WorldWideScience

Sample records for ranunculaceaein estonia distribution

  1. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  2. Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Estonian Country Case Study concentrated on the energy sector. Estonia is in the process of intensive transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. The reforming of the whole economy, included the energy sector, is underway at present in Estonia, therefore the current situation is permanently changing. This in its turn complicates the overall characterisation of the situation and makes it difficult to have well founded basis for furhter forecasts and projections. However, the main lines of further development have been worked out in the governmental document `Long Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector`, which was adopted by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in February 1998. The Estonian Country Case Study team has managed with the complicated task to analyse the most probable GHG mitigation options to be used for the period up till 2035. MARKAL and MARKAL-MACRO models were used to build up the energy system development scenarios and to analyse various GHG mitigation options. Two main scenarios, respectively with low and high GDP growth rates, were assumed for the present analysis. Also the impact of carbon tax on the choice of possible energy generation scenarios was studied with the help of the model. The results have been discussed in the context of future socio-economic and political restrictions. Special attention was paid to the problems and prospects of using Estonian main energy resource - oil shale - for the production of electricity. New combustion technologies developed in Estonia allow reducing CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, which makes them highly important in the process of following the binding agreements of international treaties on pollution abatement. The technological mitigation options of GHG emissions have been handled thoroughly, as they are of great interest for Estonia following the requirements of the Kyoto conference. Additionally, renewable energy sources were discussed more thoroughly

  3. OBSERVATIONS ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOPONYMIC ENDINGS IN ESTONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Päll

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the geographical distribution of toponymic endings with the aim of discovering significant patterns. The corpus includes ca. 9,000 oikonyms, of which 24% are those that have the analysed endings. Endings are recognized if names have at least3 syllables or have 2 syllables and the Q3 degree of quantity; in thesecases the existence of a toponymic suffix is most likely. In the case of endings that have multiple origins there are seemingly no specific distribution patterns, with the exception of some borrowed endings (e.g.-na or -va. In the case of typical toponymic suffixes -la, -ste and -vereeach of these are often concentrated into certain areas based on whichthe whole are of Estonia might be divided into regions: -vere-region(northern Tartumaa and northern Viljandimaa, -ste-region (Võrumaa,southern Tartumaa, southern Viljandimaa and southern Pärnumaa,-la-region (Virumaa, Järvamaa, Harjumaa and a mixed region(Läänemaa, northern Pärnumaa. The island of Saaremaa is dominated by -la-endings, Hiiumaa is either a mixed region or a -ste-region.

  4. Eliminating rabies in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania.

  5. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  6. Eesti Gaas. Modernization of distribution stations, Estonia. Basic design report, 55/3 bar meter and regulator stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Eesti Gaas has experienced several operational difficulties with regard to the high pressure distribution stations in Estonia. Metering systems are unreliable, preheating is performed using open fire gas heaters, the pressure reduction valves are unreliable because of wear and tear, and odorization takes place via buried storage tanks. The conclusion is that the existing M/R stations involves safety and environmental problems. For that reason, Eesti Gaas has initiated modernization of the M/R stations. The Danish Energy Agency, environmental energy sector programme, has granted financial aids for the purpose of assisting Eesti Gass with the modernization of the M/R stations. The purpose of this design study is to prepare a basic design for a 55 barg to 3 barg M/R station. In agreement with Eesti Gaas, the design shall cover two different station sizes, one with a maximum flow rate of 2.000 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and one with a maximum flow rate of 10.000 Nm{sup 3}/hr. It is the intention, that the present Basic Design Report may be used as basis for preparation of tender material in the form of a detailed design prepared by a local company. (EG)

  7. Estonia letteraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Töttössy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Estonia, the last decade of the 20th Century saw the active involvement of intellectuals in politics. Indeed, during the “Singing Revolu- tion” they led the country towards the independence from the Soviet Union. Since 1992, under the new political circumstances, Estonian literati have initiated to revise the national literary canon, and they have envisioned a new place for Estonian literature within world literature. The aim of this essay is to delineate the change undergone by Estonian Literature over the last twenty years, and to discuss the ways in which it has opened up to broader, different horizons.

  8. Seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica in cattle in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Jennifer; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    the seroprevalence and distribution of F. hepatica in cattle in Estonia. A total of 2461 individual serum samples from 218 farms distributed throughout all 15 Estonian counties, collected between February 2012 and March 2013, were tested for specific anti-F. hepatica antibodies using an in-house enzyme...... serological evidence of the presence and distribution of F. hepatica in cattle herds in Estonia....

  9. Esthonia - Estonia? / Aleksander Loit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loit, Aleksander, 1925-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Londoni saadiku Oskar Kallase püüdlustest kehtestada Eesti rahvusvahelise nimevormina Estonia. The Royal Geographical Society ja Briti välisministeeriumi vastandlikest seisukohtades Eesti inglisekeelse nimetuse suhtes. 1926. aastast nõustusid nii Suurbritannia kui USA tunnistama Eesti nimevormiks Estonia. Lisatud: Eesti hümni sõnad inglise keeles

  10. African Journals Online: Estonia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. African Journals Online: Estonia. Home > African Journals Online: Estonia. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me

  11. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  12. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Plumer

    Full Text Available Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47 in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  13. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  14. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  15. Country report: Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  16. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oudin Åström

    Full Text Available On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia.We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia.We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement.We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  17. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  18. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  19. Rahvusooper taastas Estonia balli traditsiooni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Aastavahetusballi operetikavast "Suudluste valss", USA koreograaf-lavastaja Russell Adamsoni dzhässikavast "Black and White" Rahvusooperis Estonia. Kontserdisaalis mängivad tantsuks Rahvusooperi sümfooniaorkester Andres Mustoneni juhatusel ja ansambel Modern Fox

  20. Rabarocki eelsoojendus. Meeleolukas kevadkontsert Estonias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    13. ja 14. juunil Järvakandis toimuva Rabarocki warm-up peost klubis Rockstars ja esimesest ETV saatest Rabarocki triloogiast 24. mail. Kevadkontserdist "Feeling Good" 26. mail Estonia kontserdisaalis

  1. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  2. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  3. The environmental problems in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallaste, T. (Institute of Economics, Estonian Academy of Scinece, Tallinn, Estonia (SU))

    1991-08-01

    This chapter gives a brief overview of Estonia's environmental pollution situation and some problems connected with it. Intensive use of local natural resources, especially oil shale, have deteriorated natural environment in the North-East Estonia. All the components of environment have been seriously damaged by industrial pollution. This has also had an effect on human health. The need for effective pollution monitoring and control system is being suggested for the purposes of management of the quality of environment in the national economic system and to stop further decrease of the quality of environment. The main attention is devoted to air pollution. Integrated indicators, air pollution indices for comprehensive assessment of the level of air pollution have been used. To overcome the pollution problems, some possibilities of economic control are described. Actually the payments for the use of natural resources and taxes for pollution, which will be started in Estonia in 1991, are introduced. (author).

  4. Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts from the subsurface of SE Estonia and adjacent Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viive Viira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of conodonts in the Lower–Middle Ordovician beds was studied in five drill core sections of south­eastern Estonia. Ten conodont zones and six subzones, from the Paroistodus proteus Zone to the Eoplacognathus lindstroemi Subzone, were established. The peculiarity of the studied sequence is that the Volkhov Stage is notably poor in conodonts, in particular Baltoniodus species. Large specimens of Drepanodus arcuatus and Protopanderodus rectus, however, are found in great numbers in the uppermost Volkhov and lower Kunda stages. The deeper shelf conodont faunas recognized in SE Estonia (Central Baltoscandian confacies belt are compared with shallow shelf faunas of northern Estonia (North Estonian confacies belt.

  5. E-voting in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Dylan; Martens, Tarvi

    2016-01-01

    Estonia has one of the most established e-voting systems in the world. Internet voting - remote e-voting using the voter's own equipment - was piloted in 2005 with the first real elections using e-voting being conducted the same year and has been in use ever since. We detail this internet voting system and discuss how it was developed.

  6. Burden of stroke in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõrv, Janika; Vibo, Riina

    2013-07-01

    Estonia is the smallest of the three Baltic countries. The decline in incidence of first-ever stroke during the 1990s has left Tartu, Estonia with a relatively low stroke incidence. However, the incidence rates for younger age groups, and the 28-day case fatality rate are higher compared with several other studies. Developments in the national health care system in recent years have been positive: the decline of mortality rate of stroke in Estonia is greater than the European Union average. However, the mortality of cardiovascular diseases is higher compared with several European countries. The prevalence of most stroke risk factors is comparable with European Union countries, while atrial fibrillation is somewhat more frequent (30%) among the patients having suffered from ischemic stroke. The management of stroke in Estonia has been in accordance with European and national stroke guidelines. Stroke units are organized in regional and central hospitals in bigger cities. A well-developed and free ambulance service, and a high priority of stroke code, enable a quick transportation of patients to the nearest hospital providing thrombolytic therapy. The number of thrombolyzed stroke cases has increased since 2003. The Estonian Stroke Initiative was founded in 2008 to improve stroke care, promote regional networks, and increase stroke knowledge among the general population and medical professionals. Since then, several activities regarding stroke awareness have been organized. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  7. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1995-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  8. Financial Participation of Employees in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eamets, Raul; Mygind, Niels; Spitsa, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Presently, legal regulation of participation of employees - financial participation as well as participation in decision-making - is not well developed in Estonia. On the one hand, it is due to the fact that no tradition of employee participation could have been formed after Estonia became...

  9. Surrogate alcohol drinking in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Leon, David A

    2011-08-01

    Surrogate, nonbeverage alcohols, provide a cheap and concentrated source of ethanol for drinking that has been associated with premature mortality. The aim of this study was to provide the first estimate of the prevalence of surrogate alcohol consumption in a national population sample of Estonia. The Estonian Health Interview Survey conducted in 2006 to 2007 was a nationally representative sample of the population aged 15 to 84 years (N = 6,370). The age-standardized percentage prevalences of ever having drunk surrogates were estimated. The association of age, ethnicity, and education with the prevalence of surrogate drinking was estimated using logistic regression. Of all respondents who reported drinking at least once in their lifetime (N = 5,423), 65% had consumed alcohol during the previous 4 weeks. In this group (N = 3,525), the age-standardized prevalence rate of surrogate drinking was 1.4% (2.3% men, 0.3% women). Among men, surrogate drinking was rare under the age of 35 years (0.3%). Ethnicity and education were both related to surrogate drinking: relative to Estonian men, non-Estonians (mainly Russians) had an odds ratio (OR) for surrogate drinking (adjusted for age and education) of 2.58 (95% CI 1.41, 4.72), while relative to those with higher education those with secondary education had an OR (adjusted for age and ethnicity) of 2.28 (0.78, 6.67) and those with basic education an OR of 3.91 (1.29, 11.84). Surrogate alcohols are drunk in Estonia, particularly among men. This behavior shows pronounced variation in prevalence by ethnicity and education. Reducing consumption of these substances needs to be part of any strategy to reduce the burden of alcohol-related problems in Estonia today. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Trio Estonia esineb Lõuna-Ontarios

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Lõuna-Ontario muusikahuvilistel on tänu Eesti Sihtkapitalile Kanadas ja Cathedral Bluffs sümfooniaorkestrile harukordne võimalus saada oktoobrikuus osa kõrgetasemelise Trio Estonia musitseerimisest

  11. Sakslased kiidavad Estonia huku filmi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Eestisse filmi toomisega tegelev produtsent Mati Sepping peab sakslaste kommentaare filmile headeks

  12. Jutta Rabe teeb Estonia hukust uue filmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eile alustas Saksa ajakirjanik Jutta Rabe oma filmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Peale Rabe on stsenaristid veel saksa advokaat Henning Witte ja rootslane Kaj Holmberg

  13. Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 25-31, nr. 2 lk. 41-47, nr. 3 lk. 29-37, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 16-23, nr. 2 lk. 39-47, nr. 3 lk. 25-33, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 23-31, nr. 2 lk. 33-41, nr. 3 lk. 31-39, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 31-39, nr. 2 lk. 35-41; 2005 nr. 1 lk. 37-44, nr. 2 lk. 43-51, nr. 3 lk. 23-27. Ülevaade Eesti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in tick populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-09

    Estonia is located in a unique area of co-distribution of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus, which are the main tick vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In the last decade, the incidence rate of Lyme borreliosis in Estonia has increased dramatically up to 115.4 per 100,000 in 2012. Here we present the first survey of the presence, the prevalence and genetic characteristics of B. burgdorferi s.l. complex spirochetes in the tick population in Estonia. During the years 2006-2009, 2833 unfed Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus were collected from 43 sites in 7 counties in mainland Estonia as well as in 10 sites on the Saaremaa Island. DNA samples from ticks were analyzed individually using nested PCR of the ribosomal 5S-23S spacer region followed by bidirectional sequencing. The overall estimated prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l was 9.7% and varied from 4.9% to 24.2% on the mainland and to 10.7% in Saaremaa Island. Ixodes persulcatus ticks showed significantly higher prevalence rates compared to that in I. ricinus-16.3% and 8.2%, respectively. The most prevalent genospecies was B. afzelii which was detected in 53.5% of Borrelia-positive ticks, followed by B. garinii and B. valaisiana with 26.2% and 5.5%, respectively. Also, B. bavariensis and B. burgdorferi s.s. DNA in single I. ricinus ticks were detected. Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in both tick species. Two genetic subgroups of B. garinii (NT29 and 20047) and two genetic subgroups of B. afzelii (NT28 and VS461) were found to be circulating in all studied regions as well as in both tick species, except B. garinii subgroup NT29, which was found only in I. persulcatus ticks. In the current study we detected the circulation of five B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies and estimated the prevalence in ticks in different regions of Estonia. Detection and genetic characterization of Borrelia genospecies, especially those of public health importance, in the natural foci may help assessing

  15. HYPEST study: profile of hypertensive patients in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Org, Elin; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Juhanson, Peeter; Putku, Margus; Rosenberg, Mai; Tomberg, Kärt; Uuetoa, Tiina; Laan, Maris

    2011-08-31

    More than one third of adult population in Estonia has problems with elevated blood pressure (BP). The Hypertension in Estonia (HYPEST) study represents the country's first hypertension-targeted sample collection aiming to examine the epidemiological and genetic determinants for hypertension (HTN) and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Estonian population. The HYPEST subjects (n = 1,966) were recruited across Estonia between 2004-2007 including clinically diagnosed HTN cases and population-based controls. The present report is focused on the clinical and epidemiological profile of HYPEST cases, and gender-specific effects on the pathophysiology of hypertension. Current analysis was performed on 1,007 clinically diagnosed HTN patients (617 women and 390 men) aged 18-85 years. The hypertensives were recruited to the study by BP specialists at the North Estonia Medical Center, Centre of Cardiology, Tallinn or at the Cardiology Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. Longitudinal BP data was extracted retrospectively from clinical records. Current and retrospective data of patient's medical history, medication intake and lifestyle habits were derived from self-administrated questionnaire and each variable was examined separately for men and women. Eleven biochemical parameters were measured from fasting serum samples of 756 patients. The distribution of recruited men and women was 39% and 61% respectively. Majority of Estonian HTN patients (85%) were overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and a total of 79% of patients had additional complications with cardiovascular system. In men, the hypertension started almost 5 years earlier than in women (40.5 ± 14.5 vs 46.1 ± 12.7 years), which led to earlier age of first myocardial infarction (MI) and overall higher incidence rate of MI among male patients (men 21.2%, women 8.9%, P < 0.0001). Heart arrhythmia, thyroid diseases, renal tubulo-intestinal diseases and hyperlipidemia were more prevalent in hypertensive women

  16. HYPEST study: profile of hypertensive patients in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Mai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than one third of adult population in Estonia has problems with elevated blood pressure (BP. The Hypertension in Estonia (HYPEST study represents the country's first hypertension-targeted sample collection aiming to examine the epidemiological and genetic determinants for hypertension (HTN and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD in Estonian population. The HYPEST subjects (n = 1,966 were recruited across Estonia between 2004-2007 including clinically diagnosed HTN cases and population-based controls. The present report is focused on the clinical and epidemiological profile of HYPEST cases, and gender-specific effects on the pathophysiology of hypertension. Methods Current analysis was performed on 1,007 clinically diagnosed HTN patients (617 women and 390 men aged 18-85 years. The hypertensives were recruited to the study by BP specialists at the North Estonia Medical Center, Centre of Cardiology, Tallinn or at the Cardiology Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. Longitudinal BP data was extracted retrospectively from clinical records. Current and retrospective data of patient's medical history, medication intake and lifestyle habits were derived from self-administrated questionnaire and each variable was examined separately for men and women. Eleven biochemical parameters were measured from fasting serum samples of 756 patients. Results The distribution of recruited men and women was 39% and 61% respectively. Majority of Estonian HTN patients (85% were overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a total of 79% of patients had additional complications with cardiovascular system. In men, the hypertension started almost 5 years earlier than in women (40.5 ± 14.5 vs 46.1 ± 12.7 years, which led to earlier age of first myocardial infarction (MI and overall higher incidence rate of MI among male patients (men 21.2%, women 8.9%, P P P = 0.00007, obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; P = 0.0003, increased stress (P = 0.0003 and alcohol

  17. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors...... of the moose was not shown in the present study, but moose hunted in Estonia should be considered a potential T. gondii infection source to other hosts, including humans. Seropositivity indicates previous exposure, and because the seroprevalence was higher in adults than in calves and because moose...... are herbivores, the exposure was likely exposure to and ingestion of T. gondii oocysts. The results can thus be interpreted to indicate that the environment in Estonia was widely contaminated with T. gondii oocysts, in particular in the northern part of the country. Investigation of samples from a free...

  18. Estonia uus hooaeg pühendub lastele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia 99. hooaja alustamisest 10. sept. kontsert-salvestusega "Mare ja tema poeg", ooperi "Aida" lavastumisest oktoobris Rocca al Mares Onistari tennisekeskuses, 2005. a. alguses Estonias esmaettekandele tulevast Tõnis Kaumanni lastemuusikalist "Väike Napoleon"

  19. Paul Pinna avab Estonia Talveaias omanimelise baari / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia sajanda sünnipäeva puhul etendub 12. ja 13. septembril Estonia Talveaias lavastus "Paul Pinnat otsimas". Tekst on 95% osas Paul Pinna ja Karl August Hindrey sulest, dramatiseeris ja lavastas Heidi Sarapuu

  20. Trends in incidence and survival of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Estonia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrik, Peeter; Valter, Ann; Valter, Epp; Baburin, Aleksei; Innos, Kaire

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an increase in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in Estonia, but also poor survival in international comparisons, with a significant survival gap between the sexes. The aim of this study was to analyze the time trends in CM incidence and relative survival by age, TNM stage and anatomical subsite among men and women in Estonia. Data from the Estonian Cancer Registry were used to calculate age-standardized (World) and age-specific incidence of CM in 1995-2013, and five-year relative survival ratios (RSR) for cases diagnosed in 1995-2012 and followed through in 2014. Period hybrid analysis was used to calculate the most recent survival estimates for 2010-2014. Between 1995 and 2013, the age-standardized incidence of CM increased significantly in Estonia among both sexes, at a rate of around 4% per year. Among women, the proportion of trunk melanomas increased from 26% in 1995-1999 to 39% in 2010-2012 and became the most common site. The proportion of stage I cases and T1 tumors increased considerably. Women had more favorable stage distribution and thinner tumors than men. The age-adjusted five-year RSR increased significantly, from 64% in 1995-1999 to 81% in 2010-2014. The latest age-adjusted RSRs were 76% among men and 84% among women. Survival gains were the largest in patients below 50 years, those with head and neck or trunk melanomas, and stage III cancer. The proportion of stage I and T1 cases is lower in Estonia compared with the Scandinavian data and is likely a major contributor to the persisting overall survival deficit in Estonia. The apparent deficit in stage II survival also warrants further investigation. A public health program is necessary in Estonia to raise awareness of CM and to significantly increase early stage diagnosis.

  1. Estonia: In and Out of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian economic developments during the first decade of 21st century. Estonia provided in that period a clear-cut example of the classical business cycle with an extreme bubble-burst sequence of economic activities. The author analyses the reasons on such a volatile economic growth pattern and explains economic cycle management particularities in Estonia. In the frames of macroeconomic developments will be analyzed monetary and fiscal policies. The author argues, that Estonia’s fiscal policy has been always pro-cyclical, what has deepened country’s macroeconomic volatility. The paper also analyses critically the government activities and policies during the recent crisis

  2. Illegal Market of Cigarettes in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Evelin Ahermaa

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco products belong to a group of excise goods and an excise duty is levied on them. The latter increases the price, but there are no changes in the quality of the goods and it leads to tax frauds. There has been regular increase in the excise duties on tobacco products in Estonia; changes in tax rates have influenced legal sales, mostly of cigarettes. Consumption of cigarettes is the largest in the group of tobacco products in Estonia; therefore, the paper is especially focused on cigare...

  3. Ordovician timescale in Estonia: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Olle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 years of progress in the Ordovician geology and stratigraphy of Estonia has resulted in one of the most precise Ordovician timescales in the world. In this paper, an up-to-date version of the Ordovician timescale of Estonia is provided. Recent developments in graptolite, chitinozoan, and conodont biostratigraphy, and the correlation with the global standard are briefly commented upon. Application of the regional subseries rank is discussed and two new names are proposed: “Vinni” for the upper subseries of the Viru Series, and “Atla” for the upper subseries of the Harju Series.

  4. Rahvusooper Estonia interjööride renoveerimine = Renovation of the Estonia National Opera House interiors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. a. lõpetati Rahvusooperi Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar. Siseviimistluse ja laemaali (E. Okas, E. Kits, R. Sagrits) restaureerimine ja konserveerimine: KAR Grupp. Akustik Linda Madalik. 8 värv. vaadet

  5. Friends of Estonia discuss next move

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    1. juulil 2011 avas Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Riigikogu konverentsikeskuses Eesti sõprade kokkutuleku raames korraldatava sümpoosioni “Quo vadis, Estonia?”, kus ütles, et Eesti järgmine eesmärk on riiklike ja ühiskondlike struktuuride tugevdamisele keskendumine

  6. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T. [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L. [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P. [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  7. SMEs in Estonia : Achievements and Worries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Phare toetusel ja Eesti Väikeettevõtete Assotsiatsiooni abil läbi viidud uurimusest "The State of Small Business in Estonia" (väikeettevõtted Eestis). Tabelid ja diagrammid. Eesti väikeettevõtete probleemid, osalemine eksport/import tegevuses, peamised probleemid pangalaenude taotlemisel

  8. "Welcome to Estonia" tuleb kinolinale / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2002-01-01

    Poliitikuid pilavad Rain Tolk ja Ken Saan uues filmis "Welcome To Estonia" : režissöör Andres Maimik. Film esilinastus 6. detsembril kinos Sõprus Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali raames. Kanal2 näitab seda vana-aastaõhtul

  9. Agonija Welcome to ESTonia / Ilja Gromov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gromov, Ilja

    2008-01-01

    Welcome to ESTonia bränd ei ole olnud edukas, välismaalastel ei ole huvi sellest vastu ja paljud neist ei ole seda üldse näinud. Kommenteerivad riigikogu liikmed Jüri Tamm, Peeter Tulviste ja Vladimir Velman

  10. Estonia purjetab filmiturule / Jüri Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jüri, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  11. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia-Perception of Different Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-04-19

    From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education (n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations.

  12. "Gerontiuse unenägu" Estonias / Igor Garšnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    2. aprillil Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud Edward Elgari oratooriumi "Gerontiuse unenägu" ettekandest, esitasid: ERSO, Estonia ooperikoor, Estonia poistekoor, kammerkoor Voces Musicales, Helen Lokuta, Bernhard Gärtner, Priit Volmer, dirigent Carlos Spiereri

  13. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  14. HYPEST study: profile of hypertensive patients in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Org, Elin; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Juhanson, Peeter; Putku, Margus; Rosenberg, Mai; Tomberg, Kärt; Uuetoa, Tiina; Laan, Maris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background More than one third of adult population in Estonia has problems with elevated blood pressure (BP). The Hypertension in Estonia (HYPEST) study represents the country's first hypertension-targeted sample collection aiming to examine the epidemiological and genetic determinants for hypertension (HTN) and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Estonian population. The HYPEST subjects (n = 1,966) were recruited across Estonia between 2004-2007 including clinically diagnosed H...

  15. Time trends in population-based breast cancer survival in Estonia: analysis by age and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Padrik, Peeter; Valvere, Vahur; Innos, Kaire

    2014-02-01

    Survival from breast cancer (BC) in Estonia has been consistently among the lowest in Europe. The aim of this study was to examine most recent trends in BC survival in Estonia by age and stage. The trends in overall BC incidence and mortality are also shown in the paper. Estonian Cancer Registry data on all cases of BC, diagnosed in women in Estonia during 1995-2007 (n = 7424) and followed up for vital status through 2009, were used to estimate relative survival ratios (RSR). Period hybrid approach was used to obtain the most recent estimates (2005-2009). Stage was classified as localized, local/regional spread or distant. BC incidence continued to rise throughout the study period, but mortality has been in steady decline since 2000. The distribution of patients shifted towards older age and earlier stage at diagnosis. Overall age-standardized five-year RSR increased from 63% in 1995-1999 to 74% in 2005-2009. Younger age groups experienced a more rapid improvement compared to women over 60. Significant survival increase was observed for both localized and locally/regionally spread BC with five-year RSRs reaching 96% and 70% in 2005-2009, respectively; the latest five-year RSR for distant BC was 11%. Survival for T4 tumors was poor and large age difference was seen for locally/regionally spread BC. Considerable improvement in BC survival was observed over the study period. Women under 60 benefited most from both earlier diagnosis and treatment advances of locally/regionally spread cancers. However, the survival gap with more developed countries persists. Further increase in survival, but also decline in BC mortality in Estonia could be achieved by facilitating early diagnosis in all age groups, but particularly among women over 60. Investigations should continue to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the stage-specific survival deficit in Estonia.

  16. Initial experience with lung transplantation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, T; Savisaar, M; Parm, P; Sõrmus, A; Kuum, U; Ruusalepp, A; Jakobson, E; Küüsvek, A; Klepetko, W

    2013-04-01

    A lung transplant program in Estonia was initiated in cooperation with the Medical University of Vienna. The first lung transplantation for an Estonian patient was performed in Vienna on April 28, 2009. The waiting list in Estonia was opened on May 28, 2010; the first transplantation was performed on October 7, 2010. The aim of this study was to present our initial results. All lung transplantations performed in Estonia through the end of January 2012 included 2 female and 3 male patients of age from 52 to 64 years. Data regarding the donor, the transplant operation, postoperative period, and follow-up were extracted from case records. The cases included 1 bilateral lobar, 3 double, and 1 single lung transplantations. Two patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, one alpha-1 trypsin deficiency, and two idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The operative duration varied from 172 to 337 minutes; the ischemia times for the first and second lung ranged from 191 to 351 and 303 to 455 minutes, respectively. Duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation ranged from 2 to 14 days (median 3) and the hospital stay from 28 to 72 days. The following complications were observed: prolonged air leak in 2 patients, one of whom required rethoracotomy; phrenic nerve palsy in 2, atrial fibrillation in 2, and mild renal failure in 1 subject. One patient needed readmission to the intensive care unit owing to acute respiratory failure; one, a tracheostomy for weaning from the ventilator, and one, noninvasive ventilation owing to hypercapnia. All patients remain well at 4-19 months after transplantation. No episodes of acute rejection or bronchiolitis obliterans have been diagnosed. The first 1.5-year experience with lung transplantation in Estonia has been satisfactory. Although there have been several complications, no posttransplant or waiting list mortality has occurred. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Valmis film parvlaev Estonia katastroofist / Imre Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Imre

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal on valminud poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsent ja esialgse stsenaariumi autor koosHenning Wittega on Jutta Rabe, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  18. Vene muusika suurteosed Estonias / Kersti Inno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Inno, Kersti, 1954-

    2009-01-01

    Põhjamaade Sümfooniaorkestri kontserdist sarja "Kohtumispaik Eesti" raames 31. mail ja 1. juunil Estonia kontserdisaalis, dirigent Anu Tali, esitusel Dmitri Šostakovitši tšellokontsert nr 1 (läti solist David Geringas), Sergei Rahmaninovi Rapsoodia Paganini teemale (solist Marko Martin) ja Erkki-Sven Tüüri topeltkontsert "Noesis" (solistid sakslastest õde-venda Carolin ja Jörg Widmann)

  19. Kunstiakadeemia kolib ajutiselt Estonia puiesteele / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia on 2010. a. alguseks vanadest ruumidest kolinud hoonesse aadressil Estonia pst. 7. Rüütelkonna hoones leidis endale ajutise kodu vabade kunstide teaduskonna enamik erialasid. Veebruari algul toimuvast tühjendamispeost. EKA uue maja arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroodes Sea ja Effekt valminud töö "Art Plaza". Uue hoone ehitus algab aprillis, valmimistähtajaks on 2012. a. kevad

  20. Lower Silurian biostratigraphy of the Viirelaid core, western Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of five groups of fossils in the upper Llandovery (Telychian and Wenlock of the Viirelaid core section, Estonia, is presented and discussed in terms of their biozones (conodonts and chitinozoans and mutual positions (scolecodonts, ostracods, and brachiopods. Graphical correlation of the Viirelaid and Paatsalu sections shows a stronger linear correlation for zonal conodonts than for chitinozoans and scolecodonts. In the given case, this is caused by different nature of zones: chitinozoan zones are based on appearances and/or disappearances of ordinal taxa whereas conodont zonation corresponds, as a rule, to evolutionary succeeding species in the Pterospathodus lineage. At the same time, the positions of chitinozoan zones in the Viirelaid, Ruhnu, Aizpute, and Paatsalu cores are oscillating with respect to conodont zones.

  1. Estonia ohvrite omaksed loobusid tõeotsingutest / Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Kalev

    2010-01-01

    Parvlaeval Estonia hukkunute lähedased otsustasid lõpetada ML Estonia Tegelike Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu tegevuse. MTÜ esimees Ülo Veide meenutab muuhulgas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele saadetud kirja, millele vastust ei saadud

  2. The origin of barium in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrik, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the barium occurrence and its origin is made on the basis of the groundwater chemistry study. High Ba content has been detected in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in the coastal vicinity of the Gulf of Finland in Estonia and St Petersburg. The dissolution of Ba from witherite as the primary source was derived from the analysis of the aqueous solution equilibrium with Ba-related minerals. It is reflected in the chemical composition of groundwater and influenced by the galenite–calcite–fluorite polymetallic mineralization in Vendian sandstones. The dissolution and re-deposition of carbonates and baryte are confirmed by mineral saturation states for an aqueous solution and distribution of other species in the groundwater of the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in North Estonia.

  3. Conodont biostratigraphy in the Middle–Upper Ordovician boundary beds of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viira, Viive

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts of the uppermost Uhaku, the Kukruse, and the lower Haljala stages (uppermost Darriwilian and lower Sandbian of Estonia are discussed. The distribution of conodonts within the Pygodus serra, P. anserinus, and Amorphognathus tvaerensis zones is considered on the basis of 2 outcrop and 15 drill core sections. Judging by the Global Stratotype Section, Fågelsång, Sweden, the base of the Upper Ordovician Series should be lower than the first appearance of A. tvaerensis. The Estonian material shows that elements of A. tvaerensis from the lowermost range of the species are of a morphotype similar to A. inaequalis. It is proposed that the A. inaequalis Subzone be upgraded to the A. inaequalis Zone. The best level for the Middle–Upper Ordovician boundary in Estonia is at the lower boundary of the Kukruse Stage below the appearance of A. tvaerensis and/or A. inaequalis.

  4. The Sinking Sequence of MV Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Felix-Ingo

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reconstructs the sinking of the RoPax Ferry MV Estonia on September 28th 1994, with a strong focus on describing the chain of events that caused the eventual sinking, and how the ship sank. Once the sinking is understood, this thesis explores possible safety improvements that should be implemented in the design of new vessels of this type. The investigation is based on a combination of testimonies of survivors as well as numerical calculations based on the framework of the testimo...

  5. "Welcome To Estonia" õpib oma vigadest / Kuldar Kullasepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti riigi turustamisest. Märgist "Welcome To Estonia" ning Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse plaanidest Eesti tutvustamisel. Vt. samas: Kasahstan Borati vastu; Kuidas aitab Eesti märgile kaasa internet?

  6. Kuulus Ralf Langbacka lavastab Estonias Verdi "Othello" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia 8. septembril 2005 Rocca al Mares asuvas Coral Clubi spordikeskuses esietenduvast ooperist "Othello", etendus valmib koostöös Tampere Ooperiga. 7. aprillil Tampere Talos toimuvast esietendusest

  7. Estonia film venitab saladuste loori / Heiki Suurkask, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Esilinastuse ja filmi ümber toimuvast. Lisatud lühiintervjuu Riina Kionkaga, Eesti suursaadikuga Saksamaal

  8. Mõnitav kõverpeegel Estonia hukust / Heino Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Heino, 1930-

    2003-01-01

    Saksa poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku : stsenarist, produtsent Jutta Rabe : režissöör Reuben Leder. Mereakadeemia professori hinnang filmi sõnumile

  9. New taxa of Entoloma (Basidiomycetes, Agaricales) from Estonia and Karelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordeloos, Machiel E.; Liiv, Vello

    1992-01-01

    Nine new species of Entoloma are described from the Islands of Saaremaa and Vormsi, Estonia, viz. E. conocybecystis, E. leochromus, E. mutabilipes, E. ochromicaceum, E. politoflavipes, E. rhynchocystidiatum, E. roseotinctum, E. viiduense, and E. violaceozonatum. Entoloma lactarioides is described as

  10. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  11. Uudised : Rossini "Wilhelm Tell" Estonias. Cavalli ooper Amsterdamis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Gioachino Rossini ooperi "Wilhelm Tell" kontsertettekandest 18. ja 20. dets. Rahvusooper Estonias (peaosas Rauno Elp, külalisesinejaks Mario Zeffiri). Itaalia barokihelilooja Francesco Cavalli ooperi "Ercole amante" lavastamisest Madalmaade Ooperis Amsterdamis (lavastaja David Alden, esietendus 11. jaanuaril)

  12. Estonia orkestri ja koori 100. sünnipäev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Estonia sümfooniaorkestri ja ooperikoori 100. aastapäeva tähistamisest Estonia kontserdisaalis Alfredo Catalani ooperi "La Wally" kontsertversiooni ettekandega. Üllitatud CD-st Cyrillus Kreegi vaimulike laulude ja "Reekviemiga"

  13. Estonia kontserdisaali renoveerimine. Tallinn, Estonia pst. 4 / Malle Agabush, Liivi Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Agabuš, Malle, 1948-

    1997-01-01

    1913. a. valminud "Estonia" teatrist (arhitektid A. Lindgren, W. Lönn). 1944. a. pommirünnaku tulemusena müürideni paljaks põlenud teatri taastamisest Alar Kotli projekti järgi. Tänase päeva kogu maja arengukontseptsiooni autor - Peep Jänes. Kontserdisaali renoveerimisest 1997. a. "Eesti Kontserdi" poolt. Projekt : Laansoo Arhitektuuribüroo. Kunstiajaloolane L. Künnapu. Arhitekt A. Kuldkepp. Sisekujundaja M. Agabush. Ehitus : Fansa Ehituse AS. Lavajoonised T. Tammerik. Valmis 1997

  14. Radon in the soil air of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersell, Valter; Täht-Kok, Krista; Karimov, Mark; Milvek, Heli; Nirgi, Siim; Raha, Margus; Saarik, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Several investigations in Estonia during 1996¬-1999 have shown that permissible level (200 Bq/m3) of radon (222Rn) in indoor air is exceeded in 33% of the inspected dwellings. This makes Estonia one of the five countries with highest radon risk in Europe (Fig 1). Due to correlation between the soil radon risk level and radon concentration in houses, small scale radon risk mapping of soil air was carried out (one study point per 70-100 km2). It turned out that one-third of Estonian mainland has high radon risk potential, where radon concentration in soil air exceeds safe limit of 50 kBq/m3. In order to estimate radon content in soil air, two different methods developed in Sweden were used simultaneously. Besides measuring radon content from soil air at the depth of 80 cm with an emanometer (RnM), maximum potential content of radon in soil (RnG) was estimated based on the rate of eU (226Ra) concentration in soil, which was acquired by using gamma-ray spectrometer. Mapping and following studies revealed that simultaneously measured RnG and RnM in study points may often differ. To inspect the cause, several monitoring points were set up in places with different geological conditions. It appeared that unlike the RnG content, which remains close to average level in repeated measurements, the RnM content may differ more than three times periodically. After continuous observations it turned out that concentration of directly measured radon depended on various factors being mostly controlled by mineral composition of soil, properties of topsoil as well as different factors influencing aeration of soil. The results of Rn monitoring show that reliable level of radon risk in Estonian soils can only be acquired by using calculated Rn-concentration in soil air based on eU content and directly measured radon content of soil air in combination with interpreting specific geological and geochemical situations in the study points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician conodont biostratigraphy in NW Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Hints

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Darriwilian conodonts have been studied in numerous sections of Baltoscandia, but few data are available from the classical outcrop area in northern Estonia. In this paper we report the succession of Darriwilian conodonts and chitinozoans from the bed-by-bed sampled Uuga and Osmussaar cliffs, NW Estonia. Standard Baltoscandian conodont and chitinozoan zones and subzones were identified from the topmost Volkhov to Uhaku regional stages. The global Dapingian–Darriwilian boundary coincides with the Volkhov–Kunda boundary in NW Estonia. The Kunda Stage is represented by its middle or upper part only, and the Aseri Stage is probably missing in both sections studied. The lowermost part of the Lasnamägi Stage with the conodont Yangtzeplacognathus foliaceus is also very condensed. The rest of the Lasnamägi and Uhaku stages, corresponding to the main part of the Pygodus serra conodont Zone, is well represented and can be correlated across Estonia and Sweden. Subtle regional variations in this interval indicate very uniform depositional conditions over wide areas of the Baltoscandian palaeobasin. Our results suggest that the Y. foliaceus Subzone in Estonia needs further assessment. Stratigraphically well-constrained Y. protoramosus appears to be more common than previously thought, and is thus a valuable regional subzonal index. The integrated conodont and chitinozoan scale provides more than 20 biostratigraphically important levels for local and regional correlations, probably approaching temporal resolution in the order of 0.1 Ma for the late Darriwilian.

  16. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  17. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, Marje; Kalda, Ruth; Lember, Margus; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-10-25

    Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD) attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. A random sample (n = 236) of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%), while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse) of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83) were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  18. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in breeding pigs in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt

    2017-01-01

    in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results: Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had...... antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species....

  20. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia.

  1. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Oandu Stage (Katian, Upper Ordovician in NE Estonia

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    Peep Männik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts from the type region of the Oandu Regional Stage (Katian, Upper Ordovician in NE Estonia were studied. Here, the lower boundary of the stage corresponds to a discontinuity surface at the base of the Hirmuse Formation and, in conodont succession, is marked by the disappearance of Semiacontiodus sp. and Besselodus? sp. The most characteristic taxa of the Oandu Stage are Phragmodus undatus, Icriodella cf. superba and Plectodina sp., which are rare or missing below and above this stratigraphic interval in Estonia. The comparison of conodont faunas from North and South Estonia suggests that the strata in North Estonia correspond to the upper part of the Oandu Stage only as identified in sections in South Estonia. However, the position of the lower boundary of the stage in South Estonia is highly problematic. The boundary between the Amorphognathus tvaerensis and A. superbus conodont zones in Estonia lies within the (upper Oandu Stage.

  2. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  3. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lember Margus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. Methods A random sample (n = 236 of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%, while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Results Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83 were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Conclusions Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  4. Estonia taastusravikeskuse termid : Sääse 7, Pärnu = Baths at SPA Estonia : Sääse 7, Pärnu / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Estonia taastusravikeskuse basseini- ja vesiravikompleksist, mille arhitektid ning sisearhitektid on Edda Soolep ja Jüri Soolep (Archimedium OÜ). Žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  5. The live-birth prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbi, Külliki; Joost, Kairit; Zordania, Riina; Talvik, Inga; Rein, Reet; Huijmans, Jan G M; Verheijen, Frans V; Õunap, Katrin

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies on the prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in different populations have shown considerable variations. There are, however, few data with regard to the prevalence of MPSs in Fenno-Ugric populations or in north-eastern Europe, except for a report about Scandinavian countries. A retrospective epidemiological study of MPSs in Estonia was undertaken, and live-birth prevalence of MPS patients born between 1985 and 2006 was estimated. The live-birth prevalence for all MPS subtypes was found to be 4.05 per 100,000 live births, which is consistent with most other European studies. MPS II had the highest calculated incidence, with 2.16 per 100,000 live births (4.2 per 100,000 male live births), forming 53% of all diagnosed MPS cases, and was twice as high as in other studied European populations. The second most common subtype was MPS IIIA, with a live-birth prevalence of 1.62 in 100,000 live births. With 0.27 out of 100,000 live births, MPS VI had the third-highest live-birth prevalence. No cases of MPS I were diagnosed in Estonia, making the prevalence of MPS I in Estonia much lower than in other European populations. MPSs are the third most frequent inborn error of metabolism in Estonia after phenylketonuria and galactosemia.

  6. Adoption of National Curricula by Vocational Teachers in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekkor, Sirje; Ümarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to study the adoption of national curricula by vocational teachers. In the paper, we review the process of vocational education and training curriculum reform in Estonia over the last 20 years, and, in particular, the introduction of national curricula. As teachers should be considered the key agents of curricular change, we look…

  7. High incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabre, L; Pedai, G; Rekand, T; Asser, T; Linnamägi, U; Kõrv, J

    2012-10-01

    Retrospective population-based cohort study. To provide national data on epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) among the population of Estonia from 1997 to 2007. All Estonian hospitals. Medical records of patients with TSCI from all regional, central, general and rehabilitation hospitals in Estonia were retrospectively reviewed. Epidemiological characteristics, etiology, neurological level and severity of injury, concomitant injuries were analyzed. A total of 595 patients with TSCI from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2007 were identified. The male to female ratio was 5.5:1. The mean age at injury was 39.0 years. The crude incidence rate was 39.7 (95% confidence interval: 36.6-43.0) per million population. The most frequent cause of TSCI was falls (41%), followed by traffic accidents (29%). Alcohol consumption preceded 43% of injuries. The lesion level was cervical in 59.4%, thoracic in 18.3% and lumbar/sacral in 22.3%. Compared to recent studies from Europe, where the incidence of TSCI is between 15 and 30 per million population, the incidence of TSCI in Estonia is among the highest. The rates are significantly higher in men compared with women and especially among the youngest men. The leading cause of TSCI is falls. A significant proportion of injuries are related to alcohol consumption before trauma in Estonia.

