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Sample records for ranunculaceae minority cytotype

  1. Ranunculaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Ranunculaceae is treated for The Flora of New Mexico, a floristic manual covering the state of New Mexico. Sixty species in fifteen genera are known from the state; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical and ecological distribution, economic...

  2. Male meiosis, morphometric analysis and distribution pattern of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834 (Ranunculaceae from the cold regions of northwest Himalayas (India

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    Puneet Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number, detailed male meiosis, microsporogenesis, pollen fertility and morphological features and distribution of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834. The majority of the populations scored now from cold regions of the northwest Himalayas showed tetraploid (n=16 meiotic chromosome count and one of the populations studied from the Manimahesh hills existed at diploid level (n=8. The individuals of diploid cytotype exhibited perfectly normal meiotic course resulting in 100% pollen fertility and pollen grains of uniform sizes. On the other hand, the plants of the tetraploid cytotype from all the populations in spite of showing normal bivalent formation and equal distribution to the opposite poles at anaphases showed various meiotic abnormalities. The most prominent among these meiotic abnormalities was the cytomixis which involved inter PMC (pollen mother cell chromatin material transfer at different stages of meiosis-I. The phenomenon of cytomixis induced various meiotic abnormalities which include chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, laggards and chromatin bridges, out of plate bivalents at metaphase-I, disoriented chromatin material at anaphase/telophase and micronuclei. Consequently, these populations exhibited varying percentages of pollen sterility (24 - 77 % and pollen grains of heterogeneous sizes. Analysis of various morphometric features including the stomata in 2× and 4× cytotypes showed that increase in ploidy level in the species is correlated with gigantism of vegetative and floral characters and the two cytotypes can be distinguished from each other on the basis of morphological characters. The distribution patterns of the 2× and 4× cytotypes now detected and 2×, 3×, 4× cytotypes detected earlier by workers from other regions of the Indian Himalayas have also been discussed.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Ranunculaceae based on internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... evidence regarding the systematic classification of Ranunculaceae plants, we used molecular ... Ranunculaceae is a family of flowering plants known as ... and in the analysis of the evolutionary rate for lower level phylogeny ...

  4. A revision of Caltha (Ranunculaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Petra G.

    1973-01-01

    The family of the Ranunculaceae, although a large one (ca. 1200 species) occurring almost throughout the world, is generally regarded as a very natural one. The only genera with a recently more or less disputed position are Circaeaster, Glaucidiutn, Hydrastis, Kingdonia, and Paeonia. The others may

  5. A revision of Caltha (Ranunculaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Petra G.

    1973-01-01

    The family of the Ranunculaceae, although a large one (ca. 1200 species) occurring almost throughout the world, is generally regarded as a very natural one. The only genera with a recently more or less disputed position are Circaeaster, Glaucidium, Hydrastis, Kingdonia, and Paeonia. The others may

  6. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

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    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Ranunculaceae based on internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The botanical family Ranunculaceae contains important medicinal plants. To obtain new evolutionary evidence regarding the systematic classification of Ranunculaceae plants, we used molecular phylogenies to test relationships based on the internal transcribed spacer region. The results of phylogenetic analysis of 92 ...

  8. New Floristic Records of Ranunculaceae Family

    OpenAIRE

    Özçelik, Hasan; Korkmaztürk, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A study has been made about the revision of Ranunculaceae family between 2009-2011 years. Turkiye's important and major herbariums (especially Hb. GUL) have been visited and related family patterns were revised. In end of the study; it is determined that 55 taxa as new records for 78 geographical squares in Flora of Türkiye. In this study, the taxa of Ranunculaceae that have new records and spreading in an interesting way are declared.Key words: Ranunculaceae, Türkiye, New reco...

  9. New Floristic Records of Ranunculaceae Family

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    Hasan Özçelik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A study has been made about the revision of Ranunculaceae family between 2009-2011 years. Turkiye's important and major herbariums (especially Hb. GUL have been visited and related family patterns were revised. In end of the study; it is determined that 55 taxa as new records for 78 geographical squares in Flora of Türkiye. In this study, the taxa of Ranunculaceae that have new records and spreading in an interesting way are declared. Key words: Ranunculaceae, Türkiye, New records taxa, Phytogeography, Revision. Ranunculaceae Familyasından Yeni Floristik Kayıtlar Özet: 2009-2011 yılları arasında Ranunculaceae familyasının revizyonu amaçlı bir çalışma yapılmıştır. Çalışmada, GUL Herbaryumu başta olmak üzere Türkiye'nin önemli ve büyük herbaryumları ziyaret edilip ilgili familya örnekleri yeniden incelenmiştir. Çalışmaların sonucunda; Türkiye Florası'ndaki 78 coğrafi kare için 55 taksonun yeni kayıt olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu makalede, yeni kare kaydı olan ve yayılışı ilginç bulunan Ranunculaceae taksonlarına yer verilmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Ranunculaceae, Türkiye, Yeni Kayıt Taksonlar, Bitki coğrafyası, Revizyon.

  10. Additional Remarks on Ranunculaceae in Taiwan (8 -Revision of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan

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    T.Y. Aleck Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a taxonomic study of the genera of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan, including Aconitum L., Anemone L., Calathodes L., Cimicifuga Hook.f. & Thomson, Coptis L., Dichocarpum L., Ranunculus L., Semiaquilegea Makino, Thalictrum L. and Trollius L. Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. matsudae Yamam. is recognized in Taiwan; the concept of the genus Cimicifuga is still accepted, excluding genus Actaea. A key to the genera, keys to the taxa under each genus and synonyms of each taxon are provided. The taxonomic descriptions of taxa are only for those published after 1996. For easy understanding and checking of Taiwanese Ranunculaceae, phenology, distribution and specimens examined in each taxon are also presented. Totally, there are 11 genera and 51 taxa (including 41 species, 2 subspecies and 8 varieties of family Ranunculaceae in Taiwan.

  11. Phytodermatitis caused by Ceratocephalus falcatus (Ranunculacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Semsettin; Kulac, Mustafa; Kucuker, Hudaverdi

    2005-01-01

    Ceratocephalus falcatus is a member of Ranunculacea family that forms part of the flora of the Sinanpasa and Dinar regions of Afyon city in Turkey. Ceratocephalus falcatus has laxative properties and has been used for treating hemorrhoids, rheumatismal diseases and wounds. Here, a case of phytodermatitis caused by this remedy used for relieving knee pain is presented. This plant should be kept in mind when a case of phytodermatitis with vesicles or bullae presents at clinics.

  12. Cytological and isoenzyme analysis of the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera: Simuliidae in Ecuador

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    M. Charalambous

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (of the Cayapa cytotype by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure collection.

  13. Physiological and fitness differences between cytotypes vary with stress in a grassland perennial herb.

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    Zuzana Pavlíková

    Full Text Available Understanding the consequences of polyploidization is a major step towards assessing the importance of this mode of speciation. Most previous studies comparing different cytotypes, however, did so only within a single environment and considered only one group of traits. To take a step further, we need to explore multiple environments and a wide range of traits. The aim of this study was to assess response of diploid and autotetraploid individuals of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae to two stress conditions, shade or drought.We studied eleven photosynthetic, morphological and fitness parameters of the plants over three years in a common garden under ambient conditions and two types of stress.The results indicate strong differences in performance and physiology between cytotypes in ambient conditions. Interestingly, higher fitness in diploids contrasted with more efficient photosynthesis in tetraploids in ambient conditions. However, stress, especially drought, strongly reduced fitness and disrupted function of the photosystems in both cytotypes reducing the between cytotype differences. The results indicate that drought stress reduced function of the photosynthetic processes in both cytotypes but particularly in tetraploids, while fitness reduction was stronger in diploids.The photosynthesis related traits show higher plasticity in polyploids as theoretically expected, while the fitness related traits show higher plasticity in diploids especially in response to drought. This suggests that between cytotype comparisons need to consider multiple traits and multiple environments to understand the breath of possible responses of different cytotypes to stress. They also show that integrating results based on different traits is not straightforward and call for better mechanistic understanding of the relationships between species photosynthetic activity and fitness. Still, considering multiple environments and multiple species traits is crucial for

  14. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic diversity of ranunculaceae medicinal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Ge, Guang-Bo; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Wang, Ping; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The wide-reaching distributed angiosperm family Ranunculaceae has approximately 2200 species in around 60 genera. Chemical components of this family include several representative groups: benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA), ranunculin, triterpenoid saponin and diterpene alkaloid, etc. Their extensive clinical utility has been validated by traditional uses of thousands of years and current evidence-based medicine studies. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies of plant-based natural products are an indispensable part of comprehensive medicinal plant exploration, which could facilitate conservation and sustainable utilization of Ranunculaceae pharmaceutical resources, as well as new chemical entity development with improved DMPK parameters. However, DMPK characteristics of Ranunculaceaederived medicinal compounds have not been summarized. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga) and goldenseal (Hydrastis) raise concerns of herbdrug interaction. DMPK studies of other Ranunculaceae genera, e.g., Nigella, Delphinium, Aconitum, Trollius, and Coptis, are also rapidly increasing and becoming more and more clinically relevant. In this contribution, we highlight the up-to-date awareness, as well as the challenges around the DMPK-related issues in optimization of drug development and clinical practice of Ranunculaceae compounds. Herb-herb interaction of Ranunculaceae herb-containing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula could significantly influence the in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of compounds thereof, which may partially explain the complicated therapeutic mechanism of TCM formula. Although progress has been made on revealing the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T) of Ranunculaceae compounds, there is a lack of DMPK studies of traditional medicinal genera Aquilegia, Thalictrum and Clematis. Fluorescent probe compounds could be promising substrate, inhibitor and/or inducer in future DMPK studies of Ranunculaceae compounds. A better

  15. GUL Herbaryumu'nun Ranunculaceae Familyası Envanteri

    OpenAIRE

    Özçelik, Hasan; Korkmaztürk, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on the rearrangement of Ranunculaceae family samples which are included in Herbarium GUL, the preparation of datebase in the website, the diagnosis of the samples which have not been diagnoised, checking the diagnosed ones according to present literature and the properties that don’t comply with the definitions in the basic systematic works. With this study, 16 genara in Ranunculaceae family in Herbarium GUL and 132 taxa belong to these genara have been determined. 26 of t...

