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Sample records for ranunculus sceleratus linn

  1. Seed development in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Populus nigra L., and Ranunculus sceleratus L. with special reference to the microtubular cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XuHan, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, seed development is investigated in celery-leafed buttercup ( Ranunculus sceleratus L.), bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and poplar ( Populus nigra L.). Developing embryos, endosperms and seed coats are

  2. Ranunculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Ranunculus is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Thirty-one species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical an...

  3. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Ling Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1 and B (2, and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3, were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were established to be (2S-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher’s method.

  4. SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matthias H.; von Hagen, K. Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V.

    2010-01-01

    The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and Halerpestes. Two clades of Ranunculus are species-rich in the Arctic, i.e., Ranunculus sect. Ranunculus and R. sect. Auricomus (both from R. subg. Ranunculus), but this is due to a number of arctic “microtaxa” morphologically barely separate from R. acris in the former clade and the widely agamospermic species complex of R. auricomus in the latter. Lineages with species adapted to wetlands or aquatic habitats are significant groups represented in the arctic flora (R. subg. Ranunculus sectt. Flammula and Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, R. subg. Batrachium, genus Coptidium) but show no clear signs of radiation in the Arctic or the northern boreal zone, except for sectt. Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, with R. hyperboreus and R. sceleratus subsp. reptabundus. Astonishingly few of the otherwise numerous lineages of Ranunculus with distributions in the higher mountain systems of Eurasia and North America have acted as “founding sources” for the arctic flora. The only clear example is that of the arctic-alpine R. glacialis and the Beringian R. chamissonis from the lineage of subg. R. sectt. Aconitifolii/Crymodes, although there might be others in sect. Auricomus not recovered in the current molecular data. Lineages that gave rise to arctic taxa diverged from each other from the early Miocene (R. glacialis/R. chamissonis, Coptidium, lineages in Halerpestes) and continued at an even rate throughout the Tertiary. There are no signs that the intense climate changes of the late Pliocene

  5. Ecological characteristics of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea – a case study from Rhodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KALOGIROU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ecological and societal impact of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus on coastal habitats of an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Rhodes Island was investigated. Seasonal quantitative samplings in two common coastal habitats were used to investigate habitat use of different life-stages. Sandy areas were found to be highly important for the early life stages of L. sceleratus. In contrast, Posidonia oceanica habitats were mainly preferred by larger (> 29 cm reproductive adults, not exceeding 64 cm. Lagocephalus sceleratus was found to feed on invertebrates and fish while size classification revealed a tendency for a diet shift with increased size. During early life stages, L. sceleratus inhabits sandy bottoms where it feeds on various invertebrates. The predominant molluscan species found in the diet of larger (> 20 cm L. sceleratus individuals were the economically important Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. The size at which 50% of individuals reach maturity was estimated to 19 cm. With increased size, habitat shift to seagrass meadows most possibly occurs to meet both the increased demand in prey availability and requirement of appropriate spawning ground. Condition factor of L. sceleratus showed significantly higher values during summer than all other seasons and this was attributed to spawning season and increase in feeding. Societal impacts were alarming due to increased public attention concerning its lethal effects (presence of tetrodotoxin, if consumed. Its high abundance in the coastal fish communities of the studied area combined with ecological and societal impacts, clearly classify L. sceleratus a pest for fisheries and potential threat for biodiversity.

  6. Consequences of the increasing prevalence of the poisonous Lagocephalus sceleratus in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beköz, Alev Banu; Beköz, Sera; Yilmaz, Elanur; Tüzün, Suna; Beköz, Uner

    2013-11-01

    The increasing Indo-Pacific migration has affected the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea, and the prevalence of the puffer fish (Lagocephalus sceleratus), a well-known poisonous migrant, is increasing. The fish, which contains tetrodotoxin, is lethally poisonous when consumed. As its population increases it becomes more available in the markets of southern Turkey, but local people seem to be unaware of the danger. Probably because of the depressed stocks of the surrounding waters and demand on affordable seafood, local anglers are catching the fish. The situation constitutes an alert for the local emergency medicine organisation and is a public health issue. Local fishermen, fish sellers/dealers/brokers, buyers and emergency department physicians were interviewed about the fishery and consumption facts of the puffer fish in the region, the number of cases reported in the regional state run hospitals and the 112 Emergency Medical Response Service, and the knowledge and practice of the doctors in the emergency departments. General health organisations are unprepared for the serious health hazards caused by this fish, including fatalities. Health workers should have sufficient knowledge regarding the clinical manifestations, complications and management of puffer fish poisoning. Official authorities should make the public aware of the potential risk of consuming puffer fish.

  7. Molecular phylogeny and biometrics of lessepsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 from Mediterranean and Red Seas, Egypt

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    Mahmoud M.S. Farrag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparison for lessepsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 from the Egyptian waters (Mediterranean and Red Seas was performed using morphological and genetic characteristics to confirm its identification and to recognize any variations due to differences in both habitats. A similar identity in body description from both habitats was observed. Slight phenotyping variations in some morphological measurements were observed with no significant difference. The correlation between the reference length and most of morphological indices was similar (0.99 for both habitats. Molecular phylogeny, using two primers (16S rRNA and Cytochrome b showed similar size bands at 600 bp and 400 bp ladders for both primers respectively in both habitats. The obtained sequences were aligned showing an identity (more than 99% to the published sequences of L. sceleratus indicating high genetic resemblance. So, the present populations from both habitats don’t appear to be separated species, indicating no obvious genetic variations after its migration into new habitat, expecting that, genetic differentiation may occur very slowly. This supported the idea that both morphological and genetic characteristics are recommended to be used together in identification and phylogenetic relations of the population from two habitats. The specific primers 16S rRNA and Cyt b showed confirmable tools to support the same target where the environmental variations may alter phenotypic variations.

  8. Olematu linn / Nicola Desiderio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Desiderio, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    10. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalist (kuraator Richard Burdett). Näitusest "Linn, arhitektuur ja ühiskond". Itaalia paviljoni väljapanekust "Uus linn. Itaalia 2026. Kutse Vemasse" (kuraator Franco Purini), lühidalt Belgia väljapanekust ja Saksa paviljoni ekspositsioonist "Muundatav linn"

  9. SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Matthias H.; von Hagen, K. Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V.

    2010-01-01

    The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and...

  10. Antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Ranunculus arvensis L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Muhammad Zeeshan; Ali, Amjad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Saeed, Asma; Malik, Salman Akbar

    2015-06-30

    Ranunculus arvensis L. (R. arvensis) has long been used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as arthritis, asthma, hay fever, rheumatism, psoriasis, gut diseases and rheumatic pain. Here, we screened R. arvensis for antioxidant activity, phytochemical and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. The chloroform, chloroform:methanol, methanol, methanol:acetone, acetone, methanol:water and water extracts of R. arvensis were examined for DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, reducing power assay, flavonoid content, phenolic content and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Significant antioxidant activity was displayed by methanol extract (IC 50 34.71 ± 0.02) in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Total flavonoids and phenolics ranged 0.96-6.0 mg/g of extract calculated as rutin equivalent and 0.48-1.43 mg/g of extract calculated as gallic acid equivalent respectively. Significant value of rutin and caffeic acid was observed via high performance liquid chromatography. These results showed that extracts of R. arvensis exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Moreover, R. arvensis is a rich source of rutin, flavonoids and phenolics.

  11. Jumala linn / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna VIII Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme - Ladina-Ameerika mängufilmid "Jumala linn" ("Cidade de Deus") : režissöörid Fernando Meirelles, Katia Lund : Brasiilia - Prantsusmaa - Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002

  12. Complex Self-Incompatibility Systems in Ranunculus acris L. and Beta vulgaris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, A.; Østerbye, U.; Larsen, K.

    1973-01-01

    -genes acting on the haploid pollen grain be matched in the pistil. This type of incompatibility system was previously considered to be unique for the grasses. However, whereas two S-loci with such complementary interaction have been established in the grasses, there are at least three S-loci in Ranunculus...

  13. RANUNCULUS-HEDERACEUS L AS INDICATOR OF LAND-USE CHANGES IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diggelen, R.; Beukema, Hendrien; Noorman, Klaas

    In The Netherlands Ranunculus hederaceus is a rare species that occurs in running waters. It appears to be confined to zones with a constant supply of mineral-poor groundwater, originating from highly fertilized fields. The relation between species performance and chemical composition of the water

  14. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts. PMID:23055639

  15. Notes on genome size in the hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae and its parents by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Prieto, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Notes on genome size in the hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae and its parents by flow cytometry.- Flow cytometry was used to estimate the nuclear DNA content in the natural hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii and its parents. Our results indicate that the genome size of the hybrid R. x luizetii is closer to R. pyrenaeus than to R. parnassiifolius, providing an evidence of genome downsizing.Notas sobre el tamaño del genoma en el híbrido Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae y sus progenitores mediante citometría de flujo.- Se ha empleado la citometría de flujo para estimar el contenido de ADN nuclear en el híbrido Ranunculus x luizetii y sus progenitores. Nuestros resultados indican que el tamaño del genoma del híbrido R. x luizetii se acerca más a R. pyrenaeus que a R. parnassiifolius, con una evidencia de reducción del genoma.

  16. Comparative chloroplast genomics: Analyses including new sequencesfrom the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubeso, Linda A.; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W.; Dziubek,Chris; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2007-03-01

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This new array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is most useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the new genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (from the basal group of eudicots). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition.

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF THREATENED SPECIES TRIFOLIUM LUPINASTER L., HERACLEUM CARPATICUM PORCIUS AND RANUNCULUS THORA L. IN ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila BARTÓK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maramureşului Mountains Nature Park is widely known as one of the last wilderness areas in Europe and also represents a real oasis for naturalists eager to explore the flora and fauna of this special land not very researched. During a botanical trip in the area of Farcău Peak (on 19 July 2014 the authors of this paper found three very rare species (all 3 threatened, included in Romanian Red Book of Vascular Plants: Trifolium lupinaster L., Heracleum carpaticum Porcius and Ranunculus thora L. Based on field studies, analyses of herbarium material and literature data, the authors managed to record the occurrence of Trifolium lupinaster, Heracleum carpaticum and Ranunculus thora in the Romanian Carpathians and determined the threatened status of species according to criteria and categories of IUCN.

  18. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot. We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and longer dispersed repeats (SDR, and patterns of nucleotide composition. Results The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. Conclusion SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A

  19. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubeson, Linda A; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W; Dziubek, Chris; Fourcade, H Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2007-06-15

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition. The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A+T richness", an A+T bias is not apparent upon more in

  20. Cytotype segregation on regional and microgeographic scales in snow buttercups (Ranunculus adoneus: Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baack, Eric J

    2004-11-01

    Polyploid speciation is an important source of angiosperm diversity. Insights into the origin and establishment of new polyploid species may be gained by studying the distributions of ancestral and derivative cytotypes at multiple spatial scales. Diploid (2n = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 32) snow buttercups (Ranunculus adoneus: Ranunculaceae) occur in the alpine of the central and southern Rocky Mountains. Root-tip squashes and flow cytometry were used to determine the ploidy of 1618 individuals from 35 populations. Samples from 31 of the 35 sites were entirely of one cytotype, either diploid or tetraploid. Diploid and tetraploid snow buttercups have nonoverlapping regional distributions. Where both cytotypes occur on the same site, the two are spatially segregated despite no apparent change in habitat. Triploid snow buttercups were only found at a diploid/tetraploid contact zone, while two hexaploid plants were found in tetraploid populations. Tetraploid establishment once or twice in the history of the species complex could account for the regional distribution of the two cytotypes. Habitat differentiation between cytotypes or reproductive exclusion of minority cytotypes may explain the observed segregation at both microgeographic and regional scales.

  1. The native and naturalised species of Peltocalathos and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae: Ranunculeae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The five native and naturalised species of Ranunculus L. and Peltocalathos Tamaru (Ranunculaceae: Ranunculeae from southern Africa are reviewed, with full descriptions and nomenclature, taxonomic history, ecological notes, and distribution data. All species are illustrated. Peltocalathos, a monotypic genus based on R. baurii MacOwan, has been overlooked in the regional literature until now. The new name R. dregei J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is proposed as a replacement name for the later homonym R. meyeri Harv., non Lowe. We conclude that the poorly known R. capensis Thunb. represents juvenile forms of the widespread and variable R. multifidus Forssk. and we synonymise the name, along with the three trivial epithets R. pinnatus var. hermannii DC., R. pubescens var. glabrescens Burtt Davy and R. pubescens var. harveyanus Burtt Davy, which have been overlooked in the recent literature. Based on number (mostly < 40 achenes per head and size (mostly 1.2–1.8 mm long of achenes, we conclude that the southern African material of the aquatic species recently re-identified as R. rionii Lagger is more appropriately treated as R. trichophyllus Chaix.

  2. Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

    2013-11-01

    Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (λ = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (λ = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase λ for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

  3. Uptake of cadmium by the invasive perennial weeds Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Juliette; Bendell-Young, L I

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accumulation and partitioning of cadmium (Cd) in a fibrous versus a tap root weed, Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum respectively. To meet this objective, we compared the accumulation by and the partitioning of Cd in R repens versus G. robertianum grown in soils spiked with 0.015 grams of Cd for a period of three weeks. The rate of Cd uptake was also compared by following the fate of 109Cd within the root, stem and leaf of the two weeds. Prior to Cd exposure, leaf and stem of control R. repens contained significantly greater amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum, whereas Cd concentrations in roots of the control plants for the two species were not significantly different (p > 0.05, student's t-test). Post Cd exposure the two species contained similar amounts of Cd in leaf and stem, however, roots of R. repens contained almost two-fold the amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum. Comparison of k (h(-1), rate of 109Cd uptake) for stem, leaf and root of the two species indicated that G. robertianum accumulated 109Cd over the first 24-48 h at a faster rate as compared to R. repens. For both species and all three organs, maximum accumulation of 109Cd occurred within the first 24-48 h. Our findings indicate that the fate of Cd within these two species is quite different with the fibrous root of R. repens serving to accumulate and store Cd whereas in G. robertianum, Cd is rapidly taken up and tends to be accumulated within its leaf.

  4. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Zandi, Keivan

    2013-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases...

  5. Chemical compounds from Chenopodium album Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive components from Chenopodium album Linn. were isolated and identified in this research. Light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH were firstly applied to partition the 75% EtOH extract of Chenopodium album Linn. which were then subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. By the employment of NMR method in this study, chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated. Three known compounds were isolated from Chenopodium album Linn., and identified as Isolariciresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7’S, 8R, 8’R)-Isolariciresinol (2) and (7’S, 8R, 8’S)-Isolariciresinol (3) by comparison of their spectral data with references. This is the first time that isolation of the compounds mentioned above from Chenopodium album Linn. was achieved.

  6. Võru linn ja turism / Anu Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Anu

    2009-01-01

    Autori hinnangul ei kasuta Võru linn piisavalt ära oma olemasolevaid ressursse turismi edendamiseks, turismialane areng on aga pidurdunud info liikumatuse ning rahvusvaheliste transpordiliinide puudumise ja kauguse tõttu

  7. Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega / Linda Kongo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kongo, Linda, 1929-

    2007-01-01

    Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega on loonud tema õpilased ja õpilaste õpilased, kes siirdusid kuulama tema loenguid Uppsala Ülikoolis. Mitmed Baltimaadelt pärit loodusteadlased täiendasid end Linné õpilase Johann Andreas Murray juures. Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogus on hoiul üks Linné kiri

  8. Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae) extract attenuates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae, CCY) against 1- methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: MPTP-intoxicated mice model of PD was used for evaluating ...

  9. Linn - sajandi suur armastus / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Tate Modern'is avatud näitusest "Sajandi linn : kunst ja kultuur modernses metropolis". Pariisi, Viini, Moskva, Lagose, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, New Yorgi, Londoni ja Bombay väljapanekutest. Järgneb 20. apr. 2002, lk. 8

  10. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Exhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea Linn. (Oleaceae) fruit pulp (OFP-EA) extract in experimental rats. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a normal diet, a high-cholesterol diet or high-cholesterol diets supplemented with OFP-EA extract (100 or 300 ...

  11. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  12. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn) (Anacardiaceae) in semiarid Brazil. Francianne Oliveira Santos, Elissandra Couras Angélico, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Fabíola FG Rodrigues, Onaldo Guedes Rodrigues, Rosália Severo de Medeiros ...

  13. Hepatoprotective Effect of Clerodendrum inerme Linn. Ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    Further biochemical parameters like lipid peroxidation, total protein, albumin and histopathological studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of hepatoprotective action of C. inerme Linn. REFERENCES. [1]. K.M. Nadkarni, A.K. Nadkarni and R.N.. Chopra, The Indian Materia Medica,. Popular Prakashan Ltd. Mumbai.

  14. Out of the Alps: colonization of Northern Europe by East Alpine populations of the Glacier Buttercup Ranunculus glacialis L. (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönswetter, P; Paun, O; Tribsch, A; Niklfeld, H

    2003-12-01

    Ranunculus glacialis ssp. glacialis is an arctic-alpine plant growing in central and southern European and Scandinavian mountain ranges and the European Arctic. In order to elucidate the taxon's migration history, we applied amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to populations from the Pyrenees, Tatra mountains and Northern Europe and included data from a previous study on Alpine accessions. Populations from the Alps and the Tatra mountains were genetically highly divergent and harboured many private AFLP fragments, indicating old vicariance. Whereas nearly all Alpine populations of R. glacialis were genetically highly variable, the Tatrean population showed only little variation. Our data suggest that the Pyrenees were colonized more recently than the separation of the Tatra from the Alps. Populations in Northern Europe, by contrast, were similar to those of the Eastern Alps but showed only little genetic variation. They harboured no private AFLP fragments and only a subset of East Alpine ones, and they exhibited no phylogeographical structure. It is very likely therefore that R. glacialis colonized Northern Europe in postglacial times from source populations in the Eastern Alps.

  15. Extra petals in the buttercup (Ranunculus repens) provide a quick method to estimate the age of meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John

    2009-09-01

    There is a widely used crude method to estimate the age of hedgerows (Hooper's rule) based on species' richness. The aim of this study was to try and establish a similar field method for estimating the age of grasslands based on the accumulation of macro-somatic mutations. A countrywide survey was carried out by the British public to investigate the relationship between grassland age and the number of Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) plants with extra petals. In addition the relationship between grassland age and R. repens pollen viability was also investigated. Each plant with flowers with additional petals in a sample of 100 was found to equate to approx. 7 years. A higher significant correlation was observed between pollen viability and population age; however, this is not amenable to providing field estimates. The age of British grasslands can be easily and reliably estimated in the field by counting the number flowers with additional petals in R. repens in meadows up to 200 years old. An attempt to estimate the heritability of extra petals suggests that the phenotype results from the slow accumulation of somatic mutations in a species that primarily reproduces vegetatively.

  16. Pharmacological Properties of Capparis spinosa Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Moufid A; Farid O; Eddouks, M

    2015-01-01

    Capparis spinosa Linn. (Capparaceae) was traditionally used for pharmacological purposes and has potential for use in modern cosmetics. This review aims to assess the current available knowledge of Capparis spinosa and its constituents for management of several diseases. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by scrutinizing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases (SCOPUS, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, Google Scholar...

  17. Kadunud ja äraneetud linn / Jüri Liim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liim, Jüri

    2000-01-01

    Paldiski linna kujutavad tõsielufilmid "Äraneetud linn" : režissöör ja operaator Andres Sööt : Eesti Kroonikafilm 1996 ning "Paldiski, kadunud linn" : režissöör Sabine Hackenberg : Hackengerg (Baden-Württembergi filmiakadeemia) 1999

  18. Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  19. Effects of Spondias mombin Linn (Anacardiaceae) on rat parturition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Spondias mombin Linn (Anacardiaceae) are used by traditional healers in some parts of Africa to treat dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage. All experiments are performed on albino wistar mature and immature rats. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Spondias mombin Linn on rat parturition in ...

  20. Kummardus Carl Linnéle / Andres Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Suur botaanik ja loodusteadlane Carl Linné soovitas oma sõjalise funktsiooni kaotanud kindlustesse või nende varemetesse ürdiaedu rajada. Narva linnus jätkab seda traditsiooni: linnuse Läänehoovi rajati Carl Linné aed. Konkursist võtsid osa ka Eesti Maaülikooli üliõpilased

  1. [Xanthones from leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Zhan-Lin; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Dan-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2009-02-01

    To study the xanthones from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., several chromatography methods were employed to isolate the constituents. Investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A (1) and four known compounds, which were pancixanthone A (2), gerontoxanthone B (3), jacareubin (4) and pyranojacareubin (5). Among them, compound 2 was obtained from this plant firstly, and compound 3 was obtained for the first time from this genus. The structure of inophyxanthone A (1) was identified as 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-(1, 1-dimethylallyl)xanthone by spectral analysis.

  2. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    . Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called ...

  3. Anticancer Activity of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutaceae) which has long been used traditionally for various infectious and malignant diseases. Methods: The fruit extract of Limonia acidissima Linn was obtained by macerating 3 times with methanol and then concentrating it at reduced pressure.

  4. New York, rändurite linn / Kadri Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerge, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    New York on linn, mille elanikkond ja ruum on pidevas muutumises. Ehitustegevuse tulemusena on uue ilme saanud kõik linnaosad. Aktuaalseim teema New Yorgi arhitektuuriringkondades ja ehituses on nn. ultrapilvelõhkujatega seonduv

  5. Estimation of bioflavonoids in Amaranthus caudatus Linn . by HPLC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flavonoids are present in the Amaranthus caudatus Linn, Flavonoids like Rutin and quercetin possess many biochemical effects like inhibition of enzymes, regulatory role on different hormones and pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antihepatotoxic, protection of cardio vascular system.

  6. RP - HPLC Method for Determination of Piperine from Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Santosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn. are used as spices and medicines. Quantitative determination of piperine was undertaken to provide an easy and simple analytical method, which can be used as a routine quality control method. RP-HPLC was performed using methanol and water as mobile phase. The detection and quantification was performed at a wavelength of 345 nm. Linearity of detector response for piperine was between the concentrations 0.005% to 0.1%. The correlation coefficient obtained for the linearity was 0.998. The assay value of piperine for fruit and root of P. longum was found to be 0.879% and 0.31%. The assay value of piperine for fruit of P. nigrum was 4.5%. The recovery value of standard piperine was 99.4%. Low value of standard deviation and coefficient of variation are indicative of high precision of the method.

  7. Historical divergence versus contemporary gene flow: evolutionary history of the calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group (Ranunculaceae) in the European Alps and the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, O.; Schönswetter, P.; Winkler, M.; Tribsch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many species have similar total distributional ranges, they might be restricted to very different habitats and might have different phylogeographic histories. In the European Alps, our excellent knowledge of the evolutionary history of silicate-dwelling (silicicole) plants is contrasted by a virtual lack of data from limestone-dwelling (calcicole) plants. These two categories exhibit fundamentally different distribution patterns within the Alps and are expected to differ strongly with respect to their glacial history. The calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group comprises three diploid species of alpine habitats. Ranunculus alpestris s. str is distributed over the southern European mountain system, while R. bilobus and R. traunfellneri are Southern Alpine narrow endemics. To explore their phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic history, we investigated the correlation between information given by nuclear and chloroplast DNA data. Analyses of AFLP fingerprints and matK sequences gave incongruent results, indicative for reticulate evolution. Our data highlight historical episodes of range fragmentation and expansion, occasional long distance dispersal and on-going gene flow as important processes shaping the genetic structure of the group. Genetic divergence, expressed as a rarity index (“frequency-down-weighted marker values”) seems a better indicator of historical processes than patterns of genetic diversity, which rather mirror contemporary processes as connectivity of populations and population sizes. Three phylogeographical subgroups have been found within the R. alpestris group, neither following taxonomy nor geography. Genetic heterogeneity in the Southern Alps contrasts with Northern Alpine uniformity. The Carpathians have been stepwise colonised from the Eastern Alpine lineage resulting in a marked diversity loss in the Southern Carpathians. The main divergence within the group, separating the ancestor of the two endemic species from R

  8. Antipyretic effects of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. seeds in experimental rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Sabira; Akhtar, Naveed; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the antipyretic activity of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. (HMEMA) seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. (HMECM) seeds in experimental animals. Baker's yeast was used to induce fever in rabbits which were divided into six groups. The animal groups were thereafter administered distilled water (control), paracetamol (reference standard, 150mg/kg), HMEMA (250mg/kg), HMEMA (500mg/kg), HMECM (250mg/kg) and HMECM (500mg/kg) respectively. HMEMA and HMECM were also phytochemically screened for tannins, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Results indicate that hydro-methanol extract of M. azedarach Linn. Seeds (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg) significantly (pMelia azedarach L. seeds in treating fever. This property can be attributed to the presence of phytochemical constituents present in the hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach L. seeds and the exact mechanism need to be evaluated.

  9. No Genetic Diversity at Molecular Markers and Strong Phenotypic Plasticity in Populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, an Endangered Plant Species in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Florence; Machon, Nathalie; Porcher, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Although conservation biology has long focused on population dynamics and genetics, phenotypic plasticity is likely to play a significant role in population viability. Here, an investigation is made into the relative contribution of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity to the phenotypic variation in natural populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, a rare annual plant inhabiting temporary puddles in the Fontainebleau forest (Paris region, France) and exhibiting metapopulation dynamics. Methods The genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity of quantitative traits (morphological and fitness components) were measured in five populations, using a combination of field measurements, common garden experiments and genotyping at microsatellite loci. Key Results It is shown that populations exhibit almost undetectable genetic diversity at molecular markers, and that the variation in quantitative traits observed among populations is due to a high level of phenotypic plasticity. Despite the lack of genetic diversity, the natural population of R. nodiflorus exhibits large population sizes and does not appear threatened by extinction; this may be attributable to large phenotypic plasticity, enabling the production of numerous seeds under a wide range of environmental conditions. Conclusions Efficient conservation of the populations can only be based on habitat management, to favour the maintenance of microenvironmental variation and the resulting strong phenotypic plasticity. In contrast, classical actions aiming to improve genetic diversity are useless in the present case. PMID:17468109

  10. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  11. Pharmacognostic Studies on the Stems of Argemone mexicana Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroscopical, microscopical, chemo-microscopical and quantitative studies on the leaves of Argemone mexicana Linn (Fam. Papaveraceae) were carried out. Morphologically, the stem is of variable size, mostly light green in colour. There was presence of white substances (wax) at the surfaces and it's prickly in nature.

  12. Phytochemical and Anti-sickling Activities of Terminalia catappa Linn.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical survey revealed that the dried fallen leaves of Terminalia catappa Linn. are used locally in various parts of Nigeria for the management of sickle cell anaemia. This research investigated if Terminalia catappa leaf interferes with the basic mechanism of erythrocyte sickling. Powdered dried fallen leaves of ...

  13. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  14. Antifertility Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Carica Papaya (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of short term administration of the aqueous extract of Carica Papaya (Linn.) seeds on ovulation and the estrous cycle of adult cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats. Three oral doses of the extract (50mg/kg; 100mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight) were administered once a day in two independent ...

  15. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn) | Aderibigbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated ...

  16. Effects of the Aqueous Fruit Extract of Solanum Macrocarpum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of the Aqueous Fruit Extract of Solanum Macrocarpum Linn on Biochemical Kidney Function of Hyperlipidaemic Rats Administered Triton-X Orally for 7 Days. ... The plant was Soxhlet-extracted with distilled water and the extract concentrated in vacuo with a yield of 15.34% w/w . The extract was stored in a specimen ...

  17. Variation in flowering phenology of Cassia fistula Linn. population in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flowering phenology in the population of Cassia fistula Linn. at Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated for three years to determine if there was variation in the phenology and the patterns were compared with some environmental factors to determine if there was any correlation. The number of plants flowering each ...

  18. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the nutritive composition of Chrysophyllum albidum Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called “Udara” is ...

  19. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    production (Way, 1984). Cyanide poisoning may result from exposure to ... produce the oxidative stress and damage seen after cyanide exposure. Allium cepa linn (onion), is used as .... Table 2: Effects of methanol extract of A. Cepa on Kidney MDA, GSH, antioxidant enzymes and protein. Groups Kidney MDA. (µg/g tissue).

  20. Tallinna Visioonikonverents 2010 : Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Lauluväljaku ruumides 22. novembril toimunud Tallinna Visioonikonverentsist "Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil", kus arutleti teemal, milline võiks olla Tallinn saja aasta pärast. Konverentsil esinesid Toomas Vitsut, Mart Saarma, Jan Sturesson, Raivo Raave, Satish Kumar, Juhani Pallasmaa ning moderaatoriteks olid Hardo Aasmäe ja Mati Heidmets

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava Linn . stem extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of the water and methanolic extracts of Psidium guajava Linn. stem bark were evaluated against eight methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. The plant material was extracted and phytochemical analyses were performed by standard procedures. The agar diffusion method ...

  2. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  3. Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum linne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular ...

  4. Investigation On Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Aristolochia Indica Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure. Materials and Methods: ...

  5. Hepatoprotective studies of Coccinia indica Linn. in carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocciana indica Linn (Cucurbitaceae) is widely distributed throughout India. It was employed in ancient system of medicine as anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestant, liver tonic, and expectorant. Though it is traditionally used in jaundice and other hepatic manifestations, there are no reports on their validation and ...

  6. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate, purify and characterize protease from the latex of the plant. Methods: Protease was isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra Linn using acetone precipitation method and purified by a sequence of DEAE cellulose column chromatography, followed by two successive column purification in Sephadex G-50 ...

  7. The Latex Of Jatropha Curcas Linn (Euphorblaceae): A Prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) has been investigated as a prospective haemostatic agent. The latex reduced clotting and bleeding times significantly (P<0.0001) compared to Tincture of Benzoin Co (TBC); Iodine tincture, Tannin and 90%v/v Ethanol. There was a significant positive correlation between ...

  8. Periphyton Associated with Nymphaea lotus Linn. in Two Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The periphyton communities associated with Nymphaea lotus Linn. in two different freshwater bodies, the Kpong head-pond and Odaw stream, both in southern Ghana, were studied. Twenty-eight genera of algae, belonging to five phyla (Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, Crysophyta, Cyanophyta and Euglenophyta) were ...

  9. Experimental wound healing aspects of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental wound healing aspects of Jasminum grandiflorumLinn: a preclinical study. M Arun, S Satish, P Anima. Abstract. Background: Jasminum grandiflorum is an important shrub of family Oleaceae and ancient literature mentions its various medicinal uses especially its efficacy in wound healing. To substantiate its ...

  10. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

    2008-10-25

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  11. Pharmacognostic study of Lantana camara Linn. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Lantana camara Linn. root. Method: The pharmacognostic evaluation was done in terms of organoleptic, macro-microscopy, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The characteristic macroscopic features showed that the root consists of 25-40 cm long, 0.2-4.0 cm thick pieces which are usually branched, shallow, tough, creamish-brown externally, outer surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, with hard fracture, characteristic odour and pungent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root shows exfoliating cork, consisting of about 10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells followed by cortex consisting of polygonal parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboidal shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3-4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single layer of non-lignified pericycle. Phloem, a wide zone of xylem consisting of lignified pitted vessels and bi-to triseriate medullary rays are also present. Proximate physicochemical analysis of the root power showed loss on drying, total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash values as 0.52, 4.26, 3.8 and 5.8 % w/w respectively. Successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 0.19, 0.35, 2.19 and 2.0 % w/w respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colors to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps in identification and standardization of Lantana camara L. root in crude form.

  12. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalinee Ronpirin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB, a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight, while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively. Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD. Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  13. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pessoa, L.M; Morais, S.M; Bevilaqua, C.M.L; Luciano, J.H.S

    2002-01-01

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants...

  14. Male meiosis, morphometric analysis and distribution pattern of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834 (Ranunculaceae from the cold regions of northwest Himalayas (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number, detailed male meiosis, microsporogenesis, pollen fertility and morphological features and distribution of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834. The majority of the populations scored now from cold regions of the northwest Himalayas showed tetraploid (n=16 meiotic chromosome count and one of the populations studied from the Manimahesh hills existed at diploid level (n=8. The individuals of diploid cytotype exhibited perfectly normal meiotic course resulting in 100% pollen fertility and pollen grains of uniform sizes. On the other hand, the plants of the tetraploid cytotype from all the populations in spite of showing normal bivalent formation and equal distribution to the opposite poles at anaphases showed various meiotic abnormalities. The most prominent among these meiotic abnormalities was the cytomixis which involved inter PMC (pollen mother cell chromatin material transfer at different stages of meiosis-I. The phenomenon of cytomixis induced various meiotic abnormalities which include chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, laggards and chromatin bridges, out of plate bivalents at metaphase-I, disoriented chromatin material at anaphase/telophase and micronuclei. Consequently, these populations exhibited varying percentages of pollen sterility (24 - 77 % and pollen grains of heterogeneous sizes. Analysis of various morphometric features including the stomata in 2× and 4× cytotypes showed that increase in ploidy level in the species is correlated with gigantism of vegetative and floral characters and the two cytotypes can be distinguished from each other on the basis of morphological characters. The distribution patterns of the 2× and 4× cytotypes now detected and 2×, 3×, 4× cytotypes detected earlier by workers from other regions of the Indian Himalayas have also been discussed.

  15. PIPER BETLE LINN: AS A REMEDY FOR DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha Arambewela; Hettiarachchige Sami Ariyawansa; Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka Arawwawala; Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi Hewageegana

    2011-01-01

    Present study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of Piper betle Linn. (F: Piperaceae) to be used as a neutraceutical for Diabetes Mellitus. Newly diagnosed, Type 2 diabetes patients from either sex were selected (n=50/group) after measuring fasting blood glucose levels. Either P. betle or triphala (a known antidiabetic herbal drug) were given to patients for 30 consecutive days. Treated subjects were checked for fasting blood glucose levels and serum creatinine, urea, aspartate tra...

  16. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA LINN: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak Meti; Chandrashekar. K; Shishir Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Spermacoce hispida Linn is one of the important plant belonging to the family of Rubiaceae and is commonly used herb in siddha medicine. This review supports all updated information on its chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, traditional uses and scientific approach. The plant extracts contains phytochemical constituents such as of saponins, tannins, phenolics, steroids, essential oils, flavonoids and terpenoids. The chemical entities of this plant have been used as an antidiabe...

  17. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Clerodendrum Phlomidis Linn. F. Root

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Kumar; Ajay Kumar; Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. root in terms of organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, macro-microscopy and physicochemical parameters.The characteristic macroscopic study showed that the root consists of 7-15 cm long, 0.2 -3.0 cm thick pieces which are cylindrical, tough and yellowish-brown externally, with hard fracture and slightly astringent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root sho...

  18. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj H. Chaudhary; Rai, Pallavi D.; Sharada L. Deore; Khadabadi, Somshekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae) is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a m...

  19. Kombucha Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn) dan Kemampuannya sebagai Antihiperkolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartatik, Nanik; Karyantina, Merkuria; Purwanti, Indrias Tri

    2009-01-01

    Kita mengenal adanya teh yang diekstrak dari kelopak bunga rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn). Teh jenis ini dapat dibuat menjadi kombucha dengan cara memfermentasikan ekstrak rosella menggunakan peran mikrobia dalam fer­ mentasi kombucha. Mikrobia dalam fermentasi kombucha ini ditumbuhkan dalam ekstrak rosella sebagai medium per­ tumbuhan dengan variasi konsentrasi rosella (30, 40, 50 gram rosella kering/L). Selama proses fermentasi, kombucha rosella dianalisis pH, total asam, dan aktivitas ...

  20. Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Mukhopadhyay, T.; Annamalai, T.; Radhakrishnan, N.; Sahoo, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanolic extract of the leaves of Origanum vulgare Linn., yielded two protocatechuic acid ester derivatives, origanol A (1) and origanol B (2) along with ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), and triacontanol (6). Structures of the compound were established based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass). Origanol A (1) showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. PMID:21772760

  1. Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of fruit of Ficus racemosa Linn. (M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These physicochemical data and phytochemical analysis of different extracts of F. racemosa Linn. is useful for further studies for pharmacological screening. In future this study will be helpful for qualitative & quantitative analysis of phytoconstituents for isolation of newer molecule from F. racemosa Linn.

  2. 82 FR 38928 - Closure on Public Lands of Yellowstone Bridge in Linn County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-16

    ...-0096] Closure on Public Lands of Yellowstone Bridge in Linn County, OR AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Yellowstone Bridge to motorized vehicles is in effect on public lands administered by the Cascades Field... hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This closure affects public lands at Yellowstone Creek, Linn County...

  3. Carl von Linné jälgedes / Piret Veigel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veigel, Piret, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Alanud aastal tähistatakse Carl von Linné, taimede ülemaailmselt käibiva teadusliku klassifitseerimise süsteemi rajaja 300. sünniaastapäeva. Loodusteadlase majast ja aiast Uppsalas, tema suvekodust Hammarby's ja Fredriksdali vabaõhumuuseumist Helsingborgis, kus leiab Linné-aegset maaharimist

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, B; Kothai, R; Jacob, Philip; Sangameswaran, B; Sureshkumar, K

    2004-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn. was studied in wister rats using the carrageenan induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy and cotton pellet induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (150 mg/kg, p.o.) produced the inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed an inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration and a reduction on the pleural exudates as well as reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control.

  5. Evaluation of psychopharmacological effects of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, T; Saravanan, K S; Lakshmi, S; Ramya, G; Thenmozhi, K

    2001-11-01

    The methanolic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (MECP) leaves was evaluated for its psychopharmacological activities in several experimental models using Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats. The MECP was found to cause significant reduction in spontaneous activity, and decreases in exploratory behavioral profiles by the Y-maze and head dip test. It also showed reduction in muscle relaxant activity by rotarod, 30 degrees inclined screen and traction tests, as well as significantly potentiated the phenobarbitone sodium-induced sleeping time in the doses examined (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body wt.). All the results were compared with respective controls for the evaluation of significance.

  6. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  7. Kombucha Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) dan Kemampuannya sebagai Antihiperkolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartatik, Nanik; Karyantina, Merkuria; Purwanti, Indrias Tri

    2012-01-01

    We know that there is another tea extract, e.i from calyx of roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn). This kind of tea could be made became kombucha by ferment roselle extract using microbe in the fermentation of kombucha. This mi­ crobe grown in roselle extract as a medium with variety of roselle concentration (30; 40; 50 grams of dried roselle/L). During the fermentation process, roselle kombucha was analyzed for pH value, total acid, antioxidant activity at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 days of ferm...

  8. Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids from Lantana camara LINN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2008-09-01

    Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, namely lantanoic acid (1) and camaranoic acid (2), and six known compounds such as lantic acid, camarinic acid, camangeloyl acid, camarinin, oleanonic acid, and ursonic acid were isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara LINN. Structures of the new constituents were elucidated by chemical transformation and spectral studies including 1D ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), (1)H-(1)H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), J-resolved, (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC)) NMR spectroscopy.

  9. О находке Ranunculus punctatus (Ranunculaceae в Республика Тыва

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    A. S. Erst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Сообщается о находке на территории Республики Тыва (хребты Чайлалыг-Даг и Обручева нового для Сибири вида Ranunculus punctatus (Ranunculaceae, считавшегося до настоящего времени эндемиком Чукотки.

  10. Anticlastogenic activity of flavonoid rich extract of Cassia auriculata Linn. on experimental animal [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Supriya S; Kewatkar, Shailesh M; Paithankar, Vivek V

    2013-01-01

    To determine antimutagenic activity of Cassia auriculata Linn. on chromosomal damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). In the present investigation, four groups of six Swiss albino mice in each group were used. Excepting for the first group all the remaining groups were treated with CP (50 mg/kg). Mice of third and fourth group were treated with ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn. at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg with CP. Metaphase of bone marrow cells of all animals were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative chromosomal aberrations. Break, fragment, deletion, Polyploidy, pulverized, ring and total aberration were observed. Flavonoids rich extracts of root of C. auriculata Linn. provided significant protection (P extract treated animals respectively. From the present study it can was observed that ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn possess significant anti-mutagenic potential against CP induced chromosomal aberration.

  11. Morinda citrifolia Linn. for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapaitrakool, Sunisa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2010-12-01

    To be a preliminary, prospective, randomized double blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of Morinda citrifolia Linn or noni for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients considered high risk for PONV after various types of surgery. The plant extract was prepared by boiling of dried noni fruit (maturity stage 3-4) then evaporated under standard procedure and processed into capsules. The doses were 150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg which are equivalent to 5, 10 and 20 g of dried noni fruit, respectively. One hundred patients of ASA physical status I or II, aged 18-65 years, and considered at risk for PONV, were randomized to receive 150, 300, 600 mg of noni extract or a placebo orally 1 hours before surgery. Standard general anesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia were employed. Significantly fewer patients who had received the 600 mg noni extract experienced nausea during the first 6 hours compared to the placebo group (48% for the 600 mg noni group and 80% for the placebo group, p-value = 0.04). The incidence of PONV in other time periods was not statistically different for all three noni doses compared to the placebo group. No side effects were reported in all groups. Morinda citrifolia Linn. has an antiemetic property and prophylactic noni extract at 600 mg (equivalent to 20g of dried noni fruit or scopoletin 8.712 microg) effectively reduces the incidence of early postoperative nausea (0-6 hours).

  12. Microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Origanum majorana Linn leaves

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    BP Pimple

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Origanum majorana Linn leaves. Methods: Fresh and dried powdered leaf samples was studies for its morphology, microscopy, organoleptic characters, fluorescence analysis and various other WHO recommended methods for standardisation. Results: Leaves are simple, petiolated, ovate to oblong-ovate, (0.5-1.5 cm long, (0.2-0.8 cm wide, with obtuse apex, entire margin, reticulate veination and symmetrical but tapering base. The microscopy revealed the dorsiventral nature of the leaf. Both the surfaces show presence of numerous covering trichomes, diacytic stomata and thin walled, wavy epidermal cells. The covering trichomes are multicellular, uniseriate, thin walled and pointed. In the midrib region, the epidermis is followed by collenchyma and vascular bundle (xylem and phloem. Whereas; the mesophyll exhibited only palisade cells and spongy parenchyma. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile can serve as tool for developing standards for identification, quality and purity of Origanum majorana Linn leaves.

  13. Uji Antibakteri Ekstak Daun Sirsak (Annonamuricata Linn) terhadap Bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcusaureus

    OpenAIRE

    Pradikta, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of methanol extract soursop leaf (Annona muricata Linn) toEscherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus with diffusionmethod has been done. Result showed soursop leaf methanol extract (Annona muricata Linn) has activity as antibacterial. at concentration of 10 % to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with resistancediameter of 10 mm to Escherichia coli, and 8,52 mm to Staphylococcus aureus each. While in the water solvent resistent diameter for bacteria Escherichia...

  14. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in ...

