sampled. The largest increase was observed in the stem tissue adjacent to the attached leaf opposite the debladed, auxin treated one. The activity of coleus PE was highest in the pH range from 7.3 to 7.6. The pH of distal tissue from abscission zones of abscissing petioles was 5.8. This was 0.7 pH units lower than that of proximal tissue from the same zones. PE from both coleus and bean appears to be denatured by freezing and/or thawing. PMID:16657029

  6. Pectin esterase in relation to leaf abscission in coleus and Phaseolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMotte, C.E.; Gochnauer, C.; LaMotte, L.R.; Mathur, J.R.; Davies, L.L.R.

    1969-01-01

    Pectin esterase (PE) activities in abscission zones, other portions of leaves, and adjacent stem tissues were compared in attached leaves and abscissing petioles (previously debladed) of Coleus blumei Benth. and Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Canadian Wonder. Changes in PE activity in coleus were shown to resemble those in bean in some respects. In both plants PE was lower in the distal portion of abscission zones of abscissing petioles than in that portion of attached leaves but this difference was not as large or as consistently clear-cut in coleus as in bean. The general level of PE activity was an order of magnitude lower and changes associated with abscission were smaller in coleus than in bean. Auxin treatment of debladed petioles of coleus prevented abscission and resulted in small increases in PE activity in abscission zones and most of the other regions sampled. The largest increase was observed in the stem tissue adjacent to the attached leaf opposite the debladed, auxin treated one. The activity of coleus PE was highest in the pH range from 7.3 to 7.6. The pH of distal tissue from abscission zones of abscissing petioles was 5.8. This was 0.7 pH units lower than that of proximal tissue from the same zones. PE from both coleus and bean appears to be denatured by freezing and/or thawing. 26 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  7. effect of air pollution on the foliar morphology of some species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Keywords: Pollution, leaf morphology, Euphorbiaceae, leaf area, petiole length. INTRODUCTION. The rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization with associated increases in energy demands results in continuous addition of toxic gases and other substances to the envi- ronment. Intensive industrial ...

  8. Modifications in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K. (Univ. to Tennessee, Martin (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (maidenhair tree) was studied in polluted and relatively clean habitats of West Tennessee. In spite of its known resistance to smog and automobile exhaust fumes, it exhibited a decrease in leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length in polluted habitats. Furthermore, there was a definite trend towards lower stomatal density along the pollution gradient in selected habitats.

  9. Development and optimization of hairy root culture systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of Withania somnifera was carried out by using three Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains (ATCC 15834, R1000 and K599) for hairy root induction. Induction of hairy root was carried out in leaf, petiole and internodal explants. Hairy root induction was successful only in ATCC 15834 and R1000. The highest ...

  10. A new species of Microchilus (Goodyerinae, Orchidaceae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolanowska Marta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Microchilus Presl is described and illustrated based on Peruvian material. The new entity resembles M. laegaardii Ormerod, from which it differs by the long leaf petiole and sheath, as well as by spur length and lip form. A key for identification of Peruvian Microchilus species is also provided.

  11. The Sacred Lotus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    diseases and leprosy, and are considered as an antidote to poison. Petioles are considered as astringent, useful for burning sensa- tions and piles. The root in powder form is prescribed for curing piles, dysentery, and dyspepsia, and is used as a paste for skin infections and ringworm [4]. Lotus honey is considered as good.

  12. Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum HOST RANGE IN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preserved pure culture was sub—cultured on. YPGA plates, harvested into sterile distilled water after 4 days and was adjusted to 10“ bacterial cells. /rnL by plate count technique. One ml of bacterial suspension was injected into the leaf petiole and shoot tips of the experimental plants of each species including banana as ...

  13. Revision of the Sapotaceae of the Malaysian area in a wider sense. XXI. Eberhardtia Lecomte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royen, van P.

    1960-01-01

    Eberhardtia Lecomte, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 26, 1920, 345; Fl. Gén. Indo-Chine 3, 7, 1930, 882. Trees. Leaves scattered along the branchlets, simple, entire, petiolate, secondary nerves diminishing until inconspicuous near margin, tertiary nerves transverse. Stipules large, caducous. Flowers in

  14. Optimization of in vitro regeneration and microcorm induction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) is a vegetatively propagated stem tuber crop. In this investigation we describe a highly competent and reproducible in vitro propagation of the plant from corm bud, petiole and young leaf explants. Friable callus was initiated from all the explants on modified MS medium (half ...

  15. Polygonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Richard A.

    1966-01-01

    Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes completely scandent or only the branches so. Leaves alternate, variable in size and shape on adventitious growth, normal growth and short shoots; nodes swollen or not, with sheathing ocreae, these ciliate in some genera; petioles arising from base of the ocreae or

  16. Use in plant breeding of acute, chronic or fractionated doses of X-rays or fast neutrons as illustrated with leaves of Saintpaulia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broertjes, C.

    1971-01-01


    The parameters used were survival of irradiated leaves of S. ionantha , production of adventitious plantlets at the base of the petiole and mutation frequency.

    The differences between unfiltered X-rays from a 250/25 deep therapy apparatus and fast neutrons

  17. (Tongkat Ali) for callus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... 3School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden Heights, 11800 Penang, Malaysia. Accepted 15 October, 2010. A study was carried out to determine and optimize suitable auxin for callus induction in Eurycoma longifolia. The induction of callus cultures using leaf, petiole, rachis, stem, tap ...

  18. Performance Of Cocoyam ( Xanthosoma Sagagitifolium L) As ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Data were subjected to generalized linear model to generate analysis of variance. Results indicated that number of leaves, leaf area and leaf area index of cocoyam were significantly affected by petiole bending. The rate of leaf ...

  19. The Structure Of The Tapping Panel Of Raphia hookeri,(Mann and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... which varies from 7 to 60 days, sap flow is induced through the removal of thin slices of tissues of three major structures in the panel- the emerging petioles of the short spear leaves, the emerging primary branch inflorescences and the main inflorescence axis.

  20. Comparative leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.T.; Baas, P.

    1973-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum is described in detail. Separation of the two genera as effectuated by Hou (1963) is supported by differences in vascular anatomy of the distal end of the petiole, which is invariably more complex in Lophopetalum than in Kokoona. Other differential

  1. Screening of antimicrobial potential of in vitro calli and adult leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... methods could lead to maintain bioactive potential of plants and to formulate antimicrobial drugs of ... not much branched. Leaves are elliptic, oblong and acute at the top. Flowers are in umbel shape, peduncle arises between the petiole (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1998). The ... w: 220 v; light intensity 36 µ mol.

  2. Res July 2014 Cover Tp.cdr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    sized evergreen tree native to the Mollucas. Bark is brownish-red in colour; leaves are phyllodic (expanded petioles or stalk that serve as leaf) broad, smooth and elliptic with longitudinal nerves. Flowers are in spikes, clustered along the axils of the ...

  3. Tradeoff between stem hydraulic efficiency and mechanical strength affects leaf-stem allometry in 28 Ficus tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Ze Xin; Sterck, Frank; Zhang, Shi Bao; Fu, Pei Li; Hao, Guang You

    2017-01-01

    Leaf-stem allometry is an important spectrum that linked to biomass allocation and life history strategy in plants, although the determinants and evolutionary significance of leaf-stem allometry remain poorly understood. Leaf and stem architectures - including stem area/mass, petiole area/mass,

  4. Res March 2015 Cover Tp 05.03.15.cdr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Leaves are simple, broadly orbicular, long-petioled with the margin showing atoothed outline. Flowers are unisexual, male and female flowers being produced on different plants. Corolla of the flower is cup- or bell-shaped and creamish. Stamens are numerous. Fruit is globose and is dry when mature. The tree yields latex ...

  5. Res March 2017 Cover Tp 07.03.17

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    2017-03-07

    Mar 7, 2017 ... Ficus beddomei King (=Ficus rama-varmae Bourd.) of the family Moraceae is a rare lofty tree of evergreen forests at high elevations. The trunk is light brown and bark is smooth; blaze light-pink and exudes milky latex. Leaves are simple, alternate; stipules 5–10 cm long; petiole 5–10 cm long, stout with ...

  6. Apiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, with hollow stems. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple or variously compound; petioles usually sheathing at the base. Stipules minute or wanting. Inflorescence consisting of many-flowered, simple or compound umbels, heads or spikes; umbels and

  7. Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambusoideae are differentiated from other members of the family by the presence of petiolate blades with parallel venation and stamens are three, four, six or more, gynoecium is with single style with one to three stigmas and caryopsis. Bamboo is regarded as the major resource that meets the need of common man and ...

  8. struduraI Resistance of Cashew (Anacardium ocCidentaie) against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leaf starts from the petiole and prog~esses to- tial resistance in local and exotic germplasm wards the apex of the leaf. This change appears collections makes resistance among cashew ge- to be associated with cuticular wax formation. notypes the possible control strategy of choice. Other workers (Rao and Hassani, 1957; ...

  9. Growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chicken fed cassava ( Manihot esculentum crantz var. umucass 36) composite meal. ... The cassava root was washed, peeled and chopped into small pieces. This was oven dried and milled to form cassava root meal. The harvested leaf, petiole ...

  10. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  11. Susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of Bemisa tabaci Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM 1) were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides...

  12. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant "GroZyme" resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.

  13. Enhanced Virulence Gene Activity of Agrobacterium in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv. ‘Birdie’

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    Abul K.M. MOHIUDDIN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivar ‘Birdie’, was evaluated for its response to the tumorigenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the oncogenic A. rhizogenes strains. Stem and petiole of three week-old in vitro-grown muskmelon plants were inoculated with five strains of A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes each and observed phenotypic expressions i.e. induction of crown galls and hairy roots. This phenotypic expression was efficaciously increased when virulence gene activity of different strains of two Agrobacterium species was enhanced. Intensive studies on enhancement of virulence gene activity of Agrobacterium found to be correlated to the appropriate light intensity (39.3 μmol m-2 s-1 with a specific concentration of monocyclic phenolic compound, acetosyringone (20 μM. The gene activity was also influenced by several other physical factors e.g. plant tissue type, Agrobacterium species and their strains, and plant tissue-Agrobacterium interaction. Among the different A. tumefaciens strains, LBA4404 showed the best virulence gene activity in both stem and petiole through the formation of higher rate of crown galls. On the other hand, strain 15834 of A. rhizogenes showed better gene activity in stem and 8196 in petiole through the formation of higher rate of hairy roots as well as higher average number of hairy roots. Among the two different types of explants, petiole was more susceptible to both Agrobacterium species. Thus it was concluded that future muskmelon transformation study can efficiently be carried out with LBA4404, 15834 and 8196 strains using petiole explants by adding 20 μM of acetosyringone in the medium.

  14. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

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    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  15. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: prospects for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n=200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1,217 μg L(-1). The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4,979 mg kg(-1)) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963mgkg(-1)), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg(-1)), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg(-1)), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg(-1)), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg(-1)). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg(-1)). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg(-1)) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. © 2013.

  16. Effects of temperature and light on the formation of chloroplast protrusions in leaf mesophyll cells of high alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Othmar; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius

    2007-11-01

    Chloroplasts of many alpine plants have the ability to form marked, stroma-filled protrusions that do not contain thylakoids. Effects of temperature and light intensity on the frequency of chloroplasts with such protrusions in leaf mesophyll cells of nine different alpine plant species (Carex curvula All., Leontodon helveticus Merat., Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill., Poa alpina L. ssp. vivipara, Polygonum viviparum L., Ranunculus glacialis L., Ranunculus alpestris L., Silene acaulis L. and Soldanella pusilla Baumg.) covering seven different families were studied. Leaves were exposed to either darkness and a stepwise increase in temperature (10-38 degrees C) or to different light intensities (500 and 2000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and a constant temperature of 10 or 30 degrees C in a special temperature-regulated chamber. A chloroplast protrusions index characterising the relative proportion of chloroplasts with protrusions was defined. Seven of the nine species showed a significant increase in chloroplast protrusions when temperature was elevated to over 20 degrees C. In contrast, the light level did not generally affect the abundance of chloroplasts with protrusions. Chloroplast protrusions lead to a dynamic enlargement of the chloroplast surface area. They do not appear to be directly connected to a distinct photosystem II (PSII) (F(v)/F(m)) status and thus seem to be involved in secondary, not primary, photosynthetic processes.

  17. [Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Mumm, Udo; Vargas Ríos, Orlando

    2012-03-01

    Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia. High Andean paramo ecosystems are an important water resource for many towns, and major cities in this region. The aquatic and wetland vegetation of different paramo lakes, pond, swamps and bogs was studied according to the classical phytosociological approach, which is based on homogenous stands, but excludes any border phenomena or transitional zone. The present research aimed at determining the aquatic and wetland vegetation along different moisture gradients. A total of 89 species in 30 transects were reported, of which Crassula venezuelensis, Carex honplandii, Callitriche nubigena, Eleocharis macrostachya, Ranunculus flagelliformis, R. nubigenus, Eleocharis stenocarpa, Galium ascendens y Alopecurus aequalis were present in more than one third of the transects. Numerical classification and indicator species analysis resulted in the definition of the next 18 communities: 1) Calamagrostis effusa, 2) Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3) Cyperus rufus, 4) Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5) Carex acutata, 6) Poa annua,7) Valeriana sp., 8) Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9) Carex bonplandii, 10) Festuca andicola. 11) Muhlenbergia fustigiata, 12) Elatine paramoana, 13) Isoëtes palmeri, 14) Crassula venezuelensis, 15) Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16) Callitriche nubigena, 17) Potamogeton paramoanus and 18) Potamogeton illinoensis. The ordination of communities reveals the presence of three different aquatic-terrestrial gradients which are related to the life form structure of species that characterized the various communities. We concluded that patchiness and heterogeneity of the vegetation is mainly the result of alterations caused by human activities (burning, cattle raise and material extraction for road and dam construction).

  18. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-02-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration. A very flat, pigment-filled upper epidermis acts as a thin-film reflector yielding the gloss, and additionally serves as a filter for light backscattered by the strongly scattering starch and mesophyll layers, which yields the matte-yellow colour. We discuss the evolution of the gloss and its two likely functions: it provides a strong visual signal to insect pollinators and increases the reflection of sunlight to the centre of the flower in order to heat the reproductive organs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  20. Inventory of alien marine species of Cyprus (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine species from coastal and offshore waters of Cyprus is presented. Records were compiled based on the existing scientific and grey literature, including HCMR database of Mediterranean alien species, technical reports, scientific congresses, academic dissertations, and websites, as well as on unpublished/personal observations. The listed species were classified in one of five categories: established, invasive, casual, cryptogenic, and questionable. The mode of introduction and the year of first sighting were also reported for each species. Eight new records based on personal observations of the authors were reported (Chondria coerulescens, Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa, Enchelycore anatina, Lagocephalus spadiceus, Lagocephalus suezensis, Scomberomorus commerson, Sillago sihama, and Sphoeroides pachygaster. Nine species, previously reported as aliens in Cypriot waters, were excluded from the inventory for various reasons. Ten established species were characterized as invasive (Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Cerithium scabridum, Strombus persicus, Trochus erythraeus, Brachidontes pharaonis, Pinctada radiata, Fistularia commersonii, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Siganus luridus, and Siganus rivulatus as they have a substantial impact on biodiversity and/or local economy. The impact of alien marine species in Cyprus is expected to grow in the close future, and further effort directed towards recording alien invasions and their impact will be needed.

  1. Do we underestimate the importance of leaf size in plant economics? Disproportional scaling of support costs within the spectrum of leaf physiognomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo; Portsmuth, Angelika; Tena, David; Tobias, Mari; Matesanz, Silvia; Valladares, Fernando

    2007-08-01

    Broad scaling relationships between leaf size and function do not take into account that leaves of different size may contain different fractions of support in petiole and mid-rib. The fractions of leaf biomass in petiole, mid-rib and lamina, and the differences in chemistry and structure among mid-ribs, petioles and laminas were investigated in 122 species of contrasting leaf size, life form and climatic distribution to determine the extent to which differences in support modify whole-lamina and whole-leaf structural and chemical characteristics, and the extent to which size-dependent support investments are affected by plant life form and site climate. For the entire data set, leaf fresh mass varied over five orders of magnitude. The percentage of dry mass in mid-rib increased strongly with lamina size, reaching more than 40 % in the largest laminas. The whole-leaf percentage of mid-rib and petiole increased with leaf size, and the overall support investment was more than 60 % in the largest leaves. Fractional support investments were generally larger in herbaceous than in woody species and tended to be lower in Mediterranean than in cool temperate and tropical plants. Mid-ribs and petioles had lower N and C percentages, and lower dry to fresh mass ratio, but greater density (mass per unit volume) than laminas. N percentage of lamina without mid-rib was up to 40 % higher in the largest leaves than the total-lamina (lamina and mid-rib) N percentage, and up to 60 % higher than whole-leaf N percentage, while lamina density calculated without mid-rib was up to 80 % less than that with the mid-rib. For all leaf compartments, N percentage was negatively associated with density and dry to fresh mass ratio, while C percentage was positively linked to these characteristics, reflecting the overall inverse scaling between structural and physiological characteristics. However, the correlations between N and C percentages and structural characteristics differed among mid

  2. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from the forage legume sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regos, Ionela; Urbanella, Andrea; Treutter, Dieter

    2009-07-08

    Phenolic compounds of sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia ) variety Cotswold Common are assumed to contribute to its nutritive value and bioactive properties. A purified acetone/water extract was separated by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography. Sixty-three phenolic and other aromatic compounds were identified by means of chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. Reverse phase HPLC with diode array and chemical reaction detection was used to investigate the phenolic composition of different plant organs. All plant parts showed specific phenolic profiles. Moreover, there were considerable variations in the phenolic content among individual plants of the same variety. The three most abundant phenolic compounds were found to be arbutin [predominant in petiols, 17.7 mg/g of dry weight (DW)], rutin (predominant in leaves, 19.9 mg/g of DW), and catechin (predominant flavanol in petiols, 3.5 mg/g of DW). The present study reveals that the phenolic profile of sainfoin is even more complex than hitherto assumed.

  3. Endophytic colonization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves by entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vidal, S; Lopez-Llorca, L V; Jansson, H -B; Salinas, J

    2006-01-01

    Light and scanning electron microscopy together with fungal isolation techniques were used to detect entomopathogenic fungi within young and adult date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) petioles and to assess fungal survival in leaf tissues. The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium dimorphum and Lecanicillium c.f. psalliotae survived inside leaf tissues at least 30 days after inoculation. Entomopathogenic fungi colonized inoculated petioles endophytically and were recovered up to 3cm from the inoculation site. Fungi were detected inside the parenchyma and sparsely within vascular tissue using microscopy techniques. Our results show that the entomopathogenic fungi used in this study survived and colonized date palm tissues in bioassays both under laboratory and field experimental conditions with no evidence of significant damage.

  4. Foliar anatomy of Viola maculata growing in Parque Nacional Los Alerces, Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Pilberg

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Viola maculata Cav., Violaceae, grows in the underwood along the Los Andes mountain system from Neuquén to Tierra del Fuego and Islas Malvinas. It is also known as violeta amarilla or as pilundeu, and is used in popular medicine by the Mapuches as stimulant, in dermatology, and as a lavage in eye diseases. The aim of this work is to examine the morpho-anatomical traits of the leaves and petiole of V. maculata (collected at Parque Nacional Los Alerces, Patagonia, Argentina. Cross sections and scanning electron microscopy of leaves blade and petiole showed a simple organization with simple unicellular trichomes and cells containing tannins, and crystals of calcium oxalate mainly in the spongy parenchyma. As V. maculata is used in traditional medicine, the specification of the anatomical characters is relevant to describe the species.

  5. Compared leaf anatomy of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae) species from Brazilian flood plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catian, G; Scremin-Dias, E

    2013-11-01

    Nymphaea has seven species already catalogued in the flood prone areas of the Brazilian Pantanal. However, some species remain difficult to identify and descriptions of the anatomy of vegetative organs are an important tool for infrageneric separation to aid in group taxonomy. The species collected in the Pantanal and prepared according to the usual techniques for anatomical studies showed similar structural characteristics, and data on the arrangement of vascular bundles in the midrib and petiole, as well as the form and distribution of sclereids, were consistent. Nymphaea oxypetala stands out from the other evaluated species for having a greater number of differential characters, including angular collenchyma and the absence of bicollateral bundles in the petiole. Nymphaea lingulata stands out as the only species to feature bicollateral bundles in the leaf blade. The results, summarised in the dichotomous key, facilitate the identification of species that use the flower as the main differentiation, but are in a vegetative stage.

  6. Compared leaf anatomy of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae species from Brazilian flood plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Catian

    Full Text Available Nymphaea has seven species already catalogued in the flood prone areas of the Brazilian Pantanal. However, some species remain difficult to identify and descriptions of the anatomy of vegetative organs are an important tool for infrageneric separation to aid in group taxonomy. The species collected in the Pantanal and prepared according to the usual techniques for anatomical studies showed similar structural characteristics, and data on the arrangement of vascular bundles in the midrib and petiole, as well as the form and distribution of sclereids, were consistent. Nymphaea oxypetala stands out from the other evaluated species for having a greater number of differential characters, including angular collenchyma and the absence of bicollateral bundles in the petiole. Nymphaea lingulata stands out as the only species to feature bicollateral bundles in the leaf blade. The results, summarised in the dichotomous key, facilitate the identification of species that use the flower as the main differentiation, but are in a vegetative stage.

  7. Pharmacognosy of nepeta cataria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M; Rashmi, R; Vikramaditya; Varma, P N

    1995-04-01

    Nepeta cataria Linn (Family Labiatae), commonly known as catnip, is a herbaceous plant and is a native of southeast Europe, Orient, Southwest Asia and Western temperate Himalayas. Leaves and flowering tops, which contain tannin and volatile oil are aromatic, carminative, tonic, diaphoretic, refrigerant, emmenagogue, antiseptic, stimulant and useful in infantile colic and hysteria. Leaves are deltoid-oval with double layers of palisade, petiole about as long as blade, arc shaped in t.s., having vascular bundle flanked by 2 smaller bundles in two projection; stem hollow in the middle; leaves, petioles and stems contain glandular and uniseriate, multicellular non glandular hairs; TLC of alcoholic extract in Benzene: Chloroform (1:1) shows 8 spots and UV absorbance shows strong peak at 212 nm; extractive values and ash values were also determined.

  8. PHARMACOGNOSY OF NEPETA CATARIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Manisha; Rashmi, Rajat; Vikramaditya; Varma, P N

    1995-01-01

    Nepeta cataria Linn (Family Labiatae), commonly known as catnip, is a herbaceous plant and is a native of southeast Europe, Orient, Southwest Asia and Western temperate Himalayas. Leaves and flowering tops, which contain tannin and volatile oil are aromatic, carminative, tonic, diaphoretic, refrigerant, emmenagogue, antiseptic, stimulant and useful in infantile colic and hysteria. Leaves are deltoid-oval with double layers of palisade, petiole about as long as blade, arc shaped in t.s., having vascular bundle flanked by 2 smaller bundles in two projection; stem hollow in the middle; leaves, petioles and stems contain glandular and uniseriate, multicellular non glandular hairs; TLC of alcoholic extract in Benzene: Chloroform (1:1) shows 8 spots and UV absorbance shows strong peak at 212 nm; extractive values and ash values were also determined. PMID:22556702

  9. Anatomy of Begonia lucernae Wettst. (Begoniaceae leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents anatomical aspects concerning the leaf structure of Begonia lucernae Wettst. belonging to Begoniaceae family. Anatomically, the petiole has a unistratous epidermis and a differentiated mesophyll. The vascular system is fascicular type with a large number of collateral bundles placed into a basic tissue. The lamina is composed of an upper and a lower epidermis and hypodermis as well and the mesophyll. The mesophyll differentiated into palisade tissue and spongy tissue with the same vascular bundle structure such as those of the petiole but with foliar arrangement of the conductive tissues. Stomata are present to the lower epidermis. Paradermal section discloses stright walls epidermal cells and anisocytic stomata. It was calculated the number of stomata/mm2 of leaf surface and the stomatal index as well.

  10. Breeding of Japanese butterbur (Petasites japonicus) by using flowerhead culture

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Yuzuri

    2009-01-01

    Japanese butterbur (Petasites japonicus) is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Compositae. The petioles are used mainly as a human food source, and ‘Aichi-Wase-Fuki,’ the most widely grown cultivar, is triploid and propagated vegetatively. Growth problems have been caused by three types of wide-spreading virus, arabis mosaic virus, butterbur mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus in Osaka Prefecture. To establish efficient mass propagation of virus-free plants, adventitious buds we...

  11. Biplot analysis of trait relations of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in growing winter spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. in Iran is increasing due to its good nutritional potential returns relative to other vegetable crops. The objectives of this research were to investigate the interrelationships among different traits of spinach and to evaluate different Iranian spinach landraces with application of the genotype × trait (GT biplot methodology in visualizing research data. 81 spinach landraces were grown during 2-years according to randomized complete block design with four replications. Ranking of the genotypes based on the ideal entry revealed that genotypes G1, G20, G7, G8, G9, G27, G49 G70 and G79 were higher in the measured traits and could be good candidates for improving most of the measured traits. Ranking of traits for the leaf yield showed that petiole diameter, petiole length, leaf numbers at flowering, 1000-seed weight and root dry weight were the most discriminating traits which influence spinach leaf yield at both years. There were 9 winning genotypes and 4 which-won-where patterns at the first year while there were 8 winning genotypes and 4 which-won-where patterns at the second year. As a result, the findings from our study are as follows: (i traits leaf numbers at flowering, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, petiole diameter and petiole length could be as selection indices for spinach leaf yield improvement, (ii genotypes G1, G20, G7, G8, G9, G27, G49 G70, and G79 were the most favorable and is thus recommended for commercial release or incorporating in breeding programs; (iii the GT biplot method can be used to identify superior genotypes in other crops and in other parts of the world.

  12. Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Batuman, O; Kuo, Y.-W.; Palmieri, M; Rojas, M. R.; Gilbertson, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as ?mancha de chocolate? (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased tissu...

  13. Susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam, Dinotefuran and Flupyradifurone in South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh A. Smith; Curtis A. Nagle; MacVean, Charles A.; Cindy L. McKenzie

    2016-01-01

    Populations of Bemisa tabaci MEAM1 were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone. Eleven populations produced LC50s for one or more chemicals that were not significantly different from the susceptible laboratory colony based on overlapping fiduc...

  14. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A foliage leaf is an appendage of the axis on which it is borne. It is organically united with the stem by a base, its blade or lamina must be adjusted to sunlight and wind for which a flexible stalk or petiole is necessary. The leaf must also afford protection to its close associate, the axillary bud, in its early stages of development ...

  15. 40 CFR 180.482 - Tebufenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stem, subgroup 5A 5.0 Brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B 10.0 Canola, refined oil 4.0 Canola, seed 2.0 Citrus, oil 15.0 Cotton 1.5 Cotton, gin byproducts 30 Cranberry 1.0 Fruit, citrus, group 10 0.80 Fruit, pome 1.5 Grape 3.0 Kiwifruit 1 0.5 Leaf petioles subgroup 4B 2.0 Leafy greens subgroup 4A 10.0 Nut...

  16. Environmental Impact Study of The Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    COMPOSITAE (Continued) IGrindelia qurrs Curlycup-gumweed Helianthus occidentczlisI Wes tern sunflower Heli- anthus petiolarus Petioled sunflower P He iopsis he...dichotomiftorm Spreading witch grass P Pania= virgatwn Switch grass P Phalaris arundinacea Canary grass Poa palustris Fowl meadow-grass P Poa pratensis Blue grass...Herbs Yellow jewelweed. Impatiens pillida Kentucky bluegrass Poa Nettle Urtica procera pratensis Sweet cicely 03z:ohiza sp. I A-44 Table 3. Vegetation of

  17. Analysis of the Variation Potential Induced by Wounding in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    G., Roblin; Universite de Poitiers, Station Biologique de Beau-Site

    1985-01-01

    Following burning of a leaf portion, a bioelectrical wave called "variation potential" spread throughout the whole plant. Bioelectrical variations are recorded by two types of electrodes (platinum wires and Ag/AgCl nonpolarizable electrodes) in the stem of Vicia faba and in the petiole of Lycopersicon esculentum and Mimosa pudica. The time course of the variation potential thus recorded can be divided into two components respectrvely called components "A" and "B". Component A looks like a neg...

  18. Assessing quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker in Brassica napus (oilseed rape in young plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ju Huang

    Full Text Available Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH lines A30 (susceptible and C119 (with quantitative resistance, quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases.

  19. A new Late Devonian genus with seed plant affinities

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le

    2015-01-01

    Background Many ovules of Late Devonian (Famennian) seed plants have been well studied. However, because few taxa occur with anatomically preserved stems and/or petioles, the vascular system of these earliest spermatophytes is little understood and available data come mostly from Euramerica. There remains great controversy over the anatomical differentiation of Late Devonian and Carboniferous seed plant groups of Buteoxylonales, Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales. Protostele evolution of the...

  20. Sclerotium Rot of Cyclamen europaeum Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon; Heung-Su Lee; Jinwoo Kim; Won-Il Kim; Hong-Sik Shim; Shun-Shan Shen

    2014-01-01

    Sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii occurred on Cyclamen europaeum grown at the experimental greenhouse of Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services in April 2013. Infected plants showed water-soaked appearance, wilting, and rotting; severely infected plants eventually died. White mycelial mats spread over lesions, and sclerotia were formed on leaves, petioles, and flower stalks near soil line. On the basis of mycological characteristics, ITS rDNA seque...

  1. Assessing quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) in Brassica napus (oilseed rape) in young plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J; Fitt, Bruce D L

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases.

  2. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengke eTian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied Zn formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by ICP-MS, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower pertioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant GroZyme resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using µ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.

  3. A new species of eriophyoid mite (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Rosa sp. from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druciarek, Tobiasz; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-15

    A new species of eriophyoid mite from a hybrid of Rosa sp. (Rosaceae) found in Israel is described and illustrated. Eriophyes eremus n. sp. is a refuge-seeking type mite, inhabiting flower buds and petiole bases, causing no apparent damage to the host plant. Eighteen eriophyoid species are known to inhabit Rosa sp. and those are listed here along with type localities, damage they cause and host plant details.

  4. Natural variation of submergence tolerance among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vashisht, D.; Hesselink, A.; Pierik, R.

    2011-01-01

    in the dark. Survival curves were plotted to estimate median lethal times as a measure of tolerance. Flooding-associated survival parameters, such as root and shoot oxygen content, initial carbohydrate content and petiole elongation under water, were also measured. • There was a significant variation....... • Arabidopsis accessions show considerable variation in the ability to tolerate complete submergence, making it a good species in which to identify and characterize genes and to study mechanisms that contribute to survival under water....

  5. Release and Establishment of Sameodes albiguttalis for Biological Control of Waterhyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    phytophagous species such as spider mites , waterhyacinth mites , army worms, Neochetina sp., thrips, etc., which are likely to be introduced on field-collected...petioles which originally contained the larvae and pupae were found, however, but no signs of .. aZbi,7ttaZi feeding or larvae were evident. Red spider mite ...preliminary work was conducted by the USDA laboratory staff in Hurlingham, Argentina. Approximately 40 species of insects and mites were subsequently

  6. Tradeoff between Stem Hydraulic Efficiency and Mechanical Strength Affects Leaf-Stem Allometry in 28 Ficus Tree Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ze-Xin; Sterck, Frank; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Fu, Pei-Li; Hao, Guang-You

    2017-01-01

    Leaf-stem allometry is an important spectrum that linked to biomass allocation and life history strategy in plants, although the determinants and evolutionary significance of leaf-stem allometry remain poorly understood. Leaf and stem architectures - including stem area/mass, petiole area/mass, lamina area/mass, leaf number, specific leaf area (LA), and mass-based leafing intensity (LI) - were measured on the current-year branches for 28 Ficus species growing in a common garden in SW China. The leaf anatomical traits, stem wood density (WD), and stem anatomical and mechanical properties of these species were also measured. We analyzed leaf-stem allometric relationships and their associations with stem hydraulic ad mechanical properties using species-level data and phylogenetically independent contrasts. We found isometric relationship between leaf lamina area/mass and stem area/mass, suggesting that the biomass allocation to leaf was independent to stem size. However, allometric relationship between LA/mass and petiole mass was found, indicating large leaves invest a higher fractional of biomass in petiole than small ones. LI, i.e., leaf numbers per unit of stem mass, was negatively related with leaf and stem size. Species with larger terminal branches tend to have larger vessels and theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but lower WD and mechanical strength. The size of leaf lamina, petiole, and stem was correlated positively with stem theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but negatively with stem WD and mechanical strength. Our results suggest that leaf-stem allometry in Ficus species was shaped by the trade-off between stem hydraulic efficiency and mechanical stability, supporting a functional interpretation of the relationship between leaf and stem dimensions.

  7. Anatomy of Begonia lucernae Wettst. (Begoniaceae) leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica BERCU

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents anatomical aspects concerning the leaf structure of Begonia lucernae Wettst. belonging to Begoniaceae family. Anatomically, the petiole has a unistratous epidermis and a differentiated mesophyll. The vascular system is fascicular type with a large number of collateral bundles placed into a basic tissue. The lamina is composed of an upper and a lower epidermis and hypodermis as well and the mesophyll. The mesophyll differentiated into palisade tissue and spongy tissue with t...

  8. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  9. Effect of reduced light and low oxygen concentration on germination, growth and establishment of some plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yasin, Muhammad

    Many abiotic factors effect plants germination, growth, and development. This Ph.D. study elucidates the effect of reduced light, low oxygen and seed dormancy on germination and growth of some weed species, field crops and vegetables. One study describes the growth and developmental responses of ...... improved the germination of the problematic invader Alliaria petiolate of North American forests. A method was developed to break seed dormancy of the herb garlic mustard using chemicals....