  8. Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded zoonosis in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Ståhl, Marie; Lassen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered...

  9. A contribution to the epipsammic diatom flora of Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the modern epipsammic diatom flora in Lake Karujärv, Saaremaa Island, Estonia revealed seventy-one taxa representing thirty-one genera. The identity of all taxa is documented with light micrographs. Most abundant taxa of the epipsammic diatom community were Achnanthidium minutissimum

  10. Ediacaran and Cambrian stratigraphy in Estonia: an updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Meidla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous late Precambrian and Cambrian correlation charts of Estonia, summarizing the regional stratigraphic nomenclature of the 20th century, date back to 1997. The main aim of this review is updating these charts based on recent advances in the global Precambrian and Cambrian stratigraphy and new data from regions adjacent to Estonia. The term ‘Ediacaran’ is introduced for the latest Precambrian succession in Estonia to replace the formerly used ‘Vendian’. Correlation with the dated sections in adjacent areas suggests that only the latest 7–10 Ma of the Ediacaran is represented in the Estonian succession. The gap between the Ediacaran and Cambrian may be rather substantial. The global fourfold subdivision of the Cambrian System is introduced for Estonia. The lower boundary of Series 2 is drawn at the base of the Sõru Formation and the base of Series 3 slightly above the former lower boundary of the ‘Middle Cambrian’ in the Baltic region, marked by a gap in the Estonian succession. The base of the Furongian is located near the base of the Petseri Formation.

  11. "Welcome to Estonia" ärkab varjusurmast / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus on välja töötanud turunduskampaania tegevuskava ja taotleb Eesti märgi rahastamist. Majandusminister Juhan Partsi toetusest "Welcome to Estonia 2"projektile. EAS-i turundusdirektori Erki Peegli selgitusi. Kommenteerib Peter Roose. Lisa: Eesti märk

  12. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  13. Estonia hukk jõuab suvel kinodesse / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Nädal tagasi alustati Berliinis poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow

  14. Saksa press käsitleb Estonia huku filmi blufina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe, Kaj Holmberg ja Birgit Stein, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukajadest Saksa ajakirjanduses. Ka Eesti suursaadiku Riina Kionka arvamus

  15. Estonia juubelihooaeg tuleb tavalisest sisukam / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia 100. hooaja etendustest: G. Verdi "Othello", G. Puccini ooper "Tosca", Rene Eespere ooper "Gurmaanid-2", P. Mascagni "Talupoja au", R. Leoncavallo "Pajatsid", W. A. Mozarti ooper "Don Giovanni" ja ooperi "La clemenza di Tito" kontsertettekanne, Tiit Härmi ballett "Kameeliadaam", Ludvig Minkuse ballett "Don Quijote". Osavõtust Dalhalla ooperifestivalist Rootsis Puccini ooperiga "Tosca" ja Cannito/Schiavoni balletiga "Cassandra"

  16. Elegantne ja värske Rahvusooper Estonia / Maris Takk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Takk, Maris

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar, SAB Lember & Padar. Arhitektuurse projekti autor Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. ajaloolise interjööri preemia. J. Lemberist ja A. Padarist, nende tähtsamad tööd, autasud. Ill.: plaan, 16 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  17. Estonia näitas uut logo / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Ooperiteatri uue logo autor on Kristjan Kirsfeldt. Liis Kolle lavastab G. Rossini ooperi "Sinjoor Bruschino ehk Poeg juhuse tahtel", kunstnikud Liina Keevallik ja Reili Evart. 2. juunil Rahvusooperis etendunud rahvusooperi näiteringi "Welcome to Estonia" Neeme Kuninga kirjutatud ja lavastatud muusikalist "Minu veetlev Eedi".

  18. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  19. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Toom, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The earliest bioeroded inorganic hard substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia appear in the Dapingian. Hardgrounds are also known from the Sandbian and Katian. Most of the bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates occurs as the boring Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932 along with some possible Gastrochaenolites borings. North American hardground borings are more diverse than those in Baltica. In contrast to a worldwide trend of increasing boring intensity, the Estonian record seems to show no increase in boring intensities during the Middle and Late Ordovician. Hardgrounds seem to be more common during the temperate climate interval of the Ordovician calcite sea in Estonia (seven hardgrounds during 15 my) than in the part with a tropical climate (four hardgrounds during 12 my). Bioerosion is mostly associated with carbonate hardgrounds, but cobbles and pebbles broken from the hardgrounds are also often penetrated by Trypanites borings. The general diversity of boring ichnotaxa in Baltica increased from one ichnospecies in the Cambrian to seven by the end of Ordovician, showing the effect of the GOBE on bioeroding ichnotaxa. The diversity of inorganic hard substrate borers increased by only two times. This difference can be explained by the wider environmental distribution of organic as compared to inorganic substrates in the Ordovician seas of Baltica, and their more continuous temporal availability, which may have caused increased specialization of several borers. The inorganic substrates may have been bioreroded only by the generalists among boring organisms.

  20. How to reverse first time donors to become regular donors? A questionnaire survey in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerus, P; Kullaste, R; Pungas, K; Aavik, T; Lang, K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood in Estonia is non-remunerated and voluntary. Estonian Blood Service system has four independent regional blood centres that are responsible for blood collection, processing, screening and distribution of blood components to hospitals for clinical use. This research was carried out as a questionnaire survey. A questionnaire was developed to study lapsing first time donors' (FTD) blood donation experience, intention and willingness to donate again. A thousand five hundred and forty-six questionnaires were posted to donors who had one successful donation in 2010 and who had not returned to second donation till the year 2012. For data analysis routine statistical methods were used. To evaluate the most appropriate number of classes, based on previous experience and future expectations, latent class analysis was used. There were 453 respondents (29.3%). For the majority of aspects of blood donation experience the emotions were positive. Results of the study suggested that blood collection agencies should intervene to bolster donors' attitudes, perceived control, and identity as a donor during this crucial post-first donation period. First blood donation seems to have been a positive experience. Reasons leading to stopping blood donation should be studied further. Establishing a donor registry for Estonia would be essential to keep track of donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Pregnancies and deliveries in Finland and Estonia in 1997 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Raussi-Lehto, Eija; Kalam-Salminen, Ly; Hemminki, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Treatment practices of pregnancies and deliveries and newborn health have differed from each other between Finland and Estonia. We examined changes in the differences from 1997 to 2011 from national birth registers and official statistics. Deliveries, abortions and overall fertility remained similar in Finland. In Estonia, the number of deliveries increased and abortions decreased. Problems in the perinatal period continued to be more common in Estonia. Estonian reproductive health and treatment practices of deliveries have approached the situation in Finland.

  2. Rahmaninov ja Saint-Saens Estonia kontserdisaalis / Tiina Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Tiina, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    18. novembril Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast Sergei Rahmaninovi Klaverikontsert nr 2 ja "Kellad" ettekandest ja 29. novembril Toimuvast Camille Saint-Saensi ooperi "Simson ja Delila" kontsertettekandest

  3. Sajandi sündmus : Estonia teater jõudis Financial Timesi / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Maailmakuulus majandusleht Financial Times avaldas 4. jaanuaril ajakirjanik George Loomis'e artikli, mis kajastab Rahvusooperis Estonia 14. detsembril 2001 esietendunud Carl Orffi ooperit "Tark naine"

  4. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  5. The tourism image of Estonia in Spain: a formulative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlin Savva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an environment, where information flow is freer than ever. Nowadays everyone has access to global news and can make their own conclu-sions based on the perceived image. Therefore, the role of perception and image is becoming more important for different countries to attract visitors and in-vestors. Tourism is a way of selling the image of a country and the reputation and word of mouth generated from tourism activities are priceless to the image of a destination. This paper analyzes the case of Estonia, which is an emerging tourism market and quite new and unknown for Spain. The authors try to accent the importance of direct promotion, through a survey carried out to 341 Spanish people in Madrid. The result from this quantitative and formulative research method is that Estonia has to promote its tourism image better if the country wants to attract the Spanish tourist.

  6. How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Natalja Gurvitsh; Jaan Alver; Lehte Alver

    2017-01-01

    How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia During recent decades, more and more attention has been paid to business ethics. There seems to be an increasing interest in the non-financial aspects of business. Stakeholders all over the world express their concern about embedding the principles of professional and business ethics into companies’ everyday activities. The main subject of this research is business ethics and the purpose is to find out the im-portance of professional...

  7. Dirofilaria repens Microfilaremia in Three Dogs in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Mõtsküla, Paul F; Heikkinen, Petra; Ülevaino, Epp; Oksanen, Antti; Lassen, Brian

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, the zoonotic parasite Dirofilaria repens continues to spread northward. We describe three likely autochthonous canine microfilaremic D. repens infections from Estonia, an European Union country located in the Baltic region of northern Europe. The parasite species was confirmed with sequencing. These are new northernmost D. repens findings in Europe and show that the zoonotic parasite has spread farther north. Infection with D. repens should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for human and animal hosts also in northern Europe.

  8. [Hospital care in Estonia: thoughts on patient privacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenacker, Aline

    2017-03-01

    A student nurse is doing a work placement in a hospital in Estonia. The care techniques are identical to those with which she is familiar. However, the application of concepts of privacy and modesty is somewhat different. A reflexive analysis of the situation ensures no hasty judgements are made and enables her to think about the place of her own representations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Estonia ujub Saksamaa kinodesse / Andres Laasik, Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja. Põhjamaades on filmi linastamine kahtluse all

  10. "Higher education at a crossroad: The case of Estonia"

    OpenAIRE

    Ellu Saar

    2013-01-01

    Raamatututvustus annab ülevaate artiklikogumikust "Higher education at a crossroad: The case of Estonia". Raamat keskendub muutustele, mis on Eesti kõrghariduses toimunud viimase paarikümne aasta jooksul, samuti eesseisvatele ülesannetele, mille need muutused on endaga kaasa toonud. Kogumik esindab multidistsiplinaarset koostööprojekti, sest uuringute läbiviijad ja artiklite autorid on kasvatusteadlased, psühholoogid, majandusteadlased ja sotsioloogid kolmest Eesti kõrgkoolist.

  11. How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Gurvitsh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia During recent decades, more and more attention has been paid to business ethics. There seems to be an increasing interest in the non-financial aspects of business. Stakeholders all over the world express their concern about embedding the principles of professional and business ethics into companies’ everyday activities. The main subject of this research is business ethics and the purpose is to find out the im-portance of professional and business ethics and determine its place in the modern business world as seen by Estonian business students and practitioners. To achieve the goals, the authors conducted a survey among Estonian graduate and undergraduate accounting and business students at Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian business practitioners. 587 responses were collected in the process. This infor-mation was compiled and analyzed based on status, gender, age, and specialization. The survey revealed that in Estonia people are familiar with business ethics; however, it is not of great interest to them. The results also indicate that professional and business ethics merit more attention and should be included as a required course in the curriculum of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. In general, business ethics in Estonia was not ranked as “high”, which was also the case for both professional ethics at the work-place/university and also the importance and necessity of ethics in the modern business world.

  12. [Health telematics/telemedicine in the republic of Estonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, F; Fotuhi, P; Schierbaum, C; Dietel, M; Baumann, G; Lange, M; Asser, T

    2004-04-30

    The people of Estonia, who until their independence had been systematically deprived of all forms of information, have shown a ready acceptance of the use of information technology in all areas of life. This environment and an excellent IT infrastructure have since the beginning of the new century provided favourable conditions for developing various individual projects in telemedicine. At the core of current telemedical applications in Estonia is the BITNET Project (in neurology, general medicine), built up with Swedish cooperation, and three German-Estonian projects (in telecardiology and telepathology). These projects are accompanied by studies of their cost-effectiveness. They constitute the basis for the plan that routine telemedical services be taken over by the Estonian health insurance. Differing from the situation in the Scandinavian countries, which have had an effective national telemedical service for over ten years, the special feature of telematrics in Estonia is its international networking with foreign centres of excellence. This has its origin in the aim of Estonian health policy to ensure medical services within its own country in all branches of medicine.

  13. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Vendla, Kaidi; Vetka, Andre; Bell, J Simon; Hamilton, David

    2008-07-01

    To describe practice and research related to pharmaceutical care in Estonia following the country's restoration of independence from Russia in 1991. The transition from a Soviet to a free market economy has impacted the healthcare and pharmacy systems in Estonia. Following independence, ownership of community pharmacies was transferred from the State government to individual pharmacists. However, pharmacy ownership is no longer restricted to pharmacists and recent years have seen the emergence of large pharmacy chains. The number of community pharmacies in Estonia increased from 270 in 1992 to 523 in 2007. In addition to dispensing, Estonian pharmacies retain a focus on compounding of extemporaneous products and supply of herbal medications. Research into pharmaceutical care has addressed topics including pharmaceutical policy and the quality of pharmacy services provided at community pharmacies. There has been limited pressure to date from the governmental institutions and patient organizations to introduce extended pharmaceutical services. However, the trend toward providing health services in primary care will create greater responsibilities and new opportunities for community pharmacists. Recent inclusion of clinical pharmacy and interprofessional learning in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum will help ensure ongoing development of the profession and high-quality pharmacy services in the future. Pharmaceutical care services in Estonian community pharmacies have become more patient-oriented over the past 17 years. However, community pharmacies continue to retain a focus on traditional roles.

  14. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk and accessory mineral composition of fresh and weathered crystalline rocks, and sedimentary deposits overlying the crystalline-sedimentary unconformity have been examined in core samples from 28 drill holes in Estonia. Before the Late Vendian to Early Cambrian regional subsidence and sedimentation, the region represented a flat plateau within the Svecofennian Domain. Palaeo-and Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, regardless their different initial mineral composition, subcrop under the Upper Vendian/Lower Cambrian sedimentary cover as usually intensely weathered rocks (saprolites composed of residual quartz, altered micas and prevailing clay minerals mainly of the kaolinite group. Thus, the bulk mineral composition of any basement crystalline rocks imparts no specific inherited rock-forming minerals into the covering sedimentary rocks. From the variety of accessory and opaque minerals of crystalline rocks, only zircon populations survived in saprolites. Crystalline rocks of different origin yield different zircons. Relationships between the zircon typology of the basement rocks having specific areas of distribution and the sedimentary rocks immediately overlying those crystalline rocks were the main subject of this study. The result is that siliciclastic sedimentary rocks covering weathered crystalline rocks only in places inherited zircons with typological features characteristic of specific basement areas. In northeastern Estonia, local lenses of the Oru Member (the earliest Upper Vendian sedimentary rocks in Estonia resembling the debris of weathered crystalline rocks yield accessory zircon which in a 1-2 m thick layer above the basement surface is similar to the zircons of the underlying weathering mantle of certain crystalline rocks. In the next unit, the Moldova Member, up to 43 m above the basement surface, a mixture of zircons resembling those of various local basement rocks has been found. Further upwards, in the Vendian and Lower

  15. Estonia 1989-2000: enormous increase in mortality differences by education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Vågerö, Denny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Having regained its political autonomy in 1991, Estonia experienced major changes in political, economic, and social realities. We aimed to analyse mortality changes by education from 1989 to 2000 in order to assess the impact of recent changes in Estonia, as well as the delayed effects

  16. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Estonia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mere, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Estonia restored its independence in 1991. The creation of legislation and reorganisation of the educational system was one of the first tasks of the restored Republic of Estonia. The development of the national curriculum for basic and upper secondary schools that provided a framework substituting the previous study modules, and the creation of…

  17. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  18. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  19. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  20. Uudised : Estonia maja renoveerimisest. EMNi juhatuse tegevusest. Meredith Monki kontsert Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    7. märtsil kiitis rahvusooperi Estonia nõukogu heaks Estonia teatri- ja kontserdimaja renoveerimistööde tehnilise projekti. EMNi juhatuse koosolekul 27. veebr. arutati E. Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumi perspektiive, muusikahariduse probleeme ja EMNi töösuundi. 20. märtsil esineb Tallinnas Sakala keskuses M. Monk

  1. Valge Laeva hukk : Estonia katastroof meie peas = The wreck of the White ship : on the catastrophe of the Estonia / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    "Estonia" katasroofist ja meedia osast selle kajastamisel, Juhan Leinbergist ja maltsvetlusest ning "valge laeva" kui priiuse laeva ja lootuse kujundist Eesti kultuuris ning selle tähendusest eestlaste teadvuses

  2. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanpere, Made; Ringmets, Inge; Part, Kai; Allvee, Kärt; Veerus, Piret; Karro, Helle

    2014-07-09

    The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996-2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996-2003 and 2004-2011. Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996-2003 to 58.0% during 2004-2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups--non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children--vulnerable with respect to repeat abortion.

  3. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  4. Dolomitization and sedimentary cyclicity of the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian rocks in South Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallaste, Toivo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and composition of dolomitized rocks and stoichiometry of dolomite in southern Estonia in the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian were studied on the background of the facies, sedimentary cyclicity (nine shallowing-up cycles, and evolution of the palaeobasins. The composition of rocks and lattice parameters of dolomite were investigated using the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, titration and gravimetric analyses, and porosity measurements. The formation of dolostones is directly determined by the cyclic evolution of palaeobasins. Dolomitized rocks belong to the shallow-water inner shelf or tidal/lagoonal facies belt of regressive phases of sedimentary cycles. Sediments of the deep shelf/transitional environment and transgressive phases are not dolomitized. The most stoichiometric is secondary replacive dolomite of Silurian and upper Ordovician dolostones, formed during the early diagenesis of normal-marine (saline shallow-shelf calcitic sediments. The content of insoluble residue does not affect the stoichiometry. The changes in lattice parameters are induced by the Ca/Mg ratio in the dolomite lattice. The dolomite of the dolostones contacting limestone or containing calcite has an expanded lattice. The primary (syngenetic dolostone of the lagoonal or tidal flat belt has also an expanded lattice. No dolomitizing effect of the waters of the Devonian palaeobasin on the underlying rocks was revealed. The whole data set of the studied dolostones is consistent with the marine water environment in the palaeobasin at the corresponding time and shows no sign of the inflow of external fluids. It suggests that the microbial model of dolomite formation may characterize the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian in southern Estonia. The occurrence of dolostones between undolomitized rocks limits the time of dolomitization to the early diagenetic stage.

  5. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea : National Report of Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Laevadelt lähtuv merereostus ja kaldariigi jurisdiktsioon Balti mere kaguosas : Eesti. - Lisatud: Estonia : Economic Zone Act of Estonia : 28 January 1993 : Annex I, lk. 121-124 ; Estonia : State Borders Act of Estonia : 30 June 1994 : Annex II, lk. 125-138

  6. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as

  7. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  8. Estonia hukk jõuab kinolinale / Anari Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Anari

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastub 2. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teevad kaasa Rein Oja ja väikeses rollis Urmas Alenderi lesk Helje Kaskel. Kõlab ka U. Alenderi laul

  9. Design of accounting curriculum: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alver Lehte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization sets new requirements for the professional qualification of accountants and auditors. In the business world globalized investment market demands consistent high quality financial information across borders; investors are looking for a global accounting profession to provide it. There is more pressure on accounting professionals to expand and enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities beyond what they are currently likely to possess. Providers of accounting education must take into account the changed world and create contemporary curricula. In Estonia the change from a command to a market economy has inevitably influenced not only the accounting framework but also the entire system of accounting education. It is clear that without a design of accounting curricula it is practically impossible to fulfill requirements of nowadays high quality financial information. Tallinn University of Technology (TUT holds on the advanced level of accounting education the leading position in Estonia. The accounting curriculum (on the graduate level as well as undergraduate level is the most popular among all curricula at the Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration of TUT. It is a joint system, which consists of undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Small sub specializations: for example in financial accounting, managerial cost accounting, taxation and auditing become evident while interpreting the graduate and undergraduate programs as one united system. The paper explains a new model of accounting curriculum developed at TUT as well as its educational philosophy and principles of designing. It also describes conditions required for development and continuous improvement of competitive curriculum.

  10. The Implementation of Pharmacy Competence Teaching in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Sepp, Kristiina; Veski, Peep; Raal, Ain

    2017-01-01

    Background: The PHAR-QA, “Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training”, project has produced the European Pharmacy Competence Framework (EPCF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing pharmacy programme at the University of Tartu, using the EPCF. Methods: A qualitative assessment of the pharmacy programme by a convenience sample (n = 14) representing different pharmacy stakeholders in Estonia. EPCF competency levels were determined by using a five-point scale tool adopted from the Dutch competency standards framework. Mean scores of competency levels given by academia and other pharmacy stakeholders were compared. Results: Medical and social sciences, pharmaceutical technology, and pharmacy internship were more frequent subject areas contributing to EPCF competencies. In almost all domains, the competency level was seen higher by academia than by other pharmacy stakeholders. Despite on-board theoretical knowledge, the competency level at graduation could be insufficient for independent professional practice. Other pharmacy stakeholders would improve practical implementation of theoretical knowledge, especially to increase patient care competencies. Conclusions: The EPCF was utilized to evaluate professional competencies of entry-level pharmacists who have completed a traditional pharmacy curriculum. More efficient training methods and involvement of practicing specialists were suggested to reduce the gaps of the existing pharmacy programme. Applicability of competence teaching in Estonia requires more research and collaborative communication within the pharmacy sector. PMID:28970430

  11. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in breeding pigs in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-12-11

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.

  12. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Proposal for Modified Damage Probability Distribution Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1996-01-01

    Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub-committee on st......Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub...

  14. Recent developments in the Upper Ordovician and lower Silurian conodont biostratigraphy in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of and the latest developments in the conodont-based biostratigraphical studies of Upper Ordovician and lower Silurian strata in Estonia are discussed. An updated conodont zonation is proposed, based on successive first and/or last occurrences of taxa as interpreted from the stratigraphical record of Estonia as well as of other parts of the world. The zonation includes mainly units proposed by different authors at different times, with some revision by the author. Currently, 32 zones (with 14 subzones and 3 informal units can be recognized in the Upper Ordovician to upper Wenlock (Homerian of Estonia.

  15. Diversity of Helicobacter pylori genotypes among Estonian and Russian patients with perforated peptic ulcer, living in Southern Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillakivi, T; Aro, H; Ustav, M; Peetsalu, M; Peetsalu, A; Mikelsaar, M

    2001-02-05

    To compare the genomic variation of Helicobacter pylori in samples obtained from patients with perforated peptic ulcer, living in the same area of Estonia but belonging to different nationalities, 50 non-consecutive patients (32 Estonians and 18 Russians) admitted in the Tartu University Hospital in 1997-1999 were studied. Gastric samples of antral mucosa were obtained during operation and analysed histologically and with PCR for detection of different genotypes of H. pylori (cagA and vacA s and m subtypes). Among the 50 perforated peptic ulcer patients with histologically proven H. pylori colonisation no sample of gastric mucosa showed the s1b subtype of the vacA gene. The perforated peptic ulcer patients were mainly infected with cagA (82%) and s1 (98%) genotypes of H. pylori. The distribution of s1a/m1, s1a/m2 and s2/m2 subtypes of vacA genes was statistically different in Estonian and Russian patients (PEstonian and Russian patients with perforated peptic ulcer from Southern Estonia.

  16. The incidence of hip fractures in Estonia, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürisson, M; Vorobjov, S; Kallikorm, R; Lember, M; Uusküla, A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hip fractures among individuals aged over 50 in Estonia and trends over time were assessed for 2005-2012. The incidence among women is relatively low, with the declining trend, but the rate among men is among the highest in Eastern and Central Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and trends of hip fractures among individuals over 50 years in Estonia in 2005-2012 and to increase understanding of the incidence of hip fractures in Eastern Europe. We identified all patients aged 50 years or older with hip fracture (ICD-10 codes S72.0, S72.1 and S72.2) in 2005-2012 using medical claims data from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. Crude and age-specific incidence rates were calculated for men and women using the population of Estonia in 2005-2012. To adjust for age differences in the population, standardized incidence rates (SIR) were estimated. The SIR per 100,000 for the entire observation period was 209.2 (95% CI 204.2 to 214.2) in women and 215.6 (95%CI 208.2 to 223.1) in men, resulting in a female to male rate ratio of 0.97 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.11). Over the period of 2005-2012 the estimated SIR/100,000 ranged from 211.5 (95% CI 196.8-226.3) in 2005 to 183.7 (95% CI 170.8-196.7) in 2012 in women, and from 238.5 (95% CI 215.4-261.7) in 2005 to 187.9 (95% CI 169.0-206.8) in 2012, in men. For women, the decrease in SIR for the study period approached statistical significance (p = 0.058), and for the period of 2009-2012, we observed an accelerated 16% decrease (p = 0.008). The incidence of hip fractures among Estonian women is relatively low, whereas the rate among men is among the highest in Eastern and Central Europe. In line with many countries, we found a recent decline in incidence among women.

  17. Noor-Eesti ja naised. Young Estonia and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early years of the 20th century, representatives of many areas of Estonian social life were coming to the understanding that the position of Estonian women was historically, socially, and culturally undefined, that it was hedged about by various limitations, and that the role of women in public life was getting in the way of the advancement of Estonian society. Articles with titles like ”The Woman Question” and ”Why the Estonian Woman Will not Awaken” were published frequently in the Estonian press at the beginning of the 20th century. The Young Estonians were not left out of these discussions: in Young Estonia’s publications, there were both fictional and non-fictional texts, novellas and essays focused on the position of woman in society. The 1905 revolution broadened this outlook and increased women’s real prospects for getting an education. Two girls’ high schools were established with Estonian as the language of instruction: one in 1906 in Tartu, and another in 1907 in Tallinn, with the goal of furthering the inclusion of women in public life. Schools of home economics were founded, and the first women’s associations were established. Comparisons with Finland served as a stimulus to the development of Estonian education and culture. In Estonia, the highest level of education for women was limited to a private course of study in university; thus whenever they had the opportunity, women went abroad to attend university, either to Germanspeaking parts of Europe or Finland (e.g. Hella Murrik. At the beginning of the 20th century several women writers had become known through the Estonianlanguage press or poetry anthologies, but on the whole, the development of Estonian literature lagged behind. There was only one woman actively involved in the discussions on culture of the Young Estonian renewal movement – Aino Kallas, who had received her education in Finland, and who participated in the movement from the beginning. Of

  18. Taastusravikeskus Estonia uus korpus : Tammsaare 4a, Pärnu / Piret Lindpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindpere, Piret, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    "Estonia" sanatooriumi uut neljakorruselist Rohelist maja (arhitekt Jüri Soolep, sisekujundaja Edda Soolep) ühendab sanatooriumi Valge majaga klaasgalerii ülakorruste tasandil. 4 välis- ja 3 sisevaadet

  19. ICP Materials: long-term studies at the Lahemaa monitoring station, Estonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ott Roots

    2015-01-01

    ... and cultural monuments, is studied. So far these studies have revealed that even though air pollution has continuously declined in Estonia, no significant reduction in corrosion on the displayed sample plates at the Lahemaa test site could be observed...

  20. Saaremaa lad brings FBI conference to Estonia / Kalle Laanet ; interv. Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanet, Kalle, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema õpinguid FBI akadeemias, Tallinnas toimuvat FBI konverentsi ning Eesti sisejulgeolekut. Lisa: Estonian Police statistics; Registered crimes in Estonia; From police officer to minister; What happened in April?

  1. Immoral Obscenity: Censorship of Folklore Manuscript Collections in Late Stalinist Estonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kulasalu, Kaisa

    2013-01-01

    .... In the first years after the incorporation of the Republic of Estonia into the Soviet Union, anti-Soviet mainly meant politically sensitive materials such as jokes about Stalin, very patriotic texts...

  2. Ethnic Minority Policies and Political Parties' Appeal to Ethnic Voters: A Case Study of Estonia's Russians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tolvaišis, Leonas

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a case study of Estonia's major political parties' relations with the ethnic Russian electorate, the article examines the role of ethnic minority policies in the electoral appeal of nation...

  3. Hip-hop ja ooper kohtuvad Estonias / Marko Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Marko

    2006-01-01

    10. juunil Rahvusooperis Estonia etenduvast Mozarti ooperi "Cosi fan tutte" tänapäevasest versioonist, mis valmis Inglismaa Glyndebounre'i festivali, Saksamaa komische operi ja Soome Rahvusooperi koostöös, lavastaja Clare Whistler

  4. "Welcome To Estonia" läks vaatajaile hinge / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2002-01-01

    Poliitikuid pilavad Rain Tolk ja Ken Saan uues filmis "Welcome To Estonia" : režissöör Andres Maimik : toimetaja Juhan Ulfsak. Film esilinastusest 6. detsembril kinos Sõprus Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali raames

  5. Tõsidusega, kaasaelamisega (Esto TV) : Märkmeid filmist "Welcome to Estonia" / Mihhail Armujobin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihhail Armujobin

    2002-01-01

    Parodeeriv arvustus poliitikuid pilava uue filmi "Welcome To Estonia" kohta: režissöör Andres Maimik : toimetaja Juhan Ulfsak. Film esilinastus 6. detsembril kinos Sõprus Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali raames

  6. On The Road to Euro: How Synchronized Is Estonia with the Euro zone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brixiova, Zuzana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available While the currency board served Estonia well during transition in the 1990s, it has limited its ability to counter the impact of the global financial crisis and heightened the currency risks. The euro adoption has thus become a top policy priority again. However, this paper finds that even after almost two decades of hard peg with the core of the euro zone shocks affecting Estonia are relatively weakly synchronized with those of the zone, contributing to large output volatility. Nevertheless, the case for euro adoption by Estonia holds, since the costs of the loss of independent monetary policy were paid, and - as the global financial crisis demonstrated - the currency board is no substitute for the common currency. To reduce future output volatility, Estonia should move to counter-cyclical fiscal policies, maintain labor and product market flexibility, and adopt policies stimulating rise in the knowledge and high-tech content of its production.

  7. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  8. Estonia - üks tõeline eestimaine spaa / Dagmar Reinolt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinolt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Heaoluspaa võtmes renoveeritud Estonia Spa Hotelsi ühest kompleksist. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti arhitektid: Raivo Kotov, Indrek Mikk. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti sisearhitektid: Raili Paling, Liis Lindvere, Kadri Kaldam, Kärt Loopalu. Valmimisaasta: 2015

  9. Reasons for internal migration in Estonia 1989-2000 / Mare Ainsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ainsaar, Mare

    2004-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uurimust "Reasons for move: a study on trends and reasons of internal migration with particular interest in Estonia 1989-2000" (Turku University, 2004) Eesti elanikkonna migratsioonist ja selle põhjustest. Skeemid

  10. Alcohol consumption in Estonia and Finland: Finbalt survey 1994-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Rahu, Kaja; Helakorpi, Satu; Tekkel, Mare

    2010-05-19

    Alcohol consumption has been regarded as an important contributor to the high premature mortality rates. The objective of this paper was to provide an overview and comparison of alcohol consumption and its socio-demographic determinants among adults in Estonia and Finland. The study was based on a 25-64-year-old subsample of nationally representative postal cross-sectional surveys conducted in Estonia (n = 10,340) and Finland (n = 19,672) during 1994-2006. Abstinence, frequency, and the amount of alcohol consumed were examined. Logistic regression models were used to test the socio-demographic differences in alcohol consumption at least once a week. The effect of socio-demographic factors on pure alcohol consumed per week was calculated using linear regression. The proportion of abstainers was 1.5 times higher among women than men in both countries. Throughout the study period, the amount of alcohol consumed per week increased for both genders in Estonia and for women in Finland, but was stable for men in Finland. In the final study year, medium risk amount of alcohol consumed per week was nearly 1.5 times higher among men in Estonia than in Finland, but about half that among women in Estonia than in Finland. Compared to ethnic majority in Estonia, alcohol consumption at least once a week was lower among men, but amount of pure alcohol drunk per week was higher among women of ethnic minority. In Finland, alcohol consumption at least once a week was more prevalent among women of ethnic minority, but the amount of pure alcohol drunk per week was lower for both gender groups of ethnic minority. Compared to married/cohabiting respondents, alcohol consumption at least once a week was less pronounced among single respondents in Finland, divorced or separated women in both countries, and widowed respondents in Estonia. Greater amount of alcohol consumed per week was more prevalent among single and divorced or separated respondents in Finland, but only among divorced or

  11. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    2014-01-01

    in the acidification and eutrophication (N) categories for the reed canary grass scenario, reflecting the impacts of the cultivation process. The main conclusion was that future strategies for manure-biogas production in Estonia should not rely upon land-dependent biomass, even if the availability of arable land...... in Estonia is, under current conditions, not considered to be an issue. Keywords: anaerobic digestion, land use changes, dairy manure, reed canary grass, natural grass...

  12. Estonia ballett üle seitsme aasta taas Pärnus / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia balleti kunstiline juht Toomas Edur Estonia balletitrupist ja 20. veebruaril toimuvast kolmest lühiballetist koosnevast balletiõhtust Pärnu kontserdimajas. Esitatakse Bohuslav Martinu "Enne öö saabumist" (koreograaf Nils Christe), Arnold Schönbergi "Pelléas ja Mélisande" (koreograaf Tiit Härm), Robert Schumanni "Teine sümfoonia" (koreograaf Uwe Scholz)

  13. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION IN ESTONIA AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to make a comparison of HRM practices among New Member States (especially Estonia and Slovenia and how these practices help to create the conditions to develop a knowledge organization. In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of knowledge management concept and its relations with HRM was used. For empirical research a simple exploratory analysis statistical technique was used on Cranet (the Cranfield Network on Comparative Human Resource Management data on HRM practices across countries was used. Major findings allow stating that two important prerequisites for knowledge organization are met and they are successfully implemented through HRM practices especially in organizations in one country. The empirical research findings showed the trends in global economy and the ability of organizations in the New Member States to adapt through institutionally developed HRM practices.

  14. Refuge or Resource: Home and Nostalgia in Postsocialist Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Kannike

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on nostalgia as it appears in the representations of home-decoration in postsocialist Estonia. This theme is explored, describing a dialogue and conflict between different versions of relating to the past. The empirical material comprises qualitatively analysed in-depth interviews and articles in home-decoration journals from 1997–2008. Examining some dimensions and mechanisms of nostalgia in this specific context enables to demonstrate how is transformation from Soviet everyday culture into Western consumer culture conceptualised through ideas about the home. I will suggest that in Estonian everyday life nostalgia is not only a form of escapism into the past from the uncertain present and identity problems, but it also works as a resource to cope with the traumatic past, negotiate and forge new identities.

  15. Epidemiological studies on animal and human trichinellosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järvis T.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 to 1999, muscle samples from 814 sylvatic animals and 1,173 domestic and synanthropic animals were collected in 15 districts of Estonia ; the prevalence of trichinellosis ranged from 1.0 % to 79.4 % for sylvatic animals and from 0.6 % to 24.5 % for domestic or synanthropic animals and for animals from fur-bearing farms. The most important reservoirs of Trichinella in nature were the raccoon dog, the red fox, the lynx and the wolf. Three species of Trichinella (T. spiralis, T. nativa, and T. britovi were identified by several types of PCR-based analyses. Meat from sylvatic animals was the main source of Trichinella infection for humans.

  16. "Estonia" müsteerium / Jüri Liim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liim, Jüri

    2001-01-01

    Järgneb 26. okt., 2.,9.,16.,23.,30. nov., 7.,14. dets. ; 2002, 4.,11.,18.,25. jaan., 1.,8.,15.,22. veebr., 1.,8.,15.,22. märts, 5.,12.,26. aprill, 3.,10.,17.,24.,31. mai, 7.,14.,28. juuni, 5.,12.,19.,26. juuli, 2.,9.,16.,23. aug., 6.,13.,20.,27. sept., 4.,11.,25. okt., 1.,8.,15.,22.,29. nov., 13.,20. dets. ; 10.,17.,24., 31. jaan., 2003, 14. veebr., 7.,28. märts, 4.,11.,25. apr., 16.,23. mai, 6.,27. juuni, 11.,18. juuli. Reisilaev "Estonia" mõistatuslikust hukust

  17. Radiation dose measurement of paediatric patients in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, K. [Training Centre of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tartu (Estonia); Lintrop, M. [Department of Radiology, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu (Estonia); Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Eek, V.; Filippova, I. [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2003-06-01

    According to the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/Euratom) the radiation doses to patients should be measured in every hospital and doses should be compared to the reference doses established by the competent authorities. Special attention should be paid to the paediatric x-ray examinations, because the paediatric patients are more radiosensitive than adult patients. The requirement of measurements of radiation dose to patients is not yet included in the Estonian radiation act, but the purpose to join the European Communities makes the quality control in radiology very actual in Estonia. The necessity exists to introduce suitable measurement methods in the Xray departments of Estonian hospitals for establishing feedback system for radiologists, radiographers and medical physicists in optimising the radiation burden of patients and image quality. (orig.)

  18. Devonian stratigraphy in Estonia: current state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elga Mark-Kurik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An updated version of the Devonian stratigraphical chart of Estonia with comments is presented. Estonian regional stratigraphical units are correlated with the standard conodont zonation and miospore zonation, used in the western part of the East European Platform. The fossil fish zonations, largely accepted in the Main Devonian Field, are discussed. Differences in the position of series and stage boundaries and age determination of regional units in the Baltic area, Belarus and NW Russia are dealt with. Two key markers for the correlation of the Middle Devonian of the Baltic area and Scotland, based mainly on placoderms, are described. Special attention is paid to occurrences of inarticulate brachiopods and finds of rare articulate brachiopods in siliciclastic rocks of the Baltic area, indicating their marine origin.

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Lophodermium seditiosum Epidemics in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANSO, MÄRT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The needle trace method (NTM, created and developed by the Finnish forest pathologists prof. T. Kurkela, dr. R. Jalkanen and T. Aalto during the last decade of the XX century, has been already used by several researchers of different countries for retrospective analysis of needle diseases (Hypodermella sulcigena, by R. Jalkanen et al. in Finland or herbivorous insect pests of Scots pine (Diprion pini, by T. Kurkela et al. in Finland; Bupalus piniaria, by H. Armour et al. in Scotland, but as well of pests of Sitka spruce (Gilpinia hercyniae, by D.T. Williams et al. in England. Scots pine in forest nurseries and young plantations of Estonia is often but irregularly suffering from the epidemics of the needle cast fungus Lophodermium seditiosum. Current environmental regulations exclude from the regulatory (control measures all the others except of well-argued prophylactic systems, built up on reliable prognoses. The last is inconceivable without the availability of a reliable, as well, and long-lasting retrospective time-series of L. seditiosum epidemics, which, as it is known from the last half of the XX century, are occupying large forest areas, usually not least than a half of (the small Estonia. An appropriate time-series would be useful, as well, for the more basic understanding of the accelerated mortality processes during the stand formation in early pole-age Scots pine plantations. Methodological principles of the use of NTM in an appropriate investigation together with the preliminary results of our research work, looking back for more than a century, are introduced and discussed in this investigation.

  20. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health.

  1. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Geological settings of the protected Selisoo mire (northeastern Estonia threatened by oil shale mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hiiemaa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The protected Selisoo mire in northeastern Estonia is located above valuable oil shale resources, partly in the permitted mining area. We describe in detail the geomorphology and geological setting of the mire to understand the natural preconditions for its formation, development and preservation. We used the LiDAR-based digital elevation model for relief analysis, mapped the peat thickness with ground-penetrating radar and described the Quaternary cover through corings. Ridges, oriented perpendicular to the generally southward-sloping terrain, and shallow depressions at the surface of mineral soil have influenced mire formation and its spatio-temporal dynamics. The Quaternary cover under the mire is thin and highly variable. Therefore the mire is hydro­geologically insufficiently isolated from the limestone bedrock that is drained by the nearby oil shale mine and consequently the mining activities approaching the mire may have a negative influence on the wetland and proposed Natura 2000 site. Natura 2000 type wetlands, both protected or currently outside the nature reserves, cover a significant portion of the prospective oil shale mining areas. The distribution and resilience of those sites may significantly influence further utilization of oil shale resources.

  3. Cyclic sedimentation pattern in Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saarse Leili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sediment core from Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia, 1077 cm in length and covering 10,500 calibrated years, was examined using loss-on-ignition, grain-size distribution and AMS 14C dating to reconstruct depositional dynamics. The studied core, recovered from the northern part of the lake, shows a cyclic pattern of organic and mineral matter concentration with cycle durations of 100-400 years. Cyclicity is displayed better in sediments laid down between 9,200 and 5,600 cal BP. Within two time windows (5,600-5,100 cal BP and from 1,200 cal BP to the present, sediment composition changed drastically on account of a high and fluctuating mineral matter content, obviously driven by different factors. Little Ice Age cooling is characterised by the highest proportion of mineral matter, and the Medieval Warm Period is typified by high organic matter content. The cyclic change of organic and mineral matter has been related to climate dynamics, most likely an alternation of wet and dry conditions, changes in the water level of the lake and differences in bioproduction

  4. New biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data from the Chicotte Formation (Llandovery, Anticosti Island, Laurentia compared with the Viki core (Estonia, Baltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munnecke, Axel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of biostratigraphically useful graptolites in the crinoidal and reefal Chicotte Formation on Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada, the precise chronostratigraphic position of the formation is not known. New stable carbon isotope and conodont data and a comparison with the detailed conodont distribution and d13C development in the Viki core (Estonia suggest an early Telychian age (Pterospathodus eopennatus to P. a. angulatus zones for at least the lower half of the formation. This interval is characterized by a small but distinct positive excursion in d13C, with peak values of + 3.2‰ and + 2.8‰ VPDB in the lowermost 10–15 m of the Chicotte Formation on Anticosti and in the Viki core, respectively.

  5. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  6. Cost analysis of youth clinic network in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Jari

    2015-05-01

    Youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (YFSRH) services for young people have high priority in many countries. Yet, little is known about the actual cost of delivering YFSRH services. This article analyses costs of a fully scaled up national youth clinic network (YCN) in Estonia. It reports; 1) total budget of the YCN during the period 2002-2012, and 2) annual clinic level costs of three youth clinics (YCs) in 2012. The retrospective cost analysis is based on financial and medical records of Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), Estonian Sexual Health Association (ESHA), National Institute for Health Development and the YCs. The programme level costs are analysed per year, financing source and a portion spent on coordination in 2002-2012. Costs of three YCs are analysed per clinic, expense category, patient and healthcare service in 2012. The total budget of the YCN was €8.38 million and it served 304,000 young patients in 2002-2012. 95% of the total budget was financed by the EHIF. 3.6% was spent on coordination. The YCs in Tallinn, Tartu and Ida-Virumaa had annual budgets of €247,000, €267,000 and €42,000 respectively. In 2012 the three YCs provided YFSRH services to 19,700 patients, excluding sexuality education lessons and internet counselling. The YFSRH services cost €543,000. Consequently, the average cost per patient was €27.76. The largest expense categories were personnel salaries 35% and medical supplies 33%. Cost of the YFSRH services were; STI consultation €54.80, SRH counselling €13.13, contraception consultation €9.32, internet counselling €8.21 and sexuality education lesson €1.52. The Estonian YCN is a positive example for other countries considering or already implementing similar programmes. The cost analyses highlighted the following: Sustainable funding is particularly important, without it the YFSRH services would not have been scaled up and sustained on the national level in Estonia. Investment in professional

  7. Comparison of socioeconomic differences in self-perceived health in Estonia and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Ringmets, Inge

    2010-03-01

    To compare self-perceived health in relation to socioeconomic factors in Estonia and Finland. This study was based on the 25-69 year old adult population of the European Social Survey, conducted in Estonia and in Finland in 2006. Self-perceived health was rated on the five-point scale as very good, good, fair, poor, and very poor. The socioeconomic position was measured by the level of education, economic activity, and self-rated financial situation. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the association between self-perceived health and the socioeconomic factors. The prevalence of less-than-good health was significantly higher in Estonia than in Finland. Significant associations with less-than-good self-perceived health were found for less educated, economically non-active respondents with poorer self-rated financial situation in both countries. After adjustment, economic non-activity among women and self-rated financial situation among men appeared not to be associated with less-than-good self-perceived health in Finland. Self-perceived health was poorer in Estonia than in Finland, but Estonia shares with Finland a similar socioeconomic pattern of health. Further research is needed to monitor socioeconomic variations in health behaviour and mortality in both countries.