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds isolated from Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Das Sarma, Madhushree; Patra, Amarendra; Hazra, Banasri

    2010-09-01

    The aim was to search for anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds from three medicinal plants, viz. Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn. The NO* scavenging potential of selected plant extracts was determined on LPS/IFN-gamma activated murine peritoneal macrophage cultures, and iNOS and COX-2 expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Bio-assay guided fractionation yielded four compounds: physcion and emodin from V. madraspatana, 1-hydroxytectoquinone from R. cordifolia, and oleanonic acid from L. camara. The anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds was tested through the carrageenan-induced rat-paw oedema model. They were then tested against a murine tumour (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma), and three human cancer cell lines, namely A375 (malignant skin melanoma), Hep2 (epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma) and U937 (lymphoma). All four compounds dose dependently inhibited NO* through suppression of iNOS protein without affecting macrophage viability. Physcion and emodin caused 65-68% reduction of oedema volume at 40 mg/kg, which validated their in-vivo anti-inflammatory effect. 1-Hydroxytectoquinone and oleanonic acid exhibited promising cytotoxicity against A375 cells. Ethnomedical reports on these traditional medicinal plants have been rationalised through an insight into the anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer potential of four constituents, characterised to be prospective candidates for designing novel therapeutic agents.

  16. Development and characterisation of Vitex negundo Linn. noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan, L.S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Formulation 2 (1 g w/w was the most favourable and was chosen for further analyses to compare its composition with that of a control (0 g w/w. Total phenolic content (TPC of the fresh noodles remained higher than that of the control even after cooking. However, after cooking, the carbohydrate and protein contents showed significant increases. The results showed that the lemuni-supplemented noodles have a longer shelf life compared to the control. The colour parameters L* and a* also showed significant differences as the lightness decreased, and the redness increased after the substitution. The L*, a* and b* values decreased significantly after the noodles of both formulations were cooked. The tensile strength, adhesiveness, and hardness of the lemuni noodles were significantly higher than those of the control. Thus, the Vitex negundo Linn. leaf has the potential to increase the health benefits of food products

  17. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  18. Cerebroprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muralidharan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (250 and 500 mg/kg in hypoxic rats. Hypoxia was induced by providing sodium nitrite drinking water to rats for 14 days. Extract at the tested doses promoted the locomotor activity and spatial behavior significantly, which was impaired in hypoxic rats. The extract administration restored the decreased levels of brain enzymes such as glutamate and dopamine and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity significantly. Levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase were reduced due to hypoxia and were restored to near normalcy by administration of ethanol extract of G. glabra. Increased lipid peroxidation in hypoxic rats was also restored significantly by extract treatment. Thus, this study suggests that ethanol extract of G. glabra possess a cerebroprotective effect in hypoxic rats, which may be mediated by its antioxidant effects.

  19. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  20. HPTLC fingerprint profile of Bauhinia variegata Linn. leaves

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    Gayathri Gunalan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop the finger print of medicinally and economically important leaves of Bauhinia variegata Linn. Methods: Ethanol extract of the leaves were developed in the mobile phase of n-Hexane: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Acetic acid (70:30:1.0:1.0 using standard procedures and scanned under UV at 254 nm, 366nm and under visible light. Results: The HPTLC fingerprinting of the ethanol extract has shown several peaks with different Rf values. 2.5 毺 L of ethanol extract showed 11 spots while 5 毺 L and 10 毺 L has shown 13 spots. 15毺 L concentration gave 14 spots in the above said solvent system. Conclusions: This finger print would be helpful in the identification and authentication of this species.

  1. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  2. The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shankar; Mirdha, Bijay R; Mahapatra, Sushil C

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are known for thousand years to various civilizations of the world. This medicinal herb is considered as a sacred plant by the Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. Scientific explorations of traditional belief of medicinal properties of Tulsi have got momentum mostly after the middle of the 20th century. In the present review, efforts have been made to sum up different aspects of scientific studies on this medicinal plant. Scientific evidences are available on various medicinal aspects i.e. antimicrobial, adaptogenic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, mosquito repellent etc. to name a few. Most of these evidences are based on in-vitro, experimental and a few human studies.

  3. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rajesh S; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.

  4. PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN LEGUNDI (Vitex trifolia Linn TERHADAP KEMATIAN LARVA Aedes albopictus

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    Nia Sari Nastiti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPengendalian Aedes albopictus penting dilakukan karena merupakan salah satu vektor penyakit yang mampumembawa dan menularkan virus Chikungunya. Di antara cara pengendalian yang perlu dikembangkan adalahpengendalian secara hayati, karena aman bagi manusia dan organisme lain serta ramah lingkungan. Pengendalian hayatiyang dapat digunakan adalah daun Legundi (Vitex trifolia linn. Vitex trifolia linn telah diketahui mengandung bahan aktifalkaloid, saponin, flafonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linnterhadap kematianlarva Aedes albopictus.Jenis penelitian ini adalah quasi experiment, menggunakan Post Test OnlyControl Group Design. Obyekpenelitian ini adalah 750 ekor larva Aedes albopictus instar IV yang berasal dari hasil penangkaran di Balai BesarPenelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP Salatiga, Jawa Tengah. Ekstrak etanol daunVitex trifolia linn dibuat dari daun Legundi segar yang didestilasi dengan suhu 100oC sampai pekat. Setiap kelompokmedia (gelas penelitian diisi 100 ml air sumur, dan ekstrak etanol daun Vitex trifolia linn dengan konsentrasi 2,5 %, 5 %,7,5 %, 10 %, 12,5 % dan 0 % (kontrol. Selanjutnya pada setiap media dimasukkan 25 ekor larva Aedes albopictus,penghitungan kematian larva dilakukan setiap jam ke 1, 2, 4, dan 24. Replikasi dilakukan sebanyak 5 kali.Hasil uji statistik dengan Oneway Anova diperoleh p=0,000, sehingga (p<0,05 artinya ada perbedaan yangbermakna, yaitu ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linn dapat mematikan larva Aedes albopictus. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalahpenggunaan ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linn dengan konsentrasi 12,5 % paling efektif terhadap kematian larva Aedesalbopictus.Kata Kunci: Ekstrak, daun legundi (Vitex trifolia linn, Aedes albopictus

  5. Efek Penambahan Jus dan Daun Sirih (Piper bettle linn Sebagai Aditif Pakan Terhadap Peforma Ayam Petelur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Haryun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan unggas telah dilakukan dalam hal perkembangbiakan, pemberian pakan dan manajemen. Namun, implementasinya masih menghadapi banyak tantangan seperti masalah penurunan produksi. Salah satu penyebab penurunan produksi adalah gangguan kesehatan yang disebabkan oleh bakteri patogen (Salmonella sp dan Escherichia coli. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah penggunaan bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan terhadap kinerja ayam petelur. Metode yang digunakan adalah uji biologis ayam petelur umur 69 minggu Isa Brown Strain dari 250 ayam petelur, menggunakan Completely Randomized Design (RAL dengan 5 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Piper bettle linn Juice tidak memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan (P> 0,05 terhadap konsumsi pakan dan angka kematian. Mempengaruhi secara signifikan (P <0,01 terhadap Hen Day Production (HDP, berat telur dan Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR.

  6. Evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yogesh; Vadgama, Vishalkumar; Baxi, Seema; Chandrabhanu; Tripathi, B

    2011-01-01

    Our aim of the study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs. Adult guinea pigs of either sex were divided into seven groups: group 1 - normal diet; group 2 - high fat diet; group 3 and 4 - normal diet plus leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 5 and 6- high fat diet with leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 7 - high fat diet plus atorvastatin (3 mg/kg). Above diet treatment was given for six weeks and drug was given during last three weeks. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, HDL-c) was performed in each group of animals before and at the end of six weeks. Histological study of aorta, liver and kidney was done in group 1, 2, 6 and 7 and blood cell count was done in animals that were treated juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. before and after juice administration. Simultaneous administration of leaf juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 mL/kg prevents the rise of serum lipid parameters and decreases the fatty changes in the tissue induced by high fat diet, whereas in the dose of 1 mL/kg not only counteracts the elevation, but also significantly (p roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. possesses significant lipid lowering and anti atherosclerotic activity.

  7. The partial sequence of RNA 1 of the ophiovirus Ranunculus white mottle virus indicates its relationship to rhabdoviruses and provides candidate primers for an ophiovirus-specific RT-PCR test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaira, A M; Accotto, G P; Costantini, A; Milne, R G

    2003-06-01

    A 4018 nucleotide sequence was obtained for RNA 1 of Ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV), genus Ophiovirus, representing an incomplete ORF of 1339 aa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed significant similarities with RNA polymerases of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae and a conserved domain of 685 aa, corresponding to the RdRp domain of those in the order Mononegavirales. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Ophiovirus is not related to the genus Tenuivirus or the family Bunyaviridae, with which it has been linked, and probably deserves a special taxonomic position, within a new family. A pair of degenerate primers was designed from a consensus sequence obtained from a relatively conserved region in the RNA 1 of two members of the genus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) and RWMV. The primers, used in RT-PCR experiments, amplified a 136 bp DNA fragment from all the three recognized members of the genus, i.e. CPsV, RWMV and Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus (TMMMV) and from two tentative ophioviruses from lettuce and freesia. The amplified DNAs were sequenced and compared with the corresponding sequences of CPsV and RWMV and phylogenetic relationships were evaluated. Assays using extracts from plants infected by viruses belonging to the genera Tospovirus, Tenuivirus, Rhabdovirus and Varicosavirus indicated that the primers are genus-specific.

  8. Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Rani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content, and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900 mg/kg was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed.

  9. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  10. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

    2012-04-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.

  11. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  12. Anti-Urolithiatic Activity of Melia Azedarach Linn Leaf Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The effect of oral administration of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Melia azedarach Linn leaves on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been investigated. Lithiasis was induced by oral adminstration of ethylene glycol (0.75 %v/v) in male albino rats for 28 days. Each of the extract (250 mg/kg) was administered orally ...

  13. Heade suhete linn - kõik sõpradele / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2007-01-01

    Autori arvates on Tartust saanud korporatiivne linn, kus võim ja äri jagatakse väikese inimgrupi sees. Vt. samas: Tartu niiditõmbajad: otsused on tehtud linnakodanike huvides; Tartu Rotary Klubi liikmed; Tuntumad tehingud omadele Tartu linnas

  14. Anti-Stress and Anti-Amnesic Effects of Coriandrum sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Coriandrum sativum Linn. (Umbelliferae, C. sativum) is cultivated throughout the world for its use as spice and as a folk medicine. This study deals with the anti-stress and anti-amnestic properties of C. sativum extract in rats. Methods: Urinary levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were used to ...

  15. Tallinna linn või aukude plombeerimine = City of Tallinn or filling of holes / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo

    1999-01-01

    "Eesti Päevalehes" ilmunud arhitektide viimase aja karakteersemate tööde hindamistabelist, selles olevast Nissani keskusest (Andres Siim, Hanno Kreis), Hansapanga hoonest ja Stockmanni kaubamajast (Peep Jänes). Tallinna arhitektuurist kui tervikust. Tallinnas on palju tühje krunte, rekonstrueerimist ootavaid linnaosi ja suuri üksikhooneid. Linn realiseerub läbi investorite majandusliku huvitatuse

  16. Murrayakoeninol--a new carbazole alkaloid from Murraya koenigii (Linn) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mumu; Saha, Sudipta; Mukhapadhyay, Sibabrata

    2009-03-01

    A new carbazole alkaloid, designated as murrayakoeninol, was isolated from the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn) Spreng, along with four known carbazole alkaloids, viz. mahanimbine, koenimbine, O-methylmurrayamine-A and murrayazolinine and one from the bark viz. girinimbine. The structure of the new alkaloid 1 was elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR spectral analysis and chemical reactions.

  17. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of lead exposure using Achatina achatina (Linné 1758 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecotoxicological observations on Achatina achatina (Linné, 1758) were assessed for the bioaccumulation of lead in snail carcass as induced by traffic near abandoned battery factory (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Levels of lead bioaccumulation above European Commission limit of 1.5g/g at higher traffic intensity depressed ...

  19. Prophylactic and immune modulatory influences of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers exposed to biological challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam S. Soliman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Prophylaxis and disease prevention is an essential strategy among biorisk management in poultry farms that stimulate and maintain the birds' immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic, and immune-stimulant influence of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers under biological stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 1-day-old (ross chicks were divided into 5 groups; four of which were supplemented with 1.4%, 2.8%, 4.2%, and 5.6% N. sativa Linn., respectively. The four supplemented groups were challenged with Escherichia coli O157:H7 1.5x108 at a 14th day old. A total of 1050 samples (150 serum, 150 swab, and 750 organ samples were collected and examined. Results: A highly significant increase (p<0.01 in 5.6% N. sativa Linn. supplemented group in performance traits (body weight, weight gain, and performance index, biochemical parameters (proteinogram, liver enzymes, and creatinine, immunoglobulins concentration, and immune organs' weight. Meanwile, liver showed improvement of histoarchitecture without fibrosis. Heart showed a mild pericarditis with a mild degree of hydropic degeneration. Bursa, thymus, and spleen showed lymphoid hyperplasia. Conclusion: A concentration of 5.6% N. sativa Linn. in broiler's feed can improve the immune response and subsequent resistance of broilers against diseases.

  20. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, F; Begum, S; Raza, S M; Wahab, A; Siddiqui, B S

    2005-09-01

    Lantanilic acid, camaric acid and oleanolic acid possessing nematicidal activity were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. through bio-assay guided fractionation. These compounds exhibited 98%, 95% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration. Conventional nematicide furadan showed 100% mortality at this concentration.

  1. Toxic effects of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora Linn. in rats | Abatan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxi effects of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn on rats was evaluated by observing abnormal changes in the haemogram including erythron and leukogram, serum biochemical parameters, histopathology, and hexobarbital sleeping time. The leaf extract produced significant increases in the packed cell volume (PCV) ...

  2. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. fruit extracts on α-glucosidase enzyme, glucose diffusion and wound healing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Mohssin Shadhan

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: It is established that methanolic extract and fractions from H. sabdariffa Linn. fruit can inhibit the α-glucosidase enzyme and glucose movement as well as influence the wound healing activity positively.

  3. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. Root

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. root in terms of organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, macro-microscopy and physicochemical parameters.The characteristic macroscopic study showed that the root consists of 7-15 cm long, 0.2 -3.0 cm thick pieces which are cylindrical, tough and yellowish-brown externally, with hard fracture and slightly astringent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root show exfoliating cork, having10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells. Cortex consists of round to oval parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboid shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3- 4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single pericyclic layer. Phloem consists of isodiametric, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells whereas xylem contains lignified pitted vessels. Medullary rays consisting of biseriate layer of lignified and radially elongated parenchymatous cells is narrower in the xylem region during wider in the phloem region. The physicochemical analysis of the root, i.e., total ash, water-soluble ash, sulphated ash are 7.8, 0.9 and 10.3 (% w/w respectively. Further successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 2.2, 2.4, 12.4 and 9.6 (% w/wextracts respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colours to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps inbotanical identification and standardization of Clerodendrum phlomidis L. root part in crude form and provide the authentic data for the researchers and scientists involved in carrying out further research on this plant part.

  5. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  6. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of bark extracts of Chionanthus zeylanica linn., as an important medicinal plant in eastern ghats

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara Rao. S; Kammakshamma. J; Ayya Raju. M

    2013-01-01

    Chionanthus zeylanica Linn., belongs to the family Oleaceae. The stem bark part of Chionanthus zeylanica Linn., was dried, extracted with different solvents by soxhlet extraction method. Phytochemical studies of all the crude extracts showed the presence of secondary metabolites of flavonoids, steroids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, reducing sugars, etc. The phytochemical results confirm that all extracts contains more important chemical constituents for various biological activiti...

  7. The extreme disjunction between Beringia and Europe in Ranunculus glacialis s. l. (Ranunculaceae) does not coincide with the deepest genetic split - a story of the importance of temperate mountain ranges in arctic-alpine phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronikier, M; Schneeweiss, G M; Schönswetter, P

    2012-11-01

    The arctic-alpine Ranunculus glacialis s. l. is distributed in high-mountain ranges of temperate Europe and in the North, where it displays an extreme disjunction between the North Atlantic Arctic and Beringia. Based on comprehensive sampling and employing plastid and nuclear marker systems, we (i) test whether the European/Beringian disjunction correlates with the main evolutionary diversification, (ii) reconstruct the phylogeographic history in the Arctic and in temperate mountains and (iii) assess the susceptibility of arctic and mountain populations to climate change. Both data sets revealed several well-defined lineages, mostly with a coherent geographic distribution. The deepest evolutionary split did not coincide with the European/Beringian disjunction but occurred within the Alps. The Beringian lineage and North Atlantic Arctic populations, which reached their current distribution via rapid postglacial colonization, show connections to two divergent pools of Central European populations. Thus, immigration into the Arctic probably occurred at least twice. The presence of a rare cpDNA lineage related to Beringia in the Carpathians supports the role of these mountains as a stepping stone between temperate Europe and the non-European Arctic, and as an important area of high-mountain biodiversity. The temperate and arctic ranges presented contrasting phylogeographic histories: a largely static distribution in the former and rapid latitudinal spread in the latter. The persistence of ancient lineages with a strictly regional distribution suggests that the ability of R. glacialis to survive repeated climatic changes within southern mountain ranges is greater than what recently was predicted for alpine plants from climatic envelope modelling. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  9. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. from Lake Sebu, South Cotabato, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descallar, Angem L.; Nuñez, Maria Pamela S.; Cabrera, Maria Luisa N.; Martin, Tres Tinna B.; Obemio, Christine Dawn G.; Lañojan, Rhumer S.

    2017-01-01

    Lycopodium clavatum or locally known as "lumot" is one of the many plants used in the traditional system of medicine here in the Philippines. It has been known that this plant was used for body pains and "facial wipes" recognizing its anti-aging potential by the Obo community in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. Thus, this study is conducted to determine the secondary metabolites present and its antioxidant property of the decoction and ethanolic extracts of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. Free radical scavenging activity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. was determined by in vitro 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Antioxidant activities were observed which may be due to the presence of alkaloids, steroids, and flavonoids in both decoction and ethanolic extracts.

  10. Abortifacient properties of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds on female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderinde, O; Noronha, C; Oremosu, A; Kusemiju, T; Okanlawon, O A

    2002-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the abortifacient potential of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral doses of 100 and 800 mg/kg body weight were administered once a day on days 1-10 post-coitum. No significant differences in total body weight were found in foetuses exposed to these regimes. However, in the group treated with 100 mg/kg body weight, there was a significant increase (p papaya (Linn) seeds does not adversely affect prenatal development. The altered toxicological profile indicates that the abortifacient property is a high dose side effect. The results indicate that Carica papaya toxicity can adversely affect the foetus.

  11. Hepatoprotective Activity of Oxalis stricta linn. on Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Sohankumar Anilbhai Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of Ethanolic Extract of Oxalis stricta Linn.(EEOS towards Paracetamol intoxicated hepatic damage in Albino rats. The various extracts were prepared dose form 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg against liver toxicity induced by Paracetamolat a dose of 2 gm/kg p.o once daily. Serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin content which was elevated due to Paracetamol intoxication was significantly reduced by the extract. Standard drug Silymarin was used as reference. In Paracetamol alone treated animals shows lipid peroxidation was increased with decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH levels which represents the hepatic antioxidant status. It was further confirmed by histopathological observations. Futher Histopathological observations indicated. From the results it may be concluded that the 70% ethanolic extract of Oxalis stricta Linn. Possess hepatoprotective activity.

  12. INHIBITION TEST OF METHANOL EXTRACT FROM SOURSOP LEAF (Annona muricata Linn.) AGAINST Streptococcus mutans BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Raudhatul Jannah; Muhammad Ali Husni; Risa Nursanty

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease with a high prevalence of caries in Indonesia is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn.) is one of the herbs that can remove dental plaque. This study aims to determine the chemical content and measure the inhibitory antibacterial soursop leaft methanol extractin inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Phytochemical screening stated that the leaf of the soursop contains flavonoids, alkaloids, ta...

  13. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Kadam; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M. J. Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  14. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn.) and its use in food system

    OpenAIRE

    Rojanakorn, T.; Lerkchaiyaphum, K.; Nantachai, K.; Tangwongchai, R.

    2006-01-01

    Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD). Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the m...

  15. Biodiesel production and optimization from Calophyllum inophyllum linn oil (honne oil)--a three stage method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkanna, B K; Venkataramana Reddy, C

    2009-11-01

    The present work examines the production of a biodiesel from a non-edible oil namely honne oil (Calophyllum inophyllum linn). A three stage process viz., pre-treatment, alkali catalyzed transesterification and post treatment adopted for the production is discussed. The reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, temperature and time have been optimized for the production of biodiesel. The yield of biodiesel from the honne oil under the optimized conditions is found to be 89%.

  16. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED FLAVONOIDS FROM THE LEAVES OF CORCHORUS AESTUANS LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmika Patel * and Manish Patel

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical investigation of various extracts of leaves of Corchorus aestuans Linn showed the presence of flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides and tannins. An attempt has been made to isolate flavonoids and perform antioxidant potential of the same. The antioxidant activity was performed by two in-vitro testing methods, such as scavenging activity on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and hydroxyl ra...

  17. STUDY OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM LINN. IN PYLORUS LIGATED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty P.K.; Panda S.K.; Mishra S.K.; Panda P.K.; Jaliwala Y.A.; Parle Milind

    2011-01-01

    Different extracts of Alangium salvifolium Linn. roots were tested for its antiulcer activity in aspirin induced and pylorus ligated rats model. The effect was assessed by parameters like Total acidity(TA),Free acidity(FA),Peptic activity(PA), Ulcer Index(UI) .The antiucler activity of all extracts were compared to the standard drug ranitidine. The study showed that all extracts were showing reductions TA, PA, FA and UI among which the extract of petroleum ether showed significant reduction ...

  18. Immunomodulatory Activity of Meniran Extracts (Phyllanthus Niruri Linn.) on Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Aldi, Yufri; Rasyadi, Yahdian; Handayani, Dian

    2014-01-01

    Broilers chickens are highly susceptible to many diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Therefore to solve these problem we can use alternative medicine by administration of immunostimulatory compounds that can prevent disease in broiler chickens. One of the plants that can enhance the immune system is meniran. The study effect of immunomodulatory test from ethanol extract of meniran herbs (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.) has been conducted in broiler chickens with carbon clearance method. The st...

  19. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn.) & Unani Description– A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir Shahzad; Md. Anzar Alam; Naziya Sultana; Abdullah; Kum Asma

    2015-01-01

    Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn.) is a marshy perennial herb and rhizomes which has been traditionally used as medicine, against different diseases viz; Nisyan (dementia), Zofe Dimagh (Alzheimers disease), Humma (fever), Zeequn Nafs (asthama), Sual Muzmin (chronic cough), Ziabetus (ziabetes), Dyslipidemia, Quroohe Muzmina (chronic ulcer) and mainly for digestive problems such as Dyspepsia (Zofe Hazm, Sue Hazm and Tukhma). A large number of chemical constituents such as phenyl propanoids, sesqu...

  20. DETEKSI HISTOLOGIK KESEMBUHAN LUKA PADA KULIT PASCA PEMBERIAN DAUN MENGKUDU (Morinda Citrofilia Linn)

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Ketut Suwiti

    2012-01-01

    A study to detect the microscopic structure of skin wound in mice (Mus musculus) aftertreatment with mengkudu leaves (Morinda citrifolia Linn.), by histological methods, hasbeen carried out. In this study were detected the level of wound healing every weeks. Thesamples were collected from skin with was given incision injury. The tissue samples werefixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and 4 – 5 ?. sections. Harris-Haematoxilin-Eosin staining method, using to identified of histological st...

  1. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia)...

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Monic Shah et al

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Family- Scrophularaceae. The total Phenolic content was determined using folin ciocalteau method while the total flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride method. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Reducing power assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, super...

  3. Pemanfaatan Zat Warna Wortel (Daucus Carota Linn) Dalam Pembuatan Pewarna Bibir Bentuk Batang (Lipstik)

    OpenAIRE

    Andriani, Yuni; Soeryati, Sri; Gozali, Dolih

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of natural colorant in cosmetic dosage form, especially the colorant of carrot(Daucus carota Linn) in the preparation of lipstick colorant have been carried out. It can be knownfrom the research that the extract colorant of carrot had an orange color and stable during storagetimes. Lipstick formulation with various concentration of the root colorant (20, 30, and 40%),produced lipstick that had good physical stability during storage times, and it had orange up toreddish orange,...

  4. Inhibition Test of Methanol Extract From Soursop Leaf (Annona Muricata Linn.) Against Streptococcus Mutans Bacteria*

    OpenAIRE

    Jannah, Raudhatul; Husni, Muhammad Ali; Nursanty, Risa

    2017-01-01

    . Dental caries is a disease with a high prevalence of caries in Indonesia is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn.) is one of the herbs that can remove dental plaque. This study aims to determine the chemical content and measure the inhibitory antibacterial soursop leaft methanol extractin inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Phytochemical screening stated that the leaf of the soursop contains flavonoids, alkaloids, ...

  5. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Farnaz Hajifattahi; Elham Moravej-Salehi; Maryam Taheri; Arash Mahboubi; Mohammad Kamalinejad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHI...

  6. Studies on diuretic and laxative activity of bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f) Kurz

    OpenAIRE

    S Mondal; G K Dash; S Acharyya; D K Brahma; S Bal

    2009-01-01

    The diuretic and laxative activity of different extracts of the barks of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f) Kurz (Family: Rubiaceae) were studied in Wistar albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as reference standards respectively for activity comparison. The chloroform and methanol extracts produced significant diuretic and laxative activity. On the other hand, the petroleum ether extract did not reveal significant activity. Urinary levels of sodium, potas...

  7. Fatty Acid and Alkenil Glycoside from the Fruits of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferlinahayati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds were isolated from methanol extract of mengkudu fruit (Morinda.citrifolia Linn. The extraction was conducted by maceration, while separation and purification using several chromatographic techniques. The compound structures were determined by spectral data including IR, 1H-NMR and GC-MS. Compound 1 was a mixture of 7 fatty acids with hexadecanoic acid as a primarily, meanwhile compound 2 was a mixture of an alkenyl glycoside with an aromatic.

  8. Ocimum sanctum Linn--a study on gastric ulceration and gastric secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S; Das, D N; De, K; Ray, K; Roy, G; Chaudhuri, S B; Sahana, C C; Chowdhuri, M K

    1993-01-01

    The antiulcerogenic property of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) was studied in pyloric ligated and pyloric ligated & aspirin treated rats. The extract of OSL reduced the ulcer index, free & total acidity on acute and chronic administration. Seven days pretreatment with the drug increased the mucous secretion also. It may be concluded that OSL extract has antiulcerogenic property against experimental ulcers, and it is due to its ability to reduce acid secretion and increase mucous secretion.

  9. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  10. Lepidium sativum Linn.: a current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Patil, Prasant D; Patel, Bhumit N

    2014-04-01

    Mucilage from the last decades has been found to be very attractive, interesting and useful in development of desired pharmaceutical dosage forms. Various applications of plant based mucilage have a wide potentiality in drug formulations. Lepidium sativum Linn. (family: Brassicaceae) is one of the mucilage containing fast growing, edible annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. It mainly contains alkaloids, saponins, anthracene glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, and sterols as chief phytochemical constituents. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, anti-microbial, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic and allelopathic, whereas its seed coat mucilage has been isolated using different methods to make it effective excipient of desired functionality as a part of pharmaceutical applications. Through keen references of reported work on Lepidium sativum Linn., in this review, we have focused on its seed coat mucilage isolation methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological profile and versatile application of Lepidium sativum Linn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N

    2011-07-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.

  12. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  13. Pengujian Fitokimia dan Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol Jantung Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca LINN. dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytij Jeanne Rampe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok (Musa Paradisiaca Linn. dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT.  Pengujian dilakukan untuk mencari beberapa senyawa kimia dari ekstrak jantung pisang Musa Paradisaca. Linn serta mengetahui efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach.  Maserasi jantung pisang kepok dilakukan dengan menggunakan etanol. Ekstrak etanol yang diperoleh dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas. Hasil pengujian fitokimia menunjukkan ekstrak etanol jantung pisang Musa paradisiaca. Linn memiliki komposisi senyawa flavonoid, kumarin dan senyawa fenolik lainnya. Ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok memberikan efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 806,8 μg/mL.Kata kunci: jantung pisang kepok, fitokimia, toksisitas, BSLT.

  14. Evaluation of In vitro Antiviral Activity of Datura metel Linn. Against Rabies Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The soxhlet and cold extracts of Datura metel Linn. were evaluated for in vitro antirabies activity. Materials and Methods: Soxhlet and cold extraction method were used to extract Datura (fruit and seed) extracts. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Based on the CC50 range, the in vitro antirabies activity of the extracts was screened by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and molecular method. Results: The Datura (fruit and seed) extracts were not cytotoxic below 5 mg/ml (CC50). Titer of 10−4 rabies virus challenge virus standard (RV CVS) (1 50% tissue culture infective dose [1 TCID50]) was obtained by RFFT method and the challenge dose of 10 TCID50 was used for antirabies assay. Datura fruit and seed (soxhlet and cold) extracts showed 50% inhibition of RV CVS at 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]), respectively. The tested extracts showed selectivity index (CC50/IC50) ranging from 2 to 4. The viral RNA was extracted and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed which also revealed a 2-fold reduction of viral load at 1.25 mg/ml of the Datura seed (soxhlet methanolic and cold aqueous) extracts. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of in vitro antiviral activity of D. metel Linn. against rabies virus. Datura seed extracts have a potential in vitro antirabies activity and, in future, can be further screened for in vivo activity against rabies virus in murine model. SUMMARY In the present study, Datura metel. Linn showed and in-vitro anti rabies activity in Vero cell line which was determined by RFFIT method and PCR method PMID:27695266

  15. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  16. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI PERASAN MENGKUDU (Morinda citrofilia Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Shygella disenteriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ariana

    2017-09-01

    Abstract Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases. This study  to determine the effect of noni juice concentration on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, the bacteria that causes the disease shigellosis (bacillary dysentery. The design of this study used an experimental design to test laboratory, noni juice obtained by weighing 100g were still ripe noni fruit (puti yellowish color and texture is still hard and washed, blender 100gr noni plus 100ml of sterile distilled water, filtered with sterile gauze and then Stril put in a test tube, back in autoclav sterilized for 15 minutes at a temperature of 1210C that noni juice is really sterile. Inhibition test with freshly made juice dilution method at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.13%, 1.57% and 0.78%, followed planted in the media Muller Hinton Shigella to know whether it is growing or not growing, Statistical data analysis using Chisquer test on α = 0.05. The test results showed λ2 Chisquer count> λ2 table, then Ho is rejected. The results showed 12.5% of concentration - 100% can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae while the concentration of 0.78% - 6.25% solid not inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, so it can be concluded that the noni (Morinda citrofilia Linn can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae and noni efficiently used for dysentery patients because of the concentration of 12.5% was able to inhibit the growth of Shygella dysenteriae. Keywords: Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn , Shigella dysenteriae

  17. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of an Acyclic Isoprenoid from Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and its Antibacterial Potential in vitro - Antimicrobial Activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Seeds -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyakkannu Purushothaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. is a plant well-known for its antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anti-arthritic properties in the Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. This has prompted the screening of this plant for antibacterial activity. The main aims of this study were to isolate compounds from the plant’s seeds and to evaluate their antibacterial effects on clinical bacterial test strains. Methods: The n-butanolic concentrate of the seed extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC and repeated silica gel column chromatography followed by elution with various solvents. The compound was identified based on observed spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The well diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated acyclic isoprenoid compound (final concentration: 5 - 15 μg/mL on four test bacterial strains, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus

  19. Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M D; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.; El-Sakhawy, Fatma S.

    2016-01-01

    Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa; one from the total alkaloidal fraction (acid/base shake-out method) of the CHCl3 extract and identified as 7,8-dihydroxy-4-hydrofuroquinoline and named trivially as Aegelbine-A. The other new...... and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI/MS. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in vitro against HepG-2, PC3, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. The obtained results revealed promising activity with structure-based relationship which is discussed briefly....

  20. Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. leaf extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S; Ahamed, N; Rajaram, S; Saluja, R; Thenmozhi, S; Murugesan, T

    1999-12-15

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (MECP) (Family: Verbenaceae) for its anti-diarrhoeal potential against several experimental models of diarrhoea in Wistar albino rats. MECP showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats. The extract also showed a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal test in rats. The results obtained establish the efficacy and substantiated the folklore claim as an anti-diarrhoeal agent.

  1. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendar, B.; K Bharavi; Rao, G S; P.V.S Kishore; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C. S. V. Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted...

  2. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, L M; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Luciano, J H S

    2002-10-16

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants. The oil and eugenol were diluted in Tween 20 (0.5%) at five different concentrations. In the egg hatch test, H. contortus eggs were obtained from feces of goats experimentally infected. At 0.50% concentration, the essential oil and eugenol showed a maximum eclodibility inhibition. These results suggest a possible utilization of the essential oil of O. gratissimum as an aid to the control of gastrointestinal helmintosis of small ruminants.

  3. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Vasudeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100% and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect.

  4. Occurrence of bacterial pollution indicators in Boulti (Tilapia nilotica Linn. ) fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zanfaly, H.T.; Ibrahim, A.A.

    1982-09-01

    A study was made for the occurrence of coliform and streptococcal groups on the skin surface (32 samples), gills (32 samples), intestinal tract (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) of Boulti fish (Tilapia nilotica Linn.), a fresh water fish caught from Nasser's Lake in Aswan. Streptococcus group was detected in 13 samples taken from fish surface, 12 samples out of 32 swabs from gills. All intestine samples and raw fish flesh were positive for the streptococcus group. Coliform organisms were detected at nearly 43% of skin or gill samples, 100% of intestine and raw fish flesh samples.

  5. Diuretic activity of extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark

    OpenAIRE

    Koti Basavaraj; Ashok Purnima

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcoholic extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark (200 mg/kg body weight, p. o.) were tested for diuretic activity. The animals were grouped into five of six animals each. The first group received only 0.9% sodium chloride solution (25 ml/kg body weight) and the second group received the standard drug furosemide (20 mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Rest of the three groups received each of extracts viz. pe...

  6. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  7. Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn en ratas Antidiarrheal effect of Mentha piperita Linn tincture 20 % in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la Paz Naranjo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la acción antidiarreica de una tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn (toronjil de menta, se realizó un estudio in vivo en modelo de diarreas en ratas inducidas con aceite de castor. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 200, 300 y 400 mg/kg. Se encontró que las dosis de 300 y 400 mg/kg alargaron el tiempo de aparición de la primera deposición líquida y disminuyeron su frecuencia, no así la dosis menor, que solamente redujo el número de deposiciones líquidas en el tiempo. Se halló conjuntamente un efecto dependiente de la dosis y una dosis efectiva media calculada (DE50 de 346,41 mg/kg. La dosis máxima de la tintura mostró tener acción antidiarreica en el modelo empleado. El nivel de significación se fijó en una p £ 0,05.To evaluate the antidiarrheal action a Mentha piperita Linn (toronjil de menta tincture 20 %, an in vivo study was carried out in a model of diarrheas in rats induced by beaver oil. The evaluated doses were 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg. It was found that the doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg prolonged the time of appearance of the first liquid defecation and reduced its frequency. It was not so with the smaller dose, which only reduced the number of liquid defecations in time. It was also found an effect depending on the dose and an effective mean calculated dose (ED50 of 346.41 mg/kg. The maximum dose of tincture proved to have an antidiarrheal action in the model used. The level of significance was fixed in a p £ 0.05.

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial and azo dye (Congo red) degradation properties using Amaranthus gangeticus Linn leaf extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolya, Haradhan; Maiti, Parthapratim; Pandey, Akhil; Tripathy, Tridib

    2015-01-01

    ...) using an aqueous solution of silver nitrate and Amaranthus gangeticus Linn (Chinese spinach) leaf extract. The synthesized AgNPs which are to be used as an antimicrobial and Congo red dye is to be used as a toxic-degrading...

  9. Green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-01-01

    The shell extract of green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents...

  10. Sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10% povidone iodine towards recurrent apthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral ulceration often becomes the main reason for the patients to see a dentist. Therapy of the oral ulceration is by giving the palliative therapy with topical antiseptic. Nowadays, there are many researches concerning with the traditional medicines as alternative therapy. One of them is Piper betle linn which contains the antiseptic agent. Purpose: This research is aimed to observe the sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10%povidone iodine. Methods: This laboratory research was conducted by the post test only design with random complete design. The research sampel is Streptococcus viridans culture that was scrapped from the ulcer of the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patient, then it was replicated by using the Federer theory. Results: Inhibitory zone of 35% Piper betle linn extract is bigger than 10% povidone iodine. Conclusion: Streptococcus viridans are more sensitive to 35% Piper bittle linn extract than 10% povidone iodine. 35% Piper betle linn extract has more antibacterial effect than 10% povidone iodine.Latar belakang: Ulserasi rongga mulut seringkali menjadi alasan utama bagi pasien untuk memeriksakan diri ke dokter gigi. Terapi ulserasi rongga mulut adalah pemberian terapi paliatif kepada penderita, seperti: pemberian obat topikal yang mengandung antiseptik. Saat ini banyak penelitian dalam pengembangan obat tradisional yang dapat dijadikan sebagai obat alternatif. Salah satu diantaranya adalah daun sirih yang mengandung zat antiseptik. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perbedaan sensitivitas Streptococcus viridans terhadap ekstrak daun sirih 35% jika dibandingkan dengan povidone iodine 10%. Metode: Penelitian laboratoris yang dilakukan dengan post test only design dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Sampel penelitian adalah kultur Streptococcus viridans yang diambil melalui swab dari hapusan ulser pada pasien yang menderita stomatitis aftosa rekuren, kemudian dilakukan

  11. Aplikasi Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn dalam Menghambat Oksidasi Lemak Jambal Patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus

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    Farida Ariyani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian aplikasi ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn untuk menghambat proses oksidasi jambal patin telah dilakukan. Percobaan dilakukan dengan penambahan ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn dalam larutan garam yang digunakan untuk penggaraman ikan. Perbandingan ekstrak daun sirih dan larutan garam yang digunakan adalah 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 (v/v, sedangkan larutan garam tanpa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih digunakan sebagai kontrol. Selesai perendaman dalam campuran larutan garam dan ekstrak sirih (48 jam, patin asin dikeringkan di bawah sinar matahari selama 4–5 hari, selanjutnya disimpan pada suhu ruang (25-32oC selama 8 minggu. Perubahan mutu jambal patin dimonitor secara organoleptik dan kimiawi (angka Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/TBARS, angka anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen, sebelum jambal patin kering disimpan dan setiap 2 minggu selama penyimpanan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih pada larutan garam selama penggaraman mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin selama penyimpanan 8 minggu tercermin dari rendahnya angka TBARS, anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen jambal patin yang diperlakukan dengan daun sirih dibanding dengan kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil uji sensori, jambal patin yang diberi ekstrak air daun sirih tidak berbau tengik, walaupun warna dan rasa jambal patin sedikit berubah. Perlakuan ekstrak sirih yang mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin dengan nilai sensori terbaik adalah kelompok perlakuan ekstrak daun sirih dengan perbandingan 1:5 (v/v.

  12. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  13. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

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    Rojanakorn, T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  14. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

  15. STRUKTUR ANATOMI DAN KUALITAS SERAT KAYU DAN AKAR GANTUNG BERINGIN (FICUS BENJAMINA LINN.

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    Krisdianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. is one of typical fast growing tree species which are commonly found in Indonesia. The trees grow with hanging roots which grow larger and often can merged with the main stem, then its timber is not optimally utilized. This paper studies the anatomical structure and fiber quality of main stem and large, medium, and small diameter of hanging roots of beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. tree. Anatomical structure was observed macroscopically and microscopically, while fiber dimensions were measured from macerated samples. The results show that the anatomical structure pattern of the roots is similar with those of main stem, however the quantity and dimension of anatomical components of hanging roots are smaller and shorter than components of main stem. Likewise, the fiber dimensions of roots are shorter and thinner than those taken from the main stem. Based on fiber dimensions and its derivative value, beringin wood fibers are classified into class quality II for pulp and paper. The creamy white color with white streaky figure of beringin wood from main stem is recommended for indoor decoration products such as wooden venetian blind, while the small roots are recommended for strap or webbing material crafts.

  16. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action.

  17. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Simran; Vats, Manisha; Aggarwal, Sushma; Sardana, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM) overdose induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total Bilirubin (TB) was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24459387

  18. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Erlânio O; Silva, Natálya F; Rodrigues, Fabiola F G; Campos, Adriana R; Lima, Sidney G; Costa, José Galberto M

    2010-04-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 mug/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 mug/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 x, 1250-5 mug/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity.

  19. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  20. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle Linn UNTUK MENGHAMBAT BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila DAN TOKSISITASNYA PADA IKAN PATIN (Pangasius hypophthalmus (THE USE OF PIPER BETLE LINN EXTRACT ON AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA TO OBSTRUCT AND THE TOKSISITY TO PANGASIUS HYPOPHTHALMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui   daya  hambat  daun  sirih   yang  paling  besar  terhadap  bakteri Aeromonas Hydrophila, mengetahui konsentrasi minimal ekstrak daun sirih yang mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri  A. hydrophila  dan mengetahui toksisitas konsentrasi efektif dari  ekstrak daun sirih terhadap ikan patin. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan untuk  uji toksisitas  adalah rancangan acak lengkap, terdiri dari 4 perlakuan yaitu A  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 75%, B  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 25%, C  = Kontrol positif (ikan disuntik dengan akuades steril dan D  = Kontrol negatif (ikan tidak disuntik, diulang 3 kali. Hasil uji sensitivitas antibakteri daun sirih yang mempunyai daya hambat dan daya bunuh paling besar terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila adalah ekstrak daun sirih-metanol. Pengujian MIC menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun sirih-metanol memiliki daya hambat minimal 25 % terhadap aktivitas bakteri A. hydrophila. Hasil uji toksisitas yang dilakukan terhadap ikan patin dengan konsentrasi 75% dan 25% menunjukkan bahwa mortalitas yang terjadi tidak mencapai 50%. Pengamatan hematologis pada masing-masing perlakuan menunjukkan hasil yang berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap kesehatan ikan patin. Parameter kualitas air pada penelitian ini yaitu, , kadar oksigen terlarut,  pH, amoniak, CO2 dan suhu masih dapat mendukung kehidupan ikan patin. This research was aimed a finding the part of Piper betle Linn  which had the biggest resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria and to know the minimal concentrate which could obstruct the growth of A. hydrophila  bacteria and to know effective concentrate toxicity of P. betle Linn  to Pangasius hypophthalmus.  The random sampling used proportionate stratified random sampling. In toxicity test, it had be done 4 treatment, which was given to fish, those were : A = fish was injected with 25 % concentrate of extract  P

  1. Comparative antioxidant and bioavailability studies of Vitamin C in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and its combinations with Piper nigrum Linn. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Vanita Somasekhar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.

