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Sample records for ranunculus adoneus ranunculaceae

  1. Cytotype segregation on regional and microgeographic scales in snow buttercups (Ranunculus adoneus: Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baack, Eric J

    2004-11-01

    Polyploid speciation is an important source of angiosperm diversity. Insights into the origin and establishment of new polyploid species may be gained by studying the distributions of ancestral and derivative cytotypes at multiple spatial scales. Diploid (2n = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 32) snow buttercups (Ranunculus adoneus: Ranunculaceae) occur in the alpine of the central and southern Rocky Mountains. Root-tip squashes and flow cytometry were used to determine the ploidy of 1618 individuals from 35 populations. Samples from 31 of the 35 sites were entirely of one cytotype, either diploid or tetraploid. Diploid and tetraploid snow buttercups have nonoverlapping regional distributions. Where both cytotypes occur on the same site, the two are spatially segregated despite no apparent change in habitat. Triploid snow buttercups were only found at a diploid/tetraploid contact zone, while two hexaploid plants were found in tetraploid populations. Tetraploid establishment once or twice in the history of the species complex could account for the regional distribution of the two cytotypes. Habitat differentiation between cytotypes or reproductive exclusion of minority cytotypes may explain the observed segregation at both microgeographic and regional scales.

  2. Notes on genome size in the hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae and its parents by flow cytometry

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    Fernández Prieto, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Notes on genome size in the hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae and its parents by flow cytometry.- Flow cytometry was used to estimate the nuclear DNA content in the natural hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii and its parents. Our results indicate that the genome size of the hybrid R. x luizetii is closer to R. pyrenaeus than to R. parnassiifolius, providing an evidence of genome downsizing.Notas sobre el tamaño del genoma en el híbrido Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae y sus progenitores mediante citometría de flujo.- Se ha empleado la citometría de flujo para estimar el contenido de ADN nuclear en el híbrido Ranunculus x luizetii y sus progenitores. Nuestros resultados indican que el tamaño del genoma del híbrido R. x luizetii se acerca más a R. pyrenaeus que a R. parnassiifolius, con una evidencia de reducción del genoma.

  3. The native and naturalised species of Peltocalathos and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae: Ranunculeae in southern Africa

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    J. C. Manning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The five native and naturalised species of Ranunculus L. and Peltocalathos Tamaru (Ranunculaceae: Ranunculeae from southern Africa are reviewed, with full descriptions and nomenclature, taxonomic history, ecological notes, and distribution data. All species are illustrated. Peltocalathos, a monotypic genus based on R. baurii MacOwan, has been overlooked in the regional literature until now. The new name R. dregei J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is proposed as a replacement name for the later homonym R. meyeri Harv., non Lowe. We conclude that the poorly known R. capensis Thunb. represents juvenile forms of the widespread and variable R. multifidus Forssk. and we synonymise the name, along with the three trivial epithets R. pinnatus var. hermannii DC., R. pubescens var. glabrescens Burtt Davy and R. pubescens var. harveyanus Burtt Davy, which have been overlooked in the recent literature. Based on number (mostly < 40 achenes per head and size (mostly 1.2–1.8 mm long of achenes, we conclude that the southern African material of the aquatic species recently re-identified as R. rionii Lagger is more appropriately treated as R. trichophyllus Chaix.

  4. Ranunculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Ranunculus is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Thirty-one species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical an...

  5. Ranunculaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Ranunculaceae is treated for The Flora of New Mexico, a floristic manual covering the state of New Mexico. Sixty species in fifteen genera are known from the state; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical and ecological distribution, economic...

  6. Out of the Alps: colonization of Northern Europe by East Alpine populations of the Glacier Buttercup Ranunculus glacialis L. (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönswetter, P; Paun, O; Tribsch, A; Niklfeld, H

    2003-12-01

    Ranunculus glacialis ssp. glacialis is an arctic-alpine plant growing in central and southern European and Scandinavian mountain ranges and the European Arctic. In order to elucidate the taxon's migration history, we applied amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to populations from the Pyrenees, Tatra mountains and Northern Europe and included data from a previous study on Alpine accessions. Populations from the Alps and the Tatra mountains were genetically highly divergent and harboured many private AFLP fragments, indicating old vicariance. Whereas nearly all Alpine populations of R. glacialis were genetically highly variable, the Tatrean population showed only little variation. Our data suggest that the Pyrenees were colonized more recently than the separation of the Tatra from the Alps. Populations in Northern Europe, by contrast, were similar to those of the Eastern Alps but showed only little genetic variation. They harboured no private AFLP fragments and only a subset of East Alpine ones, and they exhibited no phylogeographical structure. It is very likely therefore that R. glacialis colonized Northern Europe in postglacial times from source populations in the Eastern Alps.

  7. О находке Ranunculus punctatus (Ranunculaceae в Республика Тыва

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    A. S. Erst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Сообщается о находке на территории Республики Тыва (хребты Чайлалыг-Даг и Обручева нового для Сибири вида Ranunculus punctatus (Ranunculaceae, считавшегося до настоящего времени эндемиком Чукотки.

  8. Historical divergence versus contemporary gene flow: evolutionary history of the calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group (Ranunculaceae) in the European Alps and the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, O.; Schönswetter, P.; Winkler, M.; Tribsch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many species have similar total distributional ranges, they might be restricted to very different habitats and might have different phylogeographic histories. In the European Alps, our excellent knowledge of the evolutionary history of silicate-dwelling (silicicole) plants is contrasted by a virtual lack of data from limestone-dwelling (calcicole) plants. These two categories exhibit fundamentally different distribution patterns within the Alps and are expected to differ strongly with respect to their glacial history. The calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group comprises three diploid species of alpine habitats. Ranunculus alpestris s. str is distributed over the southern European mountain system, while R. bilobus and R. traunfellneri are Southern Alpine narrow endemics. To explore their phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic history, we investigated the correlation between information given by nuclear and chloroplast DNA data. Analyses of AFLP fingerprints and matK sequences gave incongruent results, indicative for reticulate evolution. Our data highlight historical episodes of range fragmentation and expansion, occasional long distance dispersal and on-going gene flow as important processes shaping the genetic structure of the group. Genetic divergence, expressed as a rarity index (“frequency-down-weighted marker values”) seems a better indicator of historical processes than patterns of genetic diversity, which rather mirror contemporary processes as connectivity of populations and population sizes. Three phylogeographical subgroups have been found within the R. alpestris group, neither following taxonomy nor geography. Genetic heterogeneity in the Southern Alps contrasts with Northern Alpine uniformity. The Carpathians have been stepwise colonised from the Eastern Alpine lineage resulting in a marked diversity loss in the Southern Carpathians. The main divergence within the group, separating the ancestor of the two endemic species from R

  9. Male meiosis, morphometric analysis and distribution pattern of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834 (Ranunculaceae from the cold regions of northwest Himalayas (India

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    Puneet Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number, detailed male meiosis, microsporogenesis, pollen fertility and morphological features and distribution of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834. The majority of the populations scored now from cold regions of the northwest Himalayas showed tetraploid (n=16 meiotic chromosome count and one of the populations studied from the Manimahesh hills existed at diploid level (n=8. The individuals of diploid cytotype exhibited perfectly normal meiotic course resulting in 100% pollen fertility and pollen grains of uniform sizes. On the other hand, the plants of the tetraploid cytotype from all the populations in spite of showing normal bivalent formation and equal distribution to the opposite poles at anaphases showed various meiotic abnormalities. The most prominent among these meiotic abnormalities was the cytomixis which involved inter PMC (pollen mother cell chromatin material transfer at different stages of meiosis-I. The phenomenon of cytomixis induced various meiotic abnormalities which include chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, laggards and chromatin bridges, out of plate bivalents at metaphase-I, disoriented chromatin material at anaphase/telophase and micronuclei. Consequently, these populations exhibited varying percentages of pollen sterility (24 - 77 % and pollen grains of heterogeneous sizes. Analysis of various morphometric features including the stomata in 2× and 4× cytotypes showed that increase in ploidy level in the species is correlated with gigantism of vegetative and floral characters and the two cytotypes can be distinguished from each other on the basis of morphological characters. The distribution patterns of the 2× and 4× cytotypes now detected and 2×, 3×, 4× cytotypes detected earlier by workers from other regions of the Indian Himalayas have also been discussed.

  10. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

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    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  11. The extreme disjunction between Beringia and Europe in Ranunculus glacialis s. l. (Ranunculaceae) does not coincide with the deepest genetic split - a story of the importance of temperate mountain ranges in arctic-alpine phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronikier, M; Schneeweiss, G M; Schönswetter, P

    2012-11-01

    The arctic-alpine Ranunculus glacialis s. l. is distributed in high-mountain ranges of temperate Europe and in the North, where it displays an extreme disjunction between the North Atlantic Arctic and Beringia. Based on comprehensive sampling and employing plastid and nuclear marker systems, we (i) test whether the European/Beringian disjunction correlates with the main evolutionary diversification, (ii) reconstruct the phylogeographic history in the Arctic and in temperate mountains and (iii) assess the susceptibility of arctic and mountain populations to climate change. Both data sets revealed several well-defined lineages, mostly with a coherent geographic distribution. The deepest evolutionary split did not coincide with the European/Beringian disjunction but occurred within the Alps. The Beringian lineage and North Atlantic Arctic populations, which reached their current distribution via rapid postglacial colonization, show connections to two divergent pools of Central European populations. Thus, immigration into the Arctic probably occurred at least twice. The presence of a rare cpDNA lineage related to Beringia in the Carpathians supports the role of these mountains as a stepping stone between temperate Europe and the non-European Arctic, and as an important area of high-mountain biodiversity. The temperate and arctic ranges presented contrasting phylogeographic histories: a largely static distribution in the former and rapid latitudinal spread in the latter. The persistence of ancient lineages with a strictly regional distribution suggests that the ability of R. glacialis to survive repeated climatic changes within southern mountain ranges is greater than what recently was predicted for alpine plants from climatic envelope modelling. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. De nomenclatuur van Speenkruiden (Ficaria verna Huds. s.l.,Ranunculaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Jan-Frits

    2015-01-01

    Molecular research has shown that Ficaria (Ranunculaceae) is not closely related to Ranunculus. In this study I regard the genus as monospecific with 7 subspecies. It is an arbitrary choice to regard these taxa as species or subspecies. In most of the recent literature a choice has been made for the

  13. De nomenclatuur van Speenkruiden (Ficaria verna Huds. s.l.,Ranunculaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, Jan-Frits

    2015-01-01

    Molecular research has shown that Ficaria (Ranunculaceae) is not closely related to Ranunculus. In this study I regard the genus as monospecific with 7 subspecies. It is an arbitrary choice to regard these taxa as species or subspecies. In most of the recent literature a choice has been made for the latter and this is followed here. The type is Ficaria verna (≡ Ranunculus ficaria). Benson (1954: 369)1 was the first to designate a lectotype: Herb. Linn. 715.12 (LINN) without provenance, but mo...

  14. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    OpenAIRE

    Bożena Denisow; Monika Strzałkowska-Abramek; Anna Jeżak

    2016-01-01

    Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollinati...

  15. Morphological development of petals in Ranunculaceae

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    Yi Ren

    2016-04-01

    then the first stages. For example, a tubular petal of Helleborus thibetanus undergoes the following developmental stages: a depression appear at the base of the blade, then two bulges appear at the base of the depression, and then the bulges fuse with one another to form the upper lip, the upper lip fuses with two margins of the blade that makes the petal oblique cupshaped, the growth speed of the upper lip is faster than the two fused sides and that of the later is faster than the lower lip that makes the petal to be tubular; a spurred petal of Aquilegia yabeana undergoes the following developmental stages: a depression appears at the base of the blade, then two bulges appears at the base of the depression, the depression deepens to form the spur and the bulges stop further growth. According to the molecular systematic results, the genera in two basal most clades, Glaudidium and Hydrastis, are apetalous. Coptis and Xanthorhiza are in the next basal most clade, the petal in this clade only has, or sometimes not clear, the depression at the base of the blade and the nectary tissue appears in the depression and the petals in these genera are not bilabial. The rest of the genera form the core Ranunculaceae in which two bulges appear at the base of the depression. The appearance of the bulges can be considered as a key innovation and let the petals get the diverged potential in morphology and finally resulted in the divergence of the genera. The development processes of the petals in different petalous clades, or even in different petalous genera in the same clade, are different. The bulges might be lost in Consolida clade, in this case, the spur is well developed, or only one bulge appears in Ranunculus and Nigella clades, or both the bulges and the depression might be lost in Adonis which has the flat petals without nectary tissue. The growth of the bulges which becomes the upper lip of the petal or the depression which becomes the succate or the spur can result in the

  16. A Burns Case Due to Ranunculaceae

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    Ahmet Koyuncu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional treatment methods are often applied in our country. Ranunculaceae that grows as a weed in Sivas region is used topically in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. In this case, we present a 53-year- old patient who applied the ranunculaceae for knee pain topically and eventually, there appeared burn on the skin. The patient treated from wound debridement in our hospital, received wound care and was discharged. The occurence os such cases, uncontrolled and continuous use of herbal treatments can still be observed and research on plants leads people to act more consciously.

  17. Endosperm formation in aposporous Crataegus (Rosaceae, Spiraeoideae, tribe Pyreae): parallels to Ranunculaceae and Poaceae.

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    Talent, Nadia; Dickinson, Timothy A

    2007-01-01

    Apomixis in Crataegus is primarily aposporous and requires pollination. The embryo sac is of the Polygonum type. A combination of meiotically unreduced embryo sacs with apparently reduced pollen would violate the usual requirement for a 2 : 1 ratio of maternal to paternal contributions to the endosperm. We therefore investigated the origin of endosperm in seeds of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids of the sister genera Crataegus and Mespilus. Flow-cytometric DNA measurements from embryo and endosperm in mature seeds were converted to ploidy levels using leaf-tissue information. The diploids had triploid endosperm. In c. 60% of seed from polyploids, one sperm apparently contributes to the endosperm, while 25% or more may involve two sperm. Additional results suggest that trinucleate central cells also occur. Fertilization of meiotically unreduced eggs is indicated. The ratio of maternal to paternal contributions to the endosperm in these apomictic Crataegus is not constrained to 2 : 1. They thus resemble some Sorbus (Pyreae) and very distantly related Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae). It is suggested that Paspalum (Poaceae) may have similarly flexible endosperm ploidy levels.

  18. SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Matthias H.; von Hagen, K. Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V.

    2010-01-01

    The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and...

  19. Perianth evolution in Ranunculaceae: are petals ancestral in the family?

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    Sophie Nadot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made recently towards the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies and tribes of the Ranunculaceae – the most recent hypothesis was published in 2016 by our team. Although relationships among the 10 tribes of the subfamily Ranunculoideae remain incompletely supported, this hypothesis provides an interesting framework to address the key issue of the ancestral vs. derived nature of a differentiated perianth within the family, and at the level of Ranunculales as a whole. Here, we present ancestral state reconstructions for several perianth characters, such as differentiation into sepals and petals, shape of petals, presence/absence of nectaries, and petaloid or sepaloid aspect of sepals. Characters were scored using the PROTEUS database and optimized on the most recent phylogeny of Ranunculaceae using parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The results are discussed with regard to recent evo-devo studies focused on identifying genes involved in floral organs identity (the so-called ABC model in Ranunculales.

  20. Antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Ranunculus arvensis L. extracts.

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    Bhatti, Muhammad Zeeshan; Ali, Amjad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Saeed, Asma; Malik, Salman Akbar

    2015-06-30

    Ranunculus arvensis L. (R. arvensis) has long been used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as arthritis, asthma, hay fever, rheumatism, psoriasis, gut diseases and rheumatic pain. Here, we screened R. arvensis for antioxidant activity, phytochemical and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. The chloroform, chloroform:methanol, methanol, methanol:acetone, acetone, methanol:water and water extracts of R. arvensis were examined for DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, reducing power assay, flavonoid content, phenolic content and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Significant antioxidant activity was displayed by methanol extract (IC 50 34.71 ± 0.02) in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Total flavonoids and phenolics ranged 0.96-6.0 mg/g of extract calculated as rutin equivalent and 0.48-1.43 mg/g of extract calculated as gallic acid equivalent respectively. Significant value of rutin and caffeic acid was observed via high performance liquid chromatography. These results showed that extracts of R. arvensis exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Moreover, R. arvensis is a rich source of rutin, flavonoids and phenolics.

  1. SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matthias H.; von Hagen, K. Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V.

    2010-01-01

    The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and Halerpestes. Two clades of Ranunculus are species-rich in the Arctic, i.e., Ranunculus sect. Ranunculus and R. sect. Auricomus (both from R. subg. Ranunculus), but this is due to a number of arctic “microtaxa” morphologically barely separate from R. acris in the former clade and the widely agamospermic species complex of R. auricomus in the latter. Lineages with species adapted to wetlands or aquatic habitats are significant groups represented in the arctic flora (R. subg. Ranunculus sectt. Flammula and Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, R. subg. Batrachium, genus Coptidium) but show no clear signs of radiation in the Arctic or the northern boreal zone, except for sectt. Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, with R. hyperboreus and R. sceleratus subsp. reptabundus. Astonishingly few of the otherwise numerous lineages of Ranunculus with distributions in the higher mountain systems of Eurasia and North America have acted as “founding sources” for the arctic flora. The only clear example is that of the arctic-alpine R. glacialis and the Beringian R. chamissonis from the lineage of subg. R. sectt. Aconitifolii/Crymodes, although there might be others in sect. Auricomus not recovered in the current molecular data. Lineages that gave rise to arctic taxa diverged from each other from the early Miocene (R. glacialis/R. chamissonis, Coptidium, lineages in Halerpestes) and continued at an even rate throughout the Tertiary. There are no signs that the intense climate changes of the late Pliocene

  2. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

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    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Ranunculaceae consists of numerous widespread species occuring from lowlands to subalpine or alpine zones. In Poland, the species grow in different types of habitats, including xerothermic swards (Adonido-Brachypodietum, Brachypodio- Teucrietum, Thalictro-Salvietum, Seslerio- Scorzoneretum and decidous forests (Tilio- Carpinetum. Many species are popular ornamentals cultivated fro their esthetic value. Ranunculaceans vary remarkably in the phenology of blooming. Among them, there are early spring blooming species like Eranthis hyemalis, Ficaria verna, Isopyrum thalictroides, Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, and those that start to bloom in autumn, e.g. Aconitum carmichaelli. The overall flowering duration may differ significantly between years – for example, in Anemone sylvestris the disparities reached more than three weeks. The occurrence and the length of each blooming phase may vary considerably between sites, e.g. in Adonis vernalis 10-15-day dissimilarities in the occurrence of blooming stages were recorded. Additionally, the duration of the full blooming stage varied from 10 to 30 days. The diurnal pattern of blooming among Ranunculaceae members was proved to be highly species-specific. Flowers of Aquilegia vulgaris started opening at approx. 5.00 (GMT+2, which was 2-3 hours earlier than those of Adonis vernalis. Significant differences in the diurnal flowering dynamics can be found even in the same genus: flowers of Aconitum lycoctonum began opening at 5.00 (with the peak between 6.00-9.00, while flowers of Aconitum carmichaelii started opening at 8.00 and peaked between 11.00-13.00. The flowering abundance may differ among populations of the same species. The management type was found to have an impact on the individuals’ density of Adonis vernalis occurring in xerothermic grasslands. The control of shrub encashment has already been designated as the factor determining the flowering abundance of Adonis vernalis in

  3. Complex Self-Incompatibility Systems in Ranunculus acris L. and Beta vulgaris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, A.; Østerbye, U.; Larsen, K.

    1973-01-01

    -genes acting on the haploid pollen grain be matched in the pistil. This type of incompatibility system was previously considered to be unique for the grasses. However, whereas two S-loci with such complementary interaction have been established in the grasses, there are at least three S-loci in Ranunculus...

  4. RANUNCULUS-HEDERACEUS L AS INDICATOR OF LAND-USE CHANGES IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diggelen, R.; Beukema, Hendrien; Noorman, Klaas

    In The Netherlands Ranunculus hederaceus is a rare species that occurs in running waters. It appears to be confined to zones with a constant supply of mineral-poor groundwater, originating from highly fertilized fields. The relation between species performance and chemical composition of the water

  5. TAXONOMICAL POSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF BUSCHIA LATERIFLORA (DC. OVCZ. (RANUNCULACEAE JUSS. SPECIES IN THE BESSARABIA

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    CANTEMIR VALENTINA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Having the target of taxonomic concretization the Ranunculus L. and Buschia (DC. Ovcz. genera from Bessarabia flora, the Herbarium specimens of Botanical Garden Academy of Sciences, and Moldova State University were investigated and analyzed. Research results attest the priority concept of Ranunculus L. genus and the presence of Buschia lateriflora (DC. Ovcz. species in native flora. Revealing a new habitat for Buschia lateriflora species complete the species area within South-East Europe limits. Morphologic distinctive criteria of studied genus are given.

  6. Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae), an unusual new species from southern Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to southern Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to C. vitalba and differs from the latter in having leaves with narrowly ovate, dentate-serrate leaflets, trifoliolate lowermost pinnae as well as small, pale...

  7. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa del C.; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108–90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. PMID:27251635

  8. De verschillende genoomgewichten van Europese Ficaria Huds.(Ranunculaceae) duiden op acht soorten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear genome size, as measured by flow cytometry with propidium iodide, was used to investigate the relationships within the genus Ficaria Huds. (Ranunculaceae). For the five diploids the genome size (2C) ranges from 12.5 pg to 23.2 pg. The three tetraploids range from 30.1 for F. chrysocephala

  9. Pollinator-mediated selection on nectary depth in Urophysa (Ranunculaceae

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    Li Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator-mediated selection has been considered to be one of major factors that shapes the evolution of flowers by matching flowers to their pollinators on traits associated with attraction of pollinators or mechanical fit. The match between nectary depth, which means the length of the tubular structure formed in many plant species to hide the nectary and store nectar, and the mouthparts length of its major nectar-foraging pollinators has been repeatedly demonstrated as an example, because this trait have shown a positive relationship with pollen removal and deposition in experimental manipulations in many synpetalous plants and orchid family. However, it remains unclear how pollinator-mediated selection affects the evolution of nectary depth in choripetalous and actinomorphic flowers, such as most flowers in Ranunculaceae. Here we investigated floral characteristics and pollinators in Urophysa rockii Ulbr. and U. henryi (Oliv. Ulbr., as they are quite the same in habitat, anthesis and morphological characteristics except for nectary depth. Both of these species have flat white sepals and yellow petals each has a spatial structure at the base that contains nectar, but the nectary depth of U. rockii is deeper than that of U. henryi, for the former petals are shortly spurred about 3-4mm in length while the latter are saccate. Meanwhile, the flowers of both species are most frequently visited by Apis cerana, the Chinese honey bee, and one or two species of hover fly, Syrphidae, but only A. cerana was able to forage nectar in U. rockii while all visitors can forage nectar in U. henryi. A. cerana always lands on the center of a flower and projects its proboscis into each petal when its thorax touches anthers and stigmas. The difference between two species is that U. rockii was visited by A. cerana with a higher frequency, longer visiting time per flower and more activities on flowers than U. henryi. Besides, the petal width and its nectary depth of

  10. Genomic Resources of Three Pulsatilla Species Reveal Evolutionary Hotspots, Species-Specific Sites and Variable Plastid Structure in the Family Ranunculaceae

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    Monika Szczecińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The European continent is presently colonized by nine species of the genus Pulsatilla, five of which are encountered only in mountainous regions of southwest and south-central Europe. The remaining four species inhabit lowlands in the north-central and eastern parts of the continent. Most plants of the genus Pulsatilla are rare and endangered, which is why most research efforts focused on their biology, ecology and hybridization. The objective of this study was to develop genomic resources, including complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters, for three sympatric Pulsatilla species that are most commonly found in Central Europe. The results will supply valuable information about genetic variation, which can be used in the process of designing primers for population studies and conservation genetics research. The complete plastid genomes together with the nuclear rRNA cluster can serve as a useful tool in hybridization studies. Methodology/principal findings: Six complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters were sequenced from three species of Pulsatilla using the Illumina sequencing technology. Four junctions between single copy regions and inverted repeats and junctions between the identified locally-collinear blocks (LCB were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Pulsatilla genomes of 120 unique genes had a total length of approximately 161–162 kb, and 21 were duplicated in the inverted repeats (IR region. Comparative plastid genomes of newly-sequenced Pulsatilla and the previously-identified plastomes of Aconitum and Ranunculus species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae revealed several variations in the structure of the genome, but the gene content remained constant. The nuclear rRNA cluster (18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-26S of studied Pulsatilla species is 5795 bp long. Among five analyzed regions of the rRNA cluster, only Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2 enabled the molecular delimitation of closely-related Pulsatilla

  11. Seed development in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Populus nigra L., and Ranunculus sceleratus L. with special reference to the microtubular cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XuHan, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, seed development is investigated in celery-leafed buttercup ( Ranunculus sceleratus L.), bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and poplar ( Populus nigra L.). Developing embryos, endosperms and seed coats are

  12. Ranunculaceae of Western Ukraine. ІI. Generic identification key and characteristics

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    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continue of previous work (Новіков 2013 and represents new key for identification of genera from Ranunculaceae family of Western Ukraine (Lviv, Transcarpathian (Zakarpattia, Rivne, Volhynia, Ivano- Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Ternopil and Khmelnitsk regions (oblasts. This key is consensual and do not corresponds to contemporary taxonomical tendencies in all its points because it is build for non-specialists and/or young scientists which need easy identification tool for their routine field and herbarium work. However, most of modern taxonomical changes and related publications are shortly introduced here and in my previous paper (Новіков 2013. Hence, in present work I suggest that family Ranunculaceae in Western Ukraine is represented by 2 subfamilies, 10 tribes, 22 genera and 102 species. Corresponding consensual taxonomical system is represented. Short characteristics of genera are completed by information about species number and its distribution.

  13. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

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    Bi-Ling Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1 and B (2, and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3, were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were established to be (2S-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher’s method.

  14. Comparative chloroplast genomics: Analyses including new sequencesfrom the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubeso, Linda A.; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W.; Dziubek,Chris; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2007-03-01

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This new array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is most useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the new genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (from the basal group of eudicots). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition.

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF THREATENED SPECIES TRIFOLIUM LUPINASTER L., HERACLEUM CARPATICUM PORCIUS AND RANUNCULUS THORA L. IN ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS

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    Attila BARTÓK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maramureşului Mountains Nature Park is widely known as one of the last wilderness areas in Europe and also represents a real oasis for naturalists eager to explore the flora and fauna of this special land not very researched. During a botanical trip in the area of Farcău Peak (on 19 July 2014 the authors of this paper found three very rare species (all 3 threatened, included in Romanian Red Book of Vascular Plants: Trifolium lupinaster L., Heracleum carpaticum Porcius and Ranunculus thora L. Based on field studies, analyses of herbarium material and literature data, the authors managed to record the occurrence of Trifolium lupinaster, Heracleum carpaticum and Ranunculus thora in the Romanian Carpathians and determined the threatened status of species according to criteria and categories of IUCN.

  16. De verschillende genoomgewichten van Europese Ficaria Huds.(Ranunculaceae) duiden op acht soorten

    OpenAIRE

    Zonneveld, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear genome size, as measured by flow cytometry with propidium iodide, was used to investigate the relationships within the genus Ficaria Huds. (Ranunculaceae). For the five diploids the genome size (2C) ranges from 12.5 pg to 23.2 pg. The three tetraploids range from 30.1 for F. chrysocephala (P.D.Sell) Zonn. comb. nov. to 36.2 pg for F. fascicularis. Therefore – despite the recent literature considering them often as subspecies – they are here regarded as species. Lesser Celandine (F. ve...

  17. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

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    Boore Jeffrey L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot. We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and longer dispersed repeats (SDR, and patterns of nucleotide composition. Results The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. Conclusion SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A

  18. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubeson, Linda A; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W; Dziubek, Chris; Fourcade, H Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2007-06-15

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition. The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A+T richness", an A+T bias is not apparent upon more in

  19. Specific duplication and dorsoventrally asymmetric expression patterns of Cycloidea-like genes in zygomorphic species of Ranunculaceae.

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    Florian Jabbour

    Full Text Available Floral bilateral symmetry (zygomorphy has evolved several times independently in angiosperms from radially symmetrical (actinomorphic ancestral states. Homologs of the Antirrhinum majus Cycloidea gene (Cyc have been shown to control floral symmetry in diverse groups in core eudicots. In the basal eudicot family Ranunculaceae, there is a single evolutionary transition from actinomorphy to zygomorphy in the stem lineage of the tribe Delphinieae. We characterized Cyc homologs in 18 genera of Ranunculaceae, including the four genera of Delphinieae, in a sampling that represents the floral morphological diversity of this tribe, and reconstructed the evolutionary history of this gene family in Ranunculaceae. Within each of the two RanaCyL (Ranunculaceae Cycloidea-like lineages previously identified, an additional duplication possibly predating the emergence of the Delphinieae was found, resulting in up to four gene copies in zygomorphic species. Expression analyses indicate that the RanaCyL paralogs are expressed early in floral buds and that the duration of their expression varies between species and paralog class. At most one RanaCyL paralog was expressed during the late stages of floral development in the actinomorphic species studied whereas all paralogs from the zygomorphic species were expressed, composing a species-specific identity code for perianth organs. The contrasted asymmetric patterns of expression observed in the two zygomorphic species is discussed in relation to their distinct perianth architecture.