  16. Ranunculaceae of the Western Ukraine. І. Identification key

    OpenAIRE

    Novikoff A.

    2013-01-01

    In these paper the identification key for Ranunculaceae of Lviv, Transcarpathian (Zakarpattia), Rivne, Volhynia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Ternopil and Khmelnitsk regions (oblasts) is introduced. The key includes 102 species. It is based on contemporary investigations on taxonomy of the family Ranunculaceae. The key is carried out up to the level of species but in some cases there are short remarks about subspecific structure of selected taxa. Also it is supported by short notes about ...

  17. Distribution and diversity of cytotypes in Dianthus broteri as evidenced by genome size variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balao, Francisco; Casimiro-Soriguer, Ramón; Talavera, María; Herrera, Javier; Talavera, Salvador

    2009-10-01

    Studying the spatial distribution of cytotypes and genome size in plants can provide valuable information about the evolution of polyploid complexes. Here, the spatial distribution of cytological races and the amount of DNA in Dianthus broteri, an Iberian carnation with several ploidy levels, is investigated. Sample chromosome counts and flow cytometry (using propidium iodide) were used to determine overall genome size (2C value) and ploidy level in 244 individuals of 25 populations. Both fresh and dried samples were investigated. Differences in 2C and 1Cx values among ploidy levels within biogeographical provinces were tested using ANOVA. Geographical correlations of genome size were also explored. Extensive variation in chromosomes numbers (2n = 2x = 30, 2n = 4x = 60, 2n = 6x = 90 and 2n = 12x =180) was detected, and the dodecaploid cytotype is reported for the first time in this genus. As regards cytotype distribution, six populations were diploid, 11 were tetraploid, three were hexaploid and five were dodecaploid. Except for one diploid population containing some triploid plants (2n = 45), the remaining populations showed a single cytotype. Diploids appeared in two disjunct areas (south-east and south-west), and so did tetraploids (although with a considerably wider geographic range). Dehydrated leaf samples provided reliable measurements of DNA content. Genome size varied significantly among some cytotypes, and also extensively within diploid (up to 1.17-fold) and tetraploid (1.22-fold) populations. Nevertheless, variations were not straightforwardly congruent with ecology and geographical distribution. Dianthus broteri shows the highest diversity of cytotypes known to date in the genus Dianthus. Moreover, some cytotypes present remarkable internal genome size variation. The evolution of the complex is discussed in terms of autopolyploidy, with primary and secondary contact zones.

  18. GUL Herbaryumu'nun Ranunculaceae Familyası Envanteri

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    Hasan Özçelik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Özet: Bu çalışma, GUL Herbaryumu'nda bulunan Ranunculaceae familyası örneklerinin yeniden düzenlenmesi, internet sitesinde veri tabanı hazırlanması, teşhis edilmemiş örneklerin teşhis edilmesi, teşhislilerin mevcut literatür ışığında kontrol edilmesi esasına dayanmaktadır. Bu çalışma ile GUL Herbaryumu'nda Ranunculaceae familyasına bağlı 16 cins ve bu cinslere ait 132 takson belirlenmiştir. Bu taksonlardan 26'ısı Türkiye için endemiktir. Endemizm oranı ise % 19,6'dır. GUL'daki Ranunculaceae familyasının tür zenginliği yönünden ilk 5 sıradaki cinsleri: Ranunculus (62 takson, Delphinium (17 takson, Consolida (16 takson, Nigella (6 takson, Thalictrum (6 takson'dur. Bunlardan; 17 takson LR, 9 takson VU, 3 takson EN ve 1 takson ise CR kategorisindedir. Anahtar kelimeler: Ranunculaceae, GUL herbaryumu, envanter, biyolojik çeşitlilik, Isparta, Türkiye. Ranunculaceae Family Inventory of Herbarium Gul Abstract: This study is based on the rearrangement of Ranunculaceae family samples which are included in Herbarium GUL, the preparation of datebase in the website, the diagnosis of the samples which have not been diagnoised, checking the diagnosed ones according to present literature and the properties that don't comply with the definitions in the basic systematic works. With this study, 16 genara in Ranunculaceae family in Herbarium GUL and 132 taxa belong to these genara have been determined. 26 of these taxa are endemics for Türkiye and endemism ratio is % 19,6. The top 5 genera in term of kind abundance in Ranunculaceae family in Herbarium GUL are Ranunculus (62 taxa, Delphinium (17 taxa, Consolida (16 taxa, Nigella (6 taxa, Thalictrum (6 taxa. 17 taxa belong to LR category, 9 taxa belong to VU category, 3 taxa belong to EN category ve 1taxon belong to CR category. Key words: Ranunculaceae, herbarium GUL, inventory, biodiversity, Isparta, Türkiye.

  19. Anticancer Chemodiversity of Ranunculaceae Medicinal Plants: Molecular Mechanisms and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; He, Chun-Nian; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2017-02-01

    The buttercup family, Ranunculaceae, comprising more than 2,200 species in at least 62 genera, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine since the beginning of human civilization. Various medicinal phytometabolites have been found in Ranunculaceae plants, many of which, such as alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, and polysaccharides, have shown anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. Most concerns have been raised for two epiphany molecules, the monoterpene thymoquinone and the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine. At least 17 genera have been enriched with anti-cancer phytometabolites. Some Ranunculaceae phytometabolites induce the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells or enhance immune activities, while others inhibit the proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis, or reverse the multi-drug resistance of cancer cells thereby regulating all known hallmarks of cancer. These phytometabolites could exert their anti-cancer activities via multiple signaling pathways. In addition, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion/toxicity properties and structure/activity relationships of some phytometabolites have been revealed assisting in the early drug discovery and development pipelines. However, a comprehensive review of the molecular mechanisms and functions of Ranunculaceae anti-cancer phytometabolites is lacking. Here, we summarize the recent progress of the anti-cancer chemo- and pharmacological diversity of Ranunculaceae medicinal plants, focusing on the emerging molecular machineries and functions of anti-cancer phytometabolites. Gene expression profiling and relevant omics platforms (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites on the phenotypically heterogeneous cancer cells.

  20. The phylogenetic significance of fruit structures in ranunculaceae of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.Y.; Liu, M.; Shi, C.Q.; Ru, J.

    2015-01-01

    The external and internal structures of fruits from 95 taxa representing 27 Ranunculaceae genera of China were studied. The results show that Ranunculaceae could be divided into 4 groups based on the fruit types, epidermal surface, vascular bundle, mesocarp cell, and endocarp cell structures: Group 1: follicle or achene, branching or branching and anastomosing vascular bundles, mesocarp parenchyma, and endocarp with one layer of lignified cells (including Aconitum and other genera); Group 2: achene, vascular bundle branching, mesocarp lignified, endocarp with one layer of irregular and partly lignified cells (Thalictrum only); Group 3: achene, endocarp with multilayered thick-walled cells (including Adonis, Batrachium and Ranunculus); Group 4: achene, two non-branching vascular bundles, and endocarp with one layer of fibers (including Anemone, Clematis and Pulsatilla). This study show that the fruit structures of Ranunculaceae could provide morphological and anatomical evidences for molecular phylogeny. (author)

  1. Ranunculaceae of the Western Ukraine. І. Identification key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the identification key for Ranunculaceae of Lviv, Transcarpathian (Zakarpattia, Rivne, Volhynia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Ternopil and Khmelnitsk regions (oblasts is introduced. The key includes 102 species. It is based on contemporary investigations on taxonomy of the family Ranunculaceae. The key is carried out up to the level of species but in some cases there are short remarks about subspecific structure of selected taxa. Also it is supported by short notes about distribution, ornamental usage and protection of represented species.