  10. Tradeoff between Stem Hydraulic Efficiency and Mechanical Strength Affects Leaf–Stem Allometry in 28 Ficus Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Xin Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf–stem allometry is an important spectrum that linked to biomass allocation and life history strategy in plants, although the determinants and evolutionary significance of leaf–stem allometry remain poorly understood. Leaf and stem architectures – including stem area/mass, petiole area/mass, lamina area/mass, leaf number, specific leaf area (LA, and mass-based leafing intensity (LI – were measured on the current-year branches for 28 Ficus species growing in a common garden in SW China. The leaf anatomical traits, stem wood density (WD, and stem anatomical and mechanical properties of these species were also measured. We analyzed leaf–stem allometric relationships and their associations with stem hydraulic ad mechanical properties using species-level data and phylogenetically independent contrasts. We found isometric relationship between leaf lamina area/mass and stem area/mass, suggesting that the biomass allocation to leaf was independent to stem size. However, allometric relationship between LA/mass and petiole mass was found, indicating large leaves invest a higher fractional of biomass in petiole than small ones. LI, i.e., leaf numbers per unit of stem mass, was negatively related with leaf and stem size. Species with larger terminal branches tend to have larger vessels and theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but lower WD and mechanical strength. The size of leaf lamina, petiole, and stem was correlated positively with stem theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but negatively with stem WD and mechanical strength. Our results suggest that leaf–stem allometry in Ficus species was shaped by the trade-off between stem hydraulic efficiency and mechanical stability, supporting a functional interpretation of the relationship between leaf and stem dimensions.

  11. Identification among morphologically similar Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) based on leaf anatomy and phenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traiperm, Paweena; Chow, Janene; Nopun, Possathorn; Staples, G; Swangpol, Sasivimon C

    2017-12-01

    The genus Argyreia Lour. is one of the species-rich Asian genera in the family Convolvulaceae. Several species complexes were recognized in which taxon delimitation was imprecise, especially when examining herbarium materials without fully developed open flowers. The main goal of this study is to investigate and describe leaf anatomy for some morphologically similar Argyreia using epidermal peeling, leaf and petiole transverse sections, and scanning electron microscopy. Phenetic analyses including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to investigate the similarity of these morpho-types. Anatomical differences observed between the morpho-types include epidermal cell walls and the trichome types on the leaf epidermis. Additional differences in the leaf and petiole transverse sections include the epidermal cell shape of the adaxial leaf blade, the leaf margins, and the petiole transverse sectional outline. The phenogram from cluster analysis using the UPGMA method represented four groups with an R value of 0.87. Moreover, the important quantitative and qualitative leaf anatomical traits of the four groups were confirmed by the principal component analysis of the first two components. The results from phenetic analyses confirmed the anatomical differentiation between the morpho-types. Leaf anatomical features regarded as particularly informative for morpho-type differentiation can be used to supplement macro morphological identification.

  12. Are leaves 'freewheelin'? Testing for a wheeler-type effect in leaf xylem hydraulic decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffoni, Christine; Sack, Lawren

    2015-03-01

    A recent study found that cutting shoots under water while xylem was under tension (which has been the standard protocol for the past few decades) could produce artefactual embolisms inside the xylem, overestimating hydraulic vulnerability relative to shoots cut under water after relaxing xylem tension (Wheeler et al. 2013). That study also raised the possibility that such a 'Wheeler effect' might occur in studies of leaf hydraulic vulnerability. We tested for such an effect for four species by applying a modified vacuum pump method to leaves with minor veins severed, to construct leaf xylem hydraulic vulnerability curves. We tested for an impact on leaf xylem hydraulic conductance (Kx ) of cutting the petiole and minor veins under water for dehydrated leaves with xylem under tension compared with dehydrated leaves after previously relaxing xylem tension. Our results showed no significant 'cutting artefact' for leaf xylem. The lack of an effect for leaves could not be explained by narrower or shorter xylem conduits, and may be due to lesser mechanical stress imposed when cutting leaf petioles, and/or to rapid refilling of emboli in petioles. These findings provide the first validation of previous measurements of leaf hydraulic vulnerability against this potential artefact. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE VEGETATIVE ORGANS OF TEN AQUILEGIA L. SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Krokhmal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of patterns in the functional morphology of the vegetative organs of plants in new conditions allows to determine traits that are important in adaptation and to predict success of introduction of species in the Ukrainian steppe zone. We analysed the functional morphology of the vegetative organs of 10 Aquilegia L. species having applied methods widely used in anatomy, morphology and ecology. The groups of species were compared on the basis of their eco-geographical origin using ANOVA test, as a result of which, we found out diagnostic features of a successful adaptation of some of them. These features are a large volume of the root system, a greater thickness of the hypocotyl, a larger petiole xylem area of the leaf and a higher stomatal index. A diagnostic trait of successful adaptation of species is a smaller value of the ratio of the petiole diameter to its length in comparison with other researched species. Our search for dependencies and determination of their degree revealed that plant biomass, in particular of its above-ground part, and plant petiole parameters (diameter, the area of its cross-section and of its xylem, quantity of the conducting bundles correlate with the volume of the root system and with the hypocotyl thickness. We analyzed 52 morphological and anatomical attributes of species of the genus Aquilegia and 9 climatic factors of their natural habitat. It was detected that ecological and geographical origin of the species affects the anatomical and morphological characteristics of their vegetative organs.

  14. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development by PHANTASTICA in Medicago truncatula1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liangfa; Peng, Jianling; Berbel, Ana; Madueño, Francisco; Chen, Rujin

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves, simple or compound, initiate as peg-like structures from the peripheral zone of the shoot apical meristem, which requires class I KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOXI (KNOXI) transcription factors to maintain its activity. The MYB domain protein encoded by the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1/ROUGH SHEATH2/PHANTASTICA (ARP) gene, together with other factors, excludes KNOXI gene expression from incipient leaf primordia to initiate leaves and specify leaf adaxial identity. However, the regulatory relationship between ARP and KNOXI is more complex in compound-leafed species. Here, we investigated the role of ARP and KNOXI genes in compound leaf development in Medicago truncatula. We show that the M. truncatula phantastica mutant exhibited severe compound leaf defects, including curling and deep serration of leaf margins, shortened petioles, increased rachises, petioles acquiring motor organ characteristics, and ectopic development of petiolules. On the other hand, the M. truncatula brevipedicellus mutant did not exhibit visible compound leaf defects. Our analyses show that the altered petiole development requires ectopic expression of ELONGATED PETIOLULE1, which encodes a lateral organ boundary domain protein, and that the distal margin serration requires the auxin efflux protein M. truncatula PIN-FORMED10 in the M. truncatula phantastica mutant. PMID:24218492

  15. USE OF COW URINE FOR TABLE BEET CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Licínio Campos de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cow's urine can be regarded as a by-product of the dairy activity and has been used successfully in some cultures. The work aimed to evaluate the effect of cow's urine on growth and production of table beetroot grown in soil with high fertility. The experiment was made up of 12 treatments, split-plots scheme, randomized block design, with four repetitions. On the plots were allocated the means of application of cow's urine (foliar and soil and in split-plots, concentrations of solutions from cow's urine (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%. The following parameters were evaluated: the nitrogen state (SPAD; number of leaves; leaf area; fresh matter and dry matter of limbo, petiole and tuberous roots and absorbent; total soluble solids (Brix and yield of commercial tuberous roots. There was no significant interaction between means x concentration application on the characteristics evaluated. Linear increments were observed of the urine concentrations to: leaf area, dry matter mass of limbo and fresh and dry materials of petiole. Application via soil compared to leaves applications, provided greater mass of dry matter in limbo, fresh and dry matter of petiole and dry absorbent roots. The SPAD index was not influenced by concentration or via application, however presented linear increment over the crop cycle. The results obtained show that the effect of cow's urine stimulating growth cannot be attributed solely to the supply of nutrients to the plants.

  16. Preliminary phytochemical screening and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Philippine taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. PSB-VG #9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebosada, Richemae Grace R.; Librando, Ivy L.

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anti-hyperglycemic property in terms of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the various parts (corm, leaf and petiole) of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. PSB-VG #9. Each of the plant parts were extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated using a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. The crude extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides and saponins using Thin Layer Chromatography. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the crude extracts (50 mg/L) were assayed spectrophotometrically using a microplate reader. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins in the leaf part while flavonoids and saponins were detected in the petiole and only saponins were present in the corm. The assay showed that the percentage α-glucosidase inhibition of the 50 mg/L ethanolic crude extract of the corm, leaves and petiole of C. esculenta are 68.03, 71.64 and 71.39%, respectively. Statistical analysis shows significant differences in the α-glucosidase inhibition among the various plant parts. It can be concluded that the ethanolic crude extracts of the different parts of C. esculenta (L.) Schott var. PSB-VG #9 exhibited inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and the presence of phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract and can be further subjected for isolation of the therapeutically active compounds with antidiabetes potency.

  17. Growth in Tree Nursery of Oil Palms Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensisand Elaeis guineensis x Elaeis guineensis in Tumaco, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizardo Norbey Ibarra Ruales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the growth in tree nursery of perennial plant species is important in order to develop good agronomical practices for the selection of the plants that will be taken to the fields. This information is required for the hybrids OxG of oil palms under the conditions of the palm growing Colombian region. In two soils with different moisture retention and air space, the growth and development in nursery of hybrid oil palms OxG F1 (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis and Tenera DxP (Elaeis guineensis x Elaeis guineensis were evaluated. Plants of OxG material were larger and accumulated more biomass in most of its constituent bodies in comparison with plants of DxP material. Likewise, both plants were quite different in the order of preference distribution and accumulation of assimilated species at the petiole basis, stem and petiole. In comparison with DxP, the OxG material showed the differential characteristic to allocate more of their assimilated species growth the plant root system. Moreover, it was determined that OxG plants exhibit better growth and development compared with DxP plants in nursery stage with high moisture retention and low aeration soils. Additionally, we identified and selected three morphological features with discriminatory authority to differentiate the growth behavior of the two types of oil palms regarding the soil used in the nursery: section area of the petiole (PxS, rachis length (RL and leaf emission (LE.

  18. Stereochemical diversity in lignan biosynthesis of Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shiro; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Shimada, Mikio

    2002-06-01

    The stereochemistry of lignan biosynthesis in Arctium lappa L. is regulated organ-specifically. (+)-Secoisolariciresinol [81% enantiomeric excess (e.e.)] was isolated from A. lappa petioles. In sharp contrast, lignans whose predominant enantiomers have the opposite absolute configuration to that of (+)-secoisolariciresinol [i.e., (-)-matairesinol (>99% e.e.), (-)-arctigenin (>99% e.e.), and (-)-secoisolariciresinol (65% e.e.)] were isolated from seeds of the species. The stereochemical diversity of secoisolariciresinol was demonstrated with enzyme preparations from A. lappa petioles and seeds. Thus, a petiole enzyme preparation catalyzed the formation of (+)-pinoresinol (33% e.e.), (+)-lariciresinol (30% e.e.), and (+)-secoisolariciresinol (20% e.e.) from achiral coniferyl alcohol in the presence of NADPH and H202, whereas that from ripening seeds catalyzed the formation of (-)-pinoresinol (22% e.e.), (-)-lariciresinol (>99% e.e.), and (-)-secoisolariciresinol (38% e.e.) under the same conditions. In addition, the ripening seed enzyme preparation mediated the selective formation of the optically pure (>99% e.e.) (-)-enantiomer of matairesinol from racemic (+/-)-secoisolariciresinols in the presence of NADP. These results indicate that the stereochemical mechanism for lignan biosynthesis in A. lappa varies with organs, suggesting that multiple lignan-synthesizing isozymes are involved in the stereochemical control of lignan formation in A. lappa.

  19. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  20. Oil palm frond juice as future fermentation substrate: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maail, Che Mohd Hakiman Che; Ariffin, Hidayah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm frond (OPF) juice is a potential industrial fermentation substrate as it has high sugars content and the OPF are readily available daily. However, maximum sugars yield and storage stability of the OPF juice are yet to be determined. This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical pretreatment and storage duration of OPF petiole on sugars yield. Storage stability of OPF juice at different storing conditions was also investigated. It was found that OPF petiole squeezed by hydraulic pressing machine gave the highest sugars recovery at almost 40 g/kg, accounting for a recovery yield of 88%. Storage of OPF petiole up to 72 hrs prior to squeezing reduced the free sugars by 11 g/kg. Concentrated OPF juice with 95% water removal had the best storage stability at both 4 and 30°C, when it was stored for 10 days. Moreover, concentrated OPF syrup prepared by thermal processing did not give any Maillard effect on microbial growth. Based on our results, OPF juice meets all the criteria as a good fermentation substrate as it is renewable, consistently available, and easy to be obtained, it does not inhibit microbial growth and product formation, and it contains no impurities.

  1. Oil Palm Frond Juice as Future Fermentation Substrate: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Mohd Hakiman Che Maail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF juice is a potential industrial fermentation substrate as it has high sugars content and the OPF are readily available daily. However, maximum sugars yield and storage stability of the OPF juice are yet to be determined. This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical pretreatment and storage duration of OPF petiole on sugars yield. Storage stability of OPF juice at different storing conditions was also investigated. It was found that OPF petiole squeezed by hydraulic pressing machine gave the highest sugars recovery at almost 40 g/kg, accounting for a recovery yield of 88%. Storage of OPF petiole up to 72 hrs prior to squeezing reduced the free sugars by 11 g/kg. Concentrated OPF juice with 95% water removal had the best storage stability at both 4 and 30°C, when it was stored for 10 days. Moreover, concentrated OPF syrup prepared by thermal processing did not give any Maillard effect on microbial growth. Based on our results, OPF juice meets all the criteria as a good fermentation substrate as it is renewable, consistently available, and easy to be obtained, it does not inhibit microbial growth and product formation, and it contains no impurities.

  2. Leaf anatomy characterization of Coffea arabica plants at different seasonal periods

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    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the hindering factors for coffee plant growth and yield. This study aimed to analyze the anatomy of leaves grown during the rainy and dry seasons in nine Coffea arabica L. plants, previously described as tolerant or sensitive to water deicit, in order to identify structural features of drought tolerance. We measured the size and density of stomata and epidermal cells, the thickness of epidermis and mesophyll, the diameter of petiole and midrib, the thickness of phloem and xylem in the midrib and petiole, and the diameter and frequency of elements of xylem vessels. Differences observed between the leaf structure of coffee plants evaluated and the leaf growth conditions (rainy and dry seasons indicated that there is a favorable anatomical plasticity regarding drought conditions. Thicker palisade parenchyma and total limbo, larger radii of phloem and xylem in the petiole and midrib were considered as favorable structural features to cope with water scarcity and they could be used as criteria to select drought-resistant cultivars. The following coffee plants were considered as more adapted to drought: Geisha, Semperlorens, BA 10, IAC H 8105-7, IAC H 8421-2, and the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81.

  3. Embryogenic callus formation in Dioscorea rotundata Poir cv. `Blanco de Guinea'

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    Dayana Rodríguez González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yam contributes to energy and nutritional requirements of most of the population of developing countries. However, their extensive culture is constrained by the limited availability of planting material with physiological and sanitary quality, and also part of the harvesting is used as seed in the next planting. For this reason, it is necessary to establish a methodology for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis could facilitate their micropropagation and genetic improvement. This study aimed to form embryogenic callus in Dioscorea rotundata Poir cv. `White Guinea'. The effect of the addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D (0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 was determined, in combination with three types of explants from in vitro plants (leaves petiole, petiole segments and root sections. The highest percentage of embryogenic callus was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 2,4-D and leaves with petiole as explants. These were characterized by the presence of compact whitish nodules. Key words: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, somatic embryogenesis, micropropagation, yam

  4. Rare, threatened and relict species in flora of SNR Zasavica

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    Stanković, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In group of biodiversity important plant species there are 23 taxa. 20 taxa are mentioned in „Preliminary Red List of flora of Serbia and Montenegro with IUCN 2001 Conservation Statuses“ in following categories: two as critically endangered (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. and Hottonia palustris L., four as endangered (Hippuris vulgaris L., Lindernia palustris Hartm., Ranunculus lingua L. and Urtica kioviensis Rogow., five as vulnerable (Achillea aspleniifolia Vent., Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill. H. P. Fuchs, Leucojum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, Stratiotes aloides L. and Thelypteris palustris (Schott subsp.palustris, while 9 are with indefinite categories (CR-VU, due to data deficient (DD. Special Nature Reserve „Zasavica“ is the only habitat in Serbia for Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., which was until 2005. considered as extinct from Serbia.

  5. Regeneration and growth rates of allofragments in four common stream plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Madsen, Tom Vindbæk; Sennels, R. S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Colonisation by stream plants occurs to a large extent from simple stem fragments. Allofragments are stem fragments formed by mechanical breakage. We studied regeneration, colonisation, and growth rates in four common stream plants: Elodea canadensis Michx., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Potamogeton...... perfoliatus L. and Ranunculus baudotii x pseudofluitans. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) if shoots with an apical tip have higher regeneration (growth of new shoots and rhizomes from allofragments) and colonisation (root attachment in sediment) abilities and higher relative growth rates...... (RGR) than shoots without an apical tip, and (2) if fragment size correlates with regeneration and colonisation abilities and with RGR of fragments. For all species, over 60% of fragments regenerated new shoots and colonised. Apical shoots and larger fragments generally had higher regeneration...

  6. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

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    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  7. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  8. Limnologic-geologic excursion in the territory of the lower Erft River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, G.; Thome, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    The geography and hydrology of the area of the excursion are described. There is much damage due to brown coal strip mining operations. Ground water was drained through a canal leading to the Erft River. The water in nearby springs is rich in Fe which repels plant life. The canal contains only a few blue algae (Oscillatoria splendida) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix tenerrima) which tolerate high Fe concentrations. The Erft shore plant population includes Sparganium erectum, Potamogeton natans, P. pectinatus and Ranunculus fluitans. On flowering plants and stones, diatoms, various green algae (Cladophora glomerata, Stigeoclonium tenue, Oedogonium capillare) and the tropical red alga Compsopogon hookeri were found. The macrozoobenthos is composed mainly of snails (Bithynia tenaculata, Lumnaea ovata, Physa fontinalis, P. acuta and worms of North American origin (Dugesia tifrina, Dendrocoelum lacteum and Planaria lugubris). The Isopoda included Asellus coxalis and A. aquaticus. Leeches (Herpobdella octoculata) and insect larvae (Chironomids, Limnephilids) were also found.

  9. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  10. Segetal plants of agricultural areas of Bolimów Primeial Forest lind its contemporary transformations

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    A. Urszula Warcholińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on segetal communities in Bolimów Primeval Forest carried out in the years 1981-1985. The analysis of 205 phytosociological records has allowed to distinguish 7 associations and 2 communities (Tables I-XIV. Among the most common communities on this area are: Teesdaleo-Arnoseridetum minimae and Digitarietum ischaemi. On the other hand, very rare communities include: Spergulo-Veronicetum dillenii, Papaveretum argemones, a community from Saxifraga tridactylites and a community from Ranunculus arvensis. The distinguished communities reflect the present state of the ecological productive potential, they represent specific types of the habitats of potential natural vegetation, and show a distinct relationship with definite habitat units - soil-agricultural complexes.

  11. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

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    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  12. Dispersal of plant fragments in small streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    ) in the exponential equation a suitable measure for comparisons among different macrophyte species, and between stream reaches of different hydrology and vegetation cover. 3. Buoyancy of macrophyte tissue influenced retention. Elodea canadensis stems drifted below the water surface, and were more inclined......1. Streams are subject to frequent natural and anthropogenic disturbances that cause sediment erosion and loss of submerged vegetation. This loss makes downstream transport and retention of vegetative propagules on the streambed very important for re-establishing vegetation cover. We measured...... to be retained in deeper water associated with submerged plants and obstacles in the streambed. Ranunculus peltatus stems were more buoyant, drifted at the water surface, and were more inclined to be trapped in shallow water and in riparian vegetation. 4. The retention coefficient of drifting stems increased...

  13. Edaphic and Phytochemical Factors as predictors of Equine Grass Sickness Cases in the UK

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    Sarah E Edwards

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Equine dysautonomia or equine grass sickness (EGS, as it is more commonly known, is a usually fatal disease of equids of uncertain aetiology, although associated with grazing, that affects the autonomic and enteric nervous system. Lowered gastro-intestinal motility, leading to paralysis of the gut, is one of the main symptoms of EGS. Previous studies have implicated anaerobic bacteria, notably Clostridium botulinum, but what triggers the severe bacterial infestations remains enigmatic. We hypothesized that a detailed comparison of soil mineral and botanical composition of EGS and control sites would yield new insights into the causation of the disease. Results: Between March 2007 and September 2008, soil, plant, and water samples from a total of 23 EGS sites and 11 control sites were studied. Metal and non-metal element levels of the soil and herbage samples were assessed. Significantly, EGS sites had higher levels of soil nitrogen, and significantly higher levels of iron, lead, arsenic and chromium in the herbage. Toxic Ranunculus spp. (buttercups were found in abundance at every EGS site, making ingestion plausible. Conversely, neurotoxin-producing cyanobacteria were not found in any of the water samples analysed. Conclusions: The significantly higher levels of iron and heavy metals found in herbage growing in EGS sites, in addition to toxic Ranunculus species, suggest that previously unknown triggers are involved in a multi-factorial EGS aetiology. Our results also show that cyanobacteria on the other hand, are unlikely to be a factor in EGS. Consequently, the concomitant presence of two (or more factors could be the trigger for an outbreak of EGS and the combination of both seems to be a key predictor.

  14. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [School of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Varun, Mayank; D' Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S. [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India)

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L{sup −1}. The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg{sup −1}) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg{sup −1}), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg{sup −1}), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg{sup −1}). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg{sup −1}). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg{sup −1}) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water.

  15. Biomass allocation to anchoring structures in the aquatic macrophytes from the subcontinental and Atlantic climates in Europe

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    Józef Szmeja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass allocation to anchoring structures in 10 species of aquatic macrophytes in two types of the cool and humid temperate climate in Europe, subcontionental (NW Poland and Atlantic (W France, was examined. The study focused on the weight of anchoring organs in Chara delicatula Ag., Ch. fragilis Desv., Juncus bulbosus L., Littorella uniflora (L. Asch., Luronium natans (L. Raf., Potamogeton pectinatus L., P. perfoliatus L., P. natans L. and Ranunculus fluitans (Lam. Wimm., as well as submerged structures in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. The plants were collected from 10 geographically distant lakes and 2 rivers with a current velocity of 0.3-0.5 m s-1. It was assumed that biomass allocation to anchoring structures in rooting macrophytes depends on the time that mechanical forces, which can remove the plants from the occupied area, exert their effect. It was found that, in the Atlantic and subcontinental climates, the ratio between the biomass of underground (or submerged and above-ground structures (U/A index, calculated for the ramets of Chara fragilis, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and Ranunculus fluitans, has similar values (p>0.05. Nevertheless, among seven species of Cormophyta, which were anchored in the lake or pond littoral, six (Juncus bulbosus, Littorella uniflora, Luronium natans, Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus and P. natans had higher values of the U/A index in the Atlantic climate than in the subcontinental type (p < 0.05. This can be explained by the lack of ice cover and, consequently, a longer time of wave action than in the subcontinental climate.

  16. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quevedo García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. The results allowed to obtain regression equations for estimating the leaf area and the limbo dry weight. Using the lineal models LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW and LA= b1+ b2LLL + b3LLW a leaf area equation was determined. Alternative models to calculate limbo dry weight were evaluated LLDW = -b1+ b2 LLFW and LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. The best equations found with an R2 of 0.99 were LA = 1.572 + 0.65169(LLL x LLW, LA=-23.106+2.8064LLW + 3.6761LLL and LLDW = -0.002+0.401(LLFW.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para determinar las variables que estimaran el área del limbo foliar y el peso seco del limbo de durazno Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Se seleccionaron cincuenta hojas con 2,5 meses de edad, fueron medidos: ancho del limbo, longitud del limbo, longitud del peciolo, longitud hoja, diámetro peciolo, peso fresco del limbo, peso fresco del peciolo, peso fresco de la hoja, peso seco del limbo, peso seco peciolo, peso seco de la hoja, longitud /ancho limbo, longitud del peciolo/longitud del limbo, área foliar del limbo. Los resultados alcanzados permitieron obtener ecuaciones de regresión para estimar el área foliar del limbo y el peso seco del limbo. Se halló una ecuación para la determinación del área foliar del limbo con los modelos lineales LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW y LA= b1 + b2LLL + b3LLW. También se evaluaron modelos alternativas para calcular el peso seco del limbo, LLDW = -b1+ b2LLFW y LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. Las mejores ecuaciones

  17. The current status of the Adriatic sea fish biodiversity

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    Jakov Dulčić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The marine biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is nowadays facing substantial structural changes in flora and fauna. Such changes were observed in the Adriatic Sea as well. During the last few decades, various factors including climate change, anthropogenic activity and lessepsian migration have altered the composition of Adriatic ichthyofauna. Furthermore, extensive investigations carried out in the last decades allowed us to recognize species previously not recorded or reported in this area. These changes are reflected in the number of species quoted in the checklist of Adriatic fishes, from 407 in 1996 (sensu Jardas, 1996 to 440 in 2010 (Agnatha 1, Elasmobranchii 52, Holocephali 1 and Actinopterygii 386 (sensu Lipej and Dulčić, 2010. The present updates for the period 2010-2014, were compiled from survey of relevant scientific papers and doctoral theses. Only those species which were reported and appropriately documented in scientific literature were taken into consideration. In the period of 2010-2014, twelve new fish species have been recorded in the Adriatic Sea such as Lobotes surinamensis, Siganus luridus, Paranthias furcifer, Holacanthus ciliaris, Elates ransonnetti, Enchelycore anatina, Caranx rhonchus, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Chrysiptera cyanea, Notoscopelus kroeyerii, Notoscopelus bolini and Dipturus nidaroniensis. These findings increase the number of fish species recorded in the Adriatic Sea to 452 (Elasmobranchii 53, Actinopterygii 397. Certain fish species were probably related to recent processes in the Adriatic Sea, such as bioinvasion and tropicalisation. Of the 14 Lessepsian migrants that were recorded in the Adriatic Sea, Fistularia commersonii and Siganus luridus proved to be successful invaders in its southern part. Some fish species were recorded for the very first time due to new research approaches and techniques in the area (e.g. cryptobenthic fish fauna.

  18. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

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    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  19. Immunosensor array platforms based on self-assembled dithiols for the electrochemical detection of tetrodotoxins in puffer fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverté, Laia; Campbell, Katrina; Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Elliott, Christopher T; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2017-10-09

    The recent detection of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) in European fish and shellfish has emphasized the urgent need to develop specific, selective, rapid and easy-to-use methods for their detection to assess the potential risk posed to human health. For this purpose, a dithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based immunoassay previously performed on maleimide plates (mELISA) has been adapted to gold electrode arrays for the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for TTX. The electrochemical SAM-based immunosensor designed herein, provided an oriented, stable and spaced sensing platform for the determination of TTX, attaining a limit of detection of 2.6 ng mL -1 . The applicability of the biosensor array was demonstrated by the accurate quantifications obtained in the analysis of different tissues of several puffer fish species (Lagocephalus lagocephalus, L. sceleratus and Sphoeroides pachygaster) caught along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. The good agreements found between the TTX concentrations determined by the immunosensor array platforms and those determined by mELISA, surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis, proved the feasibility of the approach. The electrochemical immunosensor enables the determination of TTXs at levels as low as 0.07 mg TTX equiv. kg -1 tissue, thus, well below the Japanese value of 2 mg TTX equiv. kg -1 tissue used as a criterion to consider puffer fish safe for consumption. Compared to the colorimetric SAM-based approach, the immunosensor array described herein shows promise towards the development of disposable, portable and compact analysis tools applicable in monitoring programs for the surveillance of fishery products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” (March 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LIPEJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This Collective Article presents information on 22 species belonging to 5 Phyla, arranged geographically from from west to east. The new records were found in 8 countries as follows: Spain: first record of the two scarcely known nemerteans Baseodiscus delineatus and Notospermus geniculatus in Formentera; Malta: second record of the alien fish Lagocephalus sceleratus; Italy: the alien polychaete Syllis pectinans and the isopod Paranthura japonica, as well as the cryptogenic opisthobranch Anteaeolidiella lurana, were found in the fouling assemblages along the docks of the port of Livorno. New decapod records are reported from Sicily (the alien Callinectes sapidus and the native Pachygrapsus maurus and Apulia (Percnon gibbosus and Procambarus clarkii; the lesser amberjack Seriola fasciata extended its geographical range to the Egadi Isands and Siganus luridus was documented for the first time along the Ionian coasts of Apulia and Calabria. Slovenia: the first record of the alien bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis is reported, together with a survey of up to date Adriatic records. Greece: the first record of the gastropod Rhinoclavis kochi is reported from Gavdos island. In addition, two records of endangered and rare cartilaginous fish were reported, namely, the shark Hexanchus griseus and the ray Leucoraja fullonica, as well as additional records of Siganus luridus for Lesvos and Malleus regula and Fulvia fragilis from Astypalaia. Turkey: the black wing flyingfish Hirundichthys rondeletii is reported for the very first time from the Black Sea. Egypt: the Indo-Pacific crab Halimede ochtodes is reported as established in Port Said. In addition, biometric parameters and meristic counts are reported for Anthias anthias in Damietta. Cyprus: the alien opisthobranch gastropod Bursatella leachii is reported for first time.

  1. Microbiological Horticultural Internship Final Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shane R.; Spencer, Lashelle (Editor)

    2017-01-01

    GMO dwarf plum (Prunus domestica) is being evaluated as a candidate food crop for long duration space flight missions. A project was undertaken to develop a protocol for transferring selected genetic lines of GMO plum (previously maintained in pots and propagated by cuttings at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida) into in vitro tissue culture. In vitro culture may reduce the space, materials, and labor required to maintain the current lines of GMO plum and better preserve them for future study. Fresh plant material from three selected GMO plum lines (NASA-5, NASA-10, and NASA-11) and a non-modified control line (Control-5) were processed aseptically into in vitro culture on four separate occasions. The impact of multiple treatments on the successful growth of GMO plum tissue in vitro were tested: Parent explant tissue type (leaf petioles, stem nodes containing buds and internodes without buds), tissue sterilization method [soaking in 10 bleach only (5 min for petioles or 10 min for nodesinternodes), or soaking in 70 EtOH (30 sec) followed by 10 bleach (5 min for petioles and 10 min for nodesinternodes)], and media type [three Murashige and Skoog-based medias (SGM, SRM, and SRM+2,4-D) and one recipe containing woody plant media (WPM)]. 22.2 of the plates containing tissue sterilized with bleach alone developed microbial contamination after two weeks, while only 11.8 of plates containing tissue sterilized sequentially with EtOH and bleach developed contamination. Node bud tissue from all four genetic lines of plum produced leafy plantlets on SGM and SRM media after 4-6 weeks. The most numerous and well-developed plantlets were present on SGM. Upon reaching suitable size, plantlets were transferred to larger media containers for further growth. Some node bud growth occurred on SRM+2,4-D and WPM 2.5 weeks after plating, however as of yet no pieces on SRM+2,4-D have adequate development for transferring. Tissue pieces from NASA-5 plated on WPM are developing leaves

  2. COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA E DIGESTIBILIDADE DA PORNUNÇA SOB DUAS FONTES DE ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA E CORTES

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    FRANCISCO HUGO HERMÓGENES DE ALENCAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this Study was to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizer and cuts on the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of the air pornunça biomass. The experimental design of randomized blocks in a split plot with four courts, two fertilization, and four replications. The cuts were made in February, June and October 2011 and February 2012. The fertilizer was with cattle and sheep manure, applied in May 2010 and March 2011 in the amount of 20 Mg ha-1 . We evaluated the structural components of the shoot, such as leaf blade, petiole, branch and full (leaf blade and petiole more branch of pornunça. The manure beef and lamb did not influence (P>0.05 the chemical composition of the structural components of the shoot. Differences were noted between the cuts, except for dry matter (DM of the leaf blade and the full component of ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HC. There was a significant (P<0.05 for the in vitro digestibility of the MS of the structural components in different cuts, with the highest digestibility for structural components in the cut made in February 2011. Lower crude protein was found in the petiole and components branch. The pornunça should be considered as an alternative food for animals according to the chemical composition of the values presented in this study, with the leaf surface of the plant part that presents the best nutritional value.

  3. Assessment of the process of movement of Xylella fastidiosa within susceptible and resistant grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, C; Lindow, S E

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the processes contributing to symptoms and resistance to Pierce's disease of grape, we examined the movement and multiplication of a green fluorescent protein-marked strain of Xylella fastidiosa in the stems and petioles of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chenin Blanc, Roucaneuf, and Tampa grape cultivars that differ in their susceptibility to this disease. X. fastidiosa achieved much lower population sizes and colonized fewer xylem vessels in the stem of resistant cultivars compared with more susceptible cultivars. In contrast, X. fastidiosa achieved similarly high population sizes and colonized a similar proportion of the vessels in petioles of susceptible and resistant cultivars, suggesting that, compared with the stem, X. fastidiosa is relatively unrestricted in its movement and growth within the petiole. There was not a direct relationship between the population size of X. fastidiosa in the stem and the proportion of vessels colonized; a much higher population size of the pathogen was observed in susceptible cultivars than expected based on the proportion of vessels colonized. The high population sizes of X. fastidiosa in stems of susceptible genotypes were associated with both a high number of infected vessels and a much higher extent of colonization of those vessels that become infested than in more resistant cultivars. The formation of large cellular aggregates in vessels is not required for X. fastidiosa to move laterally in the stem to adjacent vessels because most vessels harbored only small assemblages, especially in resistant cultivars such as Roucaneuf, in which some intervessel movement was detected. Resistance to Pierce's disease is apparently not due to inhibitory compounds that circulate in the xylem because they might be expected to operate similarly in all tissues.