  20. Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

    2013-11-01

    Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (λ = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (λ = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase λ for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

  1. Uptake of cadmium by the invasive perennial weeds Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Juliette; Bendell-Young, L I

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accumulation and partitioning of cadmium (Cd) in a fibrous versus a tap root weed, Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum respectively. To meet this objective, we compared the accumulation by and the partitioning of Cd in R repens versus G. robertianum grown in soils spiked with 0.015 grams of Cd for a period of three weeks. The rate of Cd uptake was also compared by following the fate of 109Cd within the root, stem and leaf of the two weeds. Prior to Cd exposure, leaf and stem of control R. repens contained significantly greater amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum, whereas Cd concentrations in roots of the control plants for the two species were not significantly different (p > 0.05, student's t-test). Post Cd exposure the two species contained similar amounts of Cd in leaf and stem, however, roots of R. repens contained almost two-fold the amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum. Comparison of k (h(-1), rate of 109Cd uptake) for stem, leaf and root of the two species indicated that G. robertianum accumulated 109Cd over the first 24-48 h at a faster rate as compared to R. repens. For both species and all three organs, maximum accumulation of 109Cd occurred within the first 24-48 h. Our findings indicate that the fate of Cd within these two species is quite different with the fibrous root of R. repens serving to accumulate and store Cd whereas in G. robertianum, Cd is rapidly taken up and tends to be accumulated within its leaf.

  2. Cycloartenol triterpenoid saponins from Cimicifuga simplex (Ranunculaceae) and their biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lun; Chen, Zhi-Li; Su, Yang; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2015-02-01

    The constituents of Cimicifuga plants have been extensively investigated, and the principal metabolites are 9,19-cyclolanostane triterpenoid glycosides, which are distributed widely in Cimicifuga plants, but not in other members of the Ranunculaceae family, and are considered to be characteristics of the Cimicifuga genus. This type of triterpenoid glycoside possesses several important biological activities. More than 120 cycloartane triterpene glycosides have been isolated from Cimicifuga simplex Wormsk. The aim of this review article is to summarize all the major findings based on the available scientific literatures on C. simplex, with a focus on the identified 9,19-cyclolanostane triterpenoid glycosides. Biological studies of cycloartane triterpene glycosides from Cimicifuga spp. are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenetic differentiation persists after male gametogenesis in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations.

  4. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in Wild Populations of Canada

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    Vladimir Kricsfalusy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes.

  5. The First Comprehensive Phylogeny of Coptis (Ranunculaceae and Its Implications for Character Evolution and Classification.

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    Kun-Li Xiang

    Full Text Available Coptis (Ranunculaceae contains 15 species and is one of the pharmaceutically most important plant genera in eastern Asia. Understanding of the evolution of morphological characters and phylogenetic relationships within the genus is very limited. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. The phylogeny was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, as well as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis and Bayesian tests were used to assess the strength of the conflicts between traditional taxonomic units and those suggested by the phylogenetic inferences. Evolution of morphological characters was inferred using Bayesian method to identify synapomorphies for the infrageneric lineages. Our data recognize two strongly supported clades within Coptis. The first clade contains subgenus Coptis and section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis, supported by morphological characters, such as traits of the central leaflet base, petal color, and petal shape. The second clade consists of section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis. Coptis morii is not united with C. quinquefolia, in contrast with the view that C. morii is a synonym of C. quinquefolia. Two varieties of C. chinensis do not cluster together. Coptis groenlandica and C. lutescens are reduced to C. trifolia and C. japonica, respectively. Central leaflet base, sepal shape, and petal blade carry a strong phylogenetic signal in Coptis, while leaf type, sepal and petal color, and petal shape exhibit relatively higher levels of evolutionary flexibility.

  6. A molecular phylogeny of Dichocarpum (Ranunculaceae): Implications for eastern Asian biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kun-Li; Zhao, Liang; Erst, Andrey S; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Jabbour, Florian; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    East Asia is characterized by high levels of species diversity and endemism. However, the biogeographical patterns and processes underlying the distribution of biodiversity within the area are still poorly known. In this study, we used plastid (matK, trnL-F, and trnH-psbA) and nuclear (ITS) DNA sequences to investigate the historical biogeography of Dichocarpum (Ranunculaceae), an eastern Asian endemic genus throughout warm-temperate and subtropical forests of the area. Phylogenetic analyses strongly support Dichocarpum as monophyletic, which contains two major clades. Clade I corresponds to section Hutchinsonia, and clade II includes sections Dichocarpum and Fargesia. Section Dichocarpum and its subsections Dalzielia and Dichocarpum are not recognized as monophyletic. Our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Dichocarpum occurred in central China and Japan in the earliest Early Miocene, and thus support an ancient vicariance event between Japan and China. Within mainland China, three migrations at the species level were hypothesized to explain the expansion of Dichocarpum from central China to southeastern Yunnan, Hengduan mountains, and eastern Himalaya. These migration events occurred in the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene, which may be associated with the uplift of the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and accordingly the expansion of subtropical forests in China around that period. A migration or dispersal from central China to Taiwan was inferred in the Early Pleistocene, which supports the close floristic affinity between Taiwan and mainland China. This study contributes to our knowledge on the historical biogeography of plants in eastern Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollination and floral biology of Adonis vernalis L. (Ranunculaceae – a case study of threatened species

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    Bożena Denisow

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the knowledge of pollination systems of rare and threatened species is one of the principles for development of optimal conservation and management strategies, the data about their pollination requirements are scarce or incomplete. Different problems are listed (xerothermic habitat disappearance, overgrowing of patches, plant biology i.e., slow plant growth, problems with seed germination among the possible causes of Adonis vernalis being threatened, but until now no consideration was given to the flowering biology and pollination. The observations of flowering biology of A. vernalis (Ranunculaceae, a clonal species, were conducted in an out-of-compact-range population, in the Lublin Upland, Poland (51°18'55" N, 22°38'21" E, in 2011–2013. The reproductive potential of A. vernalis is related to the population age structure, pollination syndrome, and breeding system. The flowers exhibit incomplete protogyny. The dichogamy function is supported by different (biological, morphological mechanisms. Stigma receptivity occurred about one day before anthers started shedding self-pollen, and pollen viability was increasing gradually during the flower life-span (66.3% in distal anthers vs. 77.3% in proximal. The decrease in pollen production and in pollen viability coincided with the lowest degree of seed set, irrespective of the pollination treatment. Pollen vectors are necessary for efficient pollination, as the proportion of pistils setting fruits after open pollination (41–82.1% was significantly higher compared to spontaneous self-pollination (only 5.5–12.3%. The pollination requirements together with pollen/ovule ratio (P/O = 501 indicate a facultative xenogamous breeding system in A. vernalis. Therefore, in the conditions of the global lack of pollinators, improper pollination may weaken the population by leading to a decrease in the proportion of recombinants, and in addition to other factors, may accelerate extinction of small A

  8. Repellency to ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of extracts of nigella sativa L.(Ranunculaceae) and the anti-inflammatory DogsBestFriend™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motivated by observations that the canine anti-inflammatory cream DogsBestFriend™ (DBF) appeared to deter flies, mosquitoes, and ticks from treated animals, repellent efficacy bioassays using four species of ticks were conducted with three extracts of Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), a constituent...

  9. Extra petals in the buttercup (Ranunculus repens) provide a quick method to estimate the age of meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John

    2009-09-01

    There is a widely used crude method to estimate the age of hedgerows (Hooper's rule) based on species' richness. The aim of this study was to try and establish a similar field method for estimating the age of grasslands based on the accumulation of macro-somatic mutations. A countrywide survey was carried out by the British public to investigate the relationship between grassland age and the number of Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) plants with extra petals. In addition the relationship between grassland age and R. repens pollen viability was also investigated. Each plant with flowers with additional petals in a sample of 100 was found to equate to approx. 7 years. A higher significant correlation was observed between pollen viability and population age; however, this is not amenable to providing field estimates. The age of British grasslands can be easily and reliably estimated in the field by counting the number flowers with additional petals in R. repens in meadows up to 200 years old. An attempt to estimate the heritability of extra petals suggests that the phenotype results from the slow accumulation of somatic mutations in a species that primarily reproduces vegetatively.

  10. Flower-visiting insects observed on the critically endangered alpine plant species Callianthemum kernerianum Freyn ex A. Kerner (Ranunculaceae

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    Mauro Gobbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we provide the first contribution to the knowledge of the flower-visiting insect assemblages of the alpine plant species Callianthemum kernerianum Freyn ex A. Kerner (Ranunculaceae. This focal plant species was selected since it is a steno-endemic and critically endangered species belonging to the IUCN red-list. Fifteen taxa were recorded, among which very few are true pollinators, whereas all the others can be considered only indirect pollinators. The peculiar phenology of the plant and the harsh habitat conditions in which it grows probably affect the richness and abundance of flower-visiting insects as well as of true pollinators. This could be the reason for this plant to be a self-compatible species.

  11. Nectar yeasts in the tall Larkspur Delphinium barbeyi (Ranunculaceae and effects on components of pollinator foraging behavior.

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    Robert N Schaeffer

    Full Text Available Microorganisms frequently colonize the nectar of angiosperm species. Though capable of altering a suite of traits important for pollinator attraction, few studies exist that test the degree to which they mediate pollinator foraging behavior. The objective of our study was to fill this gap by assessing the abundance and diversity of yeasts associated with the perennial larkspur Delphinium barbeyi (Ranunculaceae and testing whether their presence affected components of pollinator foraging behavior. Yeasts frequently colonized D. barbeyi nectar, populating 54-77% of flowers examined depending on site. Though common, the yeast community was species-poor, represented by a single species, Metschnikowia reukaufii. Female-phase flowers of D. barbeyi were more likely to have higher densities of yeasts in comparison to male-phase flowers. Pollinators were likely vectors of yeasts, as virgin (unvisited flowers rarely contained yeasts compared to flowers open to pollinator visitation, which were frequently colonized. Finally, pollinators responded positively to the presence of yeasts. Bombus foragers both visited and probed more flowers inoculated with yeasts in comparison to uninoculated controls. Taken together, our results suggest that variation in the occurrence and density of nectar-inhabiting yeasts have the potential to alter components of pollinator foraging behavior linked to pollen transfer and plant fitness.

  12. No Genetic Diversity at Molecular Markers and Strong Phenotypic Plasticity in Populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, an Endangered Plant Species in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Florence; Machon, Nathalie; Porcher, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Although conservation biology has long focused on population dynamics and genetics, phenotypic plasticity is likely to play a significant role in population viability. Here, an investigation is made into the relative contribution of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity to the phenotypic variation in natural populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, a rare annual plant inhabiting temporary puddles in the Fontainebleau forest (Paris region, France) and exhibiting metapopulation dynamics. Methods The genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity of quantitative traits (morphological and fitness components) were measured in five populations, using a combination of field measurements, common garden experiments and genotyping at microsatellite loci. Key Results It is shown that populations exhibit almost undetectable genetic diversity at molecular markers, and that the variation in quantitative traits observed among populations is due to a high level of phenotypic plasticity. Despite the lack of genetic diversity, the natural population of R. nodiflorus exhibits large population sizes and does not appear threatened by extinction; this may be attributable to large phenotypic plasticity, enabling the production of numerous seeds under a wide range of environmental conditions. Conclusions Efficient conservation of the populations can only be based on habitat management, to favour the maintenance of microenvironmental variation and the resulting strong phenotypic plasticity. In contrast, classical actions aiming to improve genetic diversity are useless in the present case. PMID:17468109

  13. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-03-26

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect.

  14. Ecología y evolución de la dispersión de semillas en helleborus foetidus l. (ranunculaceae). Variación geográfica en las interacciones planta-animal

    OpenAIRE

    Manzaneda Ávila, Antonio José

    2005-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta tesis es el análisis de las consecuencias ecológicas y del potencial evolutivo de la dispersión de semillas por hormigas en Helleborus Foetidus (Ranunculaceae) dentro de un contexto de variación geográfica. La consecución de estos objetivos requiere examinar los ensamblajes de hormigas que interaccionan con la planta, las consecuencias inmediatas y distales de la inter acción (en términos de tasas de remoción de semillas, evitación de la depredación y reclutamien...

  15. The partial sequence of RNA 1 of the ophiovirus Ranunculus white mottle virus indicates its relationship to rhabdoviruses and provides candidate primers for an ophiovirus-specific RT-PCR test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaira, A M; Accotto, G P; Costantini, A; Milne, R G

    2003-06-01

    A 4018 nucleotide sequence was obtained for RNA 1 of Ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV), genus Ophiovirus, representing an incomplete ORF of 1339 aa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed significant similarities with RNA polymerases of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae and a conserved domain of 685 aa, corresponding to the RdRp domain of those in the order Mononegavirales. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Ophiovirus is not related to the genus Tenuivirus or the family Bunyaviridae, with which it has been linked, and probably deserves a special taxonomic position, within a new family. A pair of degenerate primers was designed from a consensus sequence obtained from a relatively conserved region in the RNA 1 of two members of the genus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) and RWMV. The primers, used in RT-PCR experiments, amplified a 136 bp DNA fragment from all the three recognized members of the genus, i.e. CPsV, RWMV and Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus (TMMMV) and from two tentative ophioviruses from lettuce and freesia. The amplified DNAs were sequenced and compared with the corresponding sequences of CPsV and RWMV and phylogenetic relationships were evaluated. Assays using extracts from plants infected by viruses belonging to the genera Tospovirus, Tenuivirus, Rhabdovirus and Varicosavirus indicated that the primers are genus-specific.

  16. Anti-inflammatory Activities of Extracts of Some Traditionally Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts were obtained from the leaves of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Malva verticillata L. (Malvaceae), Syzygium guineense DC. (Myrtaceae); and from the rhizomes of Ferula communis L. (Apiaceae), and from the aerial part of Ranunculus multifidus Forssk (Ranunculaceae). Except for the extract of F. communis, ...

  17. Molecular phylogeny of Ranunculaceae based on internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... characteristics and the same chemical constituents are ... Nuclear rDNA ITS sequences have been used in the analysis of angiosperms (Baldwin et al., 1992; Stanford et al., 2000) and in the analysis of the evolutionary rate for lower ... were carried out in a final volume of 20 µL, with 2 µL DNA, 5 pmol of.

  18. The safety of using the aqueous extract of Ranunculus multifidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marizvikuru

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Res. 72:129–134. Molento BM (2009). Parasite control in the age of drug resistance and changing agricultural practices. Vet. Parasitol. 163: 229-234. Murray JA, Slater DN, Parsons MA, Fox M, Smith S, Platts MM (1984). Splenic siderosis and parenteral iron dextran in maintenance haemodialysis patients.

  19. Lectotypification and description of Clematis viticella L. (Ranunculaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.; Vooren, van de J.G.; Jarvis, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    The typification of Clematis viticella L. is discussed, and a lectotype designated from the Clifford Herbarium (BM). A standard specimen for C. viticella‘Purpurea Plena Elegans’ has also been selected. Data from hybridization experiments and studies of natural distribution suggest that Clematis

  20. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bożena Denisow; Małgorzata Wrzesień; Jacek Jachuła

    2016-01-01

    .... Ranunculaceans vary remarkably in the phenology of blooming. Among them, there are early spring blooming species like Eranthis hyemalis, Ficaria verna, Isopyrum thalictroides, Anemone nemorosa...

  1. Phenetic variability of Aconitum lasiocarpum (Rchb. Gáyer (Ranunculaceae: extension of taxonomic and geographic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Mitka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A. lasiocarpum has provoked a long-standing debate over its systematic and geographic status. Present taxonomic and chorological studies offer a proposal for the solution of these problems. In their result, a taxon described by Zapałowicz (1908 was rediscovered, now treated as A. lasiocarpum subsp. kotulae comb. nov. It occurs far beyond hitherto admitted borders of A. lasiocarpum subsp. lasiocarpum, reaching the Sanok-Jasło Basin, the Tatra Mts. and Babia Góra Mt. in the Western Carpathians, and Podolye on Ukraine. A hybrid between A. lasiocarpum and A. variegatum subsp. variegatum was also described for the first time. The nothospecies, A. x pawlowskii nothosp. nov., occurs in scattered localities in the Western Carpathians: in Poland (Beskid Niski, Tatras, Gorce Mts. and Babia Góra Mt. and in Slovakia (Slovenské Rudohorie, Nizke Tatry Mts. and Muranska Planina Plateau, within the range of A. variegatum subsp. variegatum. The new (notho taxa enable more precise shaping the geographical borders of both A. lasiocarpum subsp. lasiocarpum and A. variegatum subsp. variegatum in the Carpathians.

  2. Morphological variability of the Caltha palustris L. complex (Ranunculaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of biosystematic analysis of the critical group of Caltha palustris L. based on 71 populations from Poland. After a preliminary statistical analysis, fourteen morphological characters (nine quantitative and five qualitative, describing size and shape of basal leaves and mature follicles as well as stem morphology, were selected for the clearest differentiation of the complex. Several groups of morphotypes were distinguished within the complex, based on the statistical analysis of this group of characters. Against this background the taxonomy of the complex is proposed. Two species - Caltha laeta Schott, Nyman and Kotschy and Caltha palustris L. - and three subspecies within C. palustris (C. p. subsp. palustris, C. p. subsp. cornuta (Schott, Nyman and Kotschy Hegi and C. p. subsp. radicans (T.F. Forst. Syme, were distinguished in Poland. The status of the taxa within the Polish flora is defined. The paper includes also a key for determination of the complex taxa, as well as their detailed descriptions.

  3. The spectrum of viruses isolated from Pulsatilla pratensis (Ranunculaceae a native plant of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Shydlovska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to virus screening of wild plants of Ukraine’s flora. The object of the research is the Red Book plant Pulsatilla pratensis (L. Mill., which grows on the territory of Kanev Nature Reserve. Isolated isometric infectious virus-like particles with diameters of 34, 36, 43, 47, 50 and 57 nm were isolated from selected plants of P. pratensis. In our research, determination of the infectious nature of the pathogen, host range, concentration of viruses in plants, species identity and virus isolation from the mixture in mixed viral infections were carried with using indicator plants. The typical viral symptoms were observed on indicator plants: browning of the leaf plate, mottling, chlorosis and necrosis. All symptoms were systemic and could be caused by a variety of viruse species. Virions with sizes from 34 to 43 nm produced the necrotic and chlorotic spotting on Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reyn. On the other hand, virions with sizes from 47 to 57 nm produced the necrosis, chlorosis and deformation of the leaf plates on Cucumis sativus L. That is not typical for viruses previously discovered on P. pratensis. The viruses isolated in these plants viruses were cumulated in small concentrations and rapidly lost their infectivity. The number of isolated viruses was insufficient for their identification. Four bacteriophage isolates with long phage tails of different size were isolated from P. pratensis roots and radical soil. The biological (lytic activity towards the tracer bacteria, the morphology of negative colonies, and bacteriophage protein structure were characterized. According to our research, it is possible to divide phages into three subgroups that probably correspond to three different types of viruses. Results of the polypeptide analysis may reflect an evolutionary process in a population of phages that had a common ancestor. Comparison of phage proteins of different hosts shows a variety of molecular weights of polypeptides comprising up to several dozens of proteins. The results of the current work lay the basis for studying the spread of viruses in nature and determination of their relationships in biocenoses.

  4. Flowering, pollen production and insect visitation in two Aconitum species (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Antoń

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering phenology, diurnal dynamics of blooming, insect visitation and pollen production in Aconitum lycoctonum L. and Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux were investigated in 2012–2013 in the Lublin area, SE Poland. Flowering of A. lycoctonum occurred in June/July, whereas A. carmichaelii bloomed in September/October. Both Aconitum species differed in terms of the diurnal pattern of flowering. The flowers of A. lycoctonum started opening at 5.00, whereas those of A. carmichaelii started blooming at 8.00 (GMT+2h. The species differed in the number of anthers per flower, the size of anthers, and the mass of pollen produced in anthers. As a result, the flowers of A. lycoctonum produced less pollen (mean = 1.0 mg per 10 flowers than the flowers of A. carmichaelii (mean = 8.2 mg per 10 flowers. The estimated pollen yield was 0.2 g per m2 for A. lycoctonum and 1.6 g per m2 for A. carmichaelii. The flowers of both Aconitum species were foraged exclusively by bumblebees with the predominance of the long-tongued Bombus hortorum. Nectar was a more attractive floral reward than pollen. The propagation of Aconitum lycoctonum and A. carmichaelii in ornamental gardens may support the conservation of bumblebees whose populations are steadily declining.

  5. Flowering, nectar secretion, pollen shed and insect foraging on Aquilegia vulgaris L. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on blooming biology, nectar secretion, pollen production and insect visitation of Aquilegia vulgaris L. was carried out in 2009 and 2011 in Lublin. The peak of flower opening during the day was between 5.00 and 7.00 (GMT +2. The flowers are protandrous with the female phase beginning approx. on the 3rd day of anthesis. The dynamics of nectar secretion and pollen shed from anthers (progressing from the central part of the androecium outwards support the reproductive system. The amount of nectar accumulated in the spurs increased from the bud stage and was the highest in the phase with approx. ¾ of dehisced anthers, usually on the 3rd day of flower life. Then, towards the end of anthesis, the amount of secreted and accumulated nectar decreased. The number of anthers developed per flower varied from 41 to 61 (mean = 49.1. The mass of pollen per 100 anthers averaged 6.7 mg. Pollen production per flower (mean = 3.28 mg slightly varied between years and was mainly correlated with the number of developed anthers. Estimated pollen yield was 1.69 g per m2 and sugar yield 1.22 g per m2. Species from the genus Bombus were the main flower visitors, with B. terrestris being the most frequent forager.

  6. Floral anatomy of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae: comparing flower organization and vascular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the tribe Delphinieae have dorsoventralized flowers; their pentamerous calyx and reduced corolla are dorsally spurred and inner spurs are nectariferous. Based on this common floral scheme, Delphinieae species exhibit a wide diversity of floral structures and morphologies. We present here the first investigation of the floral anatomy in Delphinieae. The organization of the floral vascular system has been studied in species representative of the floral morphological diversity of Delphinieae: Aconitum lasiocarpum, Delphinium elatum, and Consolida regalis. The three species show a similar vascularization of the calyx and of the reproductive organs, but exhibit distinct anatomical features in the corolla where the nectaries are borne. The sepals and the stamens have a trilacunar three-traced and a unilacunar one-traced vascularization, respectively. Three free carpels in D. elatum and A. lasiocarpum are basically supplied by six vascular bundles – three independent dorsal bundles and three fused lateral bundles. In C. regalis the single carpel is supplied by three independent vascular bundles (one dorsal and two ventral. Staminodes are not vascularized. The basic type of petal vascularization is unilacunar one-traced, but in the case of C. regalis the derived bilacunar two-traced type has been observed. This latter state arose as a result of the fusion of the two dorsal petal primordia. The results of this first comparative study of the floral anatomy of Delphinieae are discussed with the recent phylogenetic, morphological, and evo-devo findings concerning the tribe.

  7. Floral vascular patterns of the double-flowered and wildtype morphs of Nigella damascena L. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Deroin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The perianth of the double-flowered morph of Nigella damascena L. consists of spirally inserted petaloid sepals and sepal-like organs, similar in shape and colour to the petaloid sepals of the wild-type flower. It is devoid of petals. We compare the vascularization of each organ category of the double flower with that of the wild-type. We show that the vascular patterns of the sepal-like organs and of the petals are identical, and found an inverse relationship between the number of bracts and the number of sepals in the double-flowered morph. These two surprising findings will influence the future evo-devo studies on this plant model.

  8. Phylogenetic reassessment of tribe Anemoneae (Ranunculaceae): Non-monophyly of Anemone s.l. revealed by plastid datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Guan, Kai-Yun; Tan, Yun-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Morphological and molecular evidence strongly supported the monophyly of tribe Anemoneae DC.; however, phylogenetic relationships among genera of this tribe have still not been fully resolved. In this study, we sampled 120 specimens representing 82 taxa of tribe Anemoneae. One nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and six plastid markers (atpB-rbcL, matK, psbA-trnQ, rpoB-trnC, rbcL and rps16) were amplified and sequenced. Both Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods were used to reconstruct phylogenies for this tribe. Individual datasets supported all traditional genera as monophyletic, except Anemone and Clematis that were polyphyletic and paraphyletic, respectively, and revealed that the seven single-gene datasets can be split into two groups, i.e. nrITS + atpB-rbcL and the remaining five plastid markers. The combined nrITS + atpB-rbcL dataset recovered monophyly of subtribes Anemoninae (i.e. Anemone s.l.) and Clematidinae (including Anemoclema), respectively. However, the concatenated plastid dataset showed that one group of subtribes Anemoninae (Hepatica and Anemone spp. from subgenus Anemonidium) close to the clade Clematis s.l. + Anemoclema. Our results strongly supported a close relationship between Anemoclema and Clematis s.l., which included Archiclematis and Naravelia. Non-monophyly of Anemone s.l. using the plastid dataset indicates to revise as two genera, new Anemone s.l. (including Pulsatilla, Barneoudia, Oreithales and Knowltonia), Hepatica (corresponding to Anemone subgenus Anemonidium). PMID:28362811

  9. Pre- and Post-Germination Determinants of Spatial Variation in Recruitment in the Perennial Herb Helleborus foetidus L. (Ranunculaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jose L. Garrido; Pedro J. Rey; Carlos M. Herrera

    2005-01-01

    .... 2 We collected information on seed production, pre-dispersal seed losses, seed removal from the ground, seedling emergence and mortality, and seedling recruitment during the first year after emergence from 1...

  10. Identification of Xylem Occlusions Occurring in Cut Clematis (Clematis L., fam. Ranunculaceae Juss. Stems during Their Vase Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jedrzejuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the vase life of cut stems obstruction of xylem vessels occurs due to microbial growth, formation of tyloses, deposition of materials in the lumen of xylem vessels and the presence of air emboli in the vascular system. Such obstructions may restrict water uptake and its transport towards upwards thus lowering their ornamental value and longevity of cut flowers. Clematis is a very attractive plant material which may be used as cut flower in floral compositions. Nothing is known about the histochemical or cytological nature of xylem blockages occurring in cut stems of this plant. This study shows that in clematis, tyloses are the main source of occlusions, although bacteria and some amorphic substances may also appear inside the vessels. A preservative composed of 200 mg dm−3 8-HQC (8-hydroxyquinolin citrate and 2% sucrose arrested bacterial development and the growth of tyloses. This information can be helpful in the development of new treatments to improve keeping qualities of cut clematis stems.

  11. Two major groups of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in diploid and tetraploid Aconitum subgen. Aconitum (Ranunculaceae in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum in Europe is represented by ca. 10% of the total number of species and the Carpathian Mts. are the center of the genus variability in the subcontinent. We studied the chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer trnL(UAG-rpl32- ndhF (cpDNA variability of the Aconitum subgen. Aconitum in the Carpathians: diploids (2n=16, sect. Cammarum, tetraploids (2n=32, sect. Aconitum and triploids (2n=24, nothosect. Acomarum. Altogether 25 Aconitum accessions representing the whole taxonomic variability of the subgenus were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Both parsimony, Bayesian and character network analyses showed the two distinct types of the cpDNA chloroplast, one typical of the diploid and the second of the tetraploid groups. Some specimens had identical cpDNA sequences (haplotypes and scattered across the whole mountain arch. In the sect. Aconitum 9 specimens shared one haplotype, while in the sect. Camarum one haplotype represents 4 accessions and the second – 5 accessions. The diploids and tetraploids were diverged by 6 mutations, while the intrasectional variability amounted maximally to 3 polymorphisms. Taking into consideration different types of cpDNA haplotypes and ecological profiles of the sections (tetraploids – high‑mountain species, diploids – species from forest montane belt we speculate on the different and independent history of the sections in the Carpathians.

  12. Natural selection on floral traits of Caltha scaposa (Ranunculaceae, an alpine perennial with generalized pollination system from Northwest Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guopeng Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Floral traits, including those invisible to humans but visible to pollinators, that increase pollination efficiency may be selected by pollinators in plant species with pollen limitation of seed production, but the importance of pollinators as selective agents on different floral traits needs to be further quantified experimentally. In the present study, we examined selective strength on flower diameter, flower height, UV bulls-eye size, sepal size and UV proportion via female fitness in Caltha scaposa, based on open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, through which pollinator-mediated selection was calculated for each of floral traits. Our results suggest that seed production of C. scaposa is pollen limited in natural conditions. There was directional selection (Δβpollinator = −0.12 for larger flowers in open-pollinated flowers, while no significant selection was found in flower height, UV bulls-eye size, sepal size or UV proportion. Statistically significant selection was found in UV bulls-eye size, sepal size and UV proportion in hand-pollinated flowers, but interactions with pollinators contributed only to flower diameter. We conclude that in C. scaposa, floral traits that are subjected to selection might be driven by multiple selective agents, and suggest the importance of investigating floral traits that are invisible to human but visible to pollinators in measuring pollinator-mediated selection via male fitness.