  8. Contribution of the Public Sector to the Development of Innovation: Position of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of regional competition the authors discuss the role of the public sector in developing innovation activities and the ways to encourage innovation in the private and the public sector. Innovation policy gets linked to modern stage theories of development that focus on innovation. Estonia has reached the investment driven stage. With respect to several innovation indexes and measures of innovation policy a statistical comparison between Estonia and European Union member countries shows whether Estonia belongs to the group of leaders, renegades from leader role, losers or to that of aspirers. The indexes and indicators applied refer to the Community Innovation Survey, Summary Innovation Index, and Global Competitive Index. Although public higher education and R&D expenditures and co-operation of firms are above EU levels the analysis demonstrates that total R&D expenses are below European average. Co-operation between Universities and private firms is low and the number of patents as well. The knowledge creation and the ability to apply innovations enabled Estonia to reach an “aspirer position” whereas with respect to global competition Estonia possesses a “looser” position partly due to the lack of scientists, engineers, etc. Estonian public sector should develop and promote actively the necessary and promising fields of innovation analysed.

  9. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  10. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  11. Conodont dating of some Telychian (Silurian sections in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Telychian–Sheinwoodian strata exposed in Estonia are precisely dated using conodont biostratigraphy. The beds in the Valgu-1 section correspond to the uppermost Distomodus staurognathoides and Pterospathodus eopennatus ssp. n. 1 zones. In the Valgu-2 and Valgu-3 sections only the P. eopennatus ssp. n. 1 Zone is exposed. The strata in the Velise-Kõrgekalda section correspond to the Lower subzone of the P. amorphognathoides angulatus Zone. Marlstones in the Jädivere section are assigned to the P. a. lennarti Zone. In the Avaste section part of the P. a. lithuanicus Zone is exposed. On the Saastna Peninsula two stratigraphical intervals, the lower corresponding to the Upper subzone of the P. a. amorphognathoides Zone and the upper to the Upper Kockelella ranuliformis Zone, crop out along the shoreline. In Saastna the exposed strata are separated by a covered interval corresponding to five conodont zones, from the Lower Pseudooneotodus bicornis Zone to the Lower K. ranuliformis Zone.

  12. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  14. Acrylamide in commercial foods and intake by infants in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Andres; Roasto, Mati; Reinik, Mari; Nelis, Keiu; Nurk, Eha; Elias, Terje

    2017-11-01

    Acrylamide is formed when certain foods with low moisture are prepared at above 120 ºC, especially those foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose. Acrylamide is a probable carcinogen, and from animal evidence the margins of exposure indicate a concern for neoplastic effects. On a body weight basis infants´ acrylamide intakes are often higher than those of adults. The aim of the study was to determine acrylamide levels in different commercially-available foods and to assess dietary acrylamide intakes by infants. The acrylamide content in samples ranged widely, from acrylamide values were found for potato crisps and snacks. Among baby foods, the highest mean level of acrylamide was found in vegetable-based non-cereal foods (65 µg kg-1), followed by processed cereal-based infant foods (42 µg kg-1). The indicative acrylamide values were most frequently exceeded for vegetable-based baby foods. The mean acrylamide content in baby foods ranged from acrylamide-containing baby food, the MOE values ranged between 185 and 620 for neoplastic effects, and between 467 and 1,569 for non-neoplastic effects. These MOE values indicate the need to reduce acrylamide exposure among infants in Estonia.

  15. Small-Scale Chp Potential in Latvia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, A.; Latõšv, E.; Siirde, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the research the small-scale CHP potential of Latvia and Estonia has been defined. Factors, which influence the CHP development, were analyzed in this paper, including political, geographic, climatological, legislative and technological factors. For the small-scale CHP potential assessment the three alternatives were chosen. The first alternative is the case, when only the hot water is taken into account. In this case the CHP can work with full load during the whole year because the heat load will not change (k=0,13). For the second alternative the results of the previous research were used. In this case an optimal relative heat load has been found for a small-scale CHP. This optimum value is 0,3. According to this optimum value the CHP can produce more electricity working with full load than in the first case. However, the CHP does not work whole year round. The third alternative shows the situation for the small-scale CHP when a half of the maximum heat load will be covered by the CHP. The formulas and the results for each case were provided.

  16. On the lower boundary of the Floian Stage in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The lower boundary of the Second Stage of the Lower Ordovician Series, the Floian Stage, is defined by the first appearance of the graptolite Tetragraptus approximatus. In the stratotype section of Diabasbrottet at Hunneberg, southern Sweden, the boundary falls within the Megistaspis planilimbata trilobite Zone and within the Oelandodus elongatus–Acodus deltatus deltatus conodont Subzone of the Paroistodus proteus Zone, and within the Hunneberg Regional Stage. Graptolites, including the index species T. approximatus, are missing in the terrigenous sediment of Estonia. The earliest trilobites are poorly preserved in this terrigenous succession. They represent an interval older than the Megalaspides dalecarlicus Zone but probably younger than the M. planilimbata Zone, and are correlative to the Prioniodus elegans conodont Zone. Thus the lower boundary of the Second Stage can be detected using mainly conodonts. In accordance with conodont occurrence, the base of the Floian (i.e. somewhat higher than the base of the O. elongatus–A. d. deltatus Subzone falls within the Joa Member of the Leetse Formation. Probable levels have been suggested in some localities. Thus the lower part of the Leetse Formation belongs to the Tremadoc Stage, and to the Hunneberg Regional Stage.

  17. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  18. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  19. High genotypic diversity found among population of Phytophthora infestans collected in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runno-Paurson, Eve; Kiiker, Riinu; Joutsjoki, Tiina; Hannukkala, Asko

    2016-03-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most important diseases of potato worldwide. This is the first study characterising Estonian P. infestans population using the SSR marker genotyping method. 70 P. infestans isolates collected during the growing season in 2004 from eight potato fields in three different regions of Estonia were characterised with nine polymorphic SSR markers. A1 and A2 mating type isolates were detected from every studied field indicating the high potential for sexual reproduction, which raises the genotypic diversity in P. infestans population. Results revealed highly diverse P. infestans population in Estonia resembling the Northern European populations. Most of the multilocus genotypes were detected only once among the collected isolates. Subpopulations collected from different geographical regions of Estonia showed no differentiation from each other but instead formed one highly diverse group. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A survey of midwives' views on providing aspects of antenatal care in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rull, Kristiina; Wyn Huws, Dyfed

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to survey the views of midwives in Estonia about who they considered should have responsibility for carrying out certain aspects of antenatal care (ANC) in Estonia. DESIGN, SETTING AND STUDY POPULATION: in collaboration with key stakeholder organisations, the authors developed eight...... was sent with a covering letter and stamped addressed return envelope to all 366 midwives in Estonia. Two postal reminders were sent to non-responders. RESULTS: the response rate was 73.5%. There was no consensus among respondents about whose responsibility it was to diagnose pregnancy, carry out the risk...... assessment of a pregnancy, or carry out fetal monitoring during pregnancy. There was consensus among respondents that either midwives or obstetrician-gynaecologists could have responsibility for referring for further tests and examinations if a pregnancy was thought to be at risk. There was also consensus...

  1. Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the steppe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Scheib, Christiana Lyn

    2017-01-01

    farmers of Estonia whose remains date to 4,500 to 6,300 years before present. We find evidence of significant differences between the two groups in the composition of autosomal as well as mtDNA, X chromosome, and Y chromosome ancestries. We find that Estonian hunter-gatherers of Comb Ceramic culture...... Age populations, and European Late Neolithic/Bronze Age populations, while their X chromosomes are in addition equally closely related to European and Anatolian and Levantine early farmers. These findings suggest that the shift to intensive cultivation and animal husbandry in Estonia was triggered...

  2. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis e Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115......-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other...

  3. Headaches after traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabre, Liis; Rugo, Mariann; Asser, Toomas; Kõrv, Janika; Braschinsky, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) often suffer from different types of pain. However, headaches after TSCI have not been studied. The aim of this article is to examine the occurrence of headache among patients with TSCI. This cross-sectional study included individuals with TSCI from 1997 to 2012 in Estonia. Patients with TSCI were interviewed via telephone. The interview was based on a questionnaire specifically designed to identify headache type using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition (beta version). There were 73 patients with a mean age 37.1 ± 10.6 years. The mean time since TSCI was 7.5 ± 4.0 years. The most frequently mentioned pain was headache (71%), followed by back pain (60%) and pain in neck (44%).Headaches were more frequent after the trauma compared with the headaches before TSCI (71% vs 51%, ITALIC! p = 0.02). Headaches that arose after TSCI were not related to the concomitant brain injury ( ITALIC! p = 0.15). The occurrence of headache did not depend on the severity or the level of the TSCI.Eighty-five percent of patients had not contacted any physician and headache was not diagnosed. This is the first study that evidentially shows that headache is the most prevalent pain condition after TSCI. Despite this, the majority of patients never consult a physician, nor is their headache diagnosed or appropriately managed. This indicates that further studies are needed to provide evidence regarding the prevalence and causes of headache and its impact on quality of life. © International Headache Society 2015.

  4. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers` heat demand in the `do nothing`scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town`s heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken. (ARW)

  5. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lass Jana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83% prescriptions and 93 (87% medicines. 47 (38% of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97% received at least one medicine (median number 2 with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99% and 297 (85% of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable.

  6. Exploring the Role of Migrants in Transnational Occupational Learning Processes in Estonia-Finland Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenius, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the role of migrants in cross-border learning in occupational contexts. The research data included 78 semi-structured and 20 life-course interviews with people who had migrated from Estonia to Finland or who were transmigrating between these countries. The interview data were analysed qualitatively through a…

  7. The National Status of the Preparation of School Psychologists in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Estonia is a small republic that has undergone several big societal changes (from belonging to the Soviet Union to becoming a free republic, and the process of integrating into the European Union) during the last several decades. Psychology has been taught as a separate discipline starting from 1968, but its content has been changed from very…

  8. Influences on Students' Views on Religions and Education in England and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Sean; Schihalejev, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Structural modelling offers an overall pattern of relationships; this paper looks at differences in students' attitude structures between England and Estonia. Where different coherent sets of beliefs exist in a national sample, factor analysis, which focuses on sets of responses which differ between groups, should be able to separate them out.…

  9. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment with…

  10. The Professional Foreign Language Teacher in Estonia: Students' and Principals' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia as a typical country in transition is going through major changes in educational thinking. Global and European educational trends, together with local changes, the most important being a new state system, have resulted in changes in the concept of professional foreign language (FL) teaching. Common ground among various…

  11. Cost and cost-effectiveness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Estonia and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Katherine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kliiman, Kai; Centis, Rosella; Khurieva, Nina; Jakobowiak, Wieslaw; Danilovits, Manfred; Peremitin, Genadi; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-07-01

    Evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is limited, and no published data are available from former Soviet Union countries, where rates of MDR-TB are highest globally. We evaluated the cost and cost-effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in Estonia and Russia (Tomsk Oblast), comparing cohorts enrolled on treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in 2001 and 2002 with cohorts treated in previous years. Costs were assessed from a health system perspective in 2003 US$; effects were measured as cures, deaths averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. Cure rates when WHO guidelines were followed were 61% (90 out of 149) in Estonia and 76% (76 out of 100) in Tomsk Oblast, with a cost per patient treated of US$8,974 and US$10,088, respectively. Before WHO guidelines were followed, cure rates were 52% in Estonia and 15% in Tomsk Oblast; the cost per patient treated was US$4,729 and US$2,282, respectively. Drugs and hospitalisation accounted for 69-90% of total costs. The cost per DALY averted by treatment following WHO guidelines was US$579 (range US$297-US$902) in Estonia and US$429 (range US$302-US$546) in Tomsk Oblast. Treatment of patients with MDR-TB can be cost-effective, but requires substantial additional investment in tuberculosis control in priority countries.

  12. Multilayered Perspectives on Language Policy in Higher Education: Finland, Estonia, and Latvia in Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Saarinen, Taina; Kibbermann, Kerttu

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses language policies in higher education (HE) in Finland, Estonia, and Latvia, as well as the European Union (EU). We take a multilayered approach to language policies in order to illuminate the intertwined nature of local, national, and international language policies in HE. We are particularly interested in the construction of…

  13. Explaining the Difference between PISA 2009 Reading Scores in Finland and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikk, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the difference between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading results for Finland and Estonia using characteristics of teaching and learning, and characteristics of the overall development of these countries. PISA data were collected via a reading test and student questionnaires…

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging wild boars hunted for human consumption in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Velström, Kaisa; Lassen, Brian

    2015-08-04

    Although the prevalence of human Toxoplasma gondii infections is high in Estonia, no information is available on the prevalence of infections in the local animal populations. Wild boars are a good indicator species for estimating the prevalence and spread of T. gondii and were thus investigated in this nationwide cross-sectional study. Volunteer hunters sampled cardiac or skeletal muscle of 471 wild boars legally hunted for human consumption in Estonia during the hunting season of 2012-2013. Serosanguineous meat juice samples were obtained from thawed tissue samples, diluted 1:40, and screened for specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with a commercial direct agglutination test. Almost one-quarter (113; 24%) of the wild boars examined were seropositive for T. gondii. The seroprevalence did not differ significantly between age groups or sexes. The seroprevalence was lowest in Viljandimaa, which is located in the southern part of Estonia. In other counties, the infection was evenly prevalent. In Estonia, wild boars are commonly exposed to T. gondii, which is endemic and widespread. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat of Estonian wild boars may pose an infection risk to humans and other hosts.

  15. Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Cats in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2015-10-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in humans has not declined, in contrast to many other countries. The reasons for this are unknown. Domestic cats are important hosts in the epidemiology of the parasite, but information on local feline T. gondii infections has been lacking. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with seropositivity in cats in Estonia. Surplus from blood samples that had been collected for unrelated diagnostic purposes from 306 pet cats and 184 shelter cats were analyzed for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies by using a direct agglutination test. Two questionnaires were designed to reveal relevant risk factors for seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in Estonia was 60.8%. Older age, outdoor access, hunting, living outside the city in the countryside, and not being a purebred cat were among the risk factors associated with seropositivity. T. gondii is highly prevalent in domestic cats in Estonia. This suggests that the environment has been contaminated with T. gondii. Seropositivity indicates previous oocyst shedding, and most of the cats had outdoor access. The increase in T. gondii seroprevalence with age indicates acquired infections, and most of the risk factors were lifestyle-related. Cat owners could diminish the risk of T. gondii infection and also limit the spread of the parasite by not allowing their cats to roam free.

  16. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  17. Regeneration development 4-5 years after a storm in Norway spruce dominated forests, Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilisson, T.; Köster, K.; Vodde, F.; Jogiste, K.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The regeneration patterns in wind-damaged areas are largely influenced by damage severity and varied microrelief. Regeneration was studied in Picea abies dominated stands with total and partial canopy destruction and in harvested areas in Myrtillus and Filipendula site types in Estonia 4¿5

  18. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  19. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars B; Sardinha, Luis B; Froberg, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio...

  20. Midwifery at the crossroads in Estonia: attitudes of midwives and other key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rasch, Vibeke; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the initiation of health sector reforms in Estonia in 1992, the Baltic state has experienced a steep decline in the number of midwives and midwife graduates. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase, first in sexually transmitted infections and then in human immunodefic......BACKGROUND: Since the initiation of health sector reforms in Estonia in 1992, the Baltic state has experienced a steep decline in the number of midwives and midwife graduates. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase, first in sexually transmitted infections and then in human...... immunodeficiency virus. The aim of this study was to draw on the perceptions of Estonia's midwives and other health care stakeholders to delineate the current situation of midwifery in the country, in the context of a sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data...... were obtained by sending a 32-question questionnaire, based on an agenda developed through semistructured interviews, to all midwives in Estonia. A nominal group technique was employed with key stakeholders to determine the extent of their agreement with the questionnaire's major findings. RESULTS...

  1. The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidi Kallaste

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD As the purpose of a professional qualification should be to ensure quality to employers/customers, appro-priate requirements for professional training should not be too low. On the other hand, too high require-ments for the amount of training would lead to the situation where maintaining the level is expensive and if the labour market does not consider having a professional certificate necessary, recertification will be discarded. The purpose of the research was to identify the factors that influence an accountant’s decision whether to recertify his/her professional qualification or not. The conditions of recertification were ana-lysed and compared to other countries as were the requirements set up for auditors. The results of the survey revealed that in Estonia the decision not to recertify one’s professional qualification was mainly due to not having fulfilled the required number of qualification hours or not having certificates proving one’s participation in qualification training sessions. At the same time, compared to other countries, the requirements in Estonia are very low. So that the increase in the amount of training would not hinder recertification, alternative solutions for Estonia are proposed in the article.

  2. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  3. Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Vågerö, Denny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the change in ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia 1989-2000. DESIGN: Two unlinked cross sectional census based analyses were compared. Total and cause specific mortality was analysed for ethnic Estonians and Russians. The absolute differences in mortality

  4. Kivis kehastunud mälu : Estonia laevahuku monumendid Stockholmis ja Tallinnas / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    1998-01-01

    1997. a. valminud monumendist (autoriks Miroslaw Balka, sündinud 1958) Stockholmis Djurgõrdenil, Galäri meremeeste kalmistul ja Tallinnas - Rannavärava mäele 1996. a. püstitatud Estonia monumendist (autoreiks Villu Jaanisoo, Jorma Mukala).

  5. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  6. Welcome to Estonia märk on kaotanud oma sära / Kadi Heinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinsalu, Kadi, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus loodab parandada Welcome to Estonia märgi mainet. Märki kasutavad ettevõtjad ei näe märgist olulist kasu toodete müügil. Kommenteerivad Evelin Int-Lambot, Leena Murd ja Olaf Merisalu

  7. Coastal grassland wader abundance in relation to breeding habitat characteristics in Matsalu Bay, Estonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aivar Leito; Jaanus Elts; Eve Mägi; Jaak Truu; Mari Ivask; Annely Kuu; Merle Ööpik; Mart Meriste; Raymond Ward; Andres Kuresoo; Hannes Pehlak; Kalev Sepp; Leho Luigujõe

    2014-01-01

    .... The study was carried out in the Matsalu Bay area,Western Estonia between 2001 and 2005. Results showed that most wader species were strongly related to habitat flooding type but not to plant species richness or evenness or mean vegetation coverage...

  8. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child"…

  9. Estonia huku filmi eesmärk : alustada tuleb uut uurimist / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Saksamaa toimuvad poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtted. Film mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Filmivõtetest räägib assistent Helje Kaskel

  10. Estonia teater - helikindel ja sinine = Estonian National Opera - soundproof and blue / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia maja teatritiiva interjööri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Juta Lember (kavandas ka uued valgustid), Aulo Padar (SAB Lember & Padar). Arhitekt Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss OÜ). Restaureerimistööd: KAR-Grupp. Projekt ja valmis 2005. Ill.: 8 värv. sisevaadet

  11. Factors That Influence Students' Motivation to Start and to Continue Studying Information Technology in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kori, Külli; Pedaste, Margus; Altin, Heilo; Tõnisson, Eno; Palts, Tauno

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high competition for places to study curricula related to information technology (IT) at the higher education level in Estonia, a large number of IT students drop out. Therefore, it is important to explore what influences students to start studying IT and what influences them to persist with their degree program. In this study, data…

  12. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian

  13. Public transport pricing policy : Empirical evidence from a fare-free scheme in Tallinn, Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Reimal, T.; Susilo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Cities worldwide are looking for new policies to attract travelers to shift from cars to public transport. Policies focused on reducing public transport fares are aimed at improving social inclusion and leading to a modal shift. The City of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, has recently introduced a

  14. [Johan Eellend. Cultivating the Rural Citizen : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia] / Kersti Lust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lust, Kersti, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Eellend, Johan. Cultivating the Rural Citizien : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia. Stockholm : Stockholm Universty, 2007. Eesti agraarideoloogia kujunemist ja olemust käsitlevast dissertatsioonist. Tegemist on Eesti ühiskondliku mõtte voolude ja nende mõjuulatuse tavapärasest erineva nägemusega

  15. Film Estonia katastroofist jääb tegelikkusest kaugele / Kristjan Jaak Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Kristjan Jaak

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastroofifilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe, kes koos advokaat Kaj Holmbergiga lõi selleks puhuks stuudio Top Story. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  16. Galeriiühendus Eesti Panga kvartalisse = Connecting Gallery to the Bank of Estonia Block

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. veebruaris toimunud kutsutud arhitektuurikonkursi, mille eesmärgiks oli parandada Eesti Panga kvartali funktsionaalsust Estonia puiestee ja Sakala tänava poolsete osade vahel, töö. Projekterija: AB Urban Mark OÜ. Autorid: Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae. Konstruktsioonid: Inseneribüroo Peipman OÜ

  17. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  18. Thelodonts (Agnatha from the basal beds of the Kuressaare Stage, Ludlow, Upper Silurian of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Märss, Tiiu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The thelodont Loganellia cuneata (Gross is redescribed and new thelodont taxa Paralogania perensae sp. nov., Nethertonodus laadjalaensis sp. nov., and Longodus acicularis gen. et sp. nov. are established. The last taxon belongs to the family Longodidae fam. nov. of Thelodonti but its order is uncertain. This assemblage comes from the Tahula Beds of the Kuressaare Stage, Ludlow, Upper Silurian of Estonia.

  19. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    Varved clays are commonly found glaciolacustrine sediments representing high-resolution environmental archives of the deglaciation events. We examine varve formation in the Baltic Ice Lake at the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia, during the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian glaciation from the region. The data set of Hang and Kohv (2013) spanning 584 years is used. Analysis of the spatial variation of the seasonal layer thickness distribution based on 26 sediment cores and sub-varve resolution grain size analysis from a single section was performed. The Baltic Ice Lake water level reconstruction indicates that the water depth at the study region was up to 80 m (Rosentau et al., 2009). It is found that during the first ~130 years after the ice retreat the summer sedimentation was dominated by sediment loaded underflows emanating form the ice margin: summer layer thickness is strongly positively correlated with water depth. The winter layer thickness during this period does not demonstrate significant correlation with water depth suggesting that the simple raining-out of the suspended material from a water column was complicated by water circulation. Ice retreat from the Pandivere-Neva line of the marginal formations just north from study area took place during the interval from 96 to 130 local varve years. During the transition marked shift from proglacial to distal sedimentary environment is observed: the summer layer thickens decreased dramatically and it's thickens is markedly higher in the area close to the ice margin. The winter layer thickens becomes strongly correlated to the water depth, suggesting that the simple sedimentation model with no water circulation and addition of no new sediments is valid. The grain size data is used to estimate the "terminal grain size" - the size of the larges particles sedimented at the top of the winter layer. Provided that no significant water circulation took place during the winter, the terminal grain size will be controlled

  20. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain Raal

    Full Text Available The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking. The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  1. Complementary Treatment of the Common Cold and Flu with Medicinal Plants – Results from Two Samples of Pharmacy Customers in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable. PMID:23484045

  2. The Llandovery–Wenlock boundary interval in west-central continental Estonia: an example from the Suigu (S-3 core section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Männik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A gap corresponding to several conodont and chitinozoan zones occurs in the Llandovery–Wenlock boundary interval in some sections in the western coastal region of Estonia and on islands in the Muhu Strait. New data from the Suigu (S-3 core section demonstrate that the gap has geographically wider distribution in western continental Estonia. Detailed study of faunas from that section revealed that here the gap corresponds to at least four conodont zones (from below: the Lower and Upper Pseudooneotodus bicornis and Lower and Upper Pterospathodus pennatus procerus zones, but probably also the upper(most Upper Pt. amorphognathoides amorphognathoides Subzone and the Lower Kockelella ranuliformis Zone (or part of it are missing. In sense of chitinozoan biostratigraphy, the gap correlates with most of the Margachitina margaritana Zone. Only the uppermost part of this zone is represented in the section. However, although the gap in the Suigu (S-3 core section is distinct and well dated biostratigraphically, the d13C curve demonstrates no evidence of it. Causes of this controversy are still waiting to be revealed. Our data indicate that changes in sedimentation in the Llandovery–Wenlock boundary interval occurred earlier in the distal graptolite-bearing and later in the proximal environments. Most probably, sedimentation in the Baltic Palaeobasin in the late Telychian and early Sheinwoodian was strongly affected by tectonic evolution of the Baltoscandian foreland basin.

  3. Cancer patient survival in Estonia 1995-2009: time trends and data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, K; Baburin, A; Aareleid, T

    2014-06-01

    Survival from most cancers in Estonia has been consistently below European average. The objective of this study was to examine recent survival trends in Estonia and to quantify the effect on survival estimates of the temporary disruption of the Estonian Cancer Registry (ECR) practices in 2001-2007 when death certificates could not be used for case ascertainment. ECR data on all adult cases of 16 common cancers diagnosed in Estonia during 1995-2008 and followed up for vital status until 2009 were used to estimate relative survival ratios (RSR). We used cohort analysis for patients diagnosed in 1995-1999 and 2000-2004; and period hybrid approach to obtain the most recent estimates (2005-2009). We compared five-year RSRs calculated from data sets with and without death certificate initiated (DCI) cases. A total of 64328 cancer cases were included in survival analysis. Compared with 1995-1999, five-year age-standardized RSR increased 20 percent units for prostate cancer, reaching 76% in 2005-2009. A rise of 10 percent units or more was also seen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (five-year RSR 51% in 2005-2009), and cancers of rectum (49%), breast (73%) and ovary (37%). The effect of including/excluding DCI cases from survival analysis was small except for lung and pancreatic cancers. Relative survival continued to increase in Estonia during the first decade of the 21st century, although for many cancers, a gap between Estonia and more affluent countries still exists. Cancer control efforts should aim at the reduction of risk factors amenable to primary prevention, but also at the improvement of early diagnosis and ensuring timely and optimal care to all cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A feasibility study of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash utilisation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Hakan; Frey, Ruedi; Voronova, Viktoria; Koroljova, Arina

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation. Two carbonation options were developed. Option 1 is to use carbonated FA in any other processes based on the waste-to-product principle. Option 2 is to send carbonated FA to the non-hazardous landfill in Tallinn, Estonia. Important parameters, such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Break Even Point (BEP), have been calculated for carbonation options and the current case. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been conducted to examine its robustness. The results showed that the best option is carbonation Option 1 with NPV of 9,209,662 EUR, IRR of 43%, BCR of 2.63 and BEP between 2018 and 2019. Both Options 1 and 2 constitute more sustainable and environmentally friendly management options compared to the current situation. It can be concluded that this preliminary feasibility study showed that running a carbonation plant may be profitable and sustainable for Estonia. Currently, there is no treatment technology for MSW incineration FA in Estonia and FA is sent to a neighbouring country for further utilisation. This is the first study to demonstrate FA management options with economic and environmental benefits.

  5. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Haavik, Svein; Ekedahl, Anders

    Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient. Objective The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1) by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2) by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3) by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers. Methods Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4) and Sweden (n=7) and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9). Results Pharmacists’'in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45%) and Sweden (0.38%). Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%), printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1%) in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9%) in Sweden. More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (pprescription types and perrors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified. Conclusions Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact with prescriber before dispensing, irrespective of the type of

  6. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  7. [Anu Mai Kõll. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kõll, Anu Mai. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia (Historical studies in Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 2). Central European University Press. Budapest and New York 2013

  8. Armastus kui vale(m) : Mari Vihmandi ooperi "Armastuse valem" lavastusest Estonias / Ester Võsu ja Kristel Pappel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võsu, Ester, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Argentiina kirjaniku Esther Vilari romaani "Nina Glucksteini matemaatika" ainetel valminud Mari Vihmandi ooperist "Armastuse valem", libreto Maimu Berg, lavastaja Liis Kolle, tantsu- ja liikumisseaded Ana Mondini. Esietendus 17. oktoobril 2008 Rahvusooperis Estonia

  9. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter 7 of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi (Estonia) present technical data on production units, also with regard to new facilities. (ARW)

  10. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  11. Prevalence of IGRA-positivity and risk factors for tuberculosis among injecting drug users in Estonia and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Kristi; Karnite, Anda; Talu, Ave; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Kirvelaite, Gunta; Kliiman, Kai; Loit, Helle-Mai; Uusküla, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Illegal drug use and HIV are independent risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among injecting drug users (IDU). Estonia and Latvia have experienced high rates of TB as well as IDU and HIV outbreaks. There is a lack of knowledge about TB among IDUs in these countries. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection among IDUs in Estonia and Latvia. Participants for this cross-sectional study were recruited from syringe exchange programmes using respondent-driven sampling. For assessing infection with MTB interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) was used. The study included 375 participants from Estonia and 313 from Latvia. The prevalence of IGRA-positivity among IDUs was 7.7% in Estonia and 25.6% in Latvia. HIV-prevalence was 62% in Estonia and 23% in Latvia. In both countries, IGRA-positivity rates did not differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants. IGRA-positivity was independently associated with a prior diagnosis of TB in Estonia and with imprisonment (ever within a lifetime) and preceding contact with a TB patient in Latvia. Our findings indicate there is an urgent need for a more vigorous approach in providing IDUs with TB screening services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in cancer survival in Estonia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Padrik, Peeter; Valvere, Vahur; Aareleid, Tiiu

    2015-02-19

    In Estonia, women have much longer life expectancy than men. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in cancer survival in Estonia and to explore the role of age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis and tumour subsite. Using data from the population-based Estonian Cancer Registry, we examined the relative survival of adult patients diagnosed with nine common cancers in Estonia in 1995-2006 and followed up through 2011. Excess hazard ratios (EHR) of death associated with female gender adjusted for age, stage at diagnosis and tumour subsite were estimated. A total of 20 828 male and 13 166 female cases were analysed. The main data quality indicators were similar between men and women. Women had more cases with unknown extent of disease at diagnosis. Overall, the age-adjusted 5-year relative survival ratio was higher among women than men for all studied sites, but the difference was significant for cancers of mouth and pharynx (22% units), lung (5% units), skin melanoma (17% units) and kidney (8% units). The increase in survival over time was larger for women than men for cancers of mouth and pharynx, colon, rectum, kidney and skin melanoma. In multivariate analysis, women had a significantly lower EHR of death within five years after diagnosis for five of the nine cancers studied (cancers of mouth and pharynx, stomach, lung, skin melanoma and kidney). Adjustment for stage and subsite explained some, but not all of the women's advantage. We found a significant female survival advantage in Estonia for cancers of mouth and pharynx, stomach, lung, kidney and skin melanoma. The differences in favour of women tended to increase over time as from the 1990s to the 2000s, survival improved more among women than among men. A large part of the women's advantage is likely attributable to biological factors, but other factors, such as co-morbidities, treatment compliance or health behaviour, are also probable contributors to gender survival disparities in Estonia and

  13. Udder pathogens and their resistance to antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmus, Piret; Aasmäe, Birgit; Kärssin, Age; Orro, Toomas; Kask, Kalle

    2011-02-08

    The goal of this study was to estimate the distribution of udder pathogens and their antibiotic resistance in Estonia during the years 2007-2009. The bacteriological findings reported in this study originate from quarter milk samples collected from cows on Estonian dairy farms that had clinical or subclinical mastitis. The samples were submitted by local veterinarians to the Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory during 2007-2009. Milk samples were examined by conventional bacteriology. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with the disc diffusion test. Logistic regression with a random herd effect to control for clustering was used for statistical analysis. During the study period, 3058 clinical mastitis samples from 190 farms and 5146 subclinical mastitis samples from 274 farms were investigated. Positive results were found in 57% of the samples (4680 out of 8204), and the proportion did not differ according to year (p > 0.05). The proportion of bacteriologically negative samples was 22.3% and that of mixed growth was 20.6%. Streptococcus uberis (Str. uberis) was the bacterium isolated most frequently (18.4%) from cases of clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) (15.9%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (Str. agalactiae) (11.9%). The bacteria that caused subclinical mastitis were mainly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (20%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (15.4%). The probability of isolating S. aureus from milk samples was significantly higher on farms that had fewer than 30 cows, when compared with farms that had more than 100 cows (p cows (p = 0.034) compared with smaller farms. The proportion of S. aureus and CNS isolates that were resistant to penicillin was 61.4% and 38.5%, respectively. Among the E. coli isolates, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline resistance were observed in 24.3%, 15.6% and 13.5%, respectively. This study showed that the main pathogens associated with clinical mastitis were Str

  14. Udder pathogens and their resistance to antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Estonia

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    Orro Toomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to estimate the distribution of udder pathogens and their antibiotic resistance in Estonia during the years 2007-2009. Methods The bacteriological findings reported in this study originate from quarter milk samples collected from cows on Estonian dairy farms that had clinical or subclinical mastitis. The samples were submitted by local veterinarians to the Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory during 2007-2009. Milk samples were examined by conventional bacteriology. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with the disc diffusion test. Logistic regression with a random herd effect to control for clustering was used for statistical analysis. Results During the study period, 3058 clinical mastitis samples from 190 farms and 5146 subclinical mastitis samples from 274 farms were investigated. Positive results were found in 57% of the samples (4680 out of 8204, and the proportion did not differ according to year (p > 0.05. The proportion of bacteriologically negative samples was 22.3% and that of mixed growth was 20.6%. Streptococcus uberis (Str. uberis was the bacterium isolated most frequently (18.4% from cases of clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli (15.9% and Streptococcus agalactiae (Str. agalactiae (11.9%. The bacteria that caused subclinical mastitis were mainly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (20% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (15.4%. The probability of isolating S. aureus from milk samples was significantly higher on farms that had fewer than 30 cows, when compared with farms that had more than 100 cows (p Str. agalactiae infection was found on farms with more than 600 cows (p = 0.034 compared with smaller farms. The proportion of S. aureus and CNS isolates that were resistant to penicillin was 61.4% and 38.5%, respectively. Among the E. coli isolates, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline resistance were observed in 24.3%, 15.6% and 13

  15. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

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    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  16. Habitat Quality Assessment of Herb-rich Spruce Forests in Estonia

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    H. Korjus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 network contains many different habitats in Estonia, including old-growth forests and semi-natural woodlands. Ten years after the establishment of the Natura 2000 network in Estonia, changes have occurred in habitat type and habitat quality. Vegetation composition as well as the structural and functional qualities of a forest habitat type – Fennoscandian herbrich forests with Picea abies (EU Habitats Directive habitat type 9050 – are analysed in this study. The study is based on sample plots measured in 2014 and are located in protected and non-protected areas. Aegopodium, Filipendula and Oxalis vegetation types are included for assessment of vegetation, tree structure and deadwood composition. Habitat composition and dynamics on conservation sites are compared with commercial forests and possible ecosystem restoration measures are discussed in the study. The 46% of the studied habitats had considerably lowered their initial conservation value and 49% were developed towards habitat type 9010 during 2004–2014.

  17. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

  18. Cost of Capital in Price-regulated Companies: the Case of Estonia

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    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of price-regulated companies it is the role of appropriate government agencies to introduce clear, internally consistent, theoretically sound, and unambiguous methodology for finding the regulative cost of capital. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyze the cost of capital estimation methodology for regulated companies in Estonia and discuss some issues arising in applying this methodology. The current paper focuses on two topical issues associated with the estimation of regulative cost of capital in Estonia: estimation of market risk premium and inclusion of currency risk premium into the cost of capital. Current turmoil in financial markets has increased investors’ risk aversion as well as level of risks.

  19. E-Participation in the Legislative Process Lessons from Estonia for Enhancing Democratic Empowerment

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    Andrew Glencross

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the success of an innovative national e-participation project in Estonia. To carry out this task, the paper combines quantitative (aggregate user data, content analysis via tagging and qualitative (individual user survey and interviews with public officials data analysis. The analysis is conducted with two principal research objectives in mind. Firstly, to explain how e-participation has fared in Estonia, both in terms of citizen mobilization and government responses. The second goal is to evaluate a series of procedural and technological changes for enhancing e-participation. The Estonian case provides ample lessons for ensuring that e-participation in practice can better meet the expectations of users and government officials alike.

  20. Research Policies Rewarding Quantity: Estonia and Ukraine. Kvantiteeti tasustav teaduspoliitika: Eesti ja Ukraina

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    Kadri Ukrainski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is resting on the theoretical model of Braun (2003 describing the delegation modes for public funding of research in the principal-agent framework. It aims to show by using the conceptualisation of utility functions of principal and agents on the various levels, how different motivations for producing different kinds of research outputs emerge for researchers and universities or public research organisations in Estonia and Ukraine. The article attempts to offer one explanation to why in some quantitative research output indicators both countries perform very well compared to much lower levels of innovation system indicators otherwise. Estonia is rewarding publications and Ukraine is rewarding utility model applications throughout different levels of the system.

  1. Spatial Planning in Estonia – From A Socialist to Inclusive Perspective

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    Mart HIOB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning in Eastern Europe has gone through major changes during the years after the Soviet occupation ended around 1990. New planning standards were eagerly accepted but the practice was often carried out in a socialist manner. This article gives an overview of planning law and practice in Estonia during the transition period. The example presented is a district in Tartu, the second largest city of 100,000 inhabitants. The article analyses different master planning documents covering the whole district and compares both their process of compilation and their content to former Soviet era plans. The conclusion is that the transition from socialist to inclusive planning in Estonia has taken at least two decades, and the process is still not fi nished. This shows that the legal framework alone is not suffi cient to transform planning practice – a new ideology has to be accepted by the specialist as well as the politicians and the general public.

  2. Development of the reed bed in Matsalu wetland, Estonia: responses to neotectonic land uplift, sea level changes and human influences

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    Mats Meriste

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied reed bed development in Matsalu wetland and the Kasari River delta, Estonia, since the late 18th century using historical schemes, topographical maps and aerial photographs. Our aim was to understand the mechanisms controlling reed distribution in Matsalu wetland, the largest coastal wetland of the eastern Baltic Sea occupying an area of about 25 km2. Natural development of the reed bed in Matsalu Bay and the Kasari delta is mainly controlled by shoreline displacement due to post-glacial neotectonic land uplift. The dredging of the Kasari delta in the 1920s–1930s caused a rapid seaward migration of reed bed communities due to the dispersal of fragmented rhizomes on the shallow sea bottom and along the canal banks reaching Matsalu Bay, while the landward parts of the former wetland were occupied by meadow communities. The expansion of the reed bed started in between the 1951s and 1970s and a maximum extent of 27 km2 was gained by the late 1970s at the peak of eutrophication. In the last decades the reed bed development has been influenced by sea level rise and increased intensity of cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea, which has caused the deterioration of the reed bed that was weakened by eutrophication due to nutrient inflow from agricultural landscapes mainly in the 1960s–1980s.

  3. On the topologic structure of economic complex networks: Empirical evidence from large scale payment network of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first topological analysis of the economic structure of an entire country based on payments data obtained from Swedbank. This data set is exclusive in its kind because around 80% of Estonia's bank transactions are done through Swedbank, hence, the economic structure of the country can be reconstructed. Scale-free networks are commonly observed in a wide array of different contexts such as nature and society. In this paper, the nodes are comprised by customers of the bank (legal entities) and the links are established by payments between these nodes. We study the scaling-free and structural properties of this network. We also describe its topology, components and behaviors. We show that this network shares typical structural characteristics known in other complex networks: degree distributions follow a power law, low clustering coefficient and low average shortest path length. We identify the key nodes of the network and perform simulations of resiliency against random and targeted attacks of the nodes with two different approaches. With this, we find that by identifying and studying the links between the nodes is possible to perform vulnerability analysis of the Estonian economy with respect to economic shocks.

  4. Survival for colon and rectal cancer in Estonia: role of staging and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Soplepmann, Jaan; Suuroja, Tiit; Melnik, Priit; Aareleid, Tiiu

    2012-04-01

    International comparisons have indicated low colorectal cancer (CRC) survival in Estonia, compared to other European countries. The objective of this paper is to analyse long-term survival as well as staging and treatment patterns of CRC in Estonia. The analysis included all incident cases of CRC diagnosed in Estonia in 1997 (n = 546), identified through the Estonian Cancer Registry and followed up for 10 years after diagnosis. Staging and treatment data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Relative survival rate (RSR) was used to estimate the outcome. The 5-year RSR was 51% for colon cancer and 38% for rectal cancer; the corresponding 10-year RSR was 50% and 39%. We observed no excess mortality for early disease. For stages II and III, the survival was markedly higher in colon cancer (5-year RSR 79% and 66%, respectively) compared to rectal cancer (66% and 30%, respectively). Around 30% of cases were diagnosed with distant disease. Among radically operated colon and rectal cancer patients, the 10-year RSR was 90% and 70%, respectively. Most patients with available pathological information had one to four lymph nodes examined. Survival has notably improved for colon cancer, but not for rectal cancer in Estonia. High proportion of cases with distant metastasis at first diagnosis along with inadequate staging and low proportion of patients treated with curatively intended surgery and appropriate chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have contributed to this outcome. Progress could be achieved by earlier diagnosis and implementing higher standards for staging and treatment. These conclusions are likely to be relevant also for other Eastern European countries.

  5. The Earliest Giant Osprioneides Borings from the Sandbian (Late Ordovician) of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A.; Mõtus, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America. PMID:24901511

  6. Survey of the Presence of Toxocara spp. Eggs in Dog Feces in Tartu, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-03-01

    Several zoonotic pathogens are shed in the feces of infected animals. If they are allowed to contaminate the environment, they cause a public health concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog feces in the urban area of Tartu, Estonia. Samples were collected by veterinary students in 2014 and examined using a modified concentration-flotation technique. Toxocara spp. eggs were detected by microscopy in 4 (1.7%) out of 234 canine fecal samples.