  2. Morphological development of petals in Ranunculaceae

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    Yi Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The petals, or the honey-leaves, are of great divergence in morphology in Ranunculaceae, i. e., tubular, bilabial, cup-shaped, flat, concaved or scaled at the base, with or without spur or succate. The previous observations showed that although the petals differ in mature morphology, they showed great similarity in the early development stage. The petal primordia are all hemispherical, rounded and much smaller than the sepal primordia, a relatively long plastochron exists between the last sepal and the first petal and differentiate into a blade and a short stalk. Thus, we assumed that the different morphology of the mature petals might be due to the morphological repatterning of petals in the development. To prove the hypothesis, the morphological development of the petals from 22 species from 20 genera, recovering all ten petalous clades and the major morphological types, in Ranunculaceae was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The young petal undergoes the following developmental stages to the mature petal after it differentiates into blade and stalk. In the first stage, a depression appears at the base of the blade and the nectary tissue will appear in the depression in the later development. In the second stage, two bulges appear at the base of the depression that makes the petal bilabial and the bulges will be the upper lip of the petal and thus the blade will be the lower lip. In the third stage, two bulges become larger and fuse with one another at first and then fuse with the margins of the blade in each side, or each of the bulges fuses with the margin of the blade at first and then fuses with one another, or the bulges stop further growth and the depression deepened to form the succate or the spur. In the fourth stage, the lips, the two fused sides and the stalk growth in different speed. The divergence of development of different petals happens mainly in the third and the fourth stages and less divergence in the second and

  3. Cytotype coexistence in the field cannot be explained by inter-cytotype hybridization alone: linking experiments and computer simulations in the sexual species Pilosella echioides (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrtek, Jindřich; Herben, Tomáš; Rosenbaumová, R.; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Dočkalová, Zuzana; Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Krejčíková, Jana; Trávníček, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, MAR 23 (2017), s. 1-14, č. článku 87. ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GP13-18610P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cytotype diversity * polyploidy * mating interactions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2016

  4. Mining chemodiversity from biodiversity: pharmacophylogeny of medicinal plants of Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Ma, Hong-Ying; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-Nian

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a pharmacophylogenetic study of a medicinal plant family, Ranunculaceae, investigating the correlations between their phylogeny, chemical constituents, and pharmaceutical properties. Phytochemical, ethnopharmacological, and pharmacological data were integrated in the context of the systematics and molecular phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae. The chemical components of this family included several representative metabolic groups: benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, ranunculin, triterpenoid saponin, and diterpene alkaloids, among others. Ranunculin and magnoflorine were found to coexist in some genera. The pharmacophylogenetic analysis, integrated with therapeutic information, agreed with the taxonomy proposed previously, in which the family Ranunculaceae was divided into five sub-families: Ranunculoideae, Thalictroideae, Coptidoideae, Hydrastidoideae, and Glaucidioideae. It was plausible to organize the sub-family Ranunculoideae into ten tribes. The chemical constituents and therapeutic efficacy of each taxonomic group were reviewed, revealing the underlying connections between phylogeny, chemical diversity, and clinical use, which should facilitate the conservation and sustainable utilization of the pharmaceutical resources derived from the Ranunculaceae. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraspecific ecological niche divergence and reproductive shifts foster cytotype displacement and provide ecological opportunity to polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunarathne, Piyal; Schedler, Mara; Martínez, Eric J; Honfi, Ana I; Novichkova, Anastasiia; Hojsgaard, Diego

    2018-05-11

    Niche divergence between polyploids and their lower ploidy progenitors is one of the primary mechanisms fostering polyploid establishment and adaptive divergence. However, within-species chromosomal and reproductive variability have usually been neglected in community ecology and biodiversity analyses even though they have been recognized to play a role in the adaptive diversification of lineages. We used Paspalum intermedium, a grass species with diverging genetic systems (diploidy vs. autopolyploidy, allogamy vs. autogamy and sexuality vs. apomixis), to recognize the causality of biogeographic patterns, adaptation and ecological flexibility of cytotypes. Chromosome counts and flow cytometry were used to characterize within-species genetic systems diversity. Environmental niche modelling was used to evaluate intraspecific ecological attributes associated with environmental and climatic factors and to assess correlations among ploidy, reproductive modes and ecological conditions ruling species' population dynamics, range expansion, adaptation and evolutionary history. Two dominant cytotypes non-randomly distributed along local and regional geographical scales displayed niche differentiation, a directional shift in niche optima and signs of disruptive selection on ploidy-related ecological aptitudes for the exploitation of environmental resources. Ecologically specialized allogamous sexual diploids were found in northern areas associated with higher temperature, humidity and productivity, while generalist autogamous apomictic tetraploids occurred in southern areas, occupying colder and less productive environments. Four localities with a documented shift in ploidy and four mixed populations in a zone of ecological transition revealed an uneven replacement between cytotypes. Polyploidy and contrasting reproductive traits between cytotypes have promoted shifts in niche optima, and increased ecological tolerance and niche divergence. Ecologically specialized diploids

  6. Cytotype distribution patterns, ecological differentiation, and genetic structure in a diploid-tetraploid contact zone of Cardamine amara

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zozomová-Lihová, J.; Malánová-Krásná, I.; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Senko, D.; Svitok, M.; Kempa, M.; Marhold, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 8 (2015), s. 1380-1395 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : contact zone * cytotype coexistence * microsatelites Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2015

  7. Perianth evolution in Ranunculaceae: are petals ancestral in the family?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Nadot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made recently towards the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies and tribes of the Ranunculaceae – the most recent hypothesis was published in 2016 by our team. Although relationships among the 10 tribes of the subfamily Ranunculoideae remain incompletely supported, this hypothesis provides an interesting framework to address the key issue of the ancestral vs. derived nature of a differentiated perianth within the family, and at the level of Ranunculales as a whole. Here, we present ancestral state reconstructions for several perianth characters, such as differentiation into sepals and petals, shape of petals, presence/absence of nectaries, and petaloid or sepaloid aspect of sepals. Characters were scored using the PROTEUS database and optimized on the most recent phylogeny of Ranunculaceae using parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The results are discussed with regard to recent evo-devo studies focused on identifying genes involved in floral organs identity (the so-called ABC model in Ranunculales.

  8. Shift in cytotype frequency and niche space in the invasive plant Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treier, Urs A; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Guisan, Antoine; Schaffner, Urs; Steinger, Thomas; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2009-05-01

    Polyploidy is often assumed to increase the spread and thus the success of alien plant species, but few empirical studies exist. We tested this hypothesis with Centaurea maculosa Lam., a species native to Europe and introduced into North America approximately 120 years ago where it became highly invasive. We analyzed the ploidy level of more than 2000 plants from 93 native and 48 invasive C. maculosa populations and found a pronounced shift in the relative frequency of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. In Europe diploid populations occur in higher frequencies than tetraploids and only four populations had both cytotypes, while in North America diploid plants were found in only one mixed population and thus tetraploids clearly dominated. Our results showed a pronounced shift in the climatic niche between tetraploid populations in the native and introduced range toward drier climate in North America and a similar albeit smaller shift between diploids and tetraploids in the native range. The field data indicate that diploids have a predominately monocarpic life cycle, while tetraploids are often polycarpic. Additionally, the polycarpic life-form seems to be more prevalent among tetraploids in the introduced range than among tetraploids in the native range. Our study suggests that both ploidy types of C. maculosa were introduced into North America, but tetraploids became the dominant cytotype with invasion. We suggest that the invasive success of C. maculosa is partly due to preadaptation of the tetraploid cytotype in Europe to drier climate and possibly further adaptation to these conditions in the introduced range. The potential for earlier and longer seed production associated with the polycarpic life cycle constitutes an additional factor that may have led to the dominance of tetraploids over diploids in the introduced range.

  9. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

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    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Ranunculaceae consists of numerous widespread species occuring from lowlands to subalpine or alpine zones. In Poland, the species grow in different types of habitats, including xerothermic swards (Adonido-Brachypodietum, Brachypodio- Teucrietum, Thalictro-Salvietum, Seslerio- Scorzoneretum and decidous forests (Tilio- Carpinetum. Many species are popular ornamentals cultivated fro their esthetic value. Ranunculaceans vary remarkably in the phenology of blooming. Among them, there are early spring blooming species like Eranthis hyemalis, Ficaria verna, Isopyrum thalictroides, Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, and those that start to bloom in autumn, e.g. Aconitum carmichaelli. The overall flowering duration may differ significantly between years – for example, in Anemone sylvestris the disparities reached more than three weeks. The occurrence and the length of each blooming phase may vary considerably between sites, e.g. in Adonis vernalis 10-15-day dissimilarities in the occurrence of blooming stages were recorded. Additionally, the duration of the full blooming stage varied from 10 to 30 days. The diurnal pattern of blooming among Ranunculaceae members was proved to be highly species-specific. Flowers of Aquilegia vulgaris started opening at approx. 5.00 (GMT+2, which was 2-3 hours earlier than those of Adonis vernalis. Significant differences in the diurnal flowering dynamics can be found even in the same genus: flowers of Aconitum lycoctonum began opening at 5.00 (with the peak between 6.00-9.00, while flowers of Aconitum carmichaelii started opening at 8.00 and peaked between 11.00-13.00. The flowering abundance may differ among populations of the same species. The management type was found to have an impact on the individuals’ density of Adonis vernalis occurring in xerothermic grasslands. The control of shrub encashment has already been designated as the factor determining the flowering abundance of Adonis vernalis in

  10. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Li Lin; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Rosa del C. Ortiz; Yang Liu; Kun-Li Xiang; Sheng-Xiang Yu; Yao-Wu Xing; Zhi-Duan Chen

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We...

  11. Caryological notes in some portuguese Ranunculaceae

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    Queirós, Margarida

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of fourteen portuguese laxa of Ranunculaceae are reported: Helleborus foetidus 20 = 32; Nigella damascena 2n = 12; N. gallica 2n = 12; Delphinium Pentagynum 2n = 16; D. Halteratum subsp. verdunense 2n = 16; Anemone palmeta 2n = 32; Clematis campaniflora 2n = 16; Ranunculus muricatus 2n = 48; R. repens 2n = 32; R. bulbosus subsp. aleae var. adscendens 2n =16; R. sceleratus 2n = 32; R. paludosus 2n = 32; R. nigrescens 2n = 16; Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. dichroa 2n = 14. The chromosome numbers are in accordance with previous results.