  13. Phylogeography and genetic effects of habitat fragmentation on endemic Urophysa (Ranunculaceae) in Yungui Plateau and adjacent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Deng-Feng; Li, Min-Jie; Tan, Jin-Bo; Price, Megan; Xiao, Qun-Ying; Zhou, Song-Dong; Yu, Yan; He, Xing-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Urophysa is a Chinese endemic genus with only two species (U. rockii and U. henryi) distributed in Yungui Plateau (Guizhou Province) and adjacent regions (i.e., Provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Sichuan). The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity and population differentiation within Urophysa and investigate the effect of the Yungui Plateau uplift and climate oscillations on evolution of Urophysa. In this study, micro-morphological characteristics, nine microsatellite loci (SSR), two nuclear loci (ITS and ETS) and two chloroplast fragments (psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF) were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships and assess genetic and phylogeographical structure of Urophysa. Isolation by distance (IBD) was performed to research the effects of geographical isolation. We detected high genetic diversity at the species level but low genetic diversity within populations. Striking genetic differentiation (AMOVA) among populations and a significant phylogeographical structure (NST > GST, p habitat fragmentation played an important role in the genetic diversity and population differentiation of U. rockii and U. henryi. Heterogenous geomorphological configuration and complicated environment resulted from rapid uplift of the Yungui Plateau were inferred as important incentives for the modern phylogeograhpical pattern and species divergence of Urophysa. The geographical isolation, limited gene flow, specialized morphologies and the Pleistocene climatic oscillation greatly contributed to the allopatric divergence of U. rockii. Significant genetic drift and inbreeding were detected in these two species, in situ measures should be implemented to protect them.

  14. Specialized bees fail to develop on non-host pollen: do plants chemically protect their pollen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praz, Christophe J; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    Bees require large amounts of pollen for their own reproduction. While several morphological flower traits are known to have evolved to protect plants against excessive pollen harvesting by bees, little is known on how selection to minimize pollen loss acts on the chemical composition of pollen. In this study, we traced the larval development of four solitary bee species, each specialized on a different pollen source, when reared on non-host pollen by transferring unhatched eggs of one species onto the pollen provisions of another species. Pollen diets of Asteraceae and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae) proved to be inadequate for all bee species tested except those specialized on these plants. Further, pollen of Sinapis (Brassicaceae) and Echium (Boraginaceae) failed to support larval development in one bee species specialized on Campanula (Campanulaceae). Our results strongly suggest that pollen of these four taxonomic groups possess protective properties that hamper digestion and thus challenge the general view of pollen as an easy-to-use protein source for flower visitors.

  15. Vascular flora of the Prometanj site (Mokra Gora, northern Prokletije Mt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radak Boris Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic research of the Prometanj site, located in the northwestern part of Mokra Gora Mt. along the right bank of the Ibar River, was conducted during 2011. A total of 340 species and five subspecies of vascular plant taxa were registered. Families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, while the most numerous genera were Trifolium, Acer, Campanula, Geranium, Veronica, Ranunculus and Vicia. Floral elements of analyzed plant taxa were grouped into ten areal types, with domination of Central European and Eurasian and significant participation of Mediterranean-Submediterranean. The biological spectrum was characterized by the dominance of hemicryptophytes. Five strictly protected and 43 protected species were registered. Prometanj is the only remaining locality in Serbia for tertiary species Adenophora liliifolia. Floristic research of Prometanj should be extended to entire area of Mokra Gora Mt. together with the Ibar River gorge, in order to explore the whole botanical richness of this area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03159-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gracilis voucher J.T. Johansson s.n. t... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954170 ) Ranunculus psilostachys voucher J.T. Johansson...6 1 ( AY954169 ) Ranunculus sprunerianus voucher J.T. Johansson 23... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954168 ) Ranunculus...6 1 ( AY954166 ) Ranunculus millefoliatus voucher J.T. Johansson 2... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954164 ) Ranunculus...cortusifolius voucher J.T. Johansson 2... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954159 ) Ranunculus gregarius voucher J.T. Johansson 232...46 1.6 1 ( AY954158 ) Ranunculus spicatus voucher J.T. Johansson s.n. t... 46 1.6 1 ( AY954154 ) Ranunculus

  17. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Jamie R; Vamosi, Jana C; Rogers, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  18. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R McEwen

    Full Text Available Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci, but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci. By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  19. Continuous within-plant variation as a source of intraspecific functional diversity: Patterns, magnitude, and genetic correlates of leaf variability in Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2015-02-01

    Continuous within-plant variation in quantitative traits of reiterated, homologous structures is a component of intraspecific variation, but its contribution to functional diversity remains largely unexplored. For the perennial Helleborus foetidus, we measured functional leaf traits to quantify the contribution of within-plant variation to intraspecific functional variance and evaluate whether within-plant variability itself deserves separate consideration. Within-individual variation in eight leaf traits was quantified for 138 plants sampled from 10 widely spaced locations in the Sierra de Cazorla, southeastern Spain. An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to look for associations between within-plant variability and specific AFLP markers. Leaflets from basal positions in ramets were longer, heavier, had greater surface area and larger stomata, and lower specific area, stomatal index, and stomatal density than those from distal positions. Continuous variation between leaves from the same ramet was the main source of population-wide variance for most traits. Within-plant variability differed among populations. Individuals differed in within-plant variability, which was largely independent of trait means and associated with genetic characteristics. Up to four AFLP markers were associated with the within-plant variability level of a given leaf trait. Subindividual variability in continuous leaf traits was independent of plant means and related to genetic features. The within-individual component generally exceeded the between-individual component of intraspecific variance. Within-plant variation may broaden the ecological breadth and enhance stability and persistence of plant populations and communities and may provide novel insights when incorporated in trait-based community ecology models. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Evolutionary analysis of a key floral trait in aquilegia canadensis (ranunculaceae): genetic variation in herkogamy and its effect on the mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Christopher R; Eckert, Christopher G

    2007-07-01

    The mating system of flowering plant populations evolves through selection on genetically based phenotypic variation in floral traits. The physical separation of anthers and stigmas within flowers (herkogamy) is expected to be an important target of selection to limit self-fertilization. We investigated the pattern of phenotypic and genetic variation in herkogamy and its effect of self-fertilization in a broad sample of natural populations of Aquilegia canadensis, a species that is highly selfing despite strong inbreeding depression. Within natural populations, plants exhibit substantial phenotypic variation in herkogamy caused primarily by variation in pistil length rather than stamen length. Compared to other floral traits, herkogamy is much more variable and a greater proportion of variation is distributed among rather than within individuals. We tested for a genetic component of this marked phenotypic variation by growing naturally pollinated seed families from five populations in a common greenhouse environment. For three populations, we detected a significant variation in herkogamy among families, and a positive regression between parental herkogamy measured in the field and progeny herkogamy in the greenhouse, suggesting that there is often genetic variation in herkogamy within natural populations. We estimated levels of self-fertilization for groups of flowers that differed in herkogamy and show that, as expected, herkogamy was associated with reduced selfing in 13 of 19 populations. In six of these populations, we performed floral emasculations to show that this decrease in selfing is due to decreased autogamy (within-flower selfing), the mode of selfing that herkogamy should most directly influence. Taken together, these results suggest that increased herkogamy should be selected to reduce the production of low-quality selfed seed. The combination of high selfing and substantial genetic variation for herkogamy in A. canadensis is enigmatic, and reconciling this observation will require a more integrated analysis of how herkogamy influences not only self-fertilization, but also patterns of outcross pollen import and export.

  1. Funciones masculina y femenina de la reproducción en cinco especies de Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae) con diferentes vectores de polinización.

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, D.

    2005-01-01

    Plants with hermaphrodite flowers show a trade-off in resource allocation to male and female functions of reproduction. Such a balance can be conditioned by several factors. One of them seems to be pollination vector. Thalictrum is a genus with species that use different ways of pollination. So that we have investigated the resource allocation patterns to each function (male and female) among five species with different pollination vectors. Allocation has been mesured as dr...

  2. Funciones masculina y femenina de la reproducción en cinco especies de Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae) con diferentes vectores de polinización

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, D.

    2005-01-01

    [fr]Les plantes à fleurs hermaphrodites montrent un compromis entre l'assignation de ressources aux fonctions mâle et femelle de la reproduction. Cet équilibre peut se voir conditionné par des facteurs écologiques divers dont l'agent polinisateur. Thalictrum est un genre présentant des espèces qui comptent différents moyens de polinisation. Nous avons donc recherché les modèles d'assignation de ressources dans chacune des fonctions (mâle et femelle) de cinc espèces du genre qui utilisent diff...

  3. Fuentes de variación en el tamaño de la semilla de la herbácea perenne Helleborus foetidus L. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido, José L.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed size is one of the plant traits more thoroughly studied in plant sciences due to its pivoting ecological position between dispersal processes and emergence, survival and establishment of plant species. Frequently, most seed size variation is located within plant, exceeding variation between plants and between populations. Resource allocation and type of pollination are some of the main causes of within-plant variation in seed mass. This work explores seed mass variation in Helleborus foetidus trying to assess the relative importance of its possible causes. We thoroughly sampled seed size in two hellebore populations by partitioning its variance in the hierarchic levels of population, plant, flower, carpel, and within carpel. Our results show that the most important source of variance is the within-plant variation. Among the factors most likely responsible for variability at this level, our study suggests that resource allocation exerted the strongest influence. In particular, some evidence points towards a relevant role of the post-anthesis flower functionality on the resource allocation to seeds. Although needing further experimental research, we suggest that such functionality is due to the photosinthetic ability of the perianths of Helleborus foetidus flowers. Some variables related to the reproductive effort accounted for the between-plant variation in mean seed mass. Particularly, a trade-off between seed mass and seed production and the costs related to the pollination type are also contribute to the variation of seed size at this level.El tamaño de la semilla ha sido uno de los rasgos vegetales más estudiados por su posición ecológica pivotante entre los procesos de dispersión y los procesos de emergencia, supervivencia y establecimiento de especies. Frecuentemente, la mayor parte de la variación en este rasgo se localiza dentro de la planta y supera a la variación entre plantas y entre poblaciones, y se ha propuesto que la adjudicación de recursos de la planta y el tipo de polinización son las principales fuentes de tal variación. Este trabajo explora la variación en la masa de la semilla de Helleborus foetidus y evalúa la importancia relativa de las posibles causas de tal variación. En dos poblaciones de la especie muestreamos exhaustivamente el peso de la semilla, descomponiendo su variación en los sucesivos niveles de población, planta, flor, carpelo y variación dentro de carpelo. Nuestros resultados confirman que la mayor parte de la variación reside dentro de la propia planta. Entre los posibles factores susceptibles de generar variación a este nivel nuestro estudio sugiere que son los relacionados con cuestiones de adjudicación de recursos los que influyen mayoritariamente. En particular, los resultados apuntan hacia un papel relevante de la función floral post-antesis en la adjudicación de recursos a las semillas. A falta de investigación experimental al respecto, sugerimos que dicha función puede basarse en la capacidad fotosintética que tiene el periantio de la flor de Helleborus foetidus. Por otra parte, algunas variables relacionadas con el esfuerzo reproductivo de la planta contribuyen a explicar una parte importante de la variación entre plantas en peso medio de semillas. En particular, parte de la variación a este nivel se debe a un compromiso entre producción y tamaño de la semilla y, probablemente, a costes asociados con el tipo de polinización.

  4. Funciones masculina y femenina de la reproducción en cinco especies de Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae con diferentes vectores de polinización.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants with hermaphrodite flowers show a trade-off in resource allocation to male and female functions of reproduction. Such a balance can be conditioned by several factors. One of them seems to be pollination vector. Thalictrum is a genus with species that use different ways of pollination. So that we have investigated the resource allocation patterns to each function (male and female among five species with different pollination vectors. Allocation has been mesured as dry weight of the different flower structures. We have found a significative trend, male function relative investment is bigger in anemophilous than entomophilous among the flve studied species: Th. macrocarpum (wind pollinated, Th. Minus (zoind pollinated, Th. Aquilegiifolium (insect pollinated, Th. tuberosum (insect pollinated and Th. flavum (insect pollinated. During bloom, the androecium has the the greater biomass in these five species, but when all the reproductive process is taken in account, fruits reach higher values. Furthermore, this temporal separation of the maximum allocation to each function would be a way to make competence for the same limited resources weaker.

    [fr]
    Les plantes à fleurs hermaphrodites montrent un compromis entre l'assignation de ressources aux fonctions mâle et femelle de la reproduction. Cet équilibre peut se voir conditionné par des facteurs écologiques divers dont l'agent polinisateur. Thalictrum est un genre présentant des espèces qui comptent différents moyens de polinisation. Nous avons donc recherché les modèles d'assignation de ressources dans chacune des fonctions (mâle et femelle de cinc espèces du genre qui utilisent différents agents polinisateurs. Cette assignation a été mesurée par le poids sec des diverses structures florales. Une tendance significative à la predominance d'une assignation plus importante à la fonction mâle dans les plantes anémophiles que dans les plantes entomophiles a été observée sur les cinq espèces étudiées: Th. macrocarpum (anemófilo, Th. minus (anemófilo, Th. aquilegiifolium (entomófilo, Th. tuberosum (entomófilo et Th. flavum (entomófilo. Pour ces espèces, pendant la floraison, la plus grande biomasse correspond à Vandrocée, mais si on tient compte de tout le processus reproductif, alors la biomasse principale correspondrait aux fruits. De plus, cette separation temporelle de l'assignation maximale de ressources à chaque fonction peut diminuer la concurrence entre ces fonctions pour les mêmes ressources limités.
    [es]
    Las plantas con flores hermafroditas muestran un compromiso entre la asignación de recursos en las funciones masculina y femenina de la reproducción. Dicho equilibrio se puede ver condicionado por varios factores. Uno de ellos parece ser el vector utilizado para la polinización. Thalictrum es un género con especies que se valen de diferentes medios para su polinización. Por ello se han investigado los patrones en la asignación de recursos en cada función (masculina y femenina entre cinco especies con vectores diferentes. La inversión se ha medido en términos del peso seco de las diferentes estructuras de la flor. Se observa una tendencia significativa a que la inversión relativa a la función masculina sea mayor en las anemófilas que en las entomófilas entre los cinco casos estudiados: Th. macrocarpum (anemófilo, Th. minus (anemófilo, Th. aquilegiifolium (entomófilo, Th. tuberosum (entomófilo y Th. flavum (entomófilo. Durante la floración, la mayor biomasa corresponde al androceo en las cinco especies, pero si se tiene en cuenta todo el proceso reproductivo, los frutos alcanzan valores más altos. Además, esta separación temporal de la inversión máxima en cada función sería una forma de disminuir la competencia entre éstas por unos mismos recursos limitados.

  5. Environ: E00256 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root Crude drug Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconi...onitine [CPD:C08704]), Coryneine chloride Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363] Same as: D07152 Ranunculaceae (bu...ttercup family) Aconitum carmichael mother root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot pl...ants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root ...

  6. Environ: E00575 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00575 Aconitum carmichael daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363...] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot ...plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00575 Aconitum carmichael daughter root ...

  7. Environ: E00580 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum coreanum [TAX:662772] Ra...nunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root ...

  8. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-01-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and

  9. Environ: E00154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00154 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug ... Aconitum carmichaeli ...[TAX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root soaked in bittern or brine (semi-dried) ...

  10. Environ: E00256 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root Crude drug Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesacon...conitine [CPD:C08704]), Coryneine chloride Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363] Same as: D07152 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael mother root ...

  11. Environ: E00572 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00572 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug ... Aconitum carmichaeli ...[TAX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soaked in bittern (x-section, semi-dried) ...

  12. Environ: E00573 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00573 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug ... Aconitum carmichaeli ...[TAX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soaked in bittern, semi-dried and sulfurized (x-section) ...

  13. Environ: E00574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00574 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soa

  14. Environ: E00154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00154 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root soaked in bitte

  15. Environ: E00572 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00572 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soa

  16. Environ: E00573 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00573 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soa

  17. Environ: E00696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00696 Cimicifuga rhizome (China) Crude drug Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga... foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifolia [TAX:64034] Same as: D06745 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga... dahurica, Cimicifuga foetida, Cimicifuga heracleifolia rhizome ...

  18. Environ: E00579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00579 Processed aconitum japonicum tuberous root Crude drug ... Aconitum japonicum, ...Aconitum [TAX:49188] ... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum japonicum tuberous root soaked in brine and coat with caustic lime (dried) ...

  19. measurements of distribution coefficients and lipophilicity values

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    raddeana (Fam. Ranunculaceae), and Doliocarpus schottianus (Fam. Dilleniaceae), to mention a few [1]. Oleanolic acid has been isolated from Rosa woodsii (Fam. Rosaceae), Prosopis glandulosa (Fam, Fabaceae), Phoradendron juniperium (Fam. Viscaceae), Syzygium claviflorum (Fam. Myrtaceae), Hyptis captata (Fam.

  20. Environ: E00808 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00808 Black cohosh Black snakeroot Medicinal herb Actein, Cimicifugoside [CPD:C089...35], Formononetin [CPD:C00858], Tannin, Essential oil Cimicifuga racemosa [TAX:64040] Ranunculaceae rhizome Medicinal

  1. Environ: E00696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00696 Cimicifuga rhizome (China) Crude drug ... Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga... foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifolia [TAX:64034] Same as: D06745 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga... dahurica, Cimicifuga foetida, Cimicifuga heracleifolia rhizome ...

  2. Floristic Composition of Traditional Sacred Landscapes in Bedelle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-21

    Dec 21, 2009 ... and 5 species respectively, Celastraceae,. Combretaceae,. Urticaceae and. Amaranthaceae are composed of 4 species each; and Rutaceae, Moracceae,. Myrsinaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae and. Rhamnaceae contain 3 species each. Verbenaceae, Rosaceae, Ranunculaceae,. Protiaceae, Myrtaceae ...

  3. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    , 106-108), Linaceae (99, 100), Malvaceae (80), Orchidaceae (47, 48, 62), Plantaginaceae (101), Poaceae (73, 74), Polygalaceae (102, 103), Polypodiaceae (14, 15), Ranunculaceae (30), Rosaceae (104), Rubiaceae (31, 56, 75), Santalaceae (105), Scrophulariaceae (32, 57, 58, 72), Sinopteridaceae (13...

  4. Accumulation of arsenic by aquatic plants in large-scale field conditions: opportunities for phytoremediation and bioindication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Prasad, M N V

    2012-09-01

    This work focuses on the potential of aquatic plants for bioindication and/or phytofiltration of arsenic from contaminated water. More than 71 species of aquatic plants were collected at 200 sampling points in running waters. The results for the 18 most representative plant species are presented here. The species Ranunculus trichophyllus, Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius, Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana and the leaves of Juncus effusus showed a very highly significant (Pplant species into natural water bodies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environ: E00420 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00420 Anemone raddeana root Anemones raddeanae rhizoma Crude drug Anemone raddeana... [TAX:387928] Urticaceae (nettle family) Anemone raddeana root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00420 Anemone raddeana root ...

  6. Environ: E00574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00574 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug ... Aconitum carmichaeli ...[TAX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soaked in bittern, semi-dried, sulfurized and fired (x-section) ...

  7. Environ: E00116 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00116 Cimicifuga rhizome (JP16) Crude drug Visnagin [CPD:C09049], Cimifugin [CPD:C...], (Cimifugenin | Indolinone derivative) Cimicifuga simplex [TAX:64042], Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga... foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifolia [TAX:64034] Same as: D06745 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga rhizome Major component: Cimigenol [CPD:C17538] ...

  8. Study of nutritional characteristics, mineral nutrients and agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigella sativa (L.) a member of the family Ranunculaceae is being used for edible and medicinal purposes in several countries of the world. This study revealed the analysis of genetic diversity of thirty six (36) genotypes of N. sativa based on yield traits, nutritional characteristics, and mineral nutrients. Two genotypes PK ...

  9. The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and ...

  10. Drug: D07152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07152 Crude ... Drug Processed aconite root Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconitine [CPD:C08692], Hypaconit...ine [CPD:C08688], Mesaconitine [CPD:C08698], (Higenamine [CPD:C06346] | Pseudoaconiti...:49188] ... Same as: E00256 Therapeutic category: 5100 ... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Processed aconit

  11. Environ: E00116 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00116 Cimicifuga rhizome (JP17) Crude drug Visnagin [CPD:C09049], Cimifugin [CPD:...70], (Cimifugenin | Indolinone derivative) Cimicifuga simplex [TAX:64042], Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga... foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifolia [TAX:64034] Same as: D06745 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga rhizome Major component: Cimigenol [CPD:C17538] ...

  12. Drug: D06745 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06745 Crude ... Drug Cimicifuga rhizome (JP17); Cimicifugae rhizoma; Cimicifuga r...orvisnagin [CPD:C17843], Isoferulic acid [CPD:C10470], (Cimifugenin | Indolinone derivative) ... Cimicifuga ...simplex [TAX:64042], Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifol...04 ... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga simplex, Cimicifuga dahurica, Cimicifuga foetida, Cimicifuga

  13. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids in the flowers and leaves of Ficaria verna Huds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Gudej, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative determination of flavonoid compounds in flowers and leaves of Ficaria verna Huds. (Ranunculaceae) was carried out in different growing seasons of the plant, using Christ-Müller's method (Polish Pharmacopoeia, 1999) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis after acid hydrolysis. The flavonoid content was much higher in flowers than in leaves.

  14. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    (104), Poaceae (1, 57-60, 78, 93-94), Polypodiaceae (2, 16, 17), Portulacaceae(41), Primulaceae (42), Ranunculaceae (61- 65), Rosaceae (75, 76, 91), Rubiaceae (12, 43, 98), Salviniaceae (72), Sapindaceae (44), Scrophulariaceae (45, 46), Solanaceae (47) and Urticaceae (48). First reports for countries...

  15. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    .l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae (104), Poaceae (1, 57-60, 78, 93-94), Polypodiaceae (2, 16, 17), Portulacaceae(41), Primulaceae (42), Ranunculaceae (61- 65), Rosaceae (75, 76, 91), Rubiaceae (12, 43, 98), Salviniaceae (72), Sapindaceae...

  16. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    (14), Malvaceae (15), Orchidaceae (110-115), Paeoniaceae (39), Papaveraceae (40, 122), Poaceae (28-36, 57, 73-79, 140), Polygonaceae (16, 17, 128), Polypodiaceae (82), Ranunculaceae (99, 100), Resedaceae (41), Rhamnaceae (101, 102), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (18, 48, 103), Sapindaceae (69...

  17. New floristic records in the Balkans: 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , 107), Orobanchaceae (101), Phytolaccaceae (48), Plumbaginaceae (49), Poaceae (16, 17, 91–93, 118–123, 130), Polygalaceae (50), Potamogetonaceae (18), Ranunculaceae (51, 52), Rhamnaceae (10), Rosaceae (11, 12, 53–55, 84, 111, 115–117, 140), Rubiaceae (56, 57), Ruppiaceae (19), Salicaceae (58...

  18. New floristic records in the Balkans: 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -54), Linaceae (23, 81), Nyctaginaceae (24), Ophioglossaceae (39), Orchidaceae (55-57), Oxalidaceae (25), Poaceae (36, 102), Portulacaceae (26), Primulaceae (27, 47), Ranunculaceae (8, 48, 49), (25), (36, 102), (26), (27, 47), (8, 48, 49), Rosaceae (9), Sapindaceae (89), Scrophulariaceae (10, 101) and Solanaceae...

  19. New floristic records in the Balkans: 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -13, 38-40), Malvaceae (19), Onagraceae (73), (31-33), (74), s.l. (11-13, 38-40), (19), (64), Orchidaceae (68, 69), Orobanchaceae (65), Oxalidaceae (20), Poaceae (23, 32, 41), Polypodiaceae (14), Primulaceae (66), Ranunculaceae (37), Rhamnaceae (76), Rosaceae (77, 78), Rubiaceae (notes after record no...

  20. Charting the Visual Space of Insect Eyes - Delineating the Guidance, Navigation and Control of Insect Flight by Their Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    AFOSR. The claimed pollination hypothesis could not be confirmed, and rather it appeared that the theory was unfounded, i.e. built on artificial grounds...Ranunculus ficaria. (e-h) Matricaria chamomilla. (i-l) Bellis perennis. (m-p) Hibiscus trionum. Scale bars: (a,e,i,m) 1 cm, (b,f,j,n) 20 µm. The red

  1. Distribution and production of submerged macrophytes in Tipper Grund (Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark), and the impact of waterfowl grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    . at intermediate depth and Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ranunculus baudauti at greater depth. (2) All macrophyte species showed a unimodal peak of biomass during the summer. Angiosperms with heavy epiphytic load withered 1-2 months earlier than did angiosperms without epiphytes. (3) Annual...

  2. A Literature Survey on the Wetland Vegetation of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    occasionally Ranunculus hyperboreus, R. gmelinii, R. aquatilis, Sparganium hyperboreum, and, rarely, Potamogeton pectinatus and P. filiformis grow...spicatum, Potamogeton spp., and occasionally Lemna trisulca are found. In shallower water Potamogeton -, filiformis, P. pectinatus , Zannichellia palustris...Infrequently, the submerged species Potamogeton alpinus, P. filiformis, and P. pectinatus * are found. The most consistent species in lakes around Umiat

  3. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Juncus effusus), creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens), purple loose- strife (Lythrum salicaria), Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus), Japanese...factors. Common wetland shrubs in the Rocky Mountains include diamond- leaf willow (Salix planifolia), Geyer willow (S. geyerana), mountain willow...riparian-wetland species include narrow- leaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), Fremont cottonwood (P. fremontii), and

  4. Fort Devens Feasibility Study for Group 1A Sites. Final Feasibility Study Shepley’s Hill Landfill Operable Unit Data Item A009

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    lapathifolium FACW+ Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata OBL Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBL Swamp Buttercup Ranunculus septentrionalis OBL Blackberry Rubus...Polygonum lapathifolium FACW+ Pickereiweed Pontederia cordata OBL Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBLUCommon Cinquefoil Potentilla simplex FACU- Buttercup... cordata ) were all noted in this community and comprise 80-90% of the plant species present. 2* I. I I NEW ENGLAND ENVIRONMENTAL, INC. I Emergent

  5. A Preliminary Investigation On Suspected Plant Poisoning In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they have been reported before to have toxic effects. These were botanically identified as Ranunculus multifidus Forsk, Cassia didymobotrya Fres, Ricinus communis L., Datura stramonium L. and Momordica foetida Schum. It is concluded that some of these plants may be responsible for the poisoning and further studies on ...

  6. Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four medicinal plants including Ranunculus arvensis, Equisetum ravens, Carathamus lanatus and Fagonia critica were used for the study. All the plants were biologically active and were used for different types of ailments. Keeping in view their importance, this work was carried out to investigate the quantitative ...

  7. Twin Valley, Wild Rice River, Minnesota. Addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    in this group are Bidens cernua, Epilobium ciliatum, Ranunculus pensylvanicus, Panicum capillare, Salix interior, Mimulus ringens, Verbena hastata ...and Verbena urticifolia all of which occur throughout much of the area on muddy or sandy shores. Also present in the stand were a number of weedy

  8. Sun et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(6):439 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    .org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i6.6. 439. A STUDY ON THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF POLYSACCHARIDES FROM RADIX RANUNCULUS TERNATI ON. HUMAN BREAST CANCER MCF-7 CELL LINES. De-Li Sun1*, Han-Bing Xie 1, Yun-Zhan Xia1.

  9. Opmerkingen betreffende de interpretatie van de bloemmorfologie bij het speenkruid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.P.

    1971-01-01

    An outline of the possible homologies of the calyx and corolla of the Lesser Celandine on the hand of the flower morphology of both Anemone and Hepatica, and Ranunculus is given. The possible affinities of the species are discussed. The author defends a homology of its calyx to that of Hepatica and

  10. 76 FR 35906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 12 Species in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range; and... 5-year status reviews under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of 2 animal and 10... status reviews under the Act of 2 animal and 10 plant species: Autumn buttercup (Ranunculus acriformis...

  11. Therapeutic Potential and Pharmaceutical Development of Thymoquinone: A Multitargeted Molecule of Natural Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Sameer N.; Prajapati, Chaitali P.; Prashant R. Gore; Patil, Chandragouda R.; Mahajan, Umesh B; Charu Sharma; Talla, Sandhya P.; Ojha, Shreesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Thymoquinone, a monoterpene molecule is chemically known as 2-methyl-5-isopropyl-1, 4-benzoquinone. It is abundantly present in seeds of Nigella sativa L. that is popularly known as black cumin or black seed and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. A large number of studies have revealed that thymoquinone is the major active constituent in N. sativa oil this constituent is responsible for the majority of the pharmacological properties. The beneficial organoprotective activities of thymoquinon...

  12. Shoneez (Nigella sativa) and its therapeutic effect in Unani Medicine-A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Ahmed; Md. Anzar Alam; Sadique Husain; Zaheer Ahmed; Mohd. Shahabuddin

    2015-01-01

    The importance of Shoneez may be gauged from the fact that it cures every disease except; death as stated by blessed messenger of Islam. Worldwide Shoneez has been subjected to so much of scrutiny and exploitation as to its phyto chemical constituents. Shoneez commonly known as black seed (Kalonji) belongs to the family of Ranunculaceae. Seeds are used since time immemorial for the treatment of different ailments such as Ziabetus (Diabetes), Zeequn Nafs (Asthama), Sual Muzmin (Chronic cough),...