  7. Estonia at the threshold of the fourth decade of the AIDS era in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Avi, Radko; DeHovitz, Jack; Uusküla, Anneli

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the trends of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Estonia during the past decade (2000-2009), with special focus on the potential for epidemic transition. Key transmission determinants and major risk groups are examined and problems and barriers to fighting HIV/AIDS with possible applications in prevention and control are described. Estonian routine data sources and published literature were reviewed, supplemented with information from personal communication with physicians and public health specialists. For comparative European data, international HIV/AIDS and drug addiction surveillance documents, administrative data, and published literature were reviewed. In Eastern Europe (including Estonia) the predominant HIV transmission mode is injection drug use (IDU), closely followed by heterosexual transmission, an increasing risk factor for new cases. Although the contribution of cases acquired by sexual contact with high-risk partners such as IDUs is not known, characteristics of the sexual networks of IDUs may be important in determining the evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in the region. In Estonia, despite major gaps in available data, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still presumably confined to IDUs (and probably, to their sexual partners). In Eastern Europe, young women in IDU-non-IDU partnerships engaging in unprotected sex potentially serve as a bridge to the general population, yet knowledge of and research into the population characteristics and potential magnitude of bridging are limited. In Estonia, as in other Eastern European countries, HIV prevention and harm reduction initiatives should be tailored not only to the predominantly male HIV-positive IDU population, but also to their noninfected non-IDU female sexual partners.

  8. Mis Noor-Eesti Liivi -kaanonisse ei mahtunud. Juhan Liiv and Young Estonia

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    Jüri Talvet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt is made to cast light on the complicated relationship between Juhan Liiv (1864– 1913 – perhaps the greatest Estonian lyrical poet of all times – and the Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti cultural movement, which played a fundamental role in laying the foundations of Estonian literary culture at the beginning of the 20th century. Since Liiv himself, mentally ill and living in great poverty, did not publish any books, the Young Estonians – first the poet Gustav Liiv and, then, more decisively, the short story writer and essayist Friedebert Tuglas, took up the task of establishing a canon of Liiv’s poetry for Estonia. The dynamics of Liiv’s poetic canon as established by Young Estonia – especially, by Tuglas’ edition of Juhan Liivi luuletused (1926, Juhan Liiv’s Poems and his substantial monograph on Liiv’s life and work, Juhan Liiv (1927 – are viewed in the context of the fate of Liiv’s poetry in Estonian letters in a later period, after World War II. Aarne Vinkel, a literary historian, made important additions to the canon with his edition of Juhan Liiv’s Teosed (1954, Works. Vinkel’s selection Sinuga ja sinuta (1989, With You and Without You is the largest edition of Liiv’s poetry to date. In view of Tuglas’ continued and considerable prestige in Soviet Estonia, it is probable that quite a few of Liiv’s poems discovered and published by Vinkel on the basis of Liiv’s manuscripts have still remained relatively unknown to the wider Estonian reading public. On the other hand, without Vinkel’s post-war corroboration of the canon of Liiv’s poetry established by the Young Estonians, Liiv’s image as a poet would have appeared much more fragmentary.

  9. Window to the West: Memories of Watching Finnish Television in Estonia During The Soviet Period

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    Annika Lepp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the memories of Estonians of watching Finnish television during the last decades of the Soviet occupation. We will look at the practices of watching Finnish television in Soviet Estonia and the meanings attributed to it. Finnish television took North-Estonians into a colourful world of consumption and entertainment, while at the same time educating them about Western values and encouraging them to dream a better future.

  10. Psychological responses to a marine disaster during a recoil phase: experiences from the Estonia shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiminen, T J; Tuominen, T

    1996-06-01

    The sinking of the car ferry, Estonia, was one of the world's most devastating marine disasters that has ever occurred in peace time. Altogether 138 passengers and crew members were rescued, and 38 of them were taken to the Turku University Central Hospital in Finland. The present article describes the various psychological reactions among the survivors during the first three days of the recoil phase.

  11. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Same Siiri; Solarte-Vasquez Maria Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strate...

  12. Estonia hukk jõuab Eesti kinodesse sügisel / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal peatselt esilinastuv poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena, jõuab Eestis siinse levitaja Mati Seppingu sõnul linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist on kapten Arvo Kallase rollis Rein Oja

  13. Midwifery at the crossroads in Estonia: attitudes of midwives and other key stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rasch, Vibeke; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2005-04-01

    Since the initiation of health sector reforms in Estonia in 1992, the Baltic state has experienced a steep decline in the number of midwives and midwife graduates. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase, first in sexually transmitted infections and then in human immunodeficiency virus. The aim of this study was to draw on the perceptions of Estonia's midwives and other health care stakeholders to delineate the current situation of midwifery in the country, in the context of a sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus epidemic. Data were obtained by sending a 32-question questionnaire, based on an agenda developed through semistructured interviews, to all midwives in Estonia. A nominal group technique was employed with key stakeholders to determine the extent of their agreement with the questionnaire's major findings. The response rate to the questionnaire was 75%. There was no significant association between work satisfaction and independent variables of age, ethnicity, work abroad, increased responsibility, and involvement in postpartum care and counseling. There was, however, a significant association between work satisfaction and salary. The group process revealed that although there is no agreement on the role of family doctors and midwives in antenatal care, there is a general agreement that midwives should be more involved in postpartum care and that their tasks need to be better defined. Almost half of the responding Estonian midwives are dissatisfied with their job, especially their salary. Increased responsibility for antenatal and postpartum counseling, with concurrent salary adjustments, may help stop the decline in the number of midwives, as could the opening up of new areas of work. A further reduction of the high abortion and sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus rates is a critical challenge for Estonia, and midwives could be employed in services to do this, similar to their Nordic neighbors. Current

  14. Determinants of mental health stigma among pharmacy students in Australia, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, India and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J S; Aaltonen, S E; Airaksinen, M S; Volmer, D; Gharat, M S; Muceniece, R; Vitola, A; Foulon, V; Desplenter, F A; Chen, T F

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare professionals commonly exhibit negative attitudes toward people with mental disorders. Few international studies have sought to investigate the determinants of stigma. To conduct an international comparison of pharmacy students' stigma towards people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether stigma is consistently associated with stereotypical attributes of people with schizophrenia. Students (n = 649) at eight universities in Australia, Belgium, India, Finland, Estonia and Latvia completed a seven-item Social Distance Scale (SDS) and six items related to stereotypical attributes of people with schizophrenia. Mean SDS scores were 19.65 (+/- 3.97) in Australia, 19.61 (+/- 2.92) in Belgium, 18.75 (+/- 3.57) in India, 18.05 (+/- 3.12) in Finland, and 20.90 (+/- 4.04) in Estonia and Latvia. Unpredictability was most strongly associated with having a high social distance in Australia (beta = -1.285), the perception that people will never recover in India (beta = - 0.881), dangerousness in Finland (beta = -1.473) and the perception of being difficult to talk to in Estonia and Latvia (beta = -2.076). Unpredictability was associated with lower social distance in Belgium (beta = 0.839). The extent to which students held stigmatizing attitudes was similar in each country, however, the determinants of stigma were different. Pharmacy education may need to be tailored to address the determinants of stigma in each country.

  15. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L. PMID:19440411

  16. Impact of fatal cases on the epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabre, L; Remmer, S; Adams, A; Väli, M; Rekand, T; Asser, T; Kõrv, J

    2015-05-01

    Most epidemiological studies on traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) have not included patients who die before hospitalization. The aim of the research was to study the incidence of TSCI by including the individuals who die at the scene of the accident in addition to data retrieved from all hospitals in Estonia. Medical records of patients with TSCI from all hospitals in Estonia from 2005 to 2007 were studied. With collaboration from the Estonian Forensic Science Institute the data of the victims of TSCI who died before hospitalization were included. From 2005 to 2007, 391 TSCI cases were identified: 183 patients were found retrospectively from medical records and 208 cases were detected from autopsy reports. Fifty-three per cent of patients died before hospitalization. The annual incidence rate was 97.0 per million population (95% confidence interval 87.4-106.6). The mean age at injury was 44.4 ± 18.7 years. Motor vehicle accidents were the leading cause of TSCI amongst the individuals who died before hospitalization (75%). Falls accounted for the highest number of TSCIs (43%) amongst the patients who reached hospital. Our study shows that, when the cases that die at the scene of the accident are included, the incidence of TSCI in Estonia rises from 39.7 to 97.0 per million population. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  17. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-14

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

  18. Mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer patients in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Valvere, Vahur; Padrik, Peeter; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine past mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer (BC) patients in Estonia, a country that has low screening coverage and high BC mortality. Women newly diagnosed with primary BC in Estonia in 2008-2010 were interviewed. Determinants of past mammography use and the detection of BC by mammography were studied using multivariate logistic regression. Among 977 participants, almost half reported no mammograms prior to the detection of BC. Overall, 22% of the cases were detected by mammography (16% by screening mammography). Detection by mammography was strongly related to age, past mammography use, and obesity. Among cases detected by mammography, 10% were stage III/IV at diagnosis (32% among cases detected by other modes). This study showed low mammography utilization and high rate of self-detection of BC in Estonia. Increased detection by mammography would help diagnose the disease at an earlier stage and consequently avoid premature BC deaths. Efforts should be undertaken to increase participation in screening and improve the availability of mammography among older and high-risk women. The results are likely to be relevant for other countries and population groups with low screening coverage.

  19. 25 Years of Change in Management Control Systems and Business Education in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last 25 years, the Estonian economy has transitioned from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented, globally open, highly competitive economy. Although during these years there has been fast growth and Estonians could tell a lot of success stories, research shows that management practices are still less advanced compared to those in enterprises from developed countries. Increased competition, openness and innovation increased the significance of more sophisticated management control systems (MCS. Researchers accentuate the role of managers and their education and training in using and developing more sophisticated MCS in companies. The objective of the current paper is to better understand how changes in the business environment, managerial training and education are connected to developments in MCS in Estonia. This article provides an overview of the statistics and studies completed in Estonia over the last 25 years. As this study shows, the last decade has brought a different level of internationalization and development in the business environment and business education. The problems associated with developments in MCS , using cloud technology, business education and managerial training are the same in Estonia as in developed countries. To develop the business and economic environment in the country, Estonian entrepreneurs need high-level data processing, analytical and financial education, and practical training courses.

  20. Tuberculosis during fundamental societal changes in Estonia with special reference to extrapulmonary manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehme, Lea; Hollo, Vahur; Rahu, Mati; Altraja, Alan

    2005-04-01

    To characterize the incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in Estonia, by site and age, in conditions of marked pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) increase, ie, during the period of fundamental societal changes, but where TB incidence has not been influenced by HIV infection. A retrospective study. All new cases of EPTB (n = 622) detected in Estonia from 1991 to 2000. The incidence of pulmonary TB in Estonia increased from 21.5 in 1991 to 44.6/100,000 in 2000. In contrast, the incidence of EPTB did not increase at the same pace, changing only from 3.6 in 1991 to 4.7/100,000 in 2000. The increase in the incidence of EPTB was significantly lower than that of pulmonary TB (p EPTB among overall TB steadily decreased from 17.0% in 1991 to 10.1% in 2000. The incidence of EPTB forms with a long latency period (eg, osteoarticular and urogenital TB) remained unchanged, while that of EPTB forms with a short latency period (eg, intrathoracic lymph node TB) increased (p EPTB than in pulmonary TB and varied according to site. There was no increase in the incidence of EPTB during 10 years despite the dramatic increase in overall TB. The proportion of EPTB among all TB tended to decrease with increasing age, and different EPTB sites prevailed in different age groups.

  1. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  2. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

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    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  3. The socio-demographic patterning of sexual risk behaviour: a survey of young men in Finland and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikula, Minna; Gissler, Mika; Jormanainen, Vesa; Laanpere, Made; Kunnas, Heikki; Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Hemminki, Elina

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among the youth are an increasing challenge for public health in Europe. This study provided estimates of men's (18–25 years) sexual risk behaviour and self-reported STIs and their socio-demographic patterning in Finland and Estonia; two countries that are geographically close, but have very different STI epidemics. Method Nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys with comparable survey questions were used. Data from self-administered questionnaires for 1765 men aged 18–25 years in Finland (85% of the age cohort was included in the sampling frame, 95% of the sample responded) and 748 in Estonia, with a response rate of 43% respectively, were analysed. Socio-demographic patterning of multiple partners, condom use and self-reported STIs are presented was studied using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The main findings focus on associations found within each country. In Finland, higher age, low education and to a lesser extent relationship with a non-steady partner increased the likelihood of reporting multiple lifetime-partners, while in Estonia only higher age and low education revealed this effect. In relation to unprotected intercourse, in Finland, higher age, low education and relationship status with a steady partner increased the likelihood of reporting unprotected intercourse. In Estonia, the same was observed only for relationship status. In Finland the likelihood of self-reported STIs increased by older age and lower education and decreased by being with a non-steady partner, while in Estonia, a non-significant increase in self-reported STIs was observed only in the older age group. Conclusion A clear socio-demographic patterning for sexual behaviour and self-reported STIs was revealed in Finland, but a less consistent trend was seen in Estonia. The findings of this study suggest that prevention strategies should focus in Finland on less educated singles and in Estonia on

  4. Socioeconomic differences in self-rated health among women: a comparison of St. Petersburg to Estonia and Finland.

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    Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Härkänen, Tommi; Regushevskaya, Elena; Hemminki, Elina; Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Laanpere, Made; Kuznetsova, Olga; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-05-17

    Social determinants of health have not been intensively studied in Russia, even though the health divide has been clearly demonstrated by an increased mortality rate among those with low education. A comparative analysis of social health determinants in countries with different historical and economic backgrounds may provide useful evidence for addressing health inequalities. We aimed to assess socioeconomic determinants of self-rated health in St. Petersburg as compared to Estonia and Finland. Data for women aged 18-44 were extracted from existing population-based surveys and analysed. In St. Petersburg the data were originally collected in 2003 (response rate 68%), in Estonia in 2004-2005 (54%), and in Finland in 2000-2001 (86%). The study samples comprised 865 women in St. Petersburg, 2141 in Estonia and 1897 in Finland. Self-rated health was much poorer in St. Petersburg than in Estonia or Finland. High education was negatively associated with poor self-rated health in all the studied populations; it was (partially) mediated via health behaviour and limiting long-term illness only in Estonia and Finland, but not in St. Petersburg. High personal income and employment did not associate with poor self-rated health among St. Petersburg women, as it did in Estonia and Finland. In St. Petersburg housewives rather than employed women had better self-rated health, unlike the two other areas. Women's self-rated health in St. Petersburg varied similarly by education but differently by income and employment as compared to Estonia and Finland. Education is likely the most meaningful dimension of women's socioeconomic position in St. Petersburg. More research is needed to further clarify the pathways between socioeconomic position and health in Russia.

  5. Trends and regime shifts in climatic conditions and river runoff in Estonia during 1951-2015

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    Jaagus, Jaak; Sepp, Mait; Tamm, Toomas; Järvet, Arvo; Mõisja, Kiira

    2017-11-01

    Time series of monthly, seasonal and annual mean air temperature, precipitation, snow cover duration and specific runoff of rivers in Estonia are analysed for detecting of trends and regime shifts during 1951-2015. Trend analysis is realised using the Mann-Kendall test and regime shifts are detected with the Rodionov test (sequential t-test analysis of regime shifts). The results from Estonia are related to trends and regime shifts in time series of indices of large-scale atmospheric circulation. Annual mean air temperature has significantly increased at all 12 stations by 0.3-0.4 K decade-1. The warming trend was detected in all seasons but with the higher magnitude in spring and winter. Snow cover duration has decreased in Estonia by 3-4 days decade-1. Changes in precipitation are not clear and uniform due to their very high spatial and temporal variability. The most significant increase in precipitation was observed during the cold half-year, from November to March and also in June. A time series of specific runoff measured at 21 stations had significant seasonal changes during the study period. Winter values have increased by 0.4-0.9 L s-1 km-2 decade-1, while stronger changes are typical for western Estonia and weaker changes for eastern Estonia. At the same time, specific runoff in April and May have notably decreased indicating the shift of the runoff maximum to the earlier time, i.e. from April to March. Air temperature, precipitation, snow cover duration and specific runoff of rivers are highly correlated in winter determined by the large-scale atmospheric circulation. Correlation coefficients between the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices reflecting the intensity of westerlies, and the studied variables were 0.5-0.8. The main result of the analysis of regime shifts was the detection of coherent shifts for air temperature, snow cover duration and specific runoff in the late 1980s, mostly since the winter of 1988

  6. Public health aspects of nutritional science in Estonia: status, research activities, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokk, R; Boeing, H

    1998-09-01

    At the beginning of the 1990s Estonia was characterized by remarkable social and economic changes that also affected nutrition. An important step in the development of a Food and Nutrition policy was the adoption of a new 'Food Law' in February 1995. The publication of dietary recommendations followed recently. Scientific activities in Estonia are promoted by the 1993 established 'Estonian Society of Nutrition Researchers' (ESNS). The 'Ministry of Social Affairs' is of great importance for coordination of research into nutrition and it is making a great effort to connect Estonian nutrition research activities to European and international programs. An important field of scientific interest is concentrated on the nutrition of children and elderly people. With support of the 'Ministry of Social Affairs' a national health program for children and teenagers was established in which a school lunch project is integrated. Such a project has the aim to improve the quality of school lunches and to enable school teachers to conduct nutritional education. Within this national health program 1,900 schoolchildren were interviewed. This examination will also help to detect inequalities of the nutritional situation between social groups and to identify specific aims for a nutritional program in the different counties of Estonia. Health promoting units at schools will play an important role in realizing these aims. The nutritional supply and status of older persons will become an increasing problem. A survey of food supply with 429 subjects in social care facilities for older people was used to develop a new menu-planning system which meets the nutritional recommendations. Nutritional epidemiology is concentrated at the 'Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics' of the 'Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine' in Tallinn. This department is also running the cancer registry of Estonia which has international reputation. Nutritional research of Estonia should aim to

  7. The state-church relations in Estonia during the years 1944 - 1953

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    Nepochatova Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of the nature and dynamic of church-state relations in Estonia during the first years following its integration into the USSR. In 1944 the religious situation in the republic was characterized by a number of distinctive attributes. The local population, which had lived prior to the accession of the Baltics to the USSR in 1944 in an atmosphere of relative religious freedom, presented the Soviet authorities with a new phenomenon that would have to be reckoned with. The Plenipotentiaries for Estonia appointed by the Council on ROC Affairs at the USSR Council of Ministers were able to convince their superiors of the need to tread carefully in light of the local specifics. The article deals with an analysis of the distinctive features of the Estonian Orthodox Church. As a secondary denomination in the region, it felt the powerful influence of Lutheran customs and rites. The ethnic heterogeneity of the fold and pronounced language barrier determined the choice of candidacy for the ruling eparchy. The Estonian diocese was rather well endowed with cathedrals, meaning that the main problem of church life in the USSR since the easing of persecution in 1944-1947 - the opening of new parishes - was not an issue in Estonia. On the whole, the church-state relations that dominated the republic in 1944-1947 were quite stable, just as they were around the country; moreover, they were typified by a cautious policy on the part of the Soviet authorities. In 1948-1949 the situation began to deteriorate across the country and Estonia was no exception. The difference was in the methods used: in Estonia, the decision was made to fight the Church and its clergy primarily through collectivization, which was actively pursued in the Baltics beginning in the early 1950s. Collectivization left rural parishes and their clergy in dire straits, and religious life in the countryside began to wane. Yet, the arrival from the central regions

  8. Saksa kirjandus Noor-Eesti ajal. Young Estonia and German Literature

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    Liina Lukas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Impelled by a desire to free themselves from the German influence that had dominated the development of Estonian literature, and from the one-sided relation of cultural dependence that had lasted several hundred years, the Young Estonia movement sought to modernize Estonian literature through borrowing from other European literatures, in particular from French, Scandinavian, and Finnish. This article seeks to clarify the relative importance and selection criteria of translations from German literature for the literary field of the Young Estonia era. Further, I seek to elucidate Young Estonia’s contribution to the renewal of these selection criteria in the first, but more importantly the second decade of the 20th century. The long list of translations from German to Estonian at the beginning of the century speaks of the ”light Muse” of German family newspapers, with an admixture of the following: naturalist light fiction with a social theme and social drama; the historical novel (great favourite of the era of historicism, trendy fiction for both feminine and masculine audiences, and an overwhelming proportion of ”Heimatskunst” (literature of local colour. In the first and second decade of the new century, new names appear on the Estonian literary scene that signal a change in taste. For example, naturalist authors (Kretzer, Hauptmann, Halbe, Dehmel crop up sporadically amidst texts meant for leisure reading. Although the first translations of Nietzsche only appeared in 1901, already in 1902 critics had reason to speak of ”Nietzsche in Estonian literature”. 1910 marked the breakthrough of Viennese modernism in the Estonian literary field (Schnitzler, Altenberg, Bahr. Under the influential protection of the Young Estonians (Suits, Kallas, and published by the Young Estonia Publishing House, Baltic German novellawriter Eduard Keyserling enters the Estonian literary scene. Though ”mass consumption” literature from Germany continued

  9. Rahvastiku paiknemine Eestis = Distribution of population in Estonia / Mihkel Servinski, Anne Karjus, Andres Rõigas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Servinski, Mihkel

    2005-01-01

    Rahvastiku paiknemisest teljel pealinn ja pealinna piirkond versus ülejäänud Eesti, teljel linn-maa ning paiknevuse erinevusi maakonna tasandil, omavalitsusüksuse ehk linna-valla tasandil. Diagrammid. Tabelid

  10. Improving conditions for transferring family enterprises in Estonia. Pereettevõtte üleandmise võimalustest Eestis

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    Maret Güldenkoh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Family enterprise is a business entity that belongs to the family. In Estonia the concept of family business, family entrepreneur, or family enterprise has not been defined in legislation. The concepts of business and enterprise have been defined in several pieces of law with some dissensions in their interpretations, however. Differences in legal definitions become obvious when transferring a business. The aim of the article is to assess the legislative conditions of family enterprises in Estonia. Family enterprises can be transferred either by way of transferring the holding status or by transferring the enterprise. Holding can be transferred in companies; a sole proprietor should transfer the business entity either as a whole or transfer the business entity into a company to have a holding there. Family businesses operating as sole proprietors may incur tax liability by transferring the family enterprise. The paper outlines special features of transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. Business transfers have been few and there is no unambiguous practice in this sphere. Transfer of family enterprises is identified with transfer of enterprises; differences arise when family business has been registered as a sole proprietor. The paper provides a brief description of the differences in transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. A purpose was to evaluate the legal environment of transferring family enterprises. In Estonia guidelines should be formulated for transferring the business of a self-employed family member and legal regulations should be introduced to avoid ill-intentioned transfer of enterprises.

  11. Comparative Study: Impact of Family, School, and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukakidze, Berika

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on PISA 2009 International Assessment Study. Two counties were selected: a developed country, Estonia and a developing country, Azerbaijan. The following Datum was used for statistical analysis: students average scores in reading (162 schools, 4 600 students from Azerbaijan; 17 schools, 4 923 students from Estonia). The work is…

  12. Sajand hiljem. Mida Noor-Eesti tegi ja mida ta ei teinud. A Century Later: What Young Estonia Did – and What it Did Not Do

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    Cornelius Hasselblatt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the position of Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti in four different fields of influence: 1. What is the position of the Young Estonia movement in literary history, i.e. in the different monographs and articles on Estonian literature? What position is given to the movement by the writer(s of the various sketches on Estonian literature between 1908 and 2007, and how important are the writers of the group in the eyes of literary historians? 2. How is the movement represented in the collective (public memory of Estonia, e.g. do we find members of the movement on stamps or banknotes or in street names? 3. How do people in Estonia remember the literary production of the members of the group: what are the most important texts people read today, and how are these texts linked to the Young Estonia movement? 4. Finally, how is the movement represented outside Estonia, i.e. in the reception of Estonian literature abroad? Which texts have been translated, which authors are well-known abroad? In answering these questions the author concludes that the Young Estonia movement was much less important than has been assumed with respect to the production of literature, i.e. yielding literary texts that have been recognized and read up till the present. Rather, the lasting importance of Young Estonia has been in the organization of literary life.

  13. Noor-Eesti rollist eesti kirjandus- ja kultuuriloos. The Role of Young Estonia in Estonian Literary and Cultural History

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    Sirje Olesk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 20th century on, the activities of the Young Estonia literary movement have had a significant influence on the development of Estonian culture. The group published five Young Estonia albums (1905–1915, the magazine Young Estonia, devoted to science, literature, and the arts (1910– 1911, and the newspaper Vaba Sõna (1914–1916, Free Word. The core of the group was composed of five or six active writers who maintained lively interactions with art and theatre circles. The publications of the Young Estonia Press brought about a revolutionary turn in the design and printing styles of the Estonian-language book. The questions of Young Estonia’s role and meaning have intrigued the Estonian cultural public at different times and in different ways. Young Estonia brought to cultural consciousness liberal views on the interpretation of art as well as an elitist aesthetics. At different times their openness to Europe irritated both the nationalist-minded and internationalists; thus the reception of the Young Estonia movement has been polemical throughout Estonian cultural history. Elapsed time has both opened the way for broader generalizations and, conversely, created a need to reconstruct the cultural context of the beginning of the 20th century. Polemic around Young Estonia was certainly caused by the group as a whole; however, in this article the role of individual members is also highlighted. It is emphasized that the political and aesthetic ideas of the Young Estonians changed synchronously with social conditions, from the 1905 Russian revolution to the world war that ravaged Europe. If the early part of this period saw a more social and nationalist bent to their thinking, then in the years of reaction, positions were taken that were more in keeping with l’art pour l’art. Young Estonia was not a hierarchical organization; rather, its small core group was composed of a narrow circle of friends with various

  14. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

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    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  15. Noor-Eesti antifuturismist.On the Anti-Futurism of Young Estonia

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    Virve Sarapik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Young Estonia persists in Estonian cultural memory as a movement of renewal, among other factors through its impetus to the development of urban culture. This article undertakes to juxtapose Young Estonia’s efforts at cultural renewal, its rhetoric of the future, and futurism as a cultural phenomenon. (As such, futurism was vitally engaged with contemporary urban culture, industry, and technology. Four parameters serve as points of departure: (1 Young Estonia’s rhetoric of the new and the future. Though specific about what they rejected, Young Estonia’s texts do not outline a clear vision of the future. Frequently used key words for what they opposed included German- or Russian-mindedness, a people in servitude, the old, flat land, the lack of a unified whole, lack of style. (2 The place of the city in Young Estonia’s texts. Though in earlier publications there were only a few passing references to urban culture, the problems of the city come to the fore in several programmatic texts and in the visual design of the fourth Young Estonia album in 1912. By then the core members of Young Estonia also had had real experience of a large metropolis. If their earlier attitude toward the city had been critical, then in these Young Estonian texts the city finds its positive face. (3 Industry and the proletariat. The Young Estonia movement received stimulus from such general phenomena as factories, technology, and industry. In their imagination working people and educated people seem to live in separate worlds, with different wishes and needs. However, the freedom of the educated would be impossible without political freedom. Although they believed that technological development was a precondition for the creation of urban culture, neither their own literary works nor their other aspirations bore this out. (4 Futurism and film. Young Estonia’s later period coincided with the intensive use of term ”futurism” in Estonian journalism. Young

  16. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  17. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  18. Hysterectomy types in Estonia are still different from the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerus, Piret; Lang, Katrin; Toompere, Karolin; Kirss, Fred

    2015-05-01

    To describe hysterectomy rates in different age groups, indications and proportion of surgery types over time. Nationwide register-based study. Estonia. Women who had hysterectomies for benign indications from 2004 to 2011. For each case, diagnosis according to ICD-10, type of surgery according to Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee, age, and time of operation were retrieved from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund database. Mid-year female population statistics were obtained from Statistics Estonia. Rate of hysterectomies per 100 000 women, proportions of different operation types, and main indications for hysterectomies. The total number of hysterectomies was 12 336, with a yearly mean of 1542. The rate of hysterectomies per 100 000 women/year decreased between 2004 and 2011 from 239.1 to 204.9. The proportion of abdominal hysterectomies decreased from 86.0 to 56.1% and the proportion of laparoscopic hysterectomies increased from 6.3 to 34.7%, while the proportion of vaginal hysterectomies remained more or less stable (7.8-9.1%). Most hysterectomies (74.4%) occurred in the age group 35-54 years. The main indications for hysterectomies were leiomyoma (61.5%), female genital prolapse (9.0%) and endometriosis (8.8%). Population rates and indications for hysterectomies in Estonia were similar to those in most Nordic countries, but the proportion of abdominal hysterectomies was higher and that of vaginal hysterectomy lower. The rates of laparoscopic and vaginal hysterectomies should be increased. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Contrasts in alcohol-related mortality in Estonia: education and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Pärna, Kersti; Palo, Ene; Rahu, Mati

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine socio-demographic differences in alcohol-related mortality in Estonia, and how they changed over time. Individual death records (age at death 25-64) in Estonia from the late Soviet era (1983-1991) to Estonian re-independence (1992-2005) were analysed using a case-control design. Cases were deaths from alcohol-related causes (7981 deaths). Controls were deaths (13,820) from those neoplasms that are considered not to show variation in death risk according to the socio-demographic variables (that is, excluding cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract, lung, stomach, colon and female breast). Differences in alcohol-related mortality between socio-demographic groups were measured by mortality odds ratio. In the study period as a whole, in both genders, an inverse relationship between the educational level and risk of alcohol-related death was apparent. Non-Estonians were more likely to die from alcohol-related causes than Estonians. Risk of alcohol-related death varied over time, being lowest just before Estonia regained its independence, and highest in the most recent period. In men, the educational gradient in the mortality odds ratio almost disappeared in 1988-1991, but reappeared in the transition period, while the impact of ethnicity remained stable over time. In women, educational contrasts in the risk of death existed throughout all subperiods, and ethnical inequalities widened in the re-independence period. Rapid societal changes had profound effects on alcohol-related mortality. Strategies to prevent alcohol misuse should include all sections in society, paying special attention to less educated and non-Estonians.

  20. Prostate cancer incidence, mortality and survival trends in Estonia, 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Baburin, Aleksei; Kotsar, Andres; Eiche, Ivar-Endrik; Lang, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze long-term trends in prostate cancer (PCa) incidence, mortality and survival in Estonia, with specific focus on age and stage. Data on PCa incident cases and deaths in 1995-2014 were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and the Causes of Death Registry, respectively. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate the annual percentage change for incidence and mortality trends. Relative survival ratios (RSRs) were calculated for four 5 year periods. Incidence and survival were analyzed by age and stage. The average annual number of new PCa cases in Estonia increased more than three-fold from 1995-1999 to 2010-2014. The age-standardized overall incidence and the incidence of localized cancer increased steeply until 2011, then leveled off. The incidence of locally/regionally spread or distant PCa remained stable. A significant increase in PCa mortality was seen only in men aged 65 years and older. The overall 5 year RSR increased from 58% to 90% over the study period. Survival increased considerably for all stages. The dramatic rise in the incidence of PCa in Estonia since the late 1990s was limited to localized cancers. This, together with rapid increases in survival, is probably due predominantly to extensive opportunistic prostate-specific antigen testing of middle-aged and elderly men. The ongoing increase in PCa mortality among older men warrants validation of causes of death to avoid possible overestimation. Evaluation of diagnostic and treatment strategies could identify possibilities for improving outcomes of non-localized PCa.

  1. Conodont dating of the Middle Ordovician breccia cap-rock limestone on Osmussaar Island, northwestern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I. S. Mellgren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Various mechanisms have hitherto been suggested to explain the formation of the Kundan (Middle Ordovician Osmussaar Breccia in northwestern Estonia. Following the recent discovery of L-chondritic chromite in these peculiar, sand-penetrated strata, it seems plausible that the breccia is impact-related. Herein, the conodont faunas of three thin limestone intervals overlying the breccia at Osmussaar Island have been investigated, with the aim of establishing the age of the event in terms of the Baltoscandian conodont-based biostratigraphical scheme. Based on the presence of Microzarkodina ozarkodella, the limestone directly overlying the breccia is assigned to the M. ozarkodella Subzone of the Lenodus (Eoplacognathus? pseudoplanus Zone. This is reinforced by means of a faunal shift between this sample interval and the subsequent one, which is directly comparable with a faunal shift in the Mäekalda section, mainland Estonia. The middle, orthoceratite-yielding interval is assigned to the uppermost L. (E.? pseudoplanus Zone (or, alternatively, the lowermost Eoplacognathus suecicus Zone, whereas the uppermost interval, an oolitic limestone, is referable to the E. foliaceus Subzone, corresponding to the lower part of the Lasnamägi Stage. These results support a connection between the Osmussaar event and the stratigraphic interval yielding abundant meteorites and/or high levels of L-type chromite in Sweden, as they both can be referred to the lower and/or middle part of the Kunda Stage. The minor difference in age between the first limestones deposited after the brecciation and the meteorite and L-chromite-yielding interval in Baltoscandia can be explained as caused by a period of non-deposition, seen as numerous hiatuses of various extent in the Kunda Stage in northwestern Estonia.

  2. Danish investors' demands on skills and attributes of local accounting staff, are they met? - the case of Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundgaard, Elin; Thomsen, Jeanette; Alver, Lehte

    2008-01-01

    gaps by examining in depth a specific practice, i.e. the accounting staff of the Danish affiliations in Estonia.  Research on accounting staff is almost non-existing. This paper gives the project description and the research design as well as the results of a pilot interview in a big Danish......-owned Estonian company. The result of the pilot test interview may seem a bit surprising at first glance because they did not have the problems expected by the researchers. A tentative explanation may be the situational factors in Estonia. However, a closer scrutiny of the answers showed some interesting...

  3. Trichinella spp. biomass has increased in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kärssin, Age; Häkkinen, Liidia; Niin, Enel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Raccoon dogs and red foxes are well-adapted hosts for Trichinella spp. The aims of this study were to estimate Trichinella infection prevalence and biomass and to investigate which Trichinella species circulated in these indicator hosts in Estonia. Methods: From material collected...... larval burden), and almost 20 times higher in raccoon dogs and almost five times higher in red foxes than in 2000-2002 (based on median larval burden). Conclusions: Raccoon dogs and red foxes are relevant reservoirs for Trichinella spp. in Estonia. The biomass of Trichinella circulating in sylvatic...

  4. The diffusion of internet voting. Usage patterns of internet voting in Estonia between 2005 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Vassil, Kristjan; Solvak, Mihkel; Vinkel, Priit; Trechsel, Alexander H.; Alvarez, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    E-voting has the potential to lower participation thresholds and increase turnout, but its technical complexity may produce other barriers to participation. Using Rogers' theory of the diffusion of innovations, we examined how the use of e-voting has changed over time. Data from eight e-enabled elections between 2005 and 2015 in Estonia, were used to investigate changes to the profile of e-voters and contrast them to those voting by conventional means. Owing to the aggregate share of e-voters...

  5. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  6. Discovery of the Ordovician Kinnekulle K-bentonite at the Põõsaspea cliff, NW Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Linda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A previously unknown outcrop of the Kinnekulle K-bentonite (metabentonite is reported from the Põõsaspea cliff, NW Estonia. The bed has a sharp lower and a gradational upper contact and comprises ca 28 cm of clay overlain by ca 10 cm of hard K-feldspar-rich variety. The latter contains a layer of breccia, which indicates early onset of recrystallization and hardening of volcanic material. The discovery shows that the Põõsaspea cliff section is younger than previously thought and includes rocks of both Haljala and Keila stages.

  7. Real Estate Bubble Bursts and Government Policy during Crisis: Examples of Estonia, Ireland and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Varblane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current article is to view previous experience with real estate crises and taking into account such experience find suitable policy reactions to overcome the current Estonian crisis as smoothly as possible. Beside overall theoretical guidelines for overcoming the crisis, examples of Sweden and Ireland are viewed. The policy issues suggested for Estonia include some changes in tax laws, avoiding expansionary fiscal policy, making lending stricter and borrower responsible to higher extent, cooperation of different authorities to tackle problem of bad loans, initiating wage and price cut, paying more attention to exporting sector

  8. Quality control and patient dose from X-ray examinations in some hospitals in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Parviainen, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Holmberg, P. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Kuus, E.; Mueuersepps, T.; Jaerv, V. [Tartuskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1995-12-31

    Quality control measurements of X ray diagnostic units were carried out in four hospitals in Estonia. Measurements were focused on the unit`s technical performance, on image quality and on patient dose and film processing. The main problems are in the areas of image receptors and film processing: image receptors are of low speed type causing high patient doses and manual film processing results in low contrast and high base plus fog. Spatial resolution, both in film imaging and in image intensifiers, is reasonably good. It is recommended that quality assurance programmes be established, that basic measuring equipment be acquired and personnel assigned to perform such measurements be trained. (Author).

  9. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle: Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Mõtus, Kerli; Viltrop, Arvo; Lassen, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was 18.62%. At least one seropositive animal was found on 68.86% of the farms, and seropositive cattle were detected in all counties. The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years (60-71 months) of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed. Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. gondii seropositive nor with finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm. The odds of finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm were higher if the herd size was above median (105 in dairy and mixed dairy farms; 35 in beef and mixed beef farms). The results indicate that T. gondii is endemic within the agricultural setting in Estonia and present on the majority of cattle farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis E Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Tallo, Tatjana; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-11-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115 persons reported they had obtained a veterinary degree and were included in this study. The sera were tested for presence of antibodies against HEV using a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial immunoblot assay in series. A sample was considered antibody-positive if it tested positive with both tests. Antibody-positive samples were further examined for the presence of HEV RNA. Three (2.6%) of the 115 veterinarians tested positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies against HEV, whereas no immunoglobulin M antibodies against the virus were detected. The antibody-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other countries.

  12. The epidemiological and economic impact of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccine in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This analysis assessed the epidemiological and economic impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4: 6/11/16/18) vaccination in Estonia. Methods A dynamic transmission model was used to assess the epidemiological and economic impact of the routine vaccination of 12-year-old girls with a HPV4 vaccine in preventing cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 1, 2 and 3 and genital warts. Results The model projected that at year 100, HPV4 vaccination would lead to a reduction of HPV 16/18 related cervical cancer incidence and deaths by over 97% and the incidence of HPV 6/11 related genital warts among Estonian women and men by over 94% and 81%, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the HPV4 vaccination strategy was € 4,889 per QALY gained over a time horizon of 100 years. Conclusions Routine vaccination of 12-year-old girls with HPV4 vaccine appears to be cost-effective in Estonia, in addition to providing both short term and long term health gains. PMID:23819789

  13. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Same Siiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strategy. It also favors the revision of the brand identity selection and the promotion of Estonian brand, and supports a customer-based approach for their assessment. Documentary and empirical evidence show that the image of Estonia among its most important target audiences in the field of tourism does not match the Estonian brand identity. The gap in-between was evidenced by the results and content analysis of 24 in-depth interviews made with a selected group of people well acquainted with the country as well as some branding experts. This article contributes to the existing case study literature with findings that also manifest opportunities to strengthen the country brand, if its formulation develops a realistic brand identity and its promotion is based on accurate, unique and appealing ideas. It proposes academic support to innovative or alternative concepts for the country branding, and comments on applications of this study to more specific fields and further research.

  14. Education Matters, but Who Can Attain It? Attitudes towards Education and Educational Attainment in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Täht

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the most important determinants of socio-economic success in modern societies, but educational inequality remains an important societal problem. The aim of this study was to look at public attitudes towards the value of education and views on the opportunities to access education in Estonia. Using data from the Estonian Social Equality and Inequality Study (2010, the findings of the current study suggested that education is highly valued in Estonia, but the public also tends to think that access to education is not equally available to everybody. Furthermore, we found that there is a social-status-based structure in the views of the value of education and access to education. Lower social status groups tend to value education as less important for success in life, and these lower social status groups are also more likely to think that chances to access higher education are not equal for everybody, but that wealth, gender, ethnicity and social status matter. Similarly, inequality of opportunity is also felt more strongly within the ethnic minority group, the non-Estonians, than it is amongst Estonians.

  15. The Relationship between Integration Dimensions among Second Generation Russians in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerli Nimmerfeldt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between structural, cultural, social and identificational integration dimensions among second generation Russians in Estonia on the basis of TIES data. The relationship between structural integration and other dimensions is established through cluster analysis, which involves the analysis of the diff erence between means across clusters. In addition, a bivariate correlation analysis is used to determine the relationship between cultural, social, and identificational dimensions. The results raise questions regarding the pertinence of linear assimilation theory in the Estonian case. While the cluster analysis reveals a positive relationship between structural and cultural integration, higher levels of social and identificational integration are not correlated with higher levels of structural and cultural integration. Second generation Russians retain a strong ethnic identity and socialise primarily with other Russians. A bivariate correlation analysis reveals that there is a relationship between cultural, social and identity-related dimensions. Feelings of belonging to Estonia and distance from both Russia and Russians in Russia are stronger among those with good Estonian language proficiency. Respondents with strong Estonian language skills also tend to be more socially integrated and to have more Estonian friends.

  16. Transitional statistics: internal migration and urban growth in post-Soviet Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, O; Tammaru, T

    1999-07-01

    Standard models and theories of internal migration and urban growth in Estonia have been developed. However, there remained a lack of statistical wherewithal to conduct the required kind of analysis. For instance, certain categories of migration are likely to have been underreported and it is clear that existing rules and regulations on how to report those moves that were registered were not always observed. This could be attributed to the fact that existing statistics may fail to account for the process they purposely capture. To illustrate, the authors report the results of a study of migration patterns in post-Soviet Estonia with a view of identifying the consequences of a change in reporting regulations and practices. To this end, a survey of individual migration histories was conducted in 1997. Overall, findings suggest that post-Soviet migration data are slightly improved in comparison with their Soviet-era predecessors: different but still deficient. It turns out that net domestic migratory flows are the reverse of what official statistics on registered residents suggest. The contrasts between the survey returns and the officially reported statistics are outlined, including resources of divergence. As the findings indicate that something is distinct from that suggested by the compilations of the Estonian Statistical Office is indeed taking place, this study provide some inputs for a more thorough understanding of how migratory flows and urbanization processes are transformed during the transition period itself.

  17. Estland im Sog der Russischen Volkswirtschaft? Estonia Being Caught Up in Russian Turmoil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Friedrich Laaser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the Ukraine crisis and Russia’s economic problems, the authors pose the question to what extent the Estonian economy still relies on foreign trade with Russia and which costs Estonia might bear in the course of an aggravation of the lingering East-West conflict. Estonian trade relations with Russia as well as Estonia’s integration in the European and global division of labor are analyzed by a gravity model which also incorporates the trade foreign trade of the Baltic neighbors Latvia and Lithuania as benchmark countries. The authors find that even before the crisis Estonia’s trade with Russia lost weight and the dependency on Russian export and import markets diminished. By an in-depth analysis of Estonia’ sectoral trade patterns these findings were confirmed for the majority of industries. Only in the case of the Estonian milk industry the authors observe significant effects of Russian sanctions. In contrast to this particular case, Estonia becomes increasingly independent from imports of Russian natural gas which in the past made the country vulnerable to political blackmail. The authors conclude that regional and sectoral diversification of Estonian trade patterns induced by the current crisis will help the country to improve its international competitiveness and its economic integration into world markets.