    Se estudia el número cromosómico de algunos táxones de Ranunculaceae portugueses: Helleborus foetidus 2n = 32; Nigella damascena 2n = 12; N. gallica 2n = 12; Delphinium Pentagynum 2n = 16; D. Halteratum subsp. verdunense 2n = 16; Anemone palmeta 2n = 32; Clematis campaniflora 2n = 16; Ranunculus muricatus 2n = 48; R. repens 2n = 32; R. bulbosus subsp. aleae var. adscendens 2n =16; R. sceleratus 2n = 32; R. paludosus 2n = 32; R. nigrescens 2n = 16; Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. dichroa 2n = 14. Estos recuentos coinciden con los obtenidos anteriormente por otros autores.

  12. Different cytotypes in fishes of the genus Hypostomus Lcépède, 1803, (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Xingu river (Amazon region, Brazil

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    Susana Milhomem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the karyotypes of three specimens of fishes of the genus Hypostomus Lacepede, 1803 (Loricaridae from Xingu River (Amazon region. We used conventional staining techniques, including C-banding, Ag-NOR staining, CMA3- and DAPI-banding. Each specimen had a different cytotype: Hypostomus sp. Xingu-1 had 2n=64 (32M/SM, 32ST/A; Hypostomus sp. Xingu-2 has 2n=66 (32M/SM, 34ST/A, and Hypostomus sp. Xingu-3 had 2n=65 (38M/SM, 26ST/A + 1 B. The three cytotypes showed similar C-, CMA3- and DAPI-banding patterns. The nucleolus organizing regions were located in the short arm of chromosome pair 25 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-1 and pair 29 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-2, and in the long arm of pair 30 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-3, probably because of a pericentric inversion. A fusion/fission rearrangement explains the difference in the diploid number and number of M/SM and ST/A chromosomes between the 2n= 64 and 2n=66 cytotypes. The B chromosome most probably explains the difference between the 2n=64 and 2n=65 cytotypes. The cytotype with 2n=65 had a significantly larger number of M/SM chromosomes, probably because of pericentric inversions. These three cytotypes may represent different species.

  13. Spiral phyllotaxis underlies constrained variation in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) tepal arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    Stabilization and variation of floral structures are indispensable for plant reproduction and evolution; however, the developmental mechanism regulating their structural robustness is largely unknown. To investigate this mechanism, we examined positional arrangement (aestivation) of excessively produced perianth organs (tepals) of six- and seven-tepaled (lobed) flowers in six Anemone species (Ranunculaceae). We found that the tepal arrangement that occurred in nature varied intraspecifically between spiral and whorled arrangements. Moreover, among the studied species, variation was commonly limited to three types, including whorls, despite five geometrically possible arrangements in six-tepaled flowers and two types among six possibilities in seven-tepaled flowers. A spiral arrangement, on the other hand, was unique to five-tepaled flowers. A spiral phyllotaxis model with stochasticity on initiating excessive primordia accounted for these limited variations in arrangement in cases when the divergence angle between preexisting primordia was less than 144°. Moreover, interspecific differences in the frequency of the observed arrangements were explained by the change of model parameters that represent meristematic growth and differential organ growth. These findings suggest that the phyllotaxis parameters are responsible for not only intraspecific stability but interspecific difference of floral structure. Decreasing arrangements from six-tepaled to seven-tepaled Anemone flowers demonstrate that the stabilization occurs as development proceeds to increase the component (organ) number, in contrast from the intuition that the variation will be larger due to increasing number of possible states (arrangements).

  14. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa Del C; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-06-02

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108-90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

  15. Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis (Ranunculaceae), a new species from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong Chan; Jeong, Keum Seon; Lee, Kang-Hyup; Kim, Heesoo; Chang, Kae Sun

    2017-01-01

    Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis sp. nov. , a new species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, from Hallasan National Park in Jeju-do, Republic of Korea, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to Semiaquilegia adoxoides (DC.) Makino, but can be readily distinguished by a thick underground stem, shallowly lobed leaflets, larger flowers, (4-)6 staminodes and conspicuously rugose tuberculate seed surface.

  16. Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis (Ranunculaceae), a new species from the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Son,Dong Chan; Jeong,Keum Seon; Lee,Kang-Hyup; Kim,Heesoo; Chang,Kae Sun

    2017-01-01

    Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis sp. nov., a new species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, from Hallasan National Park in Jeju-do, Republic of Korea, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to Semiaquilegia adoxoides (DC.) Makino, but can be readily distinguished by a thick underground stem, shallowly lobed leaflets, larger flowers, (4–)6 staminodes and conspicuously rugose tuberculate seed surface.

  17. Pollinator-mediated selection on nectary depth in Urophysa (Ranunculaceae

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    Li Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator-mediated selection has been considered to be one of major factors that shapes the evolution of flowers by matching flowers to their pollinators on traits associated with attraction of pollinators or mechanical fit. The match between nectary depth, which means the length of the tubular structure formed in many plant species to hide the nectary and store nectar, and the mouthparts length of its major nectar-foraging pollinators has been repeatedly demonstrated as an example, because this trait have shown a positive relationship with pollen removal and deposition in experimental manipulations in many synpetalous plants and orchid family. However, it remains unclear how pollinator-mediated selection affects the evolution of nectary depth in choripetalous and actinomorphic flowers, such as most flowers in Ranunculaceae. Here we investigated floral characteristics and pollinators in Urophysa rockii Ulbr. and U. henryi (Oliv. Ulbr., as they are quite the same in habitat, anthesis and morphological characteristics except for nectary depth. Both of these species have flat white sepals and yellow petals each has a spatial structure at the base that contains nectar, but the nectary depth of U. rockii is deeper than that of U. henryi, for the former petals are shortly spurred about 3-4mm in length while the latter are saccate. Meanwhile, the flowers of both species are most frequently visited by Apis cerana, the Chinese honey bee, and one or two species of hover fly, Syrphidae, but only A. cerana was able to forage nectar in U. rockii while all visitors can forage nectar in U. henryi. A. cerana always lands on the center of a flower and projects its proboscis into each petal when its thorax touches anthers and stigmas. The difference between two species is that U. rockii was visited by A. cerana with a higher frequency, longer visiting time per flower and more activities on flowers than U. henryi. Besides, the petal width and its nectary depth of

  18. Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Pavel; Jersáková, J.; Kubátová, B.; Krejčíková, Jana; Bateman, R. M.; Lučanová, Magdalena; Krajníková, E.; Těšitelová, T.; Štípková, Z.; Amardeilh, J.-P.; Brzosko, E.; Jermakowicz, E.; Cabanne, O.; Durka, W.; Efimov, P.; Herdén, M.; Hermosilla, C. E.; Kreutz, K.; Kull, T.; Tali, K.; Marchand, O.; Rey, M.; Schiestl, F.P.; Čurn, V.; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 5 (2012), s. 977-986 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : fragrand orchid * contact zone * cytogeography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2012

  19. Ranunculaceae of Western Ukraine. ІI. Generic identification key and characteristics

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    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continue of previous work (Новіков 2013 and represents new key for identification of genera from Ranunculaceae family of Western Ukraine (Lviv, Transcarpathian (Zakarpattia, Rivne, Volhynia, Ivano- Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Ternopil and Khmelnitsk regions (oblasts. This key is consensual and do not corresponds to contemporary taxonomical tendencies in all its points because it is build for non-specialists and/or young scientists which need easy identification tool for their routine field and herbarium work. However, most of modern taxonomical changes and related publications are shortly introduced here and in my previous paper (Новіков 2013. Hence, in present work I suggest that family Ranunculaceae in Western Ukraine is represented by 2 subfamilies, 10 tribes, 22 genera and 102 species. Corresponding consensual taxonomical system is represented. Short characteristics of genera are completed by information about species number and its distribution.

  20. Perianth evolution in Ranunculaceae: are petals ancestral in the family?

    OpenAIRE

    Nadot S.; Sauquet H.; Damerval C.; Jabbour F.; Domenech B.

    2016-01-01

    Progress has been made recently towards the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies and tribes of the Ranunculaceae – the most recent hypothesis was published in 2016 by our team. Although relationships among the 10 tribes of the subfamily Ranunculoideae remain incompletely supported, this hypothesis provides an interesting framework to address the key issue of the ancestral vs. derived nature of a differentiated perianth within the family, and at the level of Ranunculales...

  1. Establishment of zygomorphy on an ontogenic spiral and evolution of perianth in the tribe Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Florian; Ronse De Craene, Louis P; Nadot, Sophie; Damerval, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    Ranunculaceae presents both ancestral and derived floral traits for eudicots, and as such is of potential interest to understand key steps involved in the evolution of zygomorphy in eudicots. Zygomorphy evolved once in Ranunculaceae, in the speciose and derived tribe Delphinieae. This tribe consists of two genera (Aconitum and Delphinium s.l.) comprising more than one-quarter of the species of the family. In this paper, the establishment of zygomorphy during development was investigated to cast light on the origin and evolution of this morphological novelty. METHODS; The floral developmental sequence of six species of Ranunculaceae, three actinomorphic (Nigella damascena, Aquilegia alpina and Clematis recta) and three zygomorphic (Aconitum napellus, Delphinium staphisagria and D. grandiflorum), was compared. A developmental model was elaborated to break down the successive acquisitions of floral organ identities on the ontogenic spiral (all the species studied except Aquilegia have a spiral phyllotaxis), giving clues to understanding this complex morphogenesis from an evo-devo point of view. In addition, the evolution of symmetry in Ranunculaceae was examined in conjunction with other traits of flowers and with ecological factors. In the species studied, zygomorphy is established after organogenesis is completed, and is late, compared with other zygomorphic eudicot species. Zygomorphy occurs in flowers characterized by a fixed merism and a partially reduced and transformed corolla. It is suggested that shifts in expression of genes controlling the merism, as well as floral symmetry and organ identity, have played a critical role in the evolution of zygomorphy in Delphinieae, while the presence of pollinators able to exploit the peculiar morphology of the flower has been a key factor for the maintenance and diversification of this trait.