  13. Berberine Reduces the Metastasis of Chondrosarcoma by Modulating the αvβ3 Integrin and the PKCδ, c-Src, and AP-1 Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chi-Ming; Li, Te-Mao; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with chondrosarcoma have poor prognosis. Berberine, an active component of the Ranunculaceae and Papaveraceae families of plant, has been proven to induce tumor apoptosis and to prevent the metastasis of cancer cells. However, the effects of berberine in human chondrosarcoma are largely unknown. In this study, we found that berbe...

  14. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph M Egan; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A.; Kellogg, Joshua J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Cech., Nadja B.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 funga...

  15. Vegetation Composition in Hugumbirda-Gratkhassu National Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10 Boraginaceae. 3. 2.94 35 Polygonaceae. 1. 0.98. 11 Cactaceae. 1. 0.98 36 Ranunculaceae. 2. 1.96. 12 Capparidiaceae 1. 0.98 37 Rhamnaceaae. 4. 3.92. 13 Celastraceae. 2. 1.96 38 Rhizophoraceae 1. 0.98. 14 Cupressaceae. 2. 1.96 39 Rosaceae. 3. 2.94. 15 Ebenaceae. 1. 0.98 40 Rubiaceae. 3. 2.94. 16 Ericaceae. 1.

  16. The Protective Role of Black Seeds (Nigella sativa) on the Tissues of Liver and Kidney in Female Rabbits Treated with Green Lean Body Capsule

    OpenAIRE

    Muna M. Ismail; Rabab A. Naser; Mohammed Saad Almuslehi; Ahmmed M. Salah

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae herbaceous plant), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are used as herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of disease and conditions like asthma, diarrhea and dyslipidaemia. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa in protection of the liver and kidney tissues against pathological changes caused by green lean body capsule in female rabbits. Fifteen female rabbits w...

  17. Macrophytes and suspension-feeding invertebrates modify flows and fine sediments in the Frome and Piddle catchments, Dorset (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Geraldene; Cotton, Jacqueline A.; Wotton, Roger S.; Bass, Jon A. B.; Heppell, Catherine M.; Trimmer, Mark; Sanders, Ian A.; Warren, Luke L.

    2006-10-01

    SummaryThis research investigated the ecosystem engineering by in-stream macrophytes, dominated by Ranunculus spp., and associated suspension-feeding blackfly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) for five reaches in the Frome and Piddle catchments, Dorset (UK) over one annual growth cycle (2003). This paper focuses on the modification of flow velocities and the trapping of fine sediment (particles <2 mm in diameter) by in-stream macrophytes and the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM), fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) and fine inorganic particles into faecal pellets by blackfly larvae attached to the leaves of Ranunculus plants. In-stream macrophyte growth was extensive, with maximum percentage cover of 80% recorded in September and October 2003. The macrophyte cover significantly altered flow patterns and flow velocities within and between the macrophyte stands. The reduced flow velocities within the plants promoted sediment trapping, reaching volumes of 0.085 m 3 of fine sediment trapped per metre square of vegetation at one site. The effective particle sizes of the sediments trapped within Ranunculus stands were dominated by the 250-500 μm fraction from March to July 2003 whereas a higher proportion of smaller fractions occurred from October to December. Faecal pellets were highly abundant in the sediments trapped within Ranunculus stands (up to 2.2 × 10 8 faecal pellets per m 2) and their dimensions (total size range 25-400 μm) fall within the dominant size fraction of the trapped sediments. Our findings demonstrate the need to consider the biogenic component of the fine sediments in chalk streams in future studies of sediment and nutrient dynamics.

  18. Aportaciones a la flora de Galicia, VIII

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Vigide, F.; García Martínez, X.R.; Silva Pando, F.J.; González Domínguez, J.; Blanco Dios, J.B.; Rodríguez González, A.; Rial Pousa, S.; Álvarez Graña, D.; Caamaño Portela, J.L.; Pino Pérez, J.J.; Pino Pérez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Se citan 37 plantas de variado interés para la flora gallega. Se incluyen 8 novedades de carácter regional (Pteris incompleta Cav., Potentilla recta L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam., Knautia integrifolia (L.) Bertol., Senecio inaequidens DC. Melica arrecta G. Kunze y Stipa clausa Trab.), 17 novedades provinciales (Vandenboschia speciosa (Willd.) G. Kunkel, Ranunculus bupleuroides Brot., Silene niceensis All., Armeria transmontana (Samp.) Lawr., Alcea rosea...

  19. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix E. Environment and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    are mixed with basalt cap rock which frequently has only a thin overlayer of soil, poor in fertility and moisture. The valley of the Spokane River...Covered Scablands 87 3-tip Sagebrush-Idaho Fescue ( Artemisia tripartita-Festuca idahoensis) Meadow-Steppe Community 105 Idaho Fescue - Common Snowberry...dogwood Cornus stolonifera Rocky Mountain maple Acer glabnum Douglasii Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata Sagebrush buttercup Ranunculus glaberrimus

  20. New distribution data of some Pontic and submediterranean plant species in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Gordana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the distribution of 11 rare Pontic and submediterranean plant species in Serbia based on field research, herbarium and literature data. These taxa were mapped on 10 x 10 km2 UTM grid. The following taxa were analyzed: Dianthus pinifolius Sibth. & Sm., Doronicum hungaricum Reichenb. fil., Sedum stefco Stefanov, Sempervivum zeleborii Schott, Trifolium pignantii Fauche & Chaub., Ranunculus illyricus L., Potentilla chrysantha Trev., Prunus tenella Batsch, Saxifraga bulbifera L., Linaria pelisseriana (L Miller and Gagea bohemica (Zausc Schul. & Schul.

  1. Notas corológicas sobre el Sistema Ibérico Central (provincia de Guadalajara), I

    OpenAIRE

    Morales del Molino, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    Se presentan nuevas localidades en la provincia de Guadalajara para un conjunto de 40 taxones de plantas vasculares. Entre estas caben destacar el limite meridional en el area de distribution de Erica vagans L. Se indican nuevas poblaciones de especies escasamente representadas en este tramo del Sistema Iberico, entre ellas Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill., Rosa villosa L., Geranium collinum Stephan ex Willd., Pulsatilla rubra Delarbre o Lathyrus pannonicus subsp. longestipulatus M. Lainz. ...

  2. Montane lakes (lagoons) of the New England Tablelands Bioregion

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Dorothy M.; Hunter, John T.; Haworth, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The vegetation of montane lagoons of the New England Tablelands Bioregion, New South Wales is examined using flexible UPGMA analysis of frequency scores on all vascular plant taxa, charophytes and one liverworts. Seven communities are described: 1. Hydrocotyle tripartita – Isotoma fluviatilis – Ranunculus inundatus – Lilaeopsis polyantha herbfield; 2. Eleocharis sphacelata – Potamogeton tricarinatus sedgeland; 3. Eleocharis sphacelata – Utricularia australis – Isolepis fluitans, herbfield; 4....

  3. Karyotype characterization and ZZ/ZW sex chromosome heteromorphism in two species of the catfish genus Ancistrus Kner, 1854 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renildo R. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available We present karyotypic characteristics and report on the occurrence of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Ancistrus ranunculus (rio Xingu and Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" (rio Purus, of the Brazilian Amazon. Ancistrus ranunculus has a modal number of 2n=48 chromosomes, a fundamental number (FN of 82 for both sexes, and the karyotypic formula was 20m+8sm+6st+14a for males and 19m+9sm+6st+14a for females. Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" presented 2n=52 chromosomes, FN= 78 for males and FN= 79 for females. The karyotypic formula was 16m+8sm+2st+26a for males and 16m+9sm+2st+25a for females. The high number of acrocentric chromosomes in karyotype of Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" differs from the majority of Ancistrini genera studied so far, and may have resulted from pericentric inversions and translocations. The lower number of chromosomes in A. ranunculus indicates that centric fusions also occurred in the evolution of Ancistrus karyotypes. We conclude that karyotypic characteristics and the presence of sex chromosomes can constitute important cytotaxonomic markers to identify cryptic species of Ancistrus. However, sex chromosomes apparently arose independently within the genus and thus do not constitute a reliable character to analyze phylogenetic relations among Ancistrus species.

  4. [Essentials of pharmacophylogeny: knowledge pedigree, epistemology and paradigm shift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-cheng; Xiao, Pei-gen; Liu, Li-wei; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-nian

    2015-09-01

    Chinese materia medica resource (CMM resource) is the foundation of the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In the study of sustainable utilization of CMM resource, adopting innovative theory and method to find new CMM resource is one of hotspots and always highlighted. Pharmacophylogeny interrogates the phylogenetic relationship of medicinal organisms (especially medicinal plants), as well as the intrinsic correlation of morphological taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, chemical constituents, and therapeutic efficacy (ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activity). This new discipline may have the power to change the way we utilize medicinal plant resources and develop plant-based drugs. Phylogenomics is the crossing of evolutionary biology and genomics, in which genome data are utilized for evolutionary reconstructions. Phylogenomics can be integrated into the flow chart of drug discovery and development, and extends the field of pharmacophylogeny at the omic level, thus the concept of pharmacophylogenomics could be redefined in the context of plant pharmaceutical resources. This contribution gives a brief discourse of knowledge pedigree of pharmacophylogeny, epistemology and paradigm shift, highlighting the theoretical and practical values of pharmacophylogenomics. Many medicinally important tribes and genera, such as Clematis, Pulsatilla, Anemone, Cimicifugeae, Nigella, Delphinieae, Adonideae, Aquilegia, Thalictrum, and Coptis, belong to Ranunculaceae family. Compared to other plant families, Ranunculaceae has the most species that are recorded in China Pharmacopoeia (CP) 2010. However, many Ranunculaceae species, e. g., those that are closely related to CP species, as well as those endemic to China, have not been investigated in depth, and their phylogenetic relationship and potential in medicinal use remain elusive. As such, it is proposed to select Ranunculaceae to exemplify the utility of pharmacophylogenomics and to elaborate the new concept

  5. Tetrodotoxin-Medicated Delay in Aconitine Toxicity: A Murder in Okinawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Y

    2014-07-01

    Aconite (wolfsbane) plants, which belong to the genus Aconitum (Ranunculaceae family), contain highly toxic alkaloids, including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and jesaconitine, in all of their parts. The relevance of this plant material is illustrated by the case of a Japanese female who died suddenly in 1986 and was autopsied in Okinawa by the author. The detection in 1987 of Aconitum alkaloids in her blood using gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring (GC/SIM), which was newly developed for this case, demonstrated that she had died from aconite poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Central Police University.

  6. Drug: D06784 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06784 Crude ... Drug Processed aconite root (JP17); Powdered processed aconite root (JP17); Processed acon...ite root (fibrous root); Powdered processed aconite root (fibrous root) Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconit...ine [CPD:C08692], Hypaconitine [CPD:C08688], Mesaconitine [CPD:C08698], Ignavine [CPD:...:C17486], (Higenamine [CPD:C06346] | Pseudoaconitine [CPD:C08704]), Coryneine chloride ... Aconitum carmicha...Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Processed aconite root, fibrous root See [DR:D07152] (root) Major component: Aconitine [CPD:C06091] ... PubChem: 47208435 ...

  7. Flavonoids from Ficaria verna Huds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michal; Gudej, Jan; Sochacki, Marek

    2002-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the flowers and leaves of Ficaria verna Huds. (Ranunculaceae) yielded four additional known flavonoid compounds including: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-(6"-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin), apigenin 8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (vitexin), luteolin 8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (orientin) and apigenin 8-C-beta-D-(2"-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-glucopyranoside (flavosativaside). The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS).

  8. Polen de las Mieles de la Patagonia Andina (Chubut-Argentina Pollen of honeys from the Andean Patagonia (Chubut-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Forcone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB, 30 tipos polínicos, determinados en las mieles producidas en la región andina de Chubut (Patagonia Argentina. Los tipos morfológicos descriptos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae y Verbenaceae. La mayoría de los tipos polínicos descriptos fueron hallados en las mieles como polen de menor importancia o traza con excepción de Aristotelia chilensis y Escallonia sp., que alcanzaron la categoría de polen dominante, y de Lomatia hirsuta, hallada como polen secundario.Thirty pollen types identified in the honeys from the Andean region of Chubut are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae, and Verbenaceae. Most pollen types described were found in the honeys as minor important pollen or traces, except Aristotelia chilensis, Escallonia sp., which reached the category of dominant pollen, and Lomatia hirsuta, which was found as secondary pollen.

  9. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  10. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: prospects for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n=200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1,217 μg L(-1). The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4,979 mg kg(-1)) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963mgkg(-1)), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg(-1)), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg(-1)), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg(-1)), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg(-1)). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg(-1)). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg(-1)) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. © 2013.

  11. Effects of temperature and light on the formation of chloroplast protrusions in leaf mesophyll cells of high alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Othmar; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius

    2007-11-01

    Chloroplasts of many alpine plants have the ability to form marked, stroma-filled protrusions that do not contain thylakoids. Effects of temperature and light intensity on the frequency of chloroplasts with such protrusions in leaf mesophyll cells of nine different alpine plant species (Carex curvula All., Leontodon helveticus Merat., Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill., Poa alpina L. ssp. vivipara, Polygonum viviparum L., Ranunculus glacialis L., Ranunculus alpestris L., Silene acaulis L. and Soldanella pusilla Baumg.) covering seven different families were studied. Leaves were exposed to either darkness and a stepwise increase in temperature (10-38 degrees C) or to different light intensities (500 and 2000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and a constant temperature of 10 or 30 degrees C in a special temperature-regulated chamber. A chloroplast protrusions index characterising the relative proportion of chloroplasts with protrusions was defined. Seven of the nine species showed a significant increase in chloroplast protrusions when temperature was elevated to over 20 degrees C. In contrast, the light level did not generally affect the abundance of chloroplasts with protrusions. Chloroplast protrusions lead to a dynamic enlargement of the chloroplast surface area. They do not appear to be directly connected to a distinct photosystem II (PSII) (F(v)/F(m)) status and thus seem to be involved in secondary, not primary, photosynthetic processes.

  12. [Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Mumm, Udo; Vargas Ríos, Orlando

    2012-03-01

    Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia. High Andean paramo ecosystems are an important water resource for many towns, and major cities in this region. The aquatic and wetland vegetation of different paramo lakes, pond, swamps and bogs was studied according to the classical phytosociological approach, which is based on homogenous stands, but excludes any border phenomena or transitional zone. The present research aimed at determining the aquatic and wetland vegetation along different moisture gradients. A total of 89 species in 30 transects were reported, of which Crassula venezuelensis, Carex honplandii, Callitriche nubigena, Eleocharis macrostachya, Ranunculus flagelliformis, R. nubigenus, Eleocharis stenocarpa, Galium ascendens y Alopecurus aequalis were present in more than one third of the transects. Numerical classification and indicator species analysis resulted in the definition of the next 18 communities: 1) Calamagrostis effusa, 2) Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3) Cyperus rufus, 4) Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5) Carex acutata, 6) Poa annua,7) Valeriana sp., 8) Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9) Carex bonplandii, 10) Festuca andicola. 11) Muhlenbergia fustigiata, 12) Elatine paramoana, 13) Isoëtes palmeri, 14) Crassula venezuelensis, 15) Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16) Callitriche nubigena, 17) Potamogeton paramoanus and 18) Potamogeton illinoensis. The ordination of communities reveals the presence of three different aquatic-terrestrial gradients which are related to the life form structure of species that characterized the various communities. We concluded that patchiness and heterogeneity of the vegetation is mainly the result of alterations caused by human activities (burning, cattle raise and material extraction for road and dam construction).

  13. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-02-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration. A very flat, pigment-filled upper epidermis acts as a thin-film reflector yielding the gloss, and additionally serves as a filter for light backscattered by the strongly scattering starch and mesophyll layers, which yields the matte-yellow colour. We discuss the evolution of the gloss and its two likely functions: it provides a strong visual signal to insect pollinators and increases the reflection of sunlight to the centre of the flower in order to heat the reproductive organs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Analytical aspects of diterpene alkaloid poisoning with monkshood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Maria Laura; Bugatti, Carlo; Davanzo, Franca; Persico, Andrea; Ballabio, Cinzia; Restani, Patrizia

    2009-11-01

    A sensitive and specific method for aconitine extraction from biological samples was developed. Aconitine, the main toxic alkaloid from plants belonging to Aconitum species (family Ranunculaceae), was determined in plant material by an external standard method, and by a standard addition calibration method in biological fluids. Described here is one fatal case and five intoxications of accidental aconitine poisoning following the ingestion of aconite mistaken for an edible grass, Aruncus dioicus (Walt.) Fernald, "mountain asparagus", and Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallroth. The aconitine content in urine was in the range 2.94 microg/mL (dead patient)-0.20 microg/mL (surviving patients), which was almost two to four times higher than that in plasma.

  15. [Textual research on the origin and producing area of Baitouweng (Radix Pulsatillae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W H; Zhan, Z L; Peng, H S; Yang, J; Qian, J P

    2017-01-28

    Baitouweng (Pulsatilla Root), a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, was first recorded in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) . Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel from Ranunculaceae had become the authentic source for the Baitouweng since the Song Dynasty, which was consistent with the Radix Pulsatillae collected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Chuzhou, Anhui province, being regarded as the main producing area in ancient times, had been its genuine producing area since the period of Republic of China. From the Tang Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, the origin of Baitouweng recorded in the works of Chinese materia medica could also include P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua. Therefore, P. chinensis in Chuzhou, with large quantity and high quality, is a superior resource that need to increase its protection and further studies, whereas P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua have better to be used as local drugs.

  16. A Spotlight on Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint Seeds

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    Besma Boubertakh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, and particularly their seeds, have been a hot research topic in numerous pharmacognosy laboratories. Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint (NG is one of the promising, but relatively insufficiently studied, plants from this family. In this review, we summarize the recently isolated chemical constituents from the seeds of this plant including alkaloids, flavonol glycosides, isobenzofuranone derivatives, saponins, terpenes, terpenoids, and fatty acids. We put also a spotlight on the recently studied therapeutic potentials of such amazing herb seeds as antidiabetes, melanogenesis inhibition, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antithrombosis, and antiplatelet aggregation effects. Herein, we illustrate certain properties and potentials via selected examples, and thus we suggest more studies to confirm the therapeutic hypotheses, find out new compounds, and eventually to discover novel properties.

  17. Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, Washington. Master Plan (DM 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    CVIM0\\A`Tr.{!S Calycanthaceae CI7i C. praecox -- 4, 6, 318, 327 CHOISYA Rutaceae Cl I .. C. ari;zonica -- 3040 CI .2 C. ternata Mexican Orange 5A, 23B...Daylilies. 214 HEPATICA Ranunculaceae H7.1 H. americana Liverleaf 304 HEUCHER-A Saxifragaceae H3.I H. sanguinea Coral Bells 120 HIBISCUS Malvaceae H9.1 H...CY FSTPG D,L,U Cedar Waxwing CY F,STPG,M D,L,U European Starling CY PG L,D,U Orange -Crowned Warbler CS PGST,F D,L,U Yellow Warbler CS PG,STF,M D,LU

  18. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Anna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Daglia, Maria; Barbieri, Ramona; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Gortzi, Olga; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol occurring in essential oils isolated from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, and Monarda genera), and other plants such as those belonging to the Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families. These essential oils are used in the food industry for their flavouring and preservative properties, in commercial mosquito repellent formulations for their natural repellent effect, in aromatherapy, and in traditional medicine for the treatment of headaches, coughs, and diarrhea. Many different activities of thymol such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, antinociceptive, cicatrizing, antiseptic, and especially antibacterial and antifungal properties have been shown. This review aims to critically evaluate the available literature regarding the antibacterial and antifungal effects of thymol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary Pharmacological and Other Important Findings on the Medicinal Plant “Aconitum Heterophyllum” (Aruna

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    Debashish Paramanick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aconitum Heterophyllum (A. Heterophyllum is an indigenous medicinal plant of India and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. A. Heterophyllum is known to possess a number of therapeutic effects. For very ancient times, this plant has been used in some formulations in the traditional healing system of India, i.e., Ayurveda. It is reported to have use in treating patients with urinary infections, diarrhea, and inflammation. It also has been used as an expectorant and for the promotion of hepatoprotective activity. The chemical studies of the plant have revealed that various parts of the plant contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, saponins, glycosides, quinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, etc. In the present study, a comprehensive phytochemistry and pharmacognosy, as well as the medicinal properties, of A. Heterophyllum are discussed. Abstract: Scientific information on the plant was collected from various sources,

  20. Screening of north-east Mexico medicinal plants with activities against herpes simplex virus and human cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Mares, David; Rivas-Galindo, Veronica M; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-Lopez, Luis Alejandro; Waksman De Torres, Noemí; Pérez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Torres-Lopez, Ernesto

    2018-01-15

    The plants examined in this study have previous biological activity reports indicating the possibility of found activity against herpes and cancer cell. The aim of this contribution was to carry out a screening of Juglans mollis (Juglandaceae), Persea americana (Lauraceae), Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae), Salvia texana (Lamiaceae), Salvia ballotaeflora (Lamiaceae), Ceanothus coeruleus (Rhamnaceae), Chrysactinia mexicana (Asteraceae) y Clematis drummondii (Ranunculaceae), against HeLa cells, VHS-1 and VHS-2. The method MTT was used to determine the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50), in Vero and HeLa cell lines. To determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) against herpes, the plaque reduction method was used. Results showed that none of the plants exhibited activity against HeLa cells. About antiherpetic activity, J. mollis and S. ballotaeflora extracts present antiherpetic activity in terms of their SI, increasingly interest for further studies on the isolation of compounds with antiherpetic activity and about the mechanisms of action that produce this activity.

  1. Rare, threatened and relict species in flora of SNR Zasavica

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    Stanković, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In group of biodiversity important plant species there are 23 taxa. 20 taxa are mentioned in „Preliminary Red List of flora of Serbia and Montenegro with IUCN 2001 Conservation Statuses“ in following categories: two as critically endangered (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. and Hottonia palustris L., four as endangered (Hippuris vulgaris L., Lindernia palustris Hartm., Ranunculus lingua L. and Urtica kioviensis Rogow., five as vulnerable (Achillea aspleniifolia Vent., Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill. H. P. Fuchs, Leucojum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, Stratiotes aloides L. and Thelypteris palustris (Schott subsp.palustris, while 9 are with indefinite categories (CR-VU, due to data deficient (DD. Special Nature Reserve „Zasavica“ is the only habitat in Serbia for Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., which was until 2005. considered as extinct from Serbia.

  2. Regeneration and growth rates of allofragments in four common stream plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Madsen, Tom Vindbæk; Sennels, R. S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Colonisation by stream plants occurs to a large extent from simple stem fragments. Allofragments are stem fragments formed by mechanical breakage. We studied regeneration, colonisation, and growth rates in four common stream plants: Elodea canadensis Michx., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Potamogeton...... perfoliatus L. and Ranunculus baudotii x pseudofluitans. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) if shoots with an apical tip have higher regeneration (growth of new shoots and rhizomes from allofragments) and colonisation (root attachment in sediment) abilities and higher relative growth rates...... (RGR) than shoots without an apical tip, and (2) if fragment size correlates with regeneration and colonisation abilities and with RGR of fragments. For all species, over 60% of fragments regenerated new shoots and colonised. Apical shoots and larger fragments generally had higher regeneration...

  3. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  4. Limnologic-geologic excursion in the territory of the lower Erft River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, G.; Thome, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    The geography and hydrology of the area of the excursion are described. There is much damage due to brown coal strip mining operations. Ground water was drained through a canal leading to the Erft River. The water in nearby springs is rich in Fe which repels plant life. The canal contains only a few blue algae (Oscillatoria splendida) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix tenerrima) which tolerate high Fe concentrations. The Erft shore plant population includes Sparganium erectum, Potamogeton natans, P. pectinatus and Ranunculus fluitans. On flowering plants and stones, diatoms, various green algae (Cladophora glomerata, Stigeoclonium tenue, Oedogonium capillare) and the tropical red alga Compsopogon hookeri were found. The macrozoobenthos is composed mainly of snails (Bithynia tenaculata, Lumnaea ovata, Physa fontinalis, P. acuta and worms of North American origin (Dugesia tifrina, Dendrocoelum lacteum and Planaria lugubris). The Isopoda included Asellus coxalis and A. aquaticus. Leeches (Herpobdella octoculata) and insect larvae (Chironomids, Limnephilids) were also found.

  5. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  6. Segetal plants of agricultural areas of Bolimów Primeial Forest lind its contemporary transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Urszula Warcholińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on segetal communities in Bolimów Primeval Forest carried out in the years 1981-1985. The analysis of 205 phytosociological records has allowed to distinguish 7 associations and 2 communities (Tables I-XIV. Among the most common communities on this area are: Teesdaleo-Arnoseridetum minimae and Digitarietum ischaemi. On the other hand, very rare communities include: Spergulo-Veronicetum dillenii, Papaveretum argemones, a community from Saxifraga tridactylites and a community from Ranunculus arvensis. The distinguished communities reflect the present state of the ecological productive potential, they represent specific types of the habitats of potential natural vegetation, and show a distinct relationship with definite habitat units - soil-agricultural complexes.

  7. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  8. Dispersal of plant fragments in small streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    ) in the exponential equation a suitable measure for comparisons among different macrophyte species, and between stream reaches of different hydrology and vegetation cover. 3. Buoyancy of macrophyte tissue influenced retention. Elodea canadensis stems drifted below the water surface, and were more inclined......1. Streams are subject to frequent natural and anthropogenic disturbances that cause sediment erosion and loss of submerged vegetation. This loss makes downstream transport and retention of vegetative propagules on the streambed very important for re-establishing vegetation cover. We measured...... to be retained in deeper water associated with submerged plants and obstacles in the streambed. Ranunculus peltatus stems were more buoyant, drifted at the water surface, and were more inclined to be trapped in shallow water and in riparian vegetation. 4. The retention coefficient of drifting stems increased...

  9. Edaphic and Phytochemical Factors as predictors of Equine Grass Sickness Cases in the UK

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    Sarah E Edwards

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Equine dysautonomia or equine grass sickness (EGS, as it is more commonly known, is a usually fatal disease of equids of uncertain aetiology, although associated with grazing, that affects the autonomic and enteric nervous system. Lowered gastro-intestinal motility, leading to paralysis of the gut, is one of the main symptoms of EGS. Previous studies have implicated anaerobic bacteria, notably Clostridium botulinum, but what triggers the severe bacterial infestations remains enigmatic. We hypothesized that a detailed comparison of soil mineral and botanical composition of EGS and control sites would yield new insights into the causation of the disease. Results: Between March 2007 and September 2008, soil, plant, and water samples from a total of 23 EGS sites and 11 control sites were studied. Metal and non-metal element levels of the soil and herbage samples were assessed. Significantly, EGS sites had higher levels of soil nitrogen, and significantly higher levels of iron, lead, arsenic and chromium in the herbage. Toxic Ranunculus spp. (buttercups were found in abundance at every EGS site, making ingestion plausible. Conversely, neurotoxin-producing cyanobacteria were not found in any of the water samples analysed. Conclusions: The significantly higher levels of iron and heavy metals found in herbage growing in EGS sites, in addition to toxic Ranunculus species, suggest that previously unknown triggers are involved in a multi-factorial EGS aetiology. Our results also show that cyanobacteria on the other hand, are unlikely to be a factor in EGS. Consequently, the concomitant presence of two (or more factors could be the trigger for an outbreak of EGS and the combination of both seems to be a key predictor.

  10. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [School of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Varun, Mayank; D' Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S. [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India)

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L{sup −1}. The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg{sup −1}) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg{sup −1}), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg{sup −1}), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg{sup −1}). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg{sup −1}). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg{sup −1}) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water.

  11. Biomass allocation to anchoring structures in the aquatic macrophytes from the subcontinental and Atlantic climates in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szmeja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass allocation to anchoring structures in 10 species of aquatic macrophytes in two types of the cool and humid temperate climate in Europe, subcontionental (NW Poland and Atlantic (W France, was examined. The study focused on the weight of anchoring organs in Chara delicatula Ag., Ch. fragilis Desv., Juncus bulbosus L., Littorella uniflora (L. Asch., Luronium natans (L. Raf., Potamogeton pectinatus L., P. perfoliatus L., P. natans L. and Ranunculus fluitans (Lam. Wimm., as well as submerged structures in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. The plants were collected from 10 geographically distant lakes and 2 rivers with a current velocity of 0.3-0.5 m s-1. It was assumed that biomass allocation to anchoring structures in rooting macrophytes depends on the time that mechanical forces, which can remove the plants from the occupied area, exert their effect. It was found that, in the Atlantic and subcontinental climates, the ratio between the biomass of underground (or submerged and above-ground structures (U/A index, calculated for the ramets of Chara fragilis, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and Ranunculus fluitans, has similar values (p>0.05. Nevertheless, among seven species of Cormophyta, which were anchored in the lake or pond littoral, six (Juncus bulbosus, Littorella uniflora, Luronium natans, Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus and P. natans had higher values of the U/A index in the Atlantic climate than in the subcontinental type (p < 0.05. This can be explained by the lack of ice cover and, consequently, a longer time of wave action than in the subcontinental climate.