  2. Determination of antioxidant capacity, α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of Crotalaria juncea Linn in vitro inhibitory activity of Crotalaria Juncea Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Banji, David; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, Otilia

    2014-06-01

    The present study involves the determination of antioxidant capacity and in vitro α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of the Crotalaria juncea Linn extract. The content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the extracts was estimated by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity on goat liver lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid emulsion were determined and α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity was also evaluated. All the extracts had shown antioxidant property, α-amylase, and lipase inhibitory properties. Aqueous extract was found to show maximum antioxidant activity on goat liver. Antilipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity were determined to be 66.94 ± 0.616 (p < .01) and 59.54 ± 0.2 (p < .01), respectively. Maximum α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities of 71.42 ± 1.37 (p < .01) and 57.14 ± 2.74% (p < .01), respectively, were exhibited by macerated methanol extract. The results had shown that all the extracts exhibited low inhibition and antioxidant activity as compared to standard.

  3. Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Narayanan, Raman; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2017-04-01

    Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. They increased repellency (maximum repellency at 100 ppm) in host-seeking adult females using the "arm-in cage assay." Histopathological examination showed the extracts led to serious midgut cell damage. Justicia adhatoda extracts led to reduced fecundity and oviposition of gravid females compared to controls. The extracts led to substantially reduced A. aegypti survival. We infer that the extracts have potential to reduce pathogen transmission by suppressing population growth of A. aegypti, and possibly other mosquito species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. TITIK TANGKAP PENGARUH HIPOTENSIF EKSTRAK TANAMAN OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA LINN PADA KUCING

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    Achmad Muhamad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In preliminary reports by others it lias been stated that Oldenlandia corvmbosa Linn had an hypoten­sive effect in rabbits. This study confirmed this finding in cats and found that alcoholic-extracts of the plant decreased resistance in the hindleg significantly in acute experiments. By the used'technique of extraction in which the content of the active component was multiplied by about ten times systemic intravenous infusion of the extract decreased the resistance to flow in the hind leg of the cat about 40 per cent. Thin layer chromatography techniques revealed 4 spots in the alcoholic extract but due to certain constraint factors it was not yet able to detect which spot(s contained the active component(s.

  5. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn. upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children Uso de extrato de plantas medicinais (Psidium guajava Linn. e Carica papaya Linn. frente a bactérias isoladas de pescado, causadoras de diarréias infantis

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    Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes VIEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC, while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer.Foram coletadas doze amostras de camarão e peixes nas imediações do interceptor oceânico, em Fortaleza e igual número na Feira de pescado do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, para isolamento de E. coli e Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e cetônicos de broto de goiabeira e de folha de mamão foram testados frente às bactérias para se verificar suas ações antibióticas. As cepas de E. coli utilizadas nos ensaios foram as classificadas como LT positivas. Os extratos de folhas de mamão (Carica papaya Linn não revelaram quaisquer atividades antibióticas enquanto que os preparados com broto de goiabeira (Psidium guajava Linn apresentaram halos sempre >13 mm para as duas espécies, considerados como de inibição pelo m

  6. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT EKSTRAK DAUN PSIDIUM GUAVA LINN (DAUN JAMBU BIJI TERHADAP MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS

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    Amiyatun Naini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psidium guava Linn leaf extract as mouthrinse has been suggested to be used against toothache, and also has suggested effect against diarrhea and vomiting, as well as anti spasmodic and rheumatic symptoms, anti inflammation, anti piretic, analgetic, and anti bacterial activity. However, to consider potential side effects, this work aimed to test the acute toxicity of guava leaf extract. For this purpose guava leaf extract was given orally to to groups of ten mice each at a doses of 1.25g, 2.5, 5, 10 and 21 g/kg body weight in a suspension with CMC Na 0,5%. Ten mice were used as control with a dose of 1 ml CMC Na 0,5%. The results suggest no acute toxicity to mice, since even the biggest dose given (show no measurable value of LD 50. It could be concluded that guava leaf extract shows no acute toxicity to mice at tested concentrations.

  7. Amelioration of asthmatic inflammation by an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jin-Chul; Park, Chul-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Si-Oh; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han

    2010-03-01

    Inflammation of the respiratory tract is a crucial process in immune diseases, including asthma, and atopic rhinitis. To establish whether an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn (SoL) has a beneficial influence in terms of anti-asthmatic activity, we examined its effects on an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic model. Mice sensitized to ovalbumin were orally administered the SoL extract, and their lungs examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining to determine IL-4/13 cytokine expression. The SoL extract exerted strong anti-asthmatic effects by inducing a decrease in the CD4+ cell number, IL-4/13, and other molecular markers in the lung. Our results collectively indicate that the aqueous SoL extract ameliorates asthmatic symptoms effectively in a mouse ovalbumin-challenge model.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn.

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    Souwalak Phongpaichit

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A partially-purified fraction obtained from column chromatographic preparation of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn. rhizomes was investigated for its antimicrobial activities on various microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. It exhibited high activity againstfilamentous fungi: Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Penicillium marneffei with IC50 values of 0.2, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml, respectively. However, it showed moderate activity against yeasts: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC 0.1-1 mg/ml and low activity against bacteria (MIC 5->10 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that hyphae and conidia treated with this fraction were shrunken and collapsed, which might be due to cell fluid leakage.

  9. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on poriferasterol - A natural phytosterol isolated from Cassia sophera Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mondal, Avijit; Nayek, Nayana; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Poriferasterol, a biologically relevant phytosterol, has been isolated and identified first-time from Cassia sophera Linn. (family: Caesalpiniaceae) based on detailed spectral studies. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces and reactivity descriptor of this plant-derived natural molecule have been performed. The experimentally observed FT-IR spectrum of the title compound has been compared with spectral data obtained by DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G (d,p) method. The UV-visible spectrum of the title compound has also been recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energy are measured by TD-DFT approach. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum has been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the observed data.

  10. DETEKSI HISTOLOGIK KESEMBUHAN LUKA PADA KULIT PASCA PEMBERIAN DAUN MENGKUDU (Morinda Citrofilia Linn

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    Ni Ketut Suwiti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study to detect the microscopic structure of skin wound in mice (Mus musculus aftertreatment with mengkudu leaves (Morinda citrifolia Linn., by histological methods, hasbeen carried out. In this study were detected the level of wound healing every weeks. Thesamples were collected from skin with was given incision injury. The tissue samples werefixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and 4 – 5 ?. sections. Harris-Haematoxilin-Eosin staining method, using to identified of histological structure.Microscopic analysiswas performed using a binocular light microscope (450X. The study showed that,histological structure of normaly skin we deteted in fourth weeks ware composed byepidermis, dermis and hipodermis tissue. We observed for the presence ofthe ephitelialsquomous complexs, hairfollicles, connective tissue with vein and arteriole and adiposetissue.

  11. Leaves extract of murraya koenigii linn for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shailly; George, Mathew; Singhal, Manmohan; Sharma, Ganesh N; Garg, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v) injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy's hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  12. In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Borassus flabellifer Linn. (Palmae against Pheretima posthuma

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    Prasad Govindrao Jamkhande

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anthelmintic activity of Borassus flabellifer (B. flabellifer Linn. leaves against Indian adult earth worms (Pheretima posthuma. Methods: The B. flabellifer leaves and Indian adult earth worms (Pheretima posthuma were collected and authenticated. Earth worms were grouped and treated with extract at 10, 20 and 50 mg/mL concentration, albendazole (10 mg/mL as a standard and normal saline. The paralysis time and mortality time was considered as indicator of anthelmintic efficacy. Results: All the extracts showed concentration dependent activity but significant activity was observed at 50 mg/mL. At concentration 50 mg/mL extract pertained better activity with paralysis time (13.3 min and death times (17.92 min when compared to standard albendazole. Conclusions: The study findings reveal that the methanolic extract of B. flabellifer leaves has effective anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earth worms.

  13. Exploring Tagetes erecta Linn flower for the elastase, hyaluronidase and MMP-1 inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Abedy, Md Karim; Sarkar, Birendra K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2011-10-11

    Traditionally Tagetes erecta Linn flower is claimed to treat skin diseases like sores, burns, wounds, ulcers, eczema and several other skin ailments. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the anti-wrinkle potential of standardized flower extract of Tagetes erecta. The Tagetes erecta extract and fractions were screened for hyaluronidase, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) inhibitory activity compared with the activity of standard oleanolic acid. Syringic acid and β-amyrin were obtained from the extract and quantified through RP-HPLC. Also the compounds were evaluated for anti-wrinkle activity. The methanol extract showed significant ((a)P Tagetes erecta. Tagetes erecta flower showed effective inhibition of hyaluronidase, elastase and MMP-1. Therefore, this experiment further rationalizes the traditional uses of this plant, which may be useful as an anti-wrinkle agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors affecting uptake of {sup 131}I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk; Cheung, T.; Luo, D.L.; Li, M.F

    2000-06-01

    The factors affecting the uptake of {sup 131}I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn) were studied. The time required for the ratio between the activity in the vegetable (Bq kg{sup -1} dry mass) and the activity in the soil (Bq kg{sup -1} dry mass) to reach equilibrium was around 72 h derived from an investigation period of 145 h. The ratio was also dependent on the mass of the vegetable (increased by more than twice when the vegetable mass was decreased to around 60%), the growth period of the vegetable (almost linearly decreased from 3.0x10{sup -2} to 1.1x10{sup -2} when the growth period changed from 66 to 81 d) and the season of culture, while it was independent of the concentration of {sup 131}I applied to the soil. The mean concentration ratio obtained for 51 samples was (6.3{+-}4.4)x10{sup -2}.

  15. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  16. INHIBITION TEST OF METHANOL EXTRACT FROM SOURSOP LEAF (Annona muricata Linn. AGAINST Streptococcus mutans BACTERIA

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    Raudhatul Jannah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a disease with a high prevalence of caries in Indonesia is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn. is one of the herbs that can remove dental plaque. This study aims to determine the chemical content and measure the inhibitory antibacterial soursop leaft methanol extractin inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Phytochemical screening stated that the leaf of the soursop contains flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, glycosides and saponins. Test of inhibition were measured using paper disc diffusion method with variation concentrations of 5, 10, 15 20, and 25%, positive control is tetrasilkin 30 µg, and a negative control is methanol. Antibacterial test results showed that the methanol extract of soursop leaves have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% with inhibitory diameter of 9,1; 10,57; 11,53; 12,01 and 13,75 mm respectively.

  17. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on rat neutrophil functions in adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, V R; Shanthi, P; Sachdanandam, P

    2006-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and various inflammatory conditions, by accumulation and liberation of active proteolytic enzymes. The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nuts (SA) at a dosage of 150 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 14 days on adjuvant arthritis was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease in relation to neutrophil functions. The decreased phagocytic function of neutrophils (phagocytic index and avidity index) found in adjuvant arthritis was significantly increased by the administration of the drug SA. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, H2O2 and myeloperoxidase), lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase and cathepsin D) and increased accumulation of neutrophils in the joints observed in adjuvant arthritic animals were reverted back to near normal levels by treatment with SA. The results of this study indicate that SA can be considered to be a good therapeutic agent for inflammation and arthritis.

  18. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

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    Diah Ariana

    2016-02-01

    Abstract Leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases other than as a cure soursop leaves is also an insecticide-producing plants are bioactive compounds known as acetogenin which are bioactive compounds in high concentrations can be toxic to insects, thus may cause the insects will not eat. At low concentrations of toxic by oral administration stomach and can cause death. Soursop leaves are pesticides from natural elements that can be decided by the Aedes aegypti mosquito generation above background can be taken formulation of the problem Is there any effect of the concentration of soursop leaves boiled water (Annona muricata Linn on the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti? This study aimed to determine the effect of water concentration on the growth of soursop leaf decoction Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.The design of this study used an experimental design with laboratory testing, soursop leaf decoction obtained by weigh 100 g and dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water generated lau soursop leaves boiled water. The inhibition assay performed on boiled water boiling water concentration 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% and visits by the number of larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that die in 24 hours after treatment. Statistical analysis using Annova test with significance level 0.05 for determining the presence or absence of the influence of water concentration on the growth of soursop leaf decoction mosquito Aedes aegypti and subsequent Tukey HSD test was done to see the differences in each concentration. The results showed concentrations of 10% to 100% can inhibit the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti, so it can be concluded that the soursop leaves can inhibit the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti and efficient soursop leaves is used for patients with antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, and anti-inflammatory. Keyword :  larvae of Aedes

  19. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse

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    S Sulaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory."nMethods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse in the laboratory."nResults: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. The plant crude extract exhibited against Ae. albopictus larvae with a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 21.2555 ppm and 36.1061 ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp. Larvae (P< 0.05. However, bifenthrin showed a significant difference on larvicidal effect to that of A. calamus hexane extract on both Aedes spp (P< 0.05. In testing the adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 17.4075 and 252.9458 ppm against Ae .aegypti and a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 43.9952 and 446.1365 ppm respectively on Ae. albopictus. There was no significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp adults (P> 0.05."nConclusion: Bifenthrin however showed a significant difference on both Aedes spp adults (P< 0.05. With the wide availability of A. calamus in Malaysia, it could be utilized for controlling dengue vectors. "n 

  20. Effects of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. flowers on wound healing in diabetic Wistar albino rats

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    Hiren Hirapara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (J. grandiflorum flowers in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups (n=6.Three groups – diabetic control, positive control (that received Glibenclamide and treatment (that received J. grandiflorum Linn. Flower extract were operated for excision wounds (EW. These groups were evaluated for wound contraction and re-epithelization. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW and dead space wounds (DW. Incision and dead space wounds were produced in the same rats. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and the granulation tissues from DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology. Results: IWs and DWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength (265.8±10.4 vs 332.5±8.2; p

  1. Identifikasi komponen aktif minyak atsiri daun Vitex trifolia Linn yang berperan sebagai penolak serangga terhadap Chrysomya sp.

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    Ami Soewandi J. S

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Dried leves powder of Vitex trifolia, Linn, is used tradisionally as insect repellent. The activity of the essential oil (isolated from the leaves and this fractions were studied as a repellent against Chrysomya sp. Fraction E contained a single component and has proven as the most effective to repel Chrysomya sp.According to the spectra of UV, IR, and GC-MS analysis, the single component of fraction E was identified as 4-methyl-1-(methylethy3-cyclohexnol.

  2. Antimalarial activity of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn.-an in vitro Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibition assay

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Sethiya; Priyadarshan Keluskar; Sanjay Ingle; Shrihari Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of standardized methanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn. (E. alsinoids) on Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) enzyme inhibition. Methods: To carry out enzyme inhibition studies, lactate dehydrogenase was cloned from Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain using expression vector pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Protein purification was carried out by Ni-affinity chromatography. This protein was ...

  3. Sintesis N-Etanol -9,10,12- Trihidroksi Stearamida Yang Diturunkan Dari Minyak Jarak (Ricinus Communis Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan metil risinoleat yang merupakan komponen utama sebagai trigliserida yang dijumpai pada minyak jarak (Ricinus Communis Linn.) sebagai bahan untuk sintesis senyawa N-etanol-9,10,12-trihidroksi stearamida. Untuk mendapatkan senyawa N-etanol-9,10,12-trihidroksi stearamida, minyak jarak terlebih dahulu dimetanolisis dengan metanol menggunakan katalis H2SO4 dalam pelarut benzena pada kondisi refluks. Metil risinoleat dipisahkan dari metil ester asam le...

  4. Beneficial effect of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng (Rutaceae) on diabetes-induced renal damage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankuzo, Hassan; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Santosa, Rahajoe Imam; Akter, Seikh Farid Uddin; Talib, Norlewati A

    2011-04-26

    Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng (curry leaf) is widely used as a nephroprotective agent in kidney's infirmities among diabetics by the traditional practitioners in Malaysia. However, the latter role of curry leaf has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) on diabetes-induced renal damage in vivo with regard to prove its efficacy by local traditional practitioners in the treatment of kidney frailties in diabetics. Aqueous (AQ) extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) was administered to both normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). Animals were divided into six groups (n=6) and treated with variable dose levels of AQ extract (200 and 400mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days. At the end of 30 days, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected, processed and stored at -70°C for the zestimation of serum urea and creatinine, changes in plasma antioxidant capacity by FRAP assay, and glutathione peroxidase levels, in the normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Histological changes of the kidneys of these animals were also evaluated by light microscopy to determine the beneficial effect of the leaves. Daily oral administration of variable dose levels of the AQ extract for 30 days, produced significant dose dependant decrease in serum urea and creatinine levels (pMurraya koenigii (Linn.) as adjuvant, in the treatment of pain disorders related to renal impairments among diabetics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Extract of Papaya Seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the Mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Hasanuddin; Aras, Nurhidayah; Hakim, Buraerah H. Abd.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will be presented as oral presentation in the 47th APACPH Conference in Bandung, Indonesia dated October, 21-23rd 2015 Insecticide resistance and environmental damage as impact of application of synthetic larvicide continuesly, therefore it is necessarily alternative larvicide for vector control of Malaria. The aim of the research was to find out the influence of extracts of papaya seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae. The research m...

  6. EFEK SITOTOKSIK DAN PEMACUAN APOPTOSIS FRAKSI PETROLEUM ETER EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN TAPAK LIMAN (Elephantopus scaber Linn TERHADAP SEL HELA

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    Yeni Listyowati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Elephantopus scaber Linn. has been reported to have cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells and the potential to be developed as anticancer agent. This study aims was to determine the cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction effect of petroleum ether fractions of ethanolic extract of (Elephantopus scaber Linn leaves against cervical cancer cells (HeLa. Petroleum ether fraction was obtained by dissolving eyhanolic extract in petroleum ether, and the soluble fraction was as petroleum ether fraction. The method used for cytotoxic activity test was MTT test. The concentration series used were 2000; 1500; 1000; 800; 400; 200; 100; 50; 25; 12.5; 6.25 and 3.125 mg/ml. The IC50 used as cytotoxic parameters. The apoptotic observations was conducted using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The study showed the IC50 of petroleum ether fraction of (Elephantopus scaber Linn ethanolic extract was 185 ug/ml. The study also showed the potency to stimulate apoptosis in HeLa cells.

  7. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI TERAKTIF DAUN PACAR KUKU (Lawsonia inermis Linn. TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus DAN Escherischia coli

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    Nestri Handayani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan uji aktivitas antibakteri fraksi teraktif daun pacar kuku (Lawsonia inermis Linn. terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureusdan Escherichia coli. Fraksi teraktif diperoleh dari hasil pemisahan kromatografi vacum cair (KVC ekstrak etanol daun pacar kuku (Lawsonia inermis Linn. yang telah melalui tahap maserasi dengan pelarut etanol 70%. Proses KVC dilakukan dengan menggunakan tiga eluen yaitu n-heksan, etil asetat, dan etanol. Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi agar. Komponen kimia dalam fraksi teraktif diidentifikasi melalui skrining fitokimia dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT dan kromatografi gas-spektrometer massa (GC-MS.Uji aktivitas antibakteri menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol dan fraksi-fraksi daun pacar kuku (Lawsonia inermis Linn. mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Fraksi etil asetat adalah fraksi teraktif anti bakteri.Identifikasi senyawa dalam fraksi teraktif melalui kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT menunjukkan adanya golongan senyawa flavonoid, terpenoid, antrakuinon, saponin, dan asam lemak. Analisis GC-MS menunjukkan adanya senyawa dominan 2-pentanone,4-hydroxy-4 methy, coumarin, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, dan 10-octadecanoic acid.

  8. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Pranati; Devaraj, C G; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-03-01

    Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control was 25mm and no zone of inhibition was observed

  9. De nomenclatuur van Speenkruiden (Ficaria verna Huds. s.l.,Ranunculaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, Jan-Frits

    2015-01-01

    Molecular research has shown that Ficaria (Ranunculaceae) is not closely related to Ranunculus. In this study I regard the genus as monospecific with 7 subspecies. It is an arbitrary choice to regard these taxa as species or subspecies. In most of the recent literature a choice has been made for the latter and this is followed here. The type is Ficaria verna (≡ Ranunculus ficaria). Benson (1954: 369)1 was the first to designate a lectotype: Herb. Linn. 715.12 (LINN) without provenance, but mo...

  10. Antipsychotic-like activity of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2012-10-19

    Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine (5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to identify the active principles responsible for

  11. Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn. gel affect on post-extraction fibroblast acceleration

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    Christian Khoswanto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is one of treatment frequently done by dentists in clinics, hospital, and even private practices. One thing that is needed to be observed after the treatment is the speed of wound recovery process. Mengkudu is commonly used as medicinal treatments, some of them to heal wounds, but there had never been research of the use of mengkudu fruit on wound recovery after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mengkudu gel in accelerating the escalation of fibroblast post tooth extraction on Dawley rats. Method: This study was used post test only control group design. Thirty male Dawley rats weigh between 250-300 grams, 3 months of age are being used. Tooth extraction is being done on lower left incisor. The 30 rats are divided into three groups, there are mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn. gel, poviclone iodine, and control group. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD. Result: The result of every tested group with Kolmogorof-Smirnov test showed p > 0.05. Examination showed there was significant difference in fibroblast amount between the group with mengkudu gel and two other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The application of mengkudu gel can accelerate the escalation of fibroblast after the tooth extraction on Dawley rats.Latar Belakang: Ekstraksi gigi merupakan perawatan yang sering dilakukan oleh dokter gigi baik di klinik, rumah sakit, dan praktekpribadi. Satu hal yang perlu diperhatikan setelahpencabutan gigi adalah kecepatanpenyembuhan luka bekas cabut. Mengkudu merupakan bahan yang sering digunakan untukpengobatan, salah satu diantaranya adalah untukpenyembuhan luka, namunpenelitian untuk kesembuhan luka pasca cabut gigi yang menggunakan mengkudu belum pernah dilakukan sebelumnya. Tujuan: Tujuanpenelitian ini untuk mengetahui efek gel mengkudu dalam mempercepat peningkatan jumlah fibroblas setelah pencabutan gigi tikus Dawley. Metode: Penelitian ini

  12. Morinda citrifolia Linn: potencialidades para su utilización en la salud humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirda E González Lavaut

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Noni es el nombre común de la Morinda citrifolia Linn. originaria de la Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India y el Sudeste de Asia, pero se ha extendido a casi todas las regiones del mundo. En este trabajo se muestran los aspectos más importantes que sobre esta planta aparecen en publicaciones, fundamentalmente de la vía Internet y del Chemical Abstracts en los últimos 5 años, que permitan valorar las potencialidades para su uso en la salud humana. En la medicina tradicional las frutas, flores, hojas, corteza y raíz de esta planta han sido utilizadas para diversos propósitos medicinales. Entre las afecciones más tratadas se encuentran la alergia, artritis, asma, cáncer, diabetes, depresión, debilidad física, desórdenes menstruales, obesidad y estrés. Si bien se ha encontrado en los extractos de varias partes de la planta una elevada cantidad de componentes e incluso algunos se han llegado a aislar, se considera que la acción farmacológica y beneficiosa se alcanza únicamente por el efecto sinérgico de todos los componentes.Noni is the common name given to Morinda citrifolia Linn. It is originating from Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India and Southeast Asia, but it has extended to almost every region of the world. In this paper, the most important aspects of this plant appearing in publications, Internet and the Chemical Abstracts in the last 5 years that allow to assess the potentialities for its use in human health, are shown. In traditional medicine, the fruit, flowers, leaves, cortex and root of this plant have been used for diverse medicinal purposes. Allergy, arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, depression, physical weakness, menstrual disorders, obesity and stress are among the most treated affections. Although in the extracts of various parts of the plant, a high number of components has been found and even some of them have been isolated, it is considered that the pharmacological and beneficial action is only reached by

  13. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Mudabbar/Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd (Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude and MKK were established for future reference. Mudabbar

  14. HEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Piper betle, Linn LEAVES TO MALE MICE

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    Sadakata Sinulingga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage occurs in most of the dental care. Untreated hemorrhage could cause excessive blood loss, hypotension, and cyanosis. A Natural resource that reported has an hemostatic effect is ethanol extract of betel leaves (Piper betel, Linn.The aim of this study is to find the minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice. The experimental study used pretest-posttest with control group design was conducted on 35 mice that divided into 7 group which are negative control, positive control (feracrylum 1%, the ethanol extract of betel leaves 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. All mice were injected heparin intravenously. Mice’s tail was cut at diameter 3 mm and pretest bleeding time was counted. Mice’s tail was recut at diameter 4 mm, given treatment for 5 seconds and posttest bleeding time was counted. Results of paired t-test showed that reduction of bleeding time between pretest and posttest was significant (p<0,050. The enhancement of ethanol extract of betel leaves concentration leads to better hemostatic effect. Results of ANOVA test showed that comparison of posttest bleeding time among groups was significant (p<0,050. The minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice is 5%.

  15. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

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    Mhaveer Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit.

  16. Turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn. Supplementation as an Alternative to Antibiotics in Poultry Diets

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    Nanung Danar Dono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been used in non-therapeutic fashion as growth promoter for about 50 years in many parts of the world. It has been proven that supplementation of antibiotics in the diets reduces morbidity and mortality, as well as improve feed efficiency and overall growth performance of broiler chickens. However, the routine use of these antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs is being curtailed in view of threat to public health occurring through microflora that are developing resistance to antibiotics. This risk has driven European Union and other countries to withdraw authorization of in-feed antibiotics since 1997. Removal of AGPs resulted in substantial increase infections in poultry. As a consequence, the poultry industry needs to find alternatives to antibiotics in order to stem the effects of infection. One comparable alternative is natural sources of herbs and medicinal plants, which later known as phytobiotics. For the last 15 years, these alternatives have been increasingly claimed to increase enteric health, stimulate digestive system, and enhance growth performance. It was reported that turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. belongs to such class of medicinal plant and may be an alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. In this review, the responses of poultry to diets supplemented with turmeric on growth performance, egg production, health status, and carcass characteristic were briefly discussed.

  17. Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

    2014-02-28

    Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotic activity of the extract of Punica granatum Linn. over bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Maria A. R. Silva

    Full Text Available Human and veterinary medicines have not been so well succeeded in order to achieving their goals concerning the treatment of infections for long term caused by Staphylococcus aureus linked to resistance development against antibiotic agents. The antibiotic activity of the Punica granatum Linn. fresh fruit pericarp extract was evaluated by the agar diffusion method on 38 S. aureus strains, isolated from apparently healthy lactating cows in farms situated in counties of the semi-arid region of the State of Paraíba, Brazil to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Twenty-two of the thirty-eight strains are penicillin-resistant (PRSA. The extract of P. granatum presented potential antibiotic action over all the assayed strains, forming 10 to 36 mm diameter inhibition zones. This paper's results claim the effectiveness of the extract of P. granatum as a potential antibacterial agent on S. aureus, and display the significance of evaluating new substances with antimicrobial potential, which can contribute to alternative therapeutics for veterinary and medicine.

  19. STRATA TAJUK DAN KOMPETISI PERTUMBUHAN CENDANA (Santalum album Linn. DI PULAU TIMOR

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    Hery Kurniawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cendana (Santalum album Linn. is endemic species of NTT Province which not only have economic value, but also as a symbol that unify people or community and culture wisdom in NTT Province. The management of cendana had been passing many time and period, which it has having good and bad experience depending on several factors. Some of these are regional regulation which did not support the efforts for developing cendana plantation. This research was aimed to know cendana crown stratum and competition index especially in private land. Achieving information and data on cendana habitat for supporting the implementation of Cendana Master Plan in NTT Province become the targets of the research. Metodology of the research is descriptive quantitative which based on directly field survey. Data collection was conducted by three ways, which were interviewed with the stakeholders, direct survey and desk studied of secondary data. The result shows that Santalum album trees tend to grow at stratum 1 and 2 of the overall plantation in one area. And the average of competition index of Santalum plantation in TTS regency is 0,18; in TTU regency is 0,07; and Belu regency is 0,1.Keywords: Stratum, competition, cendana, NTT

  20. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of calophyllolide isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Linh; Truong, Cong-Tri; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Vo, Thanh-Niem Van; Dao, Trong-Thuc; Nguyen, Van-Dan; Trinh, Dieu-Thuong Thi; Huynh, Hieu Kim; Bui, Chi-Bao

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high-cost and limitations of current wound healing treatments, the search for alternative approaches or drugs, particularly from medicinal plants, is of key importance. In this study, we report anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the major calophyllolide (CP) compound isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The results showed that CP had no effect on HaCaT cell viability over a range of concentrations. CP reduced fibrosis formation and effectively promoted wound closure in mouse model without causing body weight loss. The underlying molecular mechanisms of wound repair by CP was investigated. CP markedly reduced MPO activity, and increased M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-regulation of M2-related gene expression, which is beneficial to the wound healing process. CP treatment prevented a prolonged inflammatory process by down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines-IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, but up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This study is the first to indicate a plausible role for CP in accelerating the process of wound healing through anti-inflammatory activity mechanisms, namely, by regulation of inflammatory cytokines, reduction in MPO, and switching of macrophages to an M2 phenotype. These findings may enable the utilization of CP as a potent therapeutic for cutaneous wound healing.

  2. The Effectiveness of Extracts Basil Leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) against Saprolegnia sp. by in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarno; Luthfi Hakim, Muhammad; Kusdarwati, Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Saprolegnia SP. is a fungi which is opportunistic and generally as a secondary pathogen on fish. Saprolegnia sp. infects epidermis tissue that begins at the head or fins and can spread over the entire surface of the body. The result of the using of chemicals to control infections of Saprolegnia spp. can cause pollution of the environment and harm the consumer. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential and the minimum concentration of extracts basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) as antifungi against the growth of Saprolegnia sp. by vitro. The research was held in Fish Quarantine Kelas I Juanda Suarabaya in January 2015. A positive result was obtained in the test of the effectiveness of basil leaves in inhibiting the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. Concentration of the extract given to treatment 90% and 100% was able to inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia sp., indicated by the formation of the inhibitory zones at a concentration of treatment, and had the best results on the concentration of 100%.

  3. Evaluation of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage

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    R Sunil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims to evaluate antioxidants and protective role of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage. Materials and Methods: The total and profiles of flavonoids were identified and quantified through reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using standard antioxidant assays. The protective role of C. tora extracts against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage was examined by electrophoretic and scanning electron microscopic studies, respectively. Results: The total flavonoid content of CtEA was 106.8 ± 2.8 mg/g d.w.QE, CtME was 72.4 ± 1.12 mg/g d.w.QE, and CtWE was 30.4 ± 0.8 mg/g d.w.QE. The concentration of flavonoids present in CtEA in decreasing order: quercetin >kaempferol >epicatechin; in CtME: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol; whereas, in CtWE: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol. The CtEA inhibited free radical-induced red blood cell hemolysis and cell membrane morphology better than CtME as confirmed by a scanning electron micrograph. CtEA also showed better protection than CtME and CtWE against free radical-induced DNA damage as confirmed by electrophoresis. Conclusion: C. tora contains flavonoids and inhibits oxidative stress and can be used for many health benefits and pharmacotherapy.

  4. In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

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    Atiqur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna integrifolia Linn (Lamiaceae, and to test the efficacy of the oil and various organic extracts as an antibacterial potential. The chemical compositions of the essential oil were analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty-nine compounds representing 94.81% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which phytol (27.25%, α-humulene (14.21%, spathulenol (12.12%, 1-octen-3-ol (8.21%, eugenol (6.69% and phenylethyl alcohol (5.81% were the major compounds. The oil (15 μL disk−1 and extracts (300 μg disk−1 of P. integrifolia displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 13867, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031 and Xanthomonas campestries IAM 1671 with their respective zones of inhibition of 12.0 ± 1.2 to 22.1 ± 1.2 mm and MIC values of 62.5–250 μg mL−1. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from P. integrifolia may have potential use in food, pharmaceutical and/or agro industries for preservatives or antimicrobial agents.

  5. The Responses of Mulch Closure on the Germination of Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn.

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    Nurmawati Siregar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that determine the successful of the development of mindi is the availability of seedling. The seedlings can be propagated generatively by using seeds, however there is a problem related to the hardness of the testa that make it difficult to germinate, so it needs environment condition treatments to get optimal germination, one of this is mulching. The use mulch possibly get the improvement of temperature, humidity, infiltration and evapotranspiration. The study is aimed to determine the effect of mulch and to find out the best mulch type on the germination of mindi (Melia azedarach Linn. seed. Randomized completely design was employed that arranged factorially, consisted of (A mulch types factor and mulch thicknesses factor (B. There were 5 (five types of mulch treatment i.e rice straws, transparent plastics, dark plastics, zeolite and without mulch. The thicknesses of mulch consisted of one layer and two layers of mulch. Germination capacity, germination speed and growth simultaneously were observed. The results showed, mulching effect on germination mindi the best type of mulch is black or transparent plastic mulch while the thickness of the mulch does not affect the germination. Mindi seed capable of germination in the dark and light conditions on the conditions of temperature and humidity high temperatures.

  6. Processing of Rosmarinus officinalis linne extract on spray and spouted bed dryers

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    C. R. F. Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an investigation of the potential of spray and spouted bed technology for the production of dried extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis Linné, popularly known as rosemary. The extractive solution was characterized by loss on drying, extractable matter and total phenolic and flavonoid compounds (chemical markers. The product was characterized by determination of loss on drying, size distribution, morphology, flow properties and thermal degradation and thermal behavior. The spray and spouted bed dryer performance were assessed through estimation of thermal efficiency, product accumulation and product recovery. The parameters studied were the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 and 150ºC and the feed mass flow rate of concentrated extract relative to the evaporation capacity of the dryer, Ws/Wmax (15 to 75%. The atomizing air flow rate was maintained at 20 l/min with a pressure of 196.1 kPa. The spouting gas flow rate used in the drying runs was 40% higher than the gas flow under the condition of minimum spouting. The spray drying gas flow rate was fixed at 0.0118 kg/s. Under the conditions studied, performance in the spray and spouted bed drying of rosemary extract was poor, causing high degradation of the marker compounds (mainly the phenolic compounds. Thus, process improvements are required before use on an industrial scale.

  7. Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn en ratas

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    José de la Paz Naranjo

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la acción antidiarreica de una tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn (toronjil de menta, se realizó un estudio in vivo en modelo de diarreas en ratas inducidas con aceite de castor. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 200, 300 y 400 mg/kg. Se encontró que las dosis de 300 y 400 mg/kg alargaron el tiempo de aparición de la primera deposición líquida y disminuyeron su frecuencia, no así la dosis menor, que solamente redujo el número de deposiciones líquidas en el tiempo. Se halló conjuntamente un efecto dependiente de la dosis y una dosis efectiva media calculada (DE50 de 346,41 mg/kg. La dosis máxima de la tintura mostró tener acción antidiarreica en el modelo empleado. El nivel de significación se fijó en una p £ 0,05.

  8. Physico-chemical properties of Tecoma stans Linn. seed oil: a new crop for vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Mokbli, Sadok; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tecoma stans Linn. is known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding their seed oils. In this study, the fatty acid (FA) compositions, physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of T. stans seed oils (TSOs) were investigated. The oil content of the seeds was 15%. The FAs of the TSOs were analysed by GC-MS. α-Linolenic (45.47%), oleic (23.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%) and stearic (4.12%) acids were the major detected FAs. γ-Linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, unusually FAs, were also present (1.04% and 6.65%, respectively). The total tocol content in the TSOs was found to be 266.06 mg/100 g. The main component was γ-tocopherol (78.93%). The total phenolic content (168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil) and total flavonoid content (5.54 mg CE/g oil) were also determined in the TSOs.

  9. In Vitro Anti-arthritic activity of Tecoma stans (Linn. Leaves

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    Dharmeshkumar Prajapati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates 80% of the world population presently use herbal medicine for some aspects of primary health care. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks synovial joints. There are many herbs which are described in Ayurveda for arthritis. The medicinal plant contains flavonoids, terpenes, quinones, catechins, alkaloids, anthocyanins and anthoxanthins phytoconstituents, having anti-inflammatory effects. Tecoma stans (Linn. belongs to the family of Bignoniaceae. The root of Tecoma stans as diuretic, vermifuge and tonic. Pharmacological reports revealed that it is having antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties, and extensively used in the treatment of diabetes. Alcohol, Water, successive extracts of Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol and Water extracts of T. stans leaves were tested for Antiarthritic activity using Diclofenac sodium as standard by In-vitro models like, Inhibition of protein denaturation and effect on membrane stabilization. Alcohol, Water and succesive Methanol extracts of T. stans leaves exhibited significant Antiarthritic activity. The results of the investigations justify us the folklore use of T. stans leaves in the treatment of inflammation during arthritis and the plant is worth for further chemical isolation and pharmacological investigations.

  10. Inotropic and cardioprotective effects of Daucus carota Linn. on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction

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    Pavan Kumar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Daucus carota Linn. tubers were extracted with water and analyzed for its inotropic and cardioprotective effects by measuring various biochemical parameters at the test doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Isoproterenol (5.25 mg/kg and 8.5 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously on 29th and 30th day respectively in order to induce myocardial infarction. Cardiac tonicity was estimated by evaluating Na+K+ATPase, Mg2+ATPase and Ca2+ATPase levels in heart. The levels of Na+K+ATPase and Mg2+ATPase were decreased and that of Ca2+ATPase was increased in extract-treated group significantly (p<0.001. Cardioprotection was assessed by estimating serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lipid peroxidase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels and cardiac total protein and lipid peroxidase, and lactate dehydrogenase. The levels altered by isoproterenol were restored significantly by the administration of the extract. The result of the study implies that D. carota is a potential source to protect heart from myocardial infarction and to maintain its tonicity.

  11. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn. Fortified Milk

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    Subha Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBIOTIC KOUMISS FROM GOAT MILK WITH ADDITION OF ROSELLE EXTRACT (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn

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    E. Nuraeni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn are food ingredients with health functionalproperties. This research used Lactobacillus acidophilus RRAM-01 and Lactococcus lactis RRAM-01which had been proven as probiotic, and Saccharomyces cereviceae. Saccharomyces cereviseae wasused to produce specific flavor components in koumiss (bacterial fermentation product. The objectiveof this research was to study the characteristics of goat milk probiotic koumiss added that with roselleextract. The results showed that the addition of different concentration of roselle extract (0%, 0.5%, and1% in the goat milk probiotic koumiss had no effect on chemical and microbiological characteristics ofkoumiss. Goat milk processed into koumiss had ability to suppress the growth of coliform and hadstrong inhibition activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as tested by agar diffusion test.Microbiological analysis used in this research was the pour plate method. Population of lactic acidbacteria indicated that the product fulfilled standards as probiotics koumiss (1011 cfu/mL, coliform wasnot detected in the products, therefore the products met the criteria of The National Agency of Drug andFood Control (NA-DFC as probiotic functional food. Sensory evaluation was conducted by usinghedonic quality test. Based on the hedonic quality test, addition of different concentrations of roselleextract increased the intensity of red color and koumiss viscosity, but had no effect to the aroma andsourness of koumiss.

  13. Spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-02-01

    Globally, primary dysmenorrhoea is one of the most frequent gynaecological disorders in young women. It is associated with increased uterine tone, and exaggerated contractility of uterine smooth muscles. In many rural African communities, a number of medicinal plants, including Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae), are used traditionally for the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting and oestrogen-dominated, quiescent uterine horns of healthy, young adult, female Wistar rats. Graded, escalated concentrations of PGE (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent and significant inhibitions of the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated rat uterine horn preparations. In a concentration-related manner, PGE also significantly inhibited or abolished contractions produced by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml), oxytocin (0.5-4.0 microU), bradykinin (2.5-10 ng/ml), carbachol (CCh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml) or potassium chloride (K+, 10-80 mM) in quiescent uterine horn preparations isolated from the oestrogen-dominated rats. The spasmolytic effect of PGE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of ;guava' leaves in the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in some rural African communities.

  14. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of different methanolic extracts of Melia azedarach Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Humera

    2016-09-01

    Present study was planned to search for neuropharmacological properties of methanolic extracts of different parts of Melia azedarach Linn. because conventional medicine shows adverse effects. Recently natural products are studied worldwide, as safer alternatives, which are not duly supported with scientifically proved data. Melia azedarach (Bakayan, China berry tree) is medium sized tree belonging to family Meliaceae. Traditional use of plant is as anthelmintic, antilithic and diuretic. Topical application of oil for cramps and rheumatism is beneficial. Methanolic extract of flowers (BFM), twigs (BTM) and roots (BKB) were the test drugs to study different activities on NMRI mice. This is the first report regarding CNS activity of Melia flowers. Significant anxiolytic activity (p=0.000) of extract of flowers (BFM) and of roots (BKB) (p=0.002) was determined by "elevated plus maze" and "Light and dark activity box". Antidepressant activity was seen by BFM (p=0.000) in "forced swim test". Diazepam and Imipramine were used as positive controls respectively. In conclusion flower extract have shown very powerful anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity and cytotoxic potential of twigs cannot be ruled out.

  15. Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Reshu; Dhaliwal, Patwant Kaur

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society.

  16. Sifat Anatomi dan Sifat Fisika Kayu Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn dari Hutan Rakyat di Yogyakarta

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    Harry Praptoyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical  and Physical Properties of Mindi Wood (Melia azedarach Linn from Community Forest in Yogyakarta Information about mindi wood characteristics is very limited while utilisation of this wood on our society is very extensive. Better knowledge on anatomical and physical wood properties of mindi wood optimizes its utilization. Therefore, this study aims to identify anatomical (macroscopic and microscopic and physical (moisture content, specific gravity and dimensional changes wood properties of mindi taken from community forests around Yogyakarta. The macroscopic structural characteristics results showed that annual ring appeared clearly at transversal surface, having single vessel, vasicentric and diffuse parenchyma, rough texture, straight fiber direction, and no resin canal. Cell proportion of wood showed that fibers occupy more than 44%, followed by vessel (20%, parenchyma (19% and rays (15%. Wood fiber dimension showed fiber length of 0.83 mm, fiber diameter of 14.57µ, and cell wall thickness of 2.50µ. Physical wood properties showed that mindi has 31% moisture content and 0.416 of basic specific gravity. Wood shrinkage from green to kilndry on longitudinal was 3.94 %, tangensial 5.74 %, and radial 2.60 %, with T/R ratio 2.38. Based on T/R ratio value, mindi wood is not recommended for wood construction due to its low dimensional stability. Furthermore, mindi wood also has high longitudinal wood shrinkage and low specific gravity indicating juvenility.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

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    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  18. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  19. Immunomodulatory Activity of Meniran Extracts (Phyllanthus niruri Linn. on Broiler Chickens

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    Yufri Aldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Broilers chickens are highly susceptible to many diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Therefore to solve these problem we can use alternative medicine by administration of immunostimulatory compounds that can prevent disease in broiler chickens. One of the plants that can enhance the immune system is meniran. The study effect of immunomodulatory test from ethanol extract of meniran herbs (Phyllanthus niruri Linn. has been conducted in broiler chickens with carbon clearance method. The study of extract administered orally with dose of 10; 30; 100; 300 mg/kg BW and a solution of 0.5% NaCMC as negative control also suspension Stimuno® forte 13.5 mg/kg BW as positive control for 6 days. The data of phagocytosis index was analyzed statisticaly with two way ANOVA followed with Duncan’s test. The increasing of phagocytosis index with carbon clearance method showed the effect from each dose with negative control was significant (P<0,05. The highest phagocytic index obtained from a dose of 300 mg / kg BW. The data’s of increased relative spleen weight and an increased of blood limfosit cell was analyzed statisticaly with one way ANOVA followed with Duncan’s test. Increased relative spleen weight and an increased of blood limfosit cell showed effect from each dose to negative control was significant (P<0,05. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of meniran was active as immunostimulant for broiler chickens.