  4. Disruption of the Polar Auxin Transport System in Cotton Seedlings following Treatment with the Defoliant Thidiazuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Jeffrey C.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (TDZ) on basipetal auxin transport in petiole segments isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102) seedlings was examined using the donor/receiver agar block technique. Treatment of intact seedlings with TDZ at concentrations of 1 micromolar or greater resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of 14C-IAA transport in petiole segments isolated 1 or 2 days after treatment. Using 100 micromolar TDZ, the inhibition was detectable 19 hours after treatment and was complete by 27 hours. Both leaves and petiole segments exhibited a marked increase in ethylene production following treatment with TDZ at concentrations of 0.1 micromolar or greater. The involvement of ethylene in this TDZ response was evaluated by examining the effects of two inhibitors of ethylene action: silver thiosulfate, 2,5-norbornadiene. One day after treatment, both inhibitors effectively antagonized the TDZ-induced inhibition of auxin transport. Two days after TDZ treatment both inhibitors were ineffective. The decrease in IAA transport in TDZ treated tissues was associated with increased metabolism of IAA. The transport of 14C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was also inhibited by TDZ treatment. This inhibition was not accompanied by increased metabolism. Incorporation of TDZ into the receiver blocks had no effect on auxin transport. The ability of the phytotropin N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to stimulate IAA uptake from a bathing medium was reduced in TDZ-treated tissues. This reduction is thought to reflect a decline in the auxin efflux system following TDZ treatment. PMID:16665874

  5. Disruption of the polar auxin transport system in cotton seedlings following treatment with the defoliant thidiazuron. [Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttle, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (TDZ) on basipetal auxin transport in petiole segments isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102) seedlings was examined using the donor/receiver agar block technique. Treatment of intact seedlings with TDZ at concentrations of 1 micromolar or greater resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 14/C-IAA transport in petiole segment isolated 1 or 2 days after treatment. Using 100 micromolar TDZ, the inhibition was detectable 19 hours after treatment and was complete by 27 hours. Both leaves and petiole segments exhibited a marked increase in ethylene production following treatment with TDZ at concentrations of 0.1 micromolar or greater. The involvement of ethylene in this TDA response was evaluated by examining the effects of two inhibitors of ethylene action: silver thiosulfate, 2,5-norbornadiene. One day after treatment, both inhibitors effectively antagonized the TDZ-induced inhibition of auxin transport. Two days after TDZ treatment both inhibitors were ineffective. The decrease in IAA transport in TDZ treated tissues was associated with increased metabolism of IAA. The transport of /sup 14/C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was also inhibited by TDZ treatment. This inhibition was not accompanied by increased metabolism. Incorporation of TDZ into the receiver blocks had no effect on auxin transport. The ability of the phytotropin N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to stimulate IAA uptake from a bathing medium was reduced in TDZ-treated tissues. This reduction is thought to reflect a decline in the auxin efflux system following TDZ treatment.

  6. In vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation in asakura-sanshoo (Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC. F. inerme Makino) an important medicinal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaofang; Zhao, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Context: Asakura-sanshoo (Zanthoxylum piperitum [L.] DC. f. inerme Makino) is an important medicinal plant in East Asia. Transgenic technique could be applied to improve plant traits and analyze gene function. However, there is no report on regeneration and genetic transformation in Asakura-sanshoo. Aims: To establish a regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system in Asakura-sanshoo, which could be used for cultivar improvement and gene function analysis. Settings and Design: The various combinations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were explored for the optimal plant regeneration from petiole and stem of Asakura-sanshoo. The half-strength woody plant medium (WPM) with different concentrations of NAA and IBA was used to induce root. For genetic transformation, A. tumefaciens strain EHA-105 harboring the plasmid pBin-Ex-H-ipt which carries the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene, β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and kanamycin resistance gene neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) were used. The transformation efficiency was detected by the kanamycin resistant frequency. Materials and Methods: Petioles and stems were obtained from the in vitro cultured Asakura-sanshoo. The petiole and stem segments were precultured for 3 days, and then inflected using the bacterium at the concentration of OD600 0.5–0.8 for 10 min, followed by 3 days co-cultivation. Selection of the transgenic plants was carried out after 7 days the regeneration using gradient kanamycin at 30 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Successful transformed plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and Southern blotting analysis. Results: The highest shoots regeneration was obtained on WPM supplement with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L NAA. The optimal rooting medium was half strength macro-element WPM. The kanamycin resistant frequency of petiole and

  7. The effect of the feeding of Macrosiphum rosae (L. and Chaetosiphon tetrarhodus (Walk. on the flowering of roses

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    Bożenna Jaśkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies concerning the effect of the feeding of aphids Macrosiphum rosae (L. and Chaetosiphon tetrarhodus (Walk. on the flowering of roses were carried out in four sites in the green area of Lublin in the years 2001-2003. The studies comprised the shrubs of the park rose 'Grandhotel', the Rugosa rose, the multiflorous rose and the flower-bed roses of various cultivars. Aphids Ch. tetrarhodus dominated on Rugosa rose, while M. rosae dominated on the other roses. Aphids M. rosae and Ch. tetrarhodus, when found in greater numbers, caused deformation of the leaf blades, the shortening of shoots and petioles, as well as deformation of the flowers.

  8. Under Cover of Darkness, Caterpillars Take Flight: The Immature Stages and Feeding Ecology of the Glasswinged Butterfly, Oleria baizana in Eastern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Thomas R.; Greeney, Harold F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the morphology and behavior of the immature stages of Oleria baizana (Haensch) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from northeastern Ecuador. Brugmansia aurea Lagerh. (Solanales: Solanaceae) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly, off of the host plant in the leaf litter. During the night, larvae climb a food plant seedling and sever a leaf petiole, parachuting with the leaf to the ground where they remain while feeding. Oleria baizana has five larval stadia, and individuals take 77 days to mature from oviposition to adult stage. PMID:23438050

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN VITRO DRY MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF VINES AND ROOTS OF FOUR SWEET POTATO (ipomoea batatas VARIETIES GROWN IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

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    Gebreegziabher Zereu Hadgu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and in vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD of vine and its fractions (leaf, petiole and stem and roots of two early maturing (Belela and Temesgen and two medium maturing varieties (Beletech and Tulla were investigated. Vine and root samples from each variety were harvested from triplicate plots (5.1m x 4.8m. Vine samples were partitioned in two equal parts: one part analyzed as whole vine and the second part was fractionated into leaf, petiole and stem. Differences in chemical composition and IVTDMD between vine and its fractions (leaf, petiole and stem were significant (p<0.05. Leaf had crude protein (CP content of 26.1, 22.3, 20.5 and 28.4%DM; Neutral detergent fiber (NDF 25.4, 25.3, 30.7 and 30.2%DM and IVTDMD 90.7, 90.6, 87.5 and 90.1%; petiole had CP of 7.9, 12.1, 7.7and 10.0%DM; NDF 27.8, 29.4, 28.5 and 27.9%DM and IVTDMD 93.4, 93.4, 91.4 and 91.5% and stem had CP of 8.2, 10.9, 8.3 and 10.3%DM; NDF 38.5, 37.5, 40.4%DM and 40.2 and IVTDMD 78.2, 77.8, 74.4 and 76.3%, respectively, for Belela, Temesgen, Beletech and Tulla. In vine CP of 18.7, 18.1, 15.5 and 17.3%DM; NDF 32.7, 31.4, 38.3%DM and 36.9 and IVTDMD 86.2, 86.3, 83.1 and 83.5%, respectively, for Belela, Temesgen, Beletech and Tulla were found. There was also significant (p<0.05 variations in CP and NDF but not (p<0.05 in IVTDMD of roots between varieties. Root CP of 6.9, 7.7, 6.8 and 6.3 % DM; NDF 7.2, 6.0, 6.5 and 6.3 %DM and IVTDMD 94.3, 94.5, 94.9 and 94.6%, respectively, for Belela, Temesgen, Beletech and Tulla were found. In conclusion, Belela and Temesgen had better quality than Beletech and Tulla in most measured parameters.

  10. Macrosolen bidoupensis (Loranthaceae, a new species from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam

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    Shuichiro Tagane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrosolen bidoupensis Tagane & V.S.Dang, sp. nov. (Loranthaceae is newly described from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park in Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam. The new species is characterized by small broadly elliptic to circular leaves, sessile to short petioles, slightly cordate to rounded leaf bases, 4–5 pairs of lateral veins and a basally green corolla tube. An illustration, a summary of DNA barcoding of the plastid genes rbcL and matK, and a key to the species of Macrosolen in Vietnam are provided.

  11. A new species ofCinnamomum(Lauraceae) from the Bladen Nature Reserve, southern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Steven W; Stott, Gail L

    2017-01-01

    A new species in the Lauraceae, Cinnamomum bladenense S.W. Brewer & G.L. Stott, is described from the Bladen Nature Reserve in southern Belize. The new species is similar to Cinnamomum brenesii (Standl.) Kosterm., from which it differs by its much smaller, narrowly-campanulate flowers, its inner tepals glabrous abaxially, its shorter petioles, its minutely sericeous younger twigs, and its abaxial leaf surfaces not glaucous and with prominent secondary venation. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, and photographs of the species as well as a key to and notes on the Cinnamomum of Belize are provided.

  12. Uptake and transport of nutrients and transverse cracking of bean cotyledons

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    Karol W. Duczmal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium, Potassium and Magnesium in cotyledon cell walls were negatively correlated with cultivar susceptibility to transverse cracking of cotyledons (TVC. Plant feeding with calcium only slightly changed the percentage of TVC, and Ca, K and Mg contents in the cotyledon cell walls. Susceptibility to TVC was connected with the causes inherent in the root or shoot. Some disturbances in the displacement of Ca and K through the peduncles and K through the petioles in susceptible cultivars were noticed. These cultivars also immobilized a large quantity of Mg in sterns, and in this connection they actually had less Mg in the fruit walls, seeds, stems and blades than resistant cultivars.

  13. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

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    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this study was 16 species belongs to six families.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a novel (S-canadine synthase gene from Coptis chinensis

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    Yang He

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: We found that the berberine content in the rhizome was seven times (more or less than that in the leaves and the petioles. In addition, the full length coding sequence of CcCAS-1 was inserted into pET-32a and was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, laying a solid foundation for protein purification, activity assay and multi-clonal antibody preparation. Together, our data suggest that CcCAS-1 is a novel heme-thiolate enzyme essential for berberine biosynthesis in C. chinensis.

  15. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

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    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  16. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  17. Two new species of the genus Timia and a redescription of Timia mongolica (Diptera, Ulidiidae

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    Tatiana V. Galinskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Timia Wiedemann, 1824 are described and illustrated. Timia lazebnayae sp. n. from Uzbekistan has yellow body and is similar to Timia gobica Zaitzev, 1982, differing from it only by the entirely yellow flagellomere 1. Timia shatalkini sp. n. from Mongolia has dark body and differs from all other dark-colored representatives of the genus by the cell r4+5 being completely closed, forming petiole at the wing apex. Timia mongolica Zaitsev, 1982 is redescribed and an updated key for yellow-coloured Timia is provided.

  18. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF LEAF OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelani, S.; Prabhakar, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the pharmacognosy of Hyptis suaveolens leaf including its morphological, anatomical, chemical constituents and powder analysis. Contrary to earlier reports, the leaves are amphistomatic. Stomata are diacytic, a few being isotricytic and ansiotricytic. Four types of trichomes have been noted. The venation is semicraspidodromous. Midrib consists of one large moon shaped and petiole with four wedge-shaped vascular bundles. Powder microscopy revealed fragments of epidermis, mesophyll, trichomes and tracheary elements. Positive tests for glycosides, polyphenolases, flavones and juglones are also recorded. PMID:22556556

  19. Sclerotium Rot of Cyclamen europaeum Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

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    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii occurred on Cyclamen europaeum grown at the experimental greenhouse of Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services in April 2013. Infected plants showed water-soaked appearance, wilting, and rotting; severely infected plants eventually died. White mycelial mats spread over lesions, and sclerotia were formed on leaves, petioles, and flower stalks near soil line. On the basis of mycological characteristics, ITS rDNA sequence analysis, and pathogenicity to host plants, this fungus was identified as S. rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot on C. europaeum caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.

  20. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

    OpenAIRE

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this stud...

  1. A new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae from Sagea Lagoon, Weda Bay, Halmahera Island, North Moluccas, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Wiriadinata

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Begonia sageaensis  Wiriadinata (Begoniaceae from south of Mt. Sohra Ecoregion, Sagea  Lagoon,  Weda Bay, Halmahera, North Moluccas, Indonesia is described and illustrated. This species close to B. holosericea Teijsm. & Binn. in small herb habit but it differ in red hirsute hairs on both leaf surface and on its petiole, persistence equitant bracts, longer pedicels of male flowers and  fruit has three equal wings with both flat ends. 

  2. Activity of cell wall degrading glycanases in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

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    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was shown that JA-Me markedly increased the total activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectinase and xylanase in petioles, but did not affect activities of these enzymes in the blades and apical part of shoots of K. blossfeldiana. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate promotes the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides in the abscission zone and in this way induces leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  3. Morphological and anatomical treats of Campanula trachelium L. leaves in steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Krohmal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical treats of Campanula tracheliumL. leaves from 8 samples of different sites of seed origin have been studied. There were described labile and stable leaf treats of plants growing in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The labile treats, i.e. petiole length and its ratio to width of leaf blade, number of trichomes and stomata on adaxial leaf side, are not strongly relate with climatic conditions in seed origin sites. The stable treats, i.e. leaf blade size, thickness of epidermis and palisade mesophyll, relate with climatic parameters in sites of origin.

  4. Comunidades vegetales de las transiciones terrestre-acuáticas del páramo de Chingaza, Colombia

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    Udo Schmidt-Mumm

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación acuática y semiacuática de los páramos andinos ha sido estudiada generalmente bajo un enfoque fitosociológico tradicional, el cual se basa en muestreos de áreas homogéneas y excluye los fenómenos de borde o transicionales. En el presente estudio se analizó la vegetación acuática y semiacuática del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza a lo largo de diferentes gradientes hídricos. Asimismo se registran un total de 89 especies en 30 transectos; mediante clasificación numérica y el análisis de especies indicadoras se caracterizan las siguientes 18 comunidades: 1 Calamagrostis effusa, 2 Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3 Cyperus rufus, 4 Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5 Carex acutata, 6 Poa annua, 7 Valeriana sp., 8 Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9 Carex bonplandii, 10 Festuca andicola, 11 Muhlenbergia fastigiata, 12 Elatine paramoana, 13 Isoëtes palmeri, 14 Crassula venezuelensis, 15 Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16 Callitriche nubigena, 17 Potamogeton paramoanus y 18 Potamogeton illinoensis. La ordenación de las comunidades indica la presencia de tres gradientes terrestre-acuáticos diferentes, los cuales se relacionan con las formas de vida de las especies que caracterizan las comunidades. Además se considera que gran parte de la heterogeneidad presentada por la vegetación es el resultado de las alteraciones ambientales generadas por diversas actividades humanas (quemas, ganadería, extracción de material para la construcción de carreteras y la represa.Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia. High Andean paramo ecosystems are an important water resource for many towns, and major cities in this region. The aquatic and wetland vegetation of different paramo lakes, pond, swamps and bogs was studied according to the classical phytosociological approach, which is based on homogenous stands, but excludes any border phenomena or transitional zone. The present research aimed at determining the

  5. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

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    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  6. Native and alien ichthyofauna in coastal fishery of Rhodes (eastern Mediterranean (2002-2010

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    Maria Corsini-Foka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhodes Island (southeastern Aegean is located in a geographically crucial region subjected to biological invasions. Among the 108 alien species recorded, 30 are fish, all of Indo-Pacific/Red Sea origin introduced via Suez through Lessepsian migration (Corsini-Foka et al., 2015; Corsini-Foka and Kondylatos, In press; Kondylatos and Corsini-Foka, In press. In this oligotrophic area, fishery production is limited, due to the paucity of species of commercial interest and their low abundance, while adapted infrastructures for fish landing and marketing are absent. Coastal fishery has dominated during the last twenty years (ELSTAT, 2015. Within 2002-2010, the Hydrobiological Station of Rhodes conducted experimental boat seining surveys, using exclusively a professional 12m fishing boat, at 5-30 m depth, in the Gulf of Trianda (sandy mud, Posidonia meadows. The 94 carried out hauls (7-18 hauls/year, produced a total fish biomass of approximately 4400 Kg, recording 97 fish (86 native, 11 alien and 4 cephalopod species (3 native, 1 alien. Fish species ranged from 32 to 63/year, whereas aliens ranged from 5 to 8 species. Almost steadily present since 2002, were earlier colonizers such as Apogonichthyoides pharaonis, Siganus rivulatus, Siganus luridus, Stephanolepis diaspros and more recent ones as Pteragogus trispilus, Sphyraena chrysotaenia and Fistularia commersonii, while Lagocephalus sceleratus, firstly recorded in 2005, occurred regularly since 2007; the presence of Lagocephalus suezensis, Sphyraena flavicauda and Upeneus pori was scattered since their first records in 2004-2005. Alien fish commercially important are the Siganids, S. chrysotaenia and surprisingly F. commersonii. In terms of biomass per haul, alien fish ranged from 0 to 18.5 Kg, native from 1.5 to 182 Kg. Catches were dominated by Centracanthidae (Spicara spp. and Sparidae (Boops boops, sometimes by other native such as Oblada melanura, Diplodus spp., Chromis Chromis and others. The

  7. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (November, 2016

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    CH. MYTILINEOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present Collective Article information on 26 taxa belonging to 8 Phyla and extended from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine Sea are presented. The new records were found in 9 countries as follows: Spain: first record for the Mediterranean of the crab Cancer bellianus; Algeria: further records of the alien fish Lagocephalus sceleratus to the west Algerian waters; Italy: first report on the presence and establishment of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Lessina and Varano Lagoons (W. Adriatic and of Penaeus aztecus in Corigliano Gulf (Italian Ionian. Moreover, the extension of the distribution range of the polychaete Branchiomma bairdi to W. Sicily as well as that of the crab Ocypode cursor and the bryozoan Catenicella paradoxa to E. Sicily are cited. Slovenia: the record of the rare saccoglossan gastropod Placida cremoniana from Piran (Gulf of Trieste is the first for the Adriatic; Greece: the native sea slug Eubranchus farrani is the first from the Eastern Mediterranean; many sightings of the bamboo corals Isididae distributed along all the E. Ionian Sea and the establishment of P. aztecus in all Greek waters are also reported for first time; the westernmost extension of the alien urchin Diadema setosum in Cretan waters is cited and new sights of the alien species Goniobranchus annulatus and Pterois miles are shown. Turkey: the alien fish Champsodon capensis is reported for first time from the Aegean Sea and the native acari Agauopsis microrhyncha from the Levantine Sea; a new observation of the alien crab Atergatis roseus in Güllük Bay-Aegean is also mentioned; Cyprus: first records of  the alien urchin D. setosum and Lobotes surinamensis in Cypriot waters; Lebanon: several sightings of Monachus monachus from the Lebanese waters indicate a potential better status of the species in the area, Egypt: first records of the alien crab Dorippe quadridens and the alien gastropods Nerita sanguinolenta and Conomurex persicus from the

  8. Effects of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical characteristics of a beach plant (Terminalia catappa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwong, Paramita; Juprasong, Yotin; Traiperm, Paweena

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the short-term impacts of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical structures of Terminalia catappa L. from crude oil leakage in Rayong province, Thailand, in 2013. Approximately 3 weeks after the oil spill, leaves of T. catappa were collected along the coastline of Rayong from one affected site, five adjacent sites, and a control site. Slides of the leaf epidermis were prepared by the peeling method, while leaf and petiole transverse sections were prepared by paraffin embedding. Cell walls of adaxial epidermal cell on leaves in the affected site were straight instead of the jigsaw shape found in leaves from the adjacent and control sites. In addition, the stomatal index of the abaxial leaf surface was significantly lower in the affected site. Leaf and petiole transverse sections collected from the affected site showed increased cuticle thickness, epidermal cell diameter on both sides, and palisade mesophyll thickness; in contrast, vessel diameter and spongy mesophyll thickness were reduced. These significant changes in the leaf anatomy of T. catappa correspond with previous research and demonstrate the negative effects of oil spill pollution on plants. The anatomical changes of T. catappa in response to crude oil pollution are discussed as a possible indicator of pollution and may be used in monitoring crude oil pollution.

  9. Turgor-mediated Leaf Movements in Analogy With Stomatal Function and Under the General Aspect of Water Flux Through the Plant: II. Rhythmic Transport of (86)Rb and (43)K in Trifolium repens L. and Oxalis acetosella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Maercker, U

    1984-08-01

    Microautoradiographic methods were applied to trace (86)Rb and (43)K during the migration within the transpiration stream of Trifolium repens L. and Oxalis acetosella L. During the dark phase of the diurnal cycle, ions moved through the petiole to the insertion of the leaf blade. There the movement stopped. In Oxalis the ions gathered in three distinct spots at the adaxial side of the insertion, each belonging to one of the downwards bending leaflets. In Trifolium the areas of ion accumulation were two little humps at the abaxial periphery of the nodal junction of the inwardly bending leaflets. During the phases of upward movement of the leaflets, Oxalis did not reveal a specific pattern of ion distribution within the pulvinus. However, when Trifolium was loaded during the phases of leaflet opening, (86)Rb and (43)K were mainly found within the parenchymatous bundle sheath of the three laminar pulvini and their junction towards the petiole. The conclusion was that ions are stored within small cells on the flexor side and are removed from there by regulatory processes controlling water and solute flux from the sites of storage to the evaporating surfaces of the leaf blade. Implications on the interpretation of nyctinastic leaf movements are discussed. Copyright © 1984 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomical study of Rubus subgenus Rubus in Iran

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    Razieh Kasalkheh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rubus L. genus from Rosaceae has about 750 species, from which 8 species and 5 hybrids from Iran. In this study stem, leaflet, petiole, stipule and pedicle anatomy of 7 species of the genus Rubus subgenus. Rubus is invesgitated. These species include R. sanctus, R. persicus, R. hyrcanus, R. hirtus, R. dilichocarpus, R. discolor and R. caesius. Plant samples were collected and then fixed and handmade cross-section of leave were prepared and stained with methyl green and carmine. Several slides were studies and photographed with light microscope (LM. Among studied character, five quantitative features such as shape of transvers cross section, type of glandular and non-glandular trichome, presence or absence of stalk glandular trichome, distribution of calcium oxalate crystal and thickness of cuticle were studied in separation of species. Also, five quantitative features such as number of vascular bundles, number of collenchyma layer (in stem and petiole, number of palisade and spongy paranchymatous layer (in leaflet and presence or absence palisade paranchymatous in stipule are valuable and can be used in distinguishing species.

  11. The Use of Some Morphological Traits for the Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L. Landraces

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    Ebadi-Segheloo Asghar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of native accessions of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. would be aid in the development of new genetically improved varieties, so in this research 121 spinach landraces, collected from the various spinach growing areas of Iran, were evaluated to determine their diversity using several agro-morphological traits. High coefficients of variation (CV were recorded in fresh yield, leaf area and dry yield. Using principal component (PC analysis, the first three PCs with eigenvalues more than 0.9 contributed 80.56% of the variability among accessions. The first PC was related to leaf yield performance (fresh and dry yields, leaf numbers at flowering and lateral branches while the PC2 was related to leaf characteristic (leaf width, petiole length, petiole diameter and leaf area. The third PC was related to seed characteristic (seed yield and 1000-seed weight and was named as seed property component. The 121 spinach landraces were grouped into six clusters using cluster analysis. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the clusters I and II were clearly separated from clusters III and V and also from clusters IV and VI. The studied accessions are an important resource for the generation of a core collection of spinach in the world. The results of present research will support tasks of conservation and utilization of landraces in spinach breeding programs.

  12. De novo assembly, transcriptome characterization, lignin accumulation, and anatomic characteristics: novel insights into lignin biosynthesis during celery leaf development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Guang-Long; Xiong, Fei; Yu, Xu-Run; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Celery of the family Apiaceae is a biennial herb that is cultivated and consumed worldwide. Lignin is essential for cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, water transport, mechanical support, and plant pathogen defense. This study discussed the mechanism of lignin formation at different stages of celery development. The transcriptome profile, lignin distribution, anatomical characteristics, and expression profile of leaves at three stages were analyzed. Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value. Celery leaves at three stages were collected, and Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was used to analyze large-scale transcriptome sequences. From Stage 1 to 3, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles and leaf blades thickened and expanded, whereas the phloem and the xylem extensively developed. Spongy and palisade mesophyll tissues further developed and were tightly arranged. Lignin accumulation increased in the petioles and the mesophyll (palisade and spongy), and the xylem showed strong lignification. Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery. PMID:25651889

  13. Biology of Byctiscus populi (L. (Coleoptera, Attelabidae. Part II. Leafrolls, larvae and this year’s imagoes

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    Jaroslav Urban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 to 2009, the biology of Byctiscus populi (L. was studied on Populus tremula in Forest District Bílovice nad Svitavou (former district of Brno-venkov. Females of B. populi often stick ends of shoots in addition to petioles in May and in the first half of June. At 38% damaged shoots, they make rolls of more (at the most 4 leaves. From mid-June to the end of July, they bite only into petioles and make rolls of one leaf. The leafrolls are on average 30 mm long and 3 mm wide. With the increase of the number of rolled up leaves their mean size decreases. With the size of leafrolls the number of eggs increases. The development of eggs and larvae in leafrolls takes 26 to 38 days (in the laboratory 17 to 23 days. Larvae of the 1st instar damage on average 0.06 cm2, larvae of the 2nd instar 0.4 cm2 and larvae of the 3rd instar 2.1 cm2. Under favourable conditions, young beetles appear on trees from 15 August to 10 October. Under cold weather (2009, only part of the beetles leaves pupal chambers, namely from 10 September to 8 October. Before the beginning of a winter diapause, beetles damaged about 11 cm2 leaves of P. tremula.1

  14. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  15. Comparative study of Passiflora taxa leaves: I. A morpho-anatomic profile

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    Luma Wosch

    Full Text Available AbstractDetermining the authenticity and quality of plant raw materials used in the formulation of herbal medicines, teas and cosmetics is essential to ensure their safety and efficacy for clinical use. Some Passiflora species are officially recognized in the pharmaceutical compendia of various countries and have therapeutic uses, particularly as sedatives and anxiolytics. However, the large number of Passiflora species, coupled with the fact that most species are popularly known as passion fruit, increases the misidentification problem. The purpose of this study is to make a pharmacognostic comparison between various Passiflora species to establish a morpho-anatomical profile that could contribute to the quality control of herbal drug products that contain passion fruit. This was conducted by collecting samples of leaves from twelve Passiflora taxa (ten species and two forms of P. edulis: P. actinia, P. alata, P. amethystina, P. capsularis, P. cincinnata, P. edulisf. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis, P. incarnata, P. morifolia, P. urnifolia, P. coccinea and P. setacea, from different locations and their morpho-anatomical features were analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic analysis allowed to indicate a set of characters that can help to differentiate species. These include midrib and petiole shape, midrib and petiole vascular pattern, medium vein shape, presence of trichomes, presence of blade epidermal papillae and sclerenchymatic cells adjoining the vascular bundles. These characters could be used to assist in the determination of herbal drug quality and authenticity derived from a species of Passiflora.

  16. HISTORY OF in vitro CULTURE STUDIES ON Helianthus annuus L. IN TURKEY

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    Sergun DAYAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture techniques offer important approaches about sunflower breeding and germplasm conservation. The available data on the subject in Turkey was reviewed in order to encourage the researchers to study on tissue culture of sunflower. In vitro studies on sunflower in Turkey started in the first half of the 90s. A large number of in vitro culture studies on sunflower using anthers, hypocotyls, cotyledons, petioles of cotyledon, shoot-tips, mature embryos, immature embryos, leaves, petioles, immature cotyledons and microspores as different explants have been published. Microspore culture, anther culture, embryo culture, slow growth storage, micropropagation and gene transfer with Agrobacterium were also used in these culture studies. Although these studies formed an important scientific knowledge about sunflower tissue culture in the country, it is still not sufficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need to make more in vitro studies on sunflower which is an important agricultural plant for Turkey. The transfer of the results of these studies to agricultural applications is also essential from a sectoral standpoint.

  17. Nitrogen Concentration Estimation in Tomato Leaves by VIS-NIR Non-Destructive Spectroscopy

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    Paolo Menesatti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94. The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency.

  18. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

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    Fabiano M. Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  19. Isolation of a cDNA clone for spinach lipid transfer protein and evidence that the protein is synthesized by the secretory pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, W.R.; Thoma, S.; Botella, J.; Somerville, C.R. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a nonspecific lipid transfer protein from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was isolated by probing a library with synthetic oligonucleotides based on the amino acid sequence of the protein. Determination of the DNA sequence indicated a 354-nucleotide open reading frame which encodes a 118-amino acid residue polypeptide. The first 26 amino acids of the open reading frame, which are not present in the mature protein, have all the characteristics of a signal sequence which is normally associated with the synthesis of membrane proteins or secreted proteins. In vitro transcription of the cDNA and translation in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes or microsomes from cultured maize endosperm cells indicated that proteolytic processing of the preprotein to the mature form was associated with cotranslational insertion into the microsomal membranes. Because there is no known mechanism by which the polypeptide could be transferred from the microsomal membranes to the cytoplasm, the proposed role of this protein in catalyzing lipid transfer between intracellular membranes is in doubt. Although the lipid transfer protein is one of the most abundant proteins in leaf cells, the results of genomic Southern analysis were consistent with the presence of only one gene. Analysis of the level of mRNA by Northern blotting indicated that the transcript was several-fold more abundant than an actin transcript in leaf and petiole tissue, but was present in roots at less than 1% of the level in petioles.

  20. Effects of plant growth regulators in heliconia ‘Red Opal’

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    Ana Cecilia Ribeiro de Castro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate growth regulators with purpose of reducing the size of heliconia ‘Red Opal’ potted plants. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with five treatments (trinexapac-ethyl and paclobutrazol at rates of 37.5 and 75.0 mg of active ingredient per pot and control without growth regulator and five replicates. The treatments were applied 40 days after planting the rhizomes in pots filled with soil. Thirty and 150 days after the growth regulator application, plant height, number of leaves and shoots, petioles length and leaf area were evaluated. One year after planting the rhizomes in pots the number of inflorescence and leaves (leaves, sheathing leaf bases and inflorescences and rhizomes (rhizomes and roots dry mass were determined. Trinexapac-ethyl had no differences compared to the control in any of the variables evaluated. Paclobutrazol proved effective in reducing plant height, leaf area and petiole length and increase in number of leaves and shoots but the effect was temporary. Also, it did not affect the inflorescences production and leaves and rhizomes dry mass. Paclobutrazol is efficient to promote height reduction and to increase the number of shoots in heliconia ‘Red Opal’ potted plants without affect the inflorescence formation but its effects is temporary.

  1. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by wetland plants: Potential for in situ heavy metal detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, C.M.; Qian, J.H.; Hansen, D.; Zayed, A.; Terry, N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Lytle, F.W. [The EXAFS Co., Pioche, NV (United States); Yang, N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-10-15

    Reduction of heavy metals in situ by plants may be a useful detoxification mechanism for phytoremediation. Using X-ray spectroscopy, the authors show that Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), supplied with Cr(VI) in nutrient culture, accumulated nontoxic Cr(III) in root and shoot tissues. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) appeared to occur in the fine lateral roots. The Cr(III) was subsequently translocated to leaf tissues. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of Cr in leaf and petiole differed when compared to Cr in roots. In roots, Cr(III) was hydrated by water, but in petiole and more so in leaf, a portion of the Cr(III) may be bound to oxalate ligands. This suggests that E. crassipes detoxified Cr(VI) upon root uptake and transported a portion of the detoxified Cr to leaf tissues. Cr-rich crystalline structures were observed on the leaf surface. The chemical species of Cr in other plants, collected from wetlands that contained Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewater, was also found to be Cr(III). The authors propose that this plant-based reduction of Cr(VI) by E. crassipes has the potential to be used for the in situ detoxification of Cr(VI)-contaminated wastestreams.

  2. Phenology of cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala L in oilseed rape

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    Sivčev Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodeschrysocephala (L. is an important pest of winter oilseed rape in Serbia. Beetles colonize oilseed rape in early October and are active in the field until first frost and wintertime. In autumn, adults can be seen laying eggs in the soil around plants. Larvae of P. chrysocephala developed intensively on leaf petioles in November, reaching their highest numbers at the end of the month. No infested plants were found in a conventional field, while 14.5% of all dissected leaf petioles were infested on an integrated field. On unprotected plants in an organic field, 76.0% of the plants were infested with larvae at the growth-stage BBCH 18-19, with 31.1% infested leaves on average. As a results, the number of plants was reduced by 51%, i.e. from 43.0/m2 recorded in the autumn to 22.0/m2 in the following spring. A new generation of P. chrysocephala beetles emerged from the soil in the first half of June and rapidly escaped the fields from almost dry plants. Our results showed that a part of the population stayed in aestivation and emerged in the following crop during the next season. On the following 5 March, 0.5 beetles/m2 were found in emergence cages in the organic field, while 0.81 beetles/m2 were found in the former trap crop.

  3. Colletotrichum incanum sp. nov., a curved-conidial species causing soybean anthracnose in USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ching; Haudenshield, James S; Hartman, Glen L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean anthracnose is caused by a number of species of Colletotrichum that as a group represent an important disease that results in significant economic losses. In the current study, Colletotrichum species were isolated from soybean petioles and stems with anthracnose symptoms from soybean fields in Illinois. Multigene sequence phylogenic analysis, combining rDNA internal transcribed spacer, actin, β-tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and histone H3 gene regions, revealed a group of isolates collected in this study to be distinct from other established Colletotrichum species. This new group was phylogenetically closer to C. liriopes, C. tofieldiae and C. verruculosum than to C. truncatum, another species with curved conidia commonly found on soybean. A representative isolate from this new group was used to examine its morphology, cultural characteristics and pathogenicity to soybean; it was found to differ from C. truncatum in colony culture characteristics and sizes of conidia and appressoria. As a result of the molecular phylogenetic, morphological and pathogenicity analyses, we named this species Colletotrichum incanum. Of the 84 Colletotrichum isolates collected from soybean petioles, 40 were C. incanum, indicating that this species may commonly occur.