  12. Comunidades vegetales de las transiciones terrestre-acuáticas del páramo de Chingaza, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Schmidt-Mumm

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación acuática y semiacuática de los páramos andinos ha sido estudiada generalmente bajo un enfoque fitosociológico tradicional, el cual se basa en muestreos de áreas homogéneas y excluye los fenómenos de borde o transicionales. En el presente estudio se analizó la vegetación acuática y semiacuática del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza a lo largo de diferentes gradientes hídricos. Asimismo se registran un total de 89 especies en 30 transectos; mediante clasificación numérica y el análisis de especies indicadoras se caracterizan las siguientes 18 comunidades: 1 Calamagrostis effusa, 2 Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3 Cyperus rufus, 4 Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5 Carex acutata, 6 Poa annua, 7 Valeriana sp., 8 Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9 Carex bonplandii, 10 Festuca andicola, 11 Muhlenbergia fastigiata, 12 Elatine paramoana, 13 Isoëtes palmeri, 14 Crassula venezuelensis, 15 Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16 Callitriche nubigena, 17 Potamogeton paramoanus y 18 Potamogeton illinoensis. La ordenación de las comunidades indica la presencia de tres gradientes terrestre-acuáticos diferentes, los cuales se relacionan con las formas de vida de las especies que caracterizan las comunidades. Además se considera que gran parte de la heterogeneidad presentada por la vegetación es el resultado de las alteraciones ambientales generadas por diversas actividades humanas (quemas, ganadería, extracción de material para la construcción de carreteras y la represa.Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia. High Andean paramo ecosystems are an important water resource for many towns, and major cities in this region. The aquatic and wetland vegetation of different paramo lakes, pond, swamps and bogs was studied according to the classical phytosociological approach, which is based on homogenous stands, but excludes any border phenomena or transitional zone. The present research aimed at determining the

  13. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  14. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Shakeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa (Ranunculacea has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone.

  15. Anemone medicinal plants: ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Cheng Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales, comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant “omics” platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.

  16. Research highlights from the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research for Women’s Health: Black cohosh from the field to the clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Norman R; Mahady, Gail B.

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy at the College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois (UIC) at Chicago was funded to establish a Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Center from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The emphasis of the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research (CBDSR) is botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for women's health. Center’s research has focused on BDS that may improve women's health and quality of life, specifically in the areas of menopause, premenstrual syndrome, and persistent urinary tract infections. Center investigators have overcome many challenges associated with botanical dietary supplements research, including acquiring and identifying plant species for investigation, isolating and identifying active constituents, elucidating the mechanisms of action of these botanicals, and conducting phase I and phase II clinical studies. Black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae)] has been used as a model to illustrate the steps involved in taking a botanical dietary supplement from the field, all the way to clinical trials. Bioassays are described that were necessary to elucidate the pertinent biological studies of plant extracts and their mechanisms of action. The Center has used an innovative multidisciplinary approach to this type of research, and thus has been very successful in fulfilling its specific aims. PMID:20161501

  17. Comparison of a specific HPLC determination of toxic aconite alkaloids in processed Radix aconiti with a titration method of total alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezso; Borcsa, Botond; Heydel, Barbara; Hohmann, Judit; Zupkó, István; Ma, Yan; Widowitz, Ute; Bauer, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) roots are only applied after processing. Nevertheless, several cases of poisoning by improperly processed aconite roots have been reported. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable analytical method to assess the amount of toxic aconite alkaloids in commercial aconite roots, and to compare this method with the commonly used total alkaloid content determination by titration. The content of mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine in 16 commercial samples of processed aconite roots was determined by an HPLC method and the total alkaloid content by indirect titration. Five samples were selected for in vivo toxicological investigation. In most of the commercial samples, toxic alkaloids were not detectable, or only traces were found. In four samples, we could detect >0.04% toxic aconite alkaloids, the highest with a content of 0.16%. The results of HPLC analysis were compared with the results obtained by titration, and no correlation was found between the two methods. The in vivo results reassured the validity of the HPLC determination. Samples with mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine content below the HPLC detection limit still contained up to 0.2% alkaloids determined by titration. Since titration of alkaloids gives no information selectively on the aconitine-type alkaloid content and toxicity of aconite roots this method is not appropriate for safety assessment. The HPLC method developed by us provides a quick and reliable assessment of toxicity and should be considered as a purity test in pharmacopoeia monographs.

  18. Cytochrome P450 CYP716A254 catalyzes the formation of oleanolic acid from β-amyrin during oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in Anemone flaccida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chuansong; Ahmed, Shakeel; Hu, Sheng; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Yang, Tewu; Wang, Xuekui; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    Anemone flaccida Fr. Shmidt (Ranunculaceae), known as 'Di Wu' in China, is a perennial herb which has long been used to treat arthritis. The rhizome of A. flaccida contains pharmacologically active components i.e. oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins. Oleanolic acid is natural triterpenoid in plants with diverse biological activities. The biosynthesis of oleanolic acid involves cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to the oleanane-type triterpenoid skeleton, followed by a series of oxidation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP450). Previously, we identified four possible cytochrome P450 genes belonging to CYP716A subfamily from the transcriptome of A. flaccida. In this study, we identified one of those genes "CYP716A254" encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from A. flaccida that catalyzes the conversion of the β-amyrin into oleanolic acid. The heterologous expression of CYP716A254 in yeast resulted in oxidation of β-amyrin at the C-18 position to oleanolic acid production. These results provide an important basis for further studies of oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins synthesis in A. flaccida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Solvent Polarity and DNA-Binding on Spectral Properties of Quaternary Benzo[c]phenanthridine Alkaloids.

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    Michal Rájecký

    Full Text Available Quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids are secondary metabolites of the plant families Papaveraceae, Rutaceae, and Ranunculaceae with anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Their spectral changes induced by the environment could be used to understand their interaction with biomolecules as well as for analytical purposes. Spectral shifts, quantum yield and changes in lifetime are presented for the free form of alkaloids in solvents of different polarity and for alkaloids bound to DNA. Quantum yields range from 0.098 to 0.345 for the alkanolamine form and are below 0.033 for the iminium form. Rise of fluorescence lifetimes (from 2-5 ns to 3-10 ns and fluorescence intensity are observed after binding of the iminium form to the DNA for most studied alkaloids. The alkanolamine form does not bind to DNA. Acid-base equilibrium constant of macarpine is determined to be 8.2-8.3. Macarpine is found to have the highest increase of fluorescence upon DNA binding, even under unfavourable pH conditions. This is probably a result of its unique methoxy substitution at C12 a characteristic not shared with other studied alkaloids. Association constant for macarpine-DNA interaction is 700000 M(-1.

  20. Berberine Reduces the Metastasis of Chondrosarcoma by Modulating the αvβ3 Integrin and the PKCδ, c-Src, and AP-1 Signaling Pathways

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    Chi-Ming Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with chondrosarcoma have poor prognosis. Berberine, an active component of the Ranunculaceae and Papaveraceae families of plant, has been proven to induce tumor apoptosis and to prevent the metastasis of cancer cells. However, the effects of berberine in human chondrosarcoma are largely unknown. In this study, we found that berberine did not induce cell apoptosis in human primary chondrocytes and chondrosarcoma cells. However, at noncytotoxic concentrations, berberine reduced the migration and invasion of chondrosarcoma cancer cells. Integrins are the major adhesive molecules in mammalian cells and have been associated with the metastasis of cancer cells. We also found that incubation of chondrosarcoma cells with berberine reduced mRNA transcription for, and cell surface expression of, the αvβ3 integrin, with additional inhibitory effects on PKCδ, c-Src, and NF-κB activation. Thus, berberine may be a novel antimetastasis agent for the treatment of metastatic chondrosarcoma.

  1. POSSIBILITIES TO USE NATURAL EXTRACTS FROM MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS (MAP LIKE BOTANICAL REPELLENT OR INSECTICIDE COMPOUNDS AGAINST PEST INSECTS IN ECOLOGICAL CROPS (II

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    Irina IONESCU-MĂLĂNCUŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropods pests continues to expand i.e. repellents based on essential oils extracted from Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Rosmarinus officinalis to mosquitoes, or cinnamon oil, sandalwood oil and turmeric oil are previously reported as insect repellents evaluatede in the laboratory conditions. With the constantly increasing problems of insecticide resistance and increasing public concerns regarding pesticide safety, new, safer active ingredients are becoming necessary to replace existing compounds on the market. The present study carried out in the period 2010-2012 comprises a review of two insect repellents, followed by some new research conducted in our laboratory on plant-derived insect repellents. The two alkaloids tested against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in laboratory conditions was obtained by water and alchohol extraction from two vegetal species, Cichorium intybus L. (Asterales:Asteraceae and Delphinium consolida L. (Ranales:Ranunculaceae. The tests carried out in laboratory and field experimentally plots under cages permit to evaluate several other compounds for repellent activity of lacctucin alkaloids.

  2. Laju Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Jintan Hitam (Nigella sativa L. dengan Aplikasi Pupuk Kandang Sapi dan Fosfat Alam

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    Taopik Ridwan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. is a medicinal plant and spices belongs to the Ranunculaceae family. Black cumin seed contains some  secondary compounds and rich in nutrition that are beneficial  to health. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer rates on plant growth and production of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.. This research was conducted at Manoko Lembang, Bandung Barat from October 2012 to January 2013. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatment consists of two factors, i.e. cow manure and rates of rock phosphate. Rates of cow manure applied were 0, 10, 20, and 30 ton ha-1, and rates of rock phosphate were 0, 40, 80, and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1. The results showed that cow manure increased plant height, leaf number, branch  number, flower  number, fresh weight and dry weight of branch, leaf and total plant weight. Rock phosphate fertilizer increased  leaf  area  and  leaf  area index of plant. Fertilizers that can efficiently increase production was 10 tons cow manure ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1.Keywords: cow manure, growth, Nigella sativa L, production, rock phosphate

  3. Estimation of Total Phenols and Flavonoids in Extracts of Actaea spicata Roots and Antioxidant Activity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaan, R; Bansal, G; Kumar, S; Sharma, A

    2011-11-01

    Actaea spicata Linn. (Ranunculaceae) has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as rheumatism, inflammation, nerve diseases, lumbago, scrofula and chorea, but no systematic phytochemical and pharmacological work has ever been carried out on this potential plant. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of phenols and flavonoids in A. spicata. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken to estimate total phenols and flavonoids in methanol extract of A. spicata roots, and its ethyl acetate fraction. In vitro antioxidant activity was also evaluated in the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction using DPPH method. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to contain twice the content of flavonoids and phenols in comparison to methanolic extract, whereas phenolic content in methanol extract was approximately similar to ethyl acetate fraction. A significant antioxidant activity, i.e., mean percentage inhibition of DPPH radical was observed in methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction at the concentration of 10 μg/ml and 5 μg/ml respectively. Finally, it was suggested that polyphenols are responsible for antioxidant activity of A. spicata.

  4. Medicinal plants used in the Uzunköprü district of Edirne, Turkey

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    Fatma Güneş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the use of plants in Uzunköprü and surrounding villages in the years 2013–2015 during the flowering and fruiting season of the studied plants (March–October. Interviews were carried out face-to-face with members of the community. Fifty-seven people in 55 villages were interviewed. Overall, medicinal plants from 96 taxa belonging to 45 families were recorded. Traditional medicinal plants were used to treat 80 diseases and ailments such as diabetes, cold, flu, cough, stomachache, and hemorrhoids. According to the results, the largest eight families are Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Malvaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Brassicaceae. The most commonly used species were Anthemis cretica subsp. tenuiloba, Cotinus coggyria, Datura stramonium, Ecballium elaterium, Hypericum perforatum, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus elaeagnifolia subsp. bulgarica, Rosa canina, Sambucus ebulus, Tribulus terestris, Urtica dioica. The herbarium numbers, Latin and local names, families, village numbers, parts used, usage forms, and uses were listed alphabetically in a table. In this study, 219 local names were identified.

  5. Observations on traditional usage of ethnomedicinal plants in humans and animals of Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh in North-Western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Meenakshi; Asrani, R K; Thakur, Shalini; Sharma, P K; Patil, R D; Lal, Brij; Parkash, Om

    2016-09-15

    Medicinal plants are frequently used by Gaddi and Gujjar tribes of Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh, India to cure various ailments in humans and livestock. Therefore, extensive field work was conducted to document the traditional use of ethnomedicinal plants by these tribes. Direct interviews of 208 informants were conducted. The data generated through interviews was analysed using quantitative tools such as use-value (UV), factor informant consensus (Fic) and fidelity level (Fl). A total of 73 plant species in 67 genera and 40 families were observed to be medicinal and used to cure 22 ailment categories. The highest number of ethnomedicinal plants was recorded from the family Asteraceae followed by Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Acanthaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part used to treat various ailments followed by whole plant and roots or rhizomes. Ajuga parviflora, Berberis lycium, Viola canescens, Vitex negundo and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most important medicinal plants used for treating human diseases, whereas Achyranthes bidentata, Aloe sp., Cassia fistula, Podophyllum hexandrum and Pogostemon benghalensis were the most important medicinal plants used for treating animal diseases as per use value. The important ailment categories classified on the basis of factor informant consensus were gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. The present study revealed that people of the study area are extensively using the ethnomedicinal plants to cure various ailments. Plants with high use value and fidelity level should be subjected to pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applications of microcalorimetry in the antibacterial activity evaluation of various Rhizoma coptidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Yan, Dan; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Ren, Yong-Shen; Kong, Wei-Jun; Han, Yu-Mei; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2011-04-01

    Various Rhizoma coptidis are commonly used in clinical applications due to their strong antibacterial effect. The antibacterial effect of various R. coptidis were evaluated by microcalorimetry together with statistical analysis. The dried roots of Coptis chinensis Franch, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao, and Coptis teeta Wall (Ranunculaceae) were identified by Prof. Xiao-He Xiao. The herbs were tested using thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter, ampoule mode, to evaluate the biological activity. The dynamic energy metabolism information about the Staphylococcus aureus growth at 37°C was analyzed with principal component analysis. From the principle component analysis on quantitative parameters, the action of various R. coptidis on S. aureus growth at 37°C could be easily evaluated by analyzing the change of values of the two main parameters: the growth rate constant of first stage (k(1)) and the maximum heat rating of the first stage (P(1)). And the results of paired t-test show that there were no notable differences between inhibitory ratios calculated with k(1) and that of P(1). Using microdilution method, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of C. chinensis, C. deltoidea, and C. teeta were detected, and they were 77.8 ± 2, 116.6 ± 4, 93.3 ± 2 μg/mL, respectively. This work provided a useful method for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of various R. coptidis.

  7. Distribution of Primary and Specialized Metabolites in Nigella sativa Seeds, a Spice with Vast Traditional and Historical Uses

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    Efraim Lev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae is an annual herb commonly used in the Middle East, India and nowadays gaining worldwide acceptance. Historical and traditional uses are extensively documented in ancient texts and historical documents. Black cumin seeds and oil are commonly used as a traditional tonic and remedy for many ailments as well as in confectionery and bakery. Little is known however about the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and localization of its active components in the seed. Chemical and anatomical evidence indicates the presence of active compounds in seed coats. Seed volatiles consist largely of olefinic and oxygenated monoterpenes, mainly p-cymene, thymohydroquinone, thymoquinone, γ-terpinene and α-thujene, with lower levels of sesquiterpenes, mainly longifolene. Monoterpene composition changes during seed maturation. γ-Terpinene and α-thujene are the major monoterpenes accumulated in immature seeds, and the former is gradually replaced by p-cymene, carvacrol, thymo-hydroquinone and thymoquinone upon seed development. These compounds, as well as the indazole alkaloids nigellidine and nigellicine, are almost exclusively accumulated in the seed coat. In contrast, organic and amino acids are primarily accumulated in the inner seed tissues. Sugars and sugar alcohols, as well as the amino alkaloid dopamine and the saponin α-hederin accumulate both in the seed coats and the inner seed tissues at different ratios. Chemical analyses shed light to the ample traditional and historical uses of this plant.

  8. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  9. Review on Clinical Trials of Black Seed (Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone

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    Alireza Tavakkoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (black seed or black cumin, which belongs to the Ranunculacea family, is an annual herb with many pharmacological properties. Among its many active constituents, thymoquinone (TQ is the most abundant constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa (N. sativa seeds, and it is the constituent to which most properties of this herb are attributed. Methods: PubMed-Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify randomized control trials (RCTs investigating the therapeutic effects of N. sativa and/or TQ. In this review, we investigated the clinical uses of N. sativa and TQ in the prevention and the treatment of different diseases and morbidity conditions in humans. Results: Black seed and TQ are shown to possess multiple useful effects for the treatment of patients with several diseases, such as inflammatory and auto-immune disorders, as well as metabolic syndrome. Also, other advantages, including antimicrobial, anti-nociceptive and anti-epileptic properties, have been documented. The side effects of this herbal medicine appear not to be serious, so it can be applied in clinical trials because of its many advantages. Conclusion: Some effects of N. sativa, such as its hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and bronchodilatory effects, have been sufficiently studied and are sufficiently understood to allow for the next phase of clinical trials or drug developments. However, most of its other effects and applications require further clinical and animal studies.

  10. Modulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis by heterologous expression of CjWRKY1 in Eschscholzia californica cells.

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    Yasuyuki Yamada

    Full Text Available Transcription factors control many processes in plants and have high potentials to manipulate specialized metabolic pathways. Transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs, nicotine alkaloids, and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs has been characterized using Catharanthus roseus, Nicotiana and Coptis plants. However, metabolic engineering in which specific transcription factors are used in alkaloid biosynthesis is limited. In this study, we characterized the effects of ectopic expression of CjWRKY1, which is a transcriptional activator with many targets in BIA biosynthesis in Coptis japonica (Ranunculaceae and Eschscholzia californica (California poppy, Papaveraceae. Heterologous expression of CjWRKY1 in cultured California poppy cells induced increases in transcripts of several genes encoding BIA biosynthetic enzymes. Metabolite analyses indicated that the overexpression of the CjWRKY1 gene also induced increases in the accumulation of BIAs such as sanguinarine, chelerythrine, chelirubine, protopine, allocryptopine, and 10-hydroxychelerythrine in the culture medium. Previous characterization of EcbHLH1 and current results indicated that both transcription factors, WRKY1 and bHLH1, are substantially involved in the regulation of BIA biosynthesis. We discuss the function of CjWRKY1 in E. californica cells and its potential for metabolic engineering in BIA biosynthesis.

  11. Methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed induces changes in the levels of neurotransmitter amino acids in male rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Tarek; Carretero, María Emilia; Arce, Carmen; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) (NS) has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Different parts of the plant are used to treat many disorders. This study investigates the effects of NS methanol extract on brain neurotransmitter amino acid levels. We measured the changes in aspartate, glutamate, glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid in five brain regions of male Wistar rats after methanol extract treatment. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline solution (controls) or NS methanol extract (equivalent of 2.5 g/kg body weight) and sacrificed 1 h later or after administering 1 daily dose for 8 days. The neurotransmitters were measured in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum, hippocampus and thalamus by HPLC. Results showed significant changes in amino acids compared to basal values. Glutamate increased significantly (16-36%) in the regions analyzed except the striatum. Aspartate in the hypothalamus (50 and 76%) and glycine in hippocampus (32 and 25%), thalamus (66 and 29%) and striatum (75 and 48%) also increased with the two treatment intervals. γ-Aminobutyric acid significantly increased in the hippocampus (38 and 32%) and thalamus (22 and 40%) but decreased in the cortex and hypothalamus although in striatum only after eight days of treatment (24%). Our results suggest that injected methanol extract modifies amino acid levels in the rat brain regions. These results could be of interest since some neurodegenerative diseases are related to amino acid level imbalances in the central nervous system, suggesting the prospect for therapeutic use of NS against these disorders.

  12. Digitizing information for wider reach through 'him-Padap-Sanklan', an e-inventory of Himalayan flora

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    Amit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'him-Padap-Sankalan' is a digital directory of floral resources of Himachal Pradesh H.P., a biologically rich state of the Himalayan Biodiversity hotspot. It provides information on nomenclature, taxonomic classification, local name(s, trade name(s and uses of 3348 plant species along with maps showing their distribution in H.P. The information housed in 'Him-Padap-Sankalan' has been compiled from published sources, primarily the Flora of Himachal Pradesh: Analysis. The Graphic User Interface of the 'him-Padap-Sankalan' has been prepared using ASP.Net having MS-Access database in the back end. The 'scientific names', 'trade names', 'local names', 'synonyms', 'genus' and 'species' are the various search modules of 'him-Padap-Sankalan', which can be accessed using an internet browser connected through local area network. Analysis of information reveals that of the 201 families, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Scrophularariaceae, Rosaceae, Cyperaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae and Apiaceae are the ten dominat families in the state. 24 families and 18 genera are common to all the 12 districts of H.P. The maximum number of families, genera and species are in Shimla district and the least in Bilaspur district of H.P.

  13. Antidiabetic mechanism of Coptis chinensis polysaccharide through its antioxidant property involving the JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuang; Wang, Yahong; Ren, Dayong; Li, Jianrui; Yuan, Guangxin; An, Liping; Du, Peige; Ma, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Antidiabetic activity of Coptis chinensis Franch (Ranunculaceae) polysaccharide (CCPW) has been reported. However, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. An attempt was made to further verify the antidiabetic activity of CCPW on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elucidate the mechanism of antidiabetic activity. Male Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to generate a T2DM model. Effects of CCPW on fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (phospho-IRS1), phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (phospho-PI3Kp85) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) were investigated. FBG level of diabetic rats could be significantly inhibited by 51.2, 42.7, and 23.3% through administration of CCPW at doses of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg b.w., respectively (p antioxidant effect through increasing GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT activities, and decreasing GSH and MDA contents (p antioxidative effect, which is closely related to the JNK/IRS1/PI3K pathway.

  14. Plant chemical defence: a partner control mechanism stabilising plant - seed-eating pollinator mutualisms

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    Gallet Christiane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutualisms are inherently conflictual as one partner always benefits from reducing the costs imposed by the other. Despite the widespread recognition that mutualisms are essentially reciprocal exploitation, there are few documented examples of traits that limit the costs of mutualism. In plant/seed-eating pollinator interactions the only mechanisms reported so far are those specific to one particular system, such as the selective abortion of over-exploited fruits. Results This study shows that plant chemical defence against developing larvae constitutes another partner sanction mechanism in nursery mutualisms. It documents the chemical defence used by globeflower Trollius europaeus L. (Ranunculaceae against the seed-eating larvae of six pollinating species of the genus Chiastocheta Pokorny (Anthomyiidae. The correlative field study carried out shows that the severity of damage caused by Chiastocheta larvae to globeflower fruits is linked to the accumulation in the carpel walls of a C-glycosyl-flavone (adonivernith, which reduces the larval seed predation ability per damaged carpel. The different Chiastocheta species do not exploit the fruit in the same way and their interaction with the plant chemical defence is variable, both in terms of induction intensity and larval sensitivity to adonivernith. Conclusion Adonivernith accumulation and larval predation intensity appear to be both the reciprocal cause and effect. Adonivernith not only constitutes an effective chemical means of partner control, but may also play a key role in the sympatric diversification of the Chiastocheta genus.

  15. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

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    Esperança Carrió

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-. In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports, Parietaria officinalis (15, Ranunculus parnassifolius (14, Meum athamanticum (13, Olea europaea (13, Quercus ilex (12, Ruta chalepensis (12, Sambucus nigra (10 and Thymus vulgaris (10. According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  16. Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin

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    Andrea Dénes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp., dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Castanea, Trapa spp., several green vegetables (e.g. Rumex, Urtica, Humulus, Chenopodiaceae spp., Ranunculus ficaria, bulbs and tubers (Lathyrus tuberosus, Helianthus tuberosus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Allium spp. used for food in Europe, are also known to be consumed in Hungary. A characteristic feature of Hungarian plant use was the mass consumption of the underground parts of several marsh (e.g. Typha, Phragmites, Sagittaria, Alisma, Butomus, Bolboschoenus spp., as well as the endemic Armoracia macrocarpa and steppe species (e.g. Crambe tataria, Rumex pseudonatronatus. Consuming wild food plants is still important among Hungarians living in Transylvania: even nowadays more than 40 species are gathered and used at some locations.

  17. Hydrologic alteration affects aquatic plant assemblages in an arid-land river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Mark; Hestmark, Bennett; Barkworth, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term flow alteration on primary-producer assemblages. In 1962, Flaming Gorge Dam was constructed on the Green River. The Yampa River has remained an unregulated hydrologically variable river that joins the Green River 100 km downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam. In the 1960s before dam construction only sparse occurrences of two macroalgae, Cladophora and Chara, and no submerged vascular plants were recorded in the Green and Yampa rivers. In 2009–2010, aquatic plants were abundant and widespread in the Green River from the dam downstream to the confluence with the Yampa River. The assemblage consisted of six vascular species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum sibiricum, Nasturtium officinale,Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ranunculus aquatilis, the macroalgae Chara and Cladophora, and the bryophyte, Amblystegium riparium. In the Green River downstream from the Yampa River, and in the Yampa River, only sparse patches of Chara and Cladophora growing in the splash zone on boulders were collected. We attribute the observed changes in the Green River to an increase in water transparency and a reduction in suspended and bed-load sediment and high flow disturbances. The lack of hydrophyte colonization downstream from the confluence with the Yampa River has implications for understanding tributary amelioration of dam effects and for designing more natural flow-regime schedules downstream from large dams.

  18. The effects on photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration: An assessment of the response of Trifolium Repens L. cv. Blanca grown at F.A.C.E.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.E.

    1994-11-01

    Understanding how photosynthetic capacity acclimates to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations is vital in predicting the response of important grassland species such as Trifolium repens. Previous studies of acclimatization have been carried out in artificial experimental conditions, such as acrylic greenhouses or controlled environment chambers. The advent of FACE technology has enabled a large area of crop to be fumigated in the field, providing more realistic growing conditions. Pure stands of Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca grown at either 355 or 600{mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} were examined, and their photosynthetic response to elevated Ca determined via gas exchange studies. Rates of photosynthesis of young, fully expanded leaves were increased between 21 and 36% when grown and measured at elevated CO{sub 2}. This increase in A corresponded to a decrease in g{sub S} of between 18 and 52%. No acclimation effect was observed in the most frequently cut stands, whilst the response of stands clipped only 4 times per year was more variable. When down regulation of V{sub cmax} did occur, this was not nearly as marked as that which occurred in 3 other temperate species (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Ranunculus friesianus, Plantago lanceolata (L.) J. & C. Presl.), at similar growth regimes. No acclimation of stomatal frequency, SI or pore length was found to occur in the enriched clover stands.

  19. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula) and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Rigat, Montse; Garnatje, Teresa; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Vallès, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula) and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-). In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports), Parietaria officinalis (15), Ranunculus parnassifolius (14), Meum athamanticum (13), Olea europaea (13), Quercus ilex (12), Ruta chalepensis (12), Sambucus nigra (10) and Thymus vulgaris (10). According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans. PMID:22829861

  20. The aquatic vegetation in the Dokka delta, Randsfjorden. Status and assessment of the consequences of the Dokka regulation; Vannvegetasjonen i Dokkadeltaet, Randsfjorden. Status og vurdering av konsekvenser av Dokka-reguleringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandrud, T.E.; Mjelde, M.; Roerslett, B.

    1994-08-01

    In connection with regulation of the Dokka river system for hydroelectric power production, the aquatic vegetation of the Dokka delta before and immediately after regulation have been investigated, mainly by means of transect analyses including under water photography. As described in this report, the vegetation was found to be rich in species and luxuriant compared to that of the rest of Randsfjorden and dominated by the species Isoetes setacea, Subularia aquatica, Eleocharis acicularis, Ranunculus reptans and Isoetes lacustris. Due to the regulation, the water drains away from the great shallows in late winter and exposes the vegetation to drought and freeze. The drought keeps the Elodea canadensis in check in the delta. However, because of the very extensive delta shallows the delta experiences ice erosion and removal of fine material. The regulation will probably have relatively little short-term impact on the water vegetation. In the long run, however, regulation may contribute to a somewhat faster over-growing of some delta forms because of reduced flood discharge and reduced mud transport in the delta. 59 refs., 22 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Qualitative Parameters of Pasture Samples Obtained from Different Farms in 2012

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    Kamila Pejchova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was a representation of chemical composition of pasture samples from different farms and NDF degradability examination by in sacco method. The experiment took place on three farms with different altitudes. All samples were analyzed for ash, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. NDF degradability was evaluated by in sacco method in chosen herbs from samples of pasture. During the grazing season in a sward reduces the content of NL and at the same time increases the content of CF. During the pasture period declines the share of clovers in growth and on the contrary significantly higher proportion of grasses. The highest NDF degradability all the time of incubation in the rumen was in Taraxacum officinale and varied from 453.1 g.kg-1 NDF in 6 h of incubation to 882.1 g.kg-1 NDF in 72 h of incubation. The lowest NDF degradability was in Rumex obtusifolius (198.1 to 581.8 g.kg-1 NDF and Ranunculus acris (278.6 to 566 g.kg-1 NDF.Differences between farms are minimal.