  20. Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2011-10-01

    Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states.

  1. Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema.

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    West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Palu, Afa K; Jensen, C Jarakae

    2009-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol extract and leaf juice were evaluated in a UVB-induced erythema model in 25 volunteers. The crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves was also evaluated in vitro for potential anti-inflammatory activity in a histamine H-1 receptor antagonism assay. There was no evidence of allergenic potential in the repeat-insult patch test. When the combination of ethanol extract and leaf juice was applied, the UVB dose required to induce erythema was almost 3.5 times greater than with untreated skin (P citrifolia leaves inhibited receptor binding by 57%. These results suggest that M. citrifolia leaves are safe for topical use and may be useful in mitigating UVB-induced injury to the skin.

  2. Morinda citrifolia Linn (Noni): in vivo and in vitro reproductive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliane C; Botelho, Giuliana G K; Bufalo, Aedra C; Boareto, Ana C; Rattmann, Yanna D; Martins, Elisangela S; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2009-01-21

    Morinda citrifolia Linn (syn. Noni) is a plant widely used as food and medicine worldwide but there are no toxicological tests about this plant focused on reproduction. To investigate possible endocrine activity and toxic effect on the reproductive system of Wistar rats by exposure of aqueous extract of the Morinda citrifolia. Two experimental protocols in vivo were developed, (a) uterotrophic assay and (b) in utero and lactational assay, and one test in vitro to investigate the effect on the contractility of pregnant uteri isolated from rats (doses of the extract: 7.5, 75 and 750 mg/kg). The uterotrophic assay indicates presence of in vivo antiestrogenic activity of extract at doses of 7.5 and 750 mg/kg. The in utero and lactation exposure showed that the treatment with extract at the dose of 7.5mg/kg induced a reduction of 50% in parturition index and an increase of 74% in postimplantation losses index. The in vitro test showed that uteri from rats treated with 7.5mg/kg of the extract presented a 50% reduction on contraction induced by arachidonic acid. The exposure of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia in Wistar rats induced reproductive toxicity in nonlinear dose-response.

  3. The cytotoxic effect of Elephantopus scaber Linn extract against breast cancer (T47D) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyani, N.; Nurkhasanah

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main cause of death. Elephantopus scaber Linn (ES) which has been used as a traditional medicine contains an antitumor compounds. This study aimed to explore the active fraction from ethanolic extract of ES as anticancer and to determine its inhibition effect on the cell proliferation cycle of breast cancer (T47D) cells. The ES leaf was macerated with ethanol and then evaporated to get the concentrated extract. The extract was fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol respectively. The cytotoxic activity of each fraction was carried out with MTT method, and the inhibition of cell cycle test were observed by flowcytometry method. The result showed that ES and the fractions have cytotoxic activity against T47D cell lines with IC50 values of extract, petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol fractions were 58.36±2.38, 132.17±9.69, 7.08±2.11, and 572.89±69.23 µg/mL. The inhibition effect of ethanol extract on the lifecycle of cells was occured in sub G1 phase. There was no prolonging of G1, S, G2/M and polyploidy phase of T47D cell lines. The chloroform fraction of ES is the most cytotoxic fraction against T47D cells without prolonging the cell lifecycle.

  4. Antimicrobial Potential of Thiodiketopiperazine Derivatives Produced by Phoma sp., an Endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Palak; Wani, Zahoor A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Ali, Asif; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-11-01

    During the screening of endophytes obtained from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., the extract from a fungal culture designated as GG1F1 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as a species of the genus Phoma and was most closely related to Phoma cucurbitacearum. The chemical investigation of the GG1F1 extract led to the isolation and characterization of two thiodiketopiperazine derivatives. Both the compounds inhibited the growth of several bacterial pathogens especially that of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, with IC50 values of less than 10 μM. The compounds strongly inhibited biofilm formation in both the pathogens. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of these compounds. The compounds were found to act synergistically with streptomycin while producing varying effects in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The compounds inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, and also inhibited staphyloxanthin production in S. aureus. Although similar in structure, they differed significantly in some of their properties, particularly the effect on the expression of pathogenecity related genes in S. aureus at sub-lethal concentrations. Keeping in view the antimicrobial potential of these compounds, it would be needful to scale up the production of these compounds through fermentation technology and further explore their potential as antibiotics using in vivo models.

  5. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

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    M. K. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE. In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n=6/group/sex were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n=6/group/sex for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use.

  6. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

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    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  7. LEAVES EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LINN FOR ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY IN ANIMAL MODELS

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    Ganesh N. Sharma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory andanalgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oraladministration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals.Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in pawvolume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan(1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy’s hotplate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanolextract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edemaand analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy’s hot platemethod and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showedanti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared withthe control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions werestatistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit ofMurraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  8. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M; Thakar, Anup B; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-07-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules.

  9. Proximate Nutritive Values and Mineral Components of Withania Somnifera (Linn. Dunal

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    S. R. Krishnamurthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Linn. Dunal is a subtropical shrub with important medicinal properties. The nutritive value and the elemental composition of different parts of plants, Withania somnifera which are grown in two distinct geographical regions (Sondekola and Karthikere of Karnataka have been determined. The investigation revealed that the variation of macro, micro and proximate components varied not only in the plants of different regions but also in the different parts of the same plant. Among the macro elements, Karthikere samples recorded maximum values of nitrogen, phosphorous and magnesium and Sondekola samples recorded maximum values of sodium, potassium and calcium. Among the components of micronutrients, the highest values of iron were recorded both in Sondekola and Karthikere samples. The average values of manganese, copper and zinc were more in the Karthikere samples and comparatively less in the Sondekola samples. Whereas, all the samples of Sondekola recorded maximum values of nutrition. It is believed that the dry climatic condition of the region may contribute the high values of nutrition. Further, the observations are discussed with reference to the geography, elemental composition and nutritional values. The strong and negative observations on herbal drugs and their validity, the study emphasizes the role of elemental composition, proximate components, nutritive value, habitat and geographical features which influence growth and development of Withania somnifera and also herbal products of Withania somnifera in particular and medicinal plants in general.

  10. Protective effect of Piper longum Linn. on monosodium glutamate induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mariyamma; Sujatha, K S; George, Sisilamma

    2009-03-01

    Protective effect of ethanol extract of Piper longum Linn. against monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced toxicity was studied. Rats, orally administered with MSG at a dose of 8 mg/g body weight for 20 consecutive days, showed an increase in liver weight and rate of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione (GSH) in serum, liver and kidney showed decreased concentration. Significant increase was noticed in activities of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST), levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and urea. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney showed central venous congestion, diffuse degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes in para cortical and midzonal areas of liver and diffuse cortical tubular degeneration of kidney. Oral administration of ethanol extract of P. longum fruits at 300 mg/kg body weight along with MSG significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxides in serum, liver and kidney, serum AST activity, serum levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol. Though, there was an increase in the level of GSH in tissues it was not significant. However, the treatment failed to reduce the levels of ALT and urea. Examination of tissue sections also exhibited normal histological architecture of both the organs. The present study revealed that administration of P. longum provided significant protection to liver and kidney from the oxidative stress of MSG, though the dose rate was not sufficient to provide a complete protection.

  11. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A T M; Howlader, Md Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds.

  12. Anticonvulsant activity of the methanol root bark extract of Ficus sycomorus Linn. (Moraceae

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    Umar S. Abubakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ficus sycomorus Linn. (Moraceae is used in Northern Nigeria for the management of grand mal epilepsy without any scientific validation. Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity study and anticonvulsant properties of the methanol root bark extract of F. sycomorus. Methods: The basic phytochemical screening, Lorke’s method and three models of epilepsy were employed, which include the maximal electroshock test in chicks, and pentylenetetrazole- and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results: The extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrate, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice was estimated to be 565.69 mg/kg body weight. The extract afforded a slight protection, 30% (highest dose used to the laboratory animals against the maximal electroshock test. The duration of convulsion decreased, which was not statistically significant (p>0.05 when compared to the untreated group. Also, the extract did not protect the animals against the chemically induced seizures by pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine. Conclusions: The data suggest that the methanol root bark extract of F. sycomorus, at the doses tested and under the experimental conditions reported, may not contain psychoactive principles that are relevant to the management of grand mal epilepsy as claimed by the traditional medicine practitioners.

  13. A panoramic view on phytochemical, nutritional, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological values of Trachyspermum ammi Linn.

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    Hafiz Muhammad Asif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trachyspermum ammi Linn. (T. ammi is an aromatic, grassy, annual plant belonging to Umbelliferae family which grows in the east of India, Pakistan, Iran, and Egypt. T. ammi has been used traditionally to treat arthritis, colic, diarrhea and gastrointestinal problems. In addition to these medicinal uses, T. ammi continues to be valued around the world as an important cooking spice and is believed to relief the common cold, flu-like symptoms, headaches, and even painful menstrual periods. These multiple uses can be explained by its several active compounds. The phytochemical studies on T. ammi seeds have revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, fixed oils, glycosides, tannins, saponin and flavonoids, cumene, thymene, amino acids and dietary fiber essential oils like thymol, c-terpinene, p-cymene. Several pharmacological studies on anti-tussive effect, inhibitory effect on histamine (H1 receptors, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti mutagenic activities of T. ammi seed extracts have been reported in the literature. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of T. ammi.

  14. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-β-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98 ± 7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products.

  15. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, E O; Ekundayo, F O; Makanjuola, O O

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms.

  16. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

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    Farnaz Hajifattahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX, and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  17. Phytochemical screening and quantification of flavonoids from leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okorie, N A

    2009-01-01

    The Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) herb is found in SouthWest, Nigeria and other parts of West Africa, and is claimed to possess anti-hypertensive property. The phytochemical screening and flavonoid quantification of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn were studied. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic leaf extract of J. curcas L. was carried using acceptable and standard methods. The flavonoid contents of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IRS) and a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of the leaves of the plant shows the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, phlobatannins, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. To quantify the flavonoid contents of leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L, extracts from the plant samples where examined in a C-18 column with UV detection and isocratic elution with acetonitrile; water (45:55). Levels of flavonoids (flavones) in leaves ranged from 6:90 to 8:85 mg/g dry weight. Results indicate that the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas L. contains useful active ingredients which may serve as potential drug for the treatment of diseases. In addition, a combination of TLC, IRS and HPLC can be used to analyse and quantify the flavonoids present in the leaves of Jatropha curcas L.

  18. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  19. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

  1. Tore Linné Eriksen og de store utviklingsspørsmålene

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    Kristen Nordhaug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of Tore Linné Eriksen’s works within development studies/development research. In a recent introduction to development studies from 2013, he presented development research as a cross-disciplinary social science approach that addresses the grand problems of mankind. Eriksen’s own research into these grand problems has concentrated on the causes of national and international inequality and poverty. In 1974 he supported the view of the “underdevelopment school”: “Underdevelopment” in Africa and Latin America was the outcome of the inclusion of those continents in a capitalist world economy dominated by Europe. Recent works by Eriksen on the origins of the “great divergence” between Western Europe and economically advanced non-European countries (2010 and on inequality and poverty in the current world (2012 are far more complex and empirically nuanced. Still, in a recent discussion of globalization and global capitalism (2013 he reverts to some of the earlier ”underdevelopment arguments” from 1974. The article concludes that there is a tension within Eriksen’s works on the role of capitalism in development and underdevelopment. In his programmatic writings, global capitalism is seen as the main cause of inequality and poverty. In his more empirically grounded works, global capitalism is viewed rather as an important part of the bigger picture of inequality and poverty. 

  2. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of calophyllolide isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

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    Van-Linh Nguyen

    Full Text Available Due to the high-cost and limitations of current wound healing treatments, the search for alternative approaches or drugs, particularly from medicinal plants, is of key importance. In this study, we report anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the major calophyllolide (CP compound isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The results showed that CP had no effect on HaCaT cell viability over a range of concentrations. CP reduced fibrosis formation and effectively promoted wound closure in mouse model without causing body weight loss. The underlying molecular mechanisms of wound repair by CP was investigated. CP markedly reduced MPO activity, and increased M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-regulation of M2-related gene expression, which is beneficial to the wound healing process. CP treatment prevented a prolonged inflammatory process by down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines-IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, but up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This study is the first to indicate a plausible role for CP in accelerating the process of wound healing through anti-inflammatory activity mechanisms, namely, by regulation of inflammatory cytokines, reduction in MPO, and switching of macrophages to an M2 phenotype. These findings may enable the utilization of CP as a potent therapeutic for cutaneous wound healing.

  3. Preparation of Activated Carbon From Polygonum orientale Linn. to Remove the Phenol in Aqueous Solutions.

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    Jia Feng

    Full Text Available Phenol components are major industry contaminants of aquatic environment. Among all practical methods for removing phenol substances from polluted water, activated carbon absorption is the most effective way. Here, we have produced low-cost activated carbon using Polygonum orientale Linn, a wide spreading species with large biomass. The phenol adsorption ability of this activated carbon was evaluated at different physico-chemical conditions. Average equilibrium time for adsorption was 120 min. The phenol adsorption ability of the P. orientale activated carbon was increased as the pH increases and reached to the max at pH 9.00. By contrast, the ionic strength had little effect on the phenol absorption. The optimum dose for phenol adsorption by the P. orientale activated carbon was 20.00 g/L. The dominant adsorption mechanism of the P. orientale activated carbon was chemisorption as its phenol adsorption kinetics matched with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In addition, the equilibrium data were fit to the Langmuir model, with the negative standard free energy and the positive enthalpy, suggesting that adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic.

  4. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil: A memoir

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    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  5. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Rao, Suresh; Rai, Manoj P; D'souza, Prema

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

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    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  7. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. seeds

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    Umer Qadir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at primary screening of the phytochemical contents of seven solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, methanol, ethanol and a mixture of methanol and ethyl acetate (1:3 extracts of the seeds of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these extracts against five species of pathogenic bacteria. The powdered seeds of A. cocculus were extracted with seven solvents (polar and non-polar with Soxhlet apparatus and the extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by standard biochemical tests. The antibacterial activity of various extracts was evaluated against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The zone of inhibitions and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the various extracts were determined by running the experiments in triplicates. The extracts of the seeds of A. cocculus contained various pharmaceutically active substances viz., aldehydes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, glycosides, phytosterols, volatile oils, gums and mucilage and other minor phytochemicals. All the extracts showed significant levels of antibacterial activity. Methanol extract was the most active one with remarkable antibacterial activity on the various species tested. MICs of the extracts revealed methanol extract as the most potent one with the lowest inhibitory concentration of 3 μg/mL on E. coli. The findings of the present study indicated that the seeds of A. cocculus possess various secondary metabolites having the potential for developing pharmaceutical drugs, especially antimicrobial ones.

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

    2012-07-01

    To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35-55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.

  9. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer.

  10. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tarandeep; Hussain, Khadim; Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.

  11. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.

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    Jain Kusum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Family-Asteraceae; common name-Dhaman grass is common herb found in India. Traditionally, the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India uses the leaf powder (along with other herb orally to treat diabetes. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of whole plant of T. procumbens using 50%methanol. The extract was tested for acute and sub-chronic anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats and for acute toxicity test among normal rats. Observations on body weight as well as on the oral glucose tolerance levels were also recorded. Results Oral administration of acute and sub chronic doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. of T. procumbens extract showed a significant (p T. procumbens were compared with the reference standard drug Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.wt.. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, T. procumbens for the treatment of diabetes mellitus with corrections in body weight and oral glucose tolerance and no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicating a high margin of safety. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  12. Efficacy of Fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (JatrophaCurcas Linn Compost

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    Erma B. Quinay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the efficacy of fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (Jatophacurcas Linn compost, an experiment was carried out in complete randomized block design based on 3 replications. Varied ratios of commercial organic fertilizer (COF and Jatropha compost (JC are 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 and commercial inorganic fertilizers (CIF were used in planting. Parameters such as number of leaves, length of stems, size and color of leaves were determined after harvesting. The maximum number of leaves was noted in 100:0ratios of JC and COF; the lengthiest stem was noted in vegetables grown with 100:0 JC; while the largest size of leaf was noted in CIF. The color of leaves was the same for the varied ratios with a reading of 4 while the CIF has a reading of 5 in the leaf color chart. The macronutrients of JC have 2.09% N, 1.98%P and 17. 49%K.However the micronutrients of the compost were 203.66 ppm Zn, 326.27 ppmMnand 3997.30 ppmFe. These nutrients are essential for the plant growth. It was observed that potassium (K exceeded the standard for the COF which is 3.66 wt. %. K hastens maturity and increase the size and quality of vegetables.

  13. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo; Miracy Muniz Albuquerque; Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva; Gracielle Carvalho Gomes; Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz; Vanessa Ribeiro Leite; Jane Sheila Higino

    2006-01-01

    A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às...

  14. Semen characteristics and sperm morphology of Pistia stratiotes Linn. (Araceae) protected male albino rats (Wistar strain) exposed to sodium arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Davies, Olufunke; Ajani, O Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Sodium arsenite has been proven to be abundant in nature and released into the environment through human activities, including agricultural and industrial processes. The objective of our study was to investigate the sperm protective potential of Pistia stratiotes Linn. in arsenic-treated rats. The sperm protective potential of P. stratiotes Linn. (Araceae) was carried out in arsenic-exposed rats using 24 male albino rats (225 to 228 g) aged between 14 and 16 weeks old. They were grouped into 4 (A-D), each group containing 6 rats. Group A animals were orally treated with 100 mg/kg ethanol leaf extract of P. stratiotes Linn. daily for 14 days; group B (sodium arsenite at 2.5 mg/kg body weight; positive control); group C (P. stratiotes extract for 14 days and single dose of sodium arsenite on day 14; group D (0.1 mL propylene glycol; negative control/vehicle). Group B had a significantly lower (p0.05) for semen volume and the sperm count of rats across the groups. Total sperm abnormality was 10.44 and 14.27 % with the sodium arsenite treated group having the highest value when compared with groups A treated with P. stratiotes extract and D treated with propylene, although the differences were not significant (p>0.05). The study concluded that ethanol leaf extract of P. stratiotes has no negative effect on sperm motility, viability and morphology and also protected spermatozoa against arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity in Wistar strain albino rats. Therefore, it may play an important role in the protection of populations with chronic sodium arsenite exposure.

  15. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Solanum Melongena Linn. in Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st h, 3rd h, and 5th h after the carrageenan injection. Results: In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3rd hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5th hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3rd and p<0.001 at 5th hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5th hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25738003

  16. Comparison of microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismanto, A. W.; Kusuma, H. S.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    The comparison of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and microwave hydrodistillation (MHD) in the extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn. was examined. Dry cajuput leaves were used in this study. The purpose of this study is also to determine optimal condition (microwave power). The relative electric consumption of SFME and MHD methods are both showing 0,1627 kWh/g and 0,3279 kWh/g. The results showed that solvent-free microwave extraction methods able to reduce energy consumption and can be regarded as a green technique for extraction of cajuput oil.

  17. Variasi Genetik pada Pertumbuhan Tanaman Konservasi Sumberdaya Genetik Cendana (Santalum album Linn. Populasi Pulau Timor Bagian Timur

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    Sumardi Sumardi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn. Is a native species of East Nusa Tenggara that have high economic value because it contains oil in the hardwood that is used as a raw material for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. However, sandalwood population in East Nusa Tenggara has declined severely caused of massive exploitation in the past without accompanied by the success of replanting. Excessive exploitation impact on the decreasing of genetic diversity. Conservation was initiatied by the Forestry Research Institute of Kupang in 2012 with Eastern Part of Timor Island as a genetic material source. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic variation of plant growth on sandalwood (Santalum album linn. genetic conservation from Eastern Part of Timor Island until 8 months after planting. The research was designed using Incomplete Block Design (IBD, consists of 25 families, single treeplot and 10 blocks as replicates. The variance analysis showed there was no significant difference between the families tested and the average height and diameter growth of test plants respectively 51,02 cm and 4.70 mm. The families heritability (h2f  estimation of height is 0.70 high category and the diameter is 0.53 medium category.   Key words : Population, conservation, variation, heritability ABSTRAK Cedana (Santalum album Linn. merupakan jenis tanaman asli Nusa Tenggara Timur yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi karena kandungan minyak atsiri pada kayu terasnya yang digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri kosmetik dan obat-obatan. Namun demikian populasi jenis ini di Nusa Tenggara Timur telah mengalami penurunan sangat tajam, akibat eksploitasi besar-besaran dimasa lalu yang tidak dibarengi keberhasilan penanaman kembali. Kondisi tersebut berdampak pada keragaman genetik cendana yang pernah ada di NTT. Tindakan konservasi mulai dilakukan oleh Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Kupang pada tahun 2012 yang berasal dari populasi Pulau Timor bagian Timur. Penelitian ini

  18. The effect of ethanol extract of mangostene (Garcinia Mangostana Linn. peel on tongue cancer cells Supri's Clone-1 apoptosis, in vitro

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    Maria Aurora Titiana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis or programmed cell death serves to regulate physiological and pathological conditions. Garcinia mangostana Linn. is one of the medical herbs that is widely used to suppress human tongue cancer growth by inducing apoptosis. The research aimed to analyze the effect of ethanol extract of Garcinia mangostana Linn. on tongue cancer cells apoptosis Supri's Clone-1 (SP-C1. The type of the research was an experimental laboratory. Tongue cancer cells SP-C1 were treated by various ethanol extract concentrations (0, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 pg/ml of Garcinia mangostana Linn. to detect the apoptosis, which was done by acridine orange and ethidium bromide coloring tests. The number of tongue cancer cells SP-C1 2x104 cells/dish. Observation on cells apoptosis was observed by a fluorescent microscope with 40 x magnification. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and was followed by Post Hoc test (Tukey-test with 95% significance level. The result showed that tongue cancer cells SP-C1 apoptosis treated by various ethanol extracts of Garcinia mangostana Linn. increase significantly. The highest effect of apoptosis was detected at the 700 pg/ml concentration that has an effect on the percentage of tongue cancer cells apoptosis by 65%.

  19. Upper Pleistocene Gulo gulo (Linne, 1758) remains from the Srbsko Chlum-Komin Hyena den cave in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, with comparisons to contemporary wolverines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajus G. Diedrich; Jeffrey P. Copeland

    2010-01-01

    Wolverine bone material is described from the famous Upper Pleistocene cave Srbsko Chlum-Komin in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, along with an overview of recently known Czech sites. The Gulo gulo Linne material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens in Europe. As a result of non-systematic excavations, the taphonomy is partly unclear. Lower-...

  20. Estudio sobre la distribución de frutos afectados por Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal) (Col., Curculionidae) en alcornoque (Quercus suber Linné)

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Martín Santana, Pedro; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1997-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio acerca de la distribución de frutos atacados por Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal) (Col., Curculionidae) en alcornoque {Quercus suber Linné), en relación con las diferentes orientaciones. Los resultados indican que este insecto coloniza de forma homogénea la copa del árbol.

  1. Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Fiber Mats as Carriers for Crude Extracts From Phyllanthus Emblica Linn. Fruits

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    Thitiwongsawet Patcharaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn (PE was extracted with methanol and then partitioned into diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The diethyl ether fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923. The PE extract from diethyl ether fraction was then loaded into 17%w/v cellulose acetate (CA solution prepared in 2:1 v/v acetone/N, N-dimethylacetamide at concentrations of 1, 3, and 5% w/w (based on the weight of CA. The PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fiber mats were fabricated by electrospinning. The morphological appearance of both the neat and the PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fibers were smooth with the average diameters in a range of 335-694 nm. The amounts of water retention and release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats in an acetate buffer (pH 5.5 were studied and compared with the corresponding cast-films fabricated by the solvent casting method. The amount of water retention of the PE extract-loaded fiber mats was about 112-205% which was higher than that of the cast films (i.e. 25-35%. The study of release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats and films was carried out by total immersion method in an acetate buffer at 32°C for 72 h. The PE extract-loaded fiber mats exhibited greater amount of extract released than those of the cast films. The maximum amounts of PE extract released from fiber mats and films were about 40-80% and 18-23%, respectively.

  2. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn. Vill

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    Rani Neerja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content, and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ of Stellaria media (Linn. Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6 weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26 mg/g, 1.4 mg/g and 1.19 μg/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes.

  3. A 24-Weeks Toxicity Study of Eryngium foetidum Linn. Leaves in Mice.

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    Janwitthayanuchit, Kanittha; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2016-07-01

    Eryngium foetidum Linn. leaves (EF) are widely used in Thailand and many countries throughout Asia as a culinary seasoning and a traditional medicine. However, adverse effect of high dose consumption in long duration has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic toxicity of EF in mice. Thirty-two ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups of 8 mice each. The mice were fed AIN-76 rodent diet, or AIN-76 rodent diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% that is equivalent to approximately 35, 73 and 155 times that of human consumption, respectively, at 97.5 percentile for a period of 24 weeks. At the end of experiment, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical evaluations. Necropsy was performed while visceral organs such as lung, liver, kidneys, spleen etc. were collected, weighed and histopathologically examined. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) results of mice in 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet groups were significantly higher than the BUN of control group. No significant difference was noted in other biochemical and hematological properties between the treatment groups and control; all results were within normal range. Histopathology of almost all visceral organs showed no significant changes. However, tubulonephrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis were observed in the groups treated with 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet. Body weight was reduced significantly at week 12 to week 20 when compared to the control group while relative kidney weights were significantly increased. In conclusion, the consumption of EF in diet at high doses illustrated the adverse effect on some biochemical parameters and histopathology in mice. Our findings suggested that EF daily consumption for 24 weeks, at higher doses than the 0.8% EF diet (35 times of human consumption), might cause adverse effect on kidney function in mice.

  4. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.

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    Tarandeep Kaur

    Full Text Available Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70-90%. Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3 whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(- scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Carica papaya Linn. seed essential oil against Candida spp.

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    He, X; Ma, Y; Yi, G; Wu, J; Zhou, L; Guo, H

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the incidence of clinical yeast infections has increased dramatically. Due to the extensive use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, there has been a notable increase in drug resistance among infections yeast species. As one of the most popular natural antimicrobial agents, essential oils (EOs) have attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition and examine the antifungal activity of the EO extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn. The papaya seed EO was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (99·36%). The filter paper disc diffusion method and broth dilution method were employed. The EO showed inhibitory effect against all the tested Candida strains including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropical with inhibition zone diameters in the range of 14·2-33·2 mm, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4·0-16·0 μg ml -1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) in the range of 16·0-64·0 μg ml -1 . Here, we found that the papaya seed EO has promising anticandida activity and identify C. papaya L. as a potential natural source of antifungal agents. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Carica papaya seeds were studied. The oil of papaya seeds could inhibit the growth of Candida spp. for the first report. Carica Papaya may be recognized as a possible new source of natural antifungal agents. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis Linn. against human pathogens

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    oorthy kannaiyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis Linn. against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: The Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (MTCC 96, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis (MTCC 435, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis (MTCC 121, Escherichia coli (E. coli (MTCC 443, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (MTCC 432, Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis (MTCC 1429, Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A (MTCC 735, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium (MTCC 98, Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri (MTCC 1457 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424, Candida albicans (C. albicans (MTCC 183 and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans (clinical isolate were originally obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods against pathogens by using crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Results: Ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (33.20 mm, C. albicans (30.40 mm and C. neoformans (18.20 mm mean values were documented. Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against C. neoformans (19.8 mm and S. epidermidis (17.80 mm were observed. Based on broth dilution method, the ethanolic extract of crude plant material showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. epidermidis, C. neoformans (256 毺 g/mL and C. albicans (512 毺 g/mL, whereas the aqueous extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (512 毺 g/mL and C. neoformans (1024 毺 g/mL were observed. Conclusions: The present result revealed that ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. possesses significant antifungal activity when compared as the antibacterial activities.

  8. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics

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    Kumari Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of the efforts for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by green chemistry route, here we report a facile bottom-up ‘green’ route for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of Urtica dioica (Linn.. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta-sizer and Zeta-potential, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that AgNPs were in the size range of 20–30 nm and crystallized in face-centered-cubic structure. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial pathogens was demonstrated by synthesized nanoparticles. Further, synergistic effects of AgNPs with various antibiotics were evaluated against above mentioned bacterial pathogens. The results showed that AgNPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with AgNPs alone and hence can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. The maximum effect, with a 17.8 fold increase in inhibition zone, was observed for amoxicillin with AgNPs against S. marcescens proving the synergistic role of AgNPs. Therefore, it may be used to augment the activities of antibiotics.

  9. Experimental and Clinical Evaluation of Nootropic Activity of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi

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    B N Dhawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi is an annual creeper belonging to familyScrophulariaceae and growing all over the Indian sub-continent in marshy areas. It is a major Medhya Rasayana used in Ayurveda for treatment of memory disorders. Large number of saponins and glycosides has been isolated from the plant. Most of the experimental and clinical studies have been done with crude extracts or standardized preparation of the two active saponins Bacosides A and B.Extracts or saponin mixture facilitate learning, improve consolidation of learned behavior and delay extinction in several models of learnt behavior in normal rats and mice as well as in chemically induced or transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease. They also prevent or reverse amnesia produced by drugs, stress or ischemic hypoxia. Other CNS effects include anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant and analgesic activity. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the mechanism of these CNS effects.Extracts as well as the bacoside preparation have been found safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers in single dose or chronic administration for several weeks in a number of double blind placebo controlled studies in India and abroad. Chronic administration significantly improved information processing, learning and memory consolidation. It was found more effective than caffeine in a comparative study.Double blind placebo controlled studies with bacoside preparation have demonstrated beneficial effects and safety in elderly patients with Age Related Memory Impairment and in children with Attention Deficit Memory Disorder. It has also been found useful in anxiety neurosis, epilepsy and sleep disturbances in post menopausal women.The standardized preparation is marketed as a prescription drug after having obtained the necessary regulatory approval in India, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa and as an OTC product in several other south east Asian and African countries.Bacopa monniera Linn

  10. Evaluation of analgesic and antipyretic activities of Mahanimba (Melia azedarach Linn.) leaf and root powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekariya, Shweta; Nishteswar, K; Patel, Bhupesh R; Nariya, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Mahanimba (Melia azedarach Linn.) is a deciduous tree of family Meliaceae and its root is mainly used in painful condition such as Gridhrasi (sciatica) in Ayurveda. Ethnomedicinal claims indicate that its leaves are used to treat fever, but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential analgesic and antipyretic activities of M. azedarach L. leaf powder (MLP) and M. azedarach L. root powder (MRP). The root and leaves of M. azedarach were made into powder using guidelines mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The analgesic activity of the test drugs was evaluated against acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and radiant heat-induced pain in albino rats, and antipyretic activity was evaluated against Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia using Charles Foster rats. In acetic acid induced writhing in mice, the test drugs MRP (1.3mg/kg) exhibit insignificant reduction in writhing reflex while MLP (1.3mg/kg) did not show any significant effect in comparison to the control group. MRP showed mild-to-moderate insignificant increase in latency of withdrawal response at 60 (26.74%) and 120 min (27.25%), while MLP did not show central analgesic effect in radiant heat model in rats. MRP showed a significant reduction in rectal temperature after 3 and 6 h, while MLP-treated group showed significant reduction after 6 h. MRP has mild-to-moderate peripheral and central analgesic effects, while MLP has not shown significant analgesic effects in both the experimental models. MRP has more pronounced antipyretic effect compared to MLP.

  11. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Fractions of Leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.

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    Bhanwase, Anil Subhash; Alagawadi, Kallanagouda Ramappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ficus benghalensis is a folk medicine indigenous plant of India. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological profile of the plant. Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of F. benghalensis leaf extract using various in vitro screening methods of both parameters. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and it's four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) of leaves of F. benghalensis investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using 1-1-diphneyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. A dose-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined to assess antioxidant activity. Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and candidacidal assay were carried out to assess the immunomodulatory activity. Positive non-lymphoid cell number, mean particle number of killed C. albicans, percent value of killed C. albicans by neutrophils were calculated and presented. Results: All extracts showed antioxidant and prominent immunomodulatory activity with compared to standard. Conclusions: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and its four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) showed promising antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. SUMMARY Hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions of F. benghalensis Linn exhibited different DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner.The extract, fractions and reference antioxidants showed DPPH scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB2 > FB1 > FB5 > FB4> FB3 and ABTS scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB1> FB2 > FB5 > FB3> FB4.FB2 and FB3 showed promising immunomodulatory activity at all concentrations. PMID:26941536

  12. Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Analucia G.; Monteiro, Andrea de Souza; Moffa, Eduardo B.; dos Santos, Julliana R. A.; de Sousa, Eduardo M.; Pinto, Anna R. B.; Costa, Paola C. da Silva; Borges, Antonio C. R.; Torres, Luce M. B.; Barros Filho, Allan K. D.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Monteiro, Cristina de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn bark is used to treat dysentery by various populations in Southeast Asian countries, and its leaves have also been used in traditional medicine to treat hepatitis in India and the Philippines. Here, the antifungal actions of crude hydro-alcoholic extract (TcHE) and fractions from T. catappa leaves were assessed via the agar diffusion and microdilution tests on Candida reference strains and clinical isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Additionally, the potential cytotoxic effects of TcHE were assessed on cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). T. catappa fractions and sub-fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact (GC/MS/EI), high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry “electrospray” ionization in positive mode (HPLC/MS/MS/ESI+) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR). TcHE and its fractions were able to inhibit the growth of all tested Candida strains with the n-butanol (FBuOH) fraction presenting the best antifungal activity. Testing of different FBuOH sub-fractions (SF) showed that SF10 was the most active against Candida spp. Fractioning of SF10 demonstrated that 5 out of its 15 sub-fractions were active against Candida spp., with SF10.5 presenting the highest activity. Chemical analysis of SF10 detected hydrolysable tannins (punicalin, punicalagin), gallic acid and flavonoid C-glycosides. Overall, the results showed that T. catappa L. leaf extract, fractions and sub-fractions were antifungal against Candida spp. and may be useful to treat diseases caused by this fungus. PMID:28443078

  13. Chenopodium album Linn. leaves prevent ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats.

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    Sikarwar, Indu; Dey, Yadu Nandan; Wanjari, Manish M; Sharma, Ajay; Gaidhani, Sudesh N; Jadhav, Ankush D

    2017-01-04

    The leaves of Chenopodium album Linn. are traditionally used for correction of kidney diseases and urinary stones. The present work investigated the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Chenopodium album on experimentally-induced urolithiasis in rats to substantiate its traditional use as antilithiatic agent. The leaf extract was standardized by HPLC. Urolithiasis was induced in rats by administration of 0.75% v/v of ethylene glycol (EG) in distilled water and in addition, vehicle or methanol (CAME) or aqueous (CAAE) extract of the leaves of Chenopodium album each in the dose 100, 200 and 400mg/kg or Cystone (750mg/kg) were administered daily orally for 28 days. Urolithiasis was assessed by estimating the calcium, phosphorus, urea, uric acid, and creatinine in both urine and plasma. The volume, pH and oxalate levels were also estimated in urine. The renal oxalate content was estimated in kidney while calcium oxalate deposits were observed histologically. The treatment with CAME or CAAE for 28 days significantly attenuated the EG-induced elevations in the urine and plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, urea, uric acid and creatinine along with decrease in urine volume, pH and oxalates. The treatments also decreased renal tissue oxalate and deposition of oxalate crystals in kidney due to EG treatment. The effects of CAME and CAAE were comparable to standard antilithiatic agent, cystone. The findings indicate the preventive effect of CAME and CAAE which can be due to inhibitory effect on crystallization and stone dissolution. The effect was attributed to the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids and saponins. In conclusion, Chenopodium album leaves exhibited antilithiatic effect and validates its ethnomedicinal use in urinary disorders and kidney stones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Bauhinia variegata Linn. against human pathogens

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    Sonam Pandey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of hydromethanolic extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. (B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower to justify the traditional claim endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana in Ayurveda. This study thus can be further utilized to formulate the natural antioxidant which can be used as a dietary supplement to fight against several diseases such as cancer, ageing, arthrosclerosis, etc. Methods: The study showed that the number of different phytoconstituents present in the plant which makes it remarkable for its use by traditional practitioners. On the another set of experiment, the hydromethanolic extract of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower were evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative by using disk diffusion assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of all extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponin, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and organic acids. The antibacterial activity of all the extracts (leaf, stem bark and flower of B. variegata was determined by agar well diffusion method at four different concentrations i.e., 1 000 mg/mL, 750 mg/mL, 500 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL using Gram-positive Bacillus subtilius, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Shegilla flexineria, Pseudomonas auriginosa bacteria. Conclusions: These studies show that hydromethanolic extracts of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower inhibited the growth of microorganism ’s in dose dependently. B. variegata leaf, stem bark and flower extracts have several phytochemical constituents who possess the antimicrobial activity. A tiny amount of data is presented, as the preliminary antimicrobial properties of the B. variegata here accessed, under the urgent necessity of new antibiotics in the market and in face of the increased resistance of infectious microorganisms to antimicrobials.

  15. The response of marigold (Tagetes erecta Linn.) to ozone: impacts on plant growth and leaf physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Wang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Feixiang; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    Progressively increasing ozone (O3) concentrations pose a potential threat to the value of marigold (Tagetes erecta Linn.), a plant widely used in urban landscaping. The response of marigold to elevated O3 has been reported earlier, but the mechanisms underlying the O3 effect have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we exposed marigold "Moonsong Deep Orange" plants to elevated O3, including ambient non-filtered air (NF) plus 60 ppb (NF+60) and 120 ppb (NF+120) O3, to assess visible injury and the possible physiological consequences of this pollutant. Yellow lesions appeared after 4 days under NF+120 treatment and 12 days under NF+60 treatment, with 85.6% and 36.8% of the leaves being injured at harvest time, respectively. Compared with NF, NF+60 inhibited leaf photosynthesis, stem-diameter growth, and biomass production significantly, while the parameters were decreased more by NF+120. Although the stomatal conductance decreased under elevated O3 exposure, the O3 flux into leaves increased by 28.0-104.8% under NF+60 treatment and 57.5-145.6% under NF+120 treatment. The total ascorbic acid (ASA) content increased due to elevated O3 exposure, while the reduced ASA content did not, resulting in a decreased ratio of reduced to total ASA. A lower level of jasmonic acid (JA) was observed under elevated O3 exposure. In conclusion, the impacts of elevated O3 on marigold plants may be ascribed to increased O3 flux into leaves and reduced protective capacity of leaves to convert oxidized to reduced ASA and synthesize endogenous JA.

  16. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

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    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases.

  17. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  18. Purified Essential Oil from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Triggers the Apoptotic Mechanism in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaharan, Thamilvaani; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Kanthimathi, M S; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Madhusudhanan Gogul

    2016-05-01

    Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Linn. exhibited various pharmacological activities including antifungal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we analyzed the anticancer and apoptosis mechanisms of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO). To trigger the apoptosis mechanism in human breast cancer cells using OSEO. OSEO was extracted using hydrodistillation of the leaves. Cell proliferation was determined using different concentrations of OSEO. Apoptosis studies were carried out in human breast cancer cells using propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst staining. We found that OSEO inhibited proliferation (IC50 = 170 μg/ml) of Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner. The OSEO also induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increasing number of PI-stained apoptotic nucleic of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that treatment with OSEO (50-500 μg/ml) increased the apoptotic cells population (16-84%) dose dependently compared to the control. OSEO has the ability to up-regulate the apoptotic genes p53 and Bid and as well as elevates the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Our findings indicate that OSEO has the ability as proapoptotic inducer and it could be developed as an anticancer agent. OSEO inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 170 μg/mLOSEO at 500 μg/mL increased the population of apoptotic cells by 84%OSEO up-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and as well increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Abbreviations used: BAX: BAX BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2: B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; BID: BH3 Interacting domain death agonist; OSEO: Ocimum sanctum essential oil; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; MCF-7: Michigan cancer foundation-7; Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  19. Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the coastal rhizosphere of Artemisia Linn., China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Wei; Feng, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Ju, Xiu-Yun; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Ji-Hong; Lv, Ai-Jun; Qin, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KLBMP S0043(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Artemisia Linn. collected from the coastal region of Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, in east China and was studied in detail for its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is a member of the genus Nocardia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is closely related to Nocardia asteroides NBRC 15531(T) (97.61 %) and Nocardia neocaledoniensis SBHR OA6(T) (97.38 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Nocardia was found to be less than 97.2 %. The organism has chemical and morphological features consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardia such as meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan and arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic sugars. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-8(H4ω-cycl). Mycolic acids were detected. The diagnostic phospholipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C18:0, C18:1ω9c, 10-methyl C18:0 [tuberculostearic acid (TBSA)] and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 71.4 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strain from its most closely related strains. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain KLBMP S0043(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP S0043(T) (=CGMCC 4.7204 (T) = KCTC 29678(T)).

  20. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn; Ruksee, Nootchanart; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Pakdeenarong, Noppakun; Kongbuntad, Watee; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2011-10-01

    The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated

  1. Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

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    Donna Adriani Kusumadewi Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension and myocardial infarction account for the high rate of mortality globally. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS Linn. is rich in antioxidants and previous studies have demonstrated its anti-hypertensive effects. Several studies show that regular physical activity is an important component to reduce cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic exercise and HS extract on nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 in rats.   Methods An experimental study was conducted on 36 male Wistar rats, aged 4 weeks and 60-70 g in weight. The interventions were aerobic exercises and HS at 400 mg/kg BW/day administered for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The rats were randomized into 12 groups: 3 control groups (C4, C8, C12, 3 aerobic exercise groups (A4, A8, A12, 3 HS groups (H4, H8, H12, and 3 combination groups [aerobic exercise and HS] (HA4, HA8, HA12. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and their abdominal aorta was collected for determination of nitric oxide and ET-1 concentrations. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data.   Results There was a significant difference in NO levels between all groups, with the 4-week aerobic exercise group (A4 showing the highest NO levels compared to the other eleven groups (p<0.05. In contrast, the ET-1 levels were not significantly different between all groups.   Conclusions This study demonstrated that the combination of HS supplementation and aerobic exercise increases NO in rats, and provided further evidence to the traditional use of the plant as an antioxidants agent.