  18. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  19. Armastus, Andestus, Alandlikkus: The Rediscovery of the Orthodox Christianity in Post-Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Benovska-Sabkova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to outline some of the basic characteristics of the post-Soviet ‘renaissance’ of the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (under jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, for example the conversion from Lutheranism to Orthodox Christianity and the processes of rediscovery, reinvention and ‘Estonianisation’ of Orthodox Christianity. The restoration of the autonomous Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, beginning in the 1990s, is due to the historic presence of Orthodoxy in Estonia, but also has the particularities of a new project that seeks contemporary horizons and copes with specific postsocialist problems. The paper takes a closer look at the specific dimensions of these processes through a study of a small Orthodox community: the parish of St. Alexander Nevsky church in Tartu. The author strives to demonstrate the living process of reinvention of Orthodox Christianity in Estonia and more generally the ‘making’, creation, of religion. The small religious community in Tartu dealt with in the paper, shares a number of features of the transforming religiosity of Europe: emphasis on spirituality, openness to the impacts of globalisation, the hybrid character of certain religious practices. It is likewise an example of the fact that Orthodox Christianity may also be the free choice of people looking for moral perfection. This is one of the answers to the main research question about the reasons and character of a contemporary conversion to Orthodox Christianity.

  20. Armastus, Andestus, Alandlikkus: The Rediscovery of the Orthodox Christianity in Post-Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Benovska-Sabkova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to outline some of the basic characteristics of the post-Soviet ‘renaissance’ of the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (under jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, for example the conversion from Lutheranism to Orthodox Christianity and the processes of rediscovery, reinvention and ‘Estonianisation’ of Orthodox Christianity. The restoration of the autonomous Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, beginning in the 1990s, is due to the historic presence of Orthodoxy in Estonia, but also has the particularities of a new project that seeks contemporary horizons and copes with specific postsocialist problems. The paper takes a closer look at the specific dimensions of these processes through a study of a small Orthodox community: the parish of St. Alexander Nevsky church in Tartu. The author strives to demonstrate the living process of reinvention of Orthodox Christianity in Estonia and more generally the ‘making’, creation, of religion. The small religious community in Tartu dealt with in the paper, shares a number of features of the transforming religiosity of Europe: emphasis on spirituality, openness to the impacts of globalisation, the hybrid character of certain religious practices. It is likewise an example of the fact that Orthodox Christianity may also be the free choice of people looking for moral perfection. This is one of the answers to the main research question about the reasons and character of a contemporary conversion to Orthodox Christianity.

  1. Community orientation of services for persons with a psychiatric disability. Comparison between Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Zsolt Bugarszki; Karin Hanga; Dagmar Narusson; Koidu Saia; Marju Medar

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the way mental health services and social services are orientated on assisting people with a psychiatric disability to participate in different areas of community life. A large research project about community participation in three different countries (Estonia, Hungary and the

  2. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  3. Educational inequalities in self-rated health: whether post-socialist Estonia and Russia are performing better than 'Scandinavian' Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöörmann, Rein; Helemäe, Jelena

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and education in post-socialist countries (Estonia and Russia) and in Finland, a Scandinavian country. Data from the 5th wave of the European Social Survey (ESS) carried out in 2010 were used. In particular, we used a sub-sample of the 25-69 years old. Two-step analysis was carried out: descriptive overview of relationship between SRH and education to assess the knowledge-related impact of education on SRH in pooled model for all three countries; and logistic regression analysis to evaluate separate models in each country. The prevalence of at-least-good health was the highest in Finland, Estonia occupied the second position and Russia the third. Knowledge-related educational inequalities were lower in Russia compared to Finland, while they were of similar magnitude in Estonia and Finland. Our expectations that knowledge-based inequalities are lower in post-socialist countries compared to a Scandinavian country turn to be true in case of Russia, not Estonia. Possible reasons for the expectations might be a lack of attention paid to educational inequalities in terms of access to social resources, competitiveness in the labour market and to what extent education provide a tool against uncertainty (preventing work- and unemployment-related stress). Series of comparative studies revealing links between certain institutional packages and (socio-economic and knowledge-related) educational inequalities seem to be of special relevance.

  4. Does School Admission by Zoning Affect Educational Inequality? A Study of Family Background Effect in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin; Veski, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia--countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social…

  5. Sociocultural Aspects of Russian-Speaking Parents' Choice of Language of Instruction for Their Children in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Raija Pini; Ferrin, Scott Ellis; Hite, Steven J.; Hilton, Sterling C.

    2008-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to identify sociocultural variables that influence whether Russian-speaking parents living in Estonia choose Russian, Estonian, or bilingual (Russian and Estonian) instruction for their children. To examine which sociocultural variables are related to parents' choice of language of instruction, 346…

  6. Phaenocarpa ungulosetosa spec. nov. from Finland and Elasmosoma depressum spec. nov. from Estonia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini, Euphorinae: Neoneurini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Koponen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of Braconidae belonging to the genera Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini) and Elasmosoma Ruthe, 1858 (Euphorinae: Neoneurini) are reported from Finland and Estonia, respectively, and described as P. angulosetosa spec. nov. and E. depressum spec. nov. A key to

  7. Russian in Estonia's Public Sector: "Playing on the Borderline" between Official Policy and Real-Life Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkina, Maimu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of Russian in state communication in officially monolingual Estonia. Drawing on interviews with high-level public employees in four central state institutions and an analysis of these institutions' websites, the article shows that while Russian is not specifically mentioned in the laws, it is "de facto"…

  8. Late-glacial to Holocene aeolian deposition in northeastern Europe - The timing of sedimentation at the Iisaku site (NE Estonia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinska-Nartisa, Edyta; Nartiss, Maris; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Late-glacial and Holocene aeolian inland dune complex at Iisaku (NE Estonia) has been investigated using an accurate and detailed compilation of the sedimentary properties and chronological framework. The quartz grains forming the dunes are very variable, reflecting aeolian, weathering...

  9. IN-SERVICE TRAINING OF TEACHERS OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN ESTONIA: MAPPING OF TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Raud

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In-service training of teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL is as a core instrument of continuous professional development of EFL teachers. Within the context of nowadays education policies, the issue of in-service training has become of topical importance. It requires systematic approach based on the analysis of individual EFL teachers’ needs and receptive practices in developing in-service teacher-training programmes. In view of that, a survey was conducted among EFL teachers in Estonia to discover the areas of in-service training they are interested in. Based on the survey results, a model of an in-service training module to implement in order to meet the needs of EFL teachers in Estonia is proposed, and it is placed against the background of in-service teacher training provided in Estonia. The module could be included into in-service teaching training programmes not only in Estonia, but in a wider European context.

  10. Strategic Calculation in Estonia’s Decision to Enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Soviet and German imperialism.30 After the war, the Sovietization of Estonia continued forcing agricultural collectivization. In March 1949, another more...agencies and actors over these issues and drove Russia into proxy wars on its perimeter with Moldova, Tajikistan , and Georgia. December 1994

  11. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  12. Ethnic Minority–Majority Unions in Estonia : Unions entre membres d’ethnies minoritaires et majoritaires en Estonie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.

    Ethnic minority–majority unions—also referred to as mixed ethnic unions—are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority–majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total

  13. The Role of Values in Citizenship Education: A Comparative Study of Estonian- and Russian-Speaking Schools in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Anu

    2003-01-01

    For emerging democracies civic education issues have special meaning. Often these issues play a vital role in the process of nation building and democratic consolidation, which makes the interplay between the school system and the socio-political environment particularly important. Estonia, which inherited from the half-century Soviet occupation a…

  14. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  15. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  16. The updated clinical guideline development process in Estonia is an efficient method for developing evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne; Habicht, Jarno; Mathiesen, Mari; Starkopf, Joel

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the tools available to improve the quality of health care. However, it may be difficult for countries to develop their own national guidelines "from scratch" because of limitations in time, expertise, and financial resources. The Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), in collaboration with other stakeholders, has launched a national effort to develop and implement evidence-based clinical practice guidelines aimed at improving the quality of care. Although the first EHIF handbook for preparing guidelines was published in 2004, there has been wide variation in the format and quality of guidelines prepared by medical specialty societies, EHIF, and other organizations in Estonia. An additional challenge to guideline development in Estonia is that it is a country with limited human resources. Therefore, revision of the Estonian guideline process was aimed at developing an efficient method for adapting current high-quality guidelines to the Estonian setting without compromising their quality. In 2010, a comprehensive assessment of guideline development in Estonia was made by the World Health Organization, EHIF, the Medical Faculty at the University of Tartu, and selected national and international experts in an effort to streamline and harmonize the principles and processes of guideline development in Estonia. This study summarizes the evaluation of and revisions to the process. Estonia has made substantial changes in its processes of clinical practice guideline development and implementation as part of an overall program aiming for systematic quality improvement in health care. This experience may be relevant to other small or resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A; Amico, K Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Our application of intervention mapping (IM) strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to produce a brief clinic-based intervention entitled the Situated Optimal Adherence Intervention Estonia (sOAI Estonia) which uses both Next-Step Counseling (NSC) and Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model approach to facilitate integration of ART into the context and demands of daily life. We present the intervention development process, the resulting sOAI Estonia approach, and describe a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which is under way to evaluate the intervention (results due in spring 2013).

  18. Changes in climate, catchment vegetation and hydrogeology as the causes of dramatic lake-level fluctuations in the Kurtna Lake District, NE Estonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marko Vainu; Jaanus Terasmaa

    2014-01-01

      Numerous lakes in the world serve as sensitive indicators of climate change. Water levels for lakes Ahnejarv and Martiska, two vulnerable oligotrophic closed-basin lakes on sandy plains in northeastern Estonia, fell more than 3 m in 1946...

  19. [Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications. Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid, 46. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikool 2010

  20. Estonia-filmi peaosas mängib Greta Scacchi : Jutta Rabe on leidnud oma filmile mõjuvõimsad toetajad / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks ja produtsendiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  1. [Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikool, 2010. (Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid, 46)

  2. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  3. Syphilis as a social disease: experience from the post-communist transition period in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Nygård, Jan F; Kibur-Nygård, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and radical social changes have taken place at the same time in Estonia. Our aim was to study the trends in syphilis incidence, selected sociodemographic factors and health status indicators during the economic transition. Associations were estimated by the ordinary least square regression method for change in and actual values of syphilis and tuberculosis incidence rate (IR), percentage of non-ethnic Estonians and urban population, homicides rate, unemployment rate and, birth rate. The analysis was performed by counties at three different time periods. Syphilis IR significantly correlated with the proportion of non-ethnic Estonians, urban population, tuberculosis IR and birth rate. Change of syphilis IR correlated significantly with concurrent changes in unemployment rate and tuberculosis IR. Our findings support the theory that syphilis is a social disease, thus emphasizing the importance of social factors in the occurrence of STDs. PMID:15479502

  4. HIV and STI Testing and Related Factors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Kristi; Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Valk, Anti; Aavik, Toivo

    2016-10-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia are low. We collected data from 265 MSM in a national, online survey. Lifetime HIV testing was related to risky sexual behaviors and contacts with health care services, while lifetime STI testing was related only to contacts with health care services. In addition, some personal values were significant predictors of testing. For example, high achievement (personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards) had a negative impact on lifetime HIV testing, and high interpersonal conformity (avoiding upsetting others) had a negative impact on lifetime STI testing. The results demonstrate the need to develop gay-friendly health services and to recognize the role of personal values and individual differences in values when designing attractive interventions to increase HIV/STI testing rates among MSM.

  5. Suicidality and Associated Factors Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Kristi; Valk, Anti; Lõhmus, Liilia

    2017-01-01

    Many studies over the last decade provide strong evidence of elevated rates of suicidality among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations compared to heterosexual populations. The aim of the current study was to investigate suicidal ideation and attempts and related factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia. We conducted a nationwide Internet-based study among MSM with 265 eligible participants. Our results reveal high rates of self-reported suicidal ideation (lifetime prevalence 45%) and attempts (lifetime prevalence 11%) as well as a high rate of problem drinking (33%) and depressive symptoms (32%) among MSM. Recent suicidal ideation (14% had thought about suicide in the last 12 months) was related to depressive symptoms and lower socioeconomic situation. There is a need to develop specific interventions to address these issues among MSM and to provide gay-friendly mental health services.

  6. Payment systems and incentives in primary care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment systems in primary care. This article looks at recent developments in payment systems and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing primary care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare system and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Age of the Kalana Lagerstätte, early Silurian, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Männik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Kalana quarry in central Estonia is known for its exceptionally well-preserved non-calcified algal and other fossils. The interval with the fossil Konservat Lagerstätte in the Kalana section has previously been tentatively dated as early Aeronian. Recent findings of graptolites now enable more precise dating of these beds. The strata yielding the Lagerstätte are not older than the mid-Aeronian and correspond to the Pribylograptus leptotheca graptolite Biozone. In terms of conodont biostratigraphy they correlate with the middle of the Pranognathus tenuis conodont Biozone. It has also become evident that the uppermost Jõgeva Beds of the Nurmekund Formation, and probably also the uppermost Ikla Member of the Saarde Formation, are younger than previously thought and correlate with the Pribylograptus leptotheca graptolite Biozone. Our data additionally indicate that the conodont genus Aulacognathus had appeared by the mid-Aeronian.

  8. Immoral Obscenity: Censorship of Folklore Manuscript Collections in Late Stalinist Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Kulasalu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of folkloristics contains many cases of obscene materials that were excluded from field notes, books and archives. The Estonian Folklore Archives (founded in 1927 did incorporate dirty jokes, riddles and songs in its collection. Soviet occupation changed the topics of folklore scholarship and archival practices. Between the years 1945 and 1952, the Folklore Archives’ manuscript collections, catalogues and photographs were censored. Anti-Soviet texts were cut out or made unreadable. In the first years after the incorporation of the Republic of Estonia into the Soviet Union, anti-Soviet mainly meant politically sensitive materials such as jokes about Stalin, very patriotic texts or the names of some people. During the beginning of the 1950s, stricter rules were applied and obscene texts were also censored. In this article, I will focus on the censorship of obscene words and motifs and the political dimension of moralistic censorship in a totalitarian state.

  9. Intergenerational solidarity in family communication and childrearing among Russians living in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järva I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to ascertain the importance of intergenerational solidarity in communication within the family and childrearing among the Russians living in Estonia. Generations see the world differently enough. One of the reasons for that is individualistic worldview which characterizes not only the younger generation, but individualistic tendencies have percolated into other generationsas well. All generations admit the presence of a generation gap, but they disclaim presence of intergenerational conflict. At the same time respondents affirm that there is solidarity between generations in their families and it is based on love and respect. Solidarity between generations in families is revealed both on spiritual level (communicating, love, trust, mutual understanding, common interests as well as in real help given by generations to each other as far as homework, children's upbringing, and economical aid are concerned.

  10. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plado, Jüri

    2012-10-01

    Three structures (Neugrund, Kärdla, and Kaali) of proven impact origin make Estonia the most cratered country in the world by area. In addition, several candidate impact structures exist, waiting for future studies to determine their origin. This article is an overview of these proven and possible impact structures, including some breccia layers. It summarizes the information and descriptions of the morphology; geological characteristics; and mineralogical, chemical, and geophysical data available in the literature. The overview was prepared to make information in many earlier publications in local journals (many of which had been published in Estonian or Russian) accessible to the international community. This review summarizes the facts and observations in a historical fashion, summarizing the current state of knowledge with some additional comments, and providing the references.

  11. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  12. Mortality and causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabre, Liis; Rekand, Tiina; Asser, Toomas; Kõrv, Janika

    2013-01-01

    Study design Retrospective population-based study with mortality follow-up. Objective To study mortality, causes and risk factors for death in Estonian patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Setting All Estonian hospitals. Methods Medical records of patients with TSCI from all regional, central, general, and rehabilitation hospitals in Estonia from 1997 to 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. Mortality status was ascertained as of 31 December 2011. Causes of death were collected from the Estonian Causes of Death Registry. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the entire sample and for causes of death. A Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify the risk indicators for death. Results During the observation period (1997–2011) 162 patients of 595 died. Nearly half of the patients (n = 76) died during the first year after TSCI. The main causes of death were external causes (30%), cardiovascular disease (29%). and suicide (8%). The overall SMR was 2.81 (95% confidence interval 2.40–3.28) and SMR was higher for women than for men (3.80 vs. 2.70). Cause-specific SMRs were markedly elevated for sepsis and suicide. Mortality was significantly affected by the age at the time of injury, neurological level, and extent of the injury as well as the year of TSCI and complications. Conclusion Life expectancy is significantly decreased in patients with TSCI in Estonia compared with the general population. Deaths during the first year after the injury have an important impact on statistics. Treatment of cardiovascular diseases, infections, and prevention of suicide are useful for reducing mortality in patients with TSCI. PMID:24090049

  13. A decline in the prevalence of injecting drug users in Estonia, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, A; Rajaleid, K; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Des Jarlais, DC

    2013-01-01

    Aims and setting Descriptions of behavioural epidemics have received little attention compared with infectious disease epidemics in Eastern Europe. Here we report a study aimed at estimating trends in the prevalence of injection drug use between 2005 and 2009 in Estonia. Design and methods The number of injection drug users (IDUs) aged 15–44 each year between 2005 and 2009 was estimated using capture-recapture methodology based on 4 data sources (2 treatment data bases: drug abuse and non-fatal overdose treatment; criminal justice (drug related offences) and mortality (injection drug use related deaths) data). Poisson log-linear regression models were applied to the matched data, with interactions between data sources fitted to replicate the dependencies between the data sources. Linear regression was used to estimate average change over time. Findings there were 24305, 12292, 238, 545 records and 8100, 1655, 155, 545 individual IDUs identified in the four capture sources (Police, drug treatment, overdose, and death registry, accordingly) over the period 2005 – 2009. The estimated prevalence of IDUs among the population aged 15–44 declined from 2.7% (1.8–7.9%) in 2005 to 2.0% (1.4–5.0%) in 2008, and 0.9% (0.7–1.7%) in 2009. Regression analysis indicated an average reduction of over 1700 injectors per year. Conclusion While the capture-recapture method has known limitations, the results are consistent with other data from Estonia. Identifying the drivers of change in the prevalence of injection drug use warrants further research. PMID:23290632

  14. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia. PMID:23590318

  15. Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Estonia has experienced an HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with the highest per capita HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe. We assessed the effects of expanded syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the capital city, Tallinn, which has an estimated 10,000 IDUs. Methods SEP implementation was monitored with data from the Estonian National Institute for Health Development. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys with HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2005, 2007 and 2009 (involving 350, 350 and 327 IDUs respectively). HIV incidence among new injectors (those injecting for 80%), and young adults (mean ages 24 to 27 years). The proportion of new injectors decreased significantly over the years (from 21% in 2005 to 12% in 2009, p = 0.005). HIV prevalence among all respondents stabilized at slightly over 50% (54% in 2005, 55% in 2007, 51% in 2009), and decreased among new injectors (34% in 2005, 16% in 2009, p = 0.046). Estimated HIV incidence among new injectors decreased significantly from 18/100 person-years in 2005 and 21/100 person-years in 2007 to 9/100 person-years in 2009 (p = 0.026). Conclusions In Estonia, a transitional country, a decrease in the HIV prevalence among new injectors and in the numbers of people initiating injection drug use coincided with implementation of large-scale SEPs. Further reductions in HIV transmission among IDUs are still required. Provision of 70 or more syringes per IDU per year may be needed before significant reductions in HIV incidence occur. PMID:21718469

  16. Extensive Farming in Estonia Started through a Sex-Biased Migration from the Steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Scheib, Christiana Lyn; Stenderup, Jesper; Allentoft, Morten E; Saag, Lauri; Pagani, Luca; Reidla, Maere; Tambets, Kristiina; Metspalu, Ene; Kriiska, Aivar; Willerslev, Eske; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Mait

    2017-07-24

    The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition-both material and genetic-varied in different parts of Europe [1-7]. Farming-based economies appear relatively late in Northeast Europe, and the extent to which they involve change in genetic ancestry is not fully understood due to the lack of relevant ancient DNA data. Here we present the results from new low-coverage whole-genome shotgun sequence data from five hunter-gatherers and five first farmers of Estonia whose remains date to 4,500 to 6,300 years before present. We find evidence of significant differences between the two groups in the composition of autosomal as well as mtDNA, X chromosome, and Y chromosome ancestries. We find that Estonian hunter-gatherers of Comb Ceramic culture are closest to Eastern hunter-gatherers, which is in contrast to earlier hunter-gatherers from the Baltics, who are close to Western hunter-gatherers [8, 9]. The Estonian first farmers of Corded Ware culture show high similarity in their autosomes with European hunter-gatherers, Steppe Eneolithic and Bronze Age populations, and European Late Neolithic/Bronze Age populations, while their X chromosomes are in addition equally closely related to European and Anatolian and Levantine early farmers. These findings suggest that the shift to intensive cultivation and animal husbandry in Estonia was triggered by the arrival of new people with predominantly Steppe ancestry but whose ancestors had undergone sex-specific admixture with early farmers with Anatolian ancestry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexually Transmitted Infections - Prevalence, Knowledge and Behaviours among Professional Defence Forces in Estonia: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. David; Rüütel, Kristi

    2017-03-01

    Our study assessed sexually transmitted infections (STI) occurrence and risk behaviours from a sample of the defence forces of Estonia. Previous research on military personnel yields various results on the prevalence of STIs and high risk behaviours. The increasing recognition of high risk behaviours among military personnel is evident given increased programmes that focus on education of drug use and risky sexual behaviours. Many militaries conduct routine, periodic screening for diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis at entry and pre-foreign deployment. Protecting deployed forces from secondary infections is important as persons with chronic viral infections are living longer, healthier lives and are more frequently serving in military forces. A cross sectional study used convenient sampling among professional defence forces. Participation was both voluntary and anonymous. Of 186 participants accounting for 7.3% of all forces (86.6% male, mean age 30 years) at selected bases, there were four cases of chlamydia. No cases of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, or HIV were found. One person reported ever injecting drugs. These findings indicate a lower STI occurrence among professional defence forces in Estonia compared with the non-military population. While these rates were lower than expected, as a voluntary study, people suspicious of having an STI might opt not to participate, limiting generalizability to the remainder of the military. Militaries without regular screening programmes could consider regular scheduled testing for STIs, HIV and blood borne pathogens, even if voluntary, especially prior to foreign deployment. Consistent testing would align across many militaries who deploy international peace keepers.

  18. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova, southeastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon, Leeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the late glacial Solova (Remmeski basin, based on plant macro­fossil and diatom record, AMS 14C chronology and sediment composition (loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility data, provided information on vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the time of the deglaciation of the area around 14 000 cal yr BP. The chronology of the sequence is based on seven AMS dates on terrestrial macrofossils, providing evidence of rapid sedimentation in between 14 000 and 13 500 cal yr BP. Loss-on-ignition data show a clear short-lived warming episode centred to 13 800 cal yr BP, tentatively correlated with the GI-1c warming of the event stratigraphy of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region, which suggests that at least parts of the Haanja Heights were ice-free by 14 000 cal yr BP. Macrofossil evidence indicates Betula nana–Dryas octopetala-dominated open tundra communities with Saxifraga on dry ground, and Carex sp. and Juncus on wet ground at that time. The first evidence of the postglacial presence of tree birch (Betula pendula in Estonia is dated back to 13 500 cal yr BP. However, conifer remains were not found in the late glacial sediment sequence of Solova Bog. The late-Allerød (GI-1a organic deposits, which are quite typical of other parts of Estonia and indicate general warming, are missing at Solova, most probably due to a hiatus in sedimentation in this very small and shallow upland basin.

  19. The sedimentary sequence recovered from the Voka outcrops, northeastern Estonia: implications for late Pleistocene stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miidel, Avo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available New palaeoenvironmental and geological data, which may be integrated with the results from the neighbouring regions, were collected from two well-exposed continuous outcrops in the vicinity of Voka village, northeastern Estonia. These outcrops, situated in a klint depression – klint bay –, show an about 22 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to clayey subaqueous deposits. This succession of water-lain sediments documents the response to climate change during the late Pleistocene. On the basis of grain size characteristics, sedimentological structures, and luminescence chronostratigraphical data, the sequence is subdivided into two main units – A and B. Optical dating of 18 samples from the upper unit A shows that the unit is of middle Järva (= middle Weichselian age (marine isotope stage (MIS 3. Representative pollen spectra derived from 45 samples from the pollen-bearing part of unit A provide convincing evidence of noticeable changes in vegetation and climate in NE Estonia during the time period from 39 to 33 kyr BP, within which two intervals of severe climate and two relatively milder ones have been recognized. Preliminary data from the underlying unit B indicate that deposits of the last interglacial sensu lato and those of early pleniglacial age correlating with MIS 5 and MIS 4, respectively, occur here as well. Thus, the data obtained during the present study show unambiguously that in contrast with the expectations, the greater part of the late Pleistocene sequence is represented in the Voka section. No evidence was found for glacial activity during the late Pleistocene period predating the last glacial maximum. The use of the Voka event stratigraphy as a template facilitates search for correlative horizons in the neighbouring regions.

  20. Prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-mediating mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in five cities in Russia and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipitsyna, Elena; Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Golparian, Daniel; Khayrullina, Guzel; Lagos, Amaya C; Edelstein, Inna; Joers, Kai; Jensen, Jörgen S; Savicheva, Alevtina; Rudneva, Natalia; Sukhanova, Larisa; Kozlov, Roman; Guschin, Alexander; Unemo, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Resistance in the sexually transmitted bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium to all recommended therapeutic antimicrobials have rapidly emerged. However, to date, internationally reported resistance surveillance data for M. genitalium strains circulating in Eastern Europe are entirely lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations in M. genitalium in four cities in Russia and one in Estonia, 2013-2016. Consecutive urogenital samples found positive for M. genitalium during diagnostic testing were retrospectively analyzed for resistance-associated mutations in the 23S rRNA and parC genes using pyrosequencing and conventional Sanger sequencing, respectively. In total, 867 M. genitalium positive samples from 2013-2016 were analyzed. Macrolide resistance-associated mutations were detected in 4.6% of the samples from Russia (0.7-6.8% in different cities) and in 10% of the samples from Estonia. The mutations A2059G and A2058G were highly predominating in both Russia and Estonia, accounting together for 90.9% of the cases positive for nucleotide substitutions in the 23S rRNA gene. The rates of possible fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations were 6.2% in Russia (2.5-7.6% in different cities) and 5% in Estonia. The mutations S83I and S83N were the most frequent ones in Russia (24.4% each), whereas D87N highly predominated in Estonia (83.3% of all fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations). Approximately 1% of the samples in both countries harbored both macrolide and possible fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations, with A2058G and S83I being the most frequent combination (37.5%). The prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations in M. genitalium was 4.6% and 6.2%, respectively, in Russia, and 10% and 5%, respectively, in Estonia. Despite the relatively low rates of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in these countries, antimicrobial resistance

  1. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Aubrechtova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The early Palaeozoic order Ascocerida is a group of morphologically unique and rare cephalopods known from the Ordovician and Silurian rocks of Avalonia, Baltica, Laurentia and Perunica. The limited Estonian record of Silurian ascocerids is complemented with a specimen from the Pähkla locality (Island of Saaremaa; Paadla Regional Stage, Ludlow Series representing the stratigraphically oldest known occurrence of ascocerids in the Silurian of Estonia. The strata that were formerly exposed in Pähkla are likely correlated to the Hemse Group of the Island of Gotland (Sweden having a remarkable record of ascocerids. The appearance of Silurian ascocerids in Estonia is confined to a time interval when the group had the highest species diversity and the widest geographic dispersion, reaching also outside Baltica for the first time.

  2. ‘Looking like my favourite Barbie’ – Online Gender Construction of Tween Girls in Estonia and in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Siibak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse how tween girls in Estonia and in Sweden describe and discover their gender identities when selecting profile images for social networking sites (SNSs. To this end, interviews with tweens in Estonia (N=21 and in Sweden (N=31 were carried out. As SNSs largely exist without the recognisable surveillance of adults, children can explore the social matrix of relating to others, and they also feel safe to try out and display different constructions and reconstructions of their identity. At the same time, in communicating online, impression management is formulated with constant worry about how to construct one’s virtual identity so that it will be appreciated and accepted by one’s peer group. In this article, our analysis focuses on the most popular posing strategies used by tween girls, which, it turns out, are often marked by reproduction of the dominant heterosexual cultural norms and values.

  3. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  4. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariina Hiiob; Enn Karro

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight diffe...

  5. Covenant of Mayors: Fuel Switch and Sustainable Demand in signatories from "stress test" countries Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    KONA ALBANA; MELICA GIULIA; GABRIELAITIENE IRENA; RIVAS CALVETE SILVIA; ZANCANELLA PAOLO; IANCU ANDREEA; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2014-01-01

    The Covenant of Mayors (CoM) is the mainstream European movement involving local authorities voluntarily committing to meet and exceed the European Union 20% CO2 reduction objective by 2020 by increasing energy efficiency and through the use of renewable energy sources on their territories. In this report main figures from SEAPs in CoM signatories from "stress test " countries, most exposed to risk related Russian natural gas imports (Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia Finland) a...

  6. Self-reported activity limitations among the population aged 20–79 in Estonia: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puur, Allan; Uusküla, Anneli; Saava, Astrid; Sakkeus, Luule; Katus, Kalev

    2011-01-01

    Background: Along with population ageing, limitations in activities of daily living constitute a rising health-related burden in demographically advanced countries. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of self-reported activity limitations derived from chronic conditions and social variation of limitations in the subgroups of the population aged 20–79 years in Estonia. Methods: A cross-sectional study employs data from the second round of the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey, a national project in the framework of Gender and Generation Programme. The target population covers age groups of 20–79 years. A nationally representative probability sample was drawn from the 2000 population census. Face-to-face interviews (n = 7855) were conducted in 2004–05. Results: The estimated prevalence of activity limitations with chronic conditions is 18.5% (95% CI 17.6–19.4) and the prevalence of severe limitations is 10.6% (95% CI 9.9–11.3) among the population. The logistic regression model shows significant differences in activity limitations associated with age, educational attainment and marital status. Conclusions: Judging from our results and the EU structural indicators on health, the prevalence of activity limitations derived from chronic conditions is comparatively high in Estonia. The measures to prevent activity limitations and disability should receive a higher priority in Estonia. PMID:20129929

  7. Trends in incidence, attack rate, and mortality of acute myocardial infarction in Estonia: the Tallinn AMI Registry 1991-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laks, Toivo; Jõeste, Enn; Pullisaar, Olar; Mäeots, Ene; Lapidus, Ilja; Pietilä, Arto; Salomaa, Veikko

    2013-03-01

    Coronary event rates have declined in most Western countries during the past decades, but the trends in the former Eastern block have not been established. The purpose of the present study was to examine the trends in acute coronary events during 1991-2005 in Tallinn, Estonia. The Tallinn Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) Registry recorded all AMI events among the residents of Tallinn, Estonia, aged 35-64 years during two time periods, 1991-1997 and 2003-2005. Altogether, 4889 AMI events were recorded. The average age-standardized incidence and attack rate of AMI events were lower in the second than in the first registration period in both sexes. When analyzed annually, the AMI event rates increased from 1991 to 1993 in both sexes. Thereafter from 1993 to 2005 the incidence of first AMI events declined significantly, 2.7%/year in men and 5.0%/year in women (P Estonia. After that especially the incidence of first AMI started to decline, and the declines have continued until 2005.

  8. Risk for Heterosexual HIV Transmission Among Non-Injecting Female Partners of Injection Drug Users in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, A; McMahon, J M; Kals, M; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Rüütel, K; Des Jarlais, D C

    2013-03-01

    The HIV epidemic in Estonia, as with other eastern European countries, is currently concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners could serve as a potential bridge in an expanding epidemic. We applied HIV transmission modelling to data collected from non-IDU/IDU heterosexual couples in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia to estimate HIV risk from IDUs to their sex partners based on self-reported sexual behaviors shared by the couple. IDUs and their current main non-injecting sex partners were recruited for an interviewer-administered survey and HIV testing. Bernoulli modelling techniques were applied to estimate the risk of HIV transmission (incidence) among HIV negative non-injecting female partners of male IDUs. The estimated HIV incidence in this population of non-injecting women with only main sexual partners in the last 6 months ranged from 3.24 to 4.94 HIV seroconversions per 100 person years depending on the value used in the models for the per act transmission rate during acute stage infection. Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners are at high risk for HIV and could serve as a potential bridge to a more generalized epidemic. Whether this might lead to an expansion of the HIV epidemic beyond core groups in Estonia or other Eastern European countries warrants closer study.

  9. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  10. Ethnic differences in factors associated with the use of contraception among 20- to 44-year-old women in Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanpere, Made; Rahu, Kaja; Part, Kai; Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Karro, Helle

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with contraception among 20- to 44-year-old women in different ethnic groups in two Eastern European countries. Data on sexually experienced women in need of contraception taken from population-based cross-sectional surveys, conducted in Estonia (n=1680) and in St. Petersburg (n=798), were analyzed. Factors associated with contraception nonuse or the use of unreliable contraceptive methods were explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The age-standardized prevalence rate of contraception nonuse or the use of unreliable contraceptive methods was high (27.3% among Estonian-speaking women in Estonia, 39.9% and 42.5% among Russian-speaking women in Estonia and in St. Petersburg, respectively). Age, economic subsistence, high-risk sexual behavior and smoking did not correlate with contraception nonuse or the use of unreliable contraceptive methods among Russian-speaking women in Estonia and in St. Petersburg; this was in contrast to Estonian-speaking women in Estonia. Previous childbirth and abortion reduced the risk of contraception nonuse or the use of unreliable contraceptive methods among Estonian-speaking women in Estonia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.81) but elevated the risk among Russian-speaking women in St. Petersburg (1.99; 1.17-3.40). Abortion, not previous childbirth, was associated with an increased risk among Russian-speaking women in Estonia (2.94; 1.25-6.95). The importance of different risk factors associated with contraceptive use varies between different ethnic groups. Cross-national comparisons are essential for the design of public health policies that decrease the burden of sexual ill health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. THE BOOK PUBLISHING SYSTEM IN ESTONIA DURING THE SOVIET RULE IN 1944–1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möldre, Aile

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the changes in the direction of the publishing activities, the formation of the network of the state book publishing houses as well as the political and economic conditions of their activities in Estonia during the second Soviet occupation in 1944–1991. These years have been divided in three periods according to political history: the Stalinist era in 1944–1956; the thawand stagnation in 1956–1986 and the political break-through leading to the restoration of independence in 1987–1991.Special attention is paid to the leading role of the Communist Party of the USSR and the Communist Party of the ESSR in publishing activities. For example, only the all-union communist party had a right to decide over the establishment of new publishing houses, the leading officials of the local and all-union communist party studied and confirmed the reports and plans of the publishers etc. For the implementation of the regulations of the communist party a specialadministrative body was established, operating under different names in different years. For example, during the all-union reform of 1949 it was called the Central Board of Printing Industry, Publishing and Book Trade by the Council of Ministers, after the reform of 1963 – the State Publishing Committee. The latter had especially wide authority and gave detailed instructions on organising the work in the publishing houses. The directions included rigid requirements about the planning process and co-ordination of the plans on local and all-union level. The co-ordination of plans became especially complex since 1975 when the publishing houses had to get consent fromthe Head Office of Thematic Planning and Co-ordination of the all-union State Publishing Committee for every manuscript they wished to include in their plans. Although this system was unable to function, it was not revoked. All this demonstrates the dependence of the Estonian publishing from the all-union directions and

  12. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Kohtla-Jaerve, Ahtme and Johvi (Estonia) were identified as being: Inefficiency of the heat and power production plants; Lack of means for the consumers to control their consumption of energy due to the existing constant flow system; The environmental impact from heat and power production based on oil shale; Water and heat losses from the network; Low heat intensity in the Johvi area. Investigations indicate that improvement should have first priority at the Kohtla-Jaerve power plant, total investment is estimated at US D 60,3 million, of which US D 48 million are foreign costs. The cash flow will be negative in the first half of the projects lifetime. Estii Energia should be involved in the financing of the project. At the present price level, introduction of variable flow does not significantly improve the financial viability of the project, and the improvement of the district heating system might be carried out at a later stage, when the tariff has found a more stable level and the financial viability will be more significant. Implementation of new boilers in the Kohtla-Jaerve power plant. Circulating Fluidized Bed boilers, as well as electrostatic filters and estimated to reduce the environmental impact considerably. A more in depth study of the environmental impact from utilisation of oil shale should be carried out, also in order to inform possible investors of risk of investing in the oil shale industry. It will be more expensive to supply Johvi as an independent district heating system than if Johvi is supplied from Ahtme. The results arrived at are based on a range of the crucial assumptions that: the price of oil shale is expected to reach 75% of the price of coal, the sales price of electricity from plants is 62% of the consumer price, the exchange rate of the Estonian currency is kept constant to the DEM and that the inflation is Estonia will decline from 21% to 2,3% in 2005. (ARW)

  13. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  14. Drugs in the postsocialist transitions of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerspetz, Mikko; Moskalewicz, Jacek

    2002-11-01

    The article discusses problems related to illicit drugs in Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia against the background of the postsocialist transitions of the 1990s. Besides the drug problem, the political and market reforms of the 1990s were accompanied by a surfacing of a variety of social problems, some of which had already been present during the authoritarian socialist regimes. Gaining reliable and comparable statistics on drug-related harm has become very difficult due to changes in treatment system and health statistics. Nevertheless, all available evidence suggests that the use of illicit drugs has grown rapidly in all four countries, it now being close to the Western European level. As a result of international impulses rather than domestic interest, strictly restrictive drug policies have been adopted. Drug problems are aggravated by a marginalisation of a large part of the populations. Accordingly, their reduction may require a more general revision of the four countries' economic and social policies. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  16. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  17. Analysis of Individual Tree Competition Effect on Diameter Growth of Silver Birch in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Maleki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The present study evaluates a set of competition indices including spatially explicit indices combined with different competitor selection approaches and non-spatially explicit competition indices. The aim was to quantify and describe the neighbouring effects on the tree diameter growth of silver birch trees. Area of study: Region throughout Estonia. Material and methods: Data from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots was used. After quantifying the selected indices, the best non-spatial indices and spatial indices (combined with neighbour selection methods were separately devised into a growth model as a predictor variable to assess the ability of the diameter growth model before and after adding competition measures. To test the species-specific effect on the competition level, the superior indices were recalculated using Ellenberg’s light indicators and incorporated into the diameter growth model. Main results: Statistical analyses showed that the diameter growth is a function of neighbourhood interactions and spatial indices were better growth predictors than non-spatial indices. In addition, the best selections of competitive neighbours were acquired based on the influence zone and the competition elimination angle concepts, and using Ellenberg’s light values had no significant improvement in quantifying the competition effects. Research highlights: Although the best ranking spatial competition measures were superior to the best non-spatial indices, the differences were negligible.

  18. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2017-08-01

    To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Why is a “Good Abortion Law” Not Enough? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There are various ways to critically discuss abortion. Constructing or finding the most suitable analytical framework—whether rooted in legal formalism, socio-legal considerations, or comparativism—always depends on the country of subject and whether the analysis is for litigation, advocacy, or more theoretical purposes. This paper offers a model for analyzing abortion in Estonia in order to connect it as a thought-provoking case study to the ongoing transnational abortion discussions. I set out by describing the Estonian Abortion Act as a “good abortion law”: a regulation that guarantees in practice women’s legal access to safe abortion. Despite this functioning law, I carve a space for criticism by expanding the conversation to the broader power relations and gender dynamics present in Estonian society. Accordingly, I explain the state of the Estonian feminist movement and gender research, the local legal community’s minimal engagement with the reproductive rights discourse, and the lingering Soviet-era narratives of reproduction and health, which were not fully extinguished by the combination of human rights commitments and neoliberalism upon restoration of independence in the early 1990s. I consequently show that Estonia’s liberal abortion regulation is not grounded in a sufficiently deep understanding of human rights-based approaches to reproductive health, therefore leaving the door open for micro-aggressions toward women and for conservative political winds to gain ground. PMID:28630549

  20. District heating rehabilitation project in Kaerdla on Hiiumaa, Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Kaerdla Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system with Danish technology, and thereby support and make it possible for the Municipality of Kaerdla to develop the district heating sector in Kaerdla and thereby also to reduce emissions of harmful gases to the environment, as well as making a much more rational and energy efficient system. The project would further on demonstrate the use of pre-insulated pipes, which are fully sealed against penetration of water as well as demonstrate the use of compact units as substations including weather compensation control systems for regulation of heat and hot tap water supply for the district heating consumers. Besides the project gives significantly decreases in energy consumption`s and in the pollution from the production of energy, the objective of the project was also to put great stress on providing technical assistance to Kaerdla DH company, in order to make them capable in operation and maintenance of the new district heating system, and also to train the local operational staff in operation of the complete district heating system. The project will have a high demonstration value towards other towns in Estonia with similar problems and configurations of their heating systems. (EG)

  1. Dose-rate mapping and search of radioactive sources in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylaetalo, S.; Karvonen, J.; Ilander, T.; Honkamaa, T.; Toivonen, H.

    1996-12-01

    The Estonian Ministry of Environment and the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) agreed in 1995 on a radiation mapping project in Estonia. The country was searched to find potential man-made radioactive sources. Another goal of the project was to produce a background dose-rate map over the whole country. The measurements provided an excellent opportunity to test new in-field measuring systems that are useful in a nuclear disaster. The basic idea was to monitor road sides, cities, domestic waste storage places and former military or rocket bases from a moving vehicle by measuring gamma spectrum and dose rate. The measurements were carried out using vehicle installed systems consisting of a pressurised ionisation chamber (PIC) in 1995 and a combination of a scintillation spectrometer (NaI(TI)) and Geiger-Mueller-counter (GM) in 1996. All systems utilised GPS-satellite navigation signals to relate the measured dose rates and gamma-spectra to current geographical location. The data were recorded for further computer analysis. The dose rate varied usually between 0.03-0.17 {mu}Sv/h in the whole country, excluding a few nuclear material storage places (in Saku and in Sillamae). Enhanced dose rates of natural origin (0.17-0.5 {mu}Sv/h) were measured near granite statues, buildings and bridges. No radioactive sources were found on road sides or in towns or villages. (orig.) (14 refs.).