  2. Phytochemical components, total phenol and mineral contents and antioxidant activity of six major medicinal plants from Rayen, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Sadat-Hosseini, Mohammad; Moghbeli, Mojtaba; Farajpour, Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the phytochemical components, minerals, the antioxidant activity and total phenol contents of the essential oil from aerial parts of six major medicinal plants in Rayen, Iran. The plants included Ranunculus arvensis, Teucrium polium, Dracocephalum polychaetum, Kelussia odoratissima, Artemisia sieberi and Thymus kotschyanus. Total phenol content ranged from 0.03 to 0.158 mg/mL. A. sieberi showed the highest radical scavenging ability (IC 50  = 94 μg/mL). The amount of minerals ranged as follows: P (0.23-29%), K (1.08-4.76%), Ca (0.78-2.35%), Mg (0.24-0.94%), Cu (8.3-15 mg/kg), Cd (0.7-1.1 mg/kg), Pb (2-11.7 mg/kg) and Fe (250-1280 mg/kg). A total of 79 compounds were identified across all plants. The main components studied in the plants were l-perillaldehyde, biosol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol, terpinyl acetate and 1,2,3,6,7,7 a-hexahydro-5 h-inden 5-one.

  3. A little bit of sex matters for genome evolution in asexual plants

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    Diego eHojsgaard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genome evolution in asexual organisms is theoretically expected to be shaped by various factors:first, hybrid origin and polyploidy confer a genomic constitution of highly heterozygous genotypes with multiple copies of genes;second, asexuality confers a lack of recombination and variation in populations, which reduces the efficiency of selection against deleterious mutations;hence, the accumulation of mutations and a gradual increase in mutational load (Muller’s ratchetwould lead to rapid extinction of asexual lineages;third, allelic sequence divergence is expected to result in rapid divergence of lineages (Meselson effect.Recent transcriptome studies on the asexual polyploid complex Ranunculus auricomus using single-nucleotide polymorphisms confirmed neutral allelic sequence divergence within a short time frame, but rejected a hypothesis of a genome-wide accumulation of mutations in asexuals compared to sexuals, except for a few genes related to reproductive development.We discuss a general model that the observed incidence of facultative sexuality in plants may unmask deleterious mutations with partial dominance and expose them efficiently to purging selection.A little bit of sex may help to avoid genomic decay and extinction.

  4. The Progamic Phase in High-Mountain Plants: From Pollination to Fertilization in the Cold

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    Gerlinde Steinacher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In high-mountains, cold spells can occur at any time during the growing season and plants may be covered with snow for several days. This raises the question to what extent sexual processes are impaired by low temperatures. We tested pollen performance and fertilization capacity of high-mountain species with different elevational distribution in the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Gentianella germanica, Ranunculus glacialis, R. alpestris, Saxifraga bryoides, S. caesia, S. moschata during simulated cold snaps in the laboratory. Plants were exposed to 0 °C (the temperature below the snow for 12, 36, 60 and 84 h. In S. caesia, the experiment was verified in situ during a cold snap. Sexual processes coped well with large temperature differences and remained functional at near-freezing temperatures for a few days. During the cooling-down phase a high percentage (67–97% of pollen grains germinated and grew tubes into the style. At zero degrees, tube growth continued slowly both in the laboratory and in situ below the snow. Fertilization occurred in up to 100% of flowers in the nival species and in G. germanica, but was strongly delayed or absent in the alpine species. During rewarming, fertilization continued. Overall, progamic processes in high-mountain plants appear fairly robust toward weather extremes increasing the probability of successful reproduction.

  5. Vitality of aquatic plants and microbial activity of sediment in an oligotrophic lake (Lake Bohinj, Slovenia

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    Tatjana SIMČIČ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The vitality of eight macrophyte species and the microbial activity of sediment in an oligotrophic lake (Lake Bohinj, Slovenia were studied via the terminal electron transport system (ETS activity of mitochondria. The levels of ETS activity of vascular plants were as follows: Ranunculus circinatus, Myriohpyllum spicatum, Potamogeton alpinus, P. perfoliatus, P. lucens. Fontinalis antipyretica exhibited the highest ETS activity of the non-vascular plants, followed by charales Chara delicatula and C. aspera. High values enable R. circinatus, an amphibious species with rapid growth, to survive under conditions in which the water level changes throughout the season. M. spicatum, a species with broad ecological tolerance, also exhibited high ETS activity. The ETS activity of the microbial community in sediment was affected by temperature and/or the amount and origin of the organic matter. A positive correlation between the ETS activity of the sediment and that of M. spicatum and R. circinatus was measured, while negative correlations or no correlation were observed for mosses and macroalgae. The high ETS activity in sediment indicates rapid mineralization of organic matter and, in turn, sufficient nutrients for growth of macrophytes.

  6. Chromosomal Mapping of Transposable Elements of the Rex Family in the Bristlenose Catfish, Ancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae), from the Amazonian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, Ramon Marin; Ribeiro, Leila Braga; Feldberg, Eliana; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida

    2017-05-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences are present in the genome of basically every known organism, and transposable elements (TE) are one of the most representative sequences involved in chromosomal rearrangements and the genomic evolution of eukaryotes. In fish, the non-LTR retrotransposon TEs, Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6, are widely distributed in fish genomes and are the best-characterized TEs in several species. In the current study, three of these retroelements were physically mapped, through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in 7 species (71 specimens) of the genus Ancistrus, known as bristlenose catfish: Ancistrus ranunculus, Ancistrus sp. 1 "Purus," Ancistrus sp. 2 "Catalão," Ancistrus dolichopterus, Ancistrus maximus, Ancistrus aff. dolichopterus, and Ancistrus dubius. Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 showed a cluster distribution, mainly in the terminal and pericentromeric portions, in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, and did not occur in sexual chromosomes; however, the number and position of the clusters varied between species. This TE distribution suggests its implication in the karyotypic evolution of these species, without affecting the rise of sexual chromosome systems in Ancistrus, in view of their chromosomal variation. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. In vitro evaluering van die effektiwiteit van vyf plante wat tradisioneel teen seksueel oordraagbare siektes gebruik word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Swart

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Tot soveel as 60% van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking raadpleeg tradisionele genesers vir siektetoestande, insluitende seksueel oordraagbare siektes (SOS. Medisinale plante speel ’n belangrike rol in die behandeling van SOS deur tradisionele genesers, maar sonder enige wetenskaplike bewyse van effektiwiteit. Vir hierdie studie is 5 plante vanuit die literatuur gekies op grond van hul gebruik deur tradisionele genesers vir die behandeling van SOS. Siftingstoetse vir die bepaling van aktiwiteit teen bakterieë en teen SOS is op die plante uitgevoer. Die plante was Clematis brachiata, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Lepidium bonariense, Ranunculus multifidus en Typha capensis. Siftingstoetse is uitgevoer met die organismes Candida albicans, Neisseria gonorrhoeae en Haemophilus ducreyi wat met SOS geassosieer word, terwyl Bacillus subtilus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa en Aspergillus niger ook in die siftingstoetse ingesluit is. Slegs Lepidium bonariense het aktiwiteit teen die gebruikte organismes getoon. Dit is dus duidelik dat daar ’n behoefte bestaan om die effektiwiteit van medisinale plante wetenskaplik te bepaal en te kommunikeer.

  8. Plant ethnoveterinary practices in two pyrenean territories of catalonia (iberian peninsula) and in two areas of the balearic islands and comparison with ethnobotanical uses in human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Rigat, Montse; Garnatje, Teresa; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Vallès, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula) and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-). In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports), Parietaria officinalis (15), Ranunculus parnassifolius (14), Meum athamanticum (13), Olea europaea (13), Quercus ilex (12), Ruta chalepensis (12), Sambucus nigra (10) and Thymus vulgaris (10). According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  9. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijin Lin

    Full Text Available Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  10. Development of Ophiocordyceps sinensis through Plant-Mediated Interkingdom Host Colonization

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    Wei Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a well-known entomogenous and medicinal fungus. After its anamorphs parasitize the larvae of the genus Thitarodes, fruit-bodies may form to be used as medicine. However, its developmental mechanisms remain unknown. The distribution of O. sinensis was determined in different tissues of the Thitarodes larvae and the dominant plant species using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique, respectively. We found that more fungal material was located in plants than in larvae, especially in Ranunculus tanguticus. A considerable amount was detected in larval intestinal-wall and plant roots. It is suggested that plants are the potential hosts of O. sinensis, which modifies our understanding of the life cycle of O. sinensis and indicates that the phytophagous larvae may become infected as they feed. Our research may contribute to the study of systematic evolution and population ecology of O. sinensis, elucidate its developmental mechanism and promote sustainable harvesting.

  11. Local ciliate communities associated with aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Anna M; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2014-03-01

    This study, based within the catchment area of the River Frome, an important chalk stream in the south of England, compared ciliated protozoan communities associated with three species of aquatic macrophyte common to lotic habitats: Ranunculus penicillatus subsp. pseudofluitans, Nasturtium officinale and Sparganium emersum. A total of 77 ciliate species were counted. No species-specific ciliate assemblage was found to be typical of any one plant species. Ciliate abundance between plant species was determined to be significantly different. The ciliate communities from each plant species were unique in that the number of species increased with ciliate abundance. The community associated with R. penicillatus subsp. pseudofluitans showed the highest consistency and species richness whereas S. emersum ciliate communities were unstable. Most notably, N. officinale was associated with low ciliate abundances and an apparent reduction in biofilm formation, discussed herein in relation to the plant's production of the microbial toxin phenethyl isothiocyanate. We propose that the results reflect differences in the quantity and quality of biofilm present on the plants, which could be determined by the different plant morphologies, patterns of plant decay and herbivore defense systems, all of which suppress or promote the various conditions for biofilm growth.

  12. Bioaccumulations of heavy metals in submerged macrophytes in the mountain river Biała Lądecka (Poland, Sudety Mts.

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    Pokorny Przemysław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the Biała Lądecka River which is a mountain river. It is similar to many European mountain rivers in terms of hydromorphology and catchment management. The aim of this study was to determine the bioconcentration factors of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn in Ranunculus aquatile (L. Dumort., Fontinalis antipyretica (L. ex Hedw., and Lemanea fluviatilis (L. C.Ag. The content of metals in water, sediment, and submerged plants was determined. The metal concentrations in plants can be arranged as follows: Hg < Cd < Cr < Ni < Cu < Pb

  13. Evaluación nutricional de diferentes ensilajes para alimentar conejos

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    Rigoberto Villa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En la Granja Experimental Bengala de la Universidad del Quindío, ubicada en el municipio de Filandia, Quindío, se evaluó el valor nutricional de diferentes ensilajes para alimentar conejos, (pasto imperial Axonopus scoparius (Flüggé Kuhlm. mezclado con botón de oro (Ranunculus acris L., ramio (Boehmeria nívea L. y morera (Morus alba L.. Se valoraron cinco grupos de conejos conformados por cinco animales cada uno. El grupo de conejos alimentado con ensilaje de pasto imperial y botón de oro, fueron los que obtuvieron la mayor ganancia de peso 141g/semanal, mientras que los conejos alimentados con solo forrajes frescos, obtuvieron un peso promedio de 109g/semanal. Las fuentes nutricionales que mejor responden en la alimentación de conejos en su orden fueron: ensilaje de botón de oro, ensilaje de morera y ensilaje de ramio.

  14. Vascular plant flora in the Cytadela cemeteries in Poznań (Poland

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    Aneta Czarna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the spontaneous vascular flora and the flora originating from old or contemporary plantations found in all six currently existing cemeteries located in immediate vicinity on the slopes of the Cytadela Park in Poznań. These studies were carried out in the years 2011–2014. Over this period, 255 species of vascular plants were found. The most interesting species include: Chionodoxa luciliae, Rumex rugosus, Aegopodium podagraria ‘Variegatum’, Ficaria verna f. plenifolia, Galanthus nivalis f. pleniflora, Ornithogalum boucheanum, Ranunculus repens ‘Plena’, and hybrids: Dactylis ×intercedens, Gagea ×pomeranica, Ornithogalum boucheanum × O. nutans, Viola cyanea × V. odorata. A great number of spring geophytes, namely 31 species, was also found. Among species occurring spontaneously outside the graves, some were new for Poland, e.g., Chionodoxa luciliae, Ornithogalum boucheanum × O. nutans, Viola cyanea × V. odorata, while others were new for the Wielkopolska region: Rumex rugosus, Dactylis ×intercedens, Gagea ×pomeranica, as well as new for Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Muscari armeniacus, M. neglectum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, and Veronica hederifolia s. s.

  15. Does competition for phosphate supply explain the invasion pattern of Elodea species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, Gabrielle

    2005-09-01

    Two invasive aquatic plants, Elodea canadensis and Elodea nuttallii, occurred in north-eastern France. In this study, we examine the influence of phosphorus availability in soft water streams to explain the invasion pattern of exotic species (E. nuttallii and E. canadensis) compared to native plants (Callitriche platycarpa, Ranunculus peltatus). Total phosphorus was measured in these four aquatic macrophytes. Sediment total phosphorus and water-soluble reactive phosphorus were also analysed each season in 2001. Phosphorus content in the two invasive species and in R. peltatus was higher than in C. platycarpa. Elodea species are adapted to the seasonal phosphorus fluctuations as well as R. peltatus and exhibited high phosphorus storage ability. The high fluctuation availability of resources in space or/and time favoured the spread of the invasive plants and confirms the theory of invasibility of Davis et al. [2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J. Ecol. 88, 528-534]. The eutrophication process increases the invasibility of E. nuttallii's, while inducing competition between E. nuttallii and native macrophyte species.

  16. Permanent colonization of creek sediments, creek water and limnic water plants by four Listeria species in low population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Halter, Evi; Schober, Steffen; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-09-01

    During a 1-year longitudinal study, water, sediment and water plants from two creeks and one pond were sampled monthly and analyzed for the presence of Listeria species. A total of 90 % of 30 sediment samples, 84 % of 31 water plant samples and 67 % of 36 water samples were tested positive. Generally, most probable number counts ranged between 1 and 40 g-1, only occasionally >110 cfu g-1 were detected. Species differentiation based on FT-IR spectroscopy and multiplex PCR of a total of 1220 isolates revealed L. innocua (46 %), L. seeligeri (27 %), L. monocytogenes (25 %) and L. ivanovii (2 %). Titers and species compositions were similar during all seasons. While the species distributions in sediments and associated Ranunculus fluitans plants appeared to be similar in both creeks, RAPD typing did not provide conclusive evidence that the populations of these environments were connected. It is concluded that (i) the fresh-water sediments and water plants are year-round populated by Listeria, (ii) no clear preference for growth in habitats as different as sediments and water plants was found and (iii) the RAPD-based intraspecific biodiversity is high compared to the low population density.

  17. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  18. Effects of Mulching Tolerant Plant Straw on Soil Surface on Growth and Cadmium Accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora

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    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming’an; Ren, Yajun; Luo, Li; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Daiyu; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd) tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica) on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:25490210

  19. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  20. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

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    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  1. Anti-diabetic effects and mechanisms of action of a Chinese herbal medicine preparation JQ-R in vitro and in diabetic KKAy mice

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    Quan Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Refined-JQ (JQ-R is a mixture of refined extracts from Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae, Astragalus membranaceus (Leguminosae and Lonicera japonica (Caprifoliaceae, the three major herbs of JinQi-JiangTang tablet, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula. The mechanisms by which JQ-R regulates glucose metabolism and improves insulin sensitivity were studied in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice and insulin-resistant L6 myotubes. To investigate the mechanisms by which JQ-R improves insulin sensitivity, a model of insulin-resistant cells induced with palmitic acid (PA was established in L6 myotubes. Glucose uptake and expression of factors involved in insulin signaling, stress, and inflammatory pathways were detected by immunoblotting. JQ-R showed beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in a euglycemic clamp experiment and decreased fasting insulin levels in diabetic KKAy mice. JQ-R also improved the plasma lipid profiles. JQ-R directly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS levels in insulin-resistant L6 cells, and elevated the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with upregulated phosphorylation of AKT. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65, inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB α, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2 were also changed after JQ-R treatment compared with the control group. Together these findings suggest that JQ-R improved glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic KKAy mice. JQ-R directly enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-resistant myotubes with improved insulin signalling and inflammatory response and oxidative stress. JQ-R could be a candidate to achieve improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  3. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  4. Panacea seed “Nigella”: A review focusing on regenerative effects for gastric ailments

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    Shahida A. Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (NS or black cumin is a dark, thin, and crescent-shaped, seeded shrub belonging to the Ranunculaceae family commonly growing on Mediterranean coasts in Saudi Arabia, northern Africa and Asia. They have amazing curative and therapeutic features that make them one of the most popular, safe, non-detrimental, and cytoprotective medicinal plant that can be used for prevention and treatment of many complicated diseases. Originally, N. sativa was used to treat migraines and allergy, and researches have shown its effectiveness in destroying cancer cells as well. The gastro protective effect of NS oil and its constituents has also been reported earlier; however, the complete perception on etiology and pathogenesis of gastric ulcer is not yet clear. Herein, we attempt to unveil some of the potential mechanisms exhibited by NS in preventing problems related to gastric ulcers. Gastric ailments like ulcers and tumors are the most common disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract in the present day life of the industrialized world. Gastric ulcer being a multifaceted problem exhibits complex etiology and is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. Drug interactions and toxicity are the main hindrances in chemotherapy. The existing merits and demerits of modern-day drugs make us turn toward the plant kingdom which may provide a valuable resource of novel potent natural compounds for pharmaceuticals or alternately, as dietary supplements. In this context, the revered phytotherapeutic N. sativa comes as a promising savior in today’s times. This review aims to summarize, both the functional and disease-related effects in the area of gastroenterology.

  5. Economical, Plain, and Rapid Authentication of Actaea racemosa L. (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa, Black Cohosh) Herbal Raw Material by Resilient RP-PDA-HPLC and Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Marian; Schenk, Regina; Springer, Andreas; Melzig, Matthias F

    2016-11-01

    The medicinal plant Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae, aka black cohosh) is widely used to treat climacteric complaints as an alternative to hormone substitution. Recent trials prove efficacy and safety of the approved herbal medicinal products from extracts of pharmaceutical quality. This led to worldwide increasing sales. A higher demand for the plant material results in problems with economically motivated adulteration. Thus, reliable tools for herbal drug authentication are necessary. To develop an economical, plain, and rapid method to distinguish between closely related American and Asian Actaea species, using securely established and resilient analytical methods coupled to a chemometric evaluation of the resulting data. We developed and validated a RP-PDA-HPLC method including an extraction by ultra-sonication to determine the genuine contents of partly hydrolysis-sensitive polyphenols in Actaea racemosa roots and rhizomes, and applied it to a large number of 203 Actaea samples consisting of seven species. We were able to generate reliable data with regards to the polyphenolic esters in the samples. The evaluation of this data by principle component analysis (PCA) made a discrimination between Asian Actaea species (sheng ma), one American Actaea species (Appalachian bugbane), and A. racemosa possible. The developed RP-PDA-HPLC method coupled to PCA is an excellent tool for authentication of the Actaea racemosa herbal drug, and can be a powerful addition to the TLC methods used in the dedicated pharmacopoeias, and is a promising alternative to expensive and lots of expertise requiring methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The use of medicinal herbs in gynecological and pregnancy-related disorders by Jordanian women: a review of folkloric practice vs. evidence-based pharmacology.

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    Akour, Amal; Kasabri, Violet; Afifi, Fatma U; Bulatova, Nailya

    2016-09-01

    Context National statistical reports in Jordan indicate a decrease in the total fertility rate along with a parallel increase in contraceptive use. The folkloric use of medicinal herbs in gynecological disorders has been growing in Jordan, despite of deficient reports on the evidence-based safety and efficacy of these practices. Objective The aim of this comprehensive article is to review medicinal plants with claimed ethnonpharmacological usage in various gynecological and pregnancy-related issues in Jordan, and to assess their evidence-based pharmacological studies as well as their phytochemistry. Methods The published literature was surveyed using Google Scholar entering the terms "ethnopharmacology AND Jordan AND infertility AND gynecology OR gestation". We included ethnopharmacological surveys in Jordan with available full-text. Results Twelve articles were reviewed. Plant species which are commonly used for female gynecological issues such as Artemisia monosperma Del. and A. herba-alba Asso. (Asteraceae) have been found to exert an antifertility effect. Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) had antifertility effects in male rats, but Nigella sativa oil L. (Ranunculaceae) and Cinnamon zeylanicum J. Presl (Lauraceae) were found to enhance it. Conclusion Using plants for gynecological disorders is a common practice in Jordan. Many of them, whether utilised for gynecological or non-gynecological conditions equally, were found to have detrimental effects on female or male fertility. Thus, couples planning pregnancy should be discouraged from the consumption of these herbs. Further local studies are warranted to confirm the appreciable beneficial pharmacological effects and safety of these plants.

  7. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of the Triterpenoid Saponins Biosynthetic Pathway in Anemone flaccida by Transcriptome and Proteome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chuansong; Li, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zeying; Yang, Tewu; Wang, Xuekui; Luo, Biaobiao; Zhang, Qiyun; Hu, Yanru; Hu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Anemone flaccida Fr. Shmidt (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as 'Di Wu' in China, is a perennial herb with limited distribution. The rhizome of A. flaccida has long been used to treat arthritis as a tradition in China. Studies disclosed that the plant contains a rich source of triterpenoid saponins. However, little is known about triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in A. flaccida. In this study, we conducted the tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model medicinal plant, A. flaccida. Using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing and iTRAQ technique, a total of 46,962 high-quality unigenes were obtained with an average sequence length of 1,310 bp, along with 1473 unique proteins from A. flaccida. Among the A. flaccida transcripts, 36,617 (77.97%) showed significant similarity (E-value triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway of A. flaccida were identified, including cytosolic mevalonate pathway (MVA) and the plastidial methylerythritol pathway (MEP). Additionally, a total of 126 putative cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and 32 putative UDP glycosyltransferases were selected as the candidates of triterpenoid saponins modifiers. Among them, four of them were annotated as the gene of CYP716A subfamily, the key enzyme in the oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, based on RNA-Seq and proteome analysis, as well as quantitative RT-PCR verification, the expression level of gene and protein committed to triterpenoids biosynthesis in the leaf versus the rhizome was compared. A combination of the de novo transcriptome and proteome profiling based on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and iTRAQ technique was shown to be a powerful method for the discovery of candidate genes, which encoded enzymes that were responsible for the biosynthesis of novel secondary metabolites in a non-model plant. The transcriptome data of our study provides a very important resource for the understanding of the triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis of A. flaccida.

  9. Therapeutic Potential and Pharmaceutical Development of Thymoquinone: A Multitargeted Molecule of Natural Origin

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    Sameer N. Goyal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone, a monoterpene molecule is chemically known as 2-methyl-5-isopropyl-1, 4-benzoquinone. It is abundantly present in seeds of Nigella sativa L. that is popularly known as black cumin or black seed and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. A large number of studies have revealed that thymoquinone is the major active constituent in N. sativa oil this constituent is responsible for the majority of the pharmacological properties. The beneficial organoprotective activities of thymoquinone in experimental animal models of different human diseases are attributed to the potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thymoquinone has also been shown to alter numerous molecular and signaling pathways in many inflammatory and degenerative diseases including cancer. Thymoquinone has been reported to possess potent lipophilicity and limited bioavailability and exhibits light and heat sensitivity. Altogether, these physiochemical properties encumber the successful formulation for the delivery of drug in oral dosages form and restrict the pharmaceutical development. In recent past, many efforts were undertaken to improve the bioavailability for clinical usage by manipulating the physiochemical parameters. The present review aimed to provide insights regarding the physicochemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics and the methods to promote pharmaceutical development and endorse the clinical usage of TQ in future by overcoming the associated physiochemical obstacles. It also enumerates briefly the pharmacological and molecular targets of thymoquinone as well as the pharmacological properties in various diseases and the underlying molecular mechanism. Though, a convincing number of experimental studies are available but human studies are not available with thymoquinone despite of the long history of use of black cumin in different diseases. Thus, the clinical studies including pharmacokinetic studies and regulatory toxicity studies are required

  10. Therapeutic Potential and Pharmaceutical Development of Thymoquinone: A Multitargeted Molecule of Natural Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sameer N; Prajapati, Chaitali P; Gore, Prashant R; Patil, Chandragouda R; Mahajan, Umesh B; Sharma, Charu; Talla, Sandhya P; Ojha, Shreesh K

    2017-01-01

    Thymoquinone, a monoterpene molecule is chemically known as 2-methyl-5-isopropyl-1, 4-benzoquinone. It is abundantly present in seeds of Nigella sativa L. that is popularly known as black cumin or black seed and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. A large number of studies have revealed that thymoquinone is the major active constituent in N. sativa oil this constituent is responsible for the majority of the pharmacological properties. The beneficial organoprotective activities of thymoquinone in experimental animal models of different human diseases are attributed to the potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thymoquinone has also been shown to alter numerous molecular and signaling pathways in many inflammatory and degenerative diseases including cancer. Thymoquinone has been reported to possess potent lipophilicity and limited bioavailability and exhibits light and heat sensitivity. Altogether, these physiochemical properties encumber the successful formulation for the delivery of drug in oral dosages form and restrict the pharmaceutical development. In recent past, many efforts were undertaken to improve the bioavailability for clinical usage by manipulating the physiochemical parameters. The present review aimed to provide insights regarding the physicochemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics and the methods to promote pharmaceutical development and endorse the clinical usage of TQ in future by overcoming the associated physiochemical obstacles. It also enumerates briefly the pharmacological and molecular targets of thymoquinone as well as the pharmacological properties in various diseases and the underlying molecular mechanism. Though, a convincing number of experimental studies are available but human studies are not available with thymoquinone despite of the long history of use of black cumin in different diseases. Thus, the clinical studies including pharmacokinetic studies and regulatory toxicity studies are required to encourage the

  11. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies of Helleborus niger L root

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    V Kishor Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helleborus niger L (Ranunculaceae is used Ayurvedic and Unani systems and other herbal medicine systems. The roots of H. niger have a good medicinal value. Aims: To conduct a pharmacognostical and phytochemical study of H. niger. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies on roots including parameters such as taxonomical, macroscopic, microscopic characters, physico-chemical, ultra-violet analysis and phytochemical studies are established. Results: Macroscopically, the roots are brownish-black in colour, cylindrical in shape, feeble odour, slightly acrid taste with irregularly branched. Microscopically the root showed the presence of epidermis, air-chambers, fissure periderm, periderm, inner cortex, pith, phloem, xylem, vessels and xylem vessels. Microscopic examination of the powder showed the presence of parenchyma cells, parenchyma mass, periderm, cell inclusion, laticifer, lateral wall pith, perforation, xylem bundle and xylem elements. Ultra-violet and ordinary light analyses with different reagents were conducted to identify the drug in powder form. Physico-chemical evaluation established, Ash values - Total, acid insoluble, water soluble and sulphated ash values were 7.3%, 4.1%, 3.7% and 5.2%, respectively. Extractive values - Alcohol soluble, water soluble and ether soluble extractive values were 22.8%, 7.4% and 5.6%, respectively. Loss on drying was 3.3%. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponins, flavonoid, phytosterols, tannins and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable resource of pharmacognostic and phytochemical information. This will serve as appropriate, standards for discovery of this plant material in future investigations and applications and also contribute towards establishing pharmacopoeial standards.

  12. Ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix attenuates nociceptive pain probably via inhibition of voltage-dependent Na⁺ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Yuan, Lin; Li, Jun; Huang, Xian-Ju; Chen, Su; Zou, Da-Jiang; Liu, Xiangming; Yang, Xin-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Aconiti Brachypodi Radix, belonging to the genus of Aconitum (Family Ranunculaceae), are used clinically as anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive in traditional medicine of China. However, its mechanism and influence on nociceptive threshold are unknown and need further investigation. The analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix (EABR) were thus studied in vivo and in vitro. Three pain models in mice were used to assess the effect of EABR on nociceptive threshold. In vitro study was conducted to clarify the modulation of the extract on the tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents in rat's dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that EABR (5-20 mg/kg, i.g.) could produce dose-dependent analgesic effect on hot-plate tests as well as writhing response induced by acetic acid. In addition, administration of 2.5-10 mg/kg EABR (i.g.) caused significant decrease in pain responses in the first and second phases of formalin test without altering the PGE₂ production in the hind paw of the mice. Moreover, EABR (10 µg/ml -1 mg/ml) could suppress TTX-S voltage-gated sodium currents in a dose-dependent way, indicating the underlying electrophysiological mechanism of the analgesic effect of the folk plant medicine. Collectively, our results indicated that EABR has analgesic property in three pain models and useful influence on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurons, suggesting that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of EABR on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurones may explain some of its analgesic effect.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

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    Hera Chaudhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ, thymohydroquinone (THQ, and thymol (THY. Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2 elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35±0.8, 2.4±0.2, and 2.46±0.5, resp.. Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  14. New reports of nuclear DNA content for 407 vascular plant taxa from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chengke; Alverson, William S; Follansbee, Aaron; Waller, Donald M

    2012-12-01

    The amount of DNA in an unreplicated haploid nuclear genome (C-value) ranges over several orders of magnitude among plant species and represents a key metric for comparing plant genomes. To extend previously published datasets on plant nuclear content and to characterize the DNA content of many species present in one region of North America, flow cytometry was used to estimate C-values of woody and herbaceous species collected in Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. A total of 674 samples and vouchers were collected from locations across Wisconsin and Michigan, USA. From these, C-value estimates were obtained for 514 species, subspecies and varieties of vascular plants. Nuclei were extracted from samples of these species in one of two buffers, stained with the fluorochrome propidium iodide, and an Accuri C-6 flow cytometer was used to measure fluorescence peaks relative to those of an internal standard. Replicate extractions, coefficients of variation and comparisons to published C-values in the same and related species were used to confirm the accuracy and reliability of our results. Prime C-values for 407 taxa are provided for which no published data exist, including 390 angiosperms, two gymnosperms, ten monilophytes and five lycophytes. Non-prime reports for 107 additional taxa are also provided. The prime values represent new reports for 129 genera and five families (of 303 genera and 97 families sampled). New family C-value maxima or minima are reported for Betulaceae, Ericaceae, Ranunculaceae and Sapindaceae. These data provide the basis for phylogenetic analyses of C-value variation and future analyses of how C-values covary with other functional traits.