  2. Ranunculaceae of Western Ukraine. ІI. Generic identification key and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Novikoff A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a continue of previous work (Новіков 2013) and represents new key for identification of genera from Ranunculaceae family of Western Ukraine (Lviv, Transcarpathian (Zakarpattia), Rivne, Volhynia, Ivano- Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Ternopil and Khmelnitsk regions (oblasts)). This key is consensual and do not corresponds to contemporary taxonomical tendencies in all its points because it is build for non-specialists and/or young scientists which need easy identification tool for their r...

  3. Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis (Ranunculaceae, a new species from the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chan Son

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis sp. nov., a new species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, from Hallasan National Park in Jeju-do, Republic of Korea, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to Semiaquilegia adoxoides (DC. Makino, but can be readily distinguished by a thick underground stem, shallowly lobed leaflets, larger flowers, (4–6 staminodes and conspicuously rugose tuberculate seed surface.

  4. A taxonomic review of the dry-fruited species of Anemone (Ranunculaceae in southern Africa

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    J. C. Manning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three dry-fruited species of Anemone sect. Pulsatilloides subsect. Alchemillifoliae (Ranunculaceae from southern Africa are reviewed, with full descriptions and nomenclature, including complete synonomy, taxonomic history with nomenclatural corrections, ecological notes, and distribution. A. tenuifolia (L.f. DC. from the Cape Floristic Region is segregated as ser. Pinnatifoliae from the two summer rainfall species, A. caffra (Eckl. & Zeyh. Harv. and A. fanninnii Harv. ex Masters, which remain in ser. Alchemillifoliae, emphasising the strong vegetative differences between the two series.

  5. Development, anatomy, and genetic control of some teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers

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    Florian Jabbour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Teratological organisms originate from developmental anomalies, and exhibit structures and a body organization that deviate from the species standard. These monsters give essential clues about the formation and evolutionary significance of the wild-type groundplan. We focus on flower terata, which can be affected in their sterile and/or fertile organs, with special emphasis on the Ranunculaceae. The diversity of perianth shapes and organizations in flowers of this family is huge, and is even increased when anomalies occur during organo- and/or morphogenesis. To begin with, we synthesize the observations and research conducted on the Ranunculacean floral terata, following the most recent phylogenetic framework published in 2016 by our team. Then, we report results regarding the morphology of developing meristems, the anatomy of buds, and the genetic control of selected teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers. We focus on species and horticultural varieties belonging to the genera Aquilegia, Delphinium, and Nigella. Wildtype flowers of these species are actinomorphic (Aquilegia, Nigella or zygomorphic (Delphinium, spurred (Aquilegia, Delphinium or with pocket-like petals (Nigella. Last, we discuss the evolutionary potential of such teratological phenotypes when they occur in the wild.

  6. Specific duplication and dorsoventrally asymmetric expression patterns of Cycloidea-like genes in zygomorphic species of Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Florian; Cossard, Guillaume; Le Guilloux, Martine; Sannier, Julie; Nadot, Sophie; Damerval, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Floral bilateral symmetry (zygomorphy) has evolved several times independently in angiosperms from radially symmetrical (actinomorphic) ancestral states. Homologs of the Antirrhinum majus Cycloidea gene (Cyc) have been shown to control floral symmetry in diverse groups in core eudicots. In the basal eudicot family Ranunculaceae, there is a single evolutionary transition from actinomorphy to zygomorphy in the stem lineage of the tribe Delphinieae. We characterized Cyc homologs in 18 genera of Ranunculaceae, including the four genera of Delphinieae, in a sampling that represents the floral morphological diversity of this tribe, and reconstructed the evolutionary history of this gene family in Ranunculaceae. Within each of the two RanaCyL (Ranunculaceae Cycloidea-like) lineages previously identified, an additional duplication possibly predating the emergence of the Delphinieae was found, resulting in up to four gene copies in zygomorphic species. Expression analyses indicate that the RanaCyL paralogs are expressed early in floral buds and that the duration of their expression varies between species and paralog class. At most one RanaCyL paralog was expressed during the late stages of floral development in the actinomorphic species studied whereas all paralogs from the zygomorphic species were expressed, composing a species-specific identity code for perianth organs. The contrasted asymmetric patterns of expression observed in the two zygomorphic species is discussed in relation to their distinct perianth architecture.

  7. Specific duplication and dorsoventrally asymmetric expression patterns of Cycloidea-like genes in zygomorphic species of Ranunculaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Jabbour

    Full Text Available Floral bilateral symmetry (zygomorphy has evolved several times independently in angiosperms from radially symmetrical (actinomorphic ancestral states. Homologs of the Antirrhinum majus Cycloidea gene (Cyc have been shown to control floral symmetry in diverse groups in core eudicots. In the basal eudicot family Ranunculaceae, there is a single evolutionary transition from actinomorphy to zygomorphy in the stem lineage of the tribe Delphinieae. We characterized Cyc homologs in 18 genera of Ranunculaceae, including the four genera of Delphinieae, in a sampling that represents the floral morphological diversity of this tribe, and reconstructed the evolutionary history of this gene family in Ranunculaceae. Within each of the two RanaCyL (Ranunculaceae Cycloidea-like lineages previously identified, an additional duplication possibly predating the emergence of the Delphinieae was found, resulting in up to four gene copies in zygomorphic species. Expression analyses indicate that the RanaCyL paralogs are expressed early in floral buds and that the duration of their expression varies between species and paralog class. At most one RanaCyL paralog was expressed during the late stages of floral development in the actinomorphic species studied whereas all paralogs from the zygomorphic species were expressed, composing a species-specific identity code for perianth organs. The contrasted asymmetric patterns of expression observed in the two zygomorphic species is discussed in relation to their distinct perianth architecture.

  8. Cycloartenol triterpenoid saponins from Cimicifuga simplex (Ranunculaceae) and their biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lun; Chen, Zhi-Li; Su, Yang; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2015-02-01

    The constituents of Cimicifuga plants have been extensively investigated, and the principal metabolites are 9,19-cyclolanostane triterpenoid glycosides, which are distributed widely in Cimicifuga plants, but not in other members of the Ranunculaceae family, and are considered to be characteristics of the Cimicifuga genus. This type of triterpenoid glycoside possesses several important biological activities. More than 120 cycloartane triterpene glycosides have been isolated from Cimicifuga simplex Wormsk. The aim of this review article is to summarize all the major findings based on the available scientific literatures on C. simplex, with a focus on the identified 9,19-cyclolanostane triterpenoid glycosides. Biological studies of cycloartane triterpene glycosides from Cimicifuga spp. are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative floral spur anatomy and nectar secretion in four representatives of Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoń, Sebastian; Kamińska, Magdalena

    2015-11-01

    Nectaries are common in Ranunculaceae. These secretory structures, however, have not been studied in detail despite their importance in plant-animal interactions, and data relating to the structure of nectary spurs, which are so characteristic of several genera of this family, remain scarce. In order to redress this imbalance, we sought, in the present paper, to analyze the anatomical and ultrastructural organization of the nectary spurs of four representatives of Ranunculaceae, i.e., Aconitum lycoctonum L., Aquilegia vulgaris L., Consolida regalis Gray, and Delphinium elatum L. Nectary spurs were examined using light, fluorescence, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The floral nectaries of A. lycoctonum and A. vulgaris are situated at the apices of the spurs, whereas in C. regalis and D. elatum, the nectary is located along the floor surface of the spurs. Nectar in C. regalis and D. elatum is exuded through micro-channels in the cuticle, whereas in A. lycoctonum and A. vulgaris, it is released by means of cell wall disruption, indicating that the method of nectar secretion here is holocrine. Structurally, the nectary of all four investigated species is quite similar, and its cells are typical of nectar-producing cells described in the literature. It is proposed that in A. lycoctonum and A. vulgaris, disruption of the cell wall and the release of the entire cell contents into the spur cavity contribute to the composition of the nectar that the latter contains, enriching it with cytoplasmic components. We conclude that the manner of nectar exudation may vary considerably between closely related plant species, regardless of their geographical origin and phylogeny.

  10. Divergence in eco-physiological responses to drought mirrors the distinct distribution of Chamerion angustifolium cytotypes in the Himalaya–Hengduan Mountains region

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    Wen Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyploid species generally occupy harsher habitats (characterized by cold, drought and/or high altitude than diploids, but the converse was observed for Chamerion angustifolium, in which diploid plants generally inhabit higher altitudes than their polyploid derivatives. Plants at high altitudes may experience cold-induced water stress, and we therefore examined the physiological responses of diploid and hexaploid C. angustifolium to water stress to better understand the ecological differentiation of plants with different ploidy levels. We conducted a common garden experiment by subjecting seedlings of different ploidy levels to low, moderate and severe water stress. Fourteen indicators of physiological fitness were measured, and the anatomical characteristics of the leaves of each cytotype were determined. Both cytotypes were influenced by drought, and diploids exhibited higher fitness in terms of constant root:shoot ratio (R:S ratio and maximum quantum yield of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm, less reduced maximal photosynthetic rate (Amax, transpiration rate (E, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci and stomatal conductance (gs, and higher long-term water use efficiency (WUEL under severe water stress than did hexaploids. Analysis of leaf anatomy revealed morphological adjustments for tolerating water deficiency in diploids, in the form of closely packed mesophyll cells and small conduits in the midvein. Our results indicate that diploid C. angustifolium is more tolerant of drought than hexaploid plants, ensuring the successful survival of the diploid at high altitudes. This eco-physiological divergence may facilitate the species with different cytotypes to colonize new and large geographic ranges with heterogeneous environmental conditions.