  2. Nursing students' attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Staniuliene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Aro, Ilme; Kisper-Hint, Ima-Riina; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Välimäki, Maritta

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents baseline data on attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients and homophobic levels among nursing students in three Baltic Sea countries: Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. The aim is to describe and compare nursing students' attitudes in these three countries and to explore how attitudes towards HIV/AIDS correlate with background variables. The total sample comprised 471 nursing students. The respondents demonstrated average attitude scores towards patients with HIV/AIDS and rather positive attitudes towards homosexually oriented patients. Significant country differences were found, with Finnish nursing students showing the most positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients and homosexually oriented patients. Previous experience of HIV/AIDS patients was the single factor with the greatest positive impact on nursing students' attitudes. Nursing students' willingness to provide care for an HIV/AIDS patient was associated with a positive attitude towards these patients. Length of employment experience correlated negatively with general attitude, and older nursing students with more work experience showed a more negative attitude towards homosexual patients. Proper education to achieve a sound knowledge base and good nursing skills promotes a more positive attitude to HIV/AIDS. It is important that nursing students are sensitive and show respect for the patient's human dignity. There is need for greater harmonization of education in the three countries.

  3. Content and Dynamics of Polyphenols in Betula spp. Leaves Naturally Growing in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain Raal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation in the chemical composition and chemosystematics of the leaves of Betula pendula Roth. ,B. pubescens Ehrh., B. humilis Schrank and B. nana L. (Betulaceae, growing naturally in Estonia, and in B. pendula buds was studied. Polyphenols were analyzed by HPLC and HPLC-MS/MS. Hyperoside (423-3724 µg/g, myricetin glucuronide (106-1696 µg/g, quercetin glucuronide (206-1435 µg/g, myricetin glucoside (89-1197 µg/g, quercitrin (53-578 µg/g, and kaempferol glucuronide (77-342 µg/g were found to be the main flavonoids in the birch leaves studied. The content of flavonoids in buds was lower than in leaves. The moderate correlations between the contents of the main polyphenols in the compared birch species were determined: B. pendula showed correlations with B. pubescens and with B. humilis. The seasonal variation of polyphenols was specific for each birch species, and no general tendency was observed. The presence of coumaric acid O-hexoside is not typical to B. nana and the content of some polyphenols can indicate the collecting time of plant material.

  4. Perspectives of Local Government Amalgamations in a Transition Society: the Case of Estonia

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    Kersten Kattai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the general institutional preconditions and restraints of a successful local government amalgamation policy in Estonia from a Central and Eastern European perspective. We start by re-examining and re-synthesising the dynamics of capacity-scale problems during the post-communist transition. On this basis, we analyse the patterns and models of local governance and amalgamations in the sparsely populated countries with already large municipalities, developing the possibilities and barriers to achieve economy of scale and economy of scope. The article addresses key factors of local governance and amalgamations, first of all their relations vis-à-vis the citizens and the civil society. The vicious circle of a clan pattern of local government and citizen estrangement can be broken when the existing practice of municipality amalgamation will be changed. The mediating role of the central government or citizens’ peak organisations must become central in the amalgamation process, because they can neutralise the traditional corporatist values of local elites at negotiations and promote the new structural profile of a municipality based on the values of democratic governance.

  5. Late Glacial vegetation, sedimentation and ice recession chronology in the surroundings of Lake Prossa, central Estonia

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    Kersti Kihno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pollen records from Lake Prossa, located in the Saadjärv Drumlin Field, indicate rather homogeneous pollen spectra in the pre-Allerød period and a thick sediment sequence suggesting high input of mineral matter and erosion. This period is characterized by pioneer vegetation with dwarf-shrubs. At the beginning of the Allerød, Salix, Artemisia and redeposited temperate and thermophilous taxa prevailed in pollen spectra, referring to shrub tundra conditions, followed later by Betula and Pinus(? arrival. Silt with organic debris deposited. Vegetational set-back and tundra plant species with scattered birches and silty deposits containing abundantly Drepanocladus fragments characterize the Younger Dryas stadial. The sedimentation rate decreased markedly and was followed by a hiatus at the beginning of the Holocene. The AMS 14C dates, and microfossil and sedimentological data show that the ice front receded and stratified sediments started to deposit about 14 200–14 300 cal yr BP, permitting specification of poorly constrained ice recession chronology in central Estonia.

  6. Effects of land use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Siim-Kaarel; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Öpik, Maarja

    2018-01-31

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities vary across habitat types, as well as across different land use types. Most relevant research, however, has focused on agricultural or other severely human-impacted ecosystems. Here, we compared AM fungal communities across six habitat types: calcareous grassland, overgrown ungrazed calcareous grassland, wooded meadow, farmyard lawn, boreonemoral forest, and boreonemoral forest clear-cut, exhibiting contrasting modes of land use. AM fungi in the roots of a single host plant species, Prunella vulgaris, and in its rhizosphere soil were identified using 454-sequencing from a total of 103 samples from 12 sites in Estonia. Mean AM fungal taxon richness per sample did not differ among habitats. AM fungal community composition, however, was significantly different among habitat types. Both abandonment and land use intensification (clearcutting; trampling combined with frequent mowing) changed AM fungal community composition. The AM fungal communities in different habitat types were most similar in the roots of the single host plant species and most distinct in soil samples, suggesting a non-random pattern in host-fungal taxon interactions. The results show that AM fungal taxon composition is driven by habitat type and land use intensity, while the plant host may act as an additional filter between the available and realized AM fungal species pool.

  7. Smoking differences between university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, and Oulu, Finland, after the disruption of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Rauno; Kivastik, Jana; Kingisepp, Peet-Henn; Hirvonen, Leo; Näyhä, Simo

    2006-01-01

    To provide information on smoking differences between university faculties. Data from smoking surveys performed on 1,441 staff members and 2,308 students at the University of Tartu, Estonia, soon after the fall of communism, were analysed by faculties, using similar data from the University of Oulu, Finland (1,830 staff members, 5,947 students) for reference. Wide variations in smoking were found between faculties in Tartu, the prevalence being high among male students of theology (54%) and low among staff and students in the faculties of exercise & sports sciences (< 5%) and mathematics (< 15%). Less variation was seen in Oulu. The medical faculty showed low smoking rates in Oulu but not in Tartu. High percentages of smokers were typical of Tartu faculties representing disciplines closely connected with the country's transition (e.g. theology), and low percentages in faculties emphasising physical and mental performance (e.g. sports). The relatively high percentage of smokers in the Tartu medical faculty compared with that in Oulu can be interpreted as delayed diffusion of medical information beyond the former Iron Curtain.

  8. Island community: identity formulation via acceptance through the environment in Saaremaa, Estonia

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    Jana Raadik Cottrell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines normative concepts of community identity expressed by inhabitants of Saaremaa Island, Estonia, via 20 interviews of permanent residents. Community identity is discursively constructed via interpretative repertoire to examine storylines used for constructing the sense of being part of an island community. Community identity relates to infrastructural aspects (roads, bridges; islandness being a key physical, philosophical and psychological component of the island’s infrastructure, followed by more specific spatial units such as parish, village, neighbourhood and home. Each infrastructural unit involves a social network and physical environment related to a continuum of normative structure. Effects of a proposed bridge to the mainland influence respondent repertoire on changes of island community identity. Acceptance was the more dominant aspect of islander identity; acceptance by/of the environment determines who-is-who on the island. Normative components of acceptance included ‘bodily experience’ of individuals, ‘community control’ and ‘community sign-systems.’ Constructions of ‘we’ as islanders distinct from the non-islanders provide a complex view of community identity.

  9. Quaternary deposits and weathered bedrock material as a source of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia

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    Petersell Valter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia is high, being among the highest in Europe. In almost 33 per cent of Estonian land area, the content of radon in soil-contained air exceeds the safe limit for unrestricted construction (50 kBq/m3. In such high radon-risk areas the concentration of radon in soil-contained air ranges from 50 to 400 kBq/m3, in a few cases reaching up to 2,100 kBq/m3 exceeding the permitted level for residential areas. The situation is particularly serious in the northernmost part of the country, where uranium-rich graptolite argillite (Dictyonema shale and the Obolus phosphorite are close to ground surface and their particles are constituent parts of Quaternary deposits. Radon emissions from bedrock have been investigated in detail, but to date Quaternary strata as a source of radon emissions are poorly studied. According to our measurements the highest concentrations of radon are related to tills containing clasts and fines of graptolite argillite and phosphorite. Glacial deposits include also granitoidal material, containing U, Th and K, which have been transported by glaciers from the outcrop areas of crystalline basement rocks in Finland and the Gulf of Finland. Due to weathering, outwash and repeated redeposition other genetic types are poorer in radioactive elements and they are weaker sources of radon.

  10. [Using CAREX data base system for occupational exposure to carcinogens in Estonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanov, V; Kauppinen, T; Veĭdebaum, T

    2003-01-01

    CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure) is international information system on occupational exposure to know and suspected carcinogens. The CAREX database provides selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of exposed by workers by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on 139 agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, displayed across the 55 industrial classes of the United Nations system (ISIC Revision 2). In 1999-2000, CAREX approach was applied to Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Czech exposure situation in 1997. According to the preliminary estimates, there were about 180,000 workers (29% of the employed) exposed to the agents covered by CAREX in Estonia in 1997. The number of the exposures was approximately 240,000. The most common exposure were solar radiation (62,000 workers), wood dust (34,000 exposed), environmental tobacco smoke (31,000), diesel engine exhaust (21,000 exposed), crystalline silica (19,000), radon and its decay products (14,000), formaldehyde (9000) benzene (7000), ethylene dibromide (6400), lead and inorganic compounds (6200), and glasswool (4300).

  11. Tuberculosis as an occupational hazard for health care workers in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüüner, A; Danilovitsh, M; Pehme, L; Laisaar, T; Hoffner, S E; Katila, M L

    2001-02-01

    Tuberculosis incidence has been increasing in the Baltic states since the 1990s, accompanied by the emergence of drug resistance, including multidrug resistance (MDR). In this changing situation, the potential threat of nosocomial spread of tuberculosis to other patients and health care workers (HCW) has remained unrecognised. To investigate the risk of tuberculosis in health care workers in Estonia. Cases of tuberculosis registered among HCWs from 1994 to 1998 were evaluated. The case records were analysed retrospectively and combined with bacteriological data including data on drug resistance. Sixty-seven HCWs (23 physicians, 23 nurses and seven laboratory technicians, 12 assistant nurses and two cleaners), all of whom tested negative for human immunodeficiency virus, were diagnosed as having active tuberculosis. The incidence of tuberculosis among HCWs (mean 91/100,000/year) was 1.5 to three times higher than in the general population. In a chest hospital in charge of regional tuberculosis care, the incidence was 30 to 90 times higher, and was highest among physicians. In 49 HCWs tuberculosis was confirmed by culture. Among these, drug resistance was detected in 23 (49%), 18 (38%) of whom had MDR tuberculosis. Health care workers, especially those working in a chest hospital where tuberculosis patients were treated, were found to be at an elevated risk of tuberculosis. MDR tuberculosis poses a particular threat which is difficult to combat.

  12. On the move: explaining migration patterns in Estonia during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaru, T; Sjoberg, O

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the migration patterns during the transition period in Estonia. A structuration approach was used to analyze data from the Estonian Statistical Office collected in 1997. Findings show that for migration between urban and rural areas, work-related reasons have been the most important motivating factor in urban growth during the transition period. Also considered are the family and education. In relation to sociodemographic structure of the population, men cite work, while women count family-related reasons, as the main motive for migrating. As to nonregistration, the most significant reason relates to issues of ownership. Because migrants are living in rented housing, it is not possible for them to register even if they desire to do so. Other reasons include "temporary", associated with study and work; "juridical", bureaucratic matters; and "multiple places of residence". This analysis, however, is incomplete because the attitudes and patterns of behavior have only partially or perfunctorily been related to the dramatic changes that have occurred in Estonian society. Proper statistical data are needed to help examine trends at a more disaggregated spatial level.

  13. Historical ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Estonia (1770s–1960s

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    Raivo Kalle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a historical ethnobotanical review of wild plants used by the residents of present day Estonia during the 1770s–1960s. Twenty two sources addressing historical ethnographical accounts of the use of wild food plants were analysed. The use of 147 taxa of vascular plants (over 6% of Estonian vascular flora and two lichens has been recorded. Although the data does not allow for reliable determination of the frequency of use of specific taxa among the population, general conclusions on the preferences for specific dishes made of wild food plants can be made. While the category of snacks covers the largest proportion of species used, a substantial addition to food rations was provided by bread ingredients (used predominantly in famine times, green vegetables used for making soup, and later jams and other dishes of wild berries. Also beverages (tea and coffee substitutes, beer and beer-like drinks were widely made, and the saps of several tree species were consumed in fresh and fermented form. The most important species, according to the criterion of diversity of use, were Carum carvi, Urtica dioica, and the wild berries Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus.

  14. Results From Estonia's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Kull, Merike; Mooses, Kerli; Riso, Eva-Maria; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, the first of its kind, aims to set baseline physical activity (PA) indicators using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance grading system. A research work group analyzed and selected data for the grade assignment meeting (GAM). During the GAM, 17 leading researchers and policy experts from Estonia assessed the data and assigned grades for each of the 9 PA indicators. In addition, recommendations were provided for further actions to improve the grades. Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) were assigned as follows: 1) Overall PA (F); 2) Organized Sport (C); 3) Active Play [incomplete data (INC)]; 4) Active Transportation (INC); 5) Sedentary Behaviors (F); 6) Family and Peers (C); 7) School (C); 8) Community and the Built Environment (B); and 9) Government (C). An indicator was marked as incomplete (INC) when there was a lack of representative quality data. Evidence suggests that PA levels of Estonian children remain very low, despite moderately supportive social, environmental, and regulatory factors. There are many challenges to overcome in supporting and promoting PA of children and youth (eg, cross-sectional cooperation, implementing interventions, changing social norms, empowerment of parents and educational institutions).

  15. Road traffic mortality in Estonia: alcohol as the main contributing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Taie; Väli, Marika; Saar, Indrek

    2007-09-01

    Traffic fatalities are the leading cause of death among the young and middle-aged population in Estonia. The objective of this study was to reveal the pattern of traffic fatalities among the population aged 15 - 64 years and to determine the role of alcohol in their fatalities. The data were collected from post-mortem reports at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine from 2000 to 2002. Alcohol-related deaths were those with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equal or above 0.05 g/100 ml. Out of 512 victims, 401 were males and 111 were females. The greatest group were car occupants (58%) followed by pedestrians (31%). The portion of alcohol-related deaths was 70% among men and 44% among women. The mean BAC and percentage of alcohol-related deaths was significantly higher in pedestrian than in driver fatalities. Alcohol intoxication was identified as the most powerful contributing factor to traffic fatalities. The results provide more evidence for politicians to tackle alcohol abuse and unsafe traffic environments.

  16. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  17. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  18. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment. PMID:21556179

  19. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff.

  20. First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Knapp, Jenny; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-09-15

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an alien species in Europe and an important vector of zoonotic diseases. However, compared to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), less attention has been paid to the raccoon dog as a potentially important host for Echinococcus multilocularis, the infective agent of alveolar echinococcosis, which is an emerging infectious disease with a high mortality rate. We examined the small intestines of 249 Estonian raccoon dogs and found 1.6% of individuals to be infected with E. multilocularis. The relatively large difference between this prevalence and that found in sympatric red foxes (31.5%) sampled during the same time period might be due to differences in diet: red foxes consume significantly more arvicolid rodents - the main intermediate hosts of the parasite - especially during the coldest period of the year when raccoon dogs hibernate. Nonetheless, given the relatively high density of raccoon dogs, our results suggest that the species also represents an important definitive host species for E. multilocularis in Estonia. Compared with other countries in Europe where E. multilocularis-infected raccoon dogs have been recorded (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Slovakia), the prevalence in Estonia is low. The longer hibernation period of raccoon dogs at higher latitudes may explain this pattern. Both mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed for Estonian isolates: based on EmsB microsatellite genotyping the Estonian isolates shared an identical genotype with E. multilocularis in northern Poland, suggesting a common history with this region. The data from more than a quarter of the mitochondrial genome (3558 bp) revealed two novel haplotypes specific to Estonia and placed them into the same haplogroup with isolates from other European regions. Considering that the raccoon dog is becoming increasingly widespread and is already relatively abundant in several countries in Europe, the role of the species must be taken into

  1. Institutional Change and Gender Inequalities at Labour Market Entry: A Comparison of Estonia, Russia, and East and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Kosyakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates how gender inequalities in job opportunities evolved during communist and post-communist times in former state-socialist countries. Theoretical arguments (mainly based on studies referring to Western countries led to the expectation of a surge in gender inequalities in these countries after the collapse of communism. Empirically, we explore the gender gap in job authority upon labour market entry by using life-history data from Russia, Estonia, and East Germany, with West Germany serving as a control case. The selection of countries was motivated primarily by the availability of rich life-history data, covering four decades of (post- state socialism but also by divergences in institutional set-ups in the course of transition from state socialism to a liberalised market economy. Our findings yield four major results. First, accounting for education and the branch of economy, women were not disadvantaged during Soviet times; instead, we have even found evidence of a slight female advantage in Estonia and East Germany. Thus, our findings mirror the communist regime’s effectiveness in equalising women’s and men’s opportunities at work. Second, in the pre-collapse decade, the advantage of women in terms of job authority decreased in East Germany and Estonia, whereas in Russia, women fell behind men. Third, with the Soviet Union collapse, a remarkable female disadvantage emerged in all formerly state socialist countries under scrutiny. In addition, we observe a growing gender gap in West Germany in the same period. The latter result strengthens the conclusion that times of economic liberalisation may go hand-in-hand with increasing gender inequalities.

  2. Application of principles of European law in the Supreme Court of Estonia : [doktoritöö] / Carri Ginter ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Carri, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitses Tartus 01. 07. 2008. a.. - Koosneb artiklitest: Access to courts for branches - some thoughts under Estonian and EC law // European competition law review : ECLR (2004) nr. 11, lk. 708-715 ; Constitutional review and EC law in Estonia // European Law Review (2006) nr. 6, lk. 912-923 ; Effective implementation of the Trade Mark Directive in Estonia // European competition law review : ECLR (2007) nr. 6, lk. 337-345 ; Procedural issues relating to EU law in the Estonian Supreme Court // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 67-79

  3. Delfi AS v. Estonia: Grand Chamber confirms liability of online news portal for offensive comments posted by its readers

    OpenAIRE

    VOORHOOF, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    On 16 June 2015 the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights has delivered the long awaited final judgment in the case of Delfi AS v. Estonia, deciding on the liability of an online news portal for the offensive comments posted by its readers below one of its online news articles. The Grand Chamber has come to the conclusion that the Estonian courts’ finding of liability against Delfi had been a justified and proportionate restriction on the news portal’s freedom of expression, in ...

  4. Deaths of infants subject to forensic autopsy in Estonia from 2001 to 2005: what can we learn from additional information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grjibovski Andrej M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deaths from childhood injury are a public health problem worldwide. A relatively high proportion of child deaths of undetermined manner in Estonia raises concerns about potential underestimation of intentional deaths, especially in infants. This suggests that more information on the circumstances surrounding death is needed to establish the manner of death correctly and, more importantly, to prevent these deaths. The objective of this study was to detect, describe, and analyze the circumstances around deaths of infants subject to forensic autopsy in Estonia to reveal hidden cases of child abuse and more accurately determine causes of death. Methods Study cases included all infant deaths in Estonia from 2001 to 2005 subject to forensic autopsy at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Additional information was obtained from a series of visits to general practitioners, including characteristics of infant health, family composition, parents' education and employment, living conditions, and circumstances around death as perceived by medical staff in charge of outpatient services for these families. Results The total number of infant deaths in Estonia between 2001 and 2005 subject to forensic autopsy was 98, with 40 (40.8% deaths attributed to a disease and 58 deaths (59.2% resulting from injury. Elements of child abuse were involved in as many as 57.7% (95% CI 46.9-68.1 of the deaths for which medical records were available (n = 90. At death, the majority of these cases were registered as diseases or deaths from unintentional injury. Average annual mortality from external causes in Estonian infants, 2001-2005, previously reported by us as 88.1 per 100,000 (95% CI 68.1-113.6 would decrease to 41.0 (95% CI 26.9-57.8. Many infants in the studied group had faced multiple threats and were living in poor hygienic conditions. In a number of cases, they were left alone or looked after by older siblings. Parents' alcohol abuse played

  5. The changing role of subjects connected with book history and publishing in the education of library specialists in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aile Möldre

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gives an overview of the development of library education in Estonia since the beginning of teaching library science on the academic level in 1927 up to the present day. The author concentrates on studying the role and share of the courses that deal with book history and contemporary development of the book trade during different periods of time (the Soviet era, and after the restoration of independence in 1991. The last part of the article presents data on the evaluation of the usefulness and necessity of these subjects by public librarians and students of the Tallinn Pedagogical University.

  6. Deaths of infants subject to forensic autopsy in Estonia from 2001 to 2005: what can we learn from additional information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Deaths from childhood injury are a public health problem worldwide. A relatively high proportion of child deaths of undetermined manner in Estonia raises concerns about potential underestimation of intentional deaths, especially in infants. This suggests that more information on the circumstances surrounding death is needed to establish the manner of death correctly and, more importantly, to prevent these deaths. The objective of this study was to detect, describe, and analyze the circumstances around deaths of infants subject to forensic autopsy in Estonia to reveal hidden cases of child abuse and more accurately determine causes of death. Methods Study cases included all infant deaths in Estonia from 2001 to 2005 subject to forensic autopsy at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Additional information was obtained from a series of visits to general practitioners, including characteristics of infant health, family composition, parents' education and employment, living conditions, and circumstances around death as perceived by medical staff in charge of outpatient services for these families. Results The total number of infant deaths in Estonia between 2001 and 2005 subject to forensic autopsy was 98, with 40 (40.8%) deaths attributed to a disease and 58 deaths (59.2%) resulting from injury. Elements of child abuse were involved in as many as 57.7% (95% CI 46.9-68.1) of the deaths for which medical records were available (n = 90). At death, the majority of these cases were registered as diseases or deaths from unintentional injury. Average annual mortality from external causes in Estonian infants, 2001-2005, previously reported by us as 88.1 per 100,000 (95% CI 68.1-113.6) would decrease to 41.0 (95% CI 26.9-57.8). Many infants in the studied group had faced multiple threats and were living in poor hygienic conditions. In a number of cases, they were left alone or looked after by older siblings. Parents' alcohol abuse played an important role in a

  7. The member of the Academy H.P. Keres and the Relativity theory in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar

    1987-10-01

    The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954)[1],afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry [7] and its application to cosmology [6]. Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias [27](1954) and I.Piir [28] (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of

  8. Outcomes associated with anxiety and depression among men who have sex with men in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Valk, Anti; Mangine, Cara; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-09-01

    Evidence supports that gay, lesbian, and transgender populations are at increased risk for mental health problems. The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and related factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia. This is the only known study of its type in the Eastern European region. In 2013, an Internet-based survey was conducted among men who have sex with men, collecting data on socio-demographics, sexuality, drug and alcohol use, mental health, suicidality, and internalized homonegativity. 265 MSM completed the questionnaire (median age 31 years, 90% Estonian, 71% from the capital; 73% employed full-time, 42% with at least college education; 44% in a steady relationship; 72% gay, 23% bisexual; 23% reported illegal drug use in the last 12 months). One third met criteria for problem drinking and depressive symptoms with one quarter for anxiety symptoms. Suicidality was 44% reported lifetime suicidal thoughts and 11% with at least one suicide attempt. The study instruments, EST-Q and CAGE, only measure symptoms and are not diagnostic tests. A non-random sample which could possibly include persons with easier internet access. Self-reported data and cross-sectional study design are prone to issues with recall bias and temporality. With demonstrated high rates of anxiety, depression, drinking, and drug use among MSM which is consistent with similar studies in Western countries, further research could help determine effective MSM focused interventions to address the broad spectrum of issues among MSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial assessment of rehabilitation needs using the WHODAS 2.0 in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanga, Karin; DiNitto, Diana; Leppik, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Given the growing number of people with disabilities in Estonia, an initial rehabilitation needs assessment instrument that included the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) was developed and tested to determine its feasibility in assessing social rehabilitation needs. WHODAS 2.0 items were complemented with questions about the nature of disability-related problems with regard to personal, social and environmental aspects of functioning. Four rehabilitation specialists assessed 101 persons' needs in face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The comprehensive initial assessment instrument tested was sufficiently informative to assess functioning and identify social rehabilitation and other social needs. Participants had difficulty in understanding some WHODAS 2.0 items, and coding and scoring respondents' answers using WHODAS 2.0 frames of reference proved challenging for interviewers. The WHODAS 2.0 is mainly related to health conditions. Complementing it with questions about the nature and severity of the difficulties social rehabilitation service applicants experienced added essential information for planning interventions. A well conceived, holistic initial assessment that addresses biological, psychological, sociocultural and environmental factors can provide substantial information for targeting services to meet a person's rehabilitation needs. The WHODAS 2.0 is a useful framework for conducting initial assessments, but since it focuses on health needs, supplementing it with additional items about personal, social and environmental factors may be necessary to address services needs from social, vocational and other rehabilitation perspectives. Rehabilitation specialists must be well prepared to use the WHODAS 2.0 and conduct the overall assessment, including providing clear instructions and support to applicants applying for services.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in Estonia, and a global phylogeny of AMDV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimann, Aivi; Knuuttila, Anna; Maran, Tiit; Vapalahti, Olli; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-03-02

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a severe disease called Aleutian disease (AD). AMDV infects primarily mustelids, but also other mammal species. Recent evidence suggests that AMDV may also affect humans. To examine AMDV in different wild animals and in farmed mink in Estonia, we collected 203 blood samples from eight mammal species in 2007-2010, of which 152 were from species living in the wild (American mink, European mink, pine marten, polecat, raccoon dog, badger, otter, and stone marten) and 51 were from farmed mink. AMDV was tested by PCR amplification of NS1 and VP2 gene fragments, and was only detected in 4 free-ranging (14.8%) and 11 farmed (21.6%) American mink. No other species was positive for AMDV. In addition, the VP2 gene fragment was sequenced for 14 farmed mink isolates from Finland for which NS1 sequences were already publicly available. None of the four Estonian AMDV isolates found in free-ranging mink had identical sequences with farmed mink. In fact, isolates from free-ranging and farmed mink belonged to different clades, suggesting that the analyzed virus isolates circulating in nature are not from escapees of current farms. Two global phylogenies were built: one based on NS1 (336 bp, 151 taxa from nine countries); the other based on a combined NS1-VP2 dataset (871 bp, 40 taxa from six countries). AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their geographic origin, suggesting that transport of farm mink from multiple source farms has been intense. Nevertheless, one subclade in both phylogenies was comprised solely of isolates from farmed mink, while several subclades comprised isolates only from free-ranging mink, indicating that some isolates may circulate more in the wild and others among farm animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Rahivere peat bog, eastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Plado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current case study presents results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR profiling at one of the Saadjärve drumlin field interstitial troughs, the Rahivere bog, eastern Estonia. The study was conducted in order to identify the bog morphology, and the thickness and geometry of the peat body. The method was also used to describe the applicability of GPR in the evaluation of the peat deposit reserve as the Rahivere bog belongs among the officially registered peat reserves. Fourteen GPR profiles, ~ 100 m apart and oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the depression, covering the bog and its surrounding areas, were acquired. In order to verify the radar image interpretation as well as to evaluate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in peat, a common source configuration was utilized and thirteen boreholes were drilled on the GPR profiles. A mean value of 0.036 m ns–1 corresponding to relative dielectric permittivity of 69.7 was used for the time–depth conversion. Radar images reveal major reflection from the peat–soil interface up to a depth of about 4 m, whereas drillings showed a maximum thickness of 4.5 m of peat. Minor reflections appear from the upper peat and mineral soil. According to the borehole data, undecomposed peat is underlain by decomposed one, but identifying them by GPR is complicated. Mineral soil consists of glaciolimnic silty sand in the peripheral areas of the trough, overlain by limnic clay in the central part. The calculated peat volumes (1 200 000 m3 were found to exceed the earlier estimation (979 000 m3 that was based solely on drilling data. Ground-penetrating radar, as a method that allows mapping horizontal continuity of the sub-peat interface in a non-destructive way, was found to provide detailed information for evaluating peat depth and extent.

  12. Adapting the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test to diagnose Parkinson's disease in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsov, Eva; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Kilk, Stela; Kadastik-Eerme, Liis; Toomsoo, Toomas; Lees, Andrew; Taba, Pille

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a culturally adapted translation of the 12-item smell identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS-12) for the Estonian population in order to help diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD). A standard translation of the SS-12 was created and 150 healthy Estonians were questioned about the smells used as response options in the test. Unfamiliar smells were replaced by culturally familiar options. The adapted SS-12 was applied to 70 controls in all age groups, and thereafter to 50 PD patients and 50 age- and sex-matched controls. 14 response options from 48 used in the SS-12 were replaced with familiar smells in an adapted version, in which the mean rate of correct response was 87% (range 73-99) compared to 83% with the literal translation (range 50-98). In PD patients, the average adapted SS-12 score (5.4/12) was significantly lower than in controls (average score 8.9/12), p < 0.0001. A multiple linear regression using the score in the SS-12 as the outcome measure showed that diagnosis and age independently influenced the result of the SS-12. A logistic regression using the SS-12 and age as covariates showed that the SS-12 (but not age) correctly classified 79.0% of subjects into the PD and control category, using a cut-off of <7 gave a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 86% for the diagnosis of PD. The developed SS-12 cultural adaption is appropriate for testing olfaction in Estonia for the purpose of PD diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal social characteristics and mortality from injuries among infants and toddlers in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkaja, S; Rahu, K; Koupil, I; Rahu, M

    2009-08-01

    Injuries are a major cause of ill health among children, with a social gradient in child injuries documented in many countries. The effects of maternal sociodemographic characteristics on injury mortality in Estonian infants and toddlers were investigated. A population-based study using linkage of data from the Estonian Medical Birth Registry with Mortality Database. A total of 148 521 children born 1992-2002 were followed for injury mortality (ICD-9 E800-E999) from birth to third birthday. Associations of maternal age, education, marital status, nationality, place of residence and child's birth order and multiplicity with risk of injury death were studied using logistic regression. Maternal age ( or =30 years: OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.00 to 4.51), education (basic compared with secondary or higher: OR 3.22; 95% CI 2.12 to 4.87), marital status (single, divorced or widowed compared with married: OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.53 to 4.91), nationality (other compared with Estonian: OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.02), birth order (fourth or higher compared with first: OR 6.66; 95% CI 3.42 to 12.99), and multiple birth (twin or triplet compared with singleton: OR 3.12; 95% CI 1.44 to 6.73) affected the risk of injury death among infants (birth order (fourth or higher compared with first: OR 7.88; 95% CI 3.90 to 15.90) increased the risk of injury death. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics are associated with injury mortality among infants and toddlers. Substantial variation in injury mortality rates within Estonia suggests potential for prevention.

  14. Barite mineralization in Kalana speleothems, Central Estonia: Sr, S and O isotope characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk Gaškov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Barite mineralization in association with calcitic speleothem precipitates in cave structures in Silurian Aeronian carbonate rocks in Kalana quarry, Central Estonia, was studied. Barite mineralization in Kalana occurs in two generations – euhedral bladed-tabular barite zonal crystals from a few to 10 cm in size, growing on the limestone-dolomite wall-rock (generation I, and sparsely placed thin tabular crystals a few millimetres thick and up to 1 cm in size, growing on calcitic crusts (generation II. The barite crystals of generation I are frequently found embedded by paragenetically later calcitic botryoidal crusts. The Sr and S isotopic composition of barite crystals shows a trend of increasing Sr isotope ratios (from 0.7114 to 0.7120 and δ34S values (from 13‰ to 33‰ from the central parts towards the edges of zonal crystals. This suggests barite precipitation by mixing of two endmember fluids at varying ratios during barite formation: warm (up to 70 °C reducing fluid bearing Ba, characterized by an elevated radiogenic Sr- and 34S-enriched isotopic signal, and a cooler ambient fluid bearing an isotopically lighter dissolved sulphate, characterized by lower Sr isotope ratios. The excess of radiogenic 87Sr in barite compared to Phanerozoic seawater values suggests Sr derived from a continental source, whereas sulphate was derived either from oxidized H2S or a modified seawater source. Gradual increase in δ34S values towards the outer zones could also indicate the 34S enrichment due to bacterial sulphate reduction, even though there is no paired 34S and 18O enrichment of sulphate, characteristic of bacterial reworking. This can be interpreted as indicating an open system with limited sulphate resupply where the δ18O composition of sulphate was equilibrated with warm ascending hydrothermal fluid.

  15. Restructuring of manufacture under global financial and economic crisis: The case of Estonia

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    Kilvits Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was not possible for Estonia only by raising the technological level of enterprises and increasing so-called technical productivity to catch up in terms of productivity with the developed industrial countries. The structure of Estonian manufacture was out-of-date and required cardinal and fast changes toward greater value added. Every time a crisis hits, it brings about new breakthroughs in science and technology; promotes fundamental changes that take place in a relatively short period of time; gives birth to new industries; forms new growth points in the economy. The crisis has had a far-reaching impact on the world economy and has brought challenges and opportunities to all countries and all fields. In addition to big difficulties, the crisis provided for Estonian manufacture also an exceptionally good chance for change and development. The crisis had a purifying and disciplining effect, enabled to eliminate from the manufacture wrong investments and inefficient enterprises. Assets were redistributed from passive economic agents to active ones and in favour of those who had capital for growth financing. After the crisis the structure of Estonian manufacturing is more effective than before: 1 technological level higher; 2 organization of work more perfect; 3 value added and productivity higher; 4 position of value chain better; 5 maybe also the value chain itself new and better. But there are fewer jobs in the new structure of manufacturing than before the crisis. Economic, social, regional etc. stratification has increased. The influence of crisis is not over yet and there is still a risk of some setback in future. There may also arise new problems and old problems may grow sharper.

  16. Self-reported food hypersensitivity in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, N E; Möller, C; Werner, S; Magnusson, J; Bengtsson, U; Zolubas, M

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to describe the differences between some Northern countries regarding what foods, according to the patients, elicit hypersensitivity symptoms. At the participating clinics, patients with a history of food hypersensitivity (n = 1139) were asked to fill in a questionnaire in which 86 different foodstuffs were listed. Skin-prick tests (SPT) were performed with common inhalant allergens. The foods that were reported as eliciting symptoms differed between countries. In Russia, Estonia, and Lithuania; citrus fruits, chocolate, honey, apple, hazelnut, strawberry, fish, tomato, egg, and milk were most often reported as causes of hypersensitivity. In Sweden and Denmark; birch pollen (BP) related foods, such as nuts, apple, pear, kiwi, stone fruits, and carrot were the most common causes. In all countries, children, more often than adults, had symptoms of allergic reaction to citrus fruits, tomato, strawberry, milk, egg, and fish. Most patients (95%) reported hypersensitivity to several foodstuffs (median: eight foods). The most common symptoms were oral allergy syndrome and urticaria. Severe symptoms were most common with fish, shellfish, nuts, and milk. Slight symptoms were most common with rice, coriander, poppy seed, lingonberry, corn, caraway red currant, and fig. Earlier well-known correlations, such as that between BP sensitization and some fruits and vegetables, as well as that between mugwort and some spices, were conoborated. Positive correlations were found between self-reported hypersensitivity to crustaceans and SPT with horse. A negative correlation was seen between hypersensitivity to crustaceans and SPT with BP. The foodstuffs that often are reported to cause food hypersensitivity, differ between Sweden/Denmark on one side and the Baltic States and Russia on the other. BP-related foods dominate in Scandinavia, whereas some mugwort-related foods are of more importance in Russia and the Baltic States.

  17. Eutrophication History of Small Shallow Lakes in Estonia: Evidence from Multiproxy Analysis of Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, T.; Marzecova, A.; Vandel, E.; Mikomägi, A.; Avi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities have impacted aquatic systems through the release of contaminants and the regulation of surface and groundwater. Although environmental monitoring has been essential in detecting eutrophication, biodiversity loss or water quality deterioration, monitoring activities are limited in time and are thus not sufficient in their scope to identify causality and thresholds. Paleolimnological studies increasingly show that the response of lakes to climatic and human influences is complex, multidimensional, and often indirectly mediated through watershed processes. In this study we examine the history of eutrophication processes in small lakes in Estonia using the multi-proxy analysis of sediment. Study sites represent lakes with different anthropogenic stressors: urbanisation and recreational use, run-off from an oil shale mine, and fish-kills and liming measures. We have used diverse analytical methods, such as elemental analysis, stable isotopes, fossil pigments, diatoms and Cladocera remains. The information derived from sedimentary indicators broadly agrees with the historical evidence of eutrophication and pollution. Moreover, the sediment records are indispensable for identifying additional issues such as: 1) earlier onset of cultural eutrophication; 2) the significant impact of catchment erosion on the deterioration of lake quality, particularly cyanobacterial blooms; and 3) changes in sedimentation processes with significance for internal biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. Importantly, the integration of several methods has significantly improved interpretation of sedimentary data and elucidated the different strengths of various indicator types. The project findings prove to be highly relevant for both the prediction of the ecological responses of lakes to different anthropogenic impacts and the establishment of reasonable reference target conditions in restoration schemes, as well as for methodological improvements of the sediment analysis.

  18. Factors Predicting Suicide among Russians in Estonia in Comparison with Estonians: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. Methods The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. Results The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Conclusion Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption. PMID:17171808

  19. Factors predicting suicide among Russians in Estonia in comparison with Estonians: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-12-01

    To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity (Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption.

  20. A stable isotope record of Holocene precipitation dynamics in the Baltic region from Lake Nuudsaku, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansell, Nathan D.; Klein, Eric S.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Fortney, Carolyn S.; Dodd, Justin P.; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Nelson, Daniel B.

    2017-11-01

    A long-term perspective of past hydroclimate variability for the Baltic region provides important context for evaluating the potential impacts of Northern Hemisphere temperature changes and shifting ocean-atmospheric interactions on northern European climate. Lake Nuudsaku is an open-basin lake in south-central Estonia with seasonal overflow fed by active springs and groundwater. Stable isotope analyses of surface water samples from regional lakes, rivers, wetlands, and precipitation indicate that Lake Nuudsaku water δ18O values are consistent with the isotopic composition of inflowing meteoric water. The isotopic composition of fine-grained (influence. The δ18Ocalcite record indicates the early Holocene at ∼9400 calendar years before present (cal yr BP) was characterized by a high proportion of cold season (November through April) precipitation and lower temperatures, followed by waning cold season precipitation and higher temperatures until ∼8200 cal yr BP. The middle Holocene (8200-4200 cal yr BP) was likely a period of overall reduced cold season precipitation and higher temperatures, and/or increased warm season (May through October) precipitation. The late Holocene transition at ∼4200 cal yr BP generally marks a shift to lower δ18Ocalcite values that we interpret largely the result of increased cold season precipitation amounts. This was followed by the onset of more variable precipitation amounts and temperatures after ∼3600 cal yr BP, which gave way to less variable conditions during the last ∼2600 years. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is marked by δ18Ocalcite values that are near the Holocene and present-day averages. The period spanning the Little Ice Age (LIA) is marked by low δ18Ocalcite values, suggesting temperatures were lower and cold season conditions were wetter than present-day. Proxy evidence from Lake Nuudsaku further indicates that centennial to millennial-scale hydroclimate shifts in the Baltic region were likely associated

  1. Noor-Eesti tähendust otsides: vanu ja uusi mõtteid. In Quest of the Meaning of Young Estonia: Old and New Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Kivimäe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As an important chapter of Estonian literary history, Young Estonia has been relatively well researched and interpreted. However, its influence as a cultural and intellectual movement in Estonian society in the opening decades of the last century requires further study and verification. What stands reflected in Young Estonia is actually a larger groundswell of history, along with a rupture that took place throughout Estonian society in the course of its modernization. Discussions of the meaning of Young Estonia must therefore concern themselves with literary discourse, but much more so with what transpired outside the boundaries of literary pursuits, in the contexts of social and political history and the history of ideas. In view of historiography, there is no consensus on the definition of Young Estonia: it has been referred to as a movement, a group, or a cluster of seminal ideas. The founding of the group is generally located at the publication of the first Young Estonia album near the high tide of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Young Estonia disintegrated during the First World War, with its ending marked both by the publication of the fifth and final album in 1915 and by the journal Vaba Sõna (Free Word, which carried on the ideology of Young Estonia in the years 1914–1916. Although there are strong parallels between Young Estonia and similar movements and associations in Western and Central Europe in the nineteenth century, the greatest influence being exerted by the politicalliterary movement Nuori-Suomi (Young Finland, the respective group in Estonia was largely autochthonic in its time and milieu. In the rhetoric of the era of national awakening, Baltic Germans referred to Estonian national activists as ”Young Estonians”; the term was also under discussion in the Estonian press, yet there is no direct conceptual connection between this polemic and Young Estonia as a group. The Young Estonia group was mostly composed of young

  2. Imputed rent and distributional effects of housing-related policies in Estonia, Italy and the United Kingdom / Virginia Maestri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maestri, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Eluasemepoliitikast Eestis, Itaalias ja Suurbritannias. Kasutades mikrosimulatsioonimudelit Euromod jäljendatakse ja võrreldakse mainitud riikide eluasemepoliitikat, sh selle mõju ebavõrdsusele ja suhtelisele vaesusele

  3. Polydrug Use and Heterogeneity in HIV Risk Among People Who Inject Drugs in Estonia and Russia: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavitian-Exley, Isabel; Boily, Marie-Claude; Heimer, Robert; Uusküla, Anneli; Levina, Olga; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu

    2017-07-11

    Non-medical drug injection is a major risk factor for HIV infection in Russia and Estonia. Multiple drug use (polydrug) has further been associated with increased harms. We compared HIV, injecting and sexual risk associated with polydrug use among people who injected drugs (PWID) in 2012-2013 in Kohtla-Järve (Estonia, n = 591) and St Petersburg (Russia, n = 811). Using latent class analysis, we identified five (poly)drug classes, the largest consisting of single-drug injectors among whom an opioid was the sole drug injected (56% of PWID). The four remaining polydrug classes included polydrug-polyroute injectors who injected and used opiates and stimulants (9%), opiate-stimulant poly-injectors who injected amphetamine-type-stimulants with a primary opiate (7%) and opiate-opioid poly-injectors who injected opioids and opiates (16%). Non-injection stimulant co-users were injectors who also used non-injection stimulants (12%). In multivariable multinomial regressions, all four polydrug classes were associated with greater injection risks than single-drug injection, while opiate-stimulant and opiate-opioid poly-injection were also associated with having multiple sex partners. Riskier behaviours among polydrug-injectors suggest increased potential for transmission of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections. In addition to needles/syringes provision, services tailored to PWID drug and risk profiles, could consider drug-appropriate treatment and sexual risk reduction strategies to curb HIV transmission.