  4. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-02-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cell Surfaces in Plant-Microorganism Interactions 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Dominique; Toppan, Alain; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of melon hypocotyls or petioles with an elicitor from Colletotrichum lagenarium, a fungal pathogen of melons, causes an initial transitory inhibition of protein synthesis and, after 18 hours, induces the synthesis of a plant cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP). Microgram amounts of elicitor are sufficient for maximum elicitation of HRGP when the elicitor is injected into hypocotyls. High elicitor concentrations have a strong inhibitory effect on total protein synthesis. Ethylene is increased early in elicitor-treated plant material, and may be involved in HRGP elicitation. In the presence of aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, both elicitor-induced ethylene and elicitor-induced HRGP are inhibited. On the other hand, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the direct precursor of ethylene, triggers the synthesis of HRGP to the same extent as the elicitor of C. lagenarium, and partly restores in elicitor-treated petioles the synthesis of ethylene and of HRGP after previous inhibition by aminoethoxyvinylglycine. Elicitation of HRGP occurs in other systems, such as soybeans when inoculated with an elicitor from Phytophtora megasperma f. sp. glycinea, and when melons are incubated with an elicitor isolated from their cell walls. PMID:16664121

  6. Cell surfaces in plant-microorganism interactions : v. Elicitors of fungal and of plant origin trigger the synthesis of ethylene and of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, D; Toppan, A; Esquerré-Tugayé, M T

    1985-03-01

    Treatment of melon hypocotyls or petioles with an elicitor from Colletotrichum lagenarium, a fungal pathogen of melons, causes an initial transitory inhibition of protein synthesis and, after 18 hours, induces the synthesis of a plant cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP). Microgram amounts of elicitor are sufficient for maximum elicitation of HRGP when the elicitor is injected into hypocotyls. High elicitor concentrations have a strong inhibitory effect on total protein synthesis. Ethylene is increased early in elicitor-treated plant material, and may be involved in HRGP elicitation. In the presence of aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, both elicitor-induced ethylene and elicitor-induced HRGP are inhibited. On the other hand, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the direct precursor of ethylene, triggers the synthesis of HRGP to the same extent as the elicitor of C. lagenarium, and partly restores in elicitor-treated petioles the synthesis of ethylene and of HRGP after previous inhibition by aminoethoxyvinylglycine. Elicitation of HRGP occurs in other systems, such as soybeans when inoculated with an elicitor from Phytophtora megasperma f. sp. glycinea, and when melons are incubated with an elicitor isolated from their cell walls.

  7. Experimental determination of Philodendron melinonii and Arabidopsis thaliana tissue microstructure and geometric modeling via finite-edge centroidal Voronoi tessellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Tanvir R.; Hristozov, Nicolay; Rey, Alejandro D.; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano

    2012-09-01

    Plant petioles and stems are hierarchical cellular structures, displaying structural features defined at multiple length scales. One or more of the intermediate hierarchical levels consists of tissues, in which the cellular distribution is quasirandom. The current work focuses on the realistic modeling of plant tissue microstructures. The finite-edge centroidal Voronoi tessellation (FECVT) is here introduced to overcome the drawbacks of the semi-infinite edges of a typical Voronoi model. FECVT can generate a realistic model of a tissue microstructure, which might have finite edges at its border, be defined by a boundary contour of any shape, and include complex heterogeneity and cellular gradients. The centroid-based Voronoi tessellation is applied to model the microstructure of the Philodendron melinonii petiole and the Arabidopsis thaliana stem, which both display intense cellular gradients. FECVT coupled with a digital image processing algorithm is implemented to capture the nonperiodic microstructures of plant tissues. The results obtained via this method satisfactorily obey the geometric, statistical, and topological laws of naturally evolved cellular solids. The predicted models are also validated by experimental data.

  8. Efficient plant regeneration of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L., a medicinal plant

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    Arzu Ucar Turker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum dulcamara L. (bittersweet is a medicinal plant that has been used to treat skin diseases, warts, tumors, felons, arthritis, rheumatism, bronchial congestion, heart ailments, ulcerative colitis, eye inflammations, jaundice and pneumonia. A reliable in vitro culture protocol for bittersweet was established. Explants (leaf and petiole segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog minimal organics (MSMO medium with various plant growth regulator combinations. Leaf explants formed more shoots than petiole explants. Plant regeneration was observed through indirect organogenesis with both explants. Best shoot proliferation was obtained from leaf explants with 3 mg/l BA (benzyladenine and 0.5 mg/l IAA (indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting media containing different levels of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Most shoots developed roots on medium with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted explants were transferred to vermiculate in Magenta containers for acclimatization and after 2 weeks, they were planted in plastic pots containing potting soil and maintained in the plant growth room.

  9. Evaluation of potential use of native Anthurium foliage

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    Érica Barroso de Morais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian flora has a large number of species with ornamental potential. These species are poorly recognized or even completely unexplored. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of four accessions belonging to the species of Anthurium plowmanii, A. raimundii, A. bonplandii and A. Affine for cutting foliage. The accessions from Embrapa Germplasm Bank of Tropical flowers were evaluated for 21 morphological and phenological characteristics and post-harvest longevity. The ornamental characterization was based on the evaluation of this data and florist acceptance as well. The accessions presented differences in almost all the characteristics related to the morphology of the inflorescence and the leaf. Some characteristics such: fruit color, petiole, spadix, and spathe length, are highly variable within the species and depend on the developmental stage. Some characters like petiole length and inflorescence position are particularly important as indicators for the use as cut foliage. The plants have slow development as typical from members of this family and and the production of leaves per year ranged between 6.6 (A. plowmanii to 10.5 (A. bonplandii, which might be increased with the improvement of cultivation aspects, with an emphasis on spacing, plant management and fertilization. The leaves of Anthurium plowmanii, A. raimundii, A. bonplandii and A. affine present high postharvest durability and great potential as cut foliage, possessing florist acceptance as well.

  10. Comparative leaf anatomy of Iranian Phlomoides (Lamiaceae

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    Zohreh Seyedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phlomoides (Lamiaceae: Lamioideae is a species rich, widespread, and taxonomically complex genus. A comparative anatomical study of the petioles and leaf lamina of 17 Phlomoides taxa representing 4 sections of the genus distributed in Iran was carried out to evaluate interspecific relationships and anatomical features that may be useful in species identification and subgeneric classification. The general leaf anatomy of Phlomoides species presented here corroborates earlier studies in Lamiaceae and on a few studied species in the genus. Leaf anatomy provides valuable characters that are useful in subgeneric classification as well as species discrimination in Phlomoides. The most important diagnostic characters are as follows: the shape of transverse section, length of ventral and dorsiventral axis, number of median bundles in the petiole, number of cell layers of palisade and spongy parenchyma, type and thickness of collenchyma as well as trichome type. Based on the present study and in accordance with previous works, some large sections such as Eremostachys appears to be natural, while circumscription of sect. Filipendula should be revised.

  11. Correlation and heritability Analysis in the genetic improvement of camu-camu

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    Mario Pinedo Panduro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Peru and Brazil have been made between 2002 and 2011, correlation and heritability in search of tools for genetic improvement of camu-camu. We studied basic collections, comparative and progeny clones exist in the INIA, IIAP and INPA. The length of petiole (LP, has a half heritability (in the broad sense of h2 g = 0.42 and correlation coefficients of r2 = 0.37 with fruit yield and r2 = 0.54 with fruit weight. Basal branch number (NRB also shows levels of heritability average (in the strict sense: h2 a = 0.45 and h2 g = 0.33 in the broad sense. NRB in turn significantly correlated with fruit yield (RF (r2 = 0.43, fruit weight (FW (r2 = 0.38 and ascorbic acid (AA (r2 =- 0.30. The values of pH and soluble solids (degrees Brix of the pulp showed a high correlation with AA (r2 = 0.85 and r2 = 0.94 respectively. In light of the information correlation and heritability, we emphasize that the parameters "number of basal branches", "petiole length" and "fruit weight" and present a relatively high correlation with "yield fruit" also have a level intermediate heritability, which qualify them as important tools for the selection of superior plants camu-camu

  12. Callus induction and plant regeneration in vitro in Actinidia

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    Adam Matkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of callus induction and organogenesis on auxins (2,4-D, IAA and cytokinins (BAP, KIN content in MS medium in Actinidia arguta, A. deliciosa and A. polygama and explants derived from stems, petioles, leaves and roots was investigated. The ability to form callus was good for stem and petiole explants and weaker for leaf and root explants in all three species. The media with low level of 2,4-D (0.01 and 0.1 mg/l and higher of cytokinins (1.0 and 5.0 mg/l promoted callus growth and viability. Higher 2,4-D as well as IAA concentrations caused degeneration of calli. The application of BAP was more advantageous than of KIN in the case of A. arguta and A. polygama. Organogenesis was quick and abundant after passage to media with 0.1-5.0 mg/l of IAA and 1.0-5.0 mg/l of cytokinins only in callus derived from stems. Calli from the other explants showed weaker ability to regenerate. The reactions of the three investigated species, differed slightly, the similarities were however, more significant. Shoots regenerated from callus were rooted and the plantlets were transferred to soil.

  13. A pharmacobotanical study of vegetative organs of Solanum torvum

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    Kiriaki Nurit-Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a morpho-anatomical study of the leaves, stems and roots of Solanum torvum Sw. was performed with the objective of providing a macroscopical and microscopical morphodiagnosis for its characterization. The species is popularly called "jurubeba-branca" in the Northeastern Brazil and is used in folk medicine to treat liver diseases, tuberculosis, and as antianemic. Anatomical studies were done by paradermic sections of the leaf blade (adaxial and abaxial surfaces, and cross sections of leaves (blade and petiole, stems and roots. The sections were clarified and stained with safranin and/ or astrablue, observed and photographed on light microscope. Histochemical tests were carried out in cross sections of leaves, stems and roots and assayed for specific reagents. The leaves are chartaceous, ovate to elliptic, with lobed margins, oblique at the base. The leaf is amphistomatic with anisocytic and anomocytic stomata simultaneously, and the epidermal cells, in face view, have anticlinal walls sinuate on the upper surface and wavy on the lower surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral; the midrib has a central bicollateral vascular bundle; and the petiole has three or fourone. The stem shows external phloem, xylem, internal phloem and a parenchymatic pith. The root is axial and striate longitudinally and the secondary xylem is a massive cylinder. The macroscopical and microscopical vegetative characters constitute a set of diagnostic parameters to the studied species.

  14. A pharmacobotanical study of vegetative organs of Solanum torvum

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    Kiriaki Nurit-Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a morpho-anatomical study of the leaves, stems and roots of Solanum torvum Sw. was performed with the objective of providing a macroscopical and microscopical morphodiagnosis for its characterization. The species is popularly called "jurubeba-branca" in the Northeastern Brazil and is used in folk medicine to treat liver diseases, tuberculosis, and as antianemic. Anatomical studies were done by paradermic sections of the leaf blade (adaxial and abaxial surfaces, and cross sections of leaves (blade and petiole, stems and roots. The sections were clarified and stained with safranin and/ or astrablue, observed and photographed on light microscope. Histochemical tests were carried out in cross sections of leaves, stems and roots and assayed for specific reagents. The leaves are chartaceous, ovate to elliptic, with lobed margins, oblique at the base. The leaf is amphistomatic with anisocytic and anomocytic stomata simultaneously, and the epidermal cells, in face view, have anticlinal walls sinuate on the upper surface and wavy on the lower surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral; the midrib has a central bicollateral vascular bundle; and the petiole has three or fourone. The stem shows external phloem, xylem, internal phloem and a parenchymatic pith. The root is axial and striate longitudinally and the secondary xylem is a massive cylinder. The macroscopical and microscopical vegetative characters constitute a set of diagnostic parameters to the studied species.

  15. Development and Comparison of Symptom Indices for Quantifying Grapevine Resistance to Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, A F; Stevenson, J F; Walker, M A

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Symptoms of Pierce's disease (PD) were assessed under greenhouse conditions on field-resistant and field-susceptible grapevines in order to characterize the PD resistance phenotype in the genus Vitis. A cane maturation index (CMI) was developed to quantify the green-islands symptom, which was measured at 12 weeks post-bacterial inoculation, along with leaf scorch and percentage of xylem vessels blocked by occlusions. Canes of resistant genotypes matured normally and had a significantly lower CMI score of 0.9 (on a 0-to-6 scale) compared with 5.1 for the susceptible genotypes. The CMI scoring method had a high correlation (R(2) = 0.91) with previously characterized field performance, whereas leaf scorch had only a moderate correlation (R(2) = 0.51) with field performance. Average scorched area on leaves of the susceptible and resistant genotypes was 80 and 48%, respectively, demonstrating that leaf scorch can be extensive in resistant genotypes under the presented screening conditions, and suggesting that systemic infection can occur in all evaluated genotypes. Occlusions within both stem and petiole vessels were composed principally of tyloses and were significantly higher in petioles than in stems of either resistant or susceptible backgrounds. Susceptible genotypes displayed a higher level of stem tylose occlusions relative to resistant genotypes, but correlation to field performance was low (R(2) = 0.13). Ease of use and high correlation to field performance makes CMI scoring a better choice for PD resistance evaluations relative to other phenotypic symptom assessments.

  16. Fluorescence reports intact quantum dot uptake into roots and translocation to leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana and subsequent ingestion by insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yeonjong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qingbo; Zhu, Huiguang; Chehab, E Wassim; Colvin, Vicki L; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Braam, Janet

    2015-01-06

    We explored the impact of quantum dot (QD) coat characteristics on NP stability, uptake, and translocation in Arabidopsis thaliana, and subsequent transfer to primary consumers, Trichoplusia ni (T. ni). Arabidopsis was exposed to CdSe/CdZnS QDs with three different coatings: Poly(acrylic acid-ethylene glycol) (PAA-EG), polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PMAO-PEG), which are anionic, cationic, and relatively neutral, respectively. PAA-EG-coated QDs were relatively stable and taken up from a hydroponic medium through both Arabidopsis leaf petioles and roots, without apparent aggregation, and showed generally uniform distribution in leaves. In contrast, PEI- and PMAO-PEG-coated QDs displayed destabilization in the hydroponic medium, and generated particulate fluorescence plant tissues, suggesting aggregation. PAA-EG QDs moved faster than PEI QDs through leaf petioles; however, 8-fold more cadmium accumulated in PEI QD-treated leaves than in those exposed to PAA-EG QDs, possibly due to PEI QD dissolution and direct metal uptake. T. ni caterpillars that fed on Arabidopsis exposed to QDs had reduced performance, and QD fluorescence was detected in both T. ni bodies and frass, demonstrating trophic transfer of intact QDs from plants to insects. Overall, this paper demonstrates that QD coat properties influence plant nanoparticle uptake and translocation and can impact transfer to herbivores.

  17. Morphological characteristics, anatomical structure, and gene expression: novel insights into gibberellin biosynthesis and perception during carrot growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Long; Xiong, Fei; Que, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are considered potentially important regulators of cell elongation and expansion in plants. Carrot undergoes significant alteration in organ size during its growth and development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying gibberellin accumulation and perception during carrot growth and development remain unclear. In this study, five stages of carrot growth and development were investigated using morphological and anatomical structural techniques. Gibberellin levels in leaf, petiole, and taproot tissues were also investigated for all five stages. Gibberellin levels in the roots initially increased and then decreased, but these levels were lower than those in the petioles and leaves. Genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis and signaling were identified from the carrotDB, and their expression was analyzed. All of the genes were evidently responsive to carrot growth and development, and some of them showed tissue-specific expression. The results suggested that gibberellin level may play a vital role in carrot elongation and expansion. The relative transcription levels of gibberellin pathway-related genes may be the main cause of the different bioactive GAs levels, thus exerting influences on gibberellin perception and signals. Carrot growth and development may be regulated by modification of the genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, catabolism, and perception.

  18. Purification and characterization of a wound-inducible cell wall cationic peroxidase from carrot roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, A R; Showalter, A M

    1996-09-04

    We have isolated a novel cell wall, cationic peroxidase (pI > 9.3) from roots of the carrot plant, Daucus carota. The purified isozyme, referred to as CP > 9.3, has a molecular mass of 45 kilodaltons and an Reinheitzahl value of 2.3. Amino-acid composition analysis and N-terminal sequencing have been performed with CP > 9.3. The N-terminal sequence shows no homology to any sequence in the protein and nucleic acid data banks. CP > 9.3 activity is induced by wounding in carrot leaves and petioles; this activity is also present in carrot roots but is unaltered by wounding. Enhanced CP > 9.3 activity is seen at 12 hr post-wounding and continues for at least 60 hr in leaves and petioles. Based on studies using cycloheximide, early activation of CP > 9.3 is not due to de novo protein synthesis, but rather to enzyme activation. Temperature and pH optima for CP > 9.3 using guaiacol as a substrate have been determined to be 32 degrees C and 4.9.

  19. A Multiscale Mechanical Model for Plant Tissue Stiffness

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    Damiano Pasini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant petioles and stems are hierarchical cellular structures, displaying structuralfeatures defined at multiple length scales. The current work focuses on the multi-scalemodelling of plant tissue, considering two orders of structural hierarchy, cell wall and tissue.The stiffness of plant tissue is largely governed by the geometry of the tissue cells, thecomposition of the cell wall and the structural properties of its constituents. The cell wallis analogous to a fiber reinforced composite, where the cellulose microfibril (CMF is theload bearing component. For multilayered cell wall, the microfibril angle (MFA in themiddle layer of the secondary cell wall (S2 layer largely affects the longitudinal stiffnessfor values up to 40o. The MFA in turn influences the overall wall stiffness. In this work,the effective stiffness of a model system based on collenchyma cell wall of a dicotyledonousplant, the Rheum rhabarbarum, is computed considering generic MFA and volume fractions.At the cellular level, a 2-D Finite Edge Centroidal Voronoi tessellation (FECVT has beendeveloped and implemented to generate the non-periodic microstructure of the plant tissue.The effective elastic properties of the cellular tissue are obtained through finite elementanalysis (FEA of the Voronoi model coupled with the cell wall properties. The stiffness ofthe hierarchically modeled tissue is critically important in determining the overall structuralproperties of plant petioles and stems.

  20. An efficient in vitro shoot regeneration from leaf petiolar explants and ex vitro rooting of Bixa orellana L.- A dye yielding plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Arifullah; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Namsa, Nima D; Ghanta, Rama Gopal

    2015-07-01

    Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) is a multipurpose tree grown for the production of commercially important dyes. In the present study, an efficient, reproducible protocol was developed for direct plant regeneration from in vitro derived petiole explants of Bixa orellana L. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 2-isopentenyl adenine (9.8 μM) and naphthalene acetic acid (10.7 μM) was found to be optimum for production of high frequency of shoot organogenesis. Subculturing of the shoots onto the fresh MS medium containing similar concentrations of 2-iP (9.8 μM) and NAA (10.7 μM) produced elongated shoots. Elongated shoots when placed onto MS medium supplemented with 1.7 μM indole-3-acetic acid and 14.7 μM 2-iP produced optimal rooting. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized and transplanted to the field successfully. Histological investigation revealed the origin of shoot primordia, from sub-epidermal cells of petiole explants. The regeneration protocol developed in this study can be useful for mass in vitro propagation and effective genetic transformation of commercially important edible dye yielding tree species.

  1. Endophytic bacteria with plant growth promoting abilities from Ophioglossum reticulatum L.

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    Ananya Mukherjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria colonizing the internal tissues of plants are known to improve plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. This study envisages the isolation and evaluation of plant growth promoting attributes of bacterial endophytes in perennial fern Ophioglossum reticulatum L. A total of 20 phenotypically distinguishable bacterial endophytes were isolated from surface sterilized leaf lamina, petiole, rhizome and spike of O. reticulatum L. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index showed that the rhizome (1.54 harbor more diverse types of endophytic bacteria than in its petiole, leaf lamina and spike. The isolated endophytes were characterized on the basis of micromorphological and physio-biochemical characters and tentatively assigned to the genus Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus. The isolates showed distinct variations in their enzymatic activities, sugar fermentation and antibiotic sensitivity profile. A number of endophytic isolates showed plant growth promoting activities like production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and siderophore, growth in nitrogen-free medium and solubilization of phosphate. Time course of growth and IAA production by the potent isolate Bacillus OPR 7 have been determined. Exploitation of such plant growth promoting endophytes appears to be one of the best options in increasing biomass yield and improving plant fitness and productivity.

  2. Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae, better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem microscopic characters of G. amygdalinum, aiming to expand the knowledge on this medicinal species and indicate anatomical structures. Plant material was fixed and sectioned by freehand and using a microtome. The sections were either stained or underwent standard histochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate epidermal relief. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata. There are striate cuticle, glandular and non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. In transverse section, the midrib and the petiole have a plano-convex shape. Both show several collateral vascular bundles and few crystals of calcium oxalate. In the stem, the epidermis persists and the phellogen has a peripheral origin. It presents typical endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The aspects that contribute to characterizing the species are stomata on both leaf surfaces, midrib and petiole features, the endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps in the stem, as well as the different types of trichome on both aerial organs.

  3. Tomato linalool synthase is induced in trichomes by jasmonic acid

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    van Schie, Chris C. N.; Haring, Michel A.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants emit a blend of volatile organic compounds, which mainly consists of terpenes. Upon herbivory or wounding, the emission of several terpenes increases. We have identified and characterized the first two tomato monoterpene synthases, LeMTS1 and LeMTS2. Although these proteins were highly homologous, recombinant LeMTS1 protein produced (R)-linalool from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and (E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), while recombinant LeMTS2 produced β-phellandrene, β-myrcene, and sabinene from GPP. In addition, these genes were expressed in different tissues: LeMTS1 was expressed in flowers, young leaves, stems, and petioles, while LeMTS2 was strongest expressed in stems and roots. LeMTS1 expression in leaves was induced by spider mite-infestation, wounding and jasmonic acid (JA)-treatment, while LeMTS2 did not respond to these stimuli. The expression of LeMTS1 in stems and petioles was predominantly detected in trichomes and could be induced by JA. Because JA treatment strongly induced emission of linalool and overexpression of LeMTS1 in tomato resulted in increased production of linalool, we propose that LeMTS1 is a genuine linalool synthase. Our results underline the importance of trichomes in JA-induced terpene emission in tomato. PMID:17440821

  4. Stipules in Apocynaceae: an ontogenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Valle Capelli, Natalie; Alonso Rodrigues, Bruna; Demarco, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Stipules are leaf structures common in many groups of plants that can take a variety of forms. In Gentianales, interpetiolar stipules are considered a synapomorphy of Rubiaceae; however, some reports in the literature refer to their presence in other families. The goal of this study was to analyze the development of leaf primordia to investigate the possible presence of reduced or modified stipules in Apocynaceae. Shoot apices of 12 genera were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy comparatively with one species of Rubiaceae. Early in their development, leaf primordia form two lateral expansions at the base of the petiole (stipules) that give rise to colleters in 11 of the 12 genera of Apocynaceae studied, similarly to the Rubiaceae species. The basal genera have pairs of stipules modified into colleters positioned laterally to the petiole, while other species belonging to the derived subfamilies have interpetiolar stipules that each project towards the opposite stipule and merge, forming a sheathing stipule and from this arc the interpetiolar colleters originate. The ontogenetic study proved for the first time that Apocynaceae is a stipulate family whose stipules are modified into colleters and their absence might be a secondary loss, changing the interpretation of stipule evolution in Gentianales.

  5. Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Zhong; Nan, Zhi Biao

    2007-06-01

    An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, 'standing milkvetch' (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of stunted plants with reddish-brown stems and yellow and necrotic leaf blades. An Embellisia sp. was isolated from symptomatic stem, leaf blade, petiole, and root tissues at varying frequencies of up to 90%. Single-spore isolates grew very slowly on PCA, PDA, V-8 and, wheat hay decoction agar. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation of seeds, dipping 2-day-old pre-germinated seedlings in inoculum and spraying inoculum on 6-month-old plants. Symptoms on test plants included yellow leaf lesions, brown lesions on stems and petioles, stunted side-shoots with yellow, small, distorted and necrotic leaves, shoot blight, bud death, crown rot, root rot, and plant death. The disease is named as 'yellow stunt and root rot' of A. adsurgens to distinguish it from diseases caused by other known pathogens. Embellisia sp. is also pathogenic to A. sinicus but not to 11 other tested plant species.

  6. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  7. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers

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    Bruna P. Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta. Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol

  8. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

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    Esperança Carrió

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-. In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports, Parietaria officinalis (15, Ranunculus parnassifolius (14, Meum athamanticum (13, Olea europaea (13, Quercus ilex (12, Ruta chalepensis (12, Sambucus nigra (10 and Thymus vulgaris (10. According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  9. Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dénes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp., dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Castanea, Trapa spp., several green vegetables (e.g. Rumex, Urtica, Humulus, Chenopodiaceae spp., Ranunculus ficaria, bulbs and tubers (Lathyrus tuberosus, Helianthus tuberosus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Allium spp. used for food in Europe, are also known to be consumed in Hungary. A characteristic feature of Hungarian plant use was the mass consumption of the underground parts of several marsh (e.g. Typha, Phragmites, Sagittaria, Alisma, Butomus, Bolboschoenus spp., as well as the endemic Armoracia macrocarpa and steppe species (e.g. Crambe tataria, Rumex pseudonatronatus. Consuming wild food plants is still important among Hungarians living in Transylvania: even nowadays more than 40 species are gathered and used at some locations.

  10. Hydrologic alteration affects aquatic plant assemblages in an arid-land river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Mark; Hestmark, Bennett; Barkworth, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term flow alteration on primary-producer assemblages. In 1962, Flaming Gorge Dam was constructed on the Green River. The Yampa River has remained an unregulated hydrologically variable river that joins the Green River 100 km downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam. In the 1960s before dam construction only sparse occurrences of two macroalgae, Cladophora and Chara, and no submerged vascular plants were recorded in the Green and Yampa rivers. In 2009–2010, aquatic plants were abundant and widespread in the Green River from the dam downstream to the confluence with the Yampa River. The assemblage consisted of six vascular species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum sibiricum, Nasturtium officinale,Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ranunculus aquatilis, the macroalgae Chara and Cladophora, and the bryophyte, Amblystegium riparium. In the Green River downstream from the Yampa River, and in the Yampa River, only sparse patches of Chara and Cladophora growing in the splash zone on boulders were collected. We attribute the observed changes in the Green River to an increase in water transparency and a reduction in suspended and bed-load sediment and high flow disturbances. The lack of hydrophyte colonization downstream from the confluence with the Yampa River has implications for understanding tributary amelioration of dam effects and for designing more natural flow-regime schedules downstream from large dams.

  11. The effects on photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration: An assessment of the response of Trifolium Repens L. cv. Blanca grown at F.A.C.E.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.E.

    1994-11-01

    Understanding how photosynthetic capacity acclimates to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations is vital in predicting the response of important grassland species such as Trifolium repens. Previous studies of acclimatization have been carried out in artificial experimental conditions, such as acrylic greenhouses or controlled environment chambers. The advent of FACE technology has enabled a large area of crop to be fumigated in the field, providing more realistic growing conditions. Pure stands of Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca grown at either 355 or 600{mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} were examined, and their photosynthetic response to elevated Ca determined via gas exchange studies. Rates of photosynthesis of young, fully expanded leaves were increased between 21 and 36% when grown and measured at elevated CO{sub 2}. This increase in A corresponded to a decrease in g{sub S} of between 18 and 52%. No acclimation effect was observed in the most frequently cut stands, whilst the response of stands clipped only 4 times per year was more variable. When down regulation of V{sub cmax} did occur, this was not nearly as marked as that which occurred in 3 other temperate species (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Ranunculus friesianus, Plantago lanceolata (L.) J. & C. Presl.), at similar growth regimes. No acclimation of stomatal frequency, SI or pore length was found to occur in the enriched clover stands.

  12. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula) and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Rigat, Montse; Garnatje, Teresa; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Vallès, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula) and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-). In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports), Parietaria officinalis (15), Ranunculus parnassifolius (14), Meum athamanticum (13), Olea europaea (13), Quercus ilex (12), Ruta chalepensis (12), Sambucus nigra (10) and Thymus vulgaris (10). According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans. PMID:22829861

  13. The aquatic vegetation in the Dokka delta, Randsfjorden. Status and assessment of the consequences of the Dokka regulation; Vannvegetasjonen i Dokkadeltaet, Randsfjorden. Status og vurdering av konsekvenser av Dokka-reguleringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandrud, T.E.; Mjelde, M.; Roerslett, B.

    1994-08-01

    In connection with regulation of the Dokka river system for hydroelectric power production, the aquatic vegetation of the Dokka delta before and immediately after regulation have been investigated, mainly by means of transect analyses including under water photography. As described in this report, the vegetation was found to be rich in species and luxuriant compared to that of the rest of Randsfjorden and dominated by the species Isoetes setacea, Subularia aquatica, Eleocharis acicularis, Ranunculus reptans and Isoetes lacustris. Due to the regulation, the water drains away from the great shallows in late winter and exposes the vegetation to drought and freeze. The drought keeps the Elodea canadensis in check in the delta. However, because of the very extensive delta shallows the delta experiences ice erosion and removal of fine material. The regulation will probably have relatively little short-term impact on the water vegetation. In the long run, however, regulation may contribute to a somewhat faster over-growing of some delta forms because of reduced flood discharge and reduced mud transport in the delta. 59 refs., 22 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Qualitative Parameters of Pasture Samples Obtained from Different Farms in 2012

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    Kamila Pejchova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was a representation of chemical composition of pasture samples from different farms and NDF degradability examination by in sacco method. The experiment took place on three farms with different altitudes. All samples were analyzed for ash, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. NDF degradability was evaluated by in sacco method in chosen herbs from samples of pasture. During the grazing season in a sward reduces the content of NL and at the same time increases the content of CF. During the pasture period declines the share of clovers in growth and on the contrary significantly higher proportion of grasses. The highest NDF degradability all the time of incubation in the rumen was in Taraxacum officinale and varied from 453.1 g.kg-1 NDF in 6 h of incubation to 882.1 g.kg-1 NDF in 72 h of incubation. The lowest NDF degradability was in Rumex obtusifolius (198.1 to 581.8 g.kg-1 NDF and Ranunculus acris (278.6 to 566 g.kg-1 NDF.Differences between farms are minimal.

  15. Phytochemical components, total phenol and mineral contents and antioxidant activity of six major medicinal plants from Rayen, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Sadat-Hosseini, Mohammad; Moghbeli, Mojtaba; Farajpour, Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the phytochemical components, minerals, the antioxidant activity and total phenol contents of the essential oil from aerial parts of six major medicinal plants in Rayen, Iran. The plants included Ranunculus arvensis, Teucrium polium, Dracocephalum polychaetum, Kelussia odoratissima, Artemisia sieberi and Thymus kotschyanus. Total phenol content ranged from 0.03 to 0.158 mg/mL. A. sieberi showed the highest radical scavenging ability (IC 50  = 94 μg/mL). The amount of minerals ranged as follows: P (0.23-29%), K (1.08-4.76%), Ca (0.78-2.35%), Mg (0.24-0.94%), Cu (8.3-15 mg/kg), Cd (0.7-1.1 mg/kg), Pb (2-11.7 mg/kg) and Fe (250-1280 mg/kg). A total of 79 compounds were identified across all plants. The main components studied in the plants were l-perillaldehyde, biosol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol, terpinyl acetate and 1,2,3,6,7,7 a-hexahydro-5 h-inden 5-one.

  16. Specialized bees fail to develop on non-host pollen: do plants chemically protect their pollen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praz, Christophe J; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    Bees require large amounts of pollen for their own reproduction. While several morphological flower traits are known to have evolved to protect plants against excessive pollen harvesting by bees, little is known on how selection to minimize pollen loss acts on the chemical composition of pollen. In this study, we traced the larval development of four solitary bee species, each specialized on a different pollen source, when reared on non-host pollen by transferring unhatched eggs of one species onto the pollen provisions of another species. Pollen diets of Asteraceae and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae) proved to be inadequate for all bee species tested except those specialized on these plants. Further, pollen of Sinapis (Brassicaceae) and Echium (Boraginaceae) failed to support larval development in one bee species specialized on Campanula (Campanulaceae). Our results strongly suggest that pollen of these four taxonomic groups possess protective properties that hamper digestion and thus challenge the general view of pollen as an easy-to-use protein source for flower visitors.

  17. A little bit of sex matters for genome evolution in asexual plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eHojsgaard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genome evolution in asexual organisms is theoretically expected to be shaped by various factors:first, hybrid origin and polyploidy confer a genomic constitution of highly heterozygous genotypes with multiple copies of genes;second, asexuality confers a lack of recombination and variation in populations, which reduces the efficiency of selection against deleterious mutations;hence, the accumulation of mutations and a gradual increase in mutational load (Muller’s ratchetwould lead to rapid extinction of asexual lineages;third, allelic sequence divergence is expected to result in rapid divergence of lineages (Meselson effect.Recent transcriptome studies on the asexual polyploid complex Ranunculus auricomus using single-nucleotide polymorphisms confirmed neutral allelic sequence divergence within a short time frame, but rejected a hypothesis of a genome-wide accumulation of mutations in asexuals compared to sexuals, except for a few genes related to reproductive development.We discuss a general model that the observed incidence of facultative sexuality in plants may unmask deleterious mutations with partial dominance and expose them efficiently to purging selection.A little bit of sex may help to avoid genomic decay and extinction.

  18. Endosperm formation in aposporous Crataegus (Rosaceae, Spiraeoideae, tribe Pyreae): parallels to Ranunculaceae and Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talent, Nadia; Dickinson, Timothy A

    2007-01-01

    Apomixis in Crataegus is primarily aposporous and requires pollination. The embryo sac is of the Polygonum type. A combination of meiotically unreduced embryo sacs with apparently reduced pollen would violate the usual requirement for a 2 : 1 ratio of maternal to paternal contributions to the endosperm. We therefore investigated the origin of endosperm in seeds of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids of the sister genera Crataegus and Mespilus. Flow-cytometric DNA measurements from embryo and endosperm in mature seeds were converted to ploidy levels using leaf-tissue information. The diploids had triploid endosperm. In c. 60% of seed from polyploids, one sperm apparently contributes to the endosperm, while 25% or more may involve two sperm. Additional results suggest that trinucleate central cells also occur. Fertilization of meiotically unreduced eggs is indicated. The ratio of maternal to paternal contributions to the endosperm in these apomictic Crataegus is not constrained to 2 : 1. They thus resemble some Sorbus (Pyreae) and very distantly related Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae). It is suggested that Paspalum (Poaceae) may have similarly flexible endosperm ploidy levels.

  19. The Progamic Phase in High-Mountain Plants: From Pollination to Fertilization in the Cold

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    Gerlinde Steinacher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In high-mountains, cold spells can occur at any time during the growing season and plants may be covered with snow for several days. This raises the question to what extent sexual processes are impaired by low temperatures. We tested pollen performance and fertilization capacity of high-mountain species with different elevational distribution in the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Gentianella germanica, Ranunculus glacialis, R. alpestris, Saxifraga bryoides, S. caesia, S. moschata during simulated cold snaps in the laboratory. Plants were exposed to 0 °C (the temperature below the snow for 12, 36, 60 and 84 h. In S. caesia, the experiment was verified in situ during a cold snap. Sexual processes coped well with large temperature differences and remained functional at near-freezing temperatures for a few days. During the cooling-down phase a high percentage (67–97% of pollen grains germinated and grew tubes into the style. At zero degrees, tube growth continued slowly both in the laboratory and in situ below the snow. Fertilization occurred in up to 100% of flowers in the nival species and in G. germanica, but was strongly delayed or absent in the alpine species. During rewarming, fertilization continued. Overall, progamic processes in high-mountain plants appear fairly robust toward weather extremes increasing the probability of successful reproduction.