  2. Cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of the Origanum majorana Linn. oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Ferraz, Vanny; Picoli, Tony; Cleff, Marlete Brum; de Faria, Renata Osório; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2μg/mL and 8μg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2μg/mL and >16μg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1μg/mL and MFC of 8μg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25mg/mL and 4.5mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of the Origanum majorana Linn. oil

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram, its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17 from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1 were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3 and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC. The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2 µg/mL and >16 µg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1 µg/mL and MFC of 8 µg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9 mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18 mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25 mg/mL and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5 mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.

  4. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

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    L. D. A. M. Arawwawala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and cold ethanolic extract (CEE of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b acidity (total and free, (c volume and (d pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96 and significant (P ≤ 0.05 protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05 than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05 increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.

  5. Identity of Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis Minima Linn. in Ayurvedic Classics: A Literature Review

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    Supriya S Kallianpur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper identification of drugs and their use in proper doses are important for successful treatment. Physalis minima Linn commonly known as country gooseberry has anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory potentials. The present paper is aimed to ascertain the proper identity of Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn. in Ayurvedic classics by a meticulous search and hence a review of the drug Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn was carried out in the texts of Ayurveda, modern literature, journals and online publications. The result of the search showed that the name “Ṭaṅkārī” is not found in Vedic lore. In Saṃhitās, it is mentioned in Bhāvaprakāśa. Reference of the drug “Śārṅgeṣṭhā” is found in Bṛhattrayī, Bhela, Kāśyapa, Cakradatta and Vaṅgasena. It is variously named as Cirapoṭikā, Kākatikta, and Vāyasī by ḍalhaṇa and he describes it as gaura (pale, vartula (round, and as having avaguṇṭhita/veṣṭhita (covered fruit which matches the description of Ṭaṅkārī (P. minima Linn. A search for terms Kākatikta and Vāyasī showed Kākatikta to be synonymous to Śārṅgeṣṭhā and Vāyasī to be synonymous to both Kākatikta and Kākamācī (Solanum nigrum. Madanapāla and Śāligrāma Nighaṇṭus have mentioned the name Cirapoṭikā to be synonymous with Ṭaṅkārī. Śodhala has used the term Parpoṭī as a synonym of Ṭaṅkārī, which is the Gujarati name of P. minima Linn. Recent authors have considered Śārṅgeṣṭhā as either P. minima or Cardiospermum helicabum. The regional names of P. minima are Cirpoṭi (Hindi, Cirboli (Marathi, also the folklore uses and pharmacological activities of P. minima are in accordance with the indications of Śārṅgeṣṭhā in classics. Thus with a complete review of both Ayurveda and modern literatures, it can be concluded that the drug mentioned as Ṭaṅkārī in Bhāvaprakāśa is the same as

  6. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

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    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raçadefinida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (AST. Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de VigilânciaSanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainlytannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form.However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  7. Comparative anti-inflammatory properties of Capsaicin and ethyl-aAcetate extract of Capsicum frutescens linn [Solanaceae] in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolayemi, A T; Ojewole, J A O

    2013-06-01

    The analgesic effect of capsaicin (the active ingredient in Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae]) had been reported in several studies. Current research is being directed at producing analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents with better side effect profile. To investigate if either the ethyl acetate extract of Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae] (CFE) or capsaicin (Fluka Biotechnika-CPF) (in addition to the known analgesic properties) has any anti-inflammatory effect comparable to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDS). The effects of ethyl acetate extract of Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae] (CFE) and capsaicin (Fluka Biotechnika-CPF) was examined on rat hind paw. Inflammation was induced in the rat's hind paw by subplantar injections of fresh egg albumin (0.5 ml/kg). Diclofenac (100 mg/kg) was used as the reference anti-inflammatory agent for comparison, while distilled water was used as the placebo. The leucocytes count, corticosterone and C - reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured as biomarkers of inflammation. Data obtained were pooled and analysed using repeated ANOVA, in a general linear model with the CPSS software. Sub-plantar injections of fresh egg albumin (0.5 ml/kg) produced profound and time-related oedema in the rat hind paw of the 'control' rats. Diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) and reference capsaicin (CPF, 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited paw swelling at (p<0.05-0.001) (CI 95%) compared to distilled water-treated 'controls'. While the corticosterone levels were all very low in 7 rats treated with capsaicin, the leucocytes count was within normal range in 9 rats. However, in 16 specimens randomly assigned for CRP levels, there were very high CRP readings, up to a magnitude of 10 times the normal range. Capsaicin in both forms (CFE and CPF) produced anti-inflammatory effects that were comparable to diclofenac in the experimental rat model at p<0.05. It may be concluded that capsaicin has both analgesic and anti

  8. The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Asaduzzaman, Md; Morshed, Helal; Hossain, Md Monir; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Rahman, Md Rezowanur

    2013-07-30

    Experimental evidences have demonstrated that Nigella sativa Linn. seed (NS) has positive modulation effects on aged rats with memory impairments, prevents against hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and enhances consolidation of recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in rats. NS has neuroprotective, nephroprotective, lung protective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities as established by previous studies on animals. Several clinical trials with NS on human have also demonstrated beneficial effect. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NS on memory, attention and cognition in healthy elderly volunteers. Furthermore, safety profile of NS was assessed during the nine-week study period. Forty elderly volunteers were recruited and divided randomly into group A and group B--each consisting of 20 volunteers. The treatment procedure for group A was 500 mg NS capsule twice daily for nine weeks and Group B received placebo instead of NS in the similar manner. All the volunteers were assessed for neuropsychological state and safety profile twice before treatment and after nine weeks. The neuropsychological tests were logical memory test, digit span test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, letter cancellation test, trail making test and stroop test. Safety profile was assessed by measuring biochemical markers of Cardiac (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase-MB); Liver (aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, bilirubin) and Kidney (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) through using commercial kits. There was significant difference (pmemory test-I and II, total score of digit span, 30 min delayed-recall, percent score in Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, time taken to complete letter cancellation test, time taken in trail making test-A and test

  9. Atividade antioxidante da polpa, casca e sementes do noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn

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    Adriana Barbosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Na busca pela identificação de novas fontes de antioxidantes naturais e de esclarecer lacunas acerca das reais propriedades benéficas atribuídas ao Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn, este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a caracterização química e avaliar a atividade antioxidante da polpa, casca e sementes do noni. Foram determinadas a composição centesimal (umidade, cinzas, proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios; os compostos bioativos (fenólicos totais, carotenoides totais e vitamina C e a atividade in vitro em extratos aquoso, etanólico e acetônico. Os resultados demonstraram que o Noni possui quantidades significativas de carboidratos (27,21%; 9,70% e 8,37% e de proteínas (2,64%; 2,23%; e 2,24% nas sementes, casca e polpa, respectivamente. A polpa apresentou maior teor de vitamina C (23,1 mg/100g e de carotenoides totais (3,90 mg/100g. No extrato acetônico da polpa, foram quantificados 109,81 mg/100g de fenólicos totais, seguidos pelos extratos acetônicos da casca (76,01 mg/100g, das sementes (28,75 mg/100g e do extrato etanólico da polpa (20,33 mg/100g. Todos os extratos avaliados apresentaram atividade antioxidante in vitro; os extratos acetônico e etanólico da casca e das sementes do Noni apresentaram maior atividade pelo método β-caroteno/ ácido linoleico, enquanto o extrato etanólico da polpa teve maior atividade antioxidante pelo ensaio DPPH e ABTS, e o extrato acetônico da polpa, pelo método ABTS. O noni é um fruto com significativo teor de compostos fenólicos totais que apresentam atividade antioxidante in vitro.

  10. Anxiolytic activity of aerial part hydroethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum Linn. (Liliaceae in mice

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    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allium ascalonicum Linn. (Liliaceae is a mildly aromatic annual herb used to flavor food. Ethnobotanical survey revealed application of A. ascalonicum in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS disorders. Objective: To investigate the anxiolytic activity of aerial part hydroethanolic extract of A. ascalonicum. Methods: The hole-board, elevated plus maze, light/dark exploration, open field and social interaction tests were used in this study. Groups of mice were treated orally with distilled water (10 ml/kg, diazepam (1 mg/kg, and A. ascalonicum (50-400 mg/kg. Evaluations were done 1 h post-treatment and the duration of observation was mostly 5 min. In the hole-board test, mice were observed for number/duration of head dips and number of sectional crossings. In the elevated plus maze test, the time spent in the open/closed arms and the number of entries by mice were observed. In the light/dark exploration test, the latency of entry into the dark box, time spent in the light and dark compartments, number of rearing and assisted rearing were determined. In respect of the open field test, observations were made for the number of rearing, assisted rearing, and sectional crossings. In the social interaction test, pairs of mice were observed for number of interactions including sniffing, following, and partner grooming. Results: In the hole-board test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05, 0.01 increased the number/duration of head dips and number of sectional crossings. In the elevated plus maze test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05 increased the number of entries into the open arm with Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(11:448-459 Page 449 of 459corresponding reduction in number of entries into the closed arm. In the light/dark exploration test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05, 0.01 increased the latency of entry into the dark box, time spent in the light box, and number of rearing and assisted rearing. In

  11. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities of iridoids fraction from Barleria prionitis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghule, B V; Yeole, P G

    2012-05-07

    Barleria prionitis Linn. (Family: Acanthaceae), one of the important Ayurvedic medicinal plant in India, has long been used to treat variety of ailments including swellings, gout, arthritic and rheumatic disorders, nervine and skin diseases, and also acts as immunorestorative. The present study was aimed to explore in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities of the iridoids fraction i.e. n-butanol fraction of methanol extract from Barleria prionitis aerial parts (IFBp). IFBp was studied for in vitro [nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test and neutrophils candidacidal assay] and in vivo immunomodulatory activity on cellular and humoral immune responses to the antigenic challenge by sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and by neutrophil adhesion test, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. The study comprised the preliminary phytochemical screening, HPTLC standardization and maximum tolerable dose determination of IFBp. IFBp (50, 100 and 200μg/ml) significantly (P≤0.01) increased the intracellular killing activity of stimulated neutrophils assayed by in vitro NBT reduction test and neutrophils candidacidal assay. Pretreatment of IFBp (100 and 200mg/kg; p.o.) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophils and neutrophils adhesion to nylon fibres. Oral administration of IFBp augmented the humoral immune response to SRBCs, evidenced by increase in antibody titres and dose dependently potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by SRBCs in mice. IFBp potentiated significantly (P≤0.01) the macrophage phagocytic activity and ameliorated the red blood cells, total white blood cells and platelets count and haemoglobin concentration, and also restored the myelosuppressive effects induced by cyclophosphamide. The content (% w/w; mean±SD, n=3) of main iridoids i.e. shanzhiside methyl ester and barlerin was found to be 21.55±2.40 and 10.03±1.69 in IFBp of BP, respectively. The present investigation reveals that IFBp is a

  12. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Chaudhary Mueen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn., whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM. When tested on K+ (80 mM-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM, caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml. The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to

  13. Observation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Trianthema decandra Linn. (Vallai sharunnai roots on carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

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    G. Balamurugan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Trianthema decandra Linn. (200 and 400 mg/kg in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride for 8 weeks. Extract at the tested doses restored the levels of all serum (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein and liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly. Histology demonstrated profound steatosis degeneration and nodule formation were observed in the hepatic architecture of carbon tetrachloride treated rats which were found to acquire near-normalcy in extract plus carbon tetrachloride administrated rats, and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that ethanol extract of T. decandra has a liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatotoxicity and possess antioxidant activities.

  14. Observation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Trianthema decandra Linn. (Vallai sharunnai roots on carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

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    G. Balamurugan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Trianthema decandra Linn. (200 and 400 mg/kg in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride for 8 weeks. Extract at the tested doses restored the levels of all serum (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein and liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly. Histology demonstrated profound steatosis degeneration and nodule formation were observed in the hepatic architecture of carbon tetrachloride treated rats which were found to acquire near-normalcy in extract plus carbon tetrachloride administrated rats, and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that ethanol extract of T. decandra has a liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatotoxicity and possess antioxidant activities.

  15. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (Pmuricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  16. Aromatic Plants growing in Nigeria: Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb. and Helianthus annuus L.

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    Yusuff O. Kamil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents identified from the leaves of two Nigerian plants are being reported. The oil samples were obtained from the studied plant species by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and then subsequently analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The quantitatively significant constituents of the leaf oil of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb., (Fabaceae were 1, 8-cineole (39.8%, β-caryophyllene (19.1% and caryophyllene oxide (12.7%. Limonene (5.2%, germacrene D (5.5% and α-selinene (5.4% constituted the other significant compounds present in the oil. T he sunflower oil, Helianthus annuus L., (Asteraceae was rich in α-pinene (16.0%, germacrene D (14.4%, sabinene (9.4% and 14-hydroxy-α-muurolene (9.0%.

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn Terhadap Kadar Malondialdehid dan Aktivitas Katalase Tikus yang Terpapar Karbon Tetraklorida

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    Zuraida ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pemberian rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn diharapkan melindung hepar tikus dari kerusakkan akibat stres oksidatif pada keracunan karbon tetraklorida (CCl 4. Senyawa yang sering dijadikan petunjuk adanya kerusakan tersebut adalah malondialdehid (MDA. Rosella mengandung vitamin C, flavonoid, polifenol dan beta karoten. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh pemberian ekstrak rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn terhadap MDA dan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan desain Post test Only Control Group Design. Sampel 24 ekor tikus Strain Wistar berumur 2-3 bulan, berat 150-200 gr. Sampel diambil secara acakdan dibagi 4 kelompok terdiri dari kelompok kontrol negatif, kontrol positif (CCl 4, perlakuan 1 (CCl 4 dan ekstrak rosella 250 mg/kg bb dan perlakuan 2 (CCl4  dan ekstrak rosella 500 mg/kg bb. Pemberian CCl 4secara oral dosis tunggal, setelah 24 jam kemudian diberi ekstrak rosella secara oral selama 14 hari. Data dianalisis dengan uji Anova, tingkatkepercayaan 95%.Pemberian ekstrak rosella secara statistik didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan rerata kadar MDA dan katalase antar kelompok (p < 0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak rosella dapat menurunkan kadar MDA dan meningkatkan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Kata kunci: karbon tetraklorida, MDA, katalase, rosella Abstract Administering roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn is expected to protect rat liver from damage caused by oxidative stress in CCl4 poisoning. Rosella contains vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenol and beta carotene. Compounds which was often used as marker of the damage caused by free radicals wa MDA. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn on MDA and catalase activity of rats exposed to CCl4. Experimental research design with Post test Only Control Group Design. Samples of 24 male Wistar Strain rats were 2-3 months old. weighing 150-200 gr

  18. Recuperative effect of Semecarpus anacardium linn. nut milk extract on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in experimental mammary carcinoma-bearing rats.

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    Sujatha, Venugopal; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2002-03-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. of the family Anacardiaceae has many applications in the Ayurvedic and Siddha systems of medicine. We have tested the antitumour activity of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against experimental mammary carcinoma in animals. As there is a direct relationship between the proliferation of tumour cells and the activities of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes, we studied changes in the activities of enzymes involved in this metabolic pathway in the liver and kidney. The enzymes investigated were glycolytic enzymes, namely hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, aldolase and the gluconeogenic enzymes, namely glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase in experimental rats. A significant rise in glycolytic enzyme activities and a simultaneous fall in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were found in mammary carcinoma bearing rats. Drug administration returned these enzyme activities to their respective control activities. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Stabilization of lysosomal membrane and cell membrane glycoprotein profile by Semecarpus anacardium linn. nut milk extract in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-08-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day for 14 days exerted an in vivo stabilizing effect on lysosomal membrane and glycoprotein content in rat hepatocellular carcinoma. This was demonstrated in normal rats and in animals whose biomembranes were rendered fragile by induction of hepatocellular carcinoma with aflatoxin B(1) and subsequent treatment with Semecarpus anacardium nut extract. In this condition, the discharge of lysosomal enzymes increased significantly with a subsequent increase in glycoprotein components. The nut extract administration reversed these adverse changes to near normal in treated animals. The possible reason for this reversal is discussed. Such stabilization of biomembranes by Semecarpus anacardium nut extract may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and other cancers involving abnormal fragility of lysosomes and glycoprotein content providing the extract demonstrates safety in a full toxicity study. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Comparative DFT Study of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. and Cucumis sativus Linn.

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    Subarayan Bothi Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective active phytochemical constituents from the ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. and Cucumis sativus Linn. were identified by GC-MS analysis. The density functional theory (DFT of these molecules was calculated by density functional B3LYP methods using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p basis set. The optimized geometries of phytochemical constituents were evaluated. Physicochemical properties such as HOMO, LUMO, ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, electrochemical potential, hardness, softness, electrophilicity, total energy, and dipole moment have also been recorded. These are very important parameters to understand the chemical reactivity and biological activity of the phytochemical constituents. Glycodeoxycholic acid and 2-(2-methylcyclohexylidene-hydrazinecarboxamide were found to be effective drugs selected on the basis of their HOMO and LUMO energy gap and softness. The effective properties of these compounds may be due to the presence of amino, carbonyl, and alcohol as a functional group.

  1. Lantana camara Linn root extract-mediated gold nanoparticles and their in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Raja, Ramalingam Karthik; Raja, Manickam; Govindan, Raji; Girija, Easwaradas Kreedapathy; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2017-06-01

    The Lantana camara Linn root extract derived gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform-infrared, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction pattern and energy dispersive X-ray analyses. In DPPH assay, the inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Au NPs and gallic acid was 24.17 and 5.39 μg/ml, whereas, for cytotoxicity assay, the IC50 of Au NPs was 17.72 and 32.98 μg/ml on MBA-MB-231 and Vero cells, respectively. Thus, the Au NPs possess significant in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic properties which could be considered as potential alternate for the development of anticancer drug in future.

  2. Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

    2015-03-01

    A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  3. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-07

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method.

  4. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

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    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  5. Antithrombocytopenic activity of carpaine and alkaloidal extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats.

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    Zunjar, Vishwanath; Dash, Ranjeet Prasad; Jivrajani, Mehul; Trivedi, Bhavna; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2016-04-02

    The decoction of Carica papaya Linn. leaves is used in folklore medicine in certain parts of Malaysia and Indonesia for the treatment of different types of thrombocytopenia associated with diseases and drugs. There are several scientific studies carried out on humans and animal models to confirm the efficacy of decoction of papaya leave for the treatment of disease induced and drug induced thrombocytopenia, however very little is known about the bio-active compounds responsible for the observed activity. The aim of present study was to identify the active phytochemical component of Carica papaya Linn. leaves decoction responsible for anti-thrombocytopenic activity in busulfan-induced thrombocytopenic rats. Antithrombocytopenic activity was assessed on busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats. The antithrombocytopenic activity of different bio-guided fractions was evaluated by monitoring blood platelet count. Bioactive compound carpaine was isolated and purified by chromatographic methods and confirmed by spectroscopic methods (LC-MS and 1D/2D-1H/13C NMR) and the structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Quantification of carpaine was carried out by LC-MS/MS equipped with XTerra(®) MS C18 column and ESI-MS detector using 90:10 CH3CN:CH3COONH4 (6mM) under isocratic conditions and detected with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Two different phytochemical groups were isolated from decoction of Carica papaya leaves: phenolics, and alkaloids. Out of these, only alkaloid fraction showed good biological activity. Carpaine was isolated from the alkaloid fraction and exhibited potent activity in sustaining platelet counts upto 555.50±85.17×10(9)/L with no acute toxicity. This study scientifically validates the popular usage of decoction of Carica papaya leaves and it also proves that alkaloids particularly carpaine present in the leaves to be responsible for the antithrombocytopenic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  6. Clinical effect of a mouthwash containing Anacardium occidentale Linn. on plaque and gingivitis control: A randomized controlled trial.

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    Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra; Cavalcante, Dhiogo Gonçalves; Filho, José Eduardo Girão; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; da Silva Pereira, Sérgio Luís

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-associated gingivitis is a prevalent disease and research in its treatment using herbal agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range or chemotherapeutic treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing 10% Anacardium occidentale (AO) Linn., a typical plant commonly found in the Northeast Region of Brazil, on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in comparison to a gold-standard chemotherapeutic agent. Thirty normosystemic adult volunteers of both genders, who had a minimum of twenty natural teeth, aging between 18 and 32 years, were enrolled in this crossover, controlled, examiner-blind clinical study. They were randomly allocated into three groups: 10% AO Linn. (n = 10); 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX, n = 10); or placebo (PB, n = 10). All volunteers were instructed to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice two times a day (12/12 h) and to rinse for 1 min with one of the mouthwashes (AO, CLX, or PB) 30 min after tooth brushing for 1 month. Plaque index (PLI) and gingival bleeding index (BLI) were recorded on days 0 and 30. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05) were performed to evaluate statistical differences among groups. There was a significant reduction (P gingivitis at day 30 just in CLX ([PLI = 0.47 ± 0.16; -30%]; [BLI = 0.15 ± 0.09; -55.8%]) and AO ([PLI = 0.49 ± 0.21; -31%]; [BLI = 0.13 ± 0.10; -56.6%]) groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (P > 0.05). Mouthwash containing 10% AO was effective as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that 0.12% CLX.

  7. Isolasi Kitin dari Cangkang Kepiting Laut (Portunus pelagicus Linn. serta Pemanfaatannya untuk Adsorpsi Fe dengan Pengompleks 1,10-fenantrolin

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    Dewi Murniati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Telah dilakukan isolasi kitin dari cangkang kepiting laut (Portunus pelagicus Linn. yang digunakan sebagai fasa padat dalam Adsorpsi kompleks tris(1,10-fenantrolinbesi(II. Optimasi berat kitin dan penentuan eluen yang sesuai telah dipelajari dalam penelitian ini dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan recovery kompleks yang optimum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa spektra Inframerah dari kitin hasil isolasi memberikan bilangan gelombang yang hampir sama dengan kitin standar. Penentuan kadar abu, kadar nitrogen dan kadar karbon serta derajat deasetilasi dari hasil analisis kitin hasil isolasi memberikan hasil yang memenuhi syarat kitin standar. Berat kitin optimum untuk adsorpsi kompleks [Fe(phen3]2+ 0,4 ppm adalah 0,2 g yang memberikan % recovery sekitar 55,56% dan eluen yang sesuai adalah campuran etanol : HCl (6 : 4, v/v. Kata Kunci: Isolasi kitin, Adsorpsi, Besi, 1,10-fenantrolin dan Eluen. Abstrack The isolated crab shell chitin from the sea crab (Portunus pelagicus Linn. for solid-phase extraction  [Fe(1,10-phenantroline3]2+complex based. The weight optimized of chitin and searched of eluent were compatible. The result showed that infrared spectra of the isolated chitin has similar characteristic absorption with that of the standard chitin. The measurement of ash contents, nitrogen contents, and carbon contents and de-acetylated degrees from analysis result of the isolated chitin up to the standard chitin. The weight optimized of chitin used for solid-phase extraction of 0.4 ppm trace(1.10-phenanthrolineiron(II complex are 0.2 g with % recovery 55,56% and the eluent compatible are the mixed ethanol: HCl (6:4, v/v.   Keywords: Chitin isolation, Adsorption, Iron, 1,10-phenantroline and Eluent.

  8. Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium

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    Siti Nurhadis Che Omar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8 was determined.

  9. Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shin-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chin; Owaga, Eddy E.; Tsai, I-Jong; Wang, Pei-Yuan; Tsai, Jeng-I; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Hsieh, Rong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by multiple factors including hepatic oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Obesity is among the risk factors for NAFLD alongside type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. ?- mangostin (?-MG) extracts from the pericarps of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) may regulate high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate...

  10. Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-04-01

    The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs.

  11. Anticancer potency of the milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nuts against aflatoxin B1 mediated hepatocellular carcinoma bearing Wistar rats with reference to tumour marker enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B; Muthulakshmi, V; Sachdanandam, P

    1999-05-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is an important consideration in the aetiology of human and animal hepatocellular carcinoma. The influence of the drug, Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract, on hepatocarcinogenicity of aflatoxin B1 was evaluated in adult albino male Wistar rats. Aflatoxin B1 was administered intraperitoneally to induce hepatocellular carcinoma. These cancer bearing animals were treated with Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract (200 mg/kg body weight/day) in sunflower oil orally for 14 days. The plasma and the liver tumour tissue were investigated biochemically for lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The elevation of plasma concentration of these enzymes were indicative of the persistent deteriorating effect of aflatoxin B1 in cancer bearing animals. Lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases levels were decreased in liver, whereas alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were increased in cancer conditions. These enzyme levels were reversed to near normal control values in drug treated animals. The analysis of marker enzyme activities clearly indicates the antitumour efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract on aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Wound healing effect of Euphorbia hirta linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Begum, Mst Marium; Rahman, Md Sohanur; Karim, Rubaba; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Mostofa, Ronia; Hossain, Amir; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-08-24

    Euphorbia hirta linn., is a species of Euphorbiaceae family. They are known as asthma plant, barokhervi. The plant E. hirta is famous for its medicinal importance among the tribal population. It is a common practice to use the whole to heal wounds. Several pharmacological properties including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antidibetic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant. The aim of present work was to evaluate the wound healing property in diabetic animals by oral and topical administration of ethanolic extract of E. hirta whole plant. The ethanolic extract of E. hirta was subjected to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using galic acid and quercetin, respectively as standard. A single injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) prepared in normal saline was administered to produce diabetes in rats, after overnight fasting. For analyzing the rate of contraction of wound, excision wounds sized 4.90cm2 and of 2 mm depth were used. Oral (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day; p.o.) and topical treatment with the extract (5% and 10% ointment 50 mg/kg/day) and standard (5% povidone iodine ointment 50 mg/kg/day) was started on the day of induction of wound and continued up to 16 days. The means of wound area measurement between groups at different time intervals were compared using ANOVA and Dunnet's test. The diabetic wound healing mechanism was studied by measuring the plasma level of glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in both control and treated groups. For the confirmation of activity, histopathology of the wounds tissues from excision wound model was performed. Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of various phytoconstituents (carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, tannins). In the ethanolic extract of E. hirta the total phenol content was 285

  13. Potensi Serbuk Daun Sirih (piper betle, Linn Sebagai Larvasida Nyamuk Aedes aegypti

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    Betriyon Betriyon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Larvacide was compound/essence used to kill  larvae stadium. Many people used Piper betle to traditional medicine. Piper betle plant L,.has contents bioactive compound as flavonoid compound, atsiri volatile, polifenol, tannin, alkaloid and saponin which have quality as larvacide. Based on the case above, this research aim to put the experiment Piper betle of the Aedes aegypti mosquito instars IV. This was pure experiment research using complete random design. This research was done at laboratory . Larva used was  Aedes aegypti mosquito instars IV. Concentration used of this research was : 0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4; 05 percent b/v. This research has control (+ was temephos 0,0001 persen, control (- was aquades water not added anything. Observation done every hour up to all the larva death with the replication 5 times. Larva death cumulative data on 10th hour and 24 th used to calculate LC50 and LT50 used probit regression analysis than data analyzed using Levene’s test. The result of this research showed that the cost of LC50 piper betle plant L. on 10th hour was 0,54 ± 0,147 persen b/v, than on 24 hour LC50 on concentration 0,07 up to 0,28 percent b/v. the time needed to cross out 50 percent Aedes aegypti instar IV of the concentration 0,05 percent time needed 19. Based on a probit analysis of the relationship between the level of concentration with the number of larvae mortality, Piper betle have activities as larvacide of Aedes aegypti. Keywods: piper betle leaf powder, larvacide, Aedes aegyti AbstrakLarvasida adalah senyawa/zat yang digunakan untuk membunuh stadium larva. Tanaman Piper betle, Linn. (sirih hijau sudah banyak dimanfaatkan oleh kalangan masyarakat sebagai obat tradisional. Daun sirih hijau memiliki kandungan senyawa bioaktif seperti senyawa flavonoid, minyak atsiri, polifenol, tannin, alkaloid dan saponin yang dapat bersifat sebagai larvasida. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui manfaat daun sirih hijau yaitu

  14. Wudani Leaf Extract (Quisqualis indica Linn as Traditional Medicine to Control the Incidence of Cattle Worm

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    Ida Bagus Komang Ardana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present research work was aimed to study whether application of 10% extract of wudani leaf (Quisqualis indica Linn may decrease the potential of becoming embryos of eggs of Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum sp. worms under in-vitro evaluation. Methods: It was used three doses of the extract; those were 0.5 ml/40 ml of physiological NaCl, 1.0 ml/40 ml NaCl and 2.0 ml/40 ml of NaCl and with 5 repetitions for each dose. Assessments of the ovicidal effect of extract that is reducing the potential of eggs to become embryo were conducted at day-10 and day-30 at the Parasitology Laboratory of The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, Bali. Results: Results showed that assessment at day-10, the ovicidal ability of the extract at 0.5 ml/40 ml NaCl for Fasciola gigantica eggs was 23.8% and was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than that of the dose of 1 ml/40 ml (33.1% and of the dose of 2 ml/40 ml (35.9%. However, it was significantly higher than that of  the control (10.4%. Moreover, the ovicidal ability of dose of 1 ml/40 ml and 2 ml/40 ml did not differ significantly (P > 0.05. At Day-30, the ovicidal ability of 1 ml/40 and 2 ml/40 ml was very high, that was 88.8% and 88.5%, respectively. Furthermore, for eggs of Paramphistomum sp., assessment at day-10 showed that the ovicidal ability of the dose of 2 ml/40 ml was the highest (23.3% and significantly higher (P < 0.05 than that of the dose of 1 ml/40 ml (21.6%, 0.5 ml/40 ml (11.6% and of the control (9.4%. On the other hand, there were no significant difference were noted between the dose of 1 ml/40 ml, 2 ml/ 40 ml and the control (P > 0.05. Likewise, at day-30 of assessment, the ovicidal ability of 1 ml/40 ml (51.9% and 2 ml/40 ml (53.4% was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than that of control. The high ovicidal ability of 10% extract of wudani leaf at the dose of 1 – 2 ml/40 ml NaCl may be related to damage of egg shells caused by active ingredient of the extract

  15. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  16. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  17. The safety of using the aqueous extract of Ranunculus multifidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marizvikuru

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Res. 72:129–134. Molento BM (2009). Parasite control in the age of drug resistance and changing agricultural practices. Vet. Parasitol. 163: 229-234. Murray JA, Slater DN, Parsons MA, Fox M, Smith S, Platts MM (1984). Splenic siderosis and parenteral iron dextran in maintenance haemodialysis patients.

  18. Modulating effect of the piperine, the main alkaloid from Piper nigrum Linn., on murine B lymphocyte function

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    Aline Rodrigues Bernardo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Bernardo A.R., da Rocha J.D.B., de Lima M.E.F., Decote-Ricardo D., Pinto-da-Silva L.H., Peçanha L.M.T. & Danelli M. dasG.M. Modulating effect of the piperine, the main alkaloid from Piper nigrum Linn., on murine B lymphocyte function. [Efeito modulador da piperina, principal alcalóide da Piper nigrum Linn., sobre a função de linfócitos B murinos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:209-216, 2015. Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: danelli @ufrrj.br Piperine is the main alkaloid of black and long peppers and it is conventionally used as immune-enhancers in Indian system of traditional medicine. The main of this study was evaluated for the first time the effect of piperine on B cells functions in vitro and its effects on humoral immune response to T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Different concentrations of piperine (1 µM, 3 µM and 15 µM were assayed on B cells purified from BALB/c spleen cells and evaluated its effects on proliferation, IgM secretion and expression of CD86 on murine B cells. At 15 µM piperine was able to inhibit the proliferative response induced by LPS and α-IgM antibody and inhibited the secretion IgM antibody in vitro. Also, piperine at 3 µM and 15 µM reduced the CD86 expression on B cells stimulated with LPS and α-IgM antibody in vitro. However, piperine 2.5 and 4.5 mg/Kg did not modulated antibody production for T-independet (TNP-Ficoll in vivo.

  19. Anti-cancer effect of Annona Muricata Linn Leaves Crude Extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Najmuddin, Syed Umar Faruq; Romli, Muhammad Firdaus; Hamid, Muhajir; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan

    2016-08-24

    Annona muricata Linn which comes from Annonaceae family possesses many therapeutic benefits as reported in previous studies and to no surprise, it has been used in many cultures to treat various ailments including headaches, insomnia, and rheumatism to even treating cancer. However, Annona muricata Linn obtained from different cultivation area does not necessarily offer the same therapeutic effects towards breast cancer (in regards to its bioactive compound production). In this study, anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects of Annona muricata crude extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. A screening of nineteen samples of Annona muricata from different location was determined by MTT assay on breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and 4 T1) which revealed a varied potency (IC50) amongst them. Then, based on the IC50 profile from the anti-proliferative assay, further downward assays such as cell cycle analysis, Annexin V/FITC, AO/PI, migration, invasion, and wound healing assay were performed only with the most potent leaf aqueous extract (B1 AMCE) on 4 T1 breast cancer cell line to investigate its anti-cancer effect. Then, the in vivo anti-cancer study was conducted where mice were fed with extract after inducing the tumor. At the end of the experiment, histopathology of tumor section, tumor nitric oxide level, tumor malondialdehyde level, clonogenic assay, T cell immunophenotyping, and proteome profiler analysis were performed. Annona muricata crude extract samples exhibited different level of cytotoxicity toward breast cancer cell lines. The selected B1 AMCE reduced the tumor's size and weight, showed anti-metastatic features, and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo of the 4 T1 cells. Furthermore, it decreased the level of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in tumor while also increased the level of white blood cell, T-cell, and natural killer cell population. The results suggest that, B1 AMCE is a promising candidate for cancer

  20. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Tumor Activities of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall

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    Yu-Ting Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new p-hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid-4-O-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 1 and 4-O-α-l-rhamnopyran-osyl-(1 → 6-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 2, and seven known compounds, compound 3, 6, 7 (acid components, compound 8, 9 (flavonoids, compound 4 (a coumarin and compound 5 (an alkaloid, were isolated from the 70% ethanol aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by use of extensive spectroscopic methods Infrared Spectroscopy (IR, High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS, and 1H and 13C-NMR. Sugar residues obtained after acid hydrolysis were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The antioxidant activity of all the compounds was evaluated by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+ and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The anti-inflammatory effects of the compounds were also evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. All compounds were shown to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of all the compounds on MCF-7 cells was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 method. The results showed that compounds 1, 2, 7, 8, 9 exhibited better antioxidant activity compared to the other compounds. compounds 1–9 had different inhibitory effects on the release of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by LPS, of which compound 7 was the most effective against inflammatory factors. compounds 1 and 2 have better antitumor activity compared to other compounds. Further research to elucidate the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall is

  1. Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso as a Medicinal Plant Species: A Review on Bioactive Components and Pharmacological Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shweta; Ved, Akash

    2017-01-01

    Operculina turpethum (Linn.) (OT) Silva Manso belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. This review incorporates literature for the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of OT herb. Exhaustive literature survey was done using all the details on phytochemistry and pharmacology of OT available. This herb was found to be a potent source of bioactive compounds such as α- and β-turpethein, turpethinic acids (A, B, C, D, and E), coumarins, cycloartenol, lanosta-5-ene, 24-methylene-δ-5-lanosterol, α- and β-rhamnose, β-sitosterol, lupeol, scopoletin, betulin, acrylamide, stigma-5,22dien-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside (H-1), 22,23-dihydro-α-spinosterol-β-D-glucoside (H-2), and salicylic acid (CH-2), which are useful in fevers, edema, ascites, anorexia, constipation, hepatosplenomegaly, hemorrhoids, cervical lymphadenitis, fistulas, constipation, chronic gout, fever, bronchitis, ulcers, hemorrhoids, tumors, obesity, jaundice, herpes, induce lacrimation, and other skin disorders. From the aerial parts of OT, four new dammarane-type saponins that are operculinosides A-D (1-4) were isolated that showed particular hepatoprotective activities. All the compounds are reported to possess pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepatoprotective, anti-arthritic, ulcer protective, antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, and cytotoxic properties.

  2. Anticonvulsant effect of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. on pentylenetetrazole induced seizure: a behavioral and EEG study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Surajit; Dutta, Goutam; Mandal, Nilotpal; Goswami, Ananda Raj; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2012-05-07

    Marsilea quadrifolia Linn (MQ) extract has been used traditionally as sedative and antiepileptic drug in India. To investigate the anticonvulsive potential of MQ extracts by using behavior and electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizure model in rats. For anticonvulsant effect, 60minutes after administration of MQ, behavior and EEG were analyzed during PTZ (60mg/kg) induced seizures. Changes of EEG power, latency of onset of seizure, seizure severity score, and duration of epileptic seizure were determined. Both the water and ethanol extract of MQ increased the latency of seizure but also decreased duration of epileptic seizure and seizure severity score. This reduction of seizure severity was also observed in EEG recording and EEG power analysis. The effectiveness of MQ ethanol extract is better than MQ water extract. Both water and ethanol extract of MQ were effective in reducing the severity of behavioral and EEG seizures induced by PTZ in rats. This study justifies the traditional use of this plant in epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of CaCO3 (calcite) nano particles from cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn) by precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Sri; Intan Ayu Kusuma, P.

    2017-06-01

    Calcium supplements can reduce the risk of osteoporosis, but they are not automatically absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is presumed to have a capacity in resolving this problem. The preparation and characterization of calcium carbonate nano particle to improve the solubility was performed. Calcium carbonate nano particles were synthesized using precipitation method from cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn). Samples of the cockle shells were dried in an oven at temperature of 50°C for 7 (seven) days and subsequently they were crushed and blended into fine powder that was sieved through 125-μm sieve. The synthesis of calcium carbonate nanocrystals was done by extracting using hydro chloride acid and various concentrations of sodium hydroxide were used to precipitate the calcium carbonate nano particles. The size of the nano particles was determined by SEM, XRD data, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of XRD indicated that the overall crystalline structure and phase purity of the typical calcite phase CaCO3 particles were approximately 300 nm in size. The method to find potential applications in industry to yield the large scale synthesis of aragonite nano particles by a low cost but abundant natural resource such as cockle shells is required.

  4. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Zakiah Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group at 0 (control, 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  5. Assessment of gastroprotective effect of crude tannin from Schwenkia americana Linn. on mitochondrial functions in ulcerogenic rats

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    George Edaghogho Eriyamremu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the gastroprotective effect of tannin from Schwenkia americana Linn. on mitochondrial functions in ulcerogenic rats. Methods: A total number of 36 male Wistar rats weighing 160–220 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into six groups with six rats each group. Groups I and II were orally administered with distilled water, Groups III, IV and V with 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/ kg of extracted tannin whilst Group VI administered with omeprazole, respectively for 7 days. All animals were fasted for 24 h before single administration of 800 mg/kg body weight of aspirin, except for Group I (normal control. Ulcerogenic activity and mitochondrial functional parameters were assessed. Results: Administration of aspirin significantly (P < 0.05 increased free and total acidity, quantity of gastric juice, protein, pepsin activity and decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, ATPases, fucose, sialic, hexosamine, hexose and mucin level in ulcerated rats (Group II. There was also dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in ulcerated rats, but prior pretreatment of extracted tannin and omeprazole prevented theses biochemical effects. Conclusions: Tannin from Schwenkia americana prevented impaired stomach mitochondrial functions in aspirin induced gastric damage and may also act as gastroprotective of the gastric mucosal.

  6. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis.

  7. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni Juice Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Almeida-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis.

  8. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Edvane Borges da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu, E-mail: elba@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of {sup 60}Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  9. Antimalarial activity of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn.-an in vitro Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibition assay

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    Neeraj Sethiya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of standardized methanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn. (E. alsinoids on Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH enzyme inhibition. Methods: To carry out enzyme inhibition studies, lactate dehydrogenase was cloned from Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain using expression vector pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. Protein purification was carried out by Ni-affinity chromatography. This protein was used for the inhibition study. Methanol extract of E. alsinoids was standardized by high performance thin layer chromatography described by previous literature and screened for PfLDH enzyme inhibitory activity and compared with gossypol (a known PfLDH enzyme inhibitor. Results: It was found that E. alsinoids possesses a compond scopoletin and potentially inhibits PfLDH [(25.04依0.51%]. Conclusions: Methanol extract of E. alsinoids showed significant PfLDH inhibition as evidenced from the experiments performed. The activity may be attributed to the presence of various polyphenolic and flavanoids compounds.

  10. Nootropic activity of lipid-based extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. compared with traditional preparation and extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Paradkar, Anant R; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to design an alternative solvent-free extraction method using the hydrophilic lipid Gelucire (polyethylene glycol glycerides) for herbal extraction and to confirm the efficacy of extraction using biological screening. Bacopa monniera Linn. (BM) was selected for the study. Conventional methanolic extract (MEBM), Ayurvedic ghrita (AGBM) and lipid extracts (LEBM) were prepared and standardised by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Nootropic activity in rats was evaluated using the two-trial Y-maze test and the anterograde amnesia induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) determined by the conditioned avoidance response. The extracts were administered daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally. At the end of the conditioned avoidance response test, brain monoamine levels were estimated by HPLC. The LEBM, MEBM and AGBM contained 3.56%, 4.10% and 0.005% bacoside A, respectively. Significantly greater spatial recognition was observed with LEBM (P nootropic activity to the MEBM.

  11. Optimization of Concentration and EM4 Augmentation for Improving Bio-Gas Productivity from Jatropha curcas Linn Capsule Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praptiningsih G.A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most literature suggests that two-phase digestion is more efficient than single-phase. The series of two-phase digestion studies have been conducted from 2011 to 2013 at the research farm of PT Bumimas Ekapersada, West Java, Indonesia. This paper reports on a research on optimation of concentration and augmentation of EM-4 (effective microorganism-4, a local commercial decomposer, as efforts to stabilize a biogas technology which made ​​from husk capsules of Jatropha curcas Linn (DH-JcL. The studies of increasing organic loading rate (OLR for the two-phase digestion was conducted to improve efficiency.  The concentration variable studied was 1: 8 (1 part DH-JCL and 8 parts water, compared to 1: 12 as a control. The augmentation treatment is the addition of EM-4 by 5% (v/v. It was also examined the augmentation of F2-EM4 (150 times duplication of EM-4 due to cost consideration. The studies were conducted in the laboratory which using a liter and two liters of glass digester and glass wool as immobilized growth. The results of this study support the previous studies: the optimum concentration was 1: 8, EM-4 was able to increase biogas production in two-phase digestion, yet biogas production decrease at single-phase. F2-EM4’s ability to support production of biogas were equivalent to that of EM-4.