  15. Investigation of the effective components of the flowers of Trollius chinensis from the perspectives of intestinal bacterial transformation and intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Qiao, Shanshan; Hu, Junhong; Li, Deli; Zheng, Shiqi; Shi, Duozhi; Liu, Junxiu; Wang, Rufeng

    2017-12-01

    The flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge (Ranunculaceae), used for respiratory tract infections, mainly contain flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids; however, the effective components are debatable because of their unclear in vivo activities. This study investigates the effective components from the perspectives of biotransformation and absorption. Both single person derived- and multiple people-derived intestinal florae were used to investigate the biotransformation of aqueous extract of the flowers of T. chinensis (AEOF) at the concentrations of 15.0, 30.0, and 60.0 mg/mL, respectively, for 72 h. Both human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) monolayers and everted gut sacs were employed to evaluate the intestinal absorption of the intestinal bacterial transformed AEOF at the concentrations of 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL, respectively, for 180 min. 2″-O-β-l-Galactopyranosylorientin, orientin, vitexin, quercetin, veratric acid, proglobeflowery acid, and trolline in AEOF were not transformed by intestinal bacteria, while isoquercetin and trollioside were completely transformed. The Papp values of 2″-O-β-l-galactopyranosylorientin, orientin, and vitexin calculated based on the experimental data of intestinal absorption were at the levels of 10-5, whereas those of veratric acid, proglobeflowery acid, and trolline were at 10-4. The mass ratio of flavonoids to phenolic acids to alkaloids changed from 16:10:7 to 9:12:8 before and after absorption. The dominant position of flavonoids was replaced by phenolic acids after absorption. In addition to flavonoids which are usually considered as the dominant effective ones, phenolic acids and alkaloids should be also very important for the efficacy of these flowers.

  16. Review on the Potential Therapeutic Roles of Nigella sativa in the Treatment of Patients with Cancer: Involvement of Apoptosis

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    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa, family Ranunculaceae is a medicinal plant that has been widely used for centuries throughout the world as a natural remedy. A wide range of chemical compounds found in N. sativa expresses its vast therapeutic effects. Thymoquinone (TQ is the main component (up to 50% in the essential oil of N. sativa. Also, pinene (up to 15%, p-cymene (40%, thymohydroquinone (THQ, thymol (THY, and dithymoquinone (DTQ are other pharmacologically active compounds of its oil. Other terpenoid compounds, such as carvacrol, carvone, 4-terpineol, limonenes, and citronellol, are also found in small quantities in its oil. The main pharmacological characteristics of this plant are immune system stimulatory, anti- inflammatory, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, anti- tussive, milk production, uricosuric, choleretic, anti-fertility, and spasmolytic properties. In this regard, we have searched the scientific databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar with keywords of N. sativa, anti-cancer, apoptotic effect, antitumor, antioxidant, and malignancy over the period from 2000 to 2017. The effectiveness of N. sativa against cancer in the blood system, kidneys, lungs, prostate, liver, and breast and on many malignant cell lines has been shown in many studies, but the molecular mechanisms behind that anti-cancer role are still not clearly understood. From among the many effects of N. sativa, including its anti-proliferative effect, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, ROS generation, anti-metastasis/anti-angiogenesis effects, Akt pathway control, modulation of multiple molecular targets, including p53, p73, STAT-3, PTEN, and PPAR-γ, and activation of caspases, the main suggestive anti-cancer mechanisms of N. sativa are its free radical scavenger activity and the preservation of various anti-oxidant enzyme activities, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione-S- transferase. In this review

  17. A review on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guohong; Tang, Liying; Zhou, Xidan; Wang, Ting; Kou, Zhenzhen; Wang, Zhuju

    2015-02-03

    The processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux (Ranunculaceae), an extensively used traditional Chinese medicine, is known as Fuzi in China (Chinese: ), "bushi" in Japan, "Kyeong-Po Buja" in Korea, Chinese aconite, monkshood or Chinese wolfsbane. It has been used to treat shock resulting from acute myocardial infarction, low blood pressure, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, etc. The present paper aims to provide an up-to-date review at the advancements of the investigations on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacological effect and toxicity of Fuzi. Besides, the possible tendency and perspective for future research of this plant are discussed, as well. All available information on Fuzi was collected via electronic search (using Elsevier, PubMed, ACS, CNKI, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science), books and classic works about Chinese herb. 122 chemical constituents, among which C19-diterpenoid alkaloids and C20-diterpenoid alkaloids are the predominant groups, have been isolated and identified from Fuzi. Fuzi with its active compounds is possessed of wide-reaching biological activities, including effects on cardiovascular system, anti-inflammation and analgesic action, anti-tumor activity, effect on the immune system, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects, anti-aging effect, effect of protecting kidney and effect on energy metabolism. Nearly all of compounds were found from the roots of the plant, so further phytochemical studies should focus more on the other parts of the plant, such as the leaves, flowers or stems. Besides, a majority of the pharmacological studies were carried out using crude and poorly characterized extracts. Thus, more bioactive components particularly cardiotonic and analgesic compounds should be identified through bioactivity-guided isolation strategies. Moreover, investigations on how to develop Fuzi׳s new clinical usage on the basis of its pharmacological effects are in requirement

  18. A subchronic toxicity study of ethanol root extract of baked Aconitum flavum in rats

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    Yuanbin Zhang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genus Aconitum has strong toxicity, but the acute toxicity of baked Aconitum flavum Hand.-Mazz., Ranunculaceae, was reduced significantly on the premise of keeping anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. However, the risk associated with long-term use is unknown. In a sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were orally administered A. flavum at doses of 0.76–3.03 g/kg for 90 days and further recovered for 14 days. Our results showed that oral treatment with A. flavum for 90 days caused significant changes in some hematological indicators at doses of 3.03 and 1.52 g/kg, such as red blood cell, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These results indicated that the A. flavum affects the structure and function of red blood cell. Furthermore, significant changes were observed in the white blood cell at dose of 3.03 g/kg in male rats, which confirmed tissue damage or toxicity. The liver function tests exhibited non-significant alterations in aspertate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and avenin-like storage proteinsgene. But other parameters, such as total protein and albumin were obviously decreased at all doses. A. flavum also caused a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triacylglyceride at all doses. For kidney function, there were significant elevations in urea and creatinine at doses of 3.03 and 1.52 g/kg. The levels of certain electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- were significantly different after 90 days of treatment with A. flavum (3.03 and 1.52 g/kg. Organs were observed by light microscopy after hematoxylin-eosin staining. Hemosiderin depositions in the spleen were observed in the A. flavum group. These data demonstrated that the subtoxicity of A. flavum was reduced considerably by baked, but the subchronic toxicity effects on the liver, kidney and spleen should not be ignored.

  19. DNA barcoding the Canadian Arctic flora: core plastid barcodes (rbcL + matK) for 490 vascular plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M; Sokoloff, Paul C; Gillespie, Lynn J; Consaul, Laurie L; Bull, Roger D

    2013-01-01

    Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, atpF-atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF-atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species.

  20. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Muhammad; Altaf, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Present paper offers considerable information on traditional uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study from the area comprising popularity level of medicinal plant species intendedby using relative popularity level (RPL) and rank order priority (ROP) indices.Ethnobotanical data were collected by interviewing 166 local informants and 35 traditional health practioners (THPs) from different localities of Hafizabad district. Demographic features of informants; life form, part used, methods of preparation, modes of application and ethnomedicinal uses were documented. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using quantitative tools, i.e. Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) fidelity level (FL), RPL and ROP indices. A total of 85 species belonging to 71 genera and 34 families were documented along with ethnomedicinal uses. Solanum surattense, Withania somnifera, Cyperus rotundus, Solanum nigrum and Melia azedarach were the most utilized medicinal plant species with highest used value. The reported ailments were classified into 11 disease categories based on ICF values and highest number of plant species was reported to treat dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders. Withania somnifera and Ranunculus sceleratus with maximum FL (100%), were used against gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, respectively. The RPL and ROP values were calculated to recognize the folk medicinal plant wealth; six out of 32 plant species (19%) were found popular, based on citation by more than half of the maximum number of informant viz. 26. Consequently, the ROP value for these species was more than 75. The comparative assessment with reported literature revealed 15% resemblance and 6% variation to previous data;however79% uses of the reported species were recorded for the first time. The diversity of medicinal plant species and associated traditional

  1. Phylogenomic and structural analyses of 18 complete plastomes across nearly all families of early-diverging eudicots, including an angiosperm-wide analysis of IR gene content evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanxia; Moore, Michael J; Zhang, Shoujun; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Zhao, Tingting; Meng, Aiping; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Jianqiang; Wang, Hengchang

    2016-03-01

    The grade of early-diverging eudicots includes five major lineages: Ranunculales, Trochodendrales, Buxales, Proteales and Sabiaceae. To examine the evolution of plastome structure in early-diverging eudicots, we determined the complete plastome sequences of eight previously unsequenced early-diverging eudicot taxa, Pachysandra terminalis (Buxaceae), Meliosma aff. cuneifolia (Sabiaceae), Sabia yunnanensis (Sabiaceae), Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae), Euptelea pleiosperma (Eupteleaceae), Akebia trifoliata (Lardizabalaceae), Stephania japonica (Menispermaceae) and Papaver somniferum (Papaveraceae), and compared them to previously published plastomes of the early-diverging eudicots Buxus, Tetracentron, Trochodendron, Nelumbo, Platanus, Nandina, Megaleranthis, Ranunculus, Mahonia and Macadamia. All of the newly sequenced plastomes share the same 79 protein-coding genes, 4 rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes, except for that of Epimedium, in which infA is pseudogenized and clpP is highly divergent and possibly a pseudogene. The boundaries of the plastid Inverted Repeat (IR) were found to vary significantly across early-diverging eudicots; IRs ranged from 24.3 to 36.4kb in length and contained from 18 to 33 genes. Based on gene content, the IR was classified into six types, with shifts among types characterized by high levels of homoplasy. Reconstruction of ancestral IR gene content suggested that 18 genes were likely present in the IR region of the ancestor of eudicots. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of a 79-gene, 97-taxon data set that included all available early-diverging eudicots and representative sampling of remaining angiosperm diversity largely agreed with previous estimates of early-diverging eudicot relationships, but resolved Trochodendrales rather than Buxales as sister to Gunneridae, albeit with relatively weak bootstrap support, conflicting with what has been found for these three clades in most previous analyses. In addition, Proteales was

  2. Effect of temperature on the progamic phase in high-mountain plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, G; Wagner, J

    2012-03-01

    Progamic processes are particularly temperature-sensitive and, in lowland plants, are usually drastically reduced below 10 °C and above 30 °C. Little is known about how effectively sexual processes of mountain plants function under the large temperature fluctuations at higher altitudes. The present study examines duration and thermal thresholds for progamic processes in six common plant species (Cerastium uniflorum, Gentianella germanica, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, Saxifraga bryoides, S. caesia) from different altitudinal zones in the European Alps. Whole plants were collected from natural sites shortly before anthesis and kept in a climate chamber until further processing. Flowers with receptive stigmas were hand-pollinated with allopollen and exposed to controlled temperatures between -2 and 40 °C. Pollen performance (adhesion to the stigma, germination, tube growth, fertilisation) was quantitatively analysed, using the aniline blue fluorescence method. Pollen adhesion was possible from -2 to 40 °C. Pollen germination and tube growth occurred from around 0 to 35 °C in most species. Fertilisation was observed from 5 to 30-32 °C (0-35 °C in G. germanica). The progamic phase was shortest in G. germanica (2 h at 30 °C, 12 h at 5 °C, 24 h at 0 °C), followed by R. glacialis (first fertilisation after 2 h at 30 °C, 18 h at 5 °C). In the remaining species, first fertilisation usually occurred after 4-6 h at 30 °C and after 24-30 h at 5 °C. Thus, mountain plants show remarkably flexible pollen performance over a wide temperature range and a short progamic phase, which may be essential for successful reproduction in the stochastic high-mountain climate. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Apomixis is not prevalent in subnival to nival plants of the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Dobeš, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Temsch, Eva M; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula

    2011-08-01

    High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We hypothesize that shifts to apomixis are rather connected

  4. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini: the first ground beetle from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C. Ashworth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct A. balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with A. balli included Nothofagus (southern beech, Ranunculus (buttercup, moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that A. balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14–20 Ma. The tundra biome, including A. balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10–13 Ma. A. balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For A. balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma and southern South America (31 Ma.

  5. Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast GenomePhylogenies: Sampling One's Way Out of the Felsenstein Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-05-27

    While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in

  6. Biophysical interactions in fluvial ecosystems: effects of submerged aquatic macrophytes on hydro-morphological processes and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Loreta; Davies, Grieg; Grabowski, Robert; van der Wal, Daphne; van de Koppel, Johan; Wharton, Geraldene; Bouma, Tjeerd

    2016-04-01

    Strong mutual interactions occur at the interface between biota and physical processes in biogeomorphic ecosystems, possibly resulting in self-organized spatial patterns. While these interactions and feedbacks have been increasingly studied in a wide range of landscapes previously, they are still poorly understood in lower energy fluvial systems. Consequently, their impact on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems is largely unknown. In this study we investigate the role of aquatic macrophytes as biological engineers of flow and sediment in lowland streams dominated by water crowfoot (Ranunculus spp.). Using field measurements from two annual growth cycles, we demonstrate that seasonally-changing macrophyte cover maintains relative constant flow rates, both within and between vegetation, despite temporal changes in channel flow discharge. By means of a mathematical model representing the interaction between hydrodynamics and vegetation dynamics, we reveal that scale-dependent feedbacks between plant growth and flow redistribution explain the influence of macrophytes on stabilizing flow rates. Our analysis reveals important implications for ecosystem functions. The creation of fast-flowing channels allows an adequate conveyance of water throughout the annual cycle; yet, patches also have a significant influence on sediment dynamics leading to heterogeneous habitats, thereby facilitating other species. As a last step we investigate the consequences on stream ecosystem functioning, by exploring the relationship between changes in macrophyte cover and the provision of different ecosystem functions (e.g. water conveyance, sediment trapping). Our results highlight that self-organization promotes the combination of multiple ecosystem functions through its effects on hydrological and morphological processes within biogeomorphic ecosystems.

  7. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini): the first ground beetle from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Allan C; Erwin, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct Antarctotrechus balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with Antarctotrechus balli included Nothofagus (southern beech), Ranunculus (buttercup), moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that Antarctotrechus balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14-20 Ma. The tundra biome, including Antarctotrechus balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10-13 Ma. Antarctotrechus balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For Antarctotrechus balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma) and

  8. Plant population differentiation and climate change: responses of grassland species along an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Matter, Philippe; Heggli, Martin; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-02-01

    Mountain ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate change. Characterizing intraspecific variation of alpine plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their vulnerability to predicted changes. Environmental conditions vary with elevation, which might influence plastic responses and affect selection pressures that lead to local adaptation. Thus, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity among low and high elevation plant populations in response to climate, soil and other factors associated with elevational gradients might underlie different responses of these populations to climate warming. Using a transplant experiment along an elevational gradient, we investigated reproductive phenology, growth and reproduction of the nutrient-poor grassland species Ranunculus bulbosus, Trifolium montanum and Briza media. Seeds were collected from low and high elevation source populations across the Swiss Alps and grown in nine common gardens at three different elevations with two different soil depths. Despite genetic differentiation in some traits, the results revealed no indication of local adaptation to the elevation of population origin. Reproductive phenology was advanced at lower elevation in low and high elevation populations of all three species. Growth and reproduction of T. montanum and B. media were hardly affected by garden elevation and soil depth. In R. bulbosus, however, growth decreased and reproductive investment increased at higher elevation. Furthermore, soil depth influenced growth and reproduction of low elevation R. bulbosus populations. We found no evidence for local adaptation to elevation of origin and hardly any differences in the responses of low and high elevation populations. However, the consistent advanced reproductive phenology observed in all three species shows that they have the potential to plastically respond to environmental variation. We conclude that populations might not be forced to migrate to higher elevations

  9. First Record of the European Rusted Flea Beetle, Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763, in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini

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    Laurent LeSage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.

  10. Design and construction of a new temperature-controlled chamber for light and confocal microscopy under monitored conditions: biological application for plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, O; Lütz, C; Holzinger, A

    2007-02-01

    A new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber (LM-TCC) has been constructed. The special feature of the light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber is the Peltier-element temperature control of a specimen holder for biological samples, with a volume capacity of 1 mL. This system has marked advantages when compared to other approaches for temperature-controlled microscopy. It works in a temperature range of -10 degrees C to +95 degrees C with an accuracy of +/-0.1 degrees C in the stationary phase. The light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber allows rapid temperature shift rates. A maximum heating rate of 12.9 degrees C min(-1) and a maximum cooling rate of 6.0 degrees C min(-1) are achieved with minimized overshoots (Ficaria verna exposed to 4500 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) in a standard microscopic preparation show a temperature increase (deltaT) of 18.0 degrees C, whereas in the light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber this is reduced to 4 degrees C. The kinetics of microscope-light induced deltaT are described and infrared thermography demonstrates the dissipation of the temperature. Chloroplasts of the cold adapted plant Ranunculus glacialis show the tendency to form stroma-filled protrusions in relation to the exposure temperature. The relative number of chloroplasts with protrusions is reduced at 5 degrees C when compared to 25 degrees C. This effect is reversible. The new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber will be useful in a wide range of biological applications where a rapid change of temperature during microscopic observations is necessary or has to be avoided allowing a simulation of ecologically relevant temperature scenarios.

  11. A matter of scale: apparent niche differentiation of diploid and tetraploid plants may depend on extent and grain of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchheimer, Bernhard; Schinkel, Christoph C F; Dellinger, Agnes S; Klatt, Simone; Moser, Dietmar; Winkler, Manuela; Lenoir, Jonathan; Caccianiga, Marco; Guisan, Antoine; Nieto-Lugilde, Diego; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Thuiller, Wilfried; Vittoz, Pascal; Willner, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Hörandl, Elvira; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-03-22

    Emerging polyploids may depend on environmental niche shifts for successful establishment. Using the alpine plant Ranunculus kuepferi as a model system, we explore the niche shift hypothesis at different spatial resolutions and in contrasting parts of the species range. European Alps. We sampled 12 individuals from each of 102 populations of R. kuepferi across the Alps, determined their ploidy levels, derived coarse-grain (100 × 100 m) environmental descriptors for all sampling sites by downscaling WorldClim maps, and calculated fine-scale environmental descriptors (2 × 2 m) from indicator values of the vegetation accompanying the sampled individuals. Both coarse and fine-scale variables were further computed for 8239 vegetation plots from across the Alps. Subsequently, we compared niche optima and breadths of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes by combining principal components analysis and kernel smoothing procedures. Comparisons were done separately for coarse and fine-grain data sets and for sympatric, allopatric and the total set of populations. All comparisons indicate that the niches of the two cytotypes differ in optima and/or breadths, but results vary in important details. The whole-range analysis suggests differentiation along the temperature gradient to be most important. However, sympatric comparisons indicate that this climatic shift was not a direct response to competition with diploid ancestors. Moreover, fine-grained analyses demonstrate niche contraction of tetraploids, especially in the sympatric range, that goes undetected with coarse-grained data. Although the niche optima of the two cytotypes differ, separation along ecological gradients was probably less decisive for polyploid establishment than a shift towards facultative apomixis, a particularly effective strategy to avoid minority cytotype exclusion. In addition, our results suggest that coarse-grained analyses overestimate niche breadths of widely distributed taxa. Niche comparison

  12. Impact of Soil Warming on the Plant Metabolome of Icelandic Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Ayala-Roque, Marta; Granda, Victor; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is stronger at high than at temperate and tropical latitudes. The natural geothermal conditions in southern Iceland provide an opportunity to study the impact of warming on plants, because of the geothermal bedrock channels that induce stable gradients of soil temperature. We studied two valleys, one where such gradients have been present for centuries (long-term treatment), and another where new gradients were created in 2008 after a shallow crustal earthquake (short-term treatment). We studied the impact of soil warming (0 to +15 °C) on the foliar metabolomes of two common plant species of high northern latitudes: Agrostis capillaris, a monocotyledon grass; and Ranunculus acris, a dicotyledonous herb, and evaluated the dependence of shifts in their metabolomes on the length of the warming treatment. The two species responded differently to warming, depending on the length of exposure. The grass metabolome clearly shifted at the site of long-term warming, but the herb metabolome did not. The main up-regulated compounds at the highest temperatures at the long-term site were saccharides and amino acids, both involved in heat-shock metabolic pathways. Moreover, some secondary metabolites, such as phenolic acids and terpenes, associated with a wide array of stresses, were also up-regulated. Most current climatic models predict an increase in annual average temperature between 2–8 °C over land masses in the Arctic towards the end of this century. The metabolomes of A. capillaris and R. acris shifted abruptly and nonlinearly to soil warming >5 °C above the control temperature for the coming decades. These results thus suggest that a slight warming increase may not imply substantial changes in plant function, but if the temperature rises more than 5 °C, warming may end up triggering metabolic pathways associated with heat stress in some plant species currently dominant in this region. PMID:28832555

  13. Comunidades vegetales de las transiciones terrestre-acuáticas del páramo de Chingaza, Colombia

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    Udo Schmidt-Mumm

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación acuática y semiacuática de los páramos andinos ha sido estudiada generalmente bajo un enfoque fitosociológico tradicional, el cual se basa en muestreos de áreas homogéneas y excluye los fenómenos de borde o transicionales. En el presente estudio se analizó la vegetación acuática y semiacuática del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza a lo largo de diferentes gradientes hídricos. Asimismo se registran un total de 89 especies en 30 transectos; mediante clasificación numérica y el análisis de especies indicadoras se caracterizan las siguientes 18 comunidades: 1 Calamagrostis effusa, 2 Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3 Cyperus rufus, 4 Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5 Carex acutata, 6 Poa annua, 7 Valeriana sp., 8 Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9 Carex bonplandii, 10 Festuca andicola, 11 Muhlenbergia fastigiata, 12 Elatine paramoana, 13 Isoëtes palmeri, 14 Crassula venezuelensis, 15 Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16 Callitriche nubigena, 17 Potamogeton paramoanus y 18 Potamogeton illinoensis. La ordenación de las comunidades indica la presencia de tres gradientes terrestre-acuáticos diferentes, los cuales se relacionan con las formas de vida de las especies que caracterizan las comunidades. Además se considera que gran parte de la heterogeneidad presentada por la vegetación es el resultado de las alteraciones ambientales generadas por diversas actividades humanas (quemas, ganadería, extracción de material para la construcción de carreteras y la represa.

  14. Stratigraphic relationships and paleoecology of a late-glacial peat bed from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathewes, R.F. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada); Clague, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    The stratigraphic relationships of late-glacial and Holocene sediments exposed in sea cliffs at Cape Ball on the Queen Charlotte Islands are summarized, based on section descriptions and 13 radiocarbon dates on wood, peat, and marine pelecypod shells. Four local pollen zones are described from the 70 cm thick peat, beginning with a 7 cm thick herb-dominated zone (CB-1), characterized by up to 60% grass pollen, and including a unique assemblage with abundant Apiaceae, Cyperaceae, Empetrum/Ericaceae, Polemonium, Plantago macrocarpa, Fritillaria, and Ranunculus. A high diversity of other herbs, including subalpine/alpine species and two taxa presently absent from the Charlottes (Armeria maritima and Polemonium caeruleum type), suggests that this zone represents an open floodplain vegetation with no modern analogue. Zone CB-2 (63-45 cm) is dominated by Pinus contorta type pollen (65-70%) and moderate values for fern spores. Zone CB-3 (45-30 cm) shows a rapid rise of Picea pollen from 3 to 39%, followed by a drop to about 12%. Fern spores (20-50%) and Alnus (6%) also reach maximum levels in this zone. Abundant wood fragments and sand inclusions are compatible with an interpretation of a swampy floodplain forest during this interval. The uppermost zone (30-0 cm) exhibits high Pinus contorta (40-60%) and Cyperaceae (12-385) values, along with a moderate abundance of grasses, ferns, and Apiaceae. Estuarine and marine sediments with pelecypod shells, deposited during a marine transgression, overlie the peat bed. Implications of the controversy over the existence of late Pleistocene refugia in the Charlottes are briefly discussed. (JMT)

  15. Pollen limitation is not the rule in nival plants: A study from the European Central Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Johanna; Lechleitner, Martin; Hosp, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Seed output of high-mountain plants in the uppermost life zones is highly variable. One possible reason might be pollen limitation due to inadequate pollinator services. We tested this hypothesis for the insect-pollinated species Cerastium uniflorum, Ranunculus glacialis, and Saxifraga bryoides, which have their distribution center in the subnival and nival zone of the European Central Alps. We recorded insect visitors and determined their impact as pollinators. By analyzing pollination success and seed set following natural and saturating hand pollination, the magnitude of quantitative and qualitative pollen limitation was assessed. Anthomyiid and muscid flies had the highest pollination impact for R. glacialis and S. bryoides and syrphids for C. uniflorum. Natural stigma pollen load was highly variable in individual flowers of all species, but in most cases the number of conspecific pollen grains clearly exceeded the number of ovules to be fertilized. There was also a surplus in germinated pollen grains, whereas the pollen tube to ovule ratio was only sufficient in R. glacialis (2.6 on average) and S. bryoides (1.3), but not in C. uniflorum (0.6). Accordingly, seed to ovule ratio was around 0.8 in R. glacialis, 0.7 in S. bryoides but 0.4 in C. uniflorum. In C. uniflorum, saturating pollination slightly increased seed set. Regression analyses revealed that natural pollination success was more frequently limited by quality than by quantity. Our results do not support the idea of chronic, widespread pollen limitation in the subnival but rather fit into the concept of parental optimism by overinvesting in the number of ovules as an adaptation to variable resource availability. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Lead, zinc, and cadmium uptake, accumulation, and phytoremediation by plants growing around Tang-e Douzan lead-zinc mine, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesami, Reza; Salimi, Azam; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid

    2018-01-10

    In the current study, soils of Tang-e Douzan mine, located in Isfahan, Iran, were collected and analyzed for soluble, exchangeable, and total amounts of Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg. The maximum Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg concentrations in soils were 2500, 1100, 59, 43,800, and 1320 mg/kg for total metals, 86, 83, 6.3, 4650, and 48 mg/kg for their exchangeable fractions, and 59, 3.7, 0.53, 430, and 6.4 mg/kg for their soluble fractions, respectively. All specimens collected, including 69 plant species, were analyzed for Pb, Zn, and Cd. Moreover, their phytoremediation potential was investigated by calculating bioconcentration factors (BCF), translocation factors (TF), and extraction factors (EF) for each heavy metal. Analysis of the leaves for heavy metals showed no metal hyperaccumulation. The highest shoot concentrations of Pb (298 mg/kg) and Zn (740 mg/kg) were found in Roemeria hybrida subsp. dodecandra and Cd (43 mg/kg) in Chenopodium foliosum. Plants having BCFs and TFs > 1 are capable of phytoextraction. Among the analyzed species, four had both TFs and BCFs > 1 for Zn, 13 for Cd, and none for Pb. R. hybrida, Bromus squarrosus, Descurainia sophia, and Poa bulbosa seem to be the best choices for phytoextraction of Zn. Aegilops columnaris, Allium ampeloprasum subsp. iranicum, B. squarrosus, and Cousinia piptocephala are the best choices for phytoextraction of Cd. Plants with BCF > 1 and TF < 1, including Cerastium dichotomum and Muscari neglectum for Pb, Ceratocephala falcata, M. neglectum, Ornithogalum orthophyllum, and Ranunculus arvensis for Zn and C. falcata, M. neglectum, O. orthophyllum, and R. hybrida subsp. dodecandra for Cd, are proposed to be the most efficient species for metal phytostabilization.