  20. Vitality of aquatic plants and microbial activity of sediment in an oligotrophic lake (Lake Bohinj, Slovenia

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    Tatjana SIMČIČ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The vitality of eight macrophyte species and the microbial activity of sediment in an oligotrophic lake (Lake Bohinj, Slovenia were studied via the terminal electron transport system (ETS activity of mitochondria. The levels of ETS activity of vascular plants were as follows: Ranunculus circinatus, Myriohpyllum spicatum, Potamogeton alpinus, P. perfoliatus, P. lucens. Fontinalis antipyretica exhibited the highest ETS activity of the non-vascular plants, followed by charales Chara delicatula and C. aspera. High values enable R. circinatus, an amphibious species with rapid growth, to survive under conditions in which the water level changes throughout the season. M. spicatum, a species with broad ecological tolerance, also exhibited high ETS activity. The ETS activity of the microbial community in sediment was affected by temperature and/or the amount and origin of the organic matter. A positive correlation between the ETS activity of the sediment and that of M. spicatum and R. circinatus was measured, while negative correlations or no correlation were observed for mosses and macroalgae. The high ETS activity in sediment indicates rapid mineralization of organic matter and, in turn, sufficient nutrients for growth of macrophytes.

  1. Chromosomal Mapping of Transposable Elements of the Rex Family in the Bristlenose Catfish, Ancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae), from the Amazonian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, Ramon Marin; Ribeiro, Leila Braga; Feldberg, Eliana; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida

    2017-05-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences are present in the genome of basically every known organism, and transposable elements (TE) are one of the most representative sequences involved in chromosomal rearrangements and the genomic evolution of eukaryotes. In fish, the non-LTR retrotransposon TEs, Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6, are widely distributed in fish genomes and are the best-characterized TEs in several species. In the current study, three of these retroelements were physically mapped, through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in 7 species (71 specimens) of the genus Ancistrus, known as bristlenose catfish: Ancistrus ranunculus, Ancistrus sp. 1 "Purus," Ancistrus sp. 2 "Catalão," Ancistrus dolichopterus, Ancistrus maximus, Ancistrus aff. dolichopterus, and Ancistrus dubius. Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 showed a cluster distribution, mainly in the terminal and pericentromeric portions, in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, and did not occur in sexual chromosomes; however, the number and position of the clusters varied between species. This TE distribution suggests its implication in the karyotypic evolution of these species, without affecting the rise of sexual chromosome systems in Ancistrus, in view of their chromosomal variation. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. In vitro evaluering van die effektiwiteit van vyf plante wat tradisioneel teen seksueel oordraagbare siektes gebruik word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Swart

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Tot soveel as 60% van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking raadpleeg tradisionele genesers vir siektetoestande, insluitende seksueel oordraagbare siektes (SOS. Medisinale plante speel ’n belangrike rol in die behandeling van SOS deur tradisionele genesers, maar sonder enige wetenskaplike bewyse van effektiwiteit. Vir hierdie studie is 5 plante vanuit die literatuur gekies op grond van hul gebruik deur tradisionele genesers vir die behandeling van SOS. Siftingstoetse vir die bepaling van aktiwiteit teen bakterieë en teen SOS is op die plante uitgevoer. Die plante was Clematis brachiata, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Lepidium bonariense, Ranunculus multifidus en Typha capensis. Siftingstoetse is uitgevoer met die organismes Candida albicans, Neisseria gonorrhoeae en Haemophilus ducreyi wat met SOS geassosieer word, terwyl Bacillus subtilus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa en Aspergillus niger ook in die siftingstoetse ingesluit is. Slegs Lepidium bonariense het aktiwiteit teen die gebruikte organismes getoon. Dit is dus duidelik dat daar ’n behoefte bestaan om die effektiwiteit van medisinale plante wetenskaplik te bepaal en te kommunikeer.

  3. Plant ethnoveterinary practices in two pyrenean territories of catalonia (iberian peninsula) and in two areas of the balearic islands and comparison with ethnobotanical uses in human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Rigat, Montse; Garnatje, Teresa; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Vallès, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula) and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-). In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports), Parietaria officinalis (15), Ranunculus parnassifolius (14), Meum athamanticum (13), Olea europaea (13), Quercus ilex (12), Ruta chalepensis (12), Sambucus nigra (10) and Thymus vulgaris (10). According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  4. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijin Lin

    Full Text Available Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  5. Development of Ophiocordyceps sinensis through Plant-Mediated Interkingdom Host Colonization

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    Wei Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a well-known entomogenous and medicinal fungus. After its anamorphs parasitize the larvae of the genus Thitarodes, fruit-bodies may form to be used as medicine. However, its developmental mechanisms remain unknown. The distribution of O. sinensis was determined in different tissues of the Thitarodes larvae and the dominant plant species using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique, respectively. We found that more fungal material was located in plants than in larvae, especially in Ranunculus tanguticus. A considerable amount was detected in larval intestinal-wall and plant roots. It is suggested that plants are the potential hosts of O. sinensis, which modifies our understanding of the life cycle of O. sinensis and indicates that the phytophagous larvae may become infected as they feed. Our research may contribute to the study of systematic evolution and population ecology of O. sinensis, elucidate its developmental mechanism and promote sustainable harvesting.

  6. Local ciliate communities associated with aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Anna M; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2014-03-01

    This study, based within the catchment area of the River Frome, an important chalk stream in the south of England, compared ciliated protozoan communities associated with three species of aquatic macrophyte common to lotic habitats: Ranunculus penicillatus subsp. pseudofluitans, Nasturtium officinale and Sparganium emersum. A total of 77 ciliate species were counted. No species-specific ciliate assemblage was found to be typical of any one plant species. Ciliate abundance between plant species was determined to be significantly different. The ciliate communities from each plant species were unique in that the number of species increased with ciliate abundance. The community associated with R. penicillatus subsp. pseudofluitans showed the highest consistency and species richness whereas S. emersum ciliate communities were unstable. Most notably, N. officinale was associated with low ciliate abundances and an apparent reduction in biofilm formation, discussed herein in relation to the plant's production of the microbial toxin phenethyl isothiocyanate. We propose that the results reflect differences in the quantity and quality of biofilm present on the plants, which could be determined by the different plant morphologies, patterns of plant decay and herbivore defense systems, all of which suppress or promote the various conditions for biofilm growth.

  7. Bioaccumulations of heavy metals in submerged macrophytes in the mountain river Biała Lądecka (Poland, Sudety Mts.

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    Pokorny Przemysław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the Biała Lądecka River which is a mountain river. It is similar to many European mountain rivers in terms of hydromorphology and catchment management. The aim of this study was to determine the bioconcentration factors of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn in Ranunculus aquatile (L. Dumort., Fontinalis antipyretica (L. ex Hedw., and Lemanea fluviatilis (L. C.Ag. The content of metals in water, sediment, and submerged plants was determined. The metal concentrations in plants can be arranged as follows: Hg < Cd < Cr < Ni < Cu < Pb

  8. Evaluación nutricional de diferentes ensilajes para alimentar conejos

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    Rigoberto Villa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En la Granja Experimental Bengala de la Universidad del Quindío, ubicada en el municipio de Filandia, Quindío, se evaluó el valor nutricional de diferentes ensilajes para alimentar conejos, (pasto imperial Axonopus scoparius (Flüggé Kuhlm. mezclado con botón de oro (Ranunculus acris L., ramio (Boehmeria nívea L. y morera (Morus alba L.. Se valoraron cinco grupos de conejos conformados por cinco animales cada uno. El grupo de conejos alimentado con ensilaje de pasto imperial y botón de oro, fueron los que obtuvieron la mayor ganancia de peso 141g/semanal, mientras que los conejos alimentados con solo forrajes frescos, obtuvieron un peso promedio de 109g/semanal. Las fuentes nutricionales que mejor responden en la alimentación de conejos en su orden fueron: ensilaje de botón de oro, ensilaje de morera y ensilaje de ramio.

  9. Vascular plant flora in the Cytadela cemeteries in Poznań (Poland

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    Aneta Czarna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the spontaneous vascular flora and the flora originating from old or contemporary plantations found in all six currently existing cemeteries located in immediate vicinity on the slopes of the Cytadela Park in Poznań. These studies were carried out in the years 2011–2014. Over this period, 255 species of vascular plants were found. The most interesting species include: Chionodoxa luciliae, Rumex rugosus, Aegopodium podagraria ‘Variegatum’, Ficaria verna f. plenifolia, Galanthus nivalis f. pleniflora, Ornithogalum boucheanum, Ranunculus repens ‘Plena’, and hybrids: Dactylis ×intercedens, Gagea ×pomeranica, Ornithogalum boucheanum × O. nutans, Viola cyanea × V. odorata. A great number of spring geophytes, namely 31 species, was also found. Among species occurring spontaneously outside the graves, some were new for Poland, e.g., Chionodoxa luciliae, Ornithogalum boucheanum × O. nutans, Viola cyanea × V. odorata, while others were new for the Wielkopolska region: Rumex rugosus, Dactylis ×intercedens, Gagea ×pomeranica, as well as new for Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Muscari armeniacus, M. neglectum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, and Veronica hederifolia s. s.

  10. Does competition for phosphate supply explain the invasion pattern of Elodea species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, Gabrielle

    2005-09-01

    Two invasive aquatic plants, Elodea canadensis and Elodea nuttallii, occurred in north-eastern France. In this study, we examine the influence of phosphorus availability in soft water streams to explain the invasion pattern of exotic species (E. nuttallii and E. canadensis) compared to native plants (Callitriche platycarpa, Ranunculus peltatus). Total phosphorus was measured in these four aquatic macrophytes. Sediment total phosphorus and water-soluble reactive phosphorus were also analysed each season in 2001. Phosphorus content in the two invasive species and in R. peltatus was higher than in C. platycarpa. Elodea species are adapted to the seasonal phosphorus fluctuations as well as R. peltatus and exhibited high phosphorus storage ability. The high fluctuation availability of resources in space or/and time favoured the spread of the invasive plants and confirms the theory of invasibility of Davis et al. [2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J. Ecol. 88, 528-534]. The eutrophication process increases the invasibility of E. nuttallii's, while inducing competition between E. nuttallii and native macrophyte species.

  11. Vascular flora of the Prometanj site (Mokra Gora, northern Prokletije Mt.

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    Radak Boris Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic research of the Prometanj site, located in the northwestern part of Mokra Gora Mt. along the right bank of the Ibar River, was conducted during 2011. A total of 340 species and five subspecies of vascular plant taxa were registered. Families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, while the most numerous genera were Trifolium, Acer, Campanula, Geranium, Veronica, Ranunculus and Vicia. Floral elements of analyzed plant taxa were grouped into ten areal types, with domination of Central European and Eurasian and significant participation of Mediterranean-Submediterranean. The biological spectrum was characterized by the dominance of hemicryptophytes. Five strictly protected and 43 protected species were registered. Prometanj is the only remaining locality in Serbia for tertiary species Adenophora liliifolia. Floristic research of Prometanj should be extended to entire area of Mokra Gora Mt. together with the Ibar River gorge, in order to explore the whole botanical richness of this area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  12. Permanent colonization of creek sediments, creek water and limnic water plants by four Listeria species in low population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Halter, Evi; Schober, Steffen; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-09-01

    During a 1-year longitudinal study, water, sediment and water plants from two creeks and one pond were sampled monthly and analyzed for the presence of Listeria species. A total of 90 % of 30 sediment samples, 84 % of 31 water plant samples and 67 % of 36 water samples were tested positive. Generally, most probable number counts ranged between 1 and 40 g-1, only occasionally >110 cfu g-1 were detected. Species differentiation based on FT-IR spectroscopy and multiplex PCR of a total of 1220 isolates revealed L. innocua (46 %), L. seeligeri (27 %), L. monocytogenes (25 %) and L. ivanovii (2 %). Titers and species compositions were similar during all seasons. While the species distributions in sediments and associated Ranunculus fluitans plants appeared to be similar in both creeks, RAPD typing did not provide conclusive evidence that the populations of these environments were connected. It is concluded that (i) the fresh-water sediments and water plants are year-round populated by Listeria, (ii) no clear preference for growth in habitats as different as sediments and water plants was found and (iii) the RAPD-based intraspecific biodiversity is high compared to the low population density.

  13. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  14. Effects of Mulching Tolerant Plant Straw on Soil Surface on Growth and Cadmium Accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming’an; Ren, Yajun; Luo, Li; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Daiyu; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd) tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica) on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:25490210

  15. Comportamento alimentar de adultos de Diabrotica speciosa na presença de extratos aquosos de Meliaceae Feeding behavior of Diabrotica speciosa adults on Meliaceae aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Andrade dos Santos Seffrin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi selecionar extratos com atividade antialimentar sobre Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. O consumo foliar de insetos adultos foi determinado, em laboratório, sob condições de livre escolha. Folhas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris foram cortadas em formato circular e tratadas com extratos aquosos de folíolos e de pecíolos com caule de: Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart, Melia azedarach L. var. azedarach, Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Trichilia catigua A. Juss. e Trichilia elegans A. Juss., dispostos em placas de Petri, e um inseto liberado e mantido no interior da placa por 24 horas. A área foliar consumida foi determinada após este período. O extrato de folíolos de M. azedarach var. azedarach apresentou maior efeito antialimentar que o extrato de pecíolos com caule. Entretanto, a área foliar consumida nas folhas tratadas com o extrato de pecíolos com caule foi menor do que nas tratadas com extratos de folíolos, indicando maior efeito antialimentar. O índice KOGAN & GOEDEN (1970 mostrou efeito fagodeterrente para todos os extratos, mas não mostrou diferenças significativas entre eles.The aim of this research was to select extracts with insect antifeedant activity. Leaf consumption by adults of Diabrotica speciosa was determined under laboratory conditions with free choice. Bean leaf had been cut in circular format and treated with aqueous extracts of leaflets, petioles with stems of Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart, Melia azedarach L. var. azedarach, Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Trichilia catigua A. Juss. e Trichilia elegans A. Juss, arranged in Petri plates, and an insect released and kept within the plate for 24 hours. The consumed leaf area was determined after this period. The leaflet extract of M. azedarach var. azedarach showed greater antifeedant activity tham the extract of petiole with stems. However, the consumed leaf area in the leaves

  16. Ascorbate Biosynthesis during Early Fruit Development Is the Main Reason for Its Accumulation in Kiwi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Liang, Dong; Li, Juan; Wang, Yanlei

    2010-01-01

    Background Ascorbic acid (AsA) is a unique antioxidant as well as an enzyme cofactor. Although it has multiple roles in plants, it is unclear how its accumulation is controlled at the expression level, especially in sink tissues. Kiwifruit (Actinidia) is well-known for its high ascorbate content. Our objective was to determine whether AsA accumulates in the fruits primarily through biosynthesis or because it is imported from the foliage. Methodology/Principal Findings We systematically investigated AsA levels, biosynthetic capacity, and mRNA expression of genes involved in AsA biosynthesis in kiwi (A. deliciosa cv. Qinmei). Recycling and AsA localization were also monitored during fruit development and among different tissue types. Over time, the amount of AsA, with its capacity for higher biosynthesis and lower recycling, peaked at 30 days after anthesis (DAA), and then decreased markedly up to 60 DAA before declining more slowly. Expression of key genes showed similar patterns of change, except for L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP). However, GPP had good correlation with the rate of AsA accumulation. The expression of these genes could be detected in phloem of stem as well as petiole of leaf and fruit. Additionally, fruit petioles had greater ascorbate amounts, although that was the site of lowest expression by most genes. Fruit microtubule tissues also had higher AsA. However, exogenous applications of AsA to those petioles did not lead to its transport into fruits, and distribution of ascorbate was cell-specific in the fruits, with more accumulation occurring in larger cells. Conclusions These results suggest that AsA biosynthesis in kiwi during early fruit development is the main reason for its accumulation in the fruits. We also postulate here that GPP is a good candidate for regulating AsA biosynthesis whereas GDP-L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphorylase is not. PMID:21151561

  17. Using cluster analysis as a method of classification of the genus Salix L. representatives

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    М. В. Роїк

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study interactions among the representatives of the genus Salix L. through the cluster analysis, form groups of closely related species and hybrid forms basing on differences of morphological parameters of leaves. Methods. Field, cluster analysis and tree graphics. Results. Willow species were grouped according to absolute parameters of leaf, and three groups of clusters were identified. The degree of affinity between species were assessed using values of an Euclidean distance. Distinctive features of leaf parameters were defined: length of a leaf blade (Ll, distance (cm between the leaf tip and its maximum width (SDmxT and the distance between the leaf tip (cm and the line of its width that corresponds to the length of petiole (SLpT. Conclusions. Using the willow species collection as an example, diagnostically valuable quantitative parameters of leaves were revealed, the use of which allows to identify willow species and hybrid forms through PC applications.

  18. First report of natural infection of Vigna mungo var. silvestris L. by Groundnut bud necrosis virus, a tospovirus

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    Mohammad AKRAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2008, Vigna mungo var. silvestris growing in the experimental field of the Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India, showed chlorosis around some lateral veins and vein branches (mainly near the leaflet margin, downward curling of the leaf margins, necrosis of the stems and petioles, and twisting of the leaflets. Disease incidence was 20%. Symptoms indicated that the cause was Groundnut bud necrosis virus. The virus was identified on the basis of the symptoms on the diagnostic host, and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using specific primers of the NSm and NP genes. To our knowledge this is the first report of Groundnut bud necrosis virus on V. mungo var. silvestris.

  19. Ionome changes in Xylella fastidiosa-infected Nicotiana tabacum correlate with virulence and discriminate between subspecies of bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Sefick, S A; Parker, J K; Arnold, T; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of ionomes has been used to uncover the basis of nutrient utilization and environmental adaptation of plants. Here, ionomic profiles were used to understand the phenotypic response of a plant to infection by genetically diverse isolates of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, X. fastidiosa isolates were used to infect a common model host (Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1'), and leaf and sap concentrations of eleven elements together with plant colonization and symptoms were assessed. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that changes in the ionome were significantly correlated with symptom severity and bacterial populations in host petioles. Moreover, plant ionome modification by infection could be used to differentiate the X. fastidiosa subspecies with which the plant was infected. This report establishes host ionome modification as a phenotypic response to infection.

  20. [Cotton laccase gene overexpression in transgenic Populus alba var. pyramidalis and its effects on the lignin biosynthesis in transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhu, Mu Lan; Wei, Zhi Ming

    2008-02-01

    Using petioles as explants, a cotton laccase cDNA (GaLA C1) was introduced into Populus alba var. pyramidalis by A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicated that transgene was stably integrated into the genome of transformants. Enzyme assay showed that laccase activity was obviously increased in transformants. As compared with untransformed control, total lignin content in all tested transgenic lines was elevated in varying degrees (as highest as 21.5%). Histochemical staining of lignin further confirmed that overexpressing GaLA C1 could result in increased lignin content in transformants. Together, our data strongly suggested that GaLA C1 may participate in lignin synthesis and this is the first direct transgenic evidence for the involvement of plant laccases in lignification.

  1. Commiphora kaokoensis (Burseraceae, a new species from Namibia, with notes on C. dinteri and C. namaensis

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    W. Swanepoel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Commipora kaokoensis W.Swanepoel. here described as a new species, is known only from the Kaokoveld Centre of Endemism, an arid region in northwestern Namibia. Illustrations of the plant and a distribution map are provided. Diagnostic characters include the petiolate or subsessile. all-simple and relatively large leaves with the lamina obovate or elliptic. New information is provided on the leaf morphology and geographical distribution of C. namaensis Schinz and C.  dinteri Engl., species with which the new species shares some similarities. When without leaves or fruit, the three species can easily be con­fused. A comprehensive table with diagnostic morphological features to distinguish between the three species is presented.

  2. Low temperature storage of NAA, GA3 and 2,4-D treated citrus budsticks Armazenamento em baixa temperatura de hastes porta-borbulhas de citros tratadas com ANA, GA3 e 2,4-D

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    Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage allows citrus budstick conservation for several months, although gradual bud viability loss and abscission of leaf petioles is observed. This study aimed to maintain bud viability reducing leaf petiole abscission in budsticks of 'Baianinha' and 'Valencia' sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck, 'Tahiti' lime (C. latifolia Tanaka, and 'Murcott' tangor (C. sinensis × C. reticulata, using NAA, GA3, 2,4-D, and low temperature storage. After a 15-minutes-immersion in distilled water and NAA and GA3 solutions at concentrations of 10, 100, 500 and 1000 µmol L-1, and 2,4-D solutions at concentrations of 1, 10, 50 and 100 µmol L-1, the shoots were stored in polyethylene bags at 5 ± 1ºC for 74 days. Percentage of leaf petiole abscission, fresh and dry matter losses, bud viability, and growth flush were evaluated. NAA and 2,4-D had the highest efficiency for petiole abscission inhibition, reaching almost 99% of success. The packaging system and shoot storage under low temperature efficiently reduced fresh and dry matter losses. Bud viability of 'Baianinha', 'Valencia' and 'Murcott' shoots was not reduced by storage, maintaining above 95% of grafting success. NAA, GA3 and 2,4-D treatments had no influence on sprout growth.O armazenamento refrigerado possibilita a conservação de hastes porta-borbulhas de citros por vários meses, embora ocorra perda gradual da viabilidade das borbulhas e abscisão dos pecíolos foliares. Este estudo objetivou manter a viabilidade das borbulhas e reduzir a abscisão dos pecíolos foliares das hastes porta-borbulhas das laranjeiras 'Baianinha' e 'Valência'(C. sinensis Osbeck, da lima ácida 'Tahiti'(C. latifolia Tanaka e da tangoreira 'Murcote' (C. sinensis × C. reticulata por meio do tratamento com ANA, GA3, 2,4-D e armazenamento refrigerado. As hastes foram imersas por 15 minutos em água destilada e em soluções com os reguladores de crescimento ANA e GA3 nas concentrações 10, 100, 500 e 1000 µmol L-1 e

  3. ANATOMI DAUN PIPERACEAE DARI KAWASAN GUNUNG SLAMET, JAWA TENGAH

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    Eka Fatmawati Tihurua

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf anatomy of Piperaceae from Gunung Slamet, Central Java has made with standard  paraffin and paradermal method. The results showed that Piperaceae has dorsiventral leaf, hypostomatatic or amphistomatatic, tetracytic and cyclocytic stomata type. Hypoderm tissue exist in upper and/or lower part of leaf, mesophyll was arranged by 1-2 layers of palisade and 2-7 layers of sponge tissue. There were 3 types of trichome i.e. glandular trichome which had globose cell with short stalk, bicellular glandular trichome and multicellular & uniseriate non-glandular trichome. The shape of the crystal of Piperaceae from gunung Slamet are sand, needle, drusse or prismatic which distributed in hypodermis, mesophyll and midrib. Piperaceae petiole was arranged by open or sometimes closed circle vascular bundles. These open vascular bundles were crescent shape or resemble to U and V shapes. 

  4. [Anatomy and uses of the mature leaves of three species of Sabal (Arecaceae) of the Yucatan, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Martha; Rebollar, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes the leaf anatomy of Sabal mauritiiformis (Karst.) Griseb. & H. Wendl., Sabal mexicana Mart. and Sabal yapa Wright ex Becc., three of the four most representative species of the Yucatán Península, in Mexico. These species are locally used: in the roofing of traditional homes, as food (fruits and apical buds), and in the production of hats, brooms and handicrafts. Leaf samples were collected in secondary growth of lower montane rainforest in the state of Quintana Roo and in two home gardens in the state of Yucatán. Herbarium samples were obtained, and samples of blade and petiole were fixed in formaline-acetic acid-alcohol. Cross incisions were made on the blade and petiole, and were dyed with safranin and toluidine blue O. The results show that S. mauritiiformis and S. yapa are morphologically alike: both are tall, slim palm trees; the leaf in S. mauritiiformis is a shorter palm-like structure compared with the other two species. The shape of the main nerve, as seen in cross section, is rectangular in the three species. The hastula in the three species is acuminate and adaxial. The foliar anatomic structure is similar in the three species, although there are some differences. The adaxial an abaxial epidermis of the blade consist of one layer and, superficially, the anticlinal walls are straight; the stomata are intercostal, of the tetracytic type, present on both surfaces in S. mexicana and S. yapa and only on the abaxial surface on S. mauritiiformis. The hypodermis is one layer thick in S. yapa and in S. mexicana and two layers thick in S. mauritiiformis. In the three species the palisade parenchyma consists of several undefined strata as the cells are similar-in shape and size--to the cells in the spongy parenchyma, so there is no marked difference between these strata and the spongy parenchyma seems almost continuous. Both fibrous and vascular bundles are distributed between the hypodermis and the palisade parenchyma; the fiber bundles can

  5. Freshwater ascomycetes: Alascospora evergladensis, a new genus and species from the Florida Everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Huzefa A; Violi, Helen A; Shearer, Carol A

    2010-01-01

    Alascospora evergladensis, a freshwater ascomycete collected from submerged dead petioles of Nymphaea odorata during a survey of aquatic fungi along a phosphorus gradient in the Florida Everglades, is described and illustrated as a new genus and species in the Pleosporales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes). The new fungus is unique among genera in the Pleosporales based on a combination of morphological characters that include light brown, translucent, membranous, ostiolate ascomata with dark, amorphous material irregularly deposited on the peridium, especially around the ostiole; globose, fissitunicate, thick-walled asci; septate pseudoparaphyses; and 1-septate ascospores that are hyaline when young, and surrounded by a hyaline gelatinous sheath that is wing-shaped in outline on each side of the ascospore. The sheath is distinctive in that it first expands in water and is translucent, then condenses and darkens around older ascospores, giving them a dark brown, verruculose appearance.

  6. Mycobiota of the date palm phylloplane: description and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Leticia; López-Jiménez, José Angel; López-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2007-12-31

    We have analysed the mycobiota of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera, L.) leaves using several techniques. Profusely sporulating fungi (Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp.) developed when plating leaf fragments and leaf washings. Fusarium oxysporum, was particularly abundant in leaves infested with the red scale insect Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell, 1899, but an undescribed Lecanicillium cf. psalliotae was also found. Dual and overlay cultures showed interactions between palm pathogens, entomopathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. The most significant was the strong inhibition of the palm pathogen Penicillium vermoesenii caused by the entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana. No symptoms developed when F. oxysporum isolated from scale insects or the entomopathogens B. bassiana or Lecanicillium dimorphum were wound-inoculated on P. dactylifera petioles.

  7. Estimating plant stem emerging points (PSEPs) of sugar of beets in early growth stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik; Mosgaard Giselsson, Thomas; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2012-01-01

    Successful intra--row mechanical weed control of sugar beet 
(beta vulgaris) in early growth stages requires precise 
knowledge about location of crop plants.
A computer vision system for locating Plant Stem Emerging Point (PSEP) 
of sugar beet in early growth stages was developed and tested.......
The system is based on detection of individual leaves; each leaf location 
is then described by centre of mass and petiole location.
From location of detected leaves is a model of the true PSEP then 
generated.
From testing the system, PSEP estimates based on a single leaf have 
an average error of ~3mm...

  8. Micropropagation of Salvia wagneriana Polak and hairy root cultures with rosmarinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Bertoli, Alessandra; Pistelli, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2016-01-04

    Salvia wagneriana Polak is a tropical species native to Central America, well adapted to grow in the Mediterranean basin for garden decoration. Micropropagation has been assessed from axillary shoots of adult plants using a Murashige and Skoog basal medium, with the addition of 1.33-μM 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot proliferation; the subsequent rooting phase occurred in plant growth regulator-free medium. The plants were successfully acclimatised with high survival frequency. Hairy roots were induced after co-cultivation of leaf lamina and petiole fragments with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and confirmed by PCR. The establishment and proliferation of the selected HRD3 line were obtained in hormone-free liquid medium and the production of rosmarinic acid (RA) was evaluated after elicitation. The analysis of RA was performed by LC-ESI-DAD-MS in the hydroalcoholic extracts. The addition of casein hydrolysate increased the RA production, whereas no enrichment was observed after the elicitation with jasmonic acid.

  9. Analysis of Isoquinoline Alkaloid Composition and Wound-Induced Variation in Nelumbo Using HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xianbao; Zhu, Lingping; Fang, Ting; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Yang, Dong; Ogutu, Collins; Liu, Yanling; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-02-10

    Alkaloids are the most relevant bioactive components in lotus, a traditional herb in Asia, but little is known about their qualitative and quantitative distributions. Here, we report on the alkaloid composition in various lotus organs. Lotus laminae and embryos are rich in isoquinoline alkaloids, whereas petioles and rhizomes contain trace amounts of alkaloids. Wide variation of alkaloid accumulation in lamina and embryo was observed among screened genotypes. In laminae, alkaloid accumulation increases during early developmental stages, reaches the highest level at full size stage, and then decreases slightly during senescence. Vegetative and embryogenic tissues accumulate mainly aporphine-type and bisbenzylisoquinoline-type alkaloids, respectively. Bisbenzylisoquinoline-type alkaloids may be synthesized mainly in lamina and then transported into embryo via latex through phloem translocation. In addition, mechanical wounding was shown to induce significant accumulation of specific alkaloids in lotus leaves.

  10. Ants visit nectaries of Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae in a Brazilian rainforest: effects on herbivory and pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae produces nectar on the petioles of buds, flowers, and fruits (extrafloral nectaries but no nectar is found on its flowers, and it is probably a deceptive species. In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, some aspects of both the ecology and behavior of Camponotus sericeiventris (Formicinae and Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae, two ant species foraging on E. denticulatum extrafloral nectaries, were investigated. Both experiments, using termites as baits and field observations, suggest that these ant species are able to prevent reproductive organ herbivory, without affecting pollinator behaviour. Since a low fruit set is often cited as a characteristic of the family, especially for deceptive species, ants attracted to orchid inflorescences protect reproductive structures and increase the probability of pollination success. Epidendrum denticulatum flowers were visited and probably pollinated by Heliconius erato (Nymphalidae and Euphyes leptosema (Hesperiidae.

  11. Ants visit nectaries of Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae in a Brazilian rainforest: effects on herbivory and pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Almeida

    Full Text Available Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae produces nectar on the petioles of buds, flowers, and fruits (extrafloral nectaries but no nectar is found on its flowers, and it is probably a deceptive species. In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, some aspects of both the ecology and behavior of Camponotus sericeiventris (Formicinae and Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae, two ant species foraging on E. denticulatum extrafloral nectaries, were investigated. Both experiments, using termites as baits and field observations, suggest that these ant species are able to prevent reproductive organ herbivory, without affecting pollinator behaviour. Since a low fruit set is often cited as a characteristic of the family, especially for deceptive species, ants attracted to orchid inflorescences protect reproductive structures and increase the probability of pollination success. Epidendrum denticulatum flowers were visited and probably pollinated by Heliconius erato (Nymphalidae and Euphyes leptosema (Hesperiidae.

  12. [Study on morphology and anatomy of Akebia trifoliate seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiao-Ri; Li, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Hong-Ran; Li, Jun-De; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-12-01

    Akebia trifoliate has been reported to have many pharmacological activities and the roots, petioles and seeds are used to different symptoms. However, the structure and anatomy of its seeds was almost not reported until now. In the present study, we investigated the morphological characters of the fruit and seed, and the anatomical characters of the testa, micropyle, embryo and endosperm, which could provide evidences for the study on classification, identification and application of A. trifoliate. Our results showed that the testa of A. trifoliate consisted of an epidermic cell layer, the sclerenchyma cells layer, the parenchyma cells layer and an innermost pigment layer. At the micropylar region, the outermost epidermal cells were specialized the white caruncle-like structure and the testa included a lot of lignified tissues. Endosperm comprises two layer cells. Outermost yellowish-brown layer cells contains lots of fat droplets, and innermost white layer cells contains lots of aleurone grains and crystalloids.

  13. Optimal plot size in the evaluation of papaya scions: proposal and comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Felipe Celanti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Evaluating the quality of scions is extremely important and it can be done by characteristics of shoots and roots. This experiment evaluated height of the aerial part, stem diameter, number of leaves, petiole length and length of roots of papaya seedlings. Analyses were performed from a blank trial with 240 seedlings of "Golden Pecíolo Curto". The determination of the optimum plot size was done by applying the methods of maximum curvature, maximum curvature of coefficient of variation and a new proposed method, which incorporates the bootstrap resampling simulation to the maximum curvature method. According to the results obtained, five is the optimal number of seedlings of papaya "Golden Pecíolo Curto" per plot. The proposed method of bootstrap simulation with replacement provides optimal plot sizes equal or higher than the maximum curvature method and provides same plot size than maximum curvature method of the coefficient of variation.

  14. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E. J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants...... maintain relatively high internal oxygen pressures under water, and even may release oxygen via the roots into the sediment, also in dark. Based on these results, we challenge the dogma that oxygen pressures in submerged terrestrial plants immediately drop to levels at which aerobic respiration is impaired....... The present study demonstrates that the internal oxygen pressure in the petioles of Rumex palustris plants under water is indeed well above the critical oxygen pressure for aerobic respiration, provided that the air-saturated water is not completely stagnant. The beneficial effect of shoot acclimation...

  15. Occurrence and characterization of entomogen galls in plants from natural vegetation areas in Delfinópolis, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urso-Guimarães M. V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we aimed to register the occurrence of galls, inductors, inquilines, and parasitoids in plants of three natural vegetation areas in Delfinópolis, MG, Brazil. Results obtained showed 22 types of galls collected from leaf, vein leaf, petioles, stem, and inflorescence of nineteen species belonging to fifteen distinct families. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, conicle, discoidal, fusiform, shell-shape, indefinite, and one substituition of an ovary by an immature. As principal inducers were found insects of the families Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, Psyllidae, and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha/Hemiptera. As parasitoids the most common are of the Chalcidoidea superfamily (Hymenoptera and, as occasional inquilines, Polyxenidae (Diplopoda and Psocodea (Psocoptera. The results of this study contribute to existing of knowledge host-plant diversity and gall-associated insects in rocky fields, cerrado, and gallery forests.