  12. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A A; Kulkarni, Preeti V; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8(th) day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats' rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11(th) day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  13. Isolation, characterization and quantification of an anxiolytic constituent - mahanimbine, from Murraya koenigii Linn. Spreng Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Jyoti; Singh, Jitender; Kumar, Ashwani; Sharma, Anupam

    2016-12-04

    Leaves of M. koenigii Linn. Spreng (Rutaceae) have been used as traditional medicine for anxiety disorders. Aim of the study was to isolate antianxiety principle(s) from the leaves of M. koenigii using bioactivity guided approach. Hydroalcoholic extract of M. koenigii leaves was prepared using soxhlet apparatus, and the same was evaluated for antianxiety activity at 250, 500 and 750mg/kg, po, using Elevated plus-maze (EPM). The extract was further partitioned successively with pet ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and 1-butanol. All the fractions were evaluated for antianxiety activity. The bioactive ethyl acetate fraction was column chromatographed to get 5 fractions (F 1 -F 5 ). All the fractions were evaluated for antianxiety activity using EPM. A pure compound, separated out from F 2, was characterized using standard spectroscopic techniques, and its anxiolytic activity was evaluated using EPM. Antianxiety activity of isolated compound was further evaluated using Actophotometer and m-CPP induced anxiety model. TLC-densitometric method was developed to quantify mahanimbine in the plant. The present study resulted in the isolation of mahanimbine, which exhibits potent antianxiety activity at 3mg/kg, and the activity was statistically comparable to that of diazepam (2mg/kg). The developed TLC-densitometric method is specific, linear, precise, accurate, repeatable and robust. This study validates the ethnopharmacological use of M. koenigii leaves in the management of anxiety disorders. Mahanimbine is responsible for the antianxiety effect of M. koenigii leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytotoxic effect of xanthones from pericarp of the tropical fruit mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) on human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing J; Sanderson, Barbara J S; Zhang, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree from South East Asia and its fruit pericarp is a well-known traditional medicine. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of three xanthone compounds (α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and 8-deoxygartanin) from mangosteen pericarp was investigated using the human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell line. Significant dose-dependent reduction in % cell viability was induced. γ-Mangostin and 8-deoxygartanine at 5 μg/ml increased the cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase (90% and 92%) compared with untreated cells (78%). All compounds induced apoptosis, of the highest being α-mangostin at 7.5 μg/ml that induced 59.6% early apoptosis, compared to 1.7% in untreated cells. The apoptotic effect of α-mangostin was via caspase activation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane pathways as evidenced by 25-fold increased caspase-3 activity and 9-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential when compared to untreated cells. In conclusion, these xanthones, especially α-mangostin, are potential candidates as anti-melanoma agents. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure--effect on water quality and growth of Cyprinus carpio (Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Vaneet Inder; Ansal, Meera D

    2010-08-01

    Experiment was conducted in (0.002 ha) cemented tanks for 120 days to assess the efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure at a dose of 10,000 kg/ha/year (VC(10)), 15,000 kg/ha/year (VC(15)) and 20,000 (VC(20)) kg/ha/year) in comparison to semi-digested cow dung (8-10 days old), which was utilized at a dose of 20,000 kg/ha/year (CD(20)). One fourth of the doze was applied 15 days prior to fish stocking and rest in equal weekly installments. Twenty fingerlings of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn.) were stocked (10,000/ha) and fed with supplementary diet @ 2% of their body weight daily. Water quality parameters were found to be within the optimum limits for carp culture in all the treatments. Zooplankton production in all the treatments did not differ significantly. Fish growth in terms of weight gain, percent weight gain, specific growth rate and yield was maximum in VC(15) followed by VC(20), VC(10) and CD(20). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of the Capability of Niosomes that Used Maltodextrin from Garut Starch (Maranta arundinaceae Linn. as a Chlorpheniramine Maleate Carrier

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    Mahdi Jufri

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the entrapment ability of ampiphylic drug, chlorpheniramine maleate (CTM, by niosome. Like liposomes, niosomes is an encapsulated drug carrier that has important role in a drug release system. Niosomes and liposomes are unstable, but niosomes could be handled by proniosomes. Proniosomes in this research was prepared using the combination of maltodextrin DE 5-10 from arrowroot starch (Maranta arundinaceae Linn., Span 60 and Cholesterol as non ionic surfactant in six formulas. The entrapment level of CTM depends on combination of surfactant in proniosomes, drug substance concentration and proniosomes quantity, temperature, and hydration times. Niosomes (10mM that was prepared by proniosomes in formula 3 has been hydrated at 80 oC for 2 minutes using demineralized water could entrapped 94,04%, of 1 mM CTM. The proniosomes in formula 3 was increased up to 30 mM surfactant and 10 mM CTM in niosomes, could increase the entrapment of CTM.

  17. Determination of Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa Linn. by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS: An Application in Turmeric Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Kamran; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Ahmad, Niyaz; Amir, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Cucuma longa Linn. (Fam-Zingiberaceae) is a valued medicinal plant contains curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) as major bioactive constituents. Previously reported analytical methods for analysis of curcuminoids were found to suffer from low resolution, lower sensitivity and longer analytical times. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, selective high-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of curcuminoids with an aim to reduce analysis time and enhance efficiency. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis showed large variation (1.408-5.027% w/w) of curcuminoids among different samples with respect to their occurrence of metabolite and their concentration. The results showed that Erode (south province) contains highest quantity of curcuminoids and concluded to be the superior varieties. The results obtained here could be valuable for devising strategies for cultivating this medicinal plant. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

    2009-08-01

    Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil.

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF SOME COMPOUNDS FROM METHANOL EXTRACT PEEL OF BANANA (Musa paradisiaca Linn.

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    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these research was measured activity as antioxidant some compounds in methanol extracts of peel of banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn., isolated some compounds which had activities as antioxidant, and determined this structure. Method of this study was extracted powdered peel of banana with methanol at room temperature. Extract was concentrated in vaccuo and then successively was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol. Antioxidant test from each fractions was measured by hydroxyl radical scavenger test with Fenton reaction method. The result of this study showed activity each fractions as  hydroxyl radical scavenger activity of chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol fraction were IC50 693.15; 2347.40; and 1071.14 mg/mL respectively. The isolation of secondary metabolite compounds from chloroform fraction obtained two isolate compounds. Identification by spectroscopy IR,  MS, 1H and 13C NMR one and two dimension showed that the compounds are 5,6,7,4'-tetrahidroxy-3,4-flavan-diol and a new compound cyclohexenon derivative (2-cyclohexene-1-on-2,4,4-trimethyl-3-O-2'-hydroxypropyl ether.   Keywords: antioxidant, peel of banana, Musa paradisiaca, hydroxyl radical scavenger

  20. Characterization and storage stability of the extract of Thai mango (Mangifera indica Linn. Cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    Qualitative analysis of hydrolysable extract from mango (Mangifera indica Linn. cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel was performed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). The main phenolic compound was identified as methyl gallate by comparing their retention time, UV-vis absorption spectra and mass spectra with a reference standard. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that the extract contained total phenolics at a concentration of 194.1 mg GAE/g dry weight of mango seed kernel (MSK), of which 85.7% was identified as methyl gallate. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the extract and the main compound were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays, by the ferric thiocyanate method and by an assay of metal chelating activity. Tyrosinase inhibition was also investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content of MSK extract stored in a plastic (polyethylene) PE bag decreased during storage at freezing (-20 °C), refrigerated (7 °C) and room (28-32 °C) temperature for 182 days. The loss of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content increased at higher storage temperatures for more than 182 days.

  1. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:26730148

  2. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. Nut milk extract in experimental inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-04-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut milk extract (SA) were investigated in adjuvant induced arthritis by studying the alterations in humoral and cell mediated immune responses and also the anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating the changes in paw edema, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase activities. Pharmacological studies were also conducted with SA and indomethacin on experimental animals for evaluating the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic activities. The alterations in the humoral and cell mediated immunity were significantly reverted back to near normal levels on treatment with SA. The drug significantly reduced the elevation in the paw edema, TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels when compared with adjuvant induced arthritic animals, which shows the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug. SA showed strong anti-inflammatory effects in xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced inflammation. In analgesic test, the extract elicited a potential activity on both acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as hot plate test showing its central and peripheral mediated action. The drug also elicited antipyretic action in yeast-induced hyperemia in rats. In addition, the extract did not produce any ulceration on gastric mucosa during ulcerogenic test and did not produce any serious adverse effects. All these effects are nearly similar to the activities of indomethacin except the ulceration where indomethacin produced significant ulceration. From this study, the protective immunological and pharmacological role of SA is demonstrated.

  3. Potency of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract against aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis: reflection on microsomal biotransformation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-08-01

    The effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on host detoxification system in aflatoxin B(1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a vital mechanism in cancer treatment, was studied in male albino rats. Oral administration of nut extract (200 mg kg(-1)body weight per day for 14 days) is found to be highly effective in inducing phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes. The obtained results have shown an overall decrease of liver microsomal cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, and aniline hydroxylase with a subsequent decrease of phase II enzymes, glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase in cancer-bearing animals. The Semecarpus anacardium nut extract affords anticancer activity by enhancing both phase I and phase II enzymes to near normal levels. We propose that, much of the anticarcinogenic potency of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract on aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is mediated through the induction of hepatic biotransformation enzymes. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Curative effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract against adjuvant arthritis -- with special reference to bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-04-15

    Localised bone loss in the form of bone erosions and peri-articular osteopenia constitutes an important criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, the effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) on the metabolism of bone turn over has been studied by analyzing various markers of bone turnover and by histological and radiological analysis of the joints in adjuvant arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant containing 10mg of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1 ml paraffin oil (0.1 ml) into the left hind paw of the rat intradermally. After 14 days of induction, SA (150 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally by gastric intubations for 14 days. SA significantly reverted the alterations in the bone turnover observed in arthritic animals by modulating the levels of calcium, phosphorus and the activities of the enzymes names tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The drug increased the bone weights that were found to be decreased during arthritis. Protective effect of SA was also observed by the decrease in the levels and expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as the histopathological and radiological observations. From all these observations it can be concluded that SA possesses strong anti-arthritic property by regulating bone turnover.

  5. Paederia foetida Linn. promoted biogenic gold and silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic and in vitro efficacy against clinically isolated pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Bishal; Paul, Arijita; Paul, Bappi; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar; Dutta, Pranab

    2017-08-01

    Development of newer improved therapeutic agents with efficient antimicrobial activities continues to draw attention of researchers till date. Moreover, abatement of polluting dyes released from industry with enhanced efficiency is currently being considered as challenging task for people working on material sciences. In the present study, we report a facile biogenic synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in which aqueous extracts of Paederia foetida Linn. was used as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized Au and Ag NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of these nanoparticles were tested against Rhodamine B (RhB). The antimicrobial activity of these biosynthesized NPs were investigated against four human pathogens viz. B. cereus, E. coli, S. aureus and A. niger. Biogenic silver nanoparticles presented a strong antimicrobial activity against B. cereus (26.13) followed by E. coli (26.02), S. aureus (25.43) and A. niger (22.69). Ag NPs owing to their small size (5-25nm) could have easily penetrate into the cell membrane, disturb the metabolism, cause irretrievable damage finally leading to the microbial cell death. Interestingly biogenic gold nanoparticles didn't show any antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. FORMULASI PASTA GIGI INFUSA DAUN JAMBU BIJI (Psidium guajavaLinn. DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI Na. CMC SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGIKAT

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    Nur Sa’adah Daud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaves (Psidium guajava Linn. has been shown inhibiting effect against dental caries causing bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. In order to facilitate its activity in overcoming dental caries,formulation into dosage toothpaste was needed. The purpose of this study was to formulate toothpaste from infuse of guava leaves with variations concentration of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulosa as a binder to obtain the best toothpaste formula. The concentration of infuse of guava leaves was 5% and 4%, 6% and 8%for Sodium carbxymethylcellulose respectively for formula each formula. Other additives have been used, they were calcium carbonate, glycerin, sodium lauryl sulfate, α-tocopherol, propyl paraben, methyl paraben, Oleum Menthae Piperatae (OMP and distilled water.The results showed that three toothpaste formula from the organoleptic testwere white coloured, mint flavored with soft and lumpy of textur, with the mean of pH value of 6,9 to 8,3 were eligible, and the foam height value of 3,5 to 5,5 cm. Theviscosity values were increased with the increasing concentration ofSodium carbxymethylcellulose. While the preference test showedthat toothpaste formula C was the most preferred.

  7. Pemanfaatan Minyak Kayu Putih (Melaleuca leucadendra Linn sebagai Alternatif Pencegahan Kasus Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut di Pulau Buru

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    Zulfa Auliyati Agustina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs is a disease which commonly infects children. Based on Indonesian basic health research 2013, the national and Buru Island's period prevalence of ARIs were 25% and 24,8%. The other side, cajuput oil has been traditionally used to reduce respiratory tract disorders and infections. This research used the ethnographic approach with observation participation and direct communication to collected the data. The results showed a high number in ARIs cases in Buru Island area were affected by many factors, some of them are the lack of Clean and Healthy Behaviour (PHBS and had a little faith in health services, especially for people who live in the mountain area. It was because of minimum intervention from public health services. This research showed the Cajuput oil was potentially used as an alternative prevention of ARIs in Buru Island by inhalation method. The main content of Melaleuca leucadendra Linn had a benefit to be the mucolytics, bronchodilator, anti-inflammation and antitussive. 

  8. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Yasmeen Maniyar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world. The study of plants having antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities may give a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objective: The study was intended to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Carica papaya Linn. (AECPL in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.. Rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. First group served as non-diabetic control, second group as diabetic control, third group as standard and was treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day of glibenclamide. Group 4, 5, and 6 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of AECPL. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose on day 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and lipid profile on day 21. Results: The AECPL showed significant reduction (P<0.01 in blood glucose level and serum lipid profile levels with 400 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as compared with the control. Conclusion: It is concluded that AECPL is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving lipid profile in diabetic rats.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Olea europaea Linné extracts and their applicability as natural food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, J; Kohnen, S; Hauser, C

    2017-06-19

    The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds from Olea (O.) europaea Linné (L.) is part of the scientific discussion regarding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative food preservative agents. Although, the basic knowledge on the antimicrobial potential of certain molecules such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol or elenolic acid derivatives is given, there is still little information regarding their applicability for food preservation. This might be primarily due to the lack of information regarding the full antimicrobial spectrum of the compounds, their synergisms in natural or artificial combinations and their interaction with food ingredients. The present review accumulates available literature from the past 40 years, investigating the antimicrobial activity of O. europaea L. derived extracts and compounds in vitro and in food matrices, in order to evaluate their food applicability. In summary, defined extracts from olive fruit or leaves, containing the strongest antimicrobial compounds hydroxytyrosol, oleacein or oleacanthal in considerable concentrations, appear to be suitable for food preservation. Nonetheless there is still need for consequent research on the compounds activity in food matrices, their effect on the natural microbiota of certain foods and their influence on the sensorial properties of the targeted products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of dielectric barrier discharge for reducing microbial contamination in pepper (Piper nigrum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promping, J.; Prakongsil, P.; Picha, R.; Traikool, T.

    2017-09-01

    This research is designed to determine the efficacy of DBD plasma to reduce the microbial contamination of pepper and sesame powder. The AC high voltage power supply was used with voltages of up to 20 kV and the frequency of 5.5 kHz was applied to the DBD. The gap of DBD electrodes was set at 5 mm. In raw initial samples, the total aerobic count of pepper (Piper nigrum) was found at quite a high level at 5.40 × 105 CFU/g. Coliform bacteria was also found in both the sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder and pepper (Piper nigrum) powder. Both kinds of samples were treated with plasma for 2, 4, 6 and 10 minutes. Results indicated that plasma treatment at 2-10 minutes reduced the total aerobic count of pepper allowed to achieve the acceptable microbial level for spices. The plasma treatment times in this experiment were also effective in reducing faecal coliform bacteria in both pepper and sesame powders (MPN/g <3) as indicated in the standard. Plasma from dielectric barrier charge can reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis in sesame powder which was artificially contaminated with 3.50 × 102 CFU/g resulting in 0.15-0.5 log cycle reductions of microbial load.

  11. Evaluation of the anti-diarrheal activity of the aqueous stem extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Edlam; Engidawork, Ephrem; Nedi, Teshome; Mengistu, Getnet

    2017-04-04

    Diarrheal disease remains a public health problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. In order to alleviate this disease, Ethiopian traditional healers use a wide range of medicinal plants from which Lantana camara is one of them. The stem of this plant is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea. In addition, this plant is scientifically evaluated to have an antispasmodic effect on in vitro study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the aqueous stem extract of L. camara Linn in mice. The antidiarrheal activity of the extract was investigated using castor oil induced diarrhoea, enteropooling and small intestine transit models. The test groups received various doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of the extract, whereas positive controls received Loperamide (3 mg/kg) and negative controls received distilled water (10 ml/kg). In castor oil induced diarrhoea model, the extract, at all test doses, significantly (p camara, thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant as a treatment for diarrhoea.

  12. Effect of Collection Time on Essential Oil Composition of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae Growing in Brazil Northeastern

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    Erlânio O. Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the composition variation of its essential oil along 24 hours, leaves of Lantana camara Linn. of medicinal plant collection of the Department of Chemical Biology of URCA-Crato–CE, were collected every three hours during one day (of the 07:00 to 19:00 h in April, 2008. The leaves had its oil extracted by hydro-distillation in Clevenger apparatus during three hours with two repetitions. The chemical composition analysis of the extracted essential oils was carried out in gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The phytochemical profile of the essential oils presented significant difference in function of the harvest. The seven most abundant were: germacrene D (24.50-6.15%, biciclogermacrene (33.32-14.27%, spathulenol (25.04-1.06%, eremophilene (20.64-1.93%, valecene (33.70-0.84%, viridiflorene (19.46% and 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (27.93-21.32. The different result found here indicates the existence of different chemotypes of L. camara

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Brig Extracts from Cariri-Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Fs; Sousa, Eo; Campos, Ar; Costa, Jgm; Rodrigues, Ffg

    2010-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants with therapeutics properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Briq (Verbenaceae) found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world are popularly known as "camará" or "chumbinho." In popular medicines, both plants are used as antipyretic and carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of L. camara and L. montevidensis leaves and roots against gram-positive and gram-negative strains standard and multi-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical material are presented. In order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the microdilution method was used. The extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, but the L. montevidensis fresh leaves extract present the best result against P. aeruginosa (MIC 8 μg/mL) and against multi-resistant E. coli (Ec 27) (MIC 16 μg/mL). These results drive new researches with both species in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity.

  14. Chemical characterization of various fractions of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn toward their antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory property.

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    Chaurasia, J K; Tripathi, Yamini B

    2011-09-01

    Cinnamomum tamala (CT) Linn. (Lauraceae) is a component of Indian spices and is also used as antidiabetic agent. Its antioxidant potential was reported by other authors and recently our group has reported its immune-suppressive property. Here, CT leaves were extracted with methanol (CTT) and also with various organic solvents of increasing polarity such as hexane (CTH), ethyl acetate (CTEA), and methanol (CTE) in successive manner by continuous Soxhlet extractor. The active compounds of CTT and CTH were analyzed by GC-MS and most abundant compound (eugenol) was further analyzed by HPLC. These extracts were tested for their free radical (FR) scavenging potential for different FR species, hypoglycemic potential on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia, and anti-inflammatory property in carrageenan-induced paw edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in rat peritoneal macrophage culture. Result showed that CTH was the most active fraction toward these parameters, which was parallel to its eugenol and total phenolic content concentration.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.

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    Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2013-12-01

    Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum.

  16. Amelioration of inflammation by phenolic rich methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; John, Febi; Indira, M

    2015-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation play vital role in the development of MI. The Indian basil or Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), owing to its antioxidant potential, is used in the traditional system of Indian medicine to treat various disorders. We evaluated methanolic extract of O. sanctum (Tulsi) leaves on inflammation in isoproterenol (ISP) induced MI in rats. ISP-induced MI increased the levels of cardiac markers, phospholipases and phospholipid content. However, the same were reduced on pre-treatment with methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The activities of 5-lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase-2 and levels of leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were also elevated in ISP-treated rats, which were significantly decreased (P sanctum leaves. The study demonstrated that methanolic extract of Tulsi leaves can decrease inflammation in the cardiac tissue of ISP-induced MI in rats and its effect may be through downregulation of oxidative stress and arachidonic acid pathway. This cardioprotective effect may be due to the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves.

  17. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shankar; Varma, Saurabh; Bamola, Vishwa Deepak; Naik, Satya Narayan; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Mehta, Nalin; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra

    2011-07-14

    Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) is considered as a sacred herb and traditionally it is believed that consumption of Tulsi leaf on empty stomach increases immunity. Experimental studies have shown that alcoholic extract of Tulsi modulates immunity. The present study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extract of Tulsi leaves through a double-blinded randomized controlled cross-over trial on healthy volunteers. Three hundred milligrams capsules of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Tulsi or placebo were administered to 24 healthy volunteers on empty stomach and the results of 22 subjects who completed the study were analyzed. The primary objective was to study the levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-4) during both pre and post intervention period in blood culture supernatants following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and phytohaemagglutinin. Other immunological parameters such as T-helper and T-cytotoxic cells, B-cells and NK-cells also were analyzed using Flowcytometry. Statistically significant increase in the levels of IFN-γ (p=0.039), IL-4 (p=0.001) and percentages of T-helper cells (p=0.001) and NK-cells (p=0.017) were observed after 4 weeks in the Tulsi extract intervention group in contrast to the placebo group. These observations clearly ascertain the immunomodulatory role of Tulsi leaves extract on healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT BATANG DAN DAUN PACAR AIR (Impatiens balsamina Linn TERHADAP TIKUS PUTIH BETINA GALUR SPRAGUE DAWLEY

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    Nia Anzini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens balsamina Linn has been proven through various studies to have pharmacological benefits. Yet there was no research data regarding the toxicity of these plants. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of symptoms that occur after oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction from stems and leaves of Impatiens balsamina Linn, determine the LD50 values ​​and toxicity category compounds in the fraction. This study employed OECD (Organization for Economic, Cooperation and Development 425 method. Parameters observed qualitatively through the observations of the food and drink intakes and change of body everyday weight during a period of 14 days and microscopic examination of liver and kidney. The results of the study showed no symptoms of toxicity arising from qualitative observations. LD50 value of ethyl acetate fraction of stems and leaves of Impatiens balsamina Linn was more than 2000 mg/kg body weight, which belongs to moderately toxic. Also, a paired t-test concluded that there was no significant differences occuring among the amount of food and drink intakes and body weight changes before and after treatment. Likewise, based on statistical test using One Way ANOVA showed no significant difference in food intakes and body weight changes in the treatment group and control animals (p>0,05, and no significant difference of daily drinking intakes between control group and treatment group with distilled water (p>0,05. While, there was a significant difference between the control rats and the CMC treatment (p 2000 mg/kg BB yang termasuk kategori toksik sedang. Berdasarkan uji beda disimpulkan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan terhadap jumlah konsumsi makan, minum dan perubahan bobot badan sebelum dan setelah perlakuan. Berdasarkan uji statistik menggunakan One Way ANOVA menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan terhadap konsumsi makan dan perubahan bobot badan hewan kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol (p>0

  19. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  20. Antiamnesic evaluation of C. phlomidis Linn. bark extract in mice Avaliação da atividade antiamnésica da casca de C. phlomidis Linn. em camundongos

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    anumanthachar Joshi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae is known as Agnimantha in sanskrit. Bark of the plant is used in treating various nervous disorders. In the present study C. phlomidis was investigated for its potential as a nootropic agent in mice. The aqueous extract of the C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. was administered for 6 successive days to both young and aged mice. Exteroceptive behavioral models such as elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate short term and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p. were employed to induce amnesia in mice. To delineate the mechanism by which C. phlomidis exerts nootropic action, its effect on brain acetyl cholinesterase levels were determined. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. Pretreatment with C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 6 successive days significantly improved learning and memory in mice. It reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine, diazepam and natural ageing. It also decreased the acetyl cholinesterase levels in the whole brain. The bark of C. phlomidis can be of enormous use in the management of treatment of cognitive disorders such as amnesia and Alzheimer's disease.Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae é conhecida como Agnimantha em sânscrito. A casca da planta é utilizada no tratamento de várias disfunções neurológicas. No presente estudo, C. phlomidis foi investigada pelo seu potencial como agente nootrópico em camundongos. O extrato aquoso de C. phlomidis (100 e 200 mg/kg, p.o. foi administrado por seis dias consecutivos tanto para camundongos jovens quanto para idosos. Modelos comportamentais exteroceptivos, tais como labirinto em cruz elevada e paradigma de esquiva passiva foram empregados para avaliar memória recente e tardia, respectivamente. Escopolamina (0,4 mg/kg i.p., diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p. foram empregados para induzir amnésia em camundongos. A

  1. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao antioxidante de extratos brutos de folhas de Anacardium occidentale Linn.

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    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC{sub 50} of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  2. Effects of allelochemical extracted from water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes Linn.) on the growth, microcystin production and release of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Chen, Junren; Ye, Jinyun

    2013-11-01

    This study explored the optimisation of a method of extracting allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., identified the optimal dose range for the allelochemicals' anti-algal effect and investigated their impact on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content, the allelochemicals were confirmed to have the strongest anti-algal effect with the lowest half-effect concentration of 65 mg L(-1) when they were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent, 1:20 g mL(-1) as the extraction ratio and 1 h as the extraction time. The allelochemicals extracted from P. stratiotes using this optimal method exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of algae when used within a dose range of 60-100 mg L(-1); the relative inhibitory ratio reached 50-90%, and Chl-a content reduced 50-75% in algae cell cultures within 3-7 days. In addition, the extracted allelochemical compounds demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MC-LR during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular MC-LR per 10(6) algal cells increased depending on the increasing dose of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes after 7 days of culturing and maintained stability after 16 days. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. Therefore, the application of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes to inhibit M. aeruginosa has a high degree of ecological safety and can be adopted in practical applications for treating water subjected to algae blooms because the treatment can effectively inhibit the proliferation of algal cells without increasing the release of cyanotoxin.

  3. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and prophylactic potentials of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis (Linn.) stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanlokun, John Oludele; David, Oluwole Moses; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-08-15

    Trema orientalis (T. orientalis Linn) has been used in the management of malaria in the western part of Nigeria and despite its application in ethnomedicine, there is dearth of scientific evidence to justify the acclaimed prophylactic antimalarial usage of the plant. The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial cell-free assay and chemopreventive efficacy of the methanol extract of the stem bark of T. orientalis and its fractions as a prophylactic regimen for malaria prevention. Also, the antimicrobial activities of the extract and the fractions were investigated. Vacuum liquid chromatography was used to obtain dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol fractions from the methanol extract of T. orientalis. The fractions were tested for their prophylactic and cell-free antimalarial activity using murine models and β-hematin formation assay respectively. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract and its fractions against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the prophylactic experiment, dichloromethane (DCMF), methanol fraction (MF) and extract (ME) (in this order) showed significant chemopreventive effects against P. berghei invasion of the red blood cells when compared with both Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) and untreated controls. Results of the in vitro study showed that the DCMF had the highest effect in preventing the formation of β-hematin when compared with other fractions. The DCMF also had the highest percentage inhibition of β-hematin formation when compared with chloroquine. The extract and fractions showed a concentration dependent antibacterial activity. Methanol extract had a pronounced inhibitory effect on Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Serratia mercescens ATCC 9986 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 19582 were the most susceptible bacteria. The results obtained showed that both extract and fractions of T. orientalis possessed

  4. The inophyllums, novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase isolated from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, A D; Freyer, A J; Eggleston, D S; Haltiwanger, R C; Bean, M F; Taylor, P B; Caranfa, M J; Breen, A L; Bartus, H R; Johnson, R K

    1993-12-24

    As part of a search for novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the acetone extract of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, was shown to be active. Fractionation of the extract yielded inophyllums A, B, C, and E and calophyllolide (1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6), previously isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., a known source of nutrition for A. fulica. From a methanol/methylene chloride extract of C. inophyllum, the same natural products in considerably greater yield were isolated in addition to a novel enantiomer of soulattrolide (4), inophyllum P (2b), and two other novel compounds, inophyllums G-1 (7) and G-2 (8). The absolute stereochemistry of inophyllum A (1a) was determined to be 10(R), 11(S), 12(S) from a single-crystal X-ray analysis of its 4-bromobenzoate derivative, and the relative stereochemistries of the other inophyllums isolated from C. inophyllum were established by a comparison of their 1H NMR NOE values and coupling constants to those of inophyllum A (1a). Inophyllums B and P (2a and 2b) inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase with IC50 values of 38 and 130 nM, respectively, and both were active against HIV-1 in cell culture (IC50 of 1.4 and 1.6 microM). Closely related inophyllums A, C, D, and E, including calophyllic acids, were significantly less active or totally inactive, indicating certain structural requirements in the chromanol ring. Altogether, 11 compounds of the inophyllum class were isolated from C. inophyllum and are described together with the SAR of these novel anti-HIV compounds.

  5. KARAKTERISTIK DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIFUNGI SABUN PADAT TRANSPARAN DENGAN BAHAN AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN BUAS-BUAS (Premna cordifolia, Linn

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    Dian Fitriani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soap is a cleaning product made by a chemical reaction between the bases with fatty acids. one additional ingredient in the process of making soap is herbal ingredients such as leaves of buas-buas (Premna cordifolia, Linn. Leaves buas-buas contain substances flavonoid, saponins and essential oils that have antimicrobial activity. based on these compounds, the leaves of wild-wild has potential ly for use as an additional herbal ingredients for herbal soaps. The aims of this study are to make transparent soap with leaf extract of buas-buas as additional ingredients, analyze the herb soap with standard quality parameters such as pH, water content, foam stability, hardness,  the number of free alkali test, and knowing soap antifungal activity against Candida albicans. This study was an experimental study using two herbal formulations 5% and 15%. the soap-making process carried out by the method of melting and pouring process. Test the quality of soap herb products includes pH, water content, foam stability, hardness,  the number of free alkali test, and knowing soap antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The results of the analysis were then compared to the quality standard SNI 06-3532-1994 for soap making. The results of the test the quality of herbal soap products with buas-buas leaf extract showed that the herbal soap with the addition of wild-wild leaf extract has the characteristics meet the quality standards of SNI 06-3532-1994. The concentration of wild-wild leaf extract used influence to decrease transparency properties of soap. The higher the concentration of leaf extract wild-wild, diminishing transparency of soap products. Based on the antifungal test showed that the soap products containing buas-buas leaf extract inhibited the growth of Candida albicans.

  6. The gastroprotective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of hot water extract of Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn and its underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ramani; Ira Thabrew, M; Thammitiyagodage, G Mayuri; Galhena, B Prasanna; Menuka Arawwawala, L D A

    2017-06-14

    Antacids, anticholinergic drugs, histamine H2- receptor antagonists and irreversible proton pump inhibitors have been used for the treatment of gastric ulcers. However, prolonged use of these drugs may lead to series of adverse effects such as diarrhea, headache, rash, hypertension, muscular and joint pain. Therefore, there is an urgent need of more effective and safer treatments with fewer side effects. The aim of the present study was to scientifically evaluate the gastroprotective activity of fractions of the hot water extract of Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn (Family: Cucurbitaceae) aerial parts with a view to identifying the fraction with the best gastroprotective activity and the possible mechanism/s by which this fraction exert gastroprotection. Gastroprotective activity of hexane fraction (HF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF), butanol fraction (BF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were evaluated by the assessment of ability to reduce the ulcer index in ethanol-induced rat model and the mode of action by which the most active fraction mediating gastroprotection. EF showed the maximum gastroprotection effect followed by BF and AF. EF (75 mg/kg) exhibited significantly higher gastroprotection compared to the reference drugs. Further investigations with two lower doses of EF confirmed that EF can mediated a significant and dose dependent gastroprotection. The rats treated with the EF showed significant reduction in free acidity (45%), total acidity (by 48%) in the gastric juice, increased the amount of mucus produced by the rat gastro mucosa and potent antihistamine activity (by 25.6%). EF was also rich in phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Gastroprotective mechanism of EF is possibly involves inhibition of acidity, elevation in mucus content, inhibition of histamine and antioxidant mechanisms.

  7. Hepatoprotective potential of antioxidant potent fraction from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant in CCl4 challenged rats

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    Bhuwan Chandra Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to isolate hepatoprotective component from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro (HepG2 cells and in-vivo (rats model. Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, n-butanol fraction (NBF and aqueous fraction (AF were determined by DPPH and NO radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro HepG2 cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF was subjected to in-vivo hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 challenged rats. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s. Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC50 78.99 ± 0.17 μg/ml and NO (IC50101.39 ± 0.30 μg/ml. The in-vitro HepG2 cell line study showed that the EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and oxidative parameters in tissue of CCl4-induced rats, suggesting hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant action respectively. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF lead to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ferulic acid which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo.

  8. Biological activities of leaves of ethnomedicinal plant, Borassus flabellifer Linn. (Palmyra palm: An antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant evaluation

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that have the ability to exert effect on human body. Among them Borassus flabellifer Linn. is a medicinally important plant. In traditional medicine different parts of plants are being used for their medicinal properties. The methanol extract was obtained from powdered leaves and further fractions were prepared. Antimicrobial potential was investigated using eight pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi by agar well diffusion method. Broth dilution method was employed to MIC and MMC of active samples and MIC index value was determined. ME was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis; and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of several phytochemicals. The ME showed dose dependent radical scavenging activity as evidenced by IC50 values for DPPH (40.19 μg/ml and H2O2 (30.92 μg/ml radicals. The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial strains were in the range of 10–16 mm and 50–70 μg/ml, respectively. All the samples showed an inhibitory effect on fungal strains with inhibition zone (10–17 mm and MFC (50–70 μg/ml. Samples exhibited diverse patterns of antibacterial and antifungal effects. Among the tested samples, methanol extract and acetone fraction (AF had potent antibacterial and antifungal activities. These results lead to the conclusion that the plant has a broad spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and could be a potential option for treating various infectious diseases. The strong antioxidant property of methanol extract might be employed in the development of natural antioxidants for agro-food and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Factors affecting proliferation and elongation of shoots of Phak Liang (Gnetum gnemon Linn. through tissue culture technique

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    Te-chato, S.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The tissue culture of Phak Liang (Gnetum gnemon Linn. was investigated for micropropagation. The types of explant, culture media, types and concentrations of plant growth regulators, orientation of explant and section of explant were tested for their efficacy in inducing and proliferating shoot buds. The elongation of shoots and root induction was also studied. Young leaves gave the highest number of shoot buds when they were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l IBA and 1.53 mg/l BA. The medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ alone provided the best result on multiple shoot bud induction both in percentage of explant forming shoots and number of shoot buds per explant. The percentage of explant forming shoot buds and number of shoot buds obtained from leaves were 90% and 26.50 shoot buds, while those from stems were 96.25% and 23.00 shoot buds, respectively. One hundred percent friable callus was induced from stem explant in the same medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D after 2 months of culture. Culturing whole leaf in the position of dorsal contact with medium gave the best multiple shoot bud formation of 92% and 23.00 shoot buds/explant. Cutting stem into half and culturing in horizontal position gave the best multiple shoot bud formation of 96% and 23.00 shoot buds/explant after culture for 2 months. The best elongation of shoot buds (2.54 shoots derived from cultured leaves was induced in the liquid medium. While stem-derived shoot buds (3.45 shoots was induced in the solid medium of the same medium components. However, root could not be induced from elongated shoots.

  10. Histological studies of neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. on neuronal loss induced by dexamethasone treatment in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issuriya, Acharaporn; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn

    2014-10-01

    Long term exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) is associated with brain damage especially in the hippocampus via the oxidative stress pathway. Previously, an ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa Linn. (CL) containing the curcumin constituent has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. However, its neuroprotective property on brain histology has remained unexplored. This study has examined the effects of a CL extract on the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes in the hippocampus of Dx treated male rats. It showed that 21 days of Dx treatment (0.5mg/kg, i.p. once daily) significantly reduced the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, but not in the CA2 area. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly restore neuronal densities in the CA1 and dentate gyrus. In addition, Dx treatment also significantly decreased the densities of the GFAP-ir astrocytes in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) failed to protect the loss of astrocytes in these sub-areas. These findings confirm the neuroprotective effects of the CL extract and indicate that the cause of astrocyte loss might be partially reduced by a non-oxidative mechanism. Moreover, the detection of neuronal and glial densities was suitable method to study brain damage and the effects of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song-Chow; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Fa; Chen, I-Cheng; Wang, Li-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl(4). A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl(4) could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s). Copyright 2002 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. In-vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm, cytotoxic, antifeedant and larvicidal properties of novel quinone isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ponmurugan, Karuppiah; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Agastian, Paul; Choi, Ki Choon

    2014-10-30

    Plant metabolites have wide applications and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, cytotoxic, antifeedant and larvicidal properties of novel quinine isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa. A compound was obtained by eluting the crude extract, using varying concentrations of the solvents by the chromatographic purification. Broth micro dilution method was used to assess the antimicrobial activity and anticancer study was evaluated using MTT assay. Larvicidal activity was studied using leaf disc no-choice method. Based on the IR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectral data, the compounds were identified as quinone related antibiotic. It exhibited significant activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the compound against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus was 100 and 75 μg mL(-1) respectively. Against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa it exhibited MIC value of 25 μg mL(-1). The MIC of the compound against Aspergillus niger, A. clavatus, Penicillium roqueforti was 20 μg mL(-1) and that against Fusarium oxysporum (20 μg mL(-1)), A. oryzae (40 μg mL(-1)), and Candida albicans (60 μg mL(-1)), respectively. It showed effective antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhii and P. aeroginosa at 8 μg mL(-1) and did not exhibit considerable cytotoxic activity against Vero and HEP2 cell lines. Additionally, the compound documented significant antifeedant and larvicidal activities against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura at 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm concentrations. The results concluded that the compound can be evaluated further in industrial applications and also an agent to prepare botanical new pesticide formulations.

  13. Densitometric Validation and Optimisation of Polyphenols in Ocimum sanctum Linn by High Performance Thin-layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U K, Ilyas; Katare, Deepshikha P; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn (Sanskrit: Tulasi; family: Libiaceae), popularly known as holy basil or Ocimum teinufolium, is found throughout the semitropical and tropical parts of India. In Ayurveda, Tulasi has been well known for its therapeutic potentials. To optimise and develop a standard method to quantify seven polyphenols simultaneously by HPTLC. A three-level factor Box-Behnken statistical design was used for optimisation, where extraction time (min), temperature (°C) and methanol:water ratio (% v/v) are the independent variables with polyphenols as the dependent variable. The separation was archived on a silica-gel 60 F254 HPTLC plate using toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid:methanol (3:3:0.8:0.2 v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of polyphenols was carried out in the absorbance mode at 366 nm. The quantification of polyphenols was carried out based on peak area with a linear calibration curve at concentration ranges of 60-240, 20-200, 100-1600, 40-200, 200-1400, 10-160, 200-1400, 100-5000 ng/band for caffeic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, kaempferol, catechin, quercetin, eupalitin and epicatechin respectively. The method was validated for peak purity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). Method specificity was confirmed using the retention factor value and visible spectra correlation of marker compounds. A validated HPTLC method was newly developed for simultaneous quantification of seven polyphenols in an Ayurvedic preparation of O. sanctum. The proposed method is simple, precise, specific, accurate, cost-effective, less time consuming and has the ability to separate the polyphenols from other constituents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation.

  15. Drying of Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. using a solar dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion

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    Perapong Tekasakul

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An indirect, natural convection, solar cabinet dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion was designed and tested with the Thai herb, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. Most of Thai herbs are widely used as traditional medicine and drying is an initial step in the production process. Solar dryer with a biomass backup heating system is the most feasible solution to drying in Thailand. In this work, a 4 m x 5 m solar collector was used to absorb solar radiation for heating the incoming air during the daytime, while a biomass burner was used to supply heat when solar energy was not possible. Heat from fuelwood combustion was accumulated in the thermal storage system made of bricks, and was used to heat up the incoming air. Results showed that the herb was dried uniformly and the temperature inside the drying cabinet could be maintained above 50ºC for more than 10 hours. Thermal efficiency when using solar energy was 10.5%, but the value was less than 1% when using the heat from biomass burning. This resulted from the low moisture content of the products after being dried by the solar energy. The dryer is beneficial to the operators, particularly in southern Thailand, where continuous drying is required. This dryer is by no means limited to drying of the herb. Currently, four dryers of the same model have been used by farmer groups in southern Thailand for drying bananas, several types of herbs, fish, and other products. In economic consideration, its payback period is 5.5 years when compared with the LPG-equipped dryer. When the total cost and production capacity are considered, its payback period is about 6 years.

  16. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action.

  17. In vitro anti-cancer activities of Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn.) extracts on human colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Sainakham, Mathukorn; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2016-03-01

    The whole seed (W), endosperm (E) and hull (H) of five cultivars of Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. var. ma-yuen Stapf) including Thai Black Phayao, Thai Black Loei, Laos Black Loei, Laos White Loei and Laos Black Luang Phra Bang were processed before solvent extraction by non-cooking, roasting, boiling and steaming Each part of the Job's tears was extracted by the cold and hot process by refluxing with methanol and hexane. The total of 330 extracts included 150 methanol extracts and 180 hexane extracts were investigated for anti-proliferative activity on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The extracts which gave high anti-proliferative activity were tested for apoptotic activity by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining and anti-oxidative activities including free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. The extract from the hull of Thai Black Loei roasted before extracting by hot methanol (M-HTBL-R2) showed the highest anti-proliferative activity on HT-29 with the IC50 values of 11.61 ± 0.95 μg/ml, while the extract from the non-cooked hull of Thai Black Loei by cold methanol extraction (M-HTBL-N1) gave the highest apoptosis (8.17 ± 1.18%) with no necrosis. In addition, M-HTBL-R2 and M-HTBL-N1 indicated free radical scavenging activity at the SC50 values of 0.48 ± 0.12 and 2.47 ± 1.15 mg/ml, respectively. This study has demonstrated the anti-colorectal cancer potential of the M-HTBL-R2 and M-HTBL-N1 extracts.

  18. Restoration of energy metabolism in leukemic mice treated by a siddha drug--Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugapriya, Dhanasekaran; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2008-05-09

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder characterized by proliferation of hematopoietic cells that possess the BCR-ABL fusion gene resulting in the production of a 210 kDa chimeric tyrosine kinase protein. CML, when left untreated, progresses to a blast phase during which the disease turns aggressive and shows poor response to known treatment regimens. We have studied a Siddha herbal agent, Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) for its antileukemic activity and its effect on the changes in energy metabolism in leukemic mice. Leukemia was induced in BALB/c mice by tail vein injection of BCR-ABL(+) 12B1 murine leukemia cell line. This resulted in an aggressive leukemia, similar to CML in blast crisis, myeloid subtype, confirmed by histopathological study and RT-PCR for the p210 mRNA in the peripheral blood, spleen and liver. Leukemia-bearing mice showed a significant increase in lipid peroxides, glycolytic enzymes, a decrease in gluconeogenic enzymes and significant decrease in the activities of TCA cycle and respiratory chain enzymes as compared to control animals. SA treatment was compared with standard drug imatinib mesylate. SA administration to leukemic animals resulted in clearance of the leukemic cells from the bone marrow and internal organs on histopathological examination and this was confirmed by RT-PCR for the p210 mRNA. Treatment with SA significantly reversed the changes seen in the levels of the lipid peroxides, the glycolytic enzymes, the gluconeogenic enzymes and the mitochondrial enzymes. These effects are probably due to the flavonoids, polyphenols and other compounds present in SA which result in total regression of leukemia and correction of the alterations in energy metabolism. Study of animals treated with SA alone did not reveal any adverse effects. On the basis of the observed results, SA can be considered as a readily accessible, promising and novel antileukemic chemotherapeutic agent.