  11. Epigenetic differentiation persists after male gametogenesis in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations.

  12. Epigenetic differentiation persists after male gametogenesis in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Herrera

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae. Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations.

  13. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in Wild Populations of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kricsfalusy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes.

  14. Paleoactaea gen. nov. (Ranunculaceae) fruits from the Paleogene of North Dakota and the London Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Devore, Melanie L

    2005-10-01

    Paleoactea nagelii Pigg & DeVore gen. et sp. nov. is described for a small, ovoid ranunculaceous fossil fruit from the Late Paleocene Almont and Beicegel Creek floras of North Dakota, USA. Fruits are 5-7 mm wide, 4.5-6 mm high, 10-13 mm long, and bilaterally symmetrical, containing 10-17 seeds attached on the upper margin in 2-3 rows. A distinctive honeycomb pattern is formed where adjacent seeds with prominent palisade outer cell layers abut. Seeds are flattened, ovoid, and triangular. To the inside of the palisade cells, the seed coat has a region of isodiametric cells that become more tangentially elongate toward the center. The embryo cavity is replaced by an opaline cast. This fruit bears a striking resemblance to extant Actaea, the baneberry (Ranunculaceae), an herbaceous spring wildflower of North Temperate regions. A second species, Paleoactaea bowerbanki (Reid & Chandler) Pigg & DeVore nov. comb., is recognized from the Early Eocene London Clay flora, based on a single fruit. This fruit shares most of the organization and structure of P. nagelii but is larger and has a thicker pericarp. This study documents a rare Paleocene occurrence of a member of the buttercup family, a family that is today primarily herbaceous, and demonstrates a North Atlantic connection for an Actaea-like genus in the Paleogene.

  15. Effect of Nigella Sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae ground seed extract on Carrageenan induced inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Parveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa Linn (Family: Ranunculaceae Bengali name “kalo jera” is used as spice in Bengali foods. Native to Western Asia, Turkey, Iraq and Egypt, the black seed oil has been valued for its health benefits for centuries. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of stomach aches, asthma, bronchitis, coughs, fevers, tumour and as a tonic. The dried and grounded seed was extracted with ethanol and the extract was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. The extracts were administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, and statistically significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory effects were observed in a dose dependant manner. The extract showed 28.75% and 43.79% inhibition of inflammation at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight after first hour of the carrageenan administration which was comparable to that of standard drugs aspirin 40.52% and hydrocortisone 47.71% respectively. The result of this study supported the traditional medicinal uses of this seed. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2011; 5(1: 22-24

  16. Stochastic occurrence of trimery from pentamery in floral phyllotaxis of Anemone (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho S. Kitazawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Merosity, indicating the basic number of floral organs such as sepals and petals, has been constrained to specific and stable numbers during the evolution of angiosperms. The ancestral flower is considered to have a spiral arrangement of perianth organs, as in phyllotaxis, the arrangement of leaves. How has the ancestral spiral evolved into flowers with specific merosities? To address this question, we studied perianth organ arrangement in the Anemone genus of the basal eudicot family Ranunculaceae, because various merosities are found in this genus. In three species, A. flaccida, A. scabiosa, and A. nikoensis that are normally pentamerous, we found positional arrangement of the excessive sixth perianth organ indicating the possibility of a transition from pentamerous to trimerous arrangement. Arrangement was intraspecifically stochastic, but constrained to three of five types, where trimerous arrangement was the most frequent in all species except for a form of A. scabiosa. The rank of frequency of the other two types was species-dependent. We connect these observations with classical theories of spiral phyllotaxis. The phyllotaxis model for initiation of the sixth organ showed that the three arrangements occur at a divergence angle <144°, indicating the spiral nature of floral phyllotaxis rather than a perfect penta-radial symmetry of 144°. The model further showed that selective occurrence of trimerous arrangement is mainly regulated by the organ growth rate. Differential organ growth as well as divergence angle may regulate transitions between pentamerous and trimerous flowers in intraspecific variation as well as in species evolution.

  17. Ecology and morphology of the flowers of Hepatica nobilis Schreb. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Żuraw

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the years 2009-2010 in the UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin. The observations involved the flowering time and the seasonal and diurnal dynamics of flowering and pollen production in flowers of the liverleaf (Hepatica nobilis Schreb. from the family Ranunculaceae. The liverleaf begins blooming in early March and the full bloom occurs at the end of March and beginning of April. All-day observations demonstrated that the flowers opened between 8 am and 3 pm, and pollen was released from the anthers between 10 am and 4 pm. The mean weight of pollen produced by 10 liverleaf flowers was estimated at 7.4 mg (1.85 mg/100 stamens. An impact of the weather on the flowering period as well as the seasonal and diurnal dynamics of flowering was observed. Among insect pollinators, the honeybee dominated with a density of 4 individuals per 1m² of a flowerbed that contained 74 open flowers on average.

  18. The First Comprehensive Phylogeny of Coptis (Ranunculaceae) and Its Implications for Character Evolution and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kun-Li; Wu, Sheng-Dan; Yu, Sheng-Xian; Liu, Yang; Jabbour, Florian; Erst, Andrey S.; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    Coptis (Ranunculaceae) contains 15 species and is one of the pharmaceutically most important plant genera in eastern Asia. Understanding of the evolution of morphological characters and phylogenetic relationships within the genus is very limited. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. The phylogeny was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, as well as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis and Bayesian tests were used to assess the strength of the conflicts between traditional taxonomic units and those suggested by the phylogenetic inferences. Evolution of morphological characters was inferred using Bayesian method to identify synapomorphies for the infrageneric lineages. Our data recognize two strongly supported clades within Coptis. The first clade contains subgenus Coptis and section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis, supported by morphological characters, such as traits of the central leaflet base, petal color, and petal shape. The second clade consists of section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis. Coptis morii is not united with C. quinquefolia, in contrast with the view that C. morii is a synonym of C. quinquefolia. Two varieties of C. chinensis do not cluster together. Coptis groenlandica and C. lutescens are reduced to C. trifolia and C. japonica, respectively. Central leaflet base, sepal shape, and petal blade carry a strong phylogenetic signal in Coptis, while leaf type, sepal and petal color, and petal shape exhibit relatively higher levels of evolutionary flexibility. PMID:27044035

  19. Relationship between the species-representative phenotype and intraspecific variation in Ranunculaceae floral organ and Asteraceae flower numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Phenotypic variation in floral morphologies contributes to speciation by testing various morphologies that might have higher adaptivity, leading eventually to phylogenetic diversity. Species diversity has been recognized, however, by modal morphologies where the variation is averaged out, so little is known about the relationship between the variation and the diversity. We analysed quantitatively the intraspecific variation of the organ numbers within flowers of Ranunculaceae, a family which branched near the monocot-eudicot separation, and the numbers of flowers within the capitula of Asteraceae, one of the most diverse families of eudicots. We used four elementary statistical quantities: mean, standard deviation (s.d.), degree of symmetry (skewness) and steepness (kurtosis). While these four quantities vary among populations, we found a common relationship between s.d. and the mean number of petals and sepals in Ranunculaceae and number of flowers per capitulum in Asteraceae. The s.d. is equal to the square root of the difference between the mean and specific number, showing robustness: for example, 3 in Ficaria sepals, 5 in Ranunculus petals and Anemone tepals, and 13 in Farfugium ray florets. This square-root relationship was not applicable to Eranthis petals which show little correlation between the s.d. and mean, and the stamens and carpels of Ranunculaceae whose s.d. is proportional to the mean. The specific values found in the square-root relationship provide a novel way to find the species-representative phenotype among varied morphologies. The representative phenotype is, in most cases, unique to the species or genus level, despite intraspecific differences of average phenotype among populations. The type of variation shown by the statistical quantities indicates not only the robustness of the morphologies but also how flowering plants changed during evolution among representative phenotypes that eventually led to phylogenetic diversification. © The

  20. A study of the environmental-cenotic confinedness of atragene speciosa weinm. (ranunculaceae) in the south of western siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekratova, A.