  4. Cross-Sectional Study of Anti-Trichinella Antibody Prevalence in Domestic Pigs and Hunted Wild Boars in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärssin, Age; Velström, Kaisa; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Saar, Tiiu; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Trichinella spp. are relevant zoonotic pathogens in Estonia. The aim of this nationwide cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa). Serum samples from 374 pigs, originating from 14 farms, and meat juice samples from 470 wild boars were tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies against Trichinella excretory/secretory antigens using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies against Trichinella were not detected in the domestic pigs, indicating effective parasite control strategies in the farms. By contrast, 42.1% of the wild boars tested positive, indicating substantial infection pressure in the sylvatic cycle. Further analysis of a subset of the wild boar samples, using another ELISA and Western blot, yielded a confirmed seroprevalence estimate of 17.4%. A substantial proportion of wild boars in Estonia had evidence of exposure to Trichinella spp. and may have carried infective larvae. Undercooked Estonian wild boar meat is a potential source of Trichinella spp. infections to humans and other hosts.

  5. The role of community pharmacies in counseling of personal medical devices and drug-delivery products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Ratassepp, Tagne; Shagandina, Alina; Turunen, Juha; Ahonen, Riitta; Heinämäki, Jyrki

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the current situation on medical technology at community pharmacies in Estonia, looking into the availability, dispensing and counseling of personal medical devices/drug-delivery products (PMDs/DDPs) and related professional knowledge of community pharmacists. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study using an internet-based eFormular study platform. In total, 137 community pharmacies responded to the study. Of the pharmacies, 51.8% dispensed and 32.1% counseled PMDs/DDPs several times a day. 55.4% of the respondents assessed their professional knowledge on PMDs/DDPs as good to medium and 44.6% as satisfactory to poor. Of the respondents, 79.6% reported a need for systematic education about named devices. Community pharmacies are a frequent source for the dispensing and counseling of PMDs/DDPs in Estonia. However, community pharmacists admitted a strong need for continuing education about general and practical aspects related to the use of PMDs/DDPs for the provision of more professional services in the future.

  6. Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Burlakovs, Juris; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, Marika; Hogland, William

    2017-06-01

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m3 of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of <10 mm and analyzed for its potential for metals recovery. The average chemical composition of the <10 mm soil-like fraction suggests that it offers opportunities for metal (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) extraction and recovery. The findings from this study highlight the importance of implementing best available site-specific technologies for on-site separation up to 10 mm grain size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  7. Development of the late glacial Baltic basin and the succession of vegetation cover as revealed at Palaeolake Haljala, northern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saarse, Leili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The 4.5 m thick Haljala sequence in North Estonia was studied to provide information on palaeoenvironmental changes between 13 800 and 11 300 cal yr BP. Late glacial environmental history of North Estonia was reconstructed using AMS-dated pollen record, sediment composition, plant macrofossils, and ostracods. The obtained data show environmental fluctuations that are linked to the climate shifts of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region. Decrease in the arboreal pollen accumulation rate around 13 700–13 600 and 13 300–13 100 cal yr BP refers to short deterioration of climate within the Allerød Interstadial and has been correlated with the cooling of the Greenland Interstadial GI-1c and GI-1b events, respectively. Between 13 100 and 12 850 cal yr BP the pollen accumulation rate of trees, shrubs, and herb as well as organic matter increased, indicating short-term climate amelioration and establishment of pine-birch woods. This change has been correlated with the GI-1a event. Climate deterioration during the Younger Dryas (GS-1 was inferred from the reduction of tree pollen and flourishing of cold-tolerant species, such as Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and Cyperaceae. New data show that ice cover of the Pandivere Upland started to perish already about 13 800 cal yr BP.

  8. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  9. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  10. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  11. Housing Restitution and Privatisation: Both Catalysts and Obstacles to the Formation of Private Rental Housing in the Czech Republic and Estonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Kährik, A.; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 137-158 ISSN 1461-6718 R&D Projects: GA MMR WD-05-07-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Czech Republic * Estonia * housing tenure Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14616718.2012.681574

  12. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    been conducted from 1997 to 2002 among local CEOs, chief accountants and production managers in a Danish SME, using mainly qualitative methods. Data have been compared to primary data from similar companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study has resulted in establishing a model for comparing...

  13. 'It's good to live in Jarva-Jaani but we can't stay here' : Youth and belonging in rural Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their

  14. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania: Results of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margus Viigimaa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings indicate many statin-treated patients in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania did not meet target lipid levels and had a very high risk of CVD. Combating other well-known CVD risk factors such as obesity and hypertension is vital to reduce the exceptionally high risk for CVD mortality seen in the Baltic nations.

  15. Transformation of Estonia's industrial structure : Continued de-industrialisation or interlude in re-industrialisation? / Garri Raagmaa, Mihkel Laan, Antti Raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raagmaa, Garri, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Autorid analüüsivad Eesti tööstuse senisele arengule tuginedes võimalikke arengusuundi tulevikus. Tabelid ja diagramm. Vt. samas: Competitiveness of the Baltic states has improved; Skanska leaves Latvia and Lithuania but not from Estonia

  16. Geography and history education in Estonia: processes, policies and practices in an ethnically divided society from the late 1980s to the early 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Veemaa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies processes, policies and practices for geography and history education in Estonia. The analysis covers the societal transformation period in an ethnically divided society from the 1980s to the early 2000s characterized by Estonia’s disintegration from the Soviet Union towards the integration to the European Union and NATO. Geography and history education curricula, textbooks and related policies and practices promoted a particular national time-space by supporting the belongingness of Estonia into Europe, rejecting connections towards Russia and suggesting a division between ethnic Estonians and ethnically non-Estonian residents of Estonia. In geography and history textbooks, the Russian-speaking population, comprising then almost a third of the entire population of Estonia, was divided into non-loyal, semi-loyal and loyal groups of whom only the latter could be integrated in the Estonian time-space. The formal education policies for geography and history supported Estonia’s disintegration from the Soviet past and pawed way to integration to the western political and economic structures. However, challenging market and sensitive cultural contexts created peculiar, alternative and sometimes opposing local practices in geography and history education.

  17. Seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO2 balance in two hemi-boreal forests in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Two eddy towers, one in the mixed Norway spruce - Silver birch forest in Liispõllu (58°16'N 27°16'E tower height 20 m) and another one in Scots pine forest in Soontaga (58°01'N 26°04'E; 36 m) both located in southern Estonia - were equipped with CO2/H2O analyzer for mixing ratio of CO2 (Licor 7200 Li-Cor Inc, Lincoln, NE, USA) and 3-D ultrasonic anemometer for wind measurements (Gill Windmaster Pro; Solent, Lymington, UK) and used for measurement of carbon dioxide balance and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In Liispõllu, the studies were conducted in Auguat and September 2011 above the forest canopies and at 1.5 m above the soil surface.. In Soontaga, measurements lasted from April to October 2012. The data acquisition system consists of the LI-7550 Analyzer Interface Unit, 3G wireless router and analog-to-digital converter that were used to record turbulence and scalar signals. Signals from the sensor and anemometer were recorded 20 times sec-1. The eddy fluxes were averaged over 30 minute time intervals. The flux calculations and corrections of were done using EddyPro program. In addition, soil respiration was measured with automatic chambers in Liispõllu and with closed chambers in Soontaga twice a month from April to October 2011 and 2012. In both study areas around the towers, soil physical and chemical parameters in 3 depths, biomass of trees and understory species, C sequestration in biomass and litter decay has been measured. In Soontaga pine forest the average monthly CO2 flux varied from -59.2 to -388.8 mg m-2 h-1 showing a regular seasonal temperature-related variation. CO2 flux from lowered in spring and summer as plants consume the gas through photosynthesis and days are longer, and rise during the autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay and when also the daytime is shorter. The average monthly flux over the analyzed period was -246.5 mg m-2 h-1. In consequence, the CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere was highest in June. In Liisp

  18. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin in children and adolescents in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Piia; Oona, Marje; Toompere, Karolin; Leedo, Sirje; Epstein, Jevgenia; Lutsar, Irja

    2014-09-15

    Despite high immunisation coverage and frequent booster doses, the national notification rates of pertussis in Estonia have been increasing. The peak of 97/100,000 was reached in 2010 which is the highest incidence rate since 1962 (210/100,000). We aimed to measure the prevalence of pertussis toxin (PT) IgG type antibodies in subjects of <18 years and to estimate the pertussis infection activity in a recently non-immunised cohort. In a cross-sectional serosurvey, all consecutive leftover sera were collected in the Tartu University Hospital during April-August 2012. Anti-PT IgG concentration was measured by commercial ELISA and analysed in yearly cohorts. The antibody concentrations ≥62.5 IU/mL was considered suggestive to pertussis in the last year among 9- to 14-year-olds. The GMC of the anti-PT-IgG was 7.4 IU/mL (95% CI 6.9-8.0). In the total of 1053 serum samples, the highest proportion of sera with high antibody titres ≥125 IU/mL and ≥62.5 IU/mL were at the ages when pertussis vaccine boosters were given: 7 years 10.9% (95% CI 4.1-22.3) and 2 years 36.9% (95% CI 25.3-49.8), respectively. Approximately half of all sera had undetectable anti-PT IgG levels. The estimated incidence of Bordetella pertussis infection among 9- to 14-year-olds in the year before serum sampling was 6.3% (95% CI 3.3-10.8), which is at least 60 times higher than the officially reported incidence of pertussis disease in respective years. The serologic method is not suitable for diagnosing pertussis in instances when the last pertussis immunisation was less than one year ago. The relatively high proportion of subjects with undetectable anti-PT IgG levels and the relatively low rate of officially reported pertussis cases suggest that low antibody levels do not necessarily indicate the absence of protection. The estimated incidence rate of pertussis is much higher than officially reported figures, which suggests that asymptomatic/mild B. pertussis infection remains unrecognised and

  19. The recent economic recession and self-rated health in Estonia, Lithuania and Finland: a comparative cross-sectional study in 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reile, Rainer; Helakorpi, Satu; Klumbiene, Jurate; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2014-11-01

    The late-2000s financial crisis had a severe impact on the national economies on a global scale. In Europe, the Baltic countries were among those most affected with more than a 20% decrease in per capita gross domestic product in 2008-2009. In this study, we explored the effects of economic recession on self-rated health in Estonia and Lithuania using Finland, a neighbouring Nordic welfare state, as a point of reference. Nationally representative cross-sectional data for Estonia (n=10 966), Lithuania (n=7249) and Finland (n=11 602) for 2004-2010 were analysed for changes in age-standardised prevalence rates of less-than-good self-rated health and changes in health inequalities using logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of less-than-good self-rated health increased slightly (albeit not statistically significantly) in all countries during 2008-2010. This was in sharp contrast to the statistically significant decline in the prevalence of less-than-good health in 2004-2008 in Estonia and Lithuania. Health disparities were larger in Estonia and Lithuania when compared to Finland, but decreased in 2008-2010 (in men only). In Finland, both the prevalence of less-than-good health and health disparities remained fairly stable throughout the period. Despite the rapid economic downturn, the short-term health effects in Estonia and Lithuania did not differ from those in Finland, although the recession years marked the end of the previous positive trend in self-rated health. The reduction in health disparities during the recession indicates that different socioeconomic groups were affected disproportionately; however, the reasons for this require further research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Identifying women at risk for delayed presentation of breast cancer: a cross-sectional study in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Padrik, Peeter; Valvere, Vahur; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2013-10-09

    Survival from breast cancer remains lower in Estonia than in most other European countries. More advanced stage and larger tumors that have impact on survival may be a result of delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of delayed presentation among breast cancer patients in Estonia. The study population included women with primary breast cancer diagnosed in Estonia in 2008-2010. All data were collected using structured personal interviews carried out by trained nurses in the hospital setting. Only patients with self-discovered symptoms were included in this analysis. Patient delay was measured as time elapsing from symptom self-discovery to first medical consultation. The effect of different factors on the likelihood of prolonged delay (>90 days) was evaluated using logistic regression. Among 703 eligible patients, median patient delay was 16 days (interquartile range 5-54 days). Seventeen percent of the patients had their first medical consultation more than three months after self-detection of symptoms. In multivariate analysis, the risk of prolonged delay was significantly associated with age 65 years and over (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.23-4.20), current smoking (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.21-3.61), symptoms other than painless breast lump or breast pain (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08-3.16), no history of mammograms (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.13-2.95), having received no information on breast cancer during past year (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.99), and previous benign breast problems (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.01-2.67). Non-significant risk increase was seen with lower education. This study provides evidence that factors associated with delayed presentation of breast cancer in Eastern Europe are similar to those observed in Western countries. The results suggest that educational messages to general population should aim at increasing awareness of "non-lump" symptoms of breast cancer and encouraging women of all ages to present in a timely manner

  1. Ethnic differences in cancer incidence in Estonia: two cross-sectional unlinked census-based cancer incidence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katrin

    2009-06-28

    Estonian and Russian ethnic groups in Estonia differ from one another in several aspects, such as historic and socio-economic background, language and culture. The aim of the current study was to examine ethnic differences in cancer incidence in Estonia, and to compare the situation before and after the profound political and economical changes in the early 1990s. Two cross-sectional unlinked census-based cancer incidence analyses were performed. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry. Population denominators came from the population censuses of 1989 and 2000. Standardized cancer incidence rates were calculated for men and women for the aggregate periods 1988-1990 and 1999-2000. Differences in cancer incidence between Estonians and Russians in 1989 and 2000 were estimated for both sexes, using standardized rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals. In 1988-1990, the total cancer incidence in Russian men was higher than that in Estonian men (SRR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.19-1.34). In 1999-2000, the total cancer incidence in men showed only slightly higher estimates in Russians than in Estonians (SRR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.99-1.32). Cancers of stomach, colon and lung had persisting higher values in Russian men in 1999-2000. In women, the differences were smaller than in men, and the total cancer incidence showed no differences relating to neither of the time periods studied. With regard to specific sites, excess of stomach cancer incidence was seen in Russian women (SRR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.15-1.81). The ethnic differences in general decreased between the two time periods studied. Some of the differences in cancer rates between the Estonians and Russians in Estonia are likely to be attributable to the variation in exposure to specific etiologic factors that are causedby differences in lifestyle and habits, such as hygiene, smoking and drinking. Further research with a view to understanding these ethnic differences in cancer incidence is warranted.

  2. Milleks teatrilavale ajalugu? : Katri-Aaslav-Tepandi ja Tõnu Tepandi. "President 1939". Estonia kammersaal, esietendus 18. veebruaril 2008; Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo. "Sigma Tau-S705". Eesti Draamateater, esietendus 16. märtsil 2008 /

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vseviov, David, 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus : Katri-Aaslav-Tepandi ja Tõnu Tepandi. "President 1939". Estonia kammersaal, esietendus 18. veebruaril 2008; Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo. "Sigma Tau-S705". Eesti Draamateater, esietendus 16. märtsil 2008

  3. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  4. Why reorganization of firms fails: evidence from Estonia. Summary: Saneerimismenetluse ebaõnnestumise põhjused Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lukason

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although most countries have firm reorganization option in legislation (either as a separate law or part of insolvency code, the practice of successful reorganizations has remained modest. Reorganization law was introduced in Estonia in late 2008, but only a few firms have been successfully reorganized since. Derived from previous the article studies, what are the reasons for firm reorganization failure. From legal viewpoint, main causes are found to be that firms under reorganization do not submit reorganization plans to court and the preconditions for reorganization lapse. The financial ratios for successful and unsuccessful reorganizations are not significantly different according to independent samples median test. Unsuccessfully reorganized firms perform worse than successful ones in the year before reorganization year, but the opposite phenomenon occurs two and three years before reorganization year.

  5. The early Katian (Late Ordovician reefs near Saku, northern Estonia and the age of the Saku Member, Vasalemma Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Kröger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reefs developed simultaneously during the latest Sandbian/earliest Katian global Guttenberg Isotopic Carbon Excursion (GICE in several places across Baltoscandia. Latest Sandbian/earliest Katian patch reefs are also described from the Vasalemma Formation of northern Estonia. The Saku Member of the Vasalemma Formation was previously considered as a proximal facies related to the reefs. However, the Saku Member clearly post-dates the GICE interval and ranges from the latest Keila to Rakvere in terms of regional stages. Some small reefs occur in direct proximity to the stratotype of the Saku Member. New δ13C data from the stratotype section and the adjacent reefs indicate that these reefs developed before the deposition of the Saku Member during the GICE interval. The chemostratigraphic data support the hypothesis of a short-time Baltoscandian reef growth event that terminated during the GICE interval.

  6. Comparison of the metabolic syndrome risk in valproate-treated patients with epilepsy and the general population in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, Aleksei; Eglit, Triin; Kõks, Sulev; Lember, Margus; Haldre, Sulev

    2014-01-01

    No study has explored the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with epilepsy treated with valproate (VPA) at the population level. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of MS in VPA-treated patients in Estonia to the risk in the general population. This study involved 118 patients with epilepsy (63 men, 55 women) who received VPA monotherapy. MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Data were compared with the results of a population-based study of the prevalence of MS in the same geographic region (N = 493; 213 men, 280 women). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age and sex, the risk of MS in VPA-treated patients was not increased compared to the control subjects (odds ratio [OR] = 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.68). VPA-treated patients had higher serum insulin concentrations than control subjects, independent of body mass index (BMI). A positive association was found between MS development and BMI (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.25-1.73) in VPA-treated patients, but there were no associations with the VPA dosage or the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. In control subjects, BMI and HOMA-IR had similar predictive abilities for MS occurrence. In VPA-treated patients, the predictive ability of the HOMA-IR index was significantly lower than that of BMI, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.808 and 0.897 (P = 0.05), respectively. The risk of MS is not increased among VPA-treated patients with epilepsy in Estonia compared to the general population. The HOMA-IR index likely has a lower predictive ability for MS in VPA-treated patients compared to its predictive ability in the general population.

  7. Childbearing among first- and second-generation Russians in Estonia against the background of the sending and host countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Puur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An expanding literature documents the childbearing patterns of migrants and their descendants in contemporary Europe. The existing evidence pertains mainly to the northern, western, and southern regions of the continent, while less is known about the fertility of migrants who have moved between the countries of Eastern Europe. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the fertility patterns of first- and second-generation Russians in Estonia, relative to the sending and host populations. Methods: The study draws on the Estonian and Russian Generations and Gender Surveys. Proportional hazards models are estimated for the transitions to first, second, and third births. Results: Russian migrants in Estonia exhibit greater similarity to the sending population, with a lower propensity for having a second and third birth than the host population. This pattern extends to the descendants of migrants. However, mixed Estonian-Russian parentage, enrolment in Estonian-language schools, and residence among the host population are associated with the convergence of Russians' childbearing behaviour with the host-country patterns. The findings support the cultural maintenance and adaptation perspectives; selectivity was found to be less important. Contribution: The study focuses on a previously under-researched context and underscores the importance of contextual factors in shaping migrants' fertility patterns. It raises the possibility that, depending on the childbearing trends and levels among the sending and receiving populations, large-scale migration may reduce rather than increase aggregate fertility in the host country. With the advancement of the fertility transition in sending countries, this situation may become more common in Europe in the future.

  8. Making Distinctions on Autonomous Cultural Field: the Case of Small-scale Alternative Music Festival Organisers in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Mäe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give a sense of the activities of small-scale cultural practitioners in Estonia. Whereas Western societies experienced the powerful emergence of youth (subcultures and DIY ideology, as well as self-organised low scale cultural production in the 1960s, in Estonia all of these practices are relatively new and born over the last decades. This article discusses the Eastern European specifics of (subcultural production. The main concepts of this study are fields in cultural production and symbolic capital according to Pierre Bourdieu, with consideration of the recent elaborations in the field of (subcultural studies. Interpreting the interests, motives and attitudes that are the basis for the activities of the promoters, this paper addresses the subjects of mainstream/underground, independent/commercial and high culture/subculture, thereby contributing to the relevant discussion in subculture studies.The empirical part of the paper relies mainly on in-depth interviews conducted by the first author (2009, while the interviews conducted by the second author (2010 are supported by fieldwork on club cultures 2002-2003. The data have been analysed and systematised by qualitative data analysis methods, with the help of NVivo research software.While subcultures usually create symbolic boundaries using their distinctive style, music and ideological practices, according to this study, promoters tend to create ‘independent brands’ for the purposes of participation in the small-scale cultural field. These independent brands involve a mix of the promoters’ taste in music, which is communicated through the ‘brand’ to significant others (music critics, lay audience and friends, and constitute an important means for creating symbolic capital.

  9. Avoidable mortality in Estonia: exploring the differences in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburin, A; Lai, T; Leinsalu, M

    2011-11-01

    A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia. Descriptive study. Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for Estonian and non-Estonian men and women aged 0-74 years in 2005-2007. The ethnic TLE gap was decomposed by age and cause of death (classified as preventable or treatable). The TLE of non-Estonian men was 3.53 years less than that of Estonian men, and the TLE of non-Estonian women was 1.36 years less than that of Estonian women. Preventable causes of death contributed 2.19 years to the gap for men and 0.78 years to the gap for women, while treatable causes contributed 0.67 and 0.33 years, respectively. Cardiorespiratory conditions were the major treatable causes of death, with ischaemic heart disease alone contributing 0.29 and 0.08 years to the gap for men and women, respectively. Conditions related to alcohol and substance use represented the largest proportion of preventable causes of death. Inequalities in health behaviours underlie the ethnic TLE gap in Estonia, rather than inequalities in access to health care or the quality of health care. Public health interventions should prioritize primary prevention aimed at alcohol and substance use, and should be implemented in conjunction with wider social policy measures. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental innovation through transport policy. The implementation of the free fare policy on public transport in Tallinn, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2016-07-01

    Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)

  11. Long-term recurrence rate after treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, M; Rägo, T; Maaroos, H I

    2004-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is common in Estonia: 87% of adults and 56% of children aged 9-15 years have been found to be H. pylori seropositive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term recurrence rate after treatment in children and adolescents in a setting of high H. pylori prevalence. All children (n = 27) who underwent gastroscopy at the Children's Clinic of Tartu University Clinics during 1993--95 and in whom H. pylori infection was verified by histological examination and rapid urease test and who had completed a treatment course against H. pylori infection were invited for a post-treatment follow-up endoscopy 4-6 weeks after completion of therapy (1st follow-up visit) and to the follow-up control by [13C]-urea breath test in 1997 (2nd follow-up visit) and 2002 (3rd follow-up visit). Recurrence of H. pylori infection occurred in I patient out of 16 at the 2nd follow-up visit (mean 17.8+/-7.1 months after treatment), and in 5 patients out of 15 at the 3rd follow-up visit (mean 6.6+/-0.9 years after treatment). The recurrence rate calculated for the period between the 1st and the 2nd follow-up visits was 4.2% per patient-year, and between the 2nd and the 3rd follow-up visits the rate was 7.6% (95% CI 2.5%-17.6%) per patient-year. The recurrence rate calculated for the whole follow-up period was 6.7% (95% CI 2.5%-14.5%) per patient-year. The post-treatment recurrence rate of H. pylori infection in children and adolescents is higher in Estonia than in low prevalence settings.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in children in Estonia: decreasing seroprevalence during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, Marje; Utt, Meeme; Nilsson, Ingrid; Uibo, Oivi; Vorobjova, Tamara; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is inversely associated with socioeconomic conditions in childhood. In Estonia, a high prevalence of H. pylori infection has been observed among children born in 1987 and earlier. Since 1991, after the dissolution of the USSR, profound social and economic changes have taken place in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among children in the period 1991-2002. The hospital-based study population consisted of two groups of children enrolled in 1991 (n = 425) and 2002 (n = 296) according to the same inclusion criteria. The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the cell surface proteins of H. pylori were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the sera with the borderline results were analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the associations between H. pylori seropositivity and different variables such as demographic characteristics, diagnoses and year of enrollment. The only two variables linked independently to H. pylori serostatus were age and year of enrollment: the adjusted odds of being H. pylori seropositive were 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.76] times higher for the children enrolled in 1991 compared with the children enrolled in 2002. The age-standardized seroprevalence rate was 42.2% (95% CI 37.4-47.0%) for the group of 1991 and 28.1% (95% CI 23.1-33.6%) for the group of 2002. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among children has significantly decreased during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes in Estonia.

  13. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF PRINTED CULTURAL HERITAGE IN ESTONIA. STRATEGY. METHODOLOGY. PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimo, Tiiu

    2006-12-01

    (different organisations. For reasons of the historical development considerable part of documentary heritage is also located outside Estonia (Sweden, USA, Canada, Australia, Russia etc.The projects of red books as well as different digitisation projects have been in practice for some years in all Estonian memory institutions. Libraries are pioneers in initiating collaborationprojects in digitisation. Due to the joint efforts of the National Library, the Archive Library of the Estonian Literature Museum and the Tallinn University Academic Library a big collection of old Estonian newspapers is available by internet. The project is titled DEA (Digitized Estonian Newspapers. The aim of the project Red Book of Estonian publications, 1535–1850 was to create a theoretical basis for elaborating criteria that would enable decision making and determination preservation priorities of the Estonian book heritage. At the moment there is not much collaboration between different types of memory institutions. The joint projects like DEA and Red Bookof Estonian Publications give hope that together difficult problems of preservation can be better solved and users will get better access to Estonian cultural heritage.

  14. HIV prevalence and gender differences among new injection-drug-users in Tallinn, Estonia: A persisting problem in a stable high prevalence epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Raag, Mait; Marsh, Kristina; Talu, Ave; Vorobjov, Sigrid; Des Jarlais, Don

    2017-01-01

    New injectors / younger drug users are an important population to target for intervention because they are often at especially high risk of HIV and HCV infection. We examined HIV prevalence and gender differences in HIV prevalence and risk behavior among new injection-drug-users in Tallinn, Estonia. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys and HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2009, 2011 and 2013. We classified "new injectors" as persons who reported their first injection as occurring within three years of the study interview. Recruiting trees of the three individual RDS studies were joined to form one RDS dataset and RDS estimates for prevalence and means were derived. Bootstrap tests were used to compare data from men and women, HIV infected and uninfected. Among 110 new injectors (34 women and 76 men) the mean age was 24.5 (SD 7.5) years; 63% reported injecting mainly fentanyl, 34% injecting mainly amphetamine, 36% sharing syringes, 89% were sexually active, and, of these, 88% did not always use condoms in the last 6 months. HIV prevalence was 18% (95%CI 8-28%) (41% (95%CI 19-63%) among female and 7% (95%CI 2-12%) among male new injectors). Based on self-reports, 8.1% of all new injectors (and 22% of female new injectors) were HIV positive before starting to inject drugs. 40% of HIV infected reported receiving antiretroviral therapy. In multivariable analysis, gender (male: OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03-0.45), main drug injected (fentanyl: OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-35.7) and syringe sharing (distributive: OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.55; and receptive: OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.0-13.5) were associated with the HIV seropositivity. New injectors exhibit high-risk behavior and correspondingly high HIV prevalence. Sexual transmission of HIV infection, including before injection initiation, is likely to be a significant contributor to HIV risk among female new injectors. This highlights the need to identify and target new injectors and their partners with gender specific

  15. Trends in self-rated health and association with socioeconomic position in Estonia: data from cross-sectional studies in 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti; Ringmets, Inge

    2016-12-08

    Self-rated health (SRH) and socioeconomic position (SEP) as important determinants of health differences are associated with health and economic changes in society. The objectives of this paper were (1) to describe trends in SRH and (2) to analyze associations between SRH and SEP among adults in Estonia in 1996-2014. The study was based on a 25-64-year-old subsample (n = 18757) of postal cross-sectional surveys conducted every second year in Estonia during 1990-2014. SRH was measured using five-point scale and was dichotomized to good and less-than-good. Standardized prevalence of SRH was calculated for each study year. Poisson regression with likelihood ratio test was performed for testing trends of SRH over study years. Age, nationality, marital status, education, work status and income were used to determine SEP. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess association between SRH and SEP. The prevalence of dichotomized good self-rated health increased significantly over the whole study period with slight decrease in 2008-2010. Until 2002, good SRH was slightly more prevalent among men, but after that, among women. Good SRH was significantly associated with younger age, higher education and income and also with employment status among both, men and women. Good SRH was more prevalent among Estonian women and less prevalent among single men. There was a definite increase of good SRH over two decades in Estonia following economic downturn between 2008 and 2010. Good SRH was associated with higher SEP over the study period. Further research is required to study the possible reasons behind increase of good SRH, and it's association with SEP among adults in Estonia.

  16. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-04-16

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.

  18. A Tale of Two Cities: Stigma and Health Outcomes Among People with HIV who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara E.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Dovidio, John F.; Levina, Olga S.; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n=381 in St. Petersburg; n=288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  19. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  20. Associations between self-rated health and health behaviour among older adults in Estonia: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuladze, Liili; Kunder, Nele; Lang, Katrin; Vaask, Sirje

    2017-06-09

    The population of Estonia has one of the lowest life expectancies and health statuses in Europe. This is reflected in a lower perception of health among older adults. This study focuses on the role of health behaviour (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and nutrition) in self-rated health, accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, activity limitations and long-term illnesses as well as satisfaction with life of older Estonian men and women. We use representative cross-sectional data from Wave 4 of the Estonian Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, conducted mainly in 2011. Frequencies, χ2 tests and logistic regression models include respondents aged 50 years and older, with no upper age limit (n=6660). Men have 20% higher odds (CI 1.02 to 1.43) of poor self-rated health. Being of foreign origin (OR 1.48; CI 1.24 to 1.77), having a basic (2.50; CI 2.06 to 3.00) or secondary (1.71; CI 1.43 to 2.04) education, being retired (2.00; CI 1.65 to 2.44) or staying at home (1.49; CI 1.16 to 1.93) and having activity limitations (3.25; CI 2.77 to 3.80) or long-term illnesses (4.78; CI 4.08 to 5.60) are related to poor self-rated health. Never being involved in vigorous (2.30; CI 1.90 to 2.79) or moderate physical activity (1.41; CI 1.02 to 1.94), and consuming legumes and eggs less frequently (1.25; CI 1.08 to 1.45) is associated with poorer self-rated health. Lower satisfaction with life accounts for some of the variation (2.28; CI 1.92 to 2.71). There is a strong cumulative effect of one's previous life course on the self-rated health of older adults in Estonia, suggesting that public health policies have long-term consequences rather than immediate consequences. Health services supporting health behaviours and targeting vulnerable population groups with specific sociodemographic characteristics and health problems may influence self-rated health for some. Public health services emphasising social activities or psychological aspects may be

  1. Comparison of the metabolic syndrome risk in valproate-treated patients with epilepsy and the general population in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Rakitin

    Full Text Available No study has explored the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS in patients with epilepsy treated with valproate (VPA at the population level. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of MS in VPA-treated patients in Estonia to the risk in the general population.This study involved 118 patients with epilepsy (63 men, 55 women who received VPA monotherapy. MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Data were compared with the results of a population-based study of the prevalence of MS in the same geographic region (N = 493; 213 men, 280 women.In the multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age and sex, the risk of MS in VPA-treated patients was not increased compared to the control subjects (odds ratio [OR] = 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.68. VPA-treated patients had higher serum insulin concentrations than control subjects, independent of body mass index (BMI. A positive association was found between MS development and BMI (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.25-1.73 in VPA-treated patients, but there were no associations with the VPA dosage or the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. In control subjects, BMI and HOMA-IR had similar predictive abilities for MS occurrence. In VPA-treated patients, the predictive ability of the HOMA-IR index was significantly lower than that of BMI, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.808 and 0.897 (P = 0.05, respectively.The risk of MS is not increased among VPA-treated patients with epilepsy in Estonia compared to the general population. The HOMA-IR index likely has a lower predictive ability for MS in VPA-treated patients compared to its predictive ability in the general population.

  2. Combination prevention for persons who inject drugs in the HIV epidemic in a transitional country: The case of Tallinn, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C; Raag, Mait; Pinkerton, Steven D; Feelemyer, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the potential effectiveness of combination HIV prevention on the very high seroprevalence epidemic among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tallinn, Estonia, a transitional country. Data from community-based cross-sectional (respondent driven sampling) surveys of PWID in 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011 were used together with mathematical modeling of injection-associated HIV acquisition to estimate changes in injection-related HIV incidence during this period.Utilization of one, two or three of the interventions available in the community (needle/syringes exchange, antiretroviral treatment (ART), HIV testing, opioid substitution therapy) was reported by 42.5%, 30.5%, 11.5% of HIV+ and 34.7%, 36.4%, 5.7% of HIV- PWIDs, respectively in 2011. The modeling results suggest that the combination of needle/syringe programs and provision of ART to PWID in Tallinn substantially reduced the incidence of HIV infection in this population, from an estimated 20.7/100 person-years in 2005 to 7.5/100 person-years in 2011. In conclusion, combination prevention targeting HIV acquisition and transmission-related risks among persons who inject drugs in Tallinn has paralleled the downturn of the HIV epidemic in this population. PMID:25054646

  3. Suicidal Behavior Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Medical Care in Estonia and Factors Associated with Receiving Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli

    2017-06-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.

  4. The Roeuge renewable energy park: En route to zero-CO{sub 2} community in rural Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti [Inst. of Geography, Univ. of Tartu (Estonia)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the Roeuge rural municipality in southern Estonia is to develop a zero-CO{sub 2} community, except transportation, in nearest five years. 100 % renewable heating in public buildings is already reached as biomass for heating is the most important renewable energy source in the district. The municipality institutions use exclusively the green label electricity. In total, 580,300 EUR were invested to implement the energy programme in 2001-2006, corresponding to reductions of greenhouse gas emissions by 3,807 tons per year. The renewable energy park, coinciding with the municipal territory, is enhanced as the innovation, engineering, prototype centre and mix-up engineering solutions such as bio-energy installations, small hydro, ground source heat pumps, solar batteries and wind generator in the core area of park in Roeuge. Engineering and deployment of renewable energy sources embodies multiplying effect in the tourism sector. The park including the energy trail in the picturesque hilly landscape attracts 40 000 visitors annually, provides professional tours and promotes the renewable energy schemes to the public and students. Innovation and installations on renewable energy lead to the districts' development through provision of new business opportunities, linking forestry, agriculture and engineering. Local government investigates the synergies between energy and land use planning for the sound use of biomass resources.

  5. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  6. The risk of motor neurone disease and multiple sclerosis is different in Estonians and Russians. Data from South Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Paju, K; Oöpik, M; Lüüs, S; Kalbe, I; Kaasik, A E

    1999-03-01

    Epidemiological studies were performed in South Estonia to establish the prevalence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) and motor neurone disease (MND). The case finding method included information from the hospital records of the central hospital in the region-the University Hospital (for MS from 1942 to 1989), from all neurologists in the region, from the Estonian MS Society and Association of Muscular Disorders, and from nursing homes in the region. The prevalence day was 31 December 1989. MND incidence was established for the period of 1986-1995. The results demonstrated high prevalence rates of MS among native Estonians (55.3 per 100 000), somewhat lower prevalence among native-born representatives of other nationalities (43.6 per 100 000) and the lowest prevalence rate of MS among non-Estonian immigrants (26.6 per 100 000). The differences were not statistically significant. The results for MND demonstrated the opposite pattern. The mean annual incidence rate of MND for 10 years was statistically significantly higher among people of other nationalities (2.5 per 100 000) and Russians (2.6 per 100 000), and lower in native-born Estonians (1.1 per 100 000). No differences in health care or clinical picture were established. The reasons for the demonstrated differences in MND incidence remain unclear. Copyright 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  7. Total flavonoid content in varieties of Calendula officinalis L. originating from different countries and cultivated in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri

    2011-03-01

    Total flavonoid contents in the inflorescences of different varieties of Calendula officinalis L. were investigated. The commercial seeds (20 samples) of varieties of C. officinalis originating from eight European countries were cultivated in home gardens in two different counties of Estonia. Total flavonoid contents, determined spectrophotometrically (λ = 370 nm), varied from each other by more than three times (0.21-0.68%) in the investigated varieties. The variety with the highest flavonoid content was 'Kablouna', produced by the Finnish company Siemen (0.68%). Other varieties with high flavonoid content, such as 'Touch of Red' produced by the Latvian company Kurzemes Seklas (0.55%), 'Golden Emperor' produced by the Finnish company Suvipiha (0.50%), 'Pomyk' from Poland (0.50%), etc., may also be preferred for cultivation as natural sources, as they are also rich in flavonoids. The amount of total flavonoids depends on the variety and/or the place and time of cultivation. There appeared to be no conclusive relationship between the total flavonoid content and the colour of ligulate and tubular florets of C. officinalis.

  8. Gastrointestinal failure in intensive care: a retrospective clinical study in three different intensive care units in Germany and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkopf Joel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While gastrointestinal problems are common in ICU patients with multiple organ failure, gastrointestinal failure has not been given the consideration other organ systems receive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of gastrointestinal failure (GIF, to identify its risk factors, and to determine its association with ICU mortality. Methods A retrospective analysis of adult patients (n = 2588 admitted to three different ICUs (two ICUs at the university hospital Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany and one at Tartu University Clinics, Estonia during the year 2002 was performed. Data recorded in a computerized database were used in Berlin. In Tartu, the data documented in the patients' charts was retrospectively transferred into a similar database. GIF was defined as documented gastrointestinal problems (food intolerance, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and/or ileus in the patient data at any period of their ICU stay. ICU mortality, length of stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation were assessed as outcome parameters. Results GIF was identified in 252 patients (9.7% of all patients. Only 20% of GIF patients were identifiable at admission. GIF was related to significantly higher mortality (43.7% vs. 5.3% in patients without GIF, as well as prolonged length of ICU stay (10 vs. 2 days and mechanical ventilation (8 vs. 1 day, p Conclusion Gastrointestinal failure represents a relevant clinical problem accompanied by an increased mortality, longer ICU stay and mechanical ventilation.

  9. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariina Hiiob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight different water treatment systems (aeration combined with Manganese Greensand, Birm, Nevtraco, Hydrolit-Mn, Magno-Dol and quartz sand filters in Võru County. The results demonstrate that in most cases the systems with pre-aeration effectively purify groundwater from iron, but only 13 out of 20 water treatment plants achieved a reduction of iron concentration to the level fixed in drinking water requirements (0.2 mg L–1. Manganese content decreased below the maximum allowed concentration in only 25% of systems and in cases where the filter media was Birm or quartz sand and pre-oxidation was applied. The study showed that the high level of iron purification does not guarantee effective removal of manganese.

  10. Jobs, careers, and becoming a parent under state socialist and market conditions: Evidence from Estonia 1971-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnee Billingsley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entering employment and achieving a stable position in the labour market are considered important preconditions for childbearing. Existing studies addressing the relationship between work experience and the timing of parenthood focus exclusively on Western Europe and North America. By adding an Eastern European context before and after societal transformation, this study contributes to a more comprehensive account of the role of work experience in first-birth timing in Europe. Objective: We investigate how work experience and career development are related to the timing of parenthood in two diverse contexts in Estonia, state socialism and the market economy, and how it varies by gender and nativity. Methods: The data used come from the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006-2007. We estimate piecewise constant event history models to analyse the transition to first birth. Results: Our results suggest that in the market economy work experience became moreimportant in the decision to enter parenthood. In the market economy the importance of work experience to entering parenthood became more similar for women and men. Non-native-origin men and women's timing of parenthood appears to have become detached from their career developments. The article discusses mechanisms that may underlie the observed patterns. Conclusions: Our study shows how work experience gained importance as a precondition for parenthood in the transition to a market economy. This lends support to the view that the increasing importance of work experience is among plausible drivers of the postponement transition that extended to Eastern Europe in the 1990s.

  11. Family Background and School Choice in Cities of Russia and Estonia: Selective Agenda of the Soviet Past and Present

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    Kaire Põder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we demonstrate the size of family background effects in various regions of Russia and Estonia, concentrating on urban and rural differences, addressing the idea that the family background effect is moderated by school level admission policies. Having common path-dependent educational institutions from the communist period, the countries diff er in both the extensiveness of the welfare state and system level school choice policies. However, we see many commonalities in both systems, especially at the urban school level. The family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income and social status. In operationalising family background, the number of books at home and parental education are used as proxies, and its eff ect is measured as a percentage of the individual level PISA 2012 score. We contribute to the literature by studying school choice, its key characteristics and moderating effects by school level admission policy in an urban environment.

  12. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  13. The crystalline basement of Estonia: rock complexes of the Palaeoproterozoic Orosirian and Statherian and Mesoproterozoic Calymmian periods, and regional correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirs, Juho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available New data on the Fennoscandian Shield and the Baltic area suggest a need for reinterpretation of the stratigraphy of Estonian Precambrian rock complexes. The rocks of the Tallinn Zone formed in the framework of the Fennian orogeny at the margin of the Bergslagen microcontinent 1.90–1.88 Ga ago. The precise age of the Alutaguse Zone is not known. It may have formed either during the 1.93–1.91 Ga Lapland–Savo orogeny or as a rifted eastern part of the Tallinn Zone in the Fennian orogeny. The granulites of western and southern Estonia belong to the volcanic arcs inside the 1.84–1.80 Ga Svecobaltic orogenic belt and show peak metamorphic conditions of 1.78 Ga. Small shoshonitic plutons formed 1.83–1.63 Ga, the small granitic plutons of the Wiborg Rapakivi Subprovince 1.67–1.62 Ga, and the Riga pluton 1.59–1.54 Ga ago.