  19. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro antioxidative effect and antimicrobial potential against standard human pathogenic strains

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively with n-butanol, chloroform and acetone solvents. Methanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant screening using DPPH free radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extract and fractions were analyzed on eight different clinical bacterial and fungal strains using agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method (MIC and MMC determination. The antioxidant activity showed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed potent inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacterial strains while in case of fungal strains the maximum effect was observed against Candida blanki. The maximum zone of inhibition of n-butanol, chloroform and acetone fractions was observed against B. subtilis, and E. coli respectively while all fractions exhibited potent inhibitory effect against C. blanki. MIC and MBC values were determined for active samples, methanol extract and chloroform fraction against Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which revealed lower MIC and MBC values. The fungal strains Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. blanki were used to calculate MIC and MFC values for methanol extract and acetone fraction which demonstrated lower MIC and MFC values. The results provided evidence that the plant is richly supplied with numerous phytoconstituents that might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant, antimicrobial agents and supplementary food.

  20. Mineral composition of Tamarindus indica LINN (tamarind) pulp and seeds from different agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Jaspher; Okullo, John B L; Eilu, Gerald; Nyeko, Philip; Obua, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Mineral composition of dry Tamarindus indica LINN pulp and seeds was evaluated on samples collected from three different agro-ecological zones of Uganda (Lake Victoria Crescent, and Eastern and West Nile). The objective of the study was to evaluate the mineral composition of T. indica pulp and seed samples from across Uganda's different agro-ecological zones and land use types. Separately grounded samples of T. indica pulp and seeds were analyzed for Zn, Fe, Mg, P, Na, K, and Ca. The univariate analysis of variance in the General Linear Model was used to compare differences in mineral composition. Treatment means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) in Post Hoc Tests. The results showed that there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.005) in mineral composition levels of T. indica pulp and seed samples between the different agro-ecological zones with the exception of P and Na (for pulp). The T. indica pulp and seeds samples from the Lake Victoria Crescent zone and wild land use type had generally higher mineral levels than T. indica samples from other agro-ecological zones and different land use types. As mineral composition levels were generally higher in the seed than the pulp samples, consumption of T. indica seeds should be promoted. There is also need to conserve individual species both on-farm and in the wild population, but T. indica mineral concentrations (both pulp and seeds) were higher in the samples from the wild population, making them good for human and animal diets.

  1. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, P; Gupta, Neelu

    2005-04-01

    The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituent present in Ocimum sanctum L., has been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials of Tulsi. Although because of its great therapeutic potentials and wide occurrence in India the practitioners of traditional systems of medicine have been using Ocimum sanctum L. for curing various ailments, a rational approach to this traditional medical practice with modern system of medicine is, however, not much available. In order to establish the therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum L. in modern medicine, in last few decades several Indian scientists and researchers have studied the pharmacological effects of steam distilled, petroleum ether and benzene extracts of various parts of Tulsi plant and eugenol on immune system, reproductive system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastric system, urinary system and blood biochemistry and have described the therapeutic significance of Tulsi in management of various ailments. These pharmacological studies have established a scientific basis for therapeutic uses of this plant.

  2. Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters and Liver Enzymes in Young Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Swayamjeet; Das, Namrata; Bandyopadhyay, Debapriya; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra; Sahu, Dip Sundar; Meda, Mruthyumjayarao

    2017-07-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn. (also known as Tulsi) is a sacred Indian plant, the beneficial role of which, in obesity and diabetes is described traditionally. This is a randomized, parallel group, open label pilot study to investigate the effect of O. sanctum on metabolic and biochemical parameters in thirty overweight/obese subjects, divided into two groups A and B. Group A (n = 16) received one 250 mg capsule of Tulsi (O. sanctum) extract twice daily in empty stomach for 8 weeks and group B (n = 14) received no intervention. Statistically significant improvements in the values of serum triglycerides (p = 0.019); low density lipoprotein (p = 0.001); high density lipoprotein (p = 0.001); very low density lipoprotein (p = 0.019); Body Mass Index, BMI (p = 0.005); plasma insulin (p = 0.021) and insulin resistance (p = 0.049) were observed after 8 weeks in the O. sanctum intervention group. The improvement in HDL-C in the intervention group when compared to the control group was also statistically significant (p = 0.037). There was no significant alteration of the liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT in both the intervention (p = 0.141; p = 0.074) and control arms (p = 0.102; p = 0.055) respectively. These observations clearly indicate the beneficial effects of O. sanctum on various biochemical parameters in young overweight/obese subjects.

  3. Efeito antibacteriano e antiaderente in vitro do extrato da Punica granatum Linn. sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozinete V. Pereira

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana e a capacidade de inibição da síntese de glucano in vitro do extrato da casca do fruto da romã (Punica granatum Linn. sobre linhagens bacterianas de Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus sobrinus e Lactobacillus casei. Os ensaios foram realizados pelas técnicas de ágar-difusão em placas para determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e técnica dos tubos inclinados para determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima de Aderência (CIMA ao vidro, na presença de 5% de sacarose. Os mesmos procedimentos foram realizados com a clorexidina à 0,12%. As CIMs (mg/mL do extrato da P. granatum frente ao S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguis, S. sobrinus e L. casei foram 1:32, 1:8, 1:8, 1:512, e 1:128, respectivamente. Para as CIMAs o extrato da P. granatum mostrou resultados melhores que a clorexidina, exceto para o S. mutans com achados semelhantes na diluição de 1:256. Os resultados mostram a potencialidade da P. granatum na inibição do crescimento bacteriano e síntese de glucano representada pela aderência ao vidro, sugerindo o emprego do extrato da romã, como meio alternativo, no controle desses microrganismos na formação do biofilme.

  4. Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats

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    A. Elkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Nigella sativa Linn (NsL oil against subacute tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in adult male albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control group; 30 rats equally subdivided into: Ia; −ve control group, Ib; +ve control group received saline, Ic; +ve control group received corn oil. Group II: 10 rats received NsL oil; 1 mg/kg in 1 ml corn oil/day, group III: 10 rats received tramadol; 30 mg/kg/day, group IV: 10 rats received tramadol + NsL oil in the previous doses. Treatments were given by gavage for 30 days. Then rats were sacrificed and specimens from the livers and kidneys were taken for biochemical and histopathological study. Biochemical data showed elevated liver enzymes; alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, bilirubin as well as urea and creatinine in tramadol group. A significant increase in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels were also noticed. Histological analysis of the liver showed vacuolated hepatocyte cytoplasm indicating hydropic degeneration with binucleated cells, apoptotic nuclei, congested central veins, cellular infiltration and hemorrhage. Kidney sections revealed atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts and wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules, hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration. There was also an increase in area % of collagen fibers in both organs. Concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol induced partial improvement in the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects. In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential.

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assam, Assam J P; Dzoyem, J P; Pieme, C A; Penlap, V B

    2010-07-27

    Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 microg/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 microg/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 microg/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract.

  6. Inhibition of melanogenesis versus antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and chemical composition analysis by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Long-Zen; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-03-30

    This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%), monoterpenes (19.25%), esters (14.77%), alcohols (8.53%), aromatic compound (5.90%), ketone (4.96%), ethers (0.4%) that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant.

  7. Effect of extracts of murraya koenigii spreng. And morus alba linn. On the age of attainment of puberty and ovarian folliculogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, M S; Veena, T; Swamy, M Narayana

    2010-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (PMurraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn.

  8. Evaluation of anti-epileptic property of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced rat models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehunsu, Adhikari; Mukunda, N; Satish Kumar, M C; Sadhana, Nandi; Naduvil Narayanan, Sareesh; Vijay Kapgal, K; Avinash, H; Chandrashekar, B R; Raghavendra Rao, K; Nayak, B Satheesha

    2013-01-01

    To study the anti-epileptic effects of methanolic extract of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) in maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced rat models of epilepsy. A total of 84 adult male Wistar rats were used. An acute oral toxicity study was conducted on 36 rats and the remaining were used for other experiments. Each model had 24 rats which were allotted into four groups (n = 6). Group I (Control) received 1% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, Group II (Positive control) received phenytoin 300 mg kg(-1) b.w. in the MES model; sodium valproate 200 mg kg(-1) b.w. in the PTZ model, Group III (MQ) received 400 mg kg(-1) b.w. MQ extract and Group IV (MQ) received 600 mg kg(-1) b.w. MQ extract. Hind limb extension (HLE) time and recovery time were noted in the MES model. Latency for myoclonic jerk, seizures and EEG was recorded in the PTZ model. When compared to control, the phenytoin received group did not show HLE. In MQ pre-treated groups only 50% of rats showed HLE. Sodium valproate and various doses of MQ significantly increased the latency for onset of clonus and seizures. PTZ-induced EEG alterations were significantly attenuated by MQ administration and this was comparable to that of the sodium valproate effect. Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. showed significant anti-epileptic efficacy against various epilepsy models.

  9. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. exerts chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishayee, Anupam, E-mail: abishayee@auhs.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, CA 90755 (United States); Mandal, Animesh [Cancer Therapeutics and Chemoprevention Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dietary administration of an ethanolic extract of aerial parts of T. portulacastrum (TPE) exhibits a striking chemopreventive effect in an experimentally induced classical animal model of breast cancer. • The mammary tumor-inhibitory effect of TPE could be achieved, at least in part, though intervention of key hallmark capabilities of tumor cells, such as abnormal cell proliferation and evasion of apoptosis. • TPE is capable of diminishing activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling to exhibit antiproliferative, proapoptotic and oncostatic effects during this early-stage mammary carcinoma. • These results coupled with a safety profile of T. portulacastrum may encourage further studies to understand the full potential of this dietary plant for chemoprevention of breast cancer. - Abstract: Due to limited treatment options for advanced-stage metastatic breast cancer, a high priority should be given to develop non-toxic chemopreventive drugs. The value of various natural and dietary agents to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer is well established. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Aizoaceae), a dietary and medicinal plant, has been found to exert antihepatotoxic and antihepatocarcinogenic properties in rodents. This study was initiated to investigate mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of an ethanolic extract of T. portulacastrum (TPE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary gland carcinogenesis, an experimental tumor model that closely resembles human breast cancer. Rats had access to a basal diet supplemented with TPE to yield three dietary doses of the extract, i.e., 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Following two weeks of TPE treatment, mammary tumorigenesis was initiated by oral administration of DMBA (50 mg/kg body weight). At the end of the study (16 weeks after DMBA exposure), TPE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden and average tumor weight

  10. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  11. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine.

  12. The Main Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd. Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%, (Z-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%, cyclohexene (4.41%, α- cadinol (3.99%, 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%, 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%, β-cubebene (1.97%, guaia-1(10,11-diene (1.58%, cadinene (1.41% (E-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36% and β-guaiene (1.30%. The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi.

  13. DAYA HAMBAT INFUSA RIMPANG KUNYIT (Curcuma longa Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Escherichia coli dan Vibrio sp. pada IKAN KERAPU LUMPUR (Epinephelus tauvina di PASAR KEDONGANAN KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI

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    Ni Putu Sinta Puspa Dewi

    2017-09-01

    inhibited turmeric infusa rhizome is determined by counting the population of bacteria test after treatment by the method of dilution sampling (Plating Method. The results showed that turmeric rhizome infusion was able significantly (P<0,05 inhibitionto the growth of E. coli and Vibrio sp. both in vitro and in vivo. The control (0% in vitro population E. coli and Vibrio sp. each of 5,23x102 CFU/g and 4,98x102 CFU/g higher than with the treatment of concentration 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Population E. coli and Vibrio sp. in testing by in vivo (concentration 0% each is obtained 4,17x102 CFU/g dan 4,20x102 CFU/g in statistic is different (P<0,05 with the concentration 10%, 15% and 20%. Keywords: Epinephelus tauvina, Curcuma longa Linn, E. coli, Vibrio sp.

  14. Effects of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) on pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptiform activity in F1 neurones of Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janahmadi, Mahyar; Niazi, Farshad; Danyali, Samira; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2006-03-08

    The effect of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) (syn. Cuminum odorum Salisb) on the epileptiform activity induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was evaluated, using intracellular technique. The results demonstrated that extracellular application of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum (1% and 3%) dramatically decreased the frequency of spontaneous activity induced by PTZ in a time and concentration dependent manner. In addition it showed protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptic activity by increasing the duration, decreasing the amplitude of after hyperpolarization potential (AHP) following the action potential, the peak of action potential, and inhibition of the firing rate. These membrane effects suggest cellular mechanisms by which the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum can inhibit the PTZ-induced epileptic activity.

  15. Green synthesis of Ag/Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposite using Euphorbia peplus Linn leaf extract and evaluation of its catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohaddeseh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Mohammad Sajadi, S

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was prepared by Euphorbia peplus Linn (L.) leaf extract as a suitable reducing source and stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and FT-IR spectroscopy. TEM analysis of Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposite showed the spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with an average size of 5-10nm. The Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposite then was used as a magnetically recoverable catalyst for the [2+3] cycloaddition of arylcyanamides and sodium azide in high yields and short reaction times without formation of hydrazoic acid (HN3). Also it can be easily recovered via applying of external magnetic field and reused several times without significant loss of activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn. on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, P; Borah, M; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    The fruit of Cassia fistula Linn. is a legume, has antioxidant and lots of other medicinal properties. As oxidants are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome, the present study was done to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of C. fistula Linn. (EECF) on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Albino mice of 25-40 grams were grouped into five groups (n=5). Group A served as naive control and group B served as stress control. Group C received EECF 200 mg/kg and group D received EECF 400 mg/kg respectively. Group E received imipramine 20 mg/kg (standard). All animals were treated with their respective agent orally daily for 7 days. Except for group A, animals in other groups were subjected to force swimming 6 min daily for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was assessed on day 1(st), 3(rd), 5(th) and 7(th). Anxiety level (by elevated plus maze and mirrored chamber) and loco-motor activity (by open field test) were assessed 24 h after last force swimming followed by biochemical estimations of oxidative biomarkers in brain homogenate at the end of study. Treatment with EECF resulted in significant reduction in the duration of immobility, reduced anxiety and increased loco-motor activity. Malondialdehyde level was also reduced and catalase level was increased in the extract treated group and standard group compared to stress control group. The study indicates that EECF has protective effect against experimentally induced CFS.

  18. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.

  19. Estudos com o extrato da Punica granatum Linn. (romã: efeito antimicrobiano in vitro e avaliação clínica de um dentifrício sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental = Studies with the extract of the punica granatum linn. (pomegranate: effect antimicrobial “in vitro” and trial avaliation of a toothpaste upon microrganisms of the oral biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, Jozinete Vieira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana in vitro, CIM (Concentração Inibitória Mínima, CIMA (Concentração Inibitória Mínima de Aderência e a CBM (Concentração Mínima Bactericida do extrato da romã (Punica granatum Linn. foi avaliada em cinco linhagens bacterianas do biofilme dental: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus sobrinus e Lactobacillus casei. Em estudo comparativo com o gluconato de clorexidina, os resultados demonstraram efetiva ação inibitória de ambas as substâncias. O extrato da romã foi efetivo na CIMA das cinco linhagens ensaiadas, representada pela ausência de aderência ao vidro na presença de sacarose. A atividade antimicrobiana in vivo do extrato da romã foi testada em 13 pacientes, através do uso de um dentrifício a base desse extrato e foi observadas redução do número de Streptococcus mutans (53,84% e Índice de Sangramento Gengival. Conclui-se, portanto, que o extrato da Punica granatum Linn. , apresentou potente atividade antimicrobiana in vivo e in vitro sobre as linhagens do biofilme dental. Os resultados sugerem a utilização do extrato da romã em indicações terapêuticas na prática odontológica

  20. Assessment of an in-channel redistribution technique for large woody debris management in Locust Creek, Linn County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation and Missouri Department of Natural Resources, completed a study to assess a mechanical redistribution technique used for the management of large woody debris (LWD) jams in Locust Creek within Pershing State Park and Fountain Grove Conservation Area, Linn County, Missouri. Extensive LWD jams were treated from 1996 to 2009 using a low-impact technique in which LWD from the jams was redistributed to reopen the channel and to mimic the natural geomorphic process of channel migration and adjustment to an obstruction. The scope of the study included the comparison of selected channel geometry characteristics and bed material particle-size distribution in seven LWD treatment reaches with that of adjacent untreated reaches (unaffected by LWD accumulations) of Locust Creek. A comparison of 1996 and 2015 survey cross sections in treated and untreated reaches and photograph documentation were used to assess channel geomorphic change and the stability of redistributed LWD. The physical characteristics of LWD within jams present in the study reach during 2015–16 also were documented.Based on the general lack of differences in channel metrics between treated and untreated reaches, it can be concluded that the mechanical redistribution technique has been an effective treatment of extensive LWD jams in Locust Creek. Channel alterations, including aggradation, streamflow piracy, and diversions, have resulted in temporal and spatial changes in the Locust Creek channel that may affect future applications of the redistribution technique in Pershing State Park. The redistribution technique was used to effectively manage LWD in Locust Creek at a potentially lower financial cost and reduced environmental disturbance than the complete removal of LWD.A comparison of four channel metrics (bankfull cross-sectional area, channel width, streamflow capacity, and width-depth ratio) for individual treatment

  1. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112 Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos fármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raça definida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (ASTResearch on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainly tannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form. However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  2. Annona muricata Linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    presence of a characteristic vinyl proton δ 7.24 (H-35, d), which is characteristic for α, β- unsaturated γ-lactone was confirmed by the 1H-NMR spectrum. The compound was thus elucidated to be 15-acetyl guanacone, an acetogenin. This acetogenin has not been reported in. Annona muricata previously. The compound was ...

  3. Streptopelia senegalensis (Linn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two groups of eggs represent periods prior and subsequent to the introduction of agricultural pesticides in southern Africa. Although no definite link has been established the results merit further experimental studies to determine whether the observed changes could be ascribed to the increased usage of agricultural ...

  4. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD, a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2′- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  5. POTENSI MINYAK ATSIRI RIMPANG JERINGAU (Acorus calamus Linn SEBAGAI PENGHAMBAT PERTUMBUHAN Fusarium solani, JAMUR PATOGEN PENYEBAB BUSUK BATANG PADA BUAH NAGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Susanah Rita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Isolasi dan uji aktivitas minyak atsiri rimpang jeringau (Acorus calamus Linn sebagai penghambat pertumbuhan jamur patogen Fusarium solani telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antijamur terhadap Fusarium solani dan kandungan utama dari minyak atsiri rimpang jeringau. Ekstraksi minyak atsiri dilakukan dengan metode destilasi uap, sedangkan uji aktivitas antijamur dilakukan dengan metode sumur difusi, dan identifikasi dilakukan dengan gas kromatografi – spektrometri massa (GC-MS. Ekstraksi 10 kg rimpang jeringau menghasilkan 13,39 gram minyak dengan hasil rendemen sebesar 0,1339%. Minyak atsiri memiliki warna kuning dan bau yang sangat tajam. Hasil uji aktivitas antijamur Fusarium solani terhadap minyak atsiri konsentrasi 10% menunjukkan aktivitas kuat dengan daya hambat sebesar 10,00 mm. Nilai Minimum Inhibitory Consentration (MIC sebesar 2,0 % (v/v dengan diameter hambat sebesar 5,50 mm. Hasil uji daya hambat pertumbuhan koloni, spora, dan biomassa jamur meningkat dengan kenaikan konsentrasi minyak atsiri. Analisis dengan gas kromatografi – spektrometri massa (GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa komponen terbesar minyak atsiri jeringau adalah senyawa asaron.     ABSTRACT: Isolation and Activity test of Jeringau rhizome’s essential oil (Acorus Calamus Linn to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogen, Fusarium solani has been performed. The aim of this research are to determine the antifungal activity and essential oil’s components of Jeringau rhizome. The extraction process was performed by steam distillation method, antifungal activity was analysed by well diffusion method, and the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS was used to determine the essential oil components. The yield of essential oil was 0.1339% and has yellow colour with pungent smell. At concentration of 10.0%, the essential oil extract gave the strong activity to inhibit the Fusarium solani, with 10 mm in diameter. Minimum Inhibitory

  6. Simultaneous determination of quercetin, rutin and kaempferol in the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Raphinus sativus Linn. by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Venkatapura C; Krishna, Burdipad G; Viswanatha, Gollapalle L

    2011-09-01

    To develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze quercetin (QU), rutin (RU) and kaempferol (KA) simultaneously in the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Raphinus sativus Linn. Samples were prepared by extracting the leaves of the M. oleifera and R. sativus by cold-maceration technique using 90% ethanol. Chromatographic separation was operated with a mixture of 0.2% formic acid in water and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column with a total run time of 5.01 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 303.03 to 153.1 for QU, 611.1 to 303.1 for RU, 287.1 to 153.2 for KA and 180.1 to 110.1 for internal standard. The lower limit of quantitation achieved for QU, RU and KA was 5 ng/mL and the linearity was observed from 5 to 2 000 ng/mL. The correlation coefficients of linear regression analysis were 0.994 6, 0.995 1 and 0.996 9 for QU, RU and KA, respectively. The results indicate that the LC-MS/MS method is fast and sensitive and may provide excellent specificity for simultaneous determination of QU, RU and KA in leaf extracts of M.oleifera and R.sativus.

  7. Molecular docking studies of bioactive compounds from Annona muricata Linn as potential inhibitors for Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Rosdi, Mohamad Norisham; Mohd Arif, Shahkila; Abu Bakar, Mohamad Hafizi; Razali, Siti Aisyah; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden; Ya'akob, Harisun

    2018-01-01

    Annona muricata Linn or usually identified as soursop is a potential anticancer plant that has been widely reported to contain valuable chemopreventive agents known as annonaceous acetogenins. The antiproliferative and anticancer activities of this tropical and subtropical plant have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal studies. A. muricata L. exerts inhibition against numerous types of cancer cells, involving multiple mechanism of actions such as apoptosis, a programmed cell death that are mainly regulated by Bcl-2 family of proteins. Nonetheless, the binding mode and the molecular interactions of the plant's bioactive constituents have not yet been unveiled for most of these mechanisms. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the binding interaction of ten bioactive phytochemicals of A. muricata L. to three Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 using an in silico molecular docking analysis software, Autodock 4.2. The stability of the complex with highest affinity was evaluated using MD simulation. We compared the docking analysis of these substances with pre-clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor namely obatoclax. The study identified the potential chemopreventive agent among the bioactive compounds. We also characterized the important interacting residues of protein targets which involve in the binding interaction. Results displayed that anonaine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, showed a high affinity towards the Bcl-2, thus indicating that this compound is a potent inhibitor of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic family of proteins.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  9. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT PARTS OF BAUHUNIA PURPUREA LINN. PLANT IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    A. K. Brahmachari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.

  10. Antimicrobial, anthelmintic activities and characterisation of functional phenolic acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds and ringworm in East Africa

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    Ashwell Rungano Ndhlala

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower (English is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. aspera collected from two different geographical locations (Ciaat, Eritrea and Ukulinga, South Africa were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic activities and the plant characterised for functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, a filamentus yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans and a free-living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans. The water and acetone extracts of the samples collected from Ciaat exhibited good antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity (MIC < 1 mg/ml except the water extract against E. coli which showed moderate activity. In contrast, the extracts collected from Ukulinga exhibited moderate to weak activities except for the acetone (aq. extracts which had good activity against some of the tested organisms. UHPLC-MS/MS revealed variation in the levels of some functional phenolic compounds, with rutin, chlorogenic acid and genistein not being detected in the extracts from Ukulinga. The variation was also observed in the protein binding capacity, which could offer a predictive wound healing model. All extracts from plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga.

  11. Evaluation of the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn. in experimental animals

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    Wantana Reanmongkol

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ethanol and dichloromethane extracts from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn.(G. mangostana on nociceptive response using writhing and hot plate tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeastinduced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats was also investigated. The ethanol extract (400, 800 mg/kg, p.o. significantly suppressed the writhings induced by acetic acid. The dichloromethane extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o. also decreased acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Neither theethanol extract nor dichloromethane extract had significant effects on antinociceptive response in the hot plate test. No significanteffects on yeast-induced fever were observed after oral administration of the ethanol and dichloromethane extractsin rats. Either oral administration (800 mg/kg of the ethanol extract or dichloromethane extract significantly decreased therat paw edema induced by carrageenin. These results suggest that the ethanol and dichloromethane extracts from the fruithull of G. mangostana possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions but no antipyretic action and one mechanism of action of the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts may involve in cyclooxygenase (COX inhibition.

  12. The ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit exhibits a biphasic effect on the dopaminergic system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Vijeepallam, Kamini; Mohan, Syam; Mani, Vasudevan; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2017-08-05

    In earlier ex vivo studies, we reported the biphasic effect of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia fruit (MMC) on dopamine-induced contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. The present in vivo study was designed and undertaken to further explore our earlier ex vivo findings. This study examined the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (EA-MMC; 5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) on the dopaminergic system using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior, methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (sniffing, biting, gnawing, and licking) and haloperidol-induced catalepsy using the bar test. Acute treatment with EA-MMC at a low dose (25 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior in mice. Similarly, EA-MMC (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior in mice. These results demonstrated that the antidopaminergic effect of EA-MMC was observed at relatively lower doses (1,000 mg/kg, p.o.). However, further receptor-ligand binding assays are necessary to confirm the biphasic effects of M. citrifolia fruit on the dopaminergic system.

  13. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC.

  14. Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are α-mangostin and γ-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of α-mangostin and γ-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of α-mangostin and γ-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril.

  15. Therapeutic effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on carbohydrate metabolizing and mitochondrial TCA cycle and respiratory chain enzymes in mammary carcinoma rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arathi, G; Sachdanandam, P

    2003-09-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. of the family Anacardiaceae has many applications in the Ayurvedic and Siddha systems of medicine. We have evaluated the effect of S. anacardium nut milk extract on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory enzymes in liver and kidney mitochondria of dimethyl benzanthracene-induced mammary carcinoma in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mammary carcinoma-bearing rats showed a significant rise in glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase and aldolase) and a simultaneous fall in gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase). The activities of mitochondrial enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH-dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were significantly lowered in mammary carcinoma-bearing rats when compared with control rats. S. anacardium nut extract administration to tumour-induced animals significantly lowered the glycolytic enzyme activities (hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase and aldolase) and there was a rise in gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase), which indicated an antitumour and anticancer effect. Comparison of normal control rats and rats administered S. anacardium only as drug control animals showed no significant variations in enzyme activities. S. anacardium nut extract administration to dimethyl benzanthracene-tumour-induced animals significantly increased the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, thereby suggesting its role in mitochondrial energy production.

  16. Ameliorating effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on altered glucose metabolism in high fat diet STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2012-12-01

    To explore the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium (S. anacardium)on altered glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by feeding rats with high fat diet followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg b.w.). Seven days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received nut milk extract of S. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The effect of nut milk extract of S. anacardium on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose metabolising enzymes and GSK were studied. Treatment with SA extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and increase in plasma insulin levels and also increase in HOMA - β and decrease in HOMA -IR. The drug significantly increased the activity of glycolytic enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased the glycogen content in liver of diabetic rats while reducing the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. The drug also effectively ameliorated the alterations in GSK-3 mRNA expression. Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucose regulation of S. anacardium suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract, an indigenous drug preparation, modulates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species levels and antioxidative system in adjuvant arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2005-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are highly reactive transient chemical species, which play an important role in the etiology of tissue injury in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The effects of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut (SA) was studied on adjuvant arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis (10 mg/ml of paraffin oil) intradermally into the left hind paw. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO), ROS (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, H(2)O(2) and myeloperoxidase) and RNS (nitrate+nitrite) observed in adjuvant arthritic animals were found to be significantly decreased on administration of the drug at 150 mg/kg body weight/day. The antioxidant defense system studied in arthritic animals were altered significantly as evidenced by the decrease in antioxidants. Treatment with SA recouped the altered antioxidant defense components to near normal levels. These evidences suggest that the free radical mediated damage during arthritis could have been controlled by SA by its free radical quenching and antioxidative potential. (Mol Cell Biochem 276: 97-104, 2005).

  18. Therapeutic effects of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on the changes associated with collagen and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in adjuvant arthritic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-07-25

    The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease with reference to collagen metabolism. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant containing 10mg of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1 ml paraffin oil (0.1 ml) into the left hind paw of the rat intradermally. After 14 days of induction, SA (150 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally by gastric intubations for 14 days. Decreased levels of collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGS) components (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate, hyaluronic acid) and increase in the levels of connective tissue degrading lysosomal glycohydrolases such as acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase and cathepsin-D observed in arthritic animals were reverted back to near normal levels upon treatment with SA. The drug effectively regulated the uriniray markers of collagen metabolism namely hexosamine, hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and total GAGS. Electron microscopic studies also revealed the protective effect of SA. Hence, it can be suggested that SA very effectively regulate the collagen metabolism that derange during arthritic condition.

  19. Synergistic Uric Acid-Lowering Effects of the Combination of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne Flower and Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Persl Bark Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sil; Son, Eunjung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Ohn Soon

    2017-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum Linne flower (CF) and Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Persl bark (CB) extracts have served as the main ingredients in several prescriptions designed to treat hyperuricemia and gout in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine. However, little is known about the combination effects of a CF and CB (CC) mixture on hyperuricemia. In our study, we investigated the antihyperuricemic effects of CC mixture and the mechanisms underlying these effects in normal and potassium oxonate- (PO-) induced hyperuricemic rats. The CC mixture significantly decreased uric acid levels in normal and PO-induced hyperuricemic rats and showed the enhanced hypouricemic effect compared to CF or CB alone. Furthermore, the CC mixture increased renal uric acid excretion in PO-induced hyperuricemic rat. We found that CC mixture and its major components, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (isochlorogenic acid), coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, trans-cinnamic acid, and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase (XOD) in vitro. The CC mixture exerts antihyperuricemic effects accompanied partially by XOD activity inhibition. Therefore, the CC mixture may have potential as a treatment for hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:28769989

  20. Synergistic Uric Acid-Lowering Effects of the Combination of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne Flower and Cinnamomum cassia (L. J. Persl Bark Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sil Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum Linne flower (CF and Cinnamomum cassia (L. J. Persl bark (CB extracts have served as the main ingredients in several prescriptions designed to treat hyperuricemia and gout in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine. However, little is known about the combination effects of a CF and CB (CC mixture on hyperuricemia. In our study, we investigated the antihyperuricemic effects of CC mixture and the mechanisms underlying these effects in normal and potassium oxonate- (PO- induced hyperuricemic rats. The CC mixture significantly decreased uric acid levels in normal and PO-induced hyperuricemic rats and showed the enhanced hypouricemic effect compared to CF or CB alone. Furthermore, the CC mixture increased renal uric acid excretion in PO-induced hyperuricemic rat. We found that CC mixture and its major components, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (isochlorogenic acid, coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, trans-cinnamic acid, and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase (XOD in vitro. The CC mixture exerts antihyperuricemic effects accompanied partially by XOD activity inhibition. Therefore, the CC mixture may have potential as a treatment for hyperuricemia and gout.

  1. Synergistic Uric Acid-Lowering Effects of the Combination of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne Flower and Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Persl Bark Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sil; Son, Eunjung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Ohn Soon; Kim, Dong-Seon

    2017-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum Linne flower (CF) and Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Persl bark (CB) extracts have served as the main ingredients in several prescriptions designed to treat hyperuricemia and gout in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine. However, little is known about the combination effects of a CF and CB (CC) mixture on hyperuricemia. In our study, we investigated the antihyperuricemic effects of CC mixture and the mechanisms underlying these effects in normal and potassium oxonate- (PO-) induced hyperuricemic rats. The CC mixture significantly decreased uric acid levels in normal and PO-induced hyperuricemic rats and showed the enhanced hypouricemic effect compared to CF or CB alone. Furthermore, the CC mixture increased renal uric acid excretion in PO-induced hyperuricemic rat. We found that CC mixture and its major components, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (isochlorogenic acid), coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, trans-cinnamic acid, and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase (XOD) in vitro. The CC mixture exerts antihyperuricemic effects accompanied partially by XOD activity inhibition. Therefore, the CC mixture may have potential as a treatment for hyperuricemia and gout.

  2. An in vitro analysis of the total phenolic content, antioxidant power, physical, physicochemical, and chemical composition of Terminalia Catappa Linn fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues Marques

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the antioxidant, total phenolic, and physicochemical properties of in vitro Terminalia Catappa Linn (locally called castanhola using the DPPH assay. The castanhola fruits had an average weight of 19.60 ± 0.00 g, combining shell, pulp, and seed weight, and a soluble solids content of 8 °Brix. The chemical composition was determined with predominance of carbohydrates (76,88 ± 0,58%.The titration method was used to determine Vitamin C content using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCFI, known as reactive Tillmans resulting in no significant levels. Aqueous extracts of castanhola pulp showed a higher concentration of phenolics, 244.33 ± 18.86 GAE.g-1 of fruit, and alcoholic extracts, 142.84 ± 2.09 GAE.g-1 of fruit. EC50 values of the aqueous extract showed a greater ability to scavenge free radicals than the alcoholic extracts. The fruit had a significant content of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant capacity.

  3. Efek Antidiabetes Kombinasi Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum Linn. dan Rimpang Kunyit (Curcumma domestica Val. dengan Pembanding Glibenklamid pada Penderita Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2

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    Ame Suciati Setiawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. and curcumin extract (Curcumma domestica Val. can be used as an antidiabetic oral to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients and the clinical trial showed that the extract can decrease blood glucose at a dose 2.4 g/day. This clinical trial was conducted to know the antidiabetic effect of the combination of garlic and curcumin extract compared with antidiabetic oral, glibenclamide. The subjects were >35 years of age with type 2 DM who came to internal and endocrine clinic RSUP. Hasan Sadikin Bandung and has been treated with medical nutrition therapy for 2 weeks period November 2007–December 2008. The research design was parallel, randomized and double blind. The combination of garlic and curcumin extract decreased mean value of fasting blood glucose 9.25 mg/dL, 2h PP blood glucose 22.25 mg/dL, HbA1c 1,30% and insulin 12.57 mg/ dL compared with baseline whereas glibenclamide decreased the mean value of fasting blood glucose 72.37 mg/dL, 2h PP 114,25 mg/dL, HbA1c 4.12% and increased insulin 3.34 mg/dL. In conclusion, the extract combination has antidiabetic effect eventhough the effect was not as high as glibenclamide

  4. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  5. Plant regeneration through callus organogenesis and true-to-type conformity of plants by RAPD analysis in Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvathur, Meena K; Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

    2013-03-01

    An efficient plant regeneration protocol was established for an endangered ethnomedicinal plant Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. Morphogenic calli were produced from 96 % of the cultures comprising the immature leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (4.0 mg l(-1)) in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.8 mg l(-1)). For callus regeneration, various concentrations of BA (1.0-5.0 mg l(-1)) or thidiazuron (TDZ; 1.0-5.0 mg l(-1)) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.2-1.0 mg l(-1)) were used. Highest response of shoot regeneration was observed on MS medium fortified with TDZ (4.0 mg l(-1)) and IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) combination. Here, 100 % cultures responded with an average number of 22.3 shoots per gram calli. Inclusion of indole-3-butyric acid in half MS medium favored rooting of recovered shoots. Out of 45 rooted plants transferred to soil, 40 survived. Total DNA was extracted from the leaves of the acclimatized plants of D. gangeticum. Analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA using 13 arbitrary decanucleotide primers showed the genetic homogeneity in all the ten plants regenerated from callus with parental plant, suggesting that shoot regeneration from callus could be used for the true-to-type multiplication of this plant.

  6. Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

    2015-04-15

    Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN BUAS-BUAS (Premna cordifolia Linn. TERHADAP GAMBARAN HISTOPATOLOGI PARU TIKUS (Rattus norvegicus WISTAR JANTAN PASCA PAPARAN ASAP ROKOK

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    Kristina Lusty Tohomi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is one of free radical source that can cause oxidative stress, emphysema, and inflamation on lung. Leaves of Premna cordifolia Linn. is one of antioxidant that can neutralize the free radical in body. The purpose of the research  is to find the antioxidant activity of Premna cordifolia leaves in reducing lung’s damage and to find the effective dose that can reduce lung’s damage after exposure of cigarette smoke. Dried leaves of Premna cordifolia are maserated with ethanol 70%.  Rats are divided into five groups, Group without treatment (CMC control, group that exposed to smoke, three groups that treated with 200 (P1, 400 (P2, and 600mg/kgBW (P3 of ethanolic extract of Premna cordifolia leaves after smoke exposure, and one group that treated with 18mg/kgBW of vitamin E as positive control after smoke exposure. All groups were treated with three cigarette without filter for 14 days. All rat were terminated on the fifteent day. Right lung were collected and subjected to necropsy and stained with Hematoksilin-Eosin. The result show that all doses of ethanolic extract of Premna cordifolia reduce lung damage in enlarge alveolar, thickening of alveolar’s wall, and infiltration of inflmation cells in rats. The effective dose is 600mg/kgbw because the potential of Premna cordifolia leaves extract was same with the potential of positive contol in reducing the lung damage. Keywords: Antioxidant, Premna cordifolia, Lung histopathology, Cigarette smoke   ABSTRAK Asap rokok merupakan salah satu sumber radikal bebas yang dapat menyebabkan stress oksidatif, emfisema dan peradangan paru. Daun buas-buas (Premna cordifolia Linn. merupakan salah satu antioksidan yang dapat menetralisir keberadaan radikal bebas dalam tubuh. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan daun buas-buas dalam menurunkan derajat kerusakan paru pada tikus pasca paparan asap rokok dan dosis efektif daun buas-buas yang dapat menurunkan

  8. Influence of the leaf extract of mentha arvensis linn. (Mint) on the survival of mice exposed to different doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagetia, G.C.; Baliga, M.S. [Kasturba Medical Coll., Manipal (India). Dept. of Radiobiology

    2002-02-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Mentha arvensis (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to various doses of whole-body gamma radiation. Material and Methods: The radioprotective effect of various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of chloroform extract of mint (Mentha arvensis Linn.) was studied in mice exposed to 10 Gy gamma radiation. Results: The 10 mg/kg of mint extract was found to afford best protection as evidenced by the highest number of survivors in this group at 30 days post-irradiation, and further experiments were carried out using this dose of mint extract. The mice treated with 10 mg/kg body weight mint extract or oil were exposed to 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 Gy of gamma radiation and observed for the induction of radiation-sickness and mortality up to 30 days post-irradiation. The mint extract pretreatment was found to reduce the severity of symptoms of radiation sickness and mortality at all exposure doses and a significant increase in the animal survival was observed when compared with the oil + irradiation group. All of the animals that were treated with 10 mg/kg mint extract and then exposed to 7 Gy irradiation were protected against the radiation-induced mortality when compared with the concurrent oil + irradiation group, in which 20% animals died by 30 days post-irradiation. The mint extract treatment protected the mice against the gastrointestinal death as well as bone marrow deaths. The DRF was found to be 1.2. The drug was non-toxic up to a dose of 1 000 mg/kg body weight, the highest drug dose that could be tested for acute toxicity. Conclusion: From our study it is clear that mint extract provides protection against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality and the optimum protective dose of 10 mg/kg is safe from the point of drug-induced toxicity. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, den radioprotektiven Effekt von Mentha arvensis (Minze

  9. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-25

    Extracts from various morphological parts of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) are widely used medicinally in many parts of the world for the management, control and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of A. muricata leaf aqueous extract (AME) in rat experimental paradigms of DM. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the administered volumes of AME and reference drugs' solutions intraperitoneally. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg kg(-1)). Group C rats were additionally treated with AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) as from day 3 post STZ injection, for four consecutive weeks. Group D rats received AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) only for four weeks. Post-euthanization, hepatic tissues were excised and processed biochemically for antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles, such as catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. Treatment of Groups B and C rats with STZ (70 mg kg(-1) i. p.) resulted in hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, and increased TBARS, ROS, TC, TG and LDL levels. STZ treatment also significantly decreased (pmuricata extract has a protective, beneficial effect on hepatic tissues subjected to STZ-induced oxidative stress, possibly by decreasing lipid peroxidation and indirectly enhancing production of insulin and endogenous antioxidants.

  10. Chemical composition of Solanum nigrum linn extract and induction of autophagy by leaf water extract and its major flavonoids in AU565 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Syu, Kai-Yang; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2010-08-11

    Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) belongs to the Solanaceae family, is a plant growing widely in south Asia, and has been used in traditional folk medicine. It is believed to have antipyretic, diuretic, anticancer, and hepatoprotective effects. During the summertime, this plant has been heavily used to supplement beverages to quench thirst on hot days in Taiwan and several southern Asian countries. In this study, the polyphenols and anthocyanidin in various parts of the SN plant were analyzed by HPLC. The leaves were found to be richer in polyphenols than stem and fruit. SN leaves contained the highest concentration of gentisic acid, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, and m-coumaric acid. However, the anthocyanidin existed only in the purple fruits. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leaf, stem, or fruit extract was evaluated against cancer cell lines and normal cells. The results showed that AU565 breast cancer cells were more sensitive to the extract. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a significant cytotoxic effect of SN leaf extract on AU565 cells that was mediated via two different mechanisms depending on the exposure concentrations. A low dose of SN leaf extract induced autophagy but not apoptosis. Higher doses (>100 microg/mL) of SN leaf extract could inhibit the level of p-Akt and cause cell death due to the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. However, these findings indicate that SN leaf extract induced cell death in breast cells via two distinct antineoplastic activities, the abilities to induce apoptosis and autophagy, therefore suggesting that it may provide a useful remedy to treat breast cancer.

  11. Anti-diabetic effects of aqueous prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola Linn.) leaves extract in alloxan-induced male diabetic rats treated with nickel (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadchan, Kailash S; Jargar, Jameel G; Das, Swastika N

    2016-01-01

    Hattaraki pallye or prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola Linn.) is one among several green leafy plants that grow in north Karnataka; it is usually consumed by the people of this region and is found to be antidiabetic in nature. The objective of this study is to evaluate hypoglycemic activities of supplementation with aqueous extract of prickly lettuce (L. scariola) leaves in vivo in acute and subchronic exposure with or without nickel (II) along with its glucose reduction capabilities with or without nickel (II) at pH 7.0 and 9.0 in vitro. Percentage glucose reduction (in vitro) was determined by glucose oxidase-peroxidase enzymatic method at pH 7.0 and pH 9.0 using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Hypoglycemic activities of L. scariola were carried out in alloxan-induced male diabetic rats at both acute and subchronic exposure. The results showed a significant alteration in the λmax value of Ni (II) in combination with L. scariola leaves extracts at both pH 7.0 and 9.0. The aqueous extract also produced a significant reduction in the glucose concentration at pH 7.0 and pH 9.0 even in presence of Ni (II) in vitro. Lactuca scariola leaves in either acute or subchronic supplementation showed a greater glucose tolerance and hypoglycemic regulation of blood sugar in diabetic rats with or without nickel (II) treatments. Lactuca scariola leaves can be a substitute for synthetic drugs to treat diabetic patients.