  16. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil

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    M. V. Urso-Guimarães

    Full Text Available Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera. This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae, Distictela (Bignoniaceae, Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae, Ouratea (Ochnaceae, and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae. The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  17. The steady and vibrating statuses of tulip tree leaves in wind

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    Yuanyuan Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of tree leaf aerodynamics is useful to tree protection, solar panel design and development of new power generation technology. 73 tulip leaves were tested in suspended condition and with front as well as back surface of the lamina facing wind. Three types of vibrating statuses, two types of steady statuses, and five critical wind speeds were observed. The existence probabilities of the statuses and criticals, the probability density distribution of every critical over the range of wind speed 0–27 m/s, and the expected values of the criticals were obtained by statistics. The critical Reynolds number, defined by critical wind speed and lamina length, shows an increasing trend with increasing the lamina area or length to width ratio of the lamina, but it shows no trend of increase or decrease with increasing the length ratio of petiole to lamina.

  18. A new species ofHeliconia(Heliconiaceae) with pendent inflorescence, from Chucantí Private Nature Reserve, eastern Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rodolfo; Black, Carla; Ibáñez, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Heliconia berguidoi (Heliconiaceae), a new species from premontane forest of eastern Panama, is described, illustrated and its conservation status evaluated. Heliconia berguidoi bears pink flowers, an uncommon color in this group. It differs from the Colombian species Heliconia rhodantha and Heliconia sanctae-theresae , the most similar taxa, by the combination of a petiole glabrous except for the woolly base, a very long peduncle, the perianth pubescent at the apex and staminode with cuspidate apex. Heliconia berguidoi is also similar to Heliconia pogonantha in all four of its varieties and to Heliconia ramonensis in two of its four varieties, but differs by a combination of the long peduncle, pink flowers and staminode with cuspidate apex. Fifty-six Heliconia species have been found in Panama, eighteen of them endemic.

  19. Gray Mold on Saintpaulia ionantha Caused by Botrytis cinerea in Korea

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    Hyung-Moo Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea occurred on Saintpaulia ionantha in flower shop of the Jeonju city in Korea. Typical symptoms with brown water-soaked and rotting lesions were appeared on the flowers, leaves and petiole of infected plants. Many conidia spores appeared on the lesions under humid conditions. Colonies were grayish brown and sclerotial formation on potato dextrose agar. Conidia were one celled, mostly ellipsoidal or ovoid in shape, and were colorless to pale brown in color. The conidia were 7~14×5~9 μm in size. Based on pathogenicity and morphological characteristics of the isolated fungus, the causal fungus was identified as B. cinerea Persoon: Fries. Gray mold of S. ionantha was proposed to the name of this disease.

  20. How early ferns became trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtier, J; Hueber, F M

    2001-09-22

    A new anatomically preserved fern, discovered from the basalmost Carboniferous of Australia, shows a unique combination of very primitive anatomical characters (solid centrarch cauline protostele) with the elaboration of an original model of the arborescent habit. This plant possessed a false trunk composed of a repetitive branching system of very small stems, which established it as the oldest tree-fern known to date. The potential of this primitive zygopterid fern to produce such an unusual growth form-without real equivalent among living plants-is related to the possession of two kinds of roots that have complementary functional roles: (i) large roots produced by stems with immediate positive geotropism, strongly adapted to mechanical support and water uptake from the soil; and (ii) small roots borne either on large roots or on petiole bases for absorbing humidity inside the false trunk.

  1. An oscillatory component of propagated fluctuation electric potential in lupine shoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Hejnowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of a drop of auxin solution to a cut surface on the petiole in lupine shoot elicits a travelling pulse of electric potential decrease. This pulse was simultaneously recorded by means of a DC amplifier and band-pass amplifier 0.1-100 Hz, both connected to the same exploring AgCl electrode driven into the stem. The DC record shows a pulse 20-80 mV in height of about 30 s duration at its height with smooth slopes. The band-pass amplifier shows one to a few pairs of spikes (negative and positive whose amplitude is at least of an order lower than that of the DC pulse. These spikes are interpreted as the action potential of certain excitable cells recorded in a "volume conductor". The pulse is interpreted as a wave of cooperative depolarization of excitable and a mass of inexcitable cells.

  2. Susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam, Dinotefuran and Flupyradifurone in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Nagle, Curtis A; MacVean, Charles A; McKenzie, Cindy L

    2016-10-20

    Populations of Bemisa tabaci MEAM1 were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone. Eleven populations produced LC 50 s for one or more chemicals that were not significantly different from the susceptible laboratory colony based on overlapping fiducial limits, indicating some degree of susceptibility. LC 50 s more than a 100-fold the laboratory colony were measured in at least one population for each material tested, indicating tolerance. LC 50 s (ppm) from field populations ranged from 0.901-24.952 for imidacloprid, 0.965-24.430 for thiamethoxam, 0.043-3.350 for dinotefuran and 0.011-1.471 for flupyradifurone. Based on overlapping fiducial limits, there were no significant differences in relative mean potency estimates for flupyradifurone and dinotefuran in relation to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam.

  3. Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M R; Lopes, J F

    2005-12-01

    Petiveria alliacea is a perennial herb native to the Amazonian region and used in traditional medicine for different purposes, such as diuretic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory. The morphoanatomical characterization of the leaf and stem was carried out, in order to contribute to the medicinal plant identification. The plant material was fixed, freehand sectioned and stained either with toluidine blue or astra blue and basic fuchsine. Microchemical tests were also applied. The leaf is simple, alternate and elliptic. The blade exhibits paracytic stomata on the abaxial side, non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is plain-convex, both traversed by collateral vascular bundles adjoined with sclerenchymatic caps. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, presents epidermis, angular collenchyma, starch sheath and collateral vascular organization. Several prisms of calcium oxalate are seen in the leaf and stem.

  4. Indirect organogenesis from various explants of Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. – A threatened tree species from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

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    A.R. Lavanya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hildegardia species are an important resource for fiber industry. This investigation was conducted to develop a plant regeneration protocol for Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. via indirect organogenesis Callus was obtained from leaf, internode and petiole explants, among these explants internode explant gave best result on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The highest percentage (100% of regeneration was obtained with benzyladenine (BA (2.0 mg/l + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (0.1 mg/l + glutamine (25 mg/l + thidiazuron (TDZ (0.5 mg/l from internode explants. Shootlets were highly rooted on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In vitro rooted seedlings were successfully acclimatized. This in vitro regeneration system will facilitate further development of reliable procedures for this genus.

  5. Auxin Transport in Explants of Coleus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Chr. J.; Veen, H.

    1966-01-01

    α-Naphthaleneacetic acid-C14, labeled in the carboxyl group, was applied in blocks of agar to the distal and to the proximal (either apical or basal) ends of explants of Coleus. The radioactivity in receiver blocks at the opposite ends was measured. Acropetal transport was slight, only 4% of the basipetal transport. Translocation of NAA-C14 was polar in basipetal direction. Only 1.4% of the radioactivity lost from donor blocks at the apical position reached the receiver blocks; the greatest part remained in the tissue and was immobilized there. All activity found in receiver blocks at the basal end appeared to be still in the form of NAA. There were no differences between petiole tissue and stem tissue, so far as the transport of NAA is concerned. PMID:16656237

  6. Potential application of urea-derived herbicides as cytokinins in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Nachiappan, Vasanthi; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2006-12-01

    Various urea-derived herbicides and different cytokinin analogues were used to determine their effects on callusing response and shoot regenerating capacity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and Coleus (Coleus forskohlii Briq.). The herbicides monuron and diuron evoked profuse callusing response from Coleus leaf segments and alfalfa petiole explants on Murashige and Skoog medium. Shoot regeneration by monuron (2.0 mg/l) showed a maximum of 3 multiple shoots both in alfalfa and Coleus with a frequency of 92% and 75%, respectively. Whereas diuron (0.5 mg/l) showed a high frequency of shoot regeneration (89%)with a mean number of 5 shoots in alfalfa, in C.forskohlii, the frequency of regeneration was 90%with a mean number of 6 shoots. Diuron with two chloride groups in the phenyl ring showed significantly higher cytokinin-like activity than single chloride substitution monuron. This study demonstrates the potential use of monuron and diuron as cytokinins in plant tissue culture.

  7. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae, digging a mine near the epidermis and forming several holes to the exterior. T. romus Bickel & Hernández develop in E. azurea (Sw. Kunth petioles; the mine is curved and short compared with other Thrypticus species. T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández develops in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, and digs the mine between the epidermis and the big central cell of the petioles. T. taragui Bickel & Hernández breeds in submersed stems of P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, and forms a mine close to the epidermis with branches to the central vascular stele. The mines of T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus and T. azuricola could not be associated with the corresponding species. Neither predators nor parasites were found associated with the group, but some cases of cannibalism were observed when two mines were confluent. The truncatus group species have a very specific feeding habit, live completely enclosed within host plant tissues, and feed on the sap obtained from holes chewed in the vascular bundles of the petioles, possibly using yeast as supplementary nourishment. Extensive field collections and laboratory tests indicate that each species in the truncatus group is associated with a specific host plant in the Pontederiaceae. Such specialization suggests a long association between the members of this group and their respective host plants.Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms

  8. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae from Hunan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu

    Full Text Available A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16 confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella.

  9. Leaf anatomy and histochemistry of three species of Ficus sect. Americanae supported by light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Nathalia Diniz; Coelho, Victor Peçanha M; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Agra, Maria de Fátima

    2014-02-01

    In this work the leaf anatomy of three species of Ficus section Americanae (Miq.) Miq. from Brazil, whose leaves and latex are used in folk medicine is reported. The work was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize these species and to evaluate their taxonomic significance, and also contribute to the quality control of their ethnodrugs. The three species (Ficus cyclophylla, Ficus elliotiana, and Ficus caatingae) showed hypostomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, straight epidermal cell outlines, and a dorsiventral mesophyll. Some micro-morphological characters such as density and distribution of epicuticular waxes, glandular trichomes, the length and width of stomata, as well as the palisade of mesophyll and petiole outlines proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation of species. These may contribute as additional support for the taxonomy of the section and for the quality control of their ethnodrugs.

  10. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Nicotiana benthamiana Expressing Cucumber mosaic virus 2b gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Han Sohn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus possesses 2b gene known as a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS. To investigate its function and effect in plant, transgenic Nicotiana benethamiana expressing 2b gene was developed and analyzed in phenotypic characteristics and differential gene expression (DEG comparing with wild-type. Eight lines of transgenic plants (T0 were obtained with difficulty and showed severe deformed phenotypes in leaves, flowers, petioles and etc. Moreover, transgenic plants were hardly able to set seeds, but small amounts of seeds were barely produced in some of transgene-hemizygous plants. DEG analysis showed that transgenic plant ectopically accumulated diverse RNA transcripts at higher levels than wild-type probably due to the disturbance in RNA metabolism, especially of RNA decay, caused by 2b-mediated inhibition of PTGS. These ectopic accumulations of RNAs disrupt protein and RNA homeostasis and then subsequently lead to abnormal phenotypes of transgenic plants.

  11. Synopsis of Chionanthus (Oleaceae from Colombia and neighboring countries, with description of a new species

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    José Luis Fernández-Alonso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A synoptic review of Chionanthus species (Oleaceae from Colombia and neighboring countries is presented, in which new information, taxonomic and chorological, is disclosed, and a new species, Ch. vargasii, from the Central Cordillera of Colombia. This species resembles Ch. abriaquiensis, but has coriaceous leaves, with shorter petioles and woolly domatia along the veins of the underside, and shorter inflorescences. Chionanthus guianensis and Ch. panamensis are cited for the first time in Colombia and the known distribution in Colombia of Ch. compactus, Ch. implicatus, and Ch. pubescens is extended. In addition, the reviewed material of Ch. avilensis, Ch. colonchensis, Ch. ligustrinus, and Ch. wudackii, all present in neighboring countries, is also commented. Finally, a key is included to facilitate the identification of the species of the north of South America.

  12. A new species of Scutellaria (Scutellarioideae, Lamiaceae from Sichuan Province in southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria wuana, a new species discovered from a xeric valley in Muli County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, the new species shares similarities with S. mairei, but can be readily distinguished by a suite of morphological characters including a white-pubescent erect stem, conspicuous leaf petioles, and a yellow corolla with a trapeziform lower-middle lip lobe. The habitat and distribution of S. wuana are also distinctive. The position of the new species within Scutellaria is examined in a phylogenetic context using the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers. Additionally, we examine leaf epidermal and pollen grain micromorphology of the new species and putative relatives.

  13. Development research on multiplication culture technology of horticultural plants. Shortening of growth period of saintpaulia by el-ray irradiation and easy culture method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Hisao; Shigematsu, Koji; Yamada, Takuzo; Suda, Hirokatsu; Hogetsu, Daisuke

    1984-10-01

    In the urban horticulture with relatively small acreage, the cultivation at high productivity is desired. For this purpose, the following procedure of culture has been carried out for saintpaulia. Petioles with leaves are taken, and subsequently put in a basin for easy culture by air-blowing and solution cultivation for the induction of adventitious buds. Then, the seedlings are irradiated with cobalt-60 el-ray. Immediately after this irradiation, they are planted permanently. The procedure is well practicable in small enterprises or farmhouses. Compared with the conventional leaf-cutting cultivation, the procedure is up to five times as high in efficiency, being suitable for easy high-productivity multiplication. The resultant shortening in growth period by low-dose el-ray irradiation also brings out early flowering so that the marketing can be made early. (Mori, K.).

  14. The regeneration of epidermal cells of Saintpaulia leaves as a new plant-tissue system for cellular radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, F M; van der Laan, F M; Leenhouts, H P; Chadwick, K H

    1980-09-01

    Investigation of the nucleus of epidermal cells of the petioles of Saintpaulia leaves by cytofluorimetry revealed that all cells are in a non-cycling pre DNA synthesis phase. Cultivation of dissected leaves results in a synchronous regeneration process of a defined number of cells. Five days after onset of cultivation the cells reach the first mitosis. The nuclear development during the regeneration process is described. Irradiation of the leaves results in a directly visible inhibition of this regenerating capability which is used to quantify cell survival in a tissue. The data show that the radiation response has a similar shape to that of the survival of single cells in culture. This response can be observed before the first mitosis of the cells and its application as a new plant tissue system for cellular radiation research is discussed.

  15. Phenotypic Variation Profile of Marsilea crenata Presl. Cultivated in Water and in the Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangestuti Agil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate possible phenotypic variation profile of Marsilea crenata Presl. cultivated in water and in the soil, to find alternative cultivation techniques to fulfill the increasing demand for pollutant-free plants. Phenotypic profile was investigated through macroscopic and microscopic examinations of all plant parts, and phytochemical screening on the ethanol extract of the leaves using thin layer chromatography technique was conducted to detect the terpenoid constituents. Results showed a variation of phenotypic profiles in the macroscopic examination caused by different cultivation methods. Phytochemical screening showed spots of terpenoid compounds with different color intensity. No differences were found in the microscopic examination of the leaves, petioles, and stems. Since major profile changes did not occur, M. crenata is recommended to be cultivated in water as its original habitat by providing a better caring and quality of water. Due to its phytoremediation property, it is necessary to grow M. crenata in pollutant-free water.

  16. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Caesalpinioideae-Fabaceae: espécie de uso medicinal em Caetité-BA Anatomy of vegetative organs of Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae: a species of medicinal use in Caetité-Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae apresenta grande valor na medicina popular em Caetité. A casca, entrecasca do caule e a resina, são utilizadas no tratamento de diversos males. Neste estudo são apresentadas a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos. Amostras foram coletadas e processadas segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal e histoquímica. Todos os órgãos apresentam, em visão transversal, epiderme unisseriada e cavidades secretoras. Cutícula espessa ocorre em todos os órgãos aéreos. A raiz é tetrarca. Colênquima lacunar foi encontrado no caule. Bainha de fibras esclerenquimáticas envolve os feixes vasculares dos órgãos aéreos. Células pétreas ocorrem no pecíolo. Tricomas tectores ocorrem em ambas as faces da folha. A folha é hipoestomática com estômatos paracíticos e o mesofilo é dorsiventral. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio ocorrem no caule, pecíolo e lâmina foliar. Compostos fenólicos ocorrem na raiz, pecíolo e nervura central da folha. Grãos de amido ocorrem na raiz, caule e pecíolo. Lipídios ocorrem em todos os órgãos. Acredita-se que compostos fenólicos e cavidades secretoras de resina podem justificar a utilidade medicinal da espécie pela população de Caetité.Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae shows a great value in folk medicine in Caetité. Its bark, stem-bark and resin are used to treat various ailments. In this study, the anatomical and histochemical characterization of vegetative organs is reported. Samples were collected and processed according to usual techniques of plant anatomy and histochemistry. All organs have, by cross-sectional view, uniseriate epidermis and secretory cavities. Thick cuticle occurs in all aerial organs. The root is tetrarch. Lacunar collenchyma was found in the stem. Sclerenchymatic sheath of fibers surrounds the vascular bundles of the aerial organs. Stone cells occur in the petiole. Trichomes occur

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15843-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BHY5562.rev CBHY Mycosphaerella fijiensis MfEST5... 36 7.1 2 ( BQ114953 ) EST600529 mixed potato tissues Sol...lus trich... 36 7.1 2 ( FD665298 ) CBBW522.rev CBBW Mycosphaerella fijiensis MfEST4 ... 36 7.1 2 ( FD692768 ...) CBHY4190.rev CBHY Mycosphaerella fijiensis MfEST5... 36 7.1 2 ( BP035364 ) Lotus japonicus cDNA, clone:MFB... 7.3 2 ( BF053354 ) EST438584 potato leaves and petioles Solanum tube... 36 7.3 2 ( FD686209 ) CBHX5588.rev CBHX Mycosphaerella fiji...ensis MfEST4... 36 7.3 2 ( FD687727 ) CBHY1213.rev CBHY Mycosphaerella fijiensis MfE

  18. Vegetative anatomy and micromorphology of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae) from Mexico, combined with chromatographic analysis of salvinorin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna P; Raman, Vijayasankar; Galal, Ahmed M; Khan, Ikhlas A; Siebert, Daniel J; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2014-01-01

    Salvia divinorum--a species traditionally cultivated in Oaxaca, Mexico--possesses hallucinogenic properties. It is legally recognized as a controlled substance and prohibited in many countries. The proper identification of the plant, both in fresh and dried forms, is an important issue in crime-prevention campaigns. This paper provides a thorough anatomical description of leaves, petioles, and stems of S. divinorum. Detailed investigation of foliar trichomes was performed and illustrated. In addition, chromatographic analyses, including TLC and HPLC, were applied to fresh and dried plant material, together with the standard reference salvinorin A. A comprehensive identification method for S. divinorum based on a thorough anatomical examination is proposed, combined with chemical analysis for proper plant recognition.

  19. Ex-situ evaluation of morphological, agronomic and qualitative traits of a naturalized population of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill Nyman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusani, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A naturalized population of parsley of the province of Trento, Italy, was evaluated ex-situ for its morphological and agronomic traits in a field trial in which it was compared with three commercial cultivars of the species. The naturalized population belongs to the smooth leaf type for the absence of curling, and differed from the other smooth leaf type accessions for the lower plant height, the smaller length of petiole and the prostrate attitude of the plant, all undesirable characteristics which make the harvest of plants more difficult. The yields of aerial parts and leaves were higher in the commercial cultivars, while the naturalized population had the highest yield and content of essential oil. Due to the high content and yield of essential oil, the naturalized population could be the object of an eventual breeding program aiming to improve the morphologic and agronomic undesirable characteristics.

  20. A highly efficient protocol for micropropagation of Begonia tuberous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tan Nhut; Nguyen, Thanh Hai; Mai, Xuan Phan

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for micropropagation of begonia was established utilizing a thin cell layer (TCL) system. This system has been employed to produce several thousand shoots per sample. Explant size and position, and plant growth regulators (PGRs) contribute to the tissue morphogenesis. By optimizing the size of the tissue and applying an improved selection procedure, shoots were elongated in 8 weeks of culture, with an average number of 210 +/- 9.7 shoots per segment. This system has facilitated a number of studies using TCL as a model for micropropagation and will enable the large-scale production of begonia. On an average, the best treatment would allow production of about 10,000 plantlets by the micropropagation of the axillary buds of one plant with five petioles, within a period of 8 months.

  1. Commiphora kaokoensis (Burseraceae, a new species from Namibia, with notes on C. dinteri and C. namaensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Swanepoel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Commipora kaokoensis W.Swanepoel. here described as a new species, is known only from the Kaokoveld Centre of Endemism, an arid region in northwestern Namibia. Illustrations of the plant and a distribution map are provided. Diagnostic characters include the petiolate or subsessile. all-simple and relatively large leaves with the lamina obovate or elliptic. New information is provided on the leaf morphology and geographical distribution of C. namaensis Schinz and C.  dinteri Engl., species with which the new species shares some similarities. When without leaves or fruit, the three species can easily be con­fused. A comprehensive table with diagnostic morphological features to distinguish between the three species is presented.

  2. Cyanogenic glucoside patterns in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2009-01-01

    When an almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb) kernel containing cyanogenic glucosides (prunasin or amygdalin) is disintegrated, the glucosides will typically be hydrolyzed by amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase with concomitant release of glucose, benzaldehyde......, and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Benzaldehyde and HCN, in low amounts, provide the characteristic almond taste and flavour. Because of the toxicity of HCN, low cyanogenic glucoside content in the kernel is a prime breeding target. Biochemical analyses of different almond tissues were carried out to investigate...... their ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin. The analyses were carried out during the entire growth season, from almond tree flowering to kernel ripening using the following tissues: leaves, petioles, and the fruit (endosperm and cotyledon). Four different genotypes were investigated...

  3. Uptake and translocation of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene supplied in hydroponics solution to Cucurbita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Martin P N; White, Jason C; Parrish, Zakia D; Isleyen, Mehmet; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2007-12-01

    Field studies show shoots of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) accumulate various hydrophobic contaminants from soil, although many other plants do not, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). To investigate the mechanism for this uptake, we presented p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) to these two species in hydroponics solution. A mixture of DDE bound to Tenax beads stirred with a solution of water passing through a reservoir provided a flowing solution containing DDE at approximately 2 microg/L for many weeks duration. Approximately 90% of the DDE supplied in solution was adsorbed on the roots of both cucumber and zucchini. Less than 10% of the sorbed DDE was released subsequently when clean solution flowed past these contaminated roots for 9 d. The shoots of both species accumulated DDE, but the fraction that moved from the roots to the shoot in zucchini, ranging from 6 to 27% in various trials, was 10-fold greater than that in cucumber, 0.7 to 2%. The gradient in DDE concentration in zucchini tissues was in the order root more more than stem > petiole > leaf blade, indicating the movement was through the xylem in the transpiration stream. Some DDE in leaf blades might have been absorbed from the air, because the concentration in this tissue varied less with time, position in trough, or species, than did DDE in stems and petioles. The remarkable ability of zucchini to translocate DDE could not be attributed to differences in tissue composition, growth rate, distribution of weight among plant parts, or in the leaf area and rate of transpiration of water from leaves. Some other factor enables efficient translocation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the xylem of zucchini.

  4. Metabolic analysis revealed altered amino acid profiles in Lupinus albus organs as a result of boron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marta; Chicau, Paula; Matias, Helena; Passarinho, José; Pinheiro, Carla; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2011-07-01

    We analysed the changes in the metabolites of Lupinus albus organs (leaf-blades, petioles, apexes, hypocotyls and roots) as a consequence of B deficiency. The deficiency did not affect malate concentration and induced only minor changes in the sugar content, suggesting that the carbohydrate metabolism is little affected by the deficiency. Contrarily, marked changes in the content of free amino acids were observed, with some specific variations associated with the different organs. These changes indicate that various aspects of metabolism implicated in the amino acid accumulation were affected by B deficiency. Most of the detected changes appear to have implications with some stress responses or signalling processes. Asparagine and proline that increase in many stresses also accumulated in petioles, apexes and hypocotyls. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid shunt amino acids, indicative of production of reactive oxygen species, occurs in the same three organs and also the roots. The increase in the branched-chain amino acids, observed in all organs, suggests the involvement of B with the cytoskeleton, whereas glycine decrease in leaf-blades and active growing organs (apexes and roots) could be associated with the proposed role of this amino acids in plant signalling in processes that might be associated with the decreased growth rates observed in B deficiency. Despite the admitted importance of free amino acids in plant metabolism, the available information on this matter is scarce. So our results bring new information concerning the effects of B deficiency in the metabolism of the several L. albus organs. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  5. Kualitas Papan Zephyr Pelepah Sawit dan Papan Komposit Komersial Sebagai Bahan Bangunan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusita Wardani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zephyr board can be made from oil palm petiole, the waste from oil palm plantation. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of palm petiole zephyr board (PPZB and the quality of several types of commercial biocomposite boards (plywood, block board, and particle board available in market based on their physicalmechanical properties. PPZB that was compared was the zephyr board made from 3 layers of zephyr strands arranged crossly with urea formaldehyde adhesive. The target density was 0.8 g cm⁻³, and the board size was 300 mm x 300 mm x 10 mm at a pressing temperature of 120 ⁰C, and a pressure of 25 kg cm⁻² for 10 minutes. The commercial composite boards were taken randomly from a hardware store. The results of the study showed that 3-layer PPZB, plywood, block board and particle board each had the density of 0.79 g cm⁻³, 0.81 g.cm⁻³, 0.40 g.cm⁻³ and 0.67 g.cm⁻³, respectively. The respective average value of MOE of each board was 617.6(x10² kg.cm⁻², 728.47(x10² kg.cm⁻², 398.74 (x10² kg.cm⁻² and 199.22(x10² kg.cm⁻², and that of MOR of each board was 405 kg cm⁻², 541 kg cm⁻², 207 kg cm⁻², and 119 kg cm⁻², while the screw holding strength of each was 88.49 kg, 92 kg, 53.6 kg and 61.4 kg, respectively.

  6. The resistance response of sunflower genotypes to black stem disease under controlled conditions

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    Reza DARVISHZADEH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phoma black stem, caused by Phoma macdonaldii, is one of the most important diseases of sunflower in the world. The sources of resistance to Phoma black stem were investigated. A total of 184 genotypes, including some recombinant inbred lines (RILs, several M6 mutant lines obtained by gamma irradiation of seed of the genotype AS 613, and other genotypes from different countries, were evaluated against an aggressive French isolate (MP6 in controlled conditions. The study was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Each replicate consisted of 10–12 seedlings. Twenty μL of spore suspension (106 pycnidiospores mL-1 were deposited on the intersection of the cotyledon petiole and the hypocotyl of sunflower plantlets at the two-leaf stage. The percentage of the area exhibiting disease symptoms was scored on the two cotyledon petioles of each of the plantlets three, five and seven days after inoculation. The disease progress rate (rd, as the slope of the regression line for disease severity against time, was also calculated. Analysis of variance detected significant differences among sunflower genotypes for disease severity 7 days after inoculation,as well as for the disease progress rate. A strong correlation (r=0.96, P<0.01 was found between disease severity 7 days after inoculation and the disease progress rate. The inbred lines F1250/03 (origin: Hungary, M5-54-1, M6-862-1 (mutant lines, SDR 18 (origin: USA and two wild Helianthus accessions, 1012 Nebraska and 211 Illinois, (wild type were highly resistant to Phoma black stem. These findings will assist breeders in choosing parent plants for breeding durable resistance to Phoma black stem.

  7. Long-term inhibition by auxin of leaf blade expansion in bean and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christopher P; Stahlberg, Rainer; Barkawi, Lana S; Cohen, Jerry D

    2004-03-01

    The role of auxin in controlling leaf expansion remains unclear. Experimental increases to normal auxin levels in expanding leaves have shown conflicting results, with both increases and decreases in leaf growth having been measured. Therefore, the effects of both auxin application and adjustment of endogenous leaf auxin levels on midrib elongation and final leaf size (fresh weight and area) were examined in attached primary monofoliate leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and in early Arabidopsis rosette leaves. Aqueous auxin application inhibited long-term leaf blade elongation. Bean leaves, initially 40 to 50 mm in length, treated once with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (1.0 mm), were, after 6 d, approximately 80% the length and weight of controls. When applied at 1.0 and 0.1 mm, alpha-naphthalene acetic acid significantly inhibited long-term leaf growth. The weak auxin, beta-naphthalene acetic acid, was effective at 1.0 mm; and a weak acid control, benzoic acid, was ineffective. Indole-3-acetic acid (1 microm, 10 microm, 0.1 mm, and 1 mm) required daily application to be effective at any concentration. Application of the auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (1% [w/w] in lanolin), to petioles also inhibited long-term leaf growth. This treatment also was found to lead to a sustained elevation of leaf free indole-3-acetic acid content relative to untreated control leaves. Auxin-induced inhibition of leaf growth appeared not to be mediated by auxin-induced ethylene synthesis because growth inhibition was not rescued by inhibition of ethylene synthesis. Also, petiole treatment of Arabidopsis with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid similarly inhibited leaf growth of both wild-type plants and ethylene-insensitive ein4 mutants.

  8. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  9. Xylem structure of four grape varieties and 12 alternative hosts to the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelet, David S; Wistrom, Christina M; Purcell, Alexander H; Rost, Thomas L; Matthews, Mark A

    2011-07-01

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), responsible for Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, colonizes the xylem conduits of vines, ultimately killing the plant. However, Vitis vinifera grapevine varieties differ in their susceptibility to Xf and numerous other plant species tolerate Xf populations without showing symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the xylem structure of grapevines with different susceptibilities to Xf infection, as well as the xylem structure of non-grape plant species that support or limit movement of Xf to determine if anatomical differences might explain some of the differences in susceptibility to Xf. Air and paint were introduced into leaves and stems to examine the connectivity between stem and leaves and the length distribution of their vessels. Leaf petiole and stem anatomies were studied to determine the basis for the free or restricted movement of Xf into the plant. There were no obvious differences in stem or petiole vascular anatomy among the grape varieties examined, nor among the other plant species that would explain differences in resistance to Xf. Among grape varieties, the more tolerant 'Sylvaner' had smaller stem vessel diameters and 20 % more parenchyma rays than the other three varieties. Alternative hosts supporting Xf movement had slightly longer open xylem conduits within leaves, and more connection between stem and leaves, when compared with alternative hosts that limit Xf movement. Stem--leaf connectivity via open xylem conduits and vessel length is not responsible for differences in PD tolerance among grape varieties, or for limiting bacterial movement in the tolerant plant species. However, it was found that tolerant host plants had narrower vessels and more parenchyma rays, possibly restricting bacterial movement at the level of the vessels. The implications of xylem structure and connectivity for the means and regulation of bacterial movement are discussed.

  10. Salicylic acid mediated by the oxidative burst is a key molecule in local and systemic responses of cotton challenged by an avirulent race of Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C; Baccou, J C; Bresson, E; Baissac, Y; Daniel, J F; Jalloul, A; Montillet, J L; Geiger, J P; Assigbetsé, K; Nicole, M

    2000-03-01

    We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species, the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), and peroxidase activity during the incompatible interaction between cotyledons of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cv Reba B50/Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum (Xcm) race 18. SA was detected in petioles of cotyledons 6 h after infection and 24 h post inoculation in cotyledons and untreated leaves. The first peak of SA occurred 3 h after generation of superoxide (O(2)(.-)), and was inhibited by infiltration of catalase. Peroxidase activity and accumulation of SA increased in petioles of cotyledons and leaves following H(2)O(2) infiltration of cotyledons from 0.85 to 1 mM. Infiltration of 2 mM SA increased peroxidase activity in treated cotyledons and in the first leaves, but most of the infiltrated SA was rapidly conjugated within the cotyledons. When increasing concentrations of SA were infiltrated 2. 5 h post inoculation at the beginning of the oxidative burst, the activity of the apoplastic cationic O(2)(.-)-generating peroxidase decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We have shown that during the cotton hypersensitive response to Xcm, H(2)O(2) is required for local and systemic accumulation of SA, which may locally control the generation of O(2)(.-). Detaching cotyledons at intervals after inoculation demonstrated that the signal leading to systemic accumulation of SA was emitted around 3 h post inoculation, and was associated with the oxidative burst. SA produced 6 h post infection at HR sites was not the primary mobile signal diffusing systemically from infected cotyledons.

  11. Interrelationships of petiolar air canal architecture, water depth, and convective air flow in Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer H; Kuhn, David N; Bishop, Kristin

    2012-12-01

    Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiolar air canals are the convective flow pathways. This study describes the structure of these canals, how this structure varies with water depth, and models how convective flow varies with depth. • Nymphaea odorata plants were grown at water depths from 30 to 90 cm. Lamina area, petiolar cross-sectional area, and number and area of air canals were measured. Field-collected leaves and leaves from juvenile plants were analyzed similarly. Using these data and data from the literature, we modeled how convective flow changes with water depth. • Petioles of N. odorata produce two central pairs of air canals; additional pairs are added peripherally, and succeeding pairs are smaller. The first three pairs account for 96% of air canal area. Air canals form 24% of petiolar cross-sectional area. Petiolar and air canal cross-sectional areas increase with water depth. Petiolar area scales with lamina area, but the slope of this relationship is lower in 90 cm water than at shallower depths. In our model, the rate of convective flow varied with depth and with the balance of influx to efflux leaves. • Air canals in N. odorata petioles increase in size and number in deeper water but at a decreasing amount in relation to lamina area. Convective flow also depends on the number of influx to efflux laminae.