  14. BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantson, Signe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article handles general developments and changes in book trade which took place in Estonia during the second half of the 19th century. The aim is to show the formation of bookshops trading with Estonian books and to analyse the activities of Estonian booksellers.The survey is based on the research literature and on the master thesis by Signe Jantson “Raamatukaubandus Eestis aastatel 1850–1917: raamatukauplused ja nende omanikud” (Book trade in Estonia 1850–1917: bookshops and their owners [9]. In this study great importance wasattached to the national and social origin of bookshop owners and their activities. Up to the middle of the 19th century the book production and dissemination in Estonia was in the hands of Baltic German entrepreneurs and depended on the political and economic developments not only in Russia but also in Germany. In the middle of the 19th century there were only 5 bookshops in Estonia located in bigger towns – Tallinn and Tartu. In 1870 the number of bookshops reached 13. The greater ascent can be noticed in the last decade of the period – 1870–1880 when 20 new bookshops were opened. In 1867 Heinrich Laakmann, a German origin publisher and the printing shop owner opened the first bookshop in Tartu to sell Estonian language books. The economic and political reforms as well as the national awakening movement favoured the engagement of Estonians in the sphere of book production and dissemination. Increasing publishing of Estonian language books enabled the development of trade. At the end of the national awakening period most of the bookshop owners were already of Estonian origin. Since 1870ies the number of Estonian bookshops started to grow and at the end of the 19th century they outnumbered German and Russian shops. In all over Europe book trade concentrated into the big cities (in the case of Estonia in Tallinn and Tartu, but bookshops were opened also in the rural area (small towns and villages

  15. An inplementation strategy for the utilization of wind energy in Estonia. Phase 1: Pre-feasibility study and project identification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report presents the results of a pre-feasibility and project identification study with the purpose of investigating the possibilities for wind energy in Estonia and to recommend on possible actions, as outlined in Letters of Interest from the Estonian Ministries of Economy and Environment in 1995. Wind as source of energy in Estonia appears not yet to have been analyzed in detail. Available data indicates that wind can constitute a viable domestic source of energy, as average wind speeds of about 6 m/s (at 10 m) are reported at many coastal regions of Estonia. With state-of-the-art wind energy technology this means cost of wind produced electricity about 0.7-0.8 EEK/kWh - comparable to the cost of electricity from a modern coal-fired power plant. Two types of grids exist in these regions: On the mainland and on islands with sea cable grid connected wind turbines can be implemented. On islands without sea cable wind turbines can be connected to the diesel powered local grids. As a first step it is proposed to undertake the detailed planning and feasibility study of grid connected wind energy demonstrations in the framework of the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement. If the decision is made to implement this wind energy demonstration project, a certain proportion of grant money should be allocated for the demonstration. Subsequent steps in the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement should include the detailed planning and feasibility studies of autonomous wind energy demonstration and the associated capacity building. (EG)

  16. Commentary on Vorobjov et al., "Comparison of injection drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia"

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    Werb Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. And yet, despite the overwhelming evidence that providing sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDU through syringe exchange programs (SEPs or other means is an effective way of reducing HIV transmission among high-risk subpopulations, IDU in most settings still do not have access to sterile injecting equipment or if they do, access remains too restricted to effectively reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Vorobjov and colleagues have presented in this journal an interesting and timely study from Estonia comparing individuals who obtain syringes from SEPs and those who obtain syringes from pharmacies. As the authors point out, Estonia faces an unacceptably high HIV incidence rate of 50 new HIV cases per 100,000, this rate driven primarily by injection drug use. As such, the authors argue that Estonia's SEP network does not have the capacity to serve a growing IDU population at risk of transmitting HIV and pharmacy dispensation of clean syringes may be one potential approach to decreasing syringe sharing among high-risk injectors. It may be overly optimistic to consider the impact of higher threshold interventions such as pharmacy-based SEPs, given that IDU populations that engage in HIV risk behaviours such as syringe sharing are often hidden or hard to reach. Despite the need for a cautious approach, however, the findings presented by Vorobjov et al. may chart one potential course towards a more comprehensive societal response to reducing the health harms associated with injection drug use.

  17. Commentary on Vorobjov et al., "Comparison of injection drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Daniel; Wood, Evan

    2009-11-27

    Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. And yet, despite the overwhelming evidence that providing sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDU) through syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or other means is an effective way of reducing HIV transmission among high-risk subpopulations, IDU in most settings still do not have access to sterile injecting equipment or if they do, access remains too restricted to effectively reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Vorobjov and colleagues have presented in this journal an interesting and timely study from Estonia comparing individuals who obtain syringes from SEPs and those who obtain syringes from pharmacies. As the authors point out, Estonia faces an unacceptably high HIV incidence rate of 50 new HIV cases per 100,000, this rate driven primarily by injection drug use. As such, the authors argue that Estonia's SEP network does not have the capacity to serve a growing IDU population at risk of transmitting HIV and pharmacy dispensation of clean syringes may be one potential approach to decreasing syringe sharing among high-risk injectors. It may be overly optimistic to consider the impact of higher threshold interventions such as pharmacy-based SEPs, given that IDU populations that engage in HIV risk behaviours such as syringe sharing are often hidden or hard to reach. Despite the need for a cautious approach, however, the findings presented by Vorobjov et al. may chart one potential course towards a more comprehensive societal response to reducing the health harms associated with injection drug use.

  18. Educational differences in cigarette smoking among adult population in Estonia, 1990-2010: does the trend fit the model of tobacco epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Pürjer, Mari-Liis; Ringmets, Inge; Tekkel, Mare

    2014-07-10

    In developed countries, smoking spreads through society like an epidemic in which adults from higher socioeconomic groups are the first to adopt and earlier to quit smoking, and in which exists a lag in adoption of smoking between men and women. The objective of this study was to describe trends in daily and occasional smoking, to investigate association between smoking status and education, and to examine if the associations in 1990-2010 in Estonia fit the pattern predicted by the model of tobacco epidemic. The study was based on a 20-64-year-old subsample (n = 18740) of nationally representative postal cross-sectional surveys conducted every second year in Estonia during 1990-2010. Cigarette smoking and education were examined. χ2 test for trend was used to determine daily and occasional smoking trends over study years. Multinomial logistic regression model was used to test educational differences in daily and occasional smoking for every study year. Adjusted relative risk ratios (RRRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In 1990-2010, daily smoking varied largely between genders showing decreasing trend among men, but not among women. In 2010, one third of men and one fifth of women were daily smokers. Daily smoking was not clearly associated with education among men in 1990-1994 and among women in 1990-2000. Men revealed inverse relationship between daily smoking and education since 1996, but women since 2002. In 2010, compared to men and women with higher education, relative risk ratio of daily smoking was 2.92 (95% CI = 2.01-4.25) among men and 2.29 (95% CI = 1.65-3.17) among women with secondary education, but 4.98 (95% CI 3.12-7.94) among men and 6.62 (95% CI = 4.07-10.76) among women with basic education.In 1990-2010, occasional smoking was stable and similar (varying between 7-10%) among men and women, no association with education was found. Daily smoking patterns in Estonia fit the model of tobacco epidemic in developed countries

  19. Educational differences in cigarette smoking among adult population in Estonia, 1990–2010: does the trend fit the model of tobacco epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In developed countries, smoking spreads through society like an epidemic in which adults from higher socioeconomic groups are the first to adopt and earlier to quit smoking, and in which exists a lag in adoption of smoking between men and women. The objective of this study was to describe trends in daily and occasional smoking, to investigate association between smoking status and education, and to examine if the associations in 1990–2010 in Estonia fit the pattern predicted by the model of tobacco epidemic. Methods The study was based on a 20–64-year-old subsample (n = 18740) of nationally representative postal cross-sectional surveys conducted every second year in Estonia during 1990–2010. Cigarette smoking and education were examined. χ2 test for trend was used to determine daily and occasional smoking trends over study years. Multinomial logistic regression model was used to test educational differences in daily and occasional smoking for every study year. Adjusted relative risk ratios (RRRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results In 1990–2010, daily smoking varied largely between genders showing decreasing trend among men, but not among women. In 2010, one third of men and one fifth of women were daily smokers. Daily smoking was not clearly associated with education among men in 1990–1994 and among women in 1990–2000. Men revealed inverse relationship between daily smoking and education since 1996, but women since 2002. In 2010, compared to men and women with higher education, relative risk ratio of daily smoking was 2.92 (95% CI = 2.01–4.25) among men and 2.29 (95% CI = 1.65–3.17) among women with secondary education, but 4.98 (95% CI 3.12–7.94) among men and 6.62 (95% CI = 4.07–10.76) among women with basic education. In 1990–2010, occasional smoking was stable and similar (varying between 7–10%) among men and women, no association with education was found. Conclusions Daily smoking patterns

  20. Eesti julgeoleku tagab üksnes usaldusväärsus : Vabariigi Presidendi Lennart Meri kõne Estonia kontserdisaalis 24. veebruaril 1995 / Lennart Meri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1995-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi 77 aastapäev. Kõne on ilmunud ka: Päevaleht, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 1, 6, pealkiri: Eelseisvad valimised kindlustagu poliitika järjepidevust; Eesti Sõnumid, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 3, pealkiri: "Meie raskemad ajad on nüüd tõepoolest selja taga"; Hommikuleht, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 2, 5, pealkiri: Raskemad ajad on seljataga; Postimees, 27. veebr., lk. 2, 6, pealkiri: President Lennart Meri kõne Estonia kontserdisaalis 24. veebruaril 1995; Meie Elu, 2. märts, lk. 10; Meie Kodu, 8. märts, lk. 5

  1. Reconstruction of precipitation variability in Estonia since the eighteenth century, inferred from oak and spruce tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helama, Samuli; Sohar, Kristina; Läänelaid, Alar; Bijak, Szymon; Jaagus, Jaak

    2017-08-01

    There is plenty of evidence for intensification of the global hydrological cycle. In Europe, the northern areas are predicted to receive more precipitation in the future and observational evidence suggests a parallel trend over the past decades. As a consequence, it would be essential to place the recent trend in precipitation in the context of proxy-based estimates of reconstructed precipitation variability over the past centuries. Tree rings are frequently used as proxy data for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Here we use deciduous (Quercus robur) and coniferous (Picea abies) tree-ring width chronologies from western Estonia to deduce past early-summer (June) precipitation variability since 1771. Statistical model transforming our tree-ring data into estimates of precipitation sums explains 42% of the variance in instrumental variability. Comparisons with products of gridded reconstructions of soil moisture and summer precipitation illustrate robust correlations with soil moisture (Palmer Drought Severity Index), but lowered correlation with summer precipitation estimates prior to mid-nineteenth century, these instabilities possibly reflecting the general uncertainties inherent to early meteorological and proxy data. Reconstructed precipitation variability was negatively correlated to the teleconnection indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Scandinavia pattern, on annual to decadal and longer scales. These relationships demonstrate the positive precipitation anomalies to result from increase in zonal inflow and cyclonic activity, the negative anomalies being linked with the high pressure conditions enhanced during the atmospheric blocking episodes. Recently, the instrumental data have demonstrated a remarkable increase in summer (June) precipitation in the study region. Our tree-ring based reconstruction reproduces this trend in the context of precipitation history since eighteenth century and quantifies the unprecedented abundance of June

  2. Lake basin development in the Holocene and its impact on the sedimentation dynamics in a small lake (southern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Terasmaa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Small lakes and their sediments are widely used for palaeolimnological reconstructions. Often only one core from the deepest part of the lake is used for reconstructing the lake catchment development, water-level changes and climate. To interpret palaeoinformation correctly, it is necessary to understand the spatio-temporal dynamics and the essence of lake basin evolution (topography, sedimentation zones, etc. during the selected time period. The current study focuses on reconstructing the development of Lake Väike Juusa (southern Estonia during the Holocene with the help of 3D digital elevation models compiled for the palaeolake stages at 9000 BP, 8000 BP, 4000 BP, 2000 BP and the present. The results suggest that we have to consider lake stages as completely different lakes with different sedimentation patterns – the hypsocraphic curve of Lake Väike Juusa was convex at the beginning of the Holocene and is concave nowadays. The proportion of the accumulation areas varied from 6% to 60% at the beginning of the Holocene and is around 30% nowadays. In order to understand lake basin development and water-level changes, the sampling sites should be selected close to the transitional zone and more than one core from a lake is needed. Commonly the sites located spatially rather close to each other have significantly different sedimentation patterns. Three-dimensional digital elevation models of palaeolake basins are useful tools for visualizing data and for hypothesizing about possible effects of lake-level fluctuations on the lake and its sedimentation regime.

  3. Provenance shift in Cambrian mid-Baltica: detrital zircon chronology of Ediacaran–Cambrian sandstones in Estonia

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    Yukio Isozaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the tectono-sedimentary history of Paleozoic Baltica, age spectra of detrital zircon grains from the Ediacaran (Kotlin Regional Stage and Lower Cambrian sandstones (lowermost Lontova and Lükati formations in western Estonia in central Baltica were analyzed by LA-ICPMS. The abundant occurrence of Archean to Mesoproterozoic (2800–1000 Ma zircon grains was confirmed in all samples. The new data provided the following information on the provenance of siliciclastic material as well as a major change in the sedimentary regime of the Paleo-Baltic basin during the Early Cambrian: (1 the Ediacaran–Lower Cambrian Paleo-Baltic basin received abundant terrigenous clastics from the core of Baltica underlain by the Archean–Mesoproterozoic crystalline crust, (2 the exposed surface area of the 1600 Ma Rapakivi granites apparently was more extensive during the Ediacaran–Early Cambrian than at present, (3 a major re-organization of the basin geometry occurred in the middle Early Cambrian (ca 530–515 Ma in central Baltica, inducing a change in the sediment supply system, (4 in contrast to the total absence of Neoproterozoic detrital zircon grains before the middle Early Cambrian, their sudden appearance at this time, together with consistent occurrence at least until the mid-Devonian, suggests a significant uplift event located in southeast Baltica and/or in a more easterly land domain (e.g., in Sarmatia, (5 possible sources for the Neoproterozoic zircon grains include the peripheral mobile belts with pan-African signatures around Baltica, e.g., the so-called Gondwanan fragments along the Tornquist margin to the southwest and the Timanian belt along the northeastern margin.

  4. Frequency patterns of chitinozoans, scolecodonts, and conodonts in the upper Llandovery and lower Wenlock of the Paatsalu core, western Estonia

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    Nestor, Viiu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequency patterns of chitinozoans, scolecodonts (polychaete jaws, and conodonts in the upper Llandovery and lower Wenlock of the Paatsalu core, western Estonia, are described. Chitinozoans are represented by nearly 50 species and constitute the most abundant group, outnumbering scolecodonts and conodonts by 10–100 times. Jawed polychaetes with about 60 species and up to thousands of specimens per kilogram of rock are the most diverse but least varying group. Conodonts display marked variations in abundance and relative frequency, which are partly caused by global evolutionary patterns of conodont faunas.The Llandovery Rumba Formation is characterized by large numbers of scolecodonts, common and diverse chitinozoans, and very rare conodonts. Good correlation between the abundance of microfossils and lithology in the Rumba Formation most likely indicates variations in the deposition/compaction rate. Interestingly, the lithologically sharp Rumba–Velise boundary is indistinct in chitinozoan and polychaete faunas; marked changes occur above the boundary. The Velise Formation, except its basal part, is characterized by a decreased number of scolecodonts and abundant conodonts. The changes in chitinozoan and conodont faunas at the Llandovery–Wenlock boundary are sharp, partly on account of a stratigraphical gap. The abundance of chitinozoans increases 10 times, whilst that of conodonts decreases; both groups display a significant turnover in assemblages and decrease in diversity. Changes in jawed polychaete faunas are less conspicuous, although a major change in relative frequency of dominating forms can be observed. The Wenlock Jaani Formation is characterized by maximum abundance of chitinozoans and scolecodonts, and decreased abundance and diversity of conodonts. The last group was most affected by the Ireviken Event.

  5. Emergent properties of HIV risk among injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia: synthesis of individual and neighbourhood-level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, A; McMahon, J M; Raag, M; Silm, S; Rüütel, K; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Ahas, R; Des Jarlais, D C

    2010-12-01

    HIV/AIDS risk is embodied within multiple levels including structural and social levels. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of neighbourhood characteristics on HIV prevalence among injection drug users (IDU) residing in the area of Tallinn, Estonia in 2007. A cross-sectional, multilevel design collecting individual-level data--a behaviour survey including data on self-reported residency and HIV antibody testing among 350 IDU and neighbourhood-level data--aggregate measures on socio-demo-economic residential characteristics from the 2000 Estonian census. Geocoding and multilevel modelling analysis was employed. Among the 350 IDU recruited, earlier age at first injection, fentanyl as the main injection drug, receptive syringe sharing, main income source other than legal employment and ever attended a syringe exchange programme remained significantly associated with increased odds of anti-HIV positivity in the multivariable analysis involving individual effects with no predictors at the neighbourhood level. In the multilevel model, individual (earlier at IDU initiation AOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.44; injecting opioids AOR 4.43, 95% CI 2.74 to 7.18; receptive syringe sharing AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.86 to 3.37; main income source other than work AOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.14; ever attended a syringe exchange programme AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.83 to 3.61) and neighbourhood level (higher unemployment rate AOR 5.95, 95% CI 2.47 to 14.31; greater residential change AOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.26) emerged as significant predictors of individual HIV-positive status. Our results indicate that both individual-level and emergent neighbourhood-level factors contribute to HIV risk among IDU and are amenable for preventive interventions.

  6. The association of gut microbiota with body weight and body mass index in preschool children of Estonia

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    Epp Sepp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods: Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97. Results: At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006 was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product. The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026 and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014 in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens’ weight (adj R2=− 0.481, p=0.015. Conclusion: The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age.

  7. Acute de novo Leukemia in Estonia and Western Sweden 1982-2006: Positive Trend in the Survival of Acute Leukemia over 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulegårdh, Erik; Punab, Mari; Holmberg, Erik; Palk, Katrin; Laane, Edward; Everaus, Hele; Wennström, Lovisa; Stockelberg, Dick

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the incidence, treatment, and survival of de novo acute leukemia in a 25-year perspective in western Sweden and Estonia. At the beginning of our study, Estonia was a part of the Eastern bloc with planned economy, but since 1991 it is a member of the European Union and transforming into a market economy. Survival rates have steadily increased in both countries. However, a gap between their survival curves remains. Based on our data, it is difficult to explain the big difference in the 5-year relative survival in favor of western Sweden (55 vs. 22%). In Germany, there was a big difference in overall cancer survival between East and West Germany after the fall of the iron curtain, but today no difference is seen. Differences in survival are probably due to a higher proportion of intense chemotherapy regimens and a higher rate of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Sweden. Other important factors might be better supportive care and diagnostics as well as better adjuvant therapy. Better staff training and conditions in wards are also factors that might play an essential role. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography for mapping bedrock topography and fracture zones: a case study in Viru-Nigula, NE Estonia

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    Ivo Sibul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Base Map (GBM, presenting an elongated buried valley running beneath the Varudi bog, triggered the geophysical studies near Viru-Nigula borough in northeastern Estonia. After the Geological Survey of Estonia had compiled the GBM map set, the course and extent of the valley still remained indistinct. Principally the morphology of the Varudi valley had been determined just by one borehole characterizing the 30 m thick Quaternary succession within the valley. The thickness of Quaternary sediments is, however, just a few metres in adjacent boreholes. We used ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT for acquiring extra knowledge about the extent and morphology of the Varudi structure. Ground-penetrating radar enabled us to specify the thickness and composition of Quaternary deposits, and to recognize dislocations of the bedrock blocks. As the radar images provided information on the topmost ~4 m only, ERT (Wenner and Wenner–Schlumberger arrays was applied to define deeper, down to 40 m, electrical resistivity anomalies. The ERT studies revealed two fracture zones where regular Ordovician carbonate beds have been crushed and replaced by Quaternary sediments. The Varudi valley coincides with the southern zone. Both fracture zones probably acted as groundwater flow channels and sediment pathways in the Late Pleistocene, and hence supported the creation of the Varudi bog.

  9. [Review of: H. Hiiop Contemporary Art in the Museum: How to Preserve the Ephemeral? The Preservation Strategy and Methods of the Contemporary Art Collection of the Art Museum of Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, S.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Art in the Museum: How to Preserve the Ephemeral? The Preservation Strategy and Methods of the Contemporary Art Collection of the Art Museum of Estonia is the full title of the doctoral thesis that Hilkka Hiiop defended at the Estonian Academy of Arts in Tallinn, December 2012. It is a

  10. The Impact of Start-up Grants on Firm Performance in Estonia

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    Siret Vildo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As in economic theory start-up enterprises have been seen as important sources of growth, the government support measures to enterprises have been a common practice around the world for decades. As the governmental support to enterprises is often of a considerable amount of money there is a need to assess its efficiency. In the present article we study the impact of Estonian start-up grants distributed in 2002 and 2003 on various indicators of firm performance with econometric methods, namely propensity score matching. We use the data from the Estonian Business Register in order to study the impact of start-up grants on various economic indicators like the number of employees, turnover, equity, fixed assets and firm survival. The results showed that the start-up grants proved to affect positively the number of employed people and turnover, yet the impact on productivity was negative. One implication of the study is that it is difficult to achieve different goals to the same extent with a single governmental grant

  11. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations in HAART patients infected with HIV-1 CRF06_cpx in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Margus, Tõnu; Huik, Kristi; Lutsar, Irja

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and substitutions were assessed after the failure of the first line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) + 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) treatment regimens (efavirenz [EFV] + lamivudine[3TC] + zidovudine [ZDV] vs. EFV + 3TC + ddI) among the HIV-1 CRF06_cpx infected subjects in Estonia. HIV-1 genomic RNA was sequenced; DRMs and amino acid substitutions were compared in 44 treatment naïve and 45 first-line NNRTI + 2 NRTI treatment failed patients consisting of EFV + 3TC + ZDV (n = 17) and EFV + 3TC + didanosine[ddI] (n = 21) therapy failed sub-populations. At least one DRM was found in 78% of treatment experienced patients. The most common NRTI mutations were M184V (80%), L74V (31%), L74I (17%), K219E (9%), and M184I (9%), NNRTI mutations were K103N (83%), P225H (14%), L100I (11%), and Y188L (11%), reflecting generally the similar pattern of DRMs to that seen in treatment failed subtype B viruses. Sub-population analysis revealed that EFV + 3TC + ddI failed patients had more DRMs compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV failed patients, especially the ddI DRM L74IV and several additional NNRTI DRMs. Additionally, CRF06_cpx specific mutation E179V and substitutions R32K, K122E, and V200AE were also detected in treatment experienced population. After the failure of the first-line EFV + 3TC + ddI therapy HIV-1 CRF06_cpx viruses develop additional NRTI and NNRTI mutations compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV regimen. Therefore the usage of EFV + 3TC + ddI in this subtype decreases the options for next regimens containing abacavir, and NNRTI class agents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Smoking differences between employees in faculties of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and changes during the country's transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Kivastik, Jana; Kingisepp, Peet-Henn; Heikkinen, Rauno

    2011-03-08

    A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. All employees at the University of Tartu (UT) were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003). Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this transitional society. We assume that different professional cultures

  13. Smoking differences between employees in faculties of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and changes during the country's transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingisepp Peet-Henn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. Methods All employees at the University of Tartu (UT were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003. Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. Results While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Conclusions Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this

  14. Laps(epõlv 19. sajandi teise poole Eestis omaelulooliste tekstide näitel. Child(hood in 19th Century Estonia: a Study of Autobiographical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss autobiographical texts which focus on children and childhood in late 19th century Estonia. Childhood memories as well as other autobiographical material became popular in Estonia in the 1920s-1930s, when most of the studied works--the memoirs by Anna Haava, Mait Metsanurk, Jaan Lattik, Jaan Vahtra, Friedebert Tuglas, August Kitzberg and Marta Sillaots--were written. Some texts come from the 19th century (e.g. Lilli Suburg’s autobiographical works or early 20th century (e.g. manuscripts by Hans Leoke, and Johannes Kõrv. Childhood as described in these autobiographical texts covers a period of circa 1850-1900, and the majority of the authors come from the families of South-Estonian peasants or manorial servants. In addition to being written in Estonian and having the same theme, they were all also written by authors of fiction for children or by people who had close contact with children, such as schoolteachers. The article offers a novel approach in the Estonian context by presenting a typology of childhood stories and looking at childhood recollections as an important part of childhood studies. The researchers of childhood investigate how society understands and values children and childhood, what children’s everyday life is like, what possibilities there are for development and if there exists a specific children’s culture in society (such as clothing, food, language, leisure activities, or independent creative work. Childhood studies as a separate discipline does not exist in Estonia, although some important works have been published by educational scholars and art historians. The autobiographical texts under discussion show that in the late 19th century, the majority of Estonian children lived in the countryside in patriarchal families, and childhood was short because children had to help their parents with farmwork quite early, at the age of six. The boundary of childhood was around the age of 10-11, when

  15. Gamma-distribution and wealth inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. A Chakraborti1 M Patriarca2. Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India; National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 12618 Tallin, Estonia ...

  16. Using data from respondent-driven sampling studies to estimate the number of people who inject drugs: Application to the Kohtla-Järve region of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiacheng; Crawford, Forrest W; Raag, Mait; Heimer, Robert; Uusküla, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the size of key risk populations is essential for determining the resources needed to implement effective public health intervention programs. Several standard methods for population size estimation exist, but the statistical and practical assumptions required for their use may not be met when applied to HIV risk groups. We apply three approaches to estimate the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Kohtla-Järve region of Estonia using data from a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) study: the standard "multiplier" estimate gives 654 people (95% CI 509-804), the "successive sampling" method gives estimates between 600 and 2500 people, and a network-based estimate that uses the RDS recruitment chain gives between 700 and 2800 people. We critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of these statistical approaches for estimating the size of hidden or hard-to-reach HIV risk groups.

  17. Palaeoenvironmental signatures revealed from rare earth element (REE compositions of vertebrate microremains of the Vesiku Bone Bed (Homerian, Wenlock, Saaremaa Island, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fadel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have been analysed from fossil vertebrate microremains (thelodont scales from the Vesiku Bone Bed, Saaremaa, Estonia, using in situ microsampling by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. Well-preserved scales of three species of the genus Thelodus (T. carinatus, T. laevis and Thelodus sp. show very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with enrichment in middle REEs, depletion in heavy REEs and pronounced negative europium anomaly, but no cerium anomaly. The results of this study suggest a similar diagenetic history and possibly contemporaneous habitats for all three Thelodus species, as well as possible suboxic to anoxic conditions of the bottom and pore waters during the formation of the Vesiku Bone Bed.

  18. δ13C chemostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Ordovician succession in the Tartu-453 drillcore, southern Estonia, and the significance of the HICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Bauert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The δ13C isotope data from the Tartu-453 core section in southern Estonia enabled creation of a continuous Ordovician carbon isotope record, ranging from the Floian to the end of the Hirnantian. Five positive δ13C excursions and one negative δ13C excursion were recognized. Most of the positive excursions correspond to those defined on the Baltoscandian carbon isotope chemostratigraphic scheme, except for the Paroveja and Rakvere ICEs which are not well expressed in the Tartu-453 curve. Besides the positive δ13C excursions, a distinctive negative δ13C excursion, the Lower Sandbian NICE, was recorded in the Tartu-453 succession. The well-expressed HICE extends about 10 m higher than the traditional Ordovician–Silurian boundary (between the Porkuni and Juuru regional stages into the Juuru Regional Stage, suggesting that the Ordovician–Silurian boundary is positioned significally higher than traditionally suggested for the East Baltic area.

  19. Muusika : TMKK 40. Tüüri Viiulikontsert USAs. Tormise autorikontsert Moskvas. Larsen Strings Eestis. "Jazzkaare" uudised. Itaalia koreograafi balletikeel Estonias / Tiina Mattisen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mattisen, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    8.XI esitles TMKK EMA kammersaalis sünnipäevapuhust raamatut ja CDd. USAs Cincinnati Music Hallis kõlab Erkki-Sven Tüüri Viiulikontsert. 21.X leiab Rahmaninovi-nim. saalis Moskvas aset Veljo Tormise autoriõhtu. 8.ئ10.XI viibis Eestis Morten Drasbek, eksklusiivseid pillikeeli ja muid keelpillitarvikuid tootva Taani firma Larsen Strings esindaja. 7.XI "Jazzkaare" kontserdil "Georg Otsa jälgedes" kõlasid Uno Loobi ja Estonian All Stars bändi esituses Georg Otsa kontsertide menulood. Prantsuse jazzkvartett 32 Janvier esines oma Skandinaavia-turneel 14.XI Von Krahli teatris. Rahvusooperis Estonia alustas 8.XI proove itaalia koreograaf Mauro Bigonzetti, kelle koreograafiat saab näha märtsis esietenduvas Delibes'i balletis "Coppelia"

  20. The system of firm support grants in Estonia: whom does it favor? Summary: Ettevõtlustoetused Eestis: millist ettevõtet need soosivad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Mõttus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After joining the European Union, remarkable support has been provided to Estonian firms through government grants financed from EU funds, but so far it has not been systematically studied, which firms can get support from them. Current study analyzes all grants for firms financed from EU funds in Estonia in the period of 2007-2013. The paper outlines most supported firms based on activities financed and restrictions set on firms and application. The results indicate that some limitations make only a narrow range of firms eligible to get financial support. The grant measures in different implementing units providing grants vary a lot. Also, grants directed to fixed asset investments have more restrictions when compared with those directed to reimbursement of costs.

  1. Transmitted drug resistance is still low in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avi, Radko; Huik, Kristi; Pauskar, Merit; Ustina, Valentina; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Krispin, Tõnu; Lutsar, Irja

    2014-03-01

    The presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in treatment-naive HIV-1-positive subjects is of concern, especially in the countries of the former Soviet Union in which the number of subjects exposed to antiretrovirals (ARV) has exponentially increased during the past decade. We assessed the rate of TDR among newly diagnosed subjects in Estonia in 2010 and compared it to that in 2008. The study included 325 subjects (87% of all subjects tested HIV positive from January 1 to December 31, 2010). Of the 244 sequenced viral genomic RNA in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region 214 were CRF06_cpx, nine were subtype A1, three (one each) were subtype B and subtype C, CRF02_AG, and CRF03_AB; 15 viruses remained unclassified as putative recombinant forms between CRF06_cpx and subtype A1. HIV-1 TDR mutations in 2010 and 2008 (n=145) occurred at similar frequency in 4.5% (95% CI 2.45; 7.98) and 5.5% (95% CI 1.8; 9.24) of the patients, respectively. In 2010, 2.5% (6/244) of the sequences harbored nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (K103N and K101E), 1.6% (4/244) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) (M41L, M184I, and K219E), and 0.4% (1/244) protease inhibitor (PI) (V82A) mutations. Our findings indicate that in spite of the increased consumption of ARVs the rate of TDR in Estonia has remained unchanged over the past 3 years. Similar stabilizing or even decreasing trends have been described in Western Europe and North America albeit at higher levels and in different socioeconomic backgrounds.

  2. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Merisalu, Eda

    2015-07-01

    Rapid changes in the Estonian health care system have placed extra pressure on the nursing profession, but the potential impacts of psychosocial changes have not been investigated. We aimed to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst nurses at the university hospital in Estonia. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital (TUH). Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms and burnout) were measured using version two of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's r correlation with sequential Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the full-time working population of nurses). The highest mean scores recorded for the positive work-related psychosocial factors studied were meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships and mutual trust between employees. The highest scores for the negative factors studied were the demands for hiding emotions, work pace, cognitive and emotional demands. Stress and burnout showed the highest mean scores amongst the MHPs. Quantitative and emotional demands were positively related to all of the studied MHPs, while work pace and role conflicts had a positive correlation with stress and burnout. All of the studied negative psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with burnout. work-related psychosocial risk factors such as quantitative demands work load, emotional demands, work pace and role conflicts, had significant positive relationships with MHPS in nurses in Estonia, and may contribute to high levels of stress as well as burnout amongst nurses: . © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori and CagA protein in schoolchildren of different ages living in urban and rural areas in southern Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobjova, T; Grünberg, H; Oona, M; Maaroos, H I; Nilsson, I; Wadström, T; Covacci, A; Uibo, R

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate Helicobacter pylori and CagA seropositivity in a non-selected group of schoolchildren in southern Estonia, with reference to previous studies where high seroprevalence to H. pylori (87%) and anti-CagA positivity (63%) in an adult population from the same region were found. A total of 421 schoolchildren selected haphazardly from a random population (n = 1018, ages 9, 12 or 15 years) and living in urban or rural areas. H. pylori status was determined by evaluation of IgG antibodies against cell surface proteins of H. pylori, strain CCUG 17874, using standard ELISA. Anti-CagA IgGs were determined by ELISA using a recombinant fragment of CagA (CCUG 17874) as solid-phase antigen. Absorbance values > 0.3 (405 nm) were taken as a CagA-positive result based on a study of 25 sera from H. pylori-negative children. Of the 421 subjects, 235 (56%) were H. pylori-ELISA positive, and 109 out of the 235 (46%) were anti-CagA positive. Neither H. pylori nor CagA positivity were significantly different in girls and boys, or in children aged 9, 12 or 15 years. The H. pylori prevalence rate (118/181, 65%) as well as CagA positivity (64/181, 35%) in rural areas were higher compared with those in towns (117/240, 49% and 54/240, 22%, respectively; P = 0.001 and P = 0.005). Of schoolchildren living in southern Estonia, 56% were seropositive to H. pylori. Half of them had anti-CagA antibodies. Schoolchildren living in rural areas were infected significantly more often with CagA-seropositive strains compared with those living in towns.

  4. Koolinoorte elustiilist ja selle uurimisest nõukogudeaja Eestis. Research on the Lifestyles of School Students in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Liimets

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been no particular difference in the understanding of lifestyle as such on either theoretical or an empirical level, regardless of whether the corresponding research work was performed in Soviet Estonia or in the German-speaking cultural sphere of Europe in the 1990s. There have been noticeably more similarities than differences. The main difference in the research of school students’ lifestyles is likely the treatment of students’ lives at and outside of school in terms of the two areas either being considered mutually intertwined or not. From the very beginning, Heino Liimets’s school of educational sociology was characterised by the treatment of studies as but one piece of lifestyle as a whole, where studying was an activity which acted as an integrator between the life at school and the life outside of it. In the German-speaking cultural sphere, the connection between these two environments has not been held quite as self-evident, and research has only been focusing on their synergy to a higher degree since the mid-1990s. The empirical data collected and analysed by the scholars of the Liimets school during the years 1975–1998 makes it possible to point out six generally important phenomena in the lifestyles of Estonian students:1 In 1975–1987 a continual decline in the appreciation rankings of learning among interesting activities took place, followed by a continual movement towards an increase already before the end of the Soviet era; 2 In 1975–1987, a strong process of alienation of students from school, studies and themselves; 3 The years 1979–1984, the final decade of the Soviet era, saw a characteristic and increasing stagnation also in the students’ attitudes and value-judgements related to their activities and lifestyles; 4 Simultaneously with the processes of alienation from studies, school and themselves, the so-called ’domestication phenomena’ (appreciation of home in students’ lifestyles increased

  5. Formation (and dating) of small impact craters on Earth as an analogue for Mars (Ilumetsa Craters Estonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Jõeleht, Argo; Plado, Juri; Szyszka, Mateusz; Wild, Eva Maria; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Belcher, Claire; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Steier, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Crater-strewn-fields are present on planetary bodies with an atmosphere such as Earth and Mars, but the process of their formation is still not fully understood. For example, a recent discovery of small pieces of impact-produced-charcoal within the ejecta blanket of 100 m in diameter Kaali crater (Losiak et al. 2016) may suggest existence of very local ( 10 cm thick layer in the distance of 10 m from the rim), short lived ( hours) thermal anomalies ( 300°C) in the ejecta blanket of even small craters. Ilumetsa in SE Estonia is an atypical example of crater-strewn-field consisting of only two relatively large, rimmed structures with diameters of 75-80 m (Ilumetsa Large: IL) and 50 m (Ilumetsa Small: IS) with true depths of about 8 and 3.5 m, respectively (Plado 2012 MAPS). Structures were previously dated by the 14C analysis of gyttja from the bottom of IL (Liiva et al. 1979 Eesti Loodus) to be 7170-6660 cal. BP. About 600 years older age (7570-7320 cal. BC: Raukas et al. 2001, MAPS) was proposed based on dated layer of peat in which glassy spherules, interpreted as dissipated melt or condensed vapor (however their chemical composition was not reported). Ilumetsa is listed as a proven meteorite impact in the Earth Impact Database, but neither remnants of the projectile nor other identification criteria (e.g., PDFs) have been found up to this point. The aim of this study was to search for possible impact related charcoals in order to determine the size and extend of thermal anomalies around small impact craters, as well as to determine how this atypical strew field was formed. Additionally, we hoped to determine/confirm the age of those structures. We have found charcoal in a similar geological setting as in Kaali Main crater in both Ilumetsa structures. The calibrated (95,4% probability) time ranges of four dated samples from IL and one sample of IS span the time interval from 7670-6950 cal. BP (consistent with previous dating). One sample from IS is younger (4830

  6. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  7. Hearing impairment in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teek, R; Kruustük, K; Zordania, R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The present study was initiated to establish the etiological causes of early onset hearing loss (HL) among Estonian children between 2000-2009. Methods: The study group consisted of 233 probands who were first tested with an arrayed primer extension assay, which covers 199 mutat...

  8. Pictorial Estonia / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti pildilisest kujutamisest albumites, postkaartidel, kodulehekülgedel ja filmides, kus domineerib "fassaadi-imagoloogia", mille raamkonstruktsiooniks on utoopiline, mitte heterotoopoline ruumi mõiste

  9. Krugman vs. Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Anonüümne autor toetab president Ilvest nn graafikusõjas, mis puhkes peale seda, kui nobelist Paul Krugman seadis ajakirjas New York Times kahtluse alla Eesti edukuse ja kokkuhoiupoliitika efektiivsuse

  10. Estonia / Vello Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Vello, 1968-

    2002-01-01

    Poliitilisest olukorrast Eestis Riigikogu 9. koosseisu ajal, mil võimul oli Reformierakonna, Isamaaliidu ja Mõõdukate koalitsioon ning peaminister Mart Laari valitsus. Tabelid: 1999. aastal Riigikogu valimiste tulemused; 1999. aastal Isamaliidu, Reformierakonna ja Mõõdukate poolt moodustatud valitsus

  11. Estonia : [2011] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2012-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitika olulisematest sündmustest 2011. aastal, mille hulgas on nii Riigikogu kui ka presidendi valimised, märgitakse skandaali ja korruptsiooni seoses viisavaba liikumise võimaldamisega Shengeni viisaruumis, muutused põhiseaduses seoses Kaitsejõudude ülemjuhataja koha kaotamisega

  12. Estonia : [2013] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2014-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitilisest elust 2013. aastal. Käsitletakse kohalikke valimisi, muutusi valitsuse kooseisus, Riigikogu tegemisi, aga ka rahvakogu ettepanekuid, Reformierakonna rahastusskandaali jt sündmusi.

  13. Estonia : [2012] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2013-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti valitsuses 2012. aastal toimunud muutustest, sisepoliitika olulisematest arengutest (protestid ACTA vastu, Rahvakogu kokkutulek, Silvergate, opositsiooni tegevus, arutelud ESM-i ümber, venekeelsest koolist Eestis)

  14. Estonia : [2010] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitika olulisematest sündmustest 2010. aastal, mille hulgas märgitakse skandaale erakondade rahaasjades, korruptsiooni seoses maamüügitehingutega, muutusi valimisseaduses seoses valimistega Euroopa Parlamenti

  15. ABB honoured in Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Energeetikafirma ABB pälvis Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse poolt Eesti parimale ettevõttele antava "Ettevõtluse Auhinna 2008" ja Aasta Välisinvestori tiitli. 18. septembril 2008 toimunud pidulikul tseremoonial autasustas president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ABB Balti riikide juhti Bo Henrikssoni

  16. distribution network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper examined the acidic properties of distribution transformer oil insulation in service at Jericho distribution network Ibadan, Nigeria. Five oil samples each from six distribution transformers (DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5) making a total of thirty samples were taken from different installed distribution transformers all ...

  17. Exponentiated distributions

    CERN Document Server

    AL-Hussaini, Essam K

    2015-01-01

    This book contains entirely new results, not to be found elsewhere. Furthermore, additional results scattered elsewhere in the literature are clearly presented. Several well-known distributions such as Weibull distributions, exponentiated Burr type XII distributions and exponentiated exponential distributions and their properties are demonstrated. Analysis of real as well as well-simulated data are analyzed. A number of inferences based on a finite mixture of distributions are also presented.

  18. Sõdadevaheline vene emigratsioon suures ilmas ja väikeses Eesti / Interwar Russian Emigration in the Larger World and "Little Estonia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Belobrovtseva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Oktoobrirevolutsiooni järgne vene emigratsioon, mida teaduskirjanduses traditsiooniliselt nimeta takse esimeseks laineks, valgus mööda ilma laiali ning oli seninägematult arvukas, haarates kaasa miljoneid endise Tsaari-Venemaa elanikke. Sellele nähtusele on pühendatud tuhandeid humanitaartea duslikke, sotsioloogilisi, politoloogilisi jm uurimusi, mis kajastavad vene eksiilkultuuri eri tahke. Vene emigratsioon puudutas ka Eestit ning enamik käsitletud ilmingutest olid otseselt seotud siinse vene kogukonnaga, ent kohati väga erineva tähendusega. Käesoleva artikli eesmärk on lühidalt kirjeldada vene emigratsiooni sotsiaalset ja demograafilist struktuuri, selle keskusi, emigrantide rolli oma ja võõra kultuuri säilitamisel, põlvkondadevahelist aspekti, eelkõige kirjanduselus, ning haridusküsimusi. Lähemalt on käsitletud vene emigrantide rolli Eesti kultuuris muu maailma taustal.    SU M M A R Y   After the October Revolution a mass of emigrants, all citizens of the former Tsarist Russia dispersed in the world. In the scholarly literature this dispersal of upwards of a million people has come to be referred to as the first wave of Russian emigration. Thousands of scholarly articles from the humanities, sociology, political science and other disciplines have been devoted to various aspects of Russian exile culture: descriptions of exile cultural centres (including Paris, Berlin, Constantinople, Brazil, and the USA; various cultural phenomena (literature, film, theatre, fashion, journalism, art, etc.. As was true of the large part of Europe, the Russian emigration impacted Estonia, as it did across the rest of Europe; however, the fate of the Russian community in Estonia had strikingly original features. Some of these derived principally from Estonia’s position as a border state, as well as from the fact that even in the days of the Russian Empire, over 40000 Russians resided in Estonia. Theoretically, this should have

  19. Muusika : Jätkub Estonia solistide plaadisari. EOÜ käis orelimatkal. Aastapremia Pärnu Kontserdibüroole. TAM avab kevade Rakveres. Vanemuises taas klassikaline ballett / Eha Ristimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ristimets, Eha

    2002-01-01

    Estonia talveaias esitleti omaaegse soprani Paula Padriku CD-d "Unustamatu Paula Padrik". Eesti Orelisõprade Ühing korraldas väljasõidu Viljandi- ja Tartumaade orelite juurde. Kultuuri aastapreemia - 15 000 krooni sai Pärnu Kontserdibüroo. Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori kevadkontsertidega alustatakse tänavu Rakveres. 14.IV esietenduvad Vanemuises kaks ühevaatuselist balletti "Chopiniana" ja "Quiteria pulm"

  20. Distributional Inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, A.H.; van der Meulen, E.A.; Poortema, Klaas; Schaafsma, W.

    1995-01-01

    The making of statistical inferences in distributional form is conceptionally complicated because the epistemic 'probabilities' assigned are mixtures of fact and fiction. In this respect they are essentially different from 'physical' or 'frequency-theoretic' probabilities. The distributional form is