  12. Clinical study on the effect of decoction of Pavetta indica Linn. in treatment of Purishaja Krimi with special reference to Enterobius vermicularis infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Rajapaksha, R P V J; Rathnayaka, R L Y U; Premakeerthi, W M S A; Premathilaka, S

    2013-07-01

    Pavetta indica Linn. (Family: Rubiaceae; Sanskrit name: Papata) is 2-5 m tall, shrub or small tree with opposite branches and grows in the Asia - Pacific region including Sri Lanka. Purishaja Krimi is one of the worm infestations described in Ayurveda. Enterobius vermicularis is among the most common of worms affecting children and adults. E. vermicularis is considered as one type of Purishaja Krimi. Sri Lankan traditional and ayurvedic physicians use P. indica to treat different ailments including Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis) infestations successfully. Since no scientific studies have been undertaken to study these effects so far, the present clinical study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. indica in treatment of E. vermicularis infestation. Fifty patients between age of 5 and 12 years (Group A and B) and 50 patients between 13 and 65 years (Group C and D) with symptoms of E. vermicularis infestations such as itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea or constipation and presence of ova in stools were selected. Two decoction of the trail drug with different concentration was prepared. Group A and Group B were treated with 60 ml of decoction 1 and 60 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Group C and Group D were treated with 120 ml of decoction 2 and 120 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Groups A and C showed complete or partial reduction of symptoms, that is; itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea and also ova of E. vermicularis were absent in stools after treatment with P. indica. Decoction of P. indica can be recommended as an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation).

  13. Flower bud transcriptome analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn. Roxb. and primary investigation of drought induced flowering: pathway construction and G-quadruplex prediction based on transcriptome.

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    Minglei Yang

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum (Linn. Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRXⅡ39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants.

  14. Assessment of the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the alcoholic stem bark extract/fractions of Mimusops elengi Linn.

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    Kumar, Harish; Savaliya, Mihir; Biswas, Subhankar; Nayak, Pawan G; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Manjunath Setty, M; Gourishetti, Karthik; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2016-08-01

    Various parts of Mimusops elengi Linn. (Sapotaceae) have been used widely in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and wounds. The study was conducted to explore the use of stem bark of M. elengi on pharmacological grounds and to evaluate the scientific basis of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity. Extract/fractions were prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using SRB assay. Most effective fractions were subjected to fluorescence microscopy based acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Hoechst 33342 staining to determine apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation assay. Comet and micronuclei assay were performed to assess genotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis was also performed. In vivo anti-tumor potential was evaluated by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice. The alcoholic stem bark extract of M. elengi along with four fractions showed potential in vitro cytotoxicity in SRB assay. Of these, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were selected for further studies. The fractions revealed apoptosis inducing potential in AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining, which was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay. Genotoxic potential was revealed by comet and micronuclei assay. Fractions also exhibited specific cell cycle inhibition in G0/G1 phase. In EAC model, ethyl acetate fraction along with the standard (cisplatin) effectively reduced the increase in body weight compared to control and improved mean survival time. Both fractions were able to restore the altered hematological and biochemical parameters. Hence, M. elengi stem bark may be a possible therapeutic candidate having cytotoxic and anti-tumor potential.

  15. Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (Noni) juice induces an increase in NO production and death of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Silva, João José Mendes; de Oliveira, Renata Mondêgo; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2016-08-31

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is considered a serious public health problem. Due to the absence of an effective vaccine and debilitating chemotherapy better therapies are urgently needed. This situation has stimulated the search for alternative treatments such as the use of herbal medicines. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia Linn. have shown various biological activities such as antitumor, immunomodulation and antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice against Leishmania amazonensis and its action on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c infected with L. amazonensis. Activity against the promastigote forms showed IC50 at 275.3 μg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructural alterations in the promastigotes treated with the juice and the results showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion and increased activity of exocytosis. The juice treatment presented an IC50 at 208.4 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes and led to an increased nitrite production in infected and non-infected macrophages. When macrophages were pre-treated with iNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or 1400W, the intracellular amastigotes increased, demonstrating the important role of NO production in M. citrifolia fruit activity. In conclusion, our results reveal that treatment with M. citrifolia fruit juice can increase NO production in peritoneal macrophages and this ability has an important role in the killing of L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Standardized extract of Lactuca sativa Linn. and its fractions abrogates scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice: A possible cholinergic and antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Kaur, Jagpreet; Choudhary, Sunayna

    2017-02-28

    The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Lactuca sativa (LS) Linn. (Asteraceae) against scopolamine- induced amnesia and to validate its traditional claim as memory enhancer. Ethanol extract of fresh LS leaves (LSEE), standardized on the basis of quercetin content, was successively partitioned using various solvents viz., hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in increasing order of polarity. LSEE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and its various fractions (at a dose equivalent to dose of LSEE exhibiting maximum activity), administered orally for 14 days, were evaluated for their memory enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg, i.p.) amnesia in 3-4 months old male Laca mice (n = 6 in each group). The memory enhancing effect was evaluated using behavioural (elevated plus maze, novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests) and biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase activity, malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, nitrite, catalase, and reduced gultathione content). The results of the test substances were compared with both scopolamine and donepezil that was used as a standard memory enhancer and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Scopolamine elicit marked deterioration of memory and alteration in biochemical parameters in comparison to the control group. LSEE and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the scopolamine- induced amnesia that was evident in all the behavioural and biochemical test parameters. LSEE (200 mg/kg) and n-butanol fraction (15 mg/kg) exhibited maximum anti-amnesic effect among various tested dose levels. The results exhibited that LS prophylaxis attenuated scopolamine- induced memory impairment through its acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activity validating its traditional claim.

  17. In vitro anti-cancer activities of Job’s tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn.) extracts on human colon adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Sainakham, Mathukorn; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-01-01

    The whole seed (W), endosperm (E) and hull (H) of five cultivars of Job’s tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. var. ma-yuen Stapf) including Thai Black Phayao, Thai Black Loei, Laos Black Loei, Laos White Loei and Laos Black Luang Phra Bang were processed before solvent extraction by non-cooking, roasting, boiling and steaming Each part of the Job’s tears was extracted by the cold and hot process by refluxing with methanol and hexane. The total of 330 extracts included 150 methanol extracts and 180 hexane extracts were investigated for anti-proliferative activity on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The extracts which gave high anti-proliferative activity were tested for apoptotic activity by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining and anti-oxidative activities including free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. The extract from the hull of Thai Black Loei roasted before extracting by hot methanol (M-HTBL-R2) showed the highest anti-proliferative activity on HT-29 with the IC50 values of 11.61 ± 0.95 μg/ml, while the extract from the non-cooked hull of Thai Black Loei by cold methanol extraction (M-HTBL-N1) gave the highest apoptosis (8.17 ± 1.18%) with no necrosis. In addition, M-HTBL-R2 and M-HTBL-N1 indicated free radical scavenging activity at the SC50 values of 0.48 ± 0.12 and 2.47 ± 1.15 mg/ml, respectively. This study has demonstrated the anti-colorectal cancer potential of the M-HTBL-R2 and M-HTBL-N1 extracts. PMID:26981007

  18. Neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf in male Wistar rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity

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    Ayoka Oladele Abiodun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties that is associated with various forms of reproductive toxicity. The significance of natural antioxidants of plant origin should be explored, especially in a world with increasing incidence of patients in need of chemotherapy. The neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf (AEAVL in Wistar rats with CP-induced reproductive toxicity was determined. Forty rats were used for this study such that graded doses of the extract were administered following CP-induced reproductive toxicity and comparisons were made against control, toxic and standard (vitamin E groups at p < 0.05. The synthetic drugs (CP, 65 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days; Vitamin E, 100 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days as well as the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days were administered to the rats at 0.2 mL/100 g. CP induced reproductive toxicity as evidenced by significantly lowered levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, perturbation of sperm characterization, deleterious disruptions of the antioxidant system as evidenced by decreased levels of GSH as well as elevation of TBARS activity. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic lesions with scanty and hypertrophied parenchymal cells in the pituitary while the testis showed ballooned seminiferous tubules with loosed connective tissues and vacuolation of testicular interstitium. These conditions were significantly reversed (p < 0.05 following administration of the graded doses of the extract. It was, therefore, concluded that AEAVL could potentially be a therapeutic choice in patients with CP-induced neuro-endocrine dysfunction and reproductive toxicity.

  19. Total steroid and terpenoid enriched fraction from Euphorbia neriifolia Linn offers protection against nociceptive-pain, inflammation, and in vitro arthritis model: An insight of mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Partha; Mandal, Subhash C; Bhunia, Biswanath

    2016-12-01

    The plant Euphorbia neriifolia Linn has been successfully used for the management of acute inflammatory, arthritic, nociceptive pain and relieves the asthmatic symptom as a tribal folk medicine in India. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic activity from total steroid and terpenoid rich fractions derived from hydro-alcoholic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia stem (STF-HAENS). STF-HAENS fraction demonstrated 68.58±2.5% and 75.25±5.1% protection against acetic acid-induced pain and central neuropathic pain at 80mg/kg. It also showed 98.47% protection against acute inflammation at 100mg/kg with 1.7 fold higher protective activity than the standard drug. The fraction exhibited this efficacy via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-6 by 74%, 81.26%, 92.10% and 93.4% respectively at 100μg/ml. It also showed dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipooxygenase (LOX) activity in a dose-dependent manner that elicited the desired pharmacological action. The fraction downregulated nitric-oxide production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PBMC derived macrophages. The spectrophotometric analysis reveals the STF-HAENS induced ameliorative effect against heat-induced denaturation of BSA protein and exhibited significant antiproteinase activity. Our findings suggest that STF-HAENS could be used as an effective safe therapeutic agent for treatment of nociceptive pain, acute inflammation and arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical-pathological aspects of Blue-fronted Parrots parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linne 1758 coming traffickin arrests from the State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Raul Antunes Silva Siqueira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Siqueira R.A.S., de Lucena R.B., Cavalcanti T.A., Luna A.C. de L., Firmino M. de O. & Guerra R.R. [Clinical-pathological aspects of Blue-fronted Parrots parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linne 1758 coming traffickin arrests from the State of Paraíba, Brazil.] Aspectos clinico-patológicos em papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva, L., 1758 oriundos de apreensões do tráfico no estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:439-444, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Av. Silas Munguba, 1700, Fortaleza, CE 60740-000, Brasil. E-mail: siqueiraras@gmail.com The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of true parrots (Amazona aestiva arising from trafficking seized by the Wild Animals Triage Center (CETAS in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. In order to establish the real condition which they were. The study was developed at CETAS in the Municipality of Cabedelo in the State of Paraíba. Fifteen birds from seizures were used, and nine of them were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected, body weight was checked and liver biopsy was performed. In the other six birds, that died, a necroscopic examination was performed. The results indicated that the birds had a poor body condition. Histopathological and serological findings showed very poor health conditions, and indicated the need to develop a health recovery work to reintroduce and release these birds in the wild.

  1. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kaksha J; Panchasara, Ashwin K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Vadgama, Vishal K; Tripathi, C B

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (Pindica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect.

  2. Development of Spore Protein of Myxobolus koi as an Immunostimulant for Prevent of Myxobolusis on Gold Fish (Cyprinus carpio Linn) by Oral Immunisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasri, Gunanti

    2017-02-01

    Production of Gold fish (Cyprinus carpio Linn) in Indonesia has always increased from 2013 to 2015 year by year with increasing average 2% per year. The amount of production was respectively 571.892 tonnes, 1129.273 tonnes, and 1186.674 tonnes. There were almost no problems to sale of gold fish because it had a good enough prospect. The aims of this research were Isolation of spore protein of Myxobolus koi by using SDS-PAGE to analyze immun respons and survival rate gold fish that immunized with spore protein of Myxobolus koi. The method of this research used experimental method, and belonged to 4 treatments that are: Controle = the group of gold fish not immunized with protein spore of Myxobolus koi neither infected by Myxobolus koi (T1). The group immunized and infested by spore of Myxobolus koi (T2), The group which immunized and not infested by Myxobolus koi (T3), and The group only infested by Myxobolus koi (T4). The dose of immunostimulant was 5 ml in 1 kg of food. The result showed that there were two bands of whole spore protein with molecule weight (MW) 150 kDa and 72 kDa and one band of crude protein Myxobolus koi with molecule weight 73 kD and the optical density point was 0.132 on the first day and increased to 0.769 on the 56 th day. The result also showed that the immun respons and survival rate increased from 27% to 86% in chellence test. The protein spore of Myxobolus koi can used to develops material for immunostimulant and to prevent the myxobolusis.

  3. Sunlight-induced rapid and efficient biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with enhanced antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Sarkar, Sajal; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mandal, Narayan C; Jash, Shyamal K; Banerjee, Bubun; Roy, Rajiv

    2014-12-01

    , thus offers a cost-effective and environmentally benign route for their large-scale commercial production. The nanoparticles dispersed in the mother solution showed promising antibacterial efficacy. Graphical AbstractSunlight-induced rapid and efficient biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with enhanced antibacterial activity.

  4. Attenuation of nociceptive pain and inflammatory disorders by total steroid and terpenoid fraction of Euphorbia tirucalli Linn root in experimental in vitro and in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Partha; Mukherjee, Dhrubojyoti; Mahanta, Poulami; Shadab, Md; Ali, Nahid; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Asad, Md; Mandal, Subhash C

    2017-10-23

    The plant Euphorbia tirucalli Linn has been successfully used as a tribal folk medicine in India and Africa for the management of acute inflammatory, arthritic, nociceptive pain and asthmatic symptoms. The present study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-asthmatic and anti-arthritic role of the total steroid and terpenoid rich fractions of the hydro-alcoholic extract of E. tirucalli root (STF-HAETR). STF-HAETR fraction demonstrated 71.25 ± 2.5 and 74.25 ± 5.1% protection against acetic acid-induced pain and central neuropathic pain at 75 and 100 mg/kg doses, respectively. It showed 96.97% protection against acute inflammation at 100 mg/kg with 1.6-fold better activity than the standard drug. The fraction exhibited such efficacy via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, by 61.12 and 65.18%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and Nitric oxide synthase in a dose-dependent manner affirms its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The spectrophotometric analysis reveals that STF-HAETR induces ameliorative effect against heat-induced denaturation of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and exhibits significant anti-proteinase activity. The plant fraction also demonstrated anti-asthmatic activity by displaying 62.45% protection against histamine induced bronchoconstriction or dyspnoea. Our findings suggest that STF-HAETR could be an effective safe therapeutic agent to treat nociceptive pain, acute inflammation, asthma, and arthritis which may authenticate its traditional use.

  5. Development of The Stem of Jatropha multifida Linn as A New Antimalarial through Erythrocytes Test on Mus musculus Infected by Plasmodium berghei

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    Agus Sundaryono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Jatropha multifida Linne is known as Betadin plant by the Bengkulunese. The stem extract of J. multifida has antibacterial activity. This study examined the potential of stem extract of J. multifida to be developed as an anti-malarial drugs through trials in M. musculus whose erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium berghei. Methods : Phytochemical test of the stem of J. multifida to test the flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. The stem extract of J. multifida obtained by maceration with 96% ethanol. 30 M. musculus divided 6 groups, each consist of 5 animals. P0 is the negative control groups that were not infected by P berghei. P1 is the positive control groups that were only infected by P berghei, P2 is a comparison groups that were infected with P berghei and chloroquine, groups P3, P4, and P5 were infected by P berghei and treated with stem extract of J multifida with consecutive doses 0.028 g / kgbw, 0.056 g / kgbw and 0.084 g / kgbw. After 24 hours, the number of erythrocytes was observed with hemocytometer then was counted the number of uninfected erythrocytes by P berghei using a microscope at 1000x magnification. Results :The stem extract of J. multifida at doses of 0.028 g/kgbw, 0.056 g/kgbw and a dose of 0.084 g/kgbw were able to increase the number of uninfected erythrocytes by P berghei in M. musculus, respectively an average of 9.135million cell eritrosit/mm3, 7.618 millioncell eritrosit/mm3, and 9.856 millioncell eritrosit/mm3. The ability of stem extract of J. multifida in increasing the number of erythrocytes uninfected with P berghei was much higher than the malaria drug chloroquine diposphat. On one way ANOVA analysis of Fcount ( 13,2 > Ftable (2.76 , with (α = 0.05, there are noticeable differences in the provision of treatment. The increasing number of uninfected erythrocytes by P berghei was due to the content of flavanol glycosides in J multifida stem. Flavanol glycosides was

  6. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  7. Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.)pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shin-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chin; Owaga, Eddy E; Tsai, I-Jong; Wang, Pei-Yuan; Tsai, Jeng-I; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Hsieh, Rong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by multiple factors including hepatic oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Obesity is among the risk factors for NAFLD alongside type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. α- mangostin (α-MG) extracts from the pericarps of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana Linn.) may regulate high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of α-MG on high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms related to mitochondrial functionality and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed on either AIM 93-M control diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet supplemented with 25 mg/day mangosteen pericarp extract (MGE) for 11 weeks. Thereafter, the following were determined: body weight change, plasma free fatty acids, liver triglyceride content, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione, GSH; glutathione peroxidase, GPx; glutathione reductase GRd; catalase, CAT) and mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. In the in vitro study, primary liver cells were treated with 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate: oleate acid = 2:0.25) to induce steatosis. Thereafter, the effects of α-MG (10 μM, 20 μM, 30 μM) on total and mitochondria ROS (tROS, mitoROS), mitochondria bioenergetic functions, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis were examined in the FFA-treated primary liver cells. The MGE group showed significantly decreased plasma free fatty acids and hepatic triglycerides (TG) and thiorbarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels; increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT); and enhanced NADH-cytochrome c reductase (NCCR) and succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCCR) activities in the liver tissue compared with HFD group. In the in vitro study, α-MG significantly increased mitochondrial membrane

  8. In vitro and in vivo aphrodisiac properties of Corchorus depressus Linn. on rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation and sexual behavior of normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sandeep; Kaur, Dilsher; Rao, Shaival Kamalaksha; Khajuria, Ravi K

    2013-06-21

    Corchorus depressus Linn. has been used as an aphrodisiac in traditional Indian medicine to treat male sexual dysfunction and impotency. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions of 95% methanol extract of Corchorus depressus were screened initially for their in vitro aphrodisiac activity on rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. The chloroform fraction (CDC) was found to be the most active and therefore investigated further on general mating behavior, libido and potency of normal male Wistar albino rats in comparison with the standard drug, Sildenafil citrate. Animals were divided into the following groups: Control, SC CDC 100, CDC 200, and CDC 400, who received saline, Sildenafil citrate or the chloroform fraction of Corchorus depressus at doses of 100, 200 or 400mg/kg b.wt., respectively. The route of administration for all the groups was oral dosing, which was once in a day for 45 days. To analyze the mating behavior, female rats with estrus phase were used. The chloroform fraction of methanolic extract of Corchorus depressus significantly reduced ML, IL, PEI and III. There was a significant increase in the MF, IF and EL and serum testosterone levels throughout the study period. The potency test significantly increased erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. In vitro aphrodisiac activity was significantly higher in chloroform fraction at a concentration of 25.0mg/ml, which induced 71.4% relaxation. The combined results of the above mentioned models indicate that the chloroform fraction of Corchorus depressus produces a significant increase in sexual activity as exhibited by 25mg/ml in vitro and 400mg/kg in vivo. In comparison with the control, all the drug-treated groups have shown drug-induced effects for a few parameters. In vitro and in vivo studies provide valuable experimental evidence that the chloroform fraction of methanolic extract of Corchorus depressus possesses aphrodisiac property. This study

  9. Aut Ecology, Total Phenol and Total Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Activity and Ethno-pharmacological Survey of Nigella sativa Linn. in Traditional Medicine of Golestan Province, North of Iran

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    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nigella sativa Linn., which grows wildly in a small region of the national park of Golestan has been used in traditional medicine of this province. In the present study we evaluated the ecological requirements, antioxidant activity, phytochemistry and conducted an ethno-pharmacological survey of Nigella sativa in traditional medicine of Golestan province. Materials and Methods: Ecological requirements and ethno-pharmacological survey were obtained in many field observation through interviews with practitioners and housewives in September 2013. The ripen seeds of Nigella sativa were collected from its natural habitat (560 m in North east of national park of Golestan and ethanolic extract was obtained by maceration. Total phenolics (TPs and total flavonoids (TFs contents were determined spectrophotometrically and antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method. Results: Nigella sativa is usually grown wildly in a small region of the national park of Golestan (500-760 m, that has an average rain fall of 575.9-614.8 mm, Ec (electrical conductivity of soil 0.73 in sandy loam soils. The TP content is 121.3 ± 0.3 mg GAE g-1, TF contents was 194.04 ± 1.65 mg QUE g-1 and antioxidant activity (IC50 was measured in 0.13 ± 0.05 mg/ml-1. Results showed that the seeds of Nigella sativa has high content of TP and TF compounds as well as antioxidant activity, confirming the traditional use of Nigella sativa by rural healers as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anticonvulsant, antidiabetes and antitumour agent against breast cancer, hypertension and hyperglycaemia in north of Iran. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the seed extract of Nigella sativa L. could have good antioxidant potentials to prevent or control free radicals, which can produce many current inflammatory diseases such as cancer, diabetes, coronary diseases, infection, etc. So these data confirm the traditional use

  10. Antioxidant activities of essential oil of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used for the preservation of food qualities in North Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudoum, Augustin; Abdou, Armand B; Ngamo, Léonard Simon T; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (EO) of leaves of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used as protectant of stored grains in Northern Cameroon. EO was characterized by GC-FID, antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by combining: evaluation of radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (RP) and co-oxidation of β-carotene methods. Tests were carried out on crude and stored EO kept for two weeks at 31.48 ± 2.88°C and 58.56 ± 6.78% relative humidity. These conditions are the same as those of grain storage. GC analyses enabled the identification of 27 compounds, representing around 97.57% of the total oil contents. The major constituents of the EO were α-pinene (14.7%), ε-caryophyllene (13.5), and β-ocimene (12.8%). The AA of the crude and stored EO are proportional to the concentrations and time of exposition. Exposed at the day light, this EO inhibit 77.4-18.69% for the DPPH system, 59.55-19.14% for RP method and 91.88-21.8% for β-carotene-linoleate model system, respectively, from crude and 15 days storage EO at 20 mg L(-1). For the EC50 values, β-carotene method is excellent and in the decreasing order of DPPH method, PR with 2.52 mg L(-1), 2.77 mg L(-1) and 4.13 mg L(-1), respectively, for the crude oil. The ET50 were 1.59 days for the RP method and 2.88 days DPPH system and β-carotene-linoleate model system at 20 mg L(-1). These results showed that the EO of B. pilosa leaves exhibits AA that might be an added value for this EO preventing stored products from pest attacks.

  11. PHARMACOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON ‘SHVET SHARPUNKHA’ – A COMPARATIVE DIAGNOSTIC ACCOUNT OF TEPHROSIA VILLOSA PERS. AND T. PURPUREA (LINN.) PERS. FORM ALBIFLORA S. R. PAUL et. R. C. GUPTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of ‘shapunkha’, the ‘Shvet’ (white) and ‘Rakta’ (red) are described in some of the Ayurvedic texts and the former is reported therapeutically more effective. Some of the Ayurvedic physicians use T. villosa Pers. as ‘Shvet sharpunkha’ due to its persistently villous silky white parts. While others have advocated white colour of flowers as main feature for distinguishing “Shvet sharpunkha’. A white flowered form of Tephrosia purpurea which is found in association with red or purple flowered ones is reported by us as T. purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Form albiflora S. R. Paul et R. C. Gupta. In the present work, however, detailed comparative pharmacognosy of all vegetable parts of T. villosa and T. purpurea f. albiflora have been carried out. Also the study reveals that two species exhibit great similarity in their macro – an microscopical feature. PMID:22557616

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  13. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahari S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  14. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L.) et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.) sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahari S.; Mellouki F.; Oufara S.; Aouinty B.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen). Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these ...

  15. Characterization of Terminalia catappa linn oil, Linn oil-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compatibilities in terms of physico-chemical properties of the fuels used. Hence the importance of using fuels with appropriate physico-chemical properties in C.I. engines. This need for using fuels with appropriate physico-chemical properties, the ...

  16. Tallinn - Taani linn / Ago Vallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallas, Ago

    2002-01-01

    rets. rmt.: Zobel, Rein. Tallinn (Reval) keskajal : linnaehitus 13. - 14. sajandil = Tallinn (Reval) in the middle ages : town building in the 13 th - 14 th centuries. Tallinn : Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, 2001. 213 lk. : ill., kaart

  17. Linn biennaali keskpunktis / Mare Tralla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tralla, Mare, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    IV Liverpoli rahvusvaheline biennaal 16. IX-26. XI: "International 06" Tate Liverpoolis ja linnaruumis, "International+" linnaruumis, "John Moores 24" Walkeri galeriis, "New Contemporaries" Greenlandi tänavas jm. Hans Schabusi (sünd. 1970), Hans Peter Kuhni, Teresa Margollesi (sünd. 1963), Priscilla Monge (sünd. 1968), Jeppe Heini (sünd. 1974), Kiran Kaur Brari, Tsui Kuang-Yu (sünd. 1974) ja Esra Erseni töödest

  18. Vigna unguiculata [Linn] Walp varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADA) recommends a low carbohydrate diet to reduce weight for those with or at risk of type 2 diabetes.3 One of the ways of achieving low plasma glucose excursion is by ingestion of a low GI diet that is rich in fibre. GI factor is a ranking of foods ...

  19. Vigna unguiculata [Linn] Walp varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carbohydrate diet to reduce weight for those with or at risk of type 2 diabetes.3 One of the ways of achieving low plasma glucose excursion is by ingestion of a low GI diet that is rich in fibre. GI factor is a ranking of foods based on their overall effect on blood glucose levels. It reflects the quality of the effect of the glucose ...

  20. Muuseumiseinte vahel tuksleb linn / Kiwa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiwa, pseud., 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Näitus "Koht, mis paneb liikuma" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Grafitikunstnike Antoni, Uku ja Remi ruumiinstallatsioonist "Ajaviil". Reet Ausi, Ville Hyvöneni, HULA ja Tartu kõrgema kunstikooli tudengite ruumiinstallatsioonist "Üle prahi". Raoul Kurvitza arvutikunsti teosest "Pentatonic Color System II". Eksponeeritakse ka Maarit Murka ja Kaido Ole töid

  1. Safety assessment of the aqueous extract of the flowers of Nymphaea lotus Linn (Nymphaeaceae): Acute, neuro- and subchronic oral toxicity studies in albinos Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameni Poumeni, Mireille; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Dzeufiet Djomeni, Paul Désiré; Mengue Ngadena, Yolande Sandrine; Mballa, Marguerite Francine; Ngoungoure, Madeleine Chantal; Ouafo, Agnès Carolle; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2017-03-24

    Background Nymphaea lotus Linn (N. lotus) is a medicinal plant widely used in Cameroon popular medicine, to treat neuropsychiatric conditions, male sexual disorders or as food supplement. However, scientific data on the pharmacotoxic profile of this plant are not available. The safety of N. lotus was assessed in acute, neuro- and subchronic toxicity studies by following the OECD guidelines. Effectively, no data have been published until now in regard to its safety on the nervous system. Methods Aqueous extract of N. lotus at doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight (BW) was evaluated for nitrites contents and orally administered to rats daily for 28 days (5 male, 5 female per group). The control group received distilled water (10 mL/kg) and a satellite group was used to observe reversal effects. Neurotoxicity of the plant was determined using open field test for motor coordination, ataxia and gait analysis. Clinical signs and state of livelihood were recorded during the 24 h, then for 28 days of treatments. At the end of 28-day period, animals were anesthetized and decapitated. The whole brain was homogenized for neurobiochemical analysis. Blood samples were collected with or without anticoagulant for hematological examinations and serum analysis. Specimens of liver, kidney, testis, ovaries, and brain were fixed in 10 % formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. Results Our findings indicate dose-dependent elevation of nitrites contents in the flowers aqueous extract of N. lotus. Acute toxicity study revealed no signs of toxicity neither at the dose 2,000 mg/kg nor at 5,000 mg/kg. Thus the LD50 value of aqueous extract of N. lotus flowers is superior to 5,000 mg/kg. The repeated administration of N. lotus during 28 days, induced no signs of neurobehavioral changes in male, but female rats exhibited dose-dependent response in the open field test, suggesting sex and dose-relative psychotropic effects of N. lotus. The evaluation of

  2. Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found to be the most effective. Higher doses (more than 0.05%) were highly toxic, causing arrhythmia and cardiodepression, whereas the lower doses were ineffective. Garlic exaggerated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and garlic cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by theophylline (1,000 µmol/L) and 8-SPT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and expressed by increased myocardial infarct size, increased LDH level, and reduced nitrite and adenosine levels. These findings suggest that adenosine is involved in the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of garlic induced cardioprotection and mediated by the modulation of nitric oxide. PMID:23554727

  3. Ecologie des poissons capitaines: Polydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier, 1829, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch, 1795 et Pentanemus quinquarius (Linné, 1758 de la pêcherie artisanale maritime de Grand-Lahou (Côte d'Ivoire

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    Konan Kouassi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ecology of Polynemids: Poydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier, 1829, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch, 1795 and Pentanemus quinquarius (Linné, 1758 of the Artisanal Marine Fisheries of Grand Lahou (Ivory Coast. The ecology of Polynemids (Poydactylus quadrifilis, Galeoides decadactylus and Pentanemus quinquarius has been studied starting from the unloads of the artisanal marine fisheries of Grand Lahou (Ivory Coast. The temperature of the littoral is high during June and May with an average of 27,55±0,8 °C such as between November and December (29,30±0,1 °C. It is low between July and September (24,5±1,5 °C. On the other hand, salinity has its higher average values (35±0,8 g/l during the cold periods (July at September and lowest during the hot period, from October to January (33,9±0,3 g/l. The physiological needs of Polynemids cause seasonal migrations of the juveniles and adults. Hence the crossing of the estuary of the lagoon during the cold period, from June to August by the juveniles of Polydactylus quadrifilis and Galeoides decadactylus. For Polydactylus quadrifilis the annual recruitment of young specimens is identical to that of the adults, which is contrary to that of Galeoides decadactylus and Pentanemus quinquarius.

  4. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

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    G Castellaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn. in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season. The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of sparse shrubland dominated by Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. and annual species in the herbaceous stratum, which were continually grazed by five male alpacas. The botanical composition and the forage dry matter available for grazing in the pasture was evaluated. Botanical composition of diets was estimated with the microhistological technique, using dung samples collected directly from the rectum. During the vegetative season, the most consumed plant species were annual and perennial grasses. In the reproductive season, the most important components of the diet were woody plant species, annual grasses and forbs. In the dry season, the diet was composed of a high percentage of woody plant species.La reintroducción de camélidos sudamericanos domésticos (alpaca y llamas en la zona central de Chile, hace necesario estudiar su comportamiento y adaptabilidad. En este contexto, la caracterización de la dieta es fundamental. Por ello, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las especies vegetales seleccionadas por las alpacas en diferentes etapas fenológicas del pastizal (vegetativo, reproductivo y seco. El estudio se realizó durante tres temporadas en un potrero de 2,5 ha ocupado por un matorral claro dominado por Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. y especies anuales en el estrato herbáceo, las cuales fueron pastoreadas continuamente por cinco alpacas macho. En la pradera se evaluó la composición botánica y la disponibilidad de la materia seca bajo pastoreo. La

  5. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

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    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  6. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  7. An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

    2010-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men with ED (mean age 46.6+/-8.4 years) were randomized to receive on-demand sildenafil for 12 weeks followed by 30 mg saffron twice daily for another 12 weeks or vice versa, separated by a 2-week washout period. To determine the type of ED, penile color duplex Doppler ultrasonography before and after intracavernosal injection with 20 microg prostaglandin E(1), pudendal nerve conduction tests and impaired sensory-evoked potential studies were performed. Subjects were assessed with an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions, patient and partner versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and the Global Efficacy Question (GEQ) 'Has the medication you have been taking improved your erections?' No significant improvements were observed with regard to the IIEF sexual function domains, SEP questions and EDITS scores with saffron administration. The mean changes from baseline values in IIEF-EF domain were +87.6% and +9.8% in sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.08). We did not observe any improvement in 15 individual IIEF questions in patients while taking saffron. Treatment satisfaction as assessed by partner versions of EDITS was found to be very low in saffron patients (72.4 vs 25.4, P=0.001). Mean per patient 'yes' responses to GEQ was 91.2 and 4.2% for sildenafil and saffron, respectively (P=0.0001). These findings do not support a beneficial effect of saffron administration in men with ED.

  8. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol, E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St.Teresa' s College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Mathew, Lizzy [Department of Botany, St.Teresa' s College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Alex, Roselin [Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India); Deepa, G. D. [NCAAH, Cochin University of Science and Technology,Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  9. Potent in vivo anticancer activity and stability of liposomes encapsulated with semi-purified Job's tear (Coix lacryma-jobi Linn.) extracts on human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) xenografted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainakham, Mathukorn; Manosroi, Aranya; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2016-11-01

    The in vivo anticancer activity and stability of liposomes encapsulated with semi-purified Job's tear (Coix lacryma-jobi Linn.) extracts (S5L), prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid technique, on human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) xenografted mice were investigated. For the stability and the physicochemical characteristics, S5L showed a high stability of pH, good dispersibility, small particle size and stable zeta potential. Liposomes can protect linoleic acid in the extract comparing with the free S5. S5L kept at 4 °C for 3 months showed the highest linoleic acid content of 63.50%, whereas at 45 °C, the lowest linoleic acid content of 42.66% was observed. The anticancer activity and toxicity on xenografted mice were observed for 14 days. At the end of the experiment, the relative tumor volume (RTV) in the S5L-treated xenografted mice showed a significant RTV reduction. The high dose of S5 and S5L were potent with the highest inhibition of tumor growth of 48.67 and 54.75%, which was 86.94% and 97.81% of 5-fluorouracil, respectively. The apoptotic activity was shown in xenografted mice treated with S5 at medium and high dose, S5L, 5-fluorouracil and commercial product. All treated xenografted mice showed no toxic signs and symptoms, abnormality of internal organs histopathology and blood chemistry. This study has demonstrated the high physicochemical stability of liposomes encapsulated with semi-purified Job's tear extract and their potent anticancer activity on human colon adenocarcinoma xenografted model with the potential for further development to anticolon cancer drug.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of O-methylated flavonol 2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-chromen-4-one obtained from Cassia sophera Linn in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Arijit; Rajalingam, D; Kumar Maity, Tapan

    2013-05-20

    Cassia sophera Linn (Family Caesalpiniaceae), popularly known as kasundi, is used both in the Indian traditional system and folk medicine to treat several inflammatory pathologies such as asthma, arthritis and pains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scientific basis of anti-inflammatory activity of Cassia sophera ethanol extracts and of an isolated constituent of Cassia sophera. The anti-inflammatory activity of Cassia sophera was studied using the carrageenan, dextran induced rat paw edema, and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats. The ethanol extract was administered at the concentrations of 200 and 400mg/kg body weight whereas rhamnetin (RN) was administered at a dose of 10 and 15 mg/kg, b.w. Indomethacin was used as standard drug. The HPLC analysis revealed that good amounts of rhamnetin (0.18%) was present in Cassia sophera.The ethanol extracts at 400mg/kg, showed maximum inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (44%), dextran (40%), cotton pellets (37.47%). On the other hand rhamnetin (15 mg/kg) exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory effect, that is 79 and 33% at the end of 3h with carrageenin, and dextran-induced rat paw edema, respectively. In a chronic test rhamnetin (15 mg/kg) showed 43.32% reduction in granuloma weight. The marked inhibitory effect on paw edema and granuloma showed that Cassia sophera possess remarkable anti-inflammatory activity which may be due to rhamnetin at least in part, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stages of maturation of the fruit on germination and oil content in seeds of Jatropha curcas LinEstádios de maturação do fruto no desempenho germinativo e teor de óleo de sementes de Jatropha curcas Linn

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    Fernanda Rubio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas Linn., known as physic nut, is a plant that has oil content between 35 and 38%, being used as an alternative for producing biodiesel. However, this culture has uneven fruiting, which discourages the harvest period. This study aimed to relate the color of the seeds during fruit maturation and germination characteristics with the oil concentration, confirming the best time for harvest. Using the Munsell color chart the seeds were classified into four stages: VC (light seeds of unripe fruits, VE (dark seeds of unripe fruits, A (seeds of fruits attached to the tree and C (seeds to the ground. It was conducted the germination test, moisture, dry matter and oil content. The seeds of fruits that were attached to the tree (level A obtained better results in test of germination, about 25% because they had higher dry matter (90.51% and lower water content (9.49%. They also had the largest concentration of oil, which was 47.36% (almond, and therefore, the best stage for harvesting. The light seeds of unripe fruits (VC, did not obtain satisfactory germination (1.25%, indicating that the color of the fruits can be a parameter for physiological maturity of Jatropha curcas Linn.Jatropha curcas Linn. conhecido como pinhão manso apresenta teor de óleo entre 35 e 38% em suas sementes, sendo utilizado como alternativa na produção de biodiesel. Porém, essa cultura apresenta frutificação desuniforme, o que desfavorece a determinação do período ideal de colheita. Desta forma, esse trabalho objetivou relacionar a coloração das sementes de Jatropha curcas Linn. durante o processo de maturação dos frutos com as características germinativas e concentração de óleo, verificando assim a melhor época para a colheita. Utilizando a carta de cores de Munsell, as sementes foram classificadas em 4 estádios: VC (sementes claras de frutos verdes, VE (sementes escuras de frutos verdes, A (sementes de frutos maduros presos à árvore e C (sementes

  12. Potent in vitro anti-proliferative, apoptotic and anti-oxidative activities of semi-purified Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn.) extracts from different preparation methods on 5 human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Sainakham, Mathukorn; Chankhampan, Charinya; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2016-07-01

    Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi Linn.) is commonly used as an herbal medicine. The low incidence of cancer has been observed in the area of China where regularly consume Job's tears. The effects of preparation methods of Job's tears on anti-cancer activities were investigated. Potent in vitro anti-proliferative, apoptotic and anti-oxidative activities of semi-purified Job's tears extracts from different preparation methods on 5 human cancer cell lines comparing with standards and commercial product were observed. To study the anti-proliferative, apoptotic and anti-oxidative activities of semi-purified Job's tear extracts from different preparation methods on 5 human cancer cell lines. The crude methanolic extracts of non-cooked, steamed and roasted Job's tears cultivars were prepared and further semi-purified by liquid-liquid extraction techniques. Both of crude and semi-purified extracts were tested for anti-proliferative, apoptotic induction, anti-oxidative activities and phytochemicals content. The highest yields of crude and-purified extracts were 4.60% and 1.46%, respectively. In crude extracts, the steamed whole Thai Black Loei Job's tears (W-TBL-S1) extract showed the highest anti-proliferative activity in mouth epidermal carcinoma cell (KB) at the IC50 of 43.61±0.76μg/ml (0.005 folds of doxorubicin), whereas the roasted whole Laos White Loei Job's tears (W-LWL-R2) extract showed the highest apoptotic activity in cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) at 21.52±1.50% (0.22 and 15.05 folds of doxorubicin and commercial product, respectively). After liquid-liquid extraction, almost all of the semi-purified extracts showed increases in anti-proliferative activity. Ethyl acetate fraction of the roasted whole Laos White Loei Job's tears (W-LWL-R2) showed the highest anti-proliferative activity in HeLa cell at the IC50 of 0.97±0.82μg/ml (7.82 and 45.39 folds of doxorubicin and crude extract, respectively) and apoptotic activity of 18.77±6.31% (0.19 folds of

  13. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn) inhibits lipopolysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (NO), tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 and Akt were determined. Results: Treatment of BV2 cells with okra concentrations of 50, 100 and 200μg/mL significantly suppressed LPS-induced NO as well as ROS compared to untreated ...

  14. Okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus Linn) inhibits lipopolysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v16i6.11 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  15. POTENTIALS OF TAMARINDUS INDICA (Linn) IN JAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S O Jimoh

    The unique sweet/sour flavor of the pulp makes it popular in domestic cooking ..... There was no difference in panelists' preference for the jam samples from ... are appreciable levels of vitamin C in tamarind jam which in the nutrition of humans.

  16. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Evaluation of antistress activity. Rats of both sexes weighing between 150 and 200 g were weight-matched and divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV), each containing five animals in metabolic cages that were designed to facilitate the collection of urine. Twenty four hour urine samples from each group were collected into ...

  17. POTENTIALS OF TAMARINDUS INDICA (Linn) IN JAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S O Jimoh

    For instance, the Central Bank of Nigeria( CBN) (1995) reported only oil palm and. Shea oil as Nigeria's major ... also cultivated in subtropical China, India, Pakistan, Indochina, Philippines, Java and. Spain (Gunasena and ... ridiculous prices and this encourages wastage and deems the prospect of sustainability. The study ...

  18. Viljandi linn vajab moodsat bussijaama / Olav Remmelkoor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmelkoor, Olav

    2000-01-01

    Viljandi bussijaama detailplaneeringust : asukohavalik ja liikluskorraldus Viljandi linnavalitsuse arhitektuuriametilt, liiklustehniline lahend Tallinna firmalt OÜ IB Stratum. Tutvustatakse detailplaneeringu põhivarianti.

  19. Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , 0.2. % sodium bicarbonate and antibiotic/antimycotic solution (100×, 1 mL/100 mL of medium). Cells were grown in 5 % CO2 at 37 °C in high humidity atmosphere. Before the experiments, cell viability was assessed as described by Siddiqui ...

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Punica granatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Tunç

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was investigated that the extracts (ethanol, aceton, methanol, ethyl acetat obtained from fruit peels of the plant to whether has antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mitis CNCTC 4/77, Streptococcus salivarius CNCTC 64/59, Streptococcus mutans CNCTC 8/77, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 bacteria strains in vitro. The antibacterial activity of extracts was evaluated according to disc diffusion method. It has been determined that pomegranate peel's extract had the highest inhibition zone diameters ( 18-30 mm against S. epidermidis and S. aureus bacteria strains. The antibacterial activity of plant against Streptococcus mitis is determined in this study for the first time.