    2017-01-01

    Atragene speciosa Weinm.of the family Ranunculaceae is an adventitious species. It has reserves of raw materials of the third category, i.e., it is a rare and non-exploited plant in KuznetskyAlatau and in Tomsk Region, Russia. In those areas of Western Siberia in plant communities with Atragene speciose Weinm. there are 124 species, of which 82 species grow in KuznetskyAlatau, 75 species in Tomsk Region, and 29 species grow together with Atragene speciosa Weinm. In KuznetskyAlatau and Tomsk egion at the same time. (author)

  1. Pollination and floral biology of Adonis vernalis L. (Ranunculaceae – a case study of threatened species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the knowledge of pollination systems of rare and threatened species is one of the principles for development of optimal conservation and management strategies, the data about their pollination requirements are scarce or incomplete. Different problems are listed (xerothermic habitat disappearance, overgrowing of patches, plant biology i.e., slow plant growth, problems with seed germination among the possible causes of Adonis vernalis being threatened, but until now no consideration was given to the flowering biology and pollination. The observations of flowering biology of A. vernalis (Ranunculaceae, a clonal species, were conducted in an out-of-compact-range population, in the Lublin Upland, Poland (51°18'55" N, 22°38'21" E, in 2011–2013. The reproductive potential of A. vernalis is related to the population age structure, pollination syndrome, and breeding system. The flowers exhibit incomplete protogyny. The dichogamy function is supported by different (biological, morphological mechanisms. Stigma receptivity occurred about one day before anthers started shedding self-pollen, and pollen viability was increasing gradually during the flower life-span (66.3% in distal anthers vs. 77.3% in proximal. The decrease in pollen production and in pollen viability coincided with the lowest degree of seed set, irrespective of the pollination treatment. Pollen vectors are necessary for efficient pollination, as the proportion of pistils setting fruits after open pollination (41–82.1% was significantly higher compared to spontaneous self-pollination (only 5.5–12.3%. The pollination requirements together with pollen/ovule ratio (P/O = 501 indicate a facultative xenogamous breeding system in A. vernalis. Therefore, in the conditions of the global lack of pollinators, improper pollination may weaken the population by leading to a decrease in the proportion of recombinants, and in addition to other factors, may accelerate extinction of small A

  2. A comparison of chloroplast genome sequences in Aconitum (Ranunculaceae: a traditional herbal medicinal genus

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    Hanghui Kong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The herbal medicinal genus Aconitum L., belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, represents the earliest diverging lineage within the eudicots. It currently comprises of two subgenera, A. subgenus Lycoctonum and A. subg. Aconitum. The complete chloroplast (cp genome sequences were characterized in three species: A. angustius, A. finetianum, and A. sinomontanum in subg. Lycoctonum and compared to other Aconitum species to clarify their phylogenetic relationship and provide molecular information for utilization of Aconitum species particularly in Eastern Asia. The length of the chloroplast genome sequences were 156,109 bp in A. angustius, 155,625 bp in A. finetianum and 157,215 bp in A. sinomontanum, with each species possessing 126 genes with 84 protein coding genes (PCGs. While genomic rearrangements were absent, structural variation was detected in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries. Five pseudogenes were identified, among which Ψrps19 and Ψycf1 were in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries, Ψrps16 and ΨinfA in the LSC region, and Ψycf15 in the IRb region. The nucleotide variability (Pi of Aconitum was estimated to be 0.00549, with comparably higher variations in the LSC and SSC than the IR regions. Eight intergenic regions were revealed to be highly variable and a total of 58–62 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected in all three species. More than 80% of SSRs were present in the LSC region. Altogether, 64.41% and 46.81% of SSRs are mononucleotides in subg. Lycoctonum and subg. Aconitum, respectively, while a higher percentage of di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta- SSRs were present in subg. Aconitum. Most species of subg. Aconitum in Eastern Asia were first used for phylogenetic analyses. The availability of the complete cp genome sequences of these species in subg. Lycoctonum will benefit future phylogenetic analyses and aid in germplasm utilization in Aconitum species.

  3. A comparison of chloroplast genome sequences in Aconitum (Ranunculaceae): a traditional herbal medicinal genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hanghui; Liu, Wanzhen; Yao, Gang; Gong, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The herbal medicinal genus Aconitum L., belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, represents the earliest diverging lineage within the eudicots. It currently comprises of two subgenera, A . subgenus Lycoctonum and A . subg. Aconitum . The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequences were characterized in three species: A. angustius , A. finetianum , and A. sinomontanum in subg. Lycoctonum and compared to other Aconitum species to clarify their phylogenetic relationship and provide molecular information for utilization of Aconitum species particularly in Eastern Asia. The length of the chloroplast genome sequences were 156,109 bp in A. angustius , 155,625 bp in A. finetianum and 157,215 bp in A. sinomontanum , with each species possessing 126 genes with 84 protein coding genes (PCGs). While genomic rearrangements were absent, structural variation was detected in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries. Five pseudogenes were identified, among which Ψ rps 19 and Ψ ycf 1 were in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries, Ψ rps 16 and Ψ inf A in the LSC region, and Ψ ycf 15 in the IRb region. The nucleotide variability ( Pi ) of Aconitum was estimated to be 0.00549, with comparably higher variations in the LSC and SSC than the IR regions. Eight intergenic regions were revealed to be highly variable and a total of 58-62 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in all three species. More than 80% of SSRs were present in the LSC region. Altogether, 64.41% and 46.81% of SSRs are mononucleotides in subg. Lycoctonum and subg. Aconitum , respectively, while a higher percentage of di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta- SSRs were present in subg. Aconitum . Most species of subg. Aconitum in Eastern Asia were first used for phylogenetic analyses. The availability of the complete cp genome sequences of these species in subg. Lycoctonum will benefit future phylogenetic analyses and aid in germplasm utilization in Aconitum species.

  4. Minority Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, R

    2005-01-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG when

  5. Nectar yeasts in the tall Larkspur Delphinium barbeyi (Ranunculaceae and effects on components of pollinator foraging behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N Schaeffer

    Full Text Available Microorganisms frequently colonize the nectar of angiosperm species. Though capable of altering a suite of traits important for pollinator attraction, few studies exist that test the degree to which they mediate pollinator foraging behavior. The objective of our study was to fill this gap by assessing the abundance and diversity of yeasts associated with the perennial larkspur Delphinium barbeyi (Ranunculaceae and testing whether their presence affected components of pollinator foraging behavior. Yeasts frequently colonized D. barbeyi nectar, populating 54-77% of flowers examined depending on site. Though common, the yeast community was species-poor, represented by a single species, Metschnikowia reukaufii. Female-phase flowers of D. barbeyi were more likely to have higher densities of yeasts in comparison to male-phase flowers. Pollinators were likely vectors of yeasts, as virgin (unvisited flowers rarely contained yeasts compared to flowers open to pollinator visitation, which were frequently colonized. Finally, pollinators responded positively to the presence of yeasts. Bombus foragers both visited and probed more flowers inoculated with yeasts in comparison to uninoculated controls. Taken together, our results suggest that variation in the occurrence and density of nectar-inhabiting yeasts have the potential to alter components of pollinator foraging behavior linked to pollen transfer and plant fitness.

  6. Chloroplast genome of Aconitum barbatum var. puberulum (Ranunculaceae) derived from CCS reads using the PacBio RS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Li, Qiushi; Li, Ying; Qian, Jun; Han, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The chloroplast genome (cp genome) of Aconitum barbatum var. puberulum was sequenced using the third-generation sequencing platform based on the single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing approach. To our knowledge, this is the first reported complete cp genome of Aconitum, and we anticipate that it will have great value for phylogenetic studies of the Ranunculaceae family. In total, 23,498 CCS reads and 20,685,462 base pairs were generated, the mean read length was 880 bp, and the longest read was 2,261 bp. Genome coverage of 100% was achieved with a mean coverage of 132× and no gaps. The accuracy of the assembled genome is 99.973%; the assembly was validated using Sanger sequencing of six selected genes from the cp genome. The complete cp genome of A. barbatum var. puberulum is 156,749 bp in length, including a large single-copy region of 87,630 bp and a small single-copy region of 16,941 bp separated by two inverted repeats of 26,089 bp. The cp genome contains 130 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes, 34 tRNA genes and eight rRNA genes. Four forward, five inverted and eight tandem repeats were identified. According to the SSR analysis, the longest poly structure is a 20-T repeat. Our results presented in this paper will facilitate the phylogenetic studies and molecular authentication on Aconitum.

  7. Nectar Yeasts in the Tall Larkspur Delphinium barbeyi (Ranunculaceae) and Effects on Components of Pollinator Foraging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Robert N.; Phillips, Cody R.; Duryea, M. Catherine; Andicoechea, Jonathan; Irwin, Rebecca E.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms frequently colonize the nectar of angiosperm species. Though capable of altering a suite of traits important for pollinator attraction, few studies exist that test the degree to which they mediate pollinator foraging behavior. The objective of our study was to fill this gap by assessing the abundance and diversity of yeasts associated with the perennial larkspur Delphinium barbeyi (Ranunculaceae) and testing whether their presence affected components of pollinator foraging behavior. Yeasts frequently colonized D. barbeyi nectar, populating 54–77% of flowers examined depending on site. Though common, the yeast community was species-poor, represented by a single species, Metschnikowia reukaufii. Female-phase flowers of D. barbeyi were more likely to have higher densities of yeasts in comparison to male-phase flowers. Pollinators were likely vectors of yeasts, as virgin (unvisited) flowers rarely contained yeasts compared to flowers open to pollinator visitation, which were frequently colonized. Finally, pollinators responded positively to the presence of yeasts. Bombus foragers both visited and probed more flowers inoculated with yeasts in comparison to uninoculated controls. Taken together, our results suggest that variation in the occurrence and density of nectar-inhabiting yeasts have the potential to alter components of pollinator foraging behavior linked to pollen transfer and plant fitness. PMID:25272164

  8. Chloroplast genome of Aconitum barbatum var. puberulum (Ranunculaceae derived from CCS reads using the PacBio RS platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen eChen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The chloroplast genome (cp genome of Aconitum barbatum var. puberulum was sequenced using the third-generation sequencing platform based on the single-molecule real-time (SMRT sequencing approach. To our knowledge, this is the first reported complete cp genome of Aconitum, and we anticipate that it will have great value for phylogenetic studies of the Ranunculaceae family. In total, 23,498 CCS reads and 20,685,462 base pairs were generated, the mean read length was 880 bp, and the longest read was 2,261 bp. Genome coverage of 100% was achieved with a mean coverage of 132× and no gaps. The accuracy of the assembled genome is 99.973%; the assembly was validated using Sanger sequencing of six selected genes from the cp genome. The complete cp genome of Aconitum barbatum var. puberulum is 156,749 bp in length, including a large single-copy region of 87,630 bp and a small single-copy region of 16,941 bp separated by two inverted repeats of 26,089 bp. The cp genome contains 130 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes, 34 tRNA genes and eight rRNA genes. Four forward, five inverted and eight tandem repeats were identified. According to the SSR analysis, the longest poly structure is a 20-T repeat. Our results presented in this paper will facilitate the phylogenetic studies and molecular authentication on Aconitum.