  12. Arabidopsis COP1 and SPA Genes Are Essential for Plant Elongation But Not for Acceleration of Flowering Time in Response to a Low Red Light to Far-Red Light Ratio1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolauffs, Sebastian; Fackendahl, Petra; Sahm, Jan; Fiene, Gabriele; Hoecker, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Plants sense vegetative shade as a reduction in the ratio of red light to far-red light (R:FR). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) responds to a reduced R:FR with increased elongation of the hypocotyl and the leaf petioles as well as with an acceleration of flowering time. The repressor of light signaling, CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), has been shown previously to be essential for the shade-avoidance response in seedlings. Here, we have investigated the roles of COP1 and the COP1-interacting SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins in seedling and adult facets of the shade-avoidance response. We show that COP1 and the four SPA genes are essential for hypocotyl and leaf petiole elongation in response to low R:FR, in a fashion that involves the COP1/SPA ubiquitination target LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1 but not ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5. In contrast, the acceleration of flowering in response to a low R:FR was normal in cop1 and spa mutants, thus demonstrating that the COP1/SPA complex is only required for elongation responses to vegetative shade and not for shade-induced early flowering. We further show that spa mutant seedlings fail to exhibit an increase in the transcript levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes YUCCA2 (YUC2), YUC8, and YUC9 in response to low R:FR, suggesting that an increase in auxin biosynthesis in vegetative shade requires SPA function. Consistent with this finding, expression of the auxin-response marker gene DR5::GUS did not increase in spa mutant seedlings exposed to low R:FR. We propose that COP1/SPA activity, via LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1, is required for shade-induced modulation of the auxin biosynthesis pathway and thereby enhances cell elongation in low R:FR. PMID:23093358

  13. Arabidopsis COP1 and SPA genes are essential for plant elongation but not for acceleration of flowering time in response to a low red light to far-red light ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolauffs, Sebastian; Fackendahl, Petra; Sahm, Jan; Fiene, Gabriele; Hoecker, Ute

    2012-12-01

    Plants sense vegetative shade as a reduction in the ratio of red light to far-red light (R:FR). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) responds to a reduced R:FR with increased elongation of the hypocotyl and the leaf petioles as well as with an acceleration of flowering time. The repressor of light signaling, CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), has been shown previously to be essential for the shade-avoidance response in seedlings. Here, we have investigated the roles of COP1 and the COP1-interacting SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins in seedling and adult facets of the shade-avoidance response. We show that COP1 and the four SPA genes are essential for hypocotyl and leaf petiole elongation in response to low R:FR, in a fashion that involves the COP1/SPA ubiquitination target LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1 but not ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5. In contrast, the acceleration of flowering in response to a low R:FR was normal in cop1 and spa mutants, thus demonstrating that the COP1/SPA complex is only required for elongation responses to vegetative shade and not for shade-induced early flowering. We further show that spa mutant seedlings fail to exhibit an increase in the transcript levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes YUCCA2 (YUC2), YUC8, and YUC9 in response to low R:FR, suggesting that an increase in auxin biosynthesis in vegetative shade requires SPA function. Consistent with this finding, expression of the auxin-response marker gene DR5::GUS did not increase in spa mutant seedlings exposed to low R:FR. We propose that COP1/SPA activity, via LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1, is required for shade-induced modulation of the auxin biosynthesis pathway and thereby enhances cell elongation in low R:FR.

  14. A new Late Devonian genus with seed plant affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le

    2015-02-26

    Many ovules of Late Devonian (Famennian) seed plants have been well studied. However, because few taxa occur with anatomically preserved stems and/or petioles, the vascular system of these earliest spermatophytes is little understood and available data come mostly from Euramerica. There remains great controversy over the anatomical differentiation of Late Devonian and Carboniferous seed plant groups of Buteoxylonales, Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales. Protostele evolution of these early spermatophytes needs more research. A new taxon Yiduxylon trilobum gen. et sp. nov. with seed plant affinities has been discovered in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Tizikou Formation of Hubei Province, China. It is represented by stems, helically arranged and bifurcate fronds with two orders of pinnae and planate pinnules. Both secondary pinnae and pinnules are borne alternately. Stems contain a small protostele with three primary xylem ribs possessing a single peripheral protoxylem strand. Thick secondary xylem displays multiseriate bordered pitting on the tangential and radial walls of the tracheids, and has biseriate to multiseriate and high rays. A narrow cortex consists of inner cortex without sclerotic nests and sparganum-type outer cortex with peripheral bands of vertically aligned sclerenchyma cells. Two leaf traces successively arise tangentially from each primary xylem rib and they divide once to produce four circular-oval traces in the stem cortex. Four vascular bundles occur in two C-shaped groups at each petiole base with ground tissue and peripheral bands of sclerenchyma cells. Yiduxylon justifies the assignment to a new genus mainly because of the protostele with protoxylem strands only near the periphery of primary xylem ribs, leaf trace origination and petiolar vascular supply structure. It shares many definitive characters with Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales, further underscoring the anatomical similarities among early seed plants. The primary vascular

  15. Inhibitors of Protein Phosphatases 1 and 2A Block the Sugar-Inducible Gene Expression in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, S.; Mano, S.; Ohto, Ma.; Nakamura, K.

    1994-10-01

    Genes coding for two major proteins of the tuberous root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), namely, sporamin and [beta]-amylase, are inducible in leaves and petioles when they are supplied with high concentrations of sucrose or other metabolizable sugars, such as glucose and fructose, and the accumulation of a large amount of starch accompanies this induction. Three inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), namely, okadaic acid, microcystin-LR, and calyculin A, strongly inhibited the sucrose-inducible accumulation of mRNAs for sporamin, [beta]-amylase, and the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in petioles. However, these inhibitors did not have any major effect on the steady-state levels of mRNAs for catalase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and the sucrose-inducible increase in the level of sucrose synthase mRNA was enhanced by okadaic acid. Inhibitors of PP1 and PP2A also inhibited sucrose-inducible expression of a fusion gene, consisting of the promoter of the sweet potato gene for [beta]-amylase and the coding sequence for [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), in leaves of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The inhibition was not due to inhibition of uptake and cleavage of sucrose, since okadaic acid also inhibited induction of the fusion gene by glucose or fructose. Addition of okadaic acid to leaves that had been treated with sucrose for 6 h inhibited further increases in GUS activity. These results suggest that the continuous dephosphorylation of proteins is required in the transduction of carbohydrate metabolic signals to the transcriptional activation of at least some sugar-inducible genes in plant.

  16. Differentiation of morphological traits of common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L. originating from different stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kęsik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of pH and soil chemical composition on morphological traits of common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.. A two-year study was conducted based on observations, measurements and analyses of material collected from 24 stands in the following regions: Równina Włocławska (Włocławek Plain, Wyżyna Lubelska (Lublin Upland, Padół Zamojski (Zamość Depression, Działy Grabowieckie (Grabowiec Divide Płaskowyż Suchedniowski (Suchedniów Plateau, Wysoczyzna Siedlecka (Siedlce High Plain and Niecka Połaniecka (Połaniec Basin. Morphological traits of tansy shoots were determined: number of plants per clump, stem length, number of leaves per plant, total leaf length, petiole length, number of branches from the main stem, number of flower heads per corymb and flower head diameter. A soil analysis was performed determining the content of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus available for plants. The soil pH was also determined. The collected results indicate significant differentiation of the investigated samples, both in terms of morphological traits of the shoots and the chemical composition of the soils. A negative correlation was found between soil pH and number of leaves per shoot as well as number of branches per corymb. A positive correlation was noted between soil pH and total leaf length as well as between magnesium content and number of flower heads per corymb. The increased content of available phosphorus in the soil was associated with petiole shortening. A growth trend in the tansy shoot length was observed at larger amounts of available magnesium in the soil. On soils with low nutrient availability and a low pH, a reduced population density of the species in question was observed.

  17. Evaluation of indicators for the early selection of the height character in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García Rodríguez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the plant breeding programs attended by Biotechnology and using the induction of mutations becomes necessary to work with big populations of plants to guarantee bigger possibilities to be successful in the work. For what to have a selection system that allows to carry out the same one in acclimatization phase would allow to shorten the outlines of improvement and to diminish the population’s size notably to evaluate in field phase, what would bear to diminish the expenses in the whole process of studies clones them. With the aim of determining possible morphological indicators that could be used as markers for the selection of low bearing in the clones of the FHIA were studied in conditions of acclimatization different cultivars and banana mutants, being evaluated several morphological characters as: the height of the plant, number of leaves, long and wide of the penultimate emitted leaf, as well as the long of their petiole and the distance between two serial leaves. It was also evaluated the height of the plants under conditions in vitro when they were subcultivate in a culture medium with different concentration of AG3. The results indicate that inside the evaluated morphological characters, those that more early allowed to distinguish among plants of low bearing were: the long of the petiole and the height of the plants and that the moment of the selection should be to the 60 days. Not differences were observed between genotypes when they were subcultivate in the culture medium enriched with AG3. Key words: banana, early selection, low bearing, morphological markers, plantain

  18. Hydraulic architecture and photoinhibition influence spatial distribution of the arborescent palm Euterpe edulis in subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M Genoveva; Campanello, Paula I; Villagra, Mariana; Montti, Lía; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    Physiological characteristics of saplings can be considered one of the most basic constraints on species distribution. The shade-tolerant arborescent palm Euterpe edulis Mart. is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. At a local scale, saplings of this species growing in native forests are absent in gaps. We tested the hypothesis whether sensitivity to photoinhibition or hydraulic architecture constrains the distribution of E. edulis saplings in sun-exposed forest environments. Using shade houses and field studies, we evaluated growth, survival, hydraulic traits and the susceptibility of Photosystem II to photoinhibition in E. edulis saplings under different growth irradiances. Survival rates in exposed sites in the field were very low (a median of 7%). All saplings exhibited photoinhibition when exposed to high radiation levels, but acclimation to a high radiation environment increased the rate of recovery. Petiole hydraulic conductivity was similar across treatments regardless of whether it was expressed per petiole cross-sectional area or per leaf area. At the plant level, investment in conductive tissues relative to leaf area (Huber values) increased with increasing irradiance. Under high irradiance conditions, plants experienced leaf water potentials close to the turgor-loss point, and leaf hydraulic conductance decreased by 79% relative to its maximum value. Euterpe edulis saplings were able to adjust their photosynthetic traits to different irradiance conditions, whereas hydraulic characteristics at the leaf level did not change across irradiance treatments. Our results indicate that uncoupling between water demand and supply to leaves apparently associated with high resistances to water flow at leaf insertion points, in addition to small stems with low water storage capacity, weak stomatal control and high vulnerability of leaves to hydraulic dysfunction, are the main ecophysiological constraints that prevent the growth and

  19. Standardisation of homoeopathic drug: Plectranthus fruticosus

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    P Padma Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plectranthus fruticosus (Benth. Wight ex Hook. f, syn. P. deccanicus Brinq. is an under shrub belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Leaves and young stems of this plant are used as medicine in Homoeopathy. Objective: To carry out pharmacognostic and physico - chemical studies to use authentic and correct species as standard raw materials to ensure purity, quality and its usefulness. Materials and Methods: The leaves and young aerial parts of Plectranthus fruticosus were fixed in formaldehyde: acetic acid alcohol (F.A.A, processed for microtomy (paraffin method, sectioned, stained and permanent slides prepared following Johansen. The microtome sections in T.S. and longitudinal section (L.S. were obtained at 6-8 um thickness on Leica RM 2155 microtome. The powder microscopy characters were studied by boiling the powdered drug in distilled water, stained in saffranin and mounted with glycerine. Photomicrography was done with Olympus BX 53 research trinocular microscope. Results: The leaves are large, ovate to cordate, thin, margins with rounded serrations, surface coarse with dense covering hair. Petiole is long and stem is quadrangular with nodes. Trichomes are predominantly uniseriate, macroform, conical besides few uniseriate filiform peltate and capitate hairs. Lamina is conspicuously thin. The hypodermal collenchyma is angularly thickened. Vascular bundles in midvein are arranged in an ′arc′. Petiole is oblong to rounded, in transection (T.S. and undulated. A ring of angular collenchyma is present. Cortical cells possess starch grains and crystals of calcium oxalate. A continuous vascular cylinder is present interrupted with 2-3 seriate medullary rays. The physicochemical properties and HPTLC fingerprints of this plant have been standardized. Conclusion: The powder microscopic features and organoleptic characters along with the anatomical and physico chemical studies including HPTLC fingerprints are diagnostic to establish the

  20. Cytokinins in the Phloem Sap of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John S.; Thompson, Brigitte; Pate, John S.; Atkins, Craig A.; Pharis, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Cytokinin-like activity in samples of xylem and phloem sap collected from field-grown plants of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) over a period of 9 to 24 weeks after sowing was measured using the soybean hypocotyl callus bioassay following paper chromatographic separation. The phloem sap was collected from shallow incisions made at the base of the stem, the base of the inflorescence (e.g. stem top), the petioles, and the base and tip of the fruit. Xylem sap was collected as root exudate from the stump of plants severed a few centimeters above ground level. Concentration of cytokinin-like substances was highest in phloem sap collected from the base of the inflorescence and showed an increase over the entire sampling period (from week 10 [61 nanogram zeatin equivalents] to week 24 [407 nanogram zeatin equivalents]). Concentrations in the xylem sap and in the other phloem saps were generally lower. Relatively high concentrations of cytokinin-like substances in petiole phloem sap (70 to 130 nanogram zeatin equivalents per milliliter) coincided in time with high concentrations in sap from the base of the inflorescence (see above). Concentrations in sap (phloem or xylem) from the base of the stem were very much lower. This finding is consistent with movement of cytokinins from leaves into the developing inflorescence and fruit, rather than direct input to the fruit from xylem sap. However, an earlier movement of cytokinins from roots into leaves via the xylem cannot be ruled out. Sap collected at an 18-week harvest was additionally separated by sequential C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography → NH2 normal phase high performance liquid chromatography, bioassayed, and then analyzed by electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Identification of zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin as two of the major cytokinins in combined sap samples was accomplished by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring. PMID:16667907

  1. Phytopharmaceuticals and phytochemicals evaluation on leaves and bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulatri

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    SRI BUDI SULIANTI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytopharmaceuticals and phytochemicals evaluation on two species of Calophyllum (C. inophyllum and C. soulatri had been done. Phytopharmaceuticals had been carried out by macro- and microscopic observation and also phytochemical screening by Ciuley Method (1984. Macromorphology of two species of Calophyllum was quite different. Leaf surface of C. inophyllum were obovate lamina, entire margin, obtuse apex, symmetrically base, petiole 1.5-2.0 cm, upper surface were green, shine, glabrous, occurrence of oil gland, and lower surface were long (hirsute, midrib, pinnate venation. C. soulatri were ovate lamina, entire margin, acute apex, symmetrically base, petiole 1.5-2.0 cm, upper surface were green but not shine, glabrous, no occurrence of oil glands and lower surface were long (hirsute, midrib, pinnate venation, green, and glabrous. Leaf dimension of C. inophyllum (± 20x10 cm2 was wider than C. soulatri (± 10x5 cm2. Leaf micromorphology of two species was also different in stomata type, C. inophyllum was paracytic type while C. soulatri was anisocytic type. Oil glands in C. inophyllum were higher than C. soulatri. There were no hair glands that found in these species. Micromorphology bark identified of two species showed that the number of oil glands in C. inophyllum is more than C. Soulatri, Ca oxalate of C. inophyllum is in simple and twin forms which C. soulatri is loose aggregates of numerous prisms which have grown together to form a roughly spherical mass which has projecting points and angles all over surface. Phytochemical screening identified that these species contents are have similar chemical groups (volatile oil, fatty acids, steroids/ triterpenes, tannin, flavonoids and reducing sugar.

  2. The analysis on of the effect of urea, iron sulfate and vermicompost fertilizers on the growth characteristics and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. The city Darreh Gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdiyeh zomorrodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of vermicompost and urea and iron sulfate fertilizers on the growth characteristics and yield of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus L. an pediment was conducted in Darreh Gaz located in Khorasan Razavi province in 2012. Factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three factors and three repetition. In this experiment three levels of urea (50; 150 and 250 kg per hectare as the first factor and two level of vermicompost (7 tons per hectare consumption and non-consumption as the second factor and two iron sulfate (80 kilogram per hectare consumption and non- consumption were considered as the third factor. The results showed that the effect of urea × vermicompost treatment combination on stem height, head diameter, stem dry weight and yield was significantly at one percent probability level. The treatment combination of 250 kg. ha-1 × iron sulfate× vermicompost increased plant height, head diameter, petiole dry weight. Vermicompost × iron sulfate treatment combination on the dry weight’s leaf, petiole, stem and head were the highest significant (p≤0.01. The application of vermicompost × iron sulfate treatment combination resulted in the highest rate of stem diameter, leaf dry weight and stem the highest yield belonged to 250 kg.ha-1 × vermicompost. Iron sulfate use different amounts of urea fertilizer redact yield. The lowest yield of 250 kg.ha-1× iron sulfate was related to treatment combination. So it seems that the combined application of organic vermicompost fertilizer and urea and iron sulfate fertilizers on the growth and yield of sunflower Darreh Gaz can be effective in improving properties.

  3. StCDPK3 Phosphorylates In Vitro Two Transcription Factors Involved in GA and ABA Signaling in Potato: StRSG1 and StABF1.

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    Carolina Grandellis

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent protein kinases, CDPKs, decode calcium (Ca2+ transients and initiate downstream responses in plants. In order to understand how CDPKs affect plant physiology, their specific target proteins must be identified. In tobacco, the bZIP transcription factor Repression of Shoot Growth (NtRSG that modulates gibberellin (GA content is a specific target of NtCDPK1. StCDPK3 from potato is homologous (88% identical to NtCDPK1 even in its N-terminal variable domain. In this work, we observe that NtRSG is also phosphorylated by StCDPK3. The potato RSG family of transcription factors is composed of three members that share similar features. The closest homologue to NtRSG, which was named StRSG1, was amplified and sequenced. qRT-PCR data indicate that StRSG1 is mainly expressed in petioles, stems, lateral buds, and roots. In addition, GA treatment affected StRSG1 expression. StCDPK3 transcripts were detected in leaves, petioles, stolons, roots, and dormant tubers, and transcript levels were modified in response to GA. The recombinant StRSG1-GST protein was produced and tested as a substrate for StCDPK3 and StCDPK1. 6xHisStCDPK3 was able to phosphorylate the potato StRSG1 in a Ca2+-dependent way, while 6xHisStCDPK1 could not. StCDPK3 also interacts and phosphorylates the transcription factor StABF1 (ABRE binding factor 1 involved in ABA signaling, as shown by EMSA and phosphorylation assays. StABF1 transcripts were mainly detected in roots, stems, and stolons. Our data suggest that StCDPK3 could be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and GA signaling at the onset of tuber development.

  4. Synthesis and structural property of Si nanosheets connected to Si nanowires using MnCl{sub 2}/Si powder source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Erchao [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johuku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Ueki, Akiko [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Meng, Xiang [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johuku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johuku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Itahara, Hiroshi [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Tatsuoka, Hirokazu, E-mail: tatsuoka.hirokazu@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Integrated Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johuku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Si nanosheets connected to Si nanowires synthesized using a MnCl{sub 2}/Si powder source with an Au catalyst avoid the use of air-sensitive SiH{sub 4} or SiCl{sub 4}. It was evident from these structural features of the nanosheets (leaf blade) with nanowires (petiole) that the nanosheets were formed by the twin-plane reentrant-edge mechanism. The feature of the observed lattice fringes of the Si(111) nanosheets was clearly explained by the interference with the extra diffraction spots that arose due to the reciprocal lattice streaking effect. - Highlights: • New Si nanosheets connected to Si nanowires were synthesized using MnCl{sub 2}/Si powders. • The synthesis method has benefits in terms of avoiding air sensitive SiH{sub 4} or SiCl{sub 4}. • Structural property and electron diffraction of the Si nanosheets were clarified. • Odd lattice fringes of the Si nanosheets observed by HRTEM were clearly explained. - Abstract: Si nanosheets connected to Si nanowires were synthesized using a MnCl{sub 2}/Si powder source with an Au catalyst. The synthesis method has benefits in terms of avoiding conventionally used air-sensitive SiH{sub 4} or SiCl{sub 4}. The existence of the Si nanosheets connected to the Si<111> nanowires, like sprouts or leaves with petioles, was observed, and the surface of the nanosheets was Si{111}. The nanosheets were grown in the growth direction of <211> perpendicular to that of the Si nanowires. It was evident from these structural features of the nanosheets that the nanosheets were formed by the twin-plane reentrant-edge mechanism. The feature of the observed lattice fringes, which do not appear for Si bulk crystals, of the Si(111) nanosheets obtained by high resolution transmission electron microscopy was clearly explained due to the extra diffraction spots that arose by the reciprocal lattice streaking effect.

  5. IDA-like gene expression in soybean and tomato leaf abscission and requirement for a diffusible stelar abscission signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Yang, Ronghui

    2012-01-01

    The stimulatory and inhibitory role of ethylene and auxin, respectively, in leaf abscission (leaf drop) is well documented. More recently, IDA (INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION) peptides and their putative interacting receptor-like-kinase partners, HAESA and HAESA-like2, were shown to be essential components in Arabidopsis floral organ abscission. Prior to research on IDA, it was reported that bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaf abscission required a diffusible signal that emanated from the vascular tissue. We were interested in determining whether the IDA signalling path might regulate abscission in plants other than Arabidopsis and whether IDA might act as a diffusible signal in abscission. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor gene expression and a GUS reporter gene construct used to determine the need for a diffusible signal in tomato. We identified 12 IDA-like and 11 HAESA-like genes in soybean (Glycine max) and monitored their gene expression in abscission in relation to the expression of several cell-wall-modifying proteins and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases. Ethylene evoked the expression of several IDA-like genes in abscission zones (AZ), but also to a lesser degree in the adjacent petiole tissue. Surprisingly, IDA-like gene expression was very high in senescent soybean leaves. We identified five IDA-like genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Only one IDA-like gene was expressed in the tomato AZ and its expression was approximately equal in the AZ and petioles, but no IDA-like gene showed significant expression in leaves at up to 96 h of exposure to ethylene. IDA-like gene expression is up-regulated during soybean and tomato abscission but up-regulation was not limited to the AZ. Cell separation in the AZ cortex of tomato does not require a diffusible signal emanating from the stele. A role for IDA in soybean and tomato leaf abscission is discussed.

  6. Morphological Characteristics, Genetic Diversity and Classification of Chrysanthemum Genotypes

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    Z. Roein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental plants. The genus chrysanthemum is a popular cut flower, medicinal and pot plant. Morphological traits such as cut rooting and leaf characteristics and genetic diversity among 50 genotypes of chrysanthemum morifolium were analyzed. Based on analysis of variance of data all traits in the studied genotypes showed significant differences at 1% level. The results of correlation coefficient indicated a positive and significant correlation between stem length, leaf length, leaf width and leaf serration number.The leaf length showed the highest correlation (r = +0.90** with leaf width. Results showed that stem length and petiole length had the highest (h2>80% heritability. Cluster analysis according to the morphological traits using the Ward method classified all the genotypes into six groups. In this classification, two genotypes (‘Takapo’ and ‘Poloneh’ were classified into one cluster that was characterized by tall stem and low branch number. In this study, canonical discriminant analysis of 20 morphological traits revealed that 3 canonical discriminant variables explained 89.6% of the total variation among genotypes. Results revealed that among the studied traits, number of cutting root, leaf size, petiol length, stem length, number of branches and number of offsets were the most important traits for discriminating among chrysanthemum genotypes. The results of this study indicate that these traits are useful for selecting and identify superior genotypes of chrysanthemum germplasm. Using some of the genotypes belonging to cluster A (with a small size of plant and genotypes belonging to cluster E (with a large size of plant as parents can be practiced as a criteria for breeding programs.

  7. Morphology of Some Species in the Subfamily Papilionoideae

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    Joan Adeola OWOLABI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological study of ten species in the subfamily Papilionoideae was carried out with the view to documenting diagnostic characters that would distinguish or group the species. The species studied belong to four tribes, namely: tribe Desmodieae – Desmodium tortuosum (Sw. DC., Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw. Desv., Desmodium adscendens (Sw. DC., tribe Phaseoleae – Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Calopogonium mucunoides Desv., Centrosema molle (Mart. ex. Benth., Mucuna pruriens (Linn. Walp., Vigna unguiculata (Linn. Walp., tribe Crotalarieae – Crotalaria retusa Linn., tribe Robinieae – Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. Qualitative and quantitative traits which had not been documented in previous works, especially in Nigeria, were studied. These include plant life span; leaf/leaflet apex, base, margin and pubescence; stem type, colour, shape and pubescence; sepal colour and pubescence; nature of margin of petal standard and presence or absence of pedicel; fruit colour, pubescence, tip and shape; seed colour, shape, surface and presence or absence of prominent hilum on the seed; number of seeds per fruit; pedicel length; length and width of petal standard, keel and wing. Characters of taxonomic value documented in this study were leaf type, leaf shape, leaf base, petiole type, stem type, seed shape, petal standard length, petal keel length and petal wing width. Data were subjected to one - way analysis of variance using Duncan’s multiple range test. It was noted that the important characters that can be used in establishing taxonomic relationship in the sub-family Papilionoideae were leaf type, leaf shape, leaf base, petiole type, stem shape, petal colour, petal margin and seed shape.

  8. Foliar growth of Eriocnema fulva Naudin (Melastomataceae in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil

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    PM. Andrade

    Full Text Available Eriocnema fulva Naudin is an endangered herbaceous, perennial, iteroparous, evergreen species geographically restricted to southeastern-center Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil. The individuals occur as patches on rocky riverbanks shaded by seasonal semideciduous Atlantic forest; they are fixed by roots and have a pending stem. Aiming to investigate leaf development and its importance for individual survival, fifteen contiguous plots (1 x 1 m were set down in Jambreiro Forest (19° 58’-59’ S and 43° 52’-55’ W, 800-1100 m altitude, in the municipality of Nova Lima. A total of 260 individuals with the largest leaf blade length > 1 cm was tagged and measured in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Leaf expansion was recorded each month during 26 months until April 2000. Plant size was measured through leaf blade length, petiole length, stem length, and number of leaves. Significant changes were detected only after two years, thus indicating that plant growth is slow. The proportion of surviving leaves after two years was 60%. Total blade expansion took over 14 months, a slow growth rate when compared to leaves of other tropical forest canopy and understory species. Long leaf lifespans are to be found in plants exhibiting slow growth, and we observed that some leaves lived longer than three years. Petiole growth can help to better position the leaf in the search for light, thus contributing to the growth and survival of the plant. The relationships among size measures were significant, reinforcing the great contribution of leaf size for plant size. The age of the largest individual was estimated as 36 years based on the median annual leaf production rate.

  9. Foliar growth of Eriocnema fulva Naudin (Melastomataceae) in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P M; Santos, F A M; Martins, F R

    2008-02-01

    Eriocnema fulva Naudin is an endangered herbaceous, perennial, iteroparous, evergreen species geographically restricted to southeastern-center Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil. The individuals occur as patches on rocky riverbanks shaded by seasonal semideciduous Atlantic forest; they are fixed by roots and have a pending stem. Aiming to investigate leaf development and its importance for individual survival, fifteen contiguous plots (1 x 1 m) were set down in Jambreiro Forest (19 degrees 58'-59' S and 43 degrees 52'-55' W, 800-1100 m altitude), in the municipality of Nova Lima. A total of 260 individuals with the largest leaf blade length > or = 1 cm was tagged and measured in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Leaf expansion was recorded each month during 26 months until April 2000. Plant size was measured through leaf blade length, petiole length, stem length, and number of leaves. Significant changes were detected only after two years, thus indicating that plant growth is slow. The proportion of surviving leaves after two years was 60%. Total blade expansion took over 14 months, a slow growth rate when compared to leaves of other tropical forest canopy and understory species. Long leaf lifespans are to be found in plants exhibiting slow growth, and we observed that some leaves lived longer than three years. Petiole growth can help to better position the leaf in the search for light, thus contributing to the growth and survival of the plant. The relationships among size measures were significant, reinforcing the great contribution of leaf size for plant size. The age of the largest individual was estimated as 36 years based on the median annual leaf production rate.

  10. Dynamics of amino acid redistribution in the carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) after digestion of 13 C/15 N-labelled prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, J; Gao, P; Eibelmeier, M; Alfarraj, S; Rennenberg, H

    2017-11-01

    Amino acids represent an important component in the diet of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), and supply plants with much needed nitrogen resources upon capture of insect prey. Little is known about the significance of prey-derived carbon backbones of amino acids for the success of Dionaea's carnivorous life-style. The present study aimed at characterizing the metabolic fate of 15 N and 13 C in amino acids acquired from double-labeled insect powder. We tracked changes in plant amino acid pools and their δ13 C- and δ15 N-signatures over a period of five weeks after feeding, as affected by contrasting feeding intensity and tissue type (i.e., fed and non-fed traps and attached petioles of Dionaea). Isotope signatures (i.e., δ13 C and δ15 N) of plant amino acid pools were strongly correlated, explaining 60% of observed variation. Residual variation was related to contrasting effects of tissue type, feeding intensity and elapsed time since feeding. Synthesis of nitrogen-rich transport compounds (i.e., amides) during peak time of prey digestion increased 15 N- relative to 13 C- abundances in amino acid pools. After completion of prey digestion, 13 C in amino acid pools was progressively exchanged for newly fixed 12 C. The latter process was most evident for non-fed traps and attached petioles of plants that had received ample insect powder. We argue that prey-derived amino acids contribute to respiratory energy gain and loss of 13 CO2 during conversion into transport compounds (i.e., 2 days after feeding), and that amino-nitrogen helps boost photosynthetic carbon gain later on (i.e., 5 weeks after feeding). © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. DNA barcoding the Canadian Arctic flora: core plastid barcodes (rbcL + matK) for 490 vascular plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M; Sokoloff, Paul C; Gillespie, Lynn J; Consaul, Laurie L; Bull, Roger D

    2013-01-01

    Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, atpF-atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF-atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species.

  12. Phylogenomic and structural analyses of 18 complete plastomes across nearly all families of early-diverging eudicots, including an angiosperm-wide analysis of IR gene content evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanxia; Moore, Michael J; Zhang, Shoujun; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Zhao, Tingting; Meng, Aiping; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Jianqiang; Wang, Hengchang

    2016-03-01

    The grade of early-diverging eudicots includes five major lineages: Ranunculales, Trochodendrales, Buxales, Proteales and Sabiaceae. To examine the evolution of plastome structure in early-diverging eudicots, we determined the complete plastome sequences of eight previously unsequenced early-diverging eudicot taxa, Pachysandra terminalis (Buxaceae), Meliosma aff. cuneifolia (Sabiaceae), Sabia yunnanensis (Sabiaceae), Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae), Euptelea pleiosperma (Eupteleaceae), Akebia trifoliata (Lardizabalaceae), Stephania japonica (Menispermaceae) and Papaver somniferum (Papaveraceae), and compared them to previously published plastomes of the early-diverging eudicots Buxus, Tetracentron, Trochodendron, Nelumbo, Platanus, Nandina, Megaleranthis, Ranunculus, Mahonia and Macadamia. All of the newly sequenced plastomes share the same 79 protein-coding genes, 4 rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes, except for that of Epimedium, in which infA is pseudogenized and clpP is highly divergent and possibly a pseudogene. The boundaries of the plastid Inverted Repeat (IR) were found to vary significantly across early-diverging eudicots; IRs ranged from 24.3 to 36.4kb in length and contained from 18 to 33 genes. Based on gene content, the IR was classified into six types, with shifts among types characterized by high levels of homoplasy. Reconstruction of ancestral IR gene content suggested that 18 genes were likely present in the IR region of the ancestor of eudicots. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of a 79-gene, 97-taxon data set that included all available early-diverging eudicots and representative sampling of remaining angiosperm diversity largely agreed with previous estimates of early-diverging eudicot relationships, but resolved Trochodendrales rather than Buxales as sister to Gunneridae, albeit with relatively weak bootstrap support, conflicting with what has been found for these three clades in most previous analyses. In addition, Proteales was

  13. Effect of temperature on the progamic phase in high-mountain plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, G; Wagner, J

    2012-03-01

    Progamic processes are particularly temperature-sensitive and, in lowland plants, are usually drastically reduced below 10 °C and above 30 °C. Little is known about how effectively sexual processes of mountain plants function under the large temperature fluctuations at higher altitudes. The present study examines duration and thermal thresholds for progamic processes in six common plant species (Cerastium uniflorum, Gentianella germanica, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, Saxifraga bryoides, S. caesia) from different altitudinal zones in the European Alps. Whole plants were collected from natural sites shortly before anthesis and kept in a climate chamber until further processing. Flowers with receptive stigmas were hand-pollinated with allopollen and exposed to controlled temperatures between -2 and 40 °C. Pollen performance (adhesion to the stigma, germination, tube growth, fertilisation) was quantitatively analysed, using the aniline blue fluorescence method. Pollen adhesion was possible from -2 to 40 °C. Pollen germination and tube growth occurred from around 0 to 35 °C in most species. Fertilisation was observed from 5 to 30-32 °C (0-35 °C in G. germanica). The progamic phase was shortest in G. germanica (2 h at 30 °C, 12 h at 5 °C, 24 h at 0 °C), followed by R. glacialis (first fertilisation after 2 h at 30 °C, 18 h at 5 °C). In the remaining species, first fertilisation usually occurred after 4-6 h at 30 °C and after 24-30 h at 5 °C. Thus, mountain plants show remarkably flexible pollen performance over a wide temperature range and a short progamic phase, which may be essential for successful reproduction in the stochastic high-mountain climate. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Apomixis is not prevalent in subnival to nival plants of the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Dobeš, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Temsch, Eva M; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula

    2011-08-01

    High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We hypothesize that shifts to apomixis are rather connected

  15. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini: the first ground beetle from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C. Ashworth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct A. balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with A. balli included Nothofagus (southern beech, Ranunculus (buttercup, moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that A. balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14–20 Ma. The tundra biome, including A. balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10–13 Ma. A. balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For A. balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma and southern South America (31 Ma.

  16. Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast GenomePhylogenies: Sampling One's Way Out of the Felsenstein Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-05-27

    While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in

  17. Biophysical interactions in fluvial ecosystems: effects of submerged aquatic macrophytes on hydro-morphological processes and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Loreta; Davies, Grieg; Grabowski, Robert; van der Wal, Daphne; van de Koppel, Johan; Wharton, Geraldene; Bouma, Tjeerd

    2016-04-01

    Strong mutual interactions occur at the interface between biota and physical processes in biogeomorphic ecosystems, possibly resulting in self-organized spatial patterns. While these interactions and feedbacks have been increasingly studied in a wide range of landscapes previously, they are still poorly understood in lower energy fluvial systems. Consequently, their impact on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems is largely unknown. In this study we investigate the role of aquatic macrophytes as biological engineers of flow and sediment in lowland streams dominated by water crowfoot (Ranunculus spp.). Using field measurements from two annual growth cycles, we demonstrate that seasonally-changing macrophyte cover maintains relative constant flow rates, both within and between vegetation, despite temporal changes in channel flow discharge. By means of a mathematical model representing the interaction between hydrodynamics and vegetation dynamics, we reveal that scale-dependent feedbacks between plant growth and flow redistribution explain the influence of macrophytes on stabilizing flow rates. Our analysis reveals important implications for ecosystem functions. The creation of fast-flowing channels allows an adequate conveyance of water throughout the annual cycle; yet, patches also have a significant influence on sediment dynamics leading to heterogeneous habitats, thereby facilitating other species. As a last step we investigate the consequences on stream ecosystem functioning, by exploring the relationship between changes in macrophyte cover and the provision of different ecosystem functions (e.g. water conveyance, sediment trapping). Our results highlight that self-organization promotes the combination of multiple ecosystem functions through its effects on hydrological and morphological processes within biogeomorphic ecosystems.