  17. The Neogene Environment of the Beardmore Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Cantrill, D. J.; Francis, J. E.; Roof, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Discontinuous sequences of Neogene marine and non-marine glacigenic sequences, including the Meyer Desert Formation (MDF), occur throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. The upper 85m of the MDF, consisting of interbedded diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones, outcrops in the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at 85° 07'S, 166° 35'E. The location is about 170 km south of the confluence of the Beardmore Glacier with the Ross Ice Shelf and about 500 km north of the South Pole The glacial, fluvioglacial and glaciolacustrine facies of the MDF represent a dynamic glacial margin which advanced and retreated on at least four occasions. On at least one occasion, the retreat was sufficiently long for plants and animals to colonize the head of a major fjord which existed in the place of the existing Beardmore Glacier. From the fossils we have identified at least 18 species of plants, 3 species of insects, 2 species of freshwater mollusks, and a species of fish. The plant fossils consist of pollen, seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, and in situ plants. The plants include a cryptogamic flora of mosses and liverworts, conifers, and angiosperms in the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Nothofagaceae, Ranunculaceae, Hippuridaceae, ?Caryophyllaceae, and ?Chenopodiaceae or ?Myrtaceae. The plants grew in a weakly developed soil developed on a complex periglacial environment that included moraines, glacial outwash streams, well-drained gravel ridges, and poorly drained depressions in which peat and marl were being deposited. The fossil assemblage represents a mosaic tundra environment of well- and poorly-drained micro-sites, in which nutrient availability would have been patchily distributed. Antarctica has been essentially in a polar position since the Early Cretaceous and at 85° S receives no sunlight from the middle of March until the end of September. Today, the annual radiation received is about 42% that of Tierra del Fuego at 55° S. During the Neogene

  18. Anhuienoside C Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis through Inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt (Ranunculaceae (Di Wu in Chinese is used to treat punch injuries and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Our previous report has shown that crude triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida exhibited anti-arthritic effects on type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Furthermore, anhuienoside C (AC, a saponin compound isolated from A. flaccida, was observed to suppress the nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we examined the effects of AC on the prevention and treatment of collagen-induced arthritis in a mouse model and evaluated the potential mechanisms involved. We observed that oral administration of AC significantly suppressed the paw swelling and arthritic score, decreased the body weight loss, and decreased the spleen index. Improvement in the disease severity was accompanied by the reduction of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68-positive cells in the ankle joint and inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in the synovium of the joint. Mechanistic studies indicated that AC exerted its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the mRNA expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, and IL-6 and by suppressing the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. AC also blocked the LPS-induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Additionally, the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB was significantly suppressed by AC treatment, as indicated by down-regulation of TLR4 and inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and by activation and degradation of the inhibitor of kappa B. These findings indicated that AC has a great potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for human RA.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extract on cell death in hippocampal neurons following experimental global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbenaghi, R; Javanbakht, J; Sadeghzadeh, Sh; Kheradmand, D; Abdi, F S; Jaberi, M H; Mohammadiyan, M R; Khadivar, F; Mollaei, Y

    2014-02-15

    Global cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion, leads to extensive neuronal damage, particularly the neurons in the hippocampal CA region. Recent studies have demonstrated that pharmacological agents, such as Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) that is an annual herbaceous flowering plant, given at the time of reperfusion afforded protection against ischemia, which is referred to as pharmacological post conditioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa in the hippocampus neurons of rats exposed to global ischemia/reperfusion. In the present study 30 Wister rats (200-250 g) were divided into 5 groups namely sham (operated without treatment), control (operation with normal saline treatment), and 3 treatment groups with Nigella sativa 1mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 50mg/kg. Firstly, the animals were anesthetized by ketamin and xylazine, and then the right carotid artery was operated upon dissection of the soft tissues around it and ligation by a clamp for 20 min. The Nigella sativa extraction was used during surgery through IP route and after 72 h the animals were euthanized and their brain removed, fixed and prepared for histopathological examinations. In treatment group (1mg/kg) the interstitial neuron frequency which contains cytoplasmic edema, along with CA, was 28 cells, whereas the edematous astrocyte number along with CA in this group was 115 cells. In the treatment group (10mg/kg) the interstitial neurons of cornua ammonis (CA) were 15 and the edematous astrocytes were 122 cells and in the treatment group (50mg/kg) the number of edematous interstitial neurons was 7 cells in distance of 2900 μ of CA. In such group the number of edematous interstitial neurons was less as well. In this group the appearance of CA cells was more similar to control group, not only the edema decreased in interstitial and astrocyte cells, but it dramatically decreased in pyramidal cells. Our study revealed that the Nigella sativa extraction could

  20. Assessing the potential of RAD-sequencing to resolve phylogenetic relationships within species radiations: The fly genus Chiastocheta (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchan, Tomasz; Espíndola, Anahí; Rutschmann, Sereina; Emerson, Brent C; Gori, Kevin; Dessimoz, Christophe; Arrigo, Nils; Ronikier, Michał; Alvarez, Nadir

    2017-09-01

    Determining phylogenetic relationships among recently diverged species has long been a challenge in evolutionary biology. Cytoplasmic DNA markers, which have been widely used, notably in the context of molecular barcoding, have not always proved successful in resolving such phylogenies. However, with the advent of next-generation-sequencing technologies and associated techniques of reduced genome representation, phylogenies of closely related species have been resolved at a much higher detail in the last couple of years. Here we examine the potential and limitations of one of such techniques-Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, a method that produces thousands of (mostly) anonymous nuclear markers, in disentangling the phylogeny of the fly genus Chiastocheta (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). In Europe, this genus encompasses seven species of seed predators, which have been widely studied in the context of their ecological and evolutionary interactions with the plant Trollius europaeus (Ranunculaceae). So far, phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial markers failed to resolve monophyly of most of the species from this recently diversified genus, suggesting that their taxonomy may need a revision. However, relying on a single, non-recombining marker and ignoring potential incongruences between mitochondrial and nuclear loci may provide an incomplete account of the lineage history. In this study, we applied both classical Sanger sequencing of three mtDNA regions and RAD-sequencing, for reconstructing the phylogeny of the genus. Contrasting with results based on mitochondrial markers, RAD-sequencing analyses retrieved the monophyly of all seven species, in agreement with the morphological species assignment. We found robust nuclear-based species assignment of individual samples, and low levels of estimated contemporary gene flow among them. However, despite recovering species' monophyly, interspecific relationships varied depending on the set of RAD loci

  1. Assessment of Cellular Responses to Oxidative Stress using MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Black Seed (N. Sativa L. Extracts and H2O2

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    Ibrahim O. Farah

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Black seed (N. Sativa L is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There have been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as a chemoprevention of chronic diseases as well as in cancer prevention and/or therapy. Oxidative stress is a condition that underlies many acute as well as chronic conditions. The combination and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in vivo is still a matter of conjecture. Our objective for the present study was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro (as a chronic disease example to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H2O2 as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and mixtures was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluorospectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluencey, exposure to water (WE and ethanol (AE extracts of N. sativa and H2O2 was performed. Cell survival indices were calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its mixtures were able to influence the survival of MCF-7 cells (indices ranged from 357.15- 809.50 Bg/ml in descending potency for H2O2+AE to the mix of 3. In contrast, H2O2 alone reduced effectively the survival of MCF-7 cells and the least effective combinations in descending potency were AE+H2O2, WE+H2O2, AE+WE, and WE+AE+H2O2. Mixtures other than AE+H2O2 showed possible interactions and loss of potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress was found to be effective (in vitro in influencing the survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling promising opportunities in the field of cancer

  2. Plant colonization, succession and ecosystem development on Surtsey with reference to neighbouring islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, B.; Magnússon, S. H.; Ólafsson, E.; Sigurdsson, B. D.

    2014-10-01

    Plant colonization and succession on the volcanic island of Surtsey, formed in 1963, have been closely followed. In 2013, a total of 69 vascular plant species had been discovered on the island; of these, 59 were present and 39 had established viable populations. Surtsey had more than twice the species of any of the comparable neighbouring islands, and all of their common species had established on Surtsey. The first colonizers were dispersed by sea, but, after 1985, bird dispersal became the principal pathway with the formation of a seagull colony on the island and consequent site amelioration. This allowed wind-dispersed species to establish after 1990. Since 2007, there has been a net loss of species on the island. A study of plant succession, soil formation and invertebrate communities in permanent plots on Surtsey and on two older neighbouring islands (plants and soil) has revealed that seabirds, through their transfer of nutrients from sea to land, are major drivers of development of these ecosystems. In the area impacted by seagulls, dense grassland swards have developed and plant cover, species richness, diversity, plant biomass and soil carbon become significantly higher than in low-impact areas, which remained relatively barren. A similar difference was found for the invertebrate fauna. After 2000, the vegetation of the oldest part of the seagull colony became increasingly dominated by long-lived, rhizomatous grasses (Festuca, Poa, Leymus) with a decline in species richness and diversity. Old grasslands of the neighbouring islands Elliđaey (puffin colony, high nutrient input) and Heimaey (no seabirds, low nutrient input) contrasted sharply. The puffin grassland of Elliđaey was very dense and species-poor. It was dominated by Festuca and Poa, and very similar to the seagull grassland developing on Surtsey. The Heimaey grassland was significantly higher in species richness and diversity, and had a more even cover of dominants (Festuca/Agrostis/Ranunculus

  3. Rapid transfer of photosynthetic carbon through the plant-soil system in differently managed species-rich grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. De Deyn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-soil interactions are central to short-term carbon (C cycling through the rapid transfer of recently assimilated C from plant roots to soil biota. In grassland ecosystems, changes in C cycling are likely to be influenced by land use and management that changes vegetation and the associated soil microbial communities. Here we tested whether changes in grassland vegetation composition resulting from management for plant diversity influences short-term rates of C assimilation and transfer from plants to soil microbes. To do this, we used an in situ 13C-CO2 pulse-labelling approach to measure differential C uptake among different plant species and the transfer of the plant-derived 13C to key groups of soil microbiota across selected treatments of a long-term plant diversity grassland restoration experiment. Results showed that plant taxa differed markedly in the rate of 13C assimilation and concentration: uptake was greatest and 13C concentration declined fastest in Ranunculus repens, and assimilation was least and 13C signature remained longest in mosses. Incorporation of recent plant-derived 13C was maximal in all microbial phosopholipid fatty acid (PLFA markers at 24 h after labelling. The greatest incorporation of 13C was in the PLFA 16:1ω5, a marker for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, while after 1 week most 13C was retained in the PLFA18:2ω6,9 which is indicative of assimilation of plant-derived 13C by saprophytic fungi. Our results of 13C assimilation and transfer within plant species and soil microbes were consistent across management treatments. Overall, our findings suggest that plant diversity restoration management may not directly affect the C assimilation or retention of C by individual plant taxa or groups of soil microbes, it can impact on the fate of recent C by changing their relative abundances

  4. Use of 1-methylcyclopropene for the control of Botrytis cinerea on cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seglie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cut flowers are marketed for their ornamental characteristics making post-harvest flower life an important determinant of crop value. Botrytis cinerea is one of the most significant post-harvest fungal pathogens causing losses in ornamental plants. Disease caused by this fungus seems to be enhanced by the presence of a ethylene hormone, that both the plant and the fungus are known to synthesize. The aim of the experiment was to determine if 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene antagonist, could be used to reduce B. cinerea damage to cut flowers. Six cultivars of four ornamental species: Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’, Rosa × hybrida ‘White Dew’ and ‘Ritz’, Ranunculus asiaticus ‘Saigon’ and ‘Green’, and Cyclamen persicum line ‘Halios Bianco Puro Compatto’ were given three concentrations of 1-MCP (0.38 μl L-1, 1.14 μL L-1, and 3.62 μL L-1 for 24 hours. Subsequently, 10 petals per cultivar were treated with a B. cinerea conidial suspension (5×103 conidia cm-2 and stored in air-tight vases. To evaluate B. cinerea development an arbitrary damage scale (1–7 was used. A high concentration of 1-MCP significantly reduced B. cinerea damage on D. caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’ and C. persicum ‘Halios White Pure Compact’ petals. In carnation, 1-MCP treatment slowed B. cinerea infection; its threshold level was reached three days after that of the control. In cyclamen, treated petals and control petals remained aesthetically good until day 53 and day 28 respectively. At low concentrations, 1-MCP slowed grey mould on R. × hybrida ‘Ritz’ for up to three days beyond the control. On the two buttercup cultivars ‘Green’ and ‘Saigon’, 1-MCP treatments were not effective. In conclusion, 1-MCP limited pathogen development; its effect depended on the species and the 1-MCP concentration. Further investigations will be performed to improve methods to reduce B. cinerea development on the petals of cut

  5. Weeds in Organic Fertility-Building Leys: Aspects of Species Richness and Weed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Döring

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume-based leys (perennial sod crops are an important component of fertility management in organic rotations in many parts of Europe. Despite their importance, however, relatively little is known about how these leys affect weed communities or how the specific composition of leys may contribute to weed management. To determine whether the choice of plant species in the ley affects weeds, we conducted replicated field trials at six locations in the UK over 24 months, measuring weed cover and biomass in plots sown with monocultures of 12 legume and 4 grass species, and in plots sown with a mixture of 10 legume species and 4 grass species. Additionally, we monitored weed communities in leys on 21 organic farms across the UK either sown with a mixture of the project species or the farmers’ own species mix. In total, 63 weed species were found on the farms, with the annuals Stellaria media, Sonchus arvensis, and Veronica persica being the most frequent species in the first year after establishment of the ley, while Stellaria media and the two perennials Ranunculus repens and Taraxacum officinale dominated the weed spectrum in the second year. Our study shows that organic leys constitute an important element of farm biodiversity. In both replicated and on-farm trials, weed cover and species richness were significantly lower in the second year than in the first, owing to lower presence of annual weeds in year two. In monocultures, meadow pea (Lathyrus pratensis was a poor competitor against weeds, and a significant increase in the proportion of weed biomass was observed over time, due to poor recovery of meadow pea after mowing. For red clover (Trifolium pratense, we observed the lowest proportion of weed biomass in total biomass among the tested legume species. Crop biomass and weed biomass were negatively correlated across species. Residuals from the linear regression between crop biomass and weed biomass indicated that at similar levels of crop

  6. DNA barcoding the Canadian Arctic flora: core plastid barcodes (rbcL + matK for 490 vascular plant species.

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    Jeffery M Saarela

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%, and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%. Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, atpF-atpH collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF-atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species.

  7. DNA Barcoding the Canadian Arctic Flora: Core Plastid Barcodes (rbcL + matK) for 490 Vascular Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M.; Sokoloff, Paul C.; Gillespie, Lynn J.; Consaul, Laurie L.; Bull, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA–trnH, psbK–psbI, atpF–atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF–atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species. PMID

  8. Experimental insights into angiosperm origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Barry; Lee, Alex; Smilie, Ian; Knight, Charles; Upchurch, Garland

    2017-04-01

    The angiosperms occupy almost every habitat type on Earth and comprise nearly 90% of extant plant species. Yet this ascendency is a relatively recent (geological) phenomenon. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates a likely first occurrence in the Early Cretaceous followed by a relatively rapid increase in diversity with their rise to dominance marking the onset of modern world. Understanding this diversification event has been a key research question since Darwin commented on this "abominable mystery", and it remains one of the most significant unanswered questions in plant biology. Sequencing work shows that the diversification and radiation was accompanied by successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Furthermore proxy data and predictions from long-term carbon cycle models indicate that the angiosperm diversification was accompanied by a decline in atmospheric CO2. These observation raise the intriguing possibility that declining atmospheric CO2 concentration and capacity to undergo polyploidy could have given angiosperms a competitive advantage when compared to other plant groups. Using comparative ecophysiology we set out to test the effects of declining atmospheric CO2 by growing a six species (Ranunculus acris and Polypodium vulgare, chosen to represent Cretaceous understorey angiosperms and pteridophytes respectively. Liquidambar styraciflua and Laurus nobilis represented canopy angiosperms and Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides canopy gymnosperms) in controlled conditions across a CO2 gradient (2000, 1200, 800 and 400 ppm) to simulate Cretaceous CO2decline. To test for WGDs we use the relationship between guard cell size and genome size to reconstruct angiosperm genome size as they radiated. Analysis of our fossil dataset shows that earliest angiosperms had a small genome size. Our experimental work shows that angiosperms have a greater capacity for acclimation suggesting that declining CO2 could have acted as a trigger for the angiosperm

  9. Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)

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    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch., CONVALLARIA majalis L., GALANTHUS nivalis L., DACTYLIS glomerata L., ALOPECURUS pratensis L. and others. Some of them start to blossom in early spring, some others in the summer. Part of them belong to very important allergens, part of them have medicinal effects. Phenophases first leaves (FL - BBCH11), inflorescence emergence (IE - BBCH 51), beginning and end of flowering (BF - BBCH 61, EF - BBCH 69) are observed by these species. Statistical parameters (average, median, lower quartile, upper quartile, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variation range and variation coefficient) of phenophase onset are computed from all of phenological stations in Czechia for the period 1991 - 2009. The phenophase onset and phenophase duration depend not only on genetic base but also on external effects such as weather. We have compiled dynamics of temperature to phenophase onset according CHMI meteorological stations for the same period 1991 - 2009 (especially sums of active temperatures above biological minimum 5°C and progression of extreme temperatures). We have also compared results between two periods (1991 - 2000, 2001 - 2009). Phenological stations are at different altitude. At this case study were used results from 4 phenological stations at altitude ( 500 m asl). GALANTHUS nivalis L. Station: Lednice (165 m n. m.) Period: 1991 - 2000 Statistical parameter/phenophase BBCH 61 BBCH 69 Average 62 94 Median 60 97 Lower quartile 57 86 Upper quartile 66 101 Minimum 51 70 Maximum 79 116 Variation range 28 46 Standard deviation 8,6 12

  10. LES PROLIFÉRATIONS VÉGÉTALES AQUATIQUES EN FRANCE : CARACTÈRES BIOLOGIQUES ET ÉCOLOGIQUES DES PRINCIPALES ESPÈCES ET MILIEUX PROPICES. I. BILAN D’UNE SYNTHÈSE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE.

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    PELTRE M. C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available La gestion des milieux aquatiques touchés par des proliférations végétales rencontre de nombreuses difficultés liées à l’appréciation des déséquilibres induits. Parmi celles-ci figure l’évaluation de l’intensité des phénomènes, tant à l’échelle spatiale que temporelle, et celle des nuisances qui réduisent la satisfaction des usages. Un inventaire des principaux groupes de végétaux concernés, considérés comme des « espèces à risque de prolifération » a été dressé après examen de divers constats recensés sur le territoire français. Ce sont notamment des macro-algues, des cyanobactéries, des phanérogames hydrophytes autochtones comme Ranunculus sp., Potamogeton sp., Myriophyllum sp., Ceratophyllum sp., Lemna sp., et des hydrophytes introduits comme Elodea sp., Lagarosiphon sp., Ludwigia sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, certains hélophytes et deux espèces rivulaires exotiques (Fallopia japonica et Impatiens glandulifera. Leurs potentialités importantes de développement et de propagation s’expliquent par leurs stratégies biologiques, dont certaines adaptations morphologiques et physiologiques et divers moyens de multiplication végétative. Les milieux propices aux proliférations présentent des conditions environnementales particulières : fort éclairement souvent lié à une faible profondeur et à un échauffement des eaux, conditions hydrologiques stables, minéralisation moyenne à forte, niveau trophique souvent élevé. La conjonction de ces deux composantes (espèce à risque et milieu propice, crée ainsi les conditions d’une prolifération et définit des situations à risque minimal ou maximal. Ces connaissances concourent à une meilleure définition des situations de risque de prolifération et peuvent fournir des informations utiles quant aux conditions et aux limites d’application des techniques de gestion et de contrôle de ces phénomènes.

  11. Reconstruction of Landscape Evolution Zones (LEZ) from laminated Eifel maar sediments of the last 60 000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocko, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Tephra, eolian dust, organic carbon, pollen and botanical macroremains from the dry maar lake structures auf Auel and Dehner are used to synthesize and define Landscape Evolution Zones (LEZ) for the Eifel during the last 60 000 years. LEZ 1-3 reiterate the established succession of vegetation during the Holocene and late glacial. The maximum of the last glaciation (LEZ 4: 14 700 - 23 000 b2k) was characterized by extremely sparse vegetation of some moss and characeae, however, characterized by annual activity of eolian dust. These sediments are generally devoid of clay and sand and reveal no indication of snow-meltwater events; accordingly, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) must have been extremely arid in central Europe. The sediments of the subsequent LEZ 5 from 23 000 ‒ 28 500 b2k preserve however distinct layers of clay and coarse sand, which indicates running water with clay in suspension and ephemeral coarse grained fluvial sediment discharge; abundant Ranunculaceae macroremains (used for 14C dating), insects, moss and fungi sclerotia reflect a tundra environment during a time of frequent strong snow melt events. Total carbon content and Betula-Pinus pollen reach increased concentrations during all MIS 3 interstadials that occurred between 28 500 - 36 500 b2k (LEZ 6). Grass pollen and heliophytes indicate a steppe environment with scattered/patchy trees during the interstadials. The stadial phases of LEZ 6 reveal first activity of eolian dust deflation. The opening of the early MIS 3 forested landscape to a steppe occurred with the LEZ 7 - LEZ 6 transition at 36 500 b2k. This is the time when modern man arrived in central Europe; possibly because the vegetation change must have favoured the spread of horse, which was the favoured hunting prey of the modern humans. Accordingly, we postulate that the migration of the modern humans into central Europe could have been mainly driven by climate and vegetation change. The LEZ 7 encompassing the time interval from 36

  12. The ELSA-Vegetation-Stack: Reconstruction of Landscape Evolution Zones (LEZ) from laminated Eifel maar sediments of the last 60,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocko, F.; Knapp, H.; Dreher, F.; Förster, M. W.; Albert, J.; Brunck, H.; Veres, D.; Dietrich, S.; Zech, M.; Hambach, U.; Röhner, M.; Rudert, S.; Schwibus, K.; Adams, C.; Sigl, P.

    2016-07-01

    Laminated sediment records from several maar lakes and dry maar lakes of the Eifel (Germany) reveal the history of climate, weather, environment, vegetation, and land use in central Europe during the last 60,000 years. The time series of the last 30,000 years is based on a continuous varve counted chronology, the MIS3 section is tuned to the Greenland ice - both with independent age control from 14C dates. Total carbon, pollen and plant macrofossils are used to synthesize a vegetation-stack, which is used together with the stacks from seasonal varve formation, flood layers, eolian dust content and volcanic tephra layers to define Landscape Evolution Zones (LEZ). LEZ 1 encompasses the landscape dynamics of the last 6000 years with widespread human influence. The natural oak and hazel forests of the early Holocene back to 10,500 b2k define LEZ 2. LEZ 3, the late glacial between 10,500 and 14,700 b2k, shows the development of a boreal forest with abundant grass and shallow water biomass in the lakes. The maximum of the last glaciation (LEZ 4: 14,700-23,000 b2k) was characterized by sparse vegetation of moss and characeae. These sediments are generally devoid of clay and sand and reveal no indication of snow-meltwater events. Accordingly, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) must have been extremely arid in central Europe. The sediments of the subsequent LEZ 5 from 23,000-28,500 b2k preserve distinct layers of clay and coarse sand, which indicates running water with clay in suspension and ephemeral coarse-grained fluvial sediment discharge. Abundant Ranunculaceae macroremains (used for 14C dating), insects, moss and fungi sclerotia reflect a tundra environment during a time of frequent strong snowmelt events. Total carbon content, Betula-Pinus pollen and diatoms reach increased concentrations during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 interstadials that occurred between 28,500 and 36,500 b2k (LEZ 6). The entire MIS3 interstadials are well documented in the organic carbon record

  13. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    (basswood, mallow family), Myricaceae (bayberry), Oleaceae (olive family), Onagraceae (evening primrose family), Plumbaginaceae (sea-lavender), Polygonaceae (docks, knotweed), Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), Rosaceae (rose family), Salicaceae (willow), Sapindaceae (maple), Sapotaceae, and Ulmaceae (elm, Zelkova). The objectives of this investigation were (1) to evaluate whether the three palynological sections were deposited at the same time, and (2) to show regional vegetation differences within a single sedimentary basin. We found three general pollen zones corresponding to different sedimentary settings and palaeoenvironments. The first pollen zone was linked to lignite formation (swamp forest, fern spores, Alnus, Decodon). The second pollen zone reflects lacustrine conditions (Typhaceae) and surrounding hinterland vegetation dominated by Fagaceae. The third pollen zone is dominated by herbaceous taxa, whereas woody taxa are less diverse and less abundant. In general, the three palynological sections are congruent in reflecting distinct pollen zones. However main vegetation types may be represented by different dominating taxa (e. g. Alnus dominace in Eskihisar and Tı naz localities while absent in Salihpaşalar) and rare taxa may differ between localities. Our results demonstrate that in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of environmental and vegetation conditions in a sedimentary basin, a single palynological section (locality) may not capture the entirety of environmental conditions and changes.

  14. Ecohydrology of an Embanked Lowland UK River Meadow and the Effects of Embankment Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clilverd, H.; Thompson, J.; Sayer, C.; Heppell, K.; Axmacher, J.

    2012-12-01

    Pristine riparian and floodplain ecosystems are in a state of dynamic balance due to the regular floods that continuously reshape river channels and their banks, and transport water, sediment and nutrients onto the floodplain. However, the natural flow regime of many rivers has been altered by channelization and artificial embankments designed to protect agricultural and urban developments from flooding. This has had a lasting impact on the hydrological characteristics of floodplain ecosystems and the biological communities that inhabit them. Floodplain restoration, through embankment removal and the reconfiguration of river channels, is now being increasingly employed to re-establish river-floodplain connections and assist the recovery of lost or declining species. In order to manage a river restoration site for plant biodiversity, it is necessary to understand the physical and nutritional status of the root environment. We conducted fine scale (10 × 10 m) botanical and chemical sampling on a 3 ha embanked grassland meadow in Norfolk (Eastern England) and assessed the spatial pattern of plant communities in relation to soil physicochemical conditions. Continuous measurements of groundwater depth and river stage were collectively used to determine changes in the hydrological regime following embankment-removal. Prior to the restoration the meadow plant community was dominated by Holcus lanatus, Ranunculus repens and Agrostis stolonifera. Species richness was fairly low (mean: 8 spp. per m2), and indices of alpha-diversity suggest low heterogeneity of the plant assemblages (mean values for Shannon's Diversity and 1/Simpson's Diversity = 1.4 and 3.4, respectively). Top soils were moderately fertile, with mean respective Olsen P and plant available potassium concentrations of 9.1 mg P kg-1and 1.6 mg K+g-1. Plant available ammonium and nitrate concentrations were on average 31.7 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 2.8 mg NO3--N kg-1, respectively. River water was enriched in nitrate

  15. A novel survey of the ethno medicinal knowledge of dental problems in Manoor Valley (Northern Himalaya), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Inayat Ur; Ijaz, Farhana; Iqbal, Zafar; Afzal, Aftab; Ali, Niaz; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Muhammad, Said; Qadir, Ghulam; Asif, Muhammad

    2016-12-24

    Juglans regia having (RFCs=0.69) and Rumex dentatus (0.58). CI results show that most respondents percentage was for Juglans regia having CI%=69%, followed by Rumex dentatus (57.7%). Medicinal plants with high fidelity level and reported for one dental disorder were Berberis lycium, Geranium wallichianum, Lathyrus aphaca, Platanus orientalis, Sedum spp. and Urtica dioica for toothache. Further, new medicinal uses of Abies pindrow, Ajuga integrifolia, Berberis lycium, Urtica dioica, Indigofera heterantha were recorded for the first time from Pakistan and Astragalus grahamianus, Corydalis cornuta, Prunella vulgaris, Ranunculus muricatus, Rumex hastatus, Stellaria media, Tagetes minuta, Taraxacum officinale and Lathyrus aphaca, across the world for the current reported medicinal uses. All mentioned plant species are reported for the first time ever for dental disorders from Manoor Valley. Nonetheless, this is a novel study as no single ethno medicinal study on dental disorder up-till now has been reported from Pakistan. The present study is the first ever documentation of ethno medicinal practices aiming at the dental disorders in Pakistan, which resulted in 64% of medicinal uses new claims. So, the reported species of remote valley should be further evaluated for proper experimentation and pharmacological activities to authenticate their current traditional usage. Field observation revealed vegetation of the area was generally threatened due to its unwise use by the local communities. Trends like deforestation, over grazing, habitat fragmentation and introduction of the exotic taxa were the visible threats. So conservation of such an important natural God gifted treasure is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    species among them 1350 flowering plants, some 460 mosses, about 500 algae, 675 lichens, 2.700 fungus, plus the insects, the birds, the mammals and batrachians (Testut et al., 1998). This exceptional biodiversity has been recognized in 1998 by the creation of a reserve of "Man and Biosphere" under the aegis of UNESCO. The "platières" landscapes are of special interest for biodiversity. The acidic soils on the sandstone "platières" are mainly covered by Atlantic moors. The dry moors with Calluna vulgaris and Erica cinerea relate to the Ulici-Ericion cinereae and the wet peaty moors are linked to the Ulici-Ericion tetralicis (Habitats 31.11 and 31.2 of the Corine Biotope Code). These dry and peaty moors interweave in a complex patchwork depending on the local, even metric scale, topography and soil moisture. The main interest in the flora of the "platières" lies in the vegetation of the network of pools, which develop in the sandstone depressions (Liron & Thiry, 2005). These wet zones include seven Natural Habitats of Community interest and nearly twenty protected plants species. The temporary ponds (Habitat 22.31 of the Corine Biotope Code), with an irregular hydraulic regime, favor a suite of annual plants, outstanding "intermittent" species, such as the endemic Franco-Iberian Ranunculus nodiflorus. In the acidic and oligotrophic waters of the permanent pools develop Utricularia australis along with Potamogeton polygonifolius. The peaty zones are valuable for their bryophyte biodiversity. For example thirteen species of Sphagnum (30 % of the European flora) have been recorded including Sphagnum magellanicum which is a rare species in the lowlands. There is also a wealth of bryophytes and lichens on the strata, with for instance fifty species of the lichen genus Cladonia. This species richness is strengthened by the limited area of the "platières" which represent only 15-20% of the whole massif. Main biodiversity interest is related to the almost bare "platières" of