  9. Size-dependent sex allocation in Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae): physiological basis and effects of maternal family and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z-G; Meng, J-L; Fan, B-L; Du, G-Z

    2008-11-01

    Theory predicts size-dependent sex allocation (SDS): flowers on plants with a high-resource status should have larger investment in females than plants with a low-resource status. Through a pot experiment with Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae) in the field, we examined the relationship between sex allocation of individual flowers and plant size for different maternal families under different environmental conditions. We also determined the physiological base of variations in plant size. Our results support the prediction of SDS, and show that female-biased allocation with plant size is consistent under different environmental conditions. Negative correlations within families showed a plastic response of sex allocation to plant size. Negative genetic correlations between sex allocation and plant size at the family level indicate a genetic cause of the SDS pattern, although genetic correlation was influenced by environmental factors. Hence, the size-dependency of sex allocation in this species had both plastic and genetic causes. Furthermore, genotypes that grew large also had higher assimilation ability, thus showing a physiological basis for SDS.

  10. Minority Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2005-02-25

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the

  11. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  12. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  13. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-03-26

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect.

  14. The Economics of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Flournoy A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses some of the more important economic problems of minorities in the United States, identifying the economics of minorities with the economics of poverty, discrimination, exploitation, urban life, and alienation. (JM)

  15. Minorities and majorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.E.; Fassbender, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses the paradox of minorities as a constitutive Other of international law. While minorities have been viewed as outside the international legal system for centuries, minorities have at the same time made a significant and fundamental contribution to precisely that system, as they

  16. Analýza silic čeledi Ranunculaceae, získaných ze semen druhů Delphinium consolida, D. elatum, Nigella arvensis, N. hispanica A N. nigellastrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valterová, Irena; Urbanová, Klára; Nedorostová, L.; Kokoška, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 11 (2010), s. 1124-1124 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /45./. 20.11.2010-22.11.2010, Nymburk] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/08/1179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Ranunculaceae * essential oils * GC-MS Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  17. The Trojan minor planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Christopher E.

    1988-08-01

    There are (March, 1988) 3774 minor planets which have received a permanent number. Of these, there are some whose mean distance to the sun is very nearly equal to that of Jupiter, and whose heliocentric longitudes from that planet are about 60°, so that the three bodies concerned (sun, Jupiter, minor planet) make an approximate equilateral triangle. These minor planets, which occur in two distinct groups, one preceding Jupiter and one following, have received the names of the heroes of the Trojan war. This paper concerns the 49 numbered minor planets of this group.

  18. Genomic Resources of Three Pulsatilla Species Reveal Evolutionary Hotspots, Species-Specific Sites and Variable Plastid Structure in the Family Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sawicki, Jakub

    2015-09-15

    The European continent is presently colonized by nine species of the genus Pulsatilla, five of which are encountered only in mountainous regions of southwest and south-central Europe. The remaining four species inhabit lowlands in the north-central and eastern parts of the continent. Most plants of the genus Pulsatilla are rare and endangered, which is why most research efforts focused on their biology, ecology and hybridization. The objective of this study was to develop genomic resources, including complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters, for three sympatric Pulsatilla species that are most commonly found in Central Europe. The results will supply valuable information about genetic variation, which can be used in the process of designing primers for population studies and conservation genetics research. The complete plastid genomes together with the nuclear rRNA cluster can serve as a useful tool in hybridization studies. Six complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters were sequenced from three species of Pulsatilla using the Illumina sequencing technology. Four junctions between single copy regions and inverted repeats and junctions between the identified locally-collinear blocks (LCB) were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Pulsatilla genomes of 120 unique genes had a total length of approximately 161-162 kb, and 21 were duplicated in the inverted repeats (IR) region. Comparative plastid genomes of newly-sequenced Pulsatilla and the previously-identified plastomes of Aconitum and Ranunculus species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae revealed several variations in the structure of the genome, but the gene content remained constant. The nuclear rRNA cluster (18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-26S) of studied Pulsatilla species is 5795 bp long. Among five analyzed regions of the rRNA cluster, only Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) enabled the molecular delimitation of closely-related Pulsatilla patens and Pulsatilla vernalis. The determination of complete

  19. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  20. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  1. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    on the content of the syllabus. When autonomy is understood in the literal sense, of giving oneself one's own laws, then there is a clear connection. Autonomy is usually connected to politics and a geographically limited territory. Special political rights of minorities - e.g. is the Danish minority party SSW...

  2. Essential oils in the ranunculaceae family: chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils from Consolida regalis, Delphinium elatum, Nigella hispanica, and N. nigellastrum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoska, Ladislav; Urbanova, Klara; Kloucek, Pavel; Nedorostova, Lenka; Polesna, Lucie; Malik, Jan; Jiros, Pavel; Havlik, Jaroslav; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Valterova, Irena

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of volatile oils hydrodistilled from seeds of Consolida regalis, Delphinium elatum, Nigella hispanica, and N. nigellastrum using GC and GC/MS. In C. regalis, octadecenoic (77.79%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.34%) were the main constituents. Similarly, the oils from D. elatum and N. hispanica seeds consisted chiefly of octadecadienoic (42.83 and 35.58%, resp.), hexadecanoic (23.87 and 28.59%, resp.), and octadecenoic acid (21.67 and 19.76%, resp.). Contrastingly, the monoterpene hydrocarbons α-pinene (34.67%) and β-pinene (36.42%) were the main components of N. nigellastrum essential oil. Our results confirm the presence of essential oils in the family Ranunculaceae and suggest chemotaxonomical relationships within the representatives of the genera Consolida, Delphinium, and Nigella. In addition, the presence of various bioactive constituents such as linoleic acid, (-)-β-pinene, squalene, or carotol in seeds of D. elatum, N. hispanica, and N. nigellastrum indicates a possible industrial use of these plants. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  4. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  5. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  6. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  7. Multichoice minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations

  8. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  9. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.

  10. Genomic Resources of Three Pulsatilla Species Reveal Evolutionary Hotspots, Species-Specific Sites and Variable Plastid Structure in the Family Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szczecińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The European continent is presently colonized by nine species of the genus Pulsatilla, five of which are encountered only in mountainous regions of southwest and south-central Europe. The remaining four species inhabit lowlands in the north-central and eastern parts of the continent. Most plants of the genus Pulsatilla are rare and endangered, which is why most research efforts focused on their biology, ecology and hybridization. The objective of this study was to develop genomic resources, including complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters, for three sympatric Pulsatilla species that are most commonly found in Central Europe. The results will supply valuable information about genetic variation, which can be used in the process of designing primers for population studies and conservation genetics research. The complete plastid genomes together with the nuclear rRNA cluster can serve as a useful tool in hybridization studies. Methodology/principal findings: Six complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters were sequenced from three species of Pulsatilla using the Illumina sequencing technology. Four junctions between single copy regions and inverted repeats and junctions between the identified locally-collinear blocks (LCB were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Pulsatilla genomes of 120 unique genes had a total length of approximately 161–162 kb, and 21 were duplicated in the inverted repeats (IR region. Comparative plastid genomes of newly-sequenced Pulsatilla and the previously-identified plastomes of Aconitum and Ranunculus species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae revealed several variations in the structure of the genome, but the gene content remained constant. The nuclear rRNA cluster (18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-26S of studied Pulsatilla species is 5795 bp long. Among five analyzed regions of the rRNA cluster, only Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2 enabled the molecular delimitation of closely-related Pulsatilla

  11. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified......Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt...

  12. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Housing Problems of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  14. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in

  15. Ethnic Minorities and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts

    2005-01-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion in the Netherlands recently about the integration of ethnic minorities. The tenor of that discussion is sombre: some observers speak of a 'multicultural drama', while others claim that the government's integration policy has failed completely. Recent

  16. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  17. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  18. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  19. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  20. Institutional Investors as Minority Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf Hamdani; Yishay Yafeh

    2013-01-01

    We examine the link between minority shareholders' rights and corporate governance by studying institutional investors' voting patterns in a concentrated ownership environment. Institutions rarely vote against insider-sponsored proposals even when the law empowers the minority. Institutions vote against compensation-related proposals more often than against related party transactions even when minority shareholders cannot influence outcomes. Potentially conflicted institutions are more likely...

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  2. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  3. Ethnic minority dropout in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from

  4. Анализ разнообразия лютиковых (Ranunculaceae Juss. ) во флоре национального парка «Тункинский»

    OpenAIRE

    Краснопевцева, В.; Краснопевцева, А.

    2010-01-01

    The annotated list of the type specimens of 70 taxa (species, subspecies and varieties) of the family Ranunculaceae, stored in the Krylov Herbarium (ТК) of Tomsk State University is given. The type category is indicated, text of original label and text of protologue are cited for each specimen.

  5. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  6. Demarketing, minorities, and national attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.; Nisan, Udi

    This study addresses two important global trends: protection of public goods, specifically the environment, and the emergence of multiethnic societies with influential minority groups. The study tests the effect of a government proenvironmental demarketing campaign on the deconsumption behavior of

  7. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)

  8. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  9. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  11. DNA minor groove alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, W A

    2001-04-01

    Recent work on a number of different classes of anticancer agents that alkylate DNA in the minor groove is reviewed. There has been much