  18. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini): the first ground beetle from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Allan C; Erwin, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct Antarctotrechus balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with Antarctotrechus balli included Nothofagus (southern beech), Ranunculus (buttercup), moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that Antarctotrechus balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14-20 Ma. The tundra biome, including Antarctotrechus balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10-13 Ma. Antarctotrechus balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For Antarctotrechus balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma) and

  19. Plant population differentiation and climate change: responses of grassland species along an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Matter, Philippe; Heggli, Martin; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-02-01

    Mountain ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate change. Characterizing intraspecific variation of alpine plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their vulnerability to predicted changes. Environmental conditions vary with elevation, which might influence plastic responses and affect selection pressures that lead to local adaptation. Thus, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity among low and high elevation plant populations in response to climate, soil and other factors associated with elevational gradients might underlie different responses of these populations to climate warming. Using a transplant experiment along an elevational gradient, we investigated reproductive phenology, growth and reproduction of the nutrient-poor grassland species Ranunculus bulbosus, Trifolium montanum and Briza media. Seeds were collected from low and high elevation source populations across the Swiss Alps and grown in nine common gardens at three different elevations with two different soil depths. Despite genetic differentiation in some traits, the results revealed no indication of local adaptation to the elevation of population origin. Reproductive phenology was advanced at lower elevation in low and high elevation populations of all three species. Growth and reproduction of T. montanum and B. media were hardly affected by garden elevation and soil depth. In R. bulbosus, however, growth decreased and reproductive investment increased at higher elevation. Furthermore, soil depth influenced growth and reproduction of low elevation R. bulbosus populations. We found no evidence for local adaptation to elevation of origin and hardly any differences in the responses of low and high elevation populations. However, the consistent advanced reproductive phenology observed in all three species shows that they have the potential to plastically respond to environmental variation. We conclude that populations might not be forced to migrate to higher elevations

  20. First Record of the European Rusted Flea Beetle, Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763, in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent LeSage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.

  1. Design and construction of a new temperature-controlled chamber for light and confocal microscopy under monitored conditions: biological application for plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, O; Lütz, C; Holzinger, A

    2007-02-01

    A new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber (LM-TCC) has been constructed. The special feature of the light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber is the Peltier-element temperature control of a specimen holder for biological samples, with a volume capacity of 1 mL. This system has marked advantages when compared to other approaches for temperature-controlled microscopy. It works in a temperature range of -10 degrees C to +95 degrees C with an accuracy of +/-0.1 degrees C in the stationary phase. The light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber allows rapid temperature shift rates. A maximum heating rate of 12.9 degrees C min(-1) and a maximum cooling rate of 6.0 degrees C min(-1) are achieved with minimized overshoots (Ficaria verna exposed to 4500 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) in a standard microscopic preparation show a temperature increase (deltaT) of 18.0 degrees C, whereas in the light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber this is reduced to 4 degrees C. The kinetics of microscope-light induced deltaT are described and infrared thermography demonstrates the dissipation of the temperature. Chloroplasts of the cold adapted plant Ranunculus glacialis show the tendency to form stroma-filled protrusions in relation to the exposure temperature. The relative number of chloroplasts with protrusions is reduced at 5 degrees C when compared to 25 degrees C. This effect is reversible. The new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber will be useful in a wide range of biological applications where a rapid change of temperature during microscopic observations is necessary or has to be avoided allowing a simulation of ecologically relevant temperature scenarios.

  2. A matter of scale: apparent niche differentiation of diploid and tetraploid plants may depend on extent and grain of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchheimer, Bernhard; Schinkel, Christoph C F; Dellinger, Agnes S; Klatt, Simone; Moser, Dietmar; Winkler, Manuela; Lenoir, Jonathan; Caccianiga, Marco; Guisan, Antoine; Nieto-Lugilde, Diego; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Thuiller, Wilfried; Vittoz, Pascal; Willner, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Hörandl, Elvira; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-03-22

    Emerging polyploids may depend on environmental niche shifts for successful establishment. Using the alpine plant Ranunculus kuepferi as a model system, we explore the niche shift hypothesis at different spatial resolutions and in contrasting parts of the species range. European Alps. We sampled 12 individuals from each of 102 populations of R. kuepferi across the Alps, determined their ploidy levels, derived coarse-grain (100 × 100 m) environmental descriptors for all sampling sites by downscaling WorldClim maps, and calculated fine-scale environmental descriptors (2 × 2 m) from indicator values of the vegetation accompanying the sampled individuals. Both coarse and fine-scale variables were further computed for 8239 vegetation plots from across the Alps. Subsequently, we compared niche optima and breadths of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes by combining principal components analysis and kernel smoothing procedures. Comparisons were done separately for coarse and fine-grain data sets and for sympatric, allopatric and the total set of populations. All comparisons indicate that the niches of the two cytotypes differ in optima and/or breadths, but results vary in important details. The whole-range analysis suggests differentiation along the temperature gradient to be most important. However, sympatric comparisons indicate that this climatic shift was not a direct response to competition with diploid ancestors. Moreover, fine-grained analyses demonstrate niche contraction of tetraploids, especially in the sympatric range, that goes undetected with coarse-grained data. Although the niche optima of the two cytotypes differ, separation along ecological gradients was probably less decisive for polyploid establishment than a shift towards facultative apomixis, a particularly effective strategy to avoid minority cytotype exclusion. In addition, our results suggest that coarse-grained analyses overestimate niche breadths of widely distributed taxa. Niche comparison

  3. Impact of Soil Warming on the Plant Metabolome of Icelandic Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Ayala-Roque, Marta; Granda, Victor; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is stronger at high than at temperate and tropical latitudes. The natural geothermal conditions in southern Iceland provide an opportunity to study the impact of warming on plants, because of the geothermal bedrock channels that induce stable gradients of soil temperature. We studied two valleys, one where such gradients have been present for centuries (long-term treatment), and another where new gradients were created in 2008 after a shallow crustal earthquake (short-term treatment). We studied the impact of soil warming (0 to +15 °C) on the foliar metabolomes of two common plant species of high northern latitudes: Agrostis capillaris, a monocotyledon grass; and Ranunculus acris, a dicotyledonous herb, and evaluated the dependence of shifts in their metabolomes on the length of the warming treatment. The two species responded differently to warming, depending on the length of exposure. The grass metabolome clearly shifted at the site of long-term warming, but the herb metabolome did not. The main up-regulated compounds at the highest temperatures at the long-term site were saccharides and amino acids, both involved in heat-shock metabolic pathways. Moreover, some secondary metabolites, such as phenolic acids and terpenes, associated with a wide array of stresses, were also up-regulated. Most current climatic models predict an increase in annual average temperature between 2–8 °C over land masses in the Arctic towards the end of this century. The metabolomes of A. capillaris and R. acris shifted abruptly and nonlinearly to soil warming >5 °C above the control temperature for the coming decades. These results thus suggest that a slight warming increase may not imply substantial changes in plant function, but if the temperature rises more than 5 °C, warming may end up triggering metabolic pathways associated with heat stress in some plant species currently dominant in this region. PMID:28832555

  4. Comunidades vegetales de las transiciones terrestre-acuáticas del páramo de Chingaza, Colombia

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    Udo Schmidt-Mumm

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación acuática y semiacuática de los páramos andinos ha sido estudiada generalmente bajo un enfoque fitosociológico tradicional, el cual se basa en muestreos de áreas homogéneas y excluye los fenómenos de borde o transicionales. En el presente estudio se analizó la vegetación acuática y semiacuática del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza a lo largo de diferentes gradientes hídricos. Asimismo se registran un total de 89 especies en 30 transectos; mediante clasificación numérica y el análisis de especies indicadoras se caracterizan las siguientes 18 comunidades: 1 Calamagrostis effusa, 2 Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3 Cyperus rufus, 4 Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5 Carex acutata, 6 Poa annua, 7 Valeriana sp., 8 Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9 Carex bonplandii, 10 Festuca andicola, 11 Muhlenbergia fastigiata, 12 Elatine paramoana, 13 Isoëtes palmeri, 14 Crassula venezuelensis, 15 Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16 Callitriche nubigena, 17 Potamogeton paramoanus y 18 Potamogeton illinoensis. La ordenación de las comunidades indica la presencia de tres gradientes terrestre-acuáticos diferentes, los cuales se relacionan con las formas de vida de las especies que caracterizan las comunidades. Además se considera que gran parte de la heterogeneidad presentada por la vegetación es el resultado de las alteraciones ambientales generadas por diversas actividades humanas (quemas, ganadería, extracción de material para la construcción de carreteras y la represa.

  5. Stratigraphic relationships and paleoecology of a late-glacial peat bed from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathewes, R.F. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada); Clague, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    The stratigraphic relationships of late-glacial and Holocene sediments exposed in sea cliffs at Cape Ball on the Queen Charlotte Islands are summarized, based on section descriptions and 13 radiocarbon dates on wood, peat, and marine pelecypod shells. Four local pollen zones are described from the 70 cm thick peat, beginning with a 7 cm thick herb-dominated zone (CB-1), characterized by up to 60% grass pollen, and including a unique assemblage with abundant Apiaceae, Cyperaceae, Empetrum/Ericaceae, Polemonium, Plantago macrocarpa, Fritillaria, and Ranunculus. A high diversity of other herbs, including subalpine/alpine species and two taxa presently absent from the Charlottes (Armeria maritima and Polemonium caeruleum type), suggests that this zone represents an open floodplain vegetation with no modern analogue. Zone CB-2 (63-45 cm) is dominated by Pinus contorta type pollen (65-70%) and moderate values for fern spores. Zone CB-3 (45-30 cm) shows a rapid rise of Picea pollen from 3 to 39%, followed by a drop to about 12%. Fern spores (20-50%) and Alnus (6%) also reach maximum levels in this zone. Abundant wood fragments and sand inclusions are compatible with an interpretation of a swampy floodplain forest during this interval. The uppermost zone (30-0 cm) exhibits high Pinus contorta (40-60%) and Cyperaceae (12-385) values, along with a moderate abundance of grasses, ferns, and Apiaceae. Estuarine and marine sediments with pelecypod shells, deposited during a marine transgression, overlie the peat bed. Implications of the controversy over the existence of late Pleistocene refugia in the Charlottes are briefly discussed. (JMT)

  6. Pollen limitation is not the rule in nival plants: A study from the European Central Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Johanna; Lechleitner, Martin; Hosp, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Seed output of high-mountain plants in the uppermost life zones is highly variable. One possible reason might be pollen limitation due to inadequate pollinator services. We tested this hypothesis for the insect-pollinated species Cerastium uniflorum, Ranunculus glacialis, and Saxifraga bryoides, which have their distribution center in the subnival and nival zone of the European Central Alps. We recorded insect visitors and determined their impact as pollinators. By analyzing pollination success and seed set following natural and saturating hand pollination, the magnitude of quantitative and qualitative pollen limitation was assessed. Anthomyiid and muscid flies had the highest pollination impact for R. glacialis and S. bryoides and syrphids for C. uniflorum. Natural stigma pollen load was highly variable in individual flowers of all species, but in most cases the number of conspecific pollen grains clearly exceeded the number of ovules to be fertilized. There was also a surplus in germinated pollen grains, whereas the pollen tube to ovule ratio was only sufficient in R. glacialis (2.6 on average) and S. bryoides (1.3), but not in C. uniflorum (0.6). Accordingly, seed to ovule ratio was around 0.8 in R. glacialis, 0.7 in S. bryoides but 0.4 in C. uniflorum. In C. uniflorum, saturating pollination slightly increased seed set. Regression analyses revealed that natural pollination success was more frequently limited by quality than by quantity. Our results do not support the idea of chronic, widespread pollen limitation in the subnival but rather fit into the concept of parental optimism by overinvesting in the number of ovules as an adaptation to variable resource availability. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Lead, zinc, and cadmium uptake, accumulation, and phytoremediation by plants growing around Tang-e Douzan lead-zinc mine, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesami, Reza; Salimi, Azam; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid

    2018-01-10

    In the current study, soils of Tang-e Douzan mine, located in Isfahan, Iran, were collected and analyzed for soluble, exchangeable, and total amounts of Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg. The maximum Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg concentrations in soils were 2500, 1100, 59, 43,800, and 1320 mg/kg for total metals, 86, 83, 6.3, 4650, and 48 mg/kg for their exchangeable fractions, and 59, 3.7, 0.53, 430, and 6.4 mg/kg for their soluble fractions, respectively. All specimens collected, including 69 plant species, were analyzed for Pb, Zn, and Cd. Moreover, their phytoremediation potential was investigated by calculating bioconcentration factors (BCF), translocation factors (TF), and extraction factors (EF) for each heavy metal. Analysis of the leaves for heavy metals showed no metal hyperaccumulation. The highest shoot concentrations of Pb (298 mg/kg) and Zn (740 mg/kg) were found in Roemeria hybrida subsp. dodecandra and Cd (43 mg/kg) in Chenopodium foliosum. Plants having BCFs and TFs > 1 are capable of phytoextraction. Among the analyzed species, four had both TFs and BCFs > 1 for Zn, 13 for Cd, and none for Pb. R. hybrida, Bromus squarrosus, Descurainia sophia, and Poa bulbosa seem to be the best choices for phytoextraction of Zn. Aegilops columnaris, Allium ampeloprasum subsp. iranicum, B. squarrosus, and Cousinia piptocephala are the best choices for phytoextraction of Cd. Plants with BCF > 1 and TF < 1, including Cerastium dichotomum and Muscari neglectum for Pb, Ceratocephala falcata, M. neglectum, Ornithogalum orthophyllum, and Ranunculus arvensis for Zn and C. falcata, M. neglectum, O. orthophyllum, and R. hybrida subsp. dodecandra for Cd, are proposed to be the most efficient species for metal phytostabilization.

  8. Produção de matéria seca e trocas gasosas em cultivares de mamoneira sob níveis de irrigação Dry mass production and gas exchanges in castor bean cultivars under different irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cley A. S. de Freitas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de cinco níveis de irrigação por gotejamento, em três cultivares de mamoneira (IAC Guarani, Mirante 10 e BRS Paraguaçu mediante a quantificação da produção de matéria seca pelas diferentes partes da planta (limbo foliar, caule e pecíolo e a mensuração das trocas gasosas (fotossíntese, condutância estomática e transpiração. O experimento foi conduzido no campo, na Fazenda Experimental Vale do Curu, Pentecoste, CE, sob delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3 e com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram cinco lâminas de irrigação (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125% da evaporação do tanque Classe "A" e três cultivares. Os diferentes níveis de irrigação influenciaram as variáveis: massa seca do pecíolo, condutância estomática e fotossíntese; os valores máximos para essas variáveis foram obtidos com o nível de irrigação correspondente a 125% da evaporação no tanque Classe A. Houve uma resposta diferenciada na produção de biomassa e nas trocas gasosas entre as três cultivares avaliadas em todas as variáveis estudadas, exceto na massa seca do pecíolo.This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of five levels of drip irrigation in three castor bean cultivars (IAC Guarani, Mirante 10 and BRS Paraguaçu by measuring the dry mass production by the different plant parts (leaf blade, petiole and plant stem as well as by measuring the gas exchange processes (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. The experiment was conducted in the field, at the Fazenda Experimental, Vale do Curu, Pentecoste, Ceará (Br. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks in a 5x3 factorial scheme, in split plots with three repetitions. The treatments were five irrigation levels (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125% of the class "A" pan evaporation (CAE applied to the three cultivars. The different irrigation levels

  9. Avaliação do estado nutricional da videira 'Itália' na região de São Miguel Arcanjo-SP, utilizando o sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação Evaluation of the nutritional condition of Italia grapevine in the region of São Miguel Arcanjo-SP, using the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilo Monteiro Terra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o estado nutricional da videira cultivar Itália na região de São Miguel Arcanjo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando o Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS, foram selecionados 20 vinhedos em produção, com práticas culturais semelhantes. Amostras de limbo e pecíolo foram coletadas em três estádios de desenvolvimento da videira: florescimento, frutos entre ervilha e meia-baga, e início de maturação dos frutos. As amostras de limbo e pecíolo foram analisadas para macronutrientes. A população de referência usada no cálculo das normas DRIS foi à dos vinhedos com produtividade média entre 20,70 e 36,30t/ha. O Índice de Balanço Nutricional (IBN e a seqüência de deficiência a excesso dos nutrientes foram calculadas para cada vinhedo, nas três épocas de amostragem, para limbo e pecíolo. Nessa avaliação, concluiu-se que o DRIS se mostrou um bom método para avaliação do estado nutricional da videira 'Itália'. De vinte vinhedos avaliados, onze foram considerados em equilíbrio nutricional. Correlações entre IBN e produtividade indicaram que o melhor órgão foi o limbo, e o florescimento a melhor época de amostragem. O DRIS permitiu determinar os vinhedos que, em geral, apresentavam deficiência de fósforo, potássio e magnésio.This work aimed to evaluate nutritional condition of Italia grapevine in the region centered in São Miguel Arcanjo, SP, Brazil. It was used the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS. Twenty bearing vineyards in that region using similar cultural practices were nutritionally surveyed. Leaf blade and petiole samples were taken at three developing phases of grapevine plants: at bloom, in fruits between pea and have-berry and at the beginning of fruit maturation. Leaf blade and petiole samples were analyzed for macronutrients. The reference population used in the calculation of DRIS norms was that of vineyards with average yield between

  10. O uso do camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, para confecção de artesanato no Distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brasil The use of the camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, for handicraft in the District of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brazil

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    Ieda Maria Bortolotto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, conhecida localmente como camalote, é uma planta aquática nativa da América do Sul, abundante no Pantanal. Os índios Guató usavam essa planta no Pantanal para a confecção de esteiras para dormir. Atualmente a comunidade não indígena do distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, está fazendo artesanato com essa planta. O processo foi ensinado por uma índia Guató (74 anos que manteve a tradição de trançar o camalote. O uso do camalote para a confecção de artesanato é descrito aqui. O método utilizado inclui entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação participante. A extração do camalote é feita nos rios, corixos e lagoas da região. As folhas são cortadas e somente os pecíolos são transportados para casa, lavados em água corrente e colocados para secar ao sol. Depois de secos os pecíolos são trançados e costurados. A técnica original dos Guató consiste em costurar o artesanato com linhas confeccionadas com algodão (Gossypium sp. ou tucum (Bactris sp., atualmente substituídos por fios de nylon, em Albuquerque. O artesanato é vendido aos turistas.Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, known locally as camalote, is an aquatic plant indigenous to South America, abundant in the Pantanal, Brazil. Guató Indians used it for making sleeping mats in the Pantanal. The non-Indian community of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, nowadays, is also using it for the same purposes. An ancient Guató Indian 74 years old taught the process. The use of the camalote for handicraft in Albuquerque is described here. The methods of investigation included both semi structured interviews and participant observations. The extraction of the camalote is made on the rivers, corixos and lagoons of the area. The leaf blades are cut and only petioles are carried to the houses, washed in clear water, and dried in the sun. After dried, the petioles are woven and sewed. The Guató original technique consists of sewing the craft

  11. TOXIC ACTIVITIES OF HEXANE EXTRACT AND COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY FRACTIONS OF RODENT TUBER PLANT (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. ON Artemia salina

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    Nesti F. Sianipar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. is a medicinal plant  particularly found in Java. The plant is used as an ingredient for  conventional cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic activities of crude extracts and column chromatography fractions of  rodent tuber on Artemia salina larvae. Rodent tuber plant was obtained  from the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute in  Bogor, West Java. The experiment was conducted in the Biology  Laboratory of Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, Banten. Leaves and petioles of the plant were macerated with acetone and the filtrates were evaporated (40°C to obtain crude extracts. The crude extracts were partitioned with ethyl acetate, followed with hexane, chloroform and  butanol. Toxicity test of the extracts was performed using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT method on A. salina larvae. Extract showing the most toxic was fractioned using column chromatography and then tested on the larvae. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized  factorial, four replicates for crude extracts and two replicates for the fractions. Treatments were different types of extracts (hexane, chloroform and butanol at various concentrations (500, 1,000 and 1,500 μg ml-1 of 5% Tween solution. Fractions of the column chromatography used were taken from the column number 1, 3 and 10, and tested their toxicities at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 μg ml-1 of 5% Tween solution. Parameters observed were the death of A. salina expressed as LC50. The study  showed that hexane extract of the petioles had the most toxic to A. salina (LC50 = 762.08 μg ml-1. Fraction number 10 showed the highest toxic (LC50 = 381.07 μg ml-1, whereas the lowest was fraction number 3 (LC50 = 653.13 μg ml-1. The study indicates that rodent tuber plant from Bogor is toxic to A. salina and further test for its cytotoxic activity is justified.

  12. Oil palm water use: calibration of a sap flux method and a field measurement scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Furong; Röll, Alexander; Hardanto, Afik; Meijide, Ana; Köhler, Michael; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) water use was assessed by sap flux density measurements with the aim to establish the method and derive water-use characteristics. Thermal dissipation probes were inserted into leaf petioles of mature oil palms. In the laboratory, we tested our set-up against gravimetric measurements and derived new parameters for the original calibration equation that are specific to oil palm petioles. In the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia, in a 12-year-old monoculture plantation, 56 leaves on 10 palms were equipped with one sensor per leaf. A 10-fold variation in individual leaf water use among leaves was observed, but we did not find significant correlations to the variables trunk height and diameter, leaf azimuthal orientation, leaf inclination or estimated horizontal leaf shading. We thus took an un-stratified approach to determine an appropriate sampling design to estimate stand transpiration (Es, mm day(-1)) rates of oil palm. We used the relative standard error of the mean (SEn, %) as a measure for the potential estimation error of Es associated with sample size. It was 14% for a sample size of 13 leaves to determine the average leaf water use and four palms to determine the average number of leaves per palm. Increasing these sample sizes only led to minor further decreases of the SEn of Es. The observed 90-day average of Es was 1.1 mm day(-1) (error margin ± 0.2 mm day(-1)), which seems relatively low, but does not contradict Penman-Monteith-derived estimates of evapotranspiration. Examining the environmental drivers of Es on an intra-daily scale indicates an early, pre-noon maximum of Es rates (11 am) due to a very sensitive reaction of Es to increasing vapor pressure deficit in the morning. This early peak is followed by a steady decline of Es rates for the rest of the day, despite further rising levels of vapor pressure deficit and radiation; this results in pronounced hysteresis, particularly between Es and vapor pressure deficit.

  13. REGENERATION OF Pimpinella pruatjan THROUGH SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

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    I. Roostika

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pruatjan (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. is an Indonesian endangered plant which has various medicinal properties such as aphrodisiac, diuretic, and tonic. The plant is commonly harvested from its natural habitat, therefore it becomes endangered. Regeneration of pruatjan through organogenesis has been studied, but its shoot multiplication was very low (5 shoots per explant. The study aimed to investigate the best regeneration technique of pruatjan through somatic embryogenesis. This research was conducted at the tissue culture laboratory, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development in 2004-2005. Callus formation of pruatjan was induced from the petioles and leaves in Driver and Kuniyaki’s (DKW based medium containing 2,4-D combined with picloram at the level of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.5 ppm. Embryogenic calli were then transferred into embryo development medium in two ways. First, they were directly transferred into media containing IBA/NAA at the level of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm. Second, they were indirectly transferred into media containing 2.0 ppm 2,4-D and 0.3% casein hydrolysate prior to the IBA/ NAA media. Parameters evaluated were fresh weight, dry weight, time initiation of embryogenic callus formation, and total number of embryos. The result showed that calli of pruatjan were successfully induced from the petioles and leaves. The best calli were induced from the leaves in the DKW medium containing 2.0 ppm 2,4-D and 0.5 ppm picloram. Embryo development of the calli was best if they were first grown in the media containing 2.0 ppm 2,4-D and 0.3% casein hydrolysate then transferred to the IBA/NAA media. The total number of somatic embryos was counted up to 103 on the medium containing 1.5 ppm IBA. This study indicated that pruatjan somatic embryogenesis regeneration required three different media, i.e. for callus induction, development and maturation, and for

  14. Ditylenchus dipsaci Infestation of Trifolium repens. II. Dynamics of Infestation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G S; Cook, R; Mizen, K A

    1997-09-01

    Trifolium repens (white clover) stolons were inoculated with Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem nematode), and the development of resulting infestations was monitored. Nematodes initially remained confined to superficial locations, concentrating in petiole axils near inoculation points. They were able to migrate slowly from the inidal inoculation points and infest adjacent axils, especially in regions near the stolon tip. As time progressed, in some axils, nematodes migrated through the stolon epidermis and colonized slowly expanding subepidermal pockets of host tissue (ca. 0.2-mm length of stolon/day). In these loci nematodes established exponentially increasing populations, but the rates of locus expansion remained constant, indicating that locus expansion was limited by unidentified host-dependent factors. As a result of increasing population pressure within subepidermal loci, J4 entered a "diapause" state and the rate of egg production by adults declined, thereby reducing rate of population growth to more sustainable levels. Typically, these populations peaked at ca. 10,000 individuals in ca. 160 days occupying 3-cm lengths of stolon. Thereafter, heavily infested regions of stolons started to die, leading to the formation of longitudinal splits in their epidermis. In other axils, nematodes did not migrate into the stolons but remained confined to axils. Some of these populations increased a hundred-fold in 95 days, with population growth ending when petioles started to die. Host plant stolon morphology was affected only when subepidermal stolon populations developed high population levels (>100 nematodes) within close proximity (axillary buds became active on previously infested nodes or when nematodes established endoparasitic populations at locations near the stolon tip during winter and spring, when the rate of stolon extension was limited by low light intensity. Affected stolon tips could "escape" from the influence of such infestations when light intensity and

  15. Características morfofisiológicas de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência a diferentes mecanismos de ação herbicida Morphophysiological characteristics of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant to different herbicide action mechanisms

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    M.M Trezzi

    2009-12-01

    + cotyledons, roots, stems+petioles and total, plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area and number of leaves per plant. In determinations made at a later time, biotype S presented smaller dry matter of leaves+cotyledons, stems+petioles and total, as well as smaller leaf area, number of leaves per plant and height than biotypes R to ALS and R to Protox.

  16. Método de dissipação térmica para determinação do fluxo de seiva em coqueiro anão-verde The heat dissipation method for sap flow determination in green-dwarf coconut plants

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    Marilaine Campanati Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da demanda hídrica das culturas é uma informação básica para o manejo de irrigação. O método de dissipação térmica (MDT vem recebendo atenção nos últimos tempos para esta finalidade, em virtude de utilizar princípios físicos relativamente simples e poder ser aplicado diretamente no campo. Este trabalho objetivou realizar a calibração do método de sonda de dissipação térmica na determinação do fluxo de seiva em coqueiro anão-verde. Para a calibração, a sonda foi inserida em um segmento de pecíolo da folha do coqueiro-anão verde. Um fluxo estável de água foi estabelecido no segmento do pecíolo. Foram feitas medidas de vazão, volume por unidade de tempo, e temperatura, dada pela sonda. Após a calibração em laboratório foram realizados experimentos de campo na Região Norte Fluminense, Brasil, nos quais o modelo calibrado foi capaz de acompanhar a demanda atmosférica. Conclui-se que modelo matemático obtido da calibração do MDT é satisfatório para a obtenção da transpiração no coqueiro anão-verde.The knowledge of crop water demand is basic for irrigation management. In recent years, the Heat Dissipation Method (HDM has received attention for this purpose because its relatively simple physical principles and applicability in field conditions. This study aimed to perform calibration of the HDM for sap flow determination in green-dwarf coconut plants. For calibration, the probe was inserted in a segment of the leaf petiole of a dwarf coconut tree. A steady stream of water was established in the segment of petiole. Measurements of flow rate, volume per unit time and temperature, were taken with the probe. After calibrating HDM in laboratory, field experiments were carried out in the Norte Fluminense, Brazil, where the calibrated model were well coupled to the atmospheric demand. It is concluded that the mathematical model obtained in the HDM calibration is suitable for obtaining the

  17. Método de dissipação térmica para determinação do fluxo de seiva em coqueiro anão-verde The heat dissipation method for sap flow determination in green-dwarf coconut plants

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    Marilaine Campanati Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da demanda hídrica das culturas é uma informação básica para o manejo de irrigação. O método de dissipação térmica (MDT vem recebendo atenção nos últimos tempos para esta finalidade, em virtude de utilizar princípios físicos relativamente simples e poder ser aplicado diretamente no campo. Este trabalho objetivou realizar a calibração do método de sonda de dissipação térmica na determinação do fluxo de seiva em coqueiro anão-verde. Para a calibração, a sonda foi inserida em um segmento de pecíolo da folha do coqueiro-anão verde. Um fluxo estável de água foi estabelecido no segmento do pecíolo. Foram feitas medidas de vazão, volume por unidade de tempo, e temperatura, dada pela sonda. Após a calibração em laboratório foram realizados experimentos de campo na Região Norte Fluminense, Brasil, nos quais o modelo calibrado foi capaz de acompanhar a demanda atmosférica. Conclui-se que modelo matemático obtido da calibração do MDT é satisfatório para a obtenção da transpiração no coqueiro anão-verde.The knowledge of crop water demand is basic for irrigation management. In recent years, the Heat Dissipation Method (HDM has received attention for this purpose because its relatively simple physical principles and applicability in field conditions. This study aimed to perform calibration of the HDM for sap flow determination in green-dwarf coconut plants. For calibration, the probe was inserted in a segment of the leaf petiole of a dwarf coconut tree. A steady stream of water was established in the segment of petiole. Measurements of flow rate, volume per unit time and temperature, were taken with the probe. After calibrating HDM in laboratory, field experiments were carried out in the Norte Fluminense, Brazil, where the calibrated model were well coupled to the atmospheric demand. It is concluded that the mathematical model obtained in the HDM calibration is suitable for obtaining the

  18. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Morfo-anatomia de plântulas e número cromossômico de Cybistax antisyphilitica (Mart. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Seedling morpho-anatomy and chromosome number of Cybistax antisyphilitica (Mart. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

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    Flavia Aparecida Ortolani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas de Cybistax antisyphilitica (ipê-verde, espécie arbórea que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foram estudadas morfoanatomicamente e citogeneticamente. As plântulas são eudicotiledôneas, fanerocotiledonares e epigéias. Suas sementes apresentam alas hialinas, assimétricas e de textura papirácea. A raiz é axial com tecido epidérmico irregular. O hipocótilo é verde, glabro e apresenta os elementos do xilema em diferenciação. Os cotilédones são verdes, foliáceos, reniformes, com mesofilo heterogêneo, epiderme pilosa e feixes vasculares colaterais. Os eófilos são glabros, peciolados, de filotaxia oposta, dorsiventrais, hipoestomáticos e possuem mesofilo heterogêneo e assimétrico. Não há diferenças anatômicas significativas entre os eófilos e os metáfilos. O sistema vascular do pecíolo dos metáfilos dispõe-se em forma de ferradura. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico mitótico 2n = 40 com comprimento cromossômico geral médio de 1,042 µm ± 0,140 e amplitude variando de 0,58 µm até 1,60 µm.Seedlings of Cybistax antisyphilitica ("ipê-verde", a tree species found in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were studied as regards morphology, anatomy and cytogenetics. The seedlings are eudicotyledonous, phanerocotylar, epigeous and the seeds have hyaline, asymmetric, paper-textured expansions. The root system is axial with irregular epidermal tissue. The hypocotyl is green, glabrous and has differentiated xylem elements. The cotyledons are green, foliaceous, kidney-shaped, with heterogeneous mesophyll, pilose epidermis and collateral vascular bundles. The eophylls are petiolate, glabrous, with opposite phyllotaxy, dorsiventral, hypostomatic and with heterogeneous, asymmetric mesophyll. There are no significant anatomical differences between eophylls and metaphylls. The metaphyll petiole vascular system is shaped like a horseshoe. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 40 with average overall

  20. Morfoanatomia de folha e caule de Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae Leaf and stem morpho-anatomy of Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae

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    Marianna Erbano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genipa americana L., conhecida como jenipapo, é uma Rubiaceae nativa do Brasil e as suas folhas são utilizadas pela população como antidiarreico e febrífugo, e o caule como anti-hemorrágico, contra luxações e contusões. Com o objetivo de caracterizar macro e microscopicamente folhas adultas e caules jovens para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico, essa planta medicinal foi analisada segundo a metodologia clássica de morfoanatomia vegetal. Genipa americana apresenta folhas simples, opostas, de formato obovado a oblanceolado e pecíolos curtos. A epiderme foliar é uniestratificada e revestida por cutícula delgada e levemente estriada. Os estômatos são paracíticos e restritos à superfície abaxial. Há tricomas tectores uni e pluricelulares predominantemente na superfície abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. Em secção transversal, a nervura central é plano-convexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando um feixe vascular colateral em disposição cilíndrica e outros menores. O caule possui felogênio localizado nas camadas subepidérmicas, colênquima anelar e um cilindro floemático externo ao de xilema, sendo ambos percorridos por raios parenquimáticos estreitos. Ocorrem idioblastos contendo compostos fenólicos, areia cristalina e drusas de oxalato de cálcio na folha e no caule.Genipa americana L., known as jenipapo, is a Rubiaceae species native to Brazil. Its leaves are used by the population as anti-diarrheic and febrifuge, and its stem as anti-hemorrhagic and for trauma injuries. Aiming to identify macro and microscopically mature leaves and young stems for the pharmacognostic quality control, this medicinal plant was investigated according to standard morpho-anatomical techniques. The leaves are simple, opposite, obovate-oblanceolate, presenting short petiole. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with thin and slightly striate cuticle. The stomata are paracytic and restricted to the abaxial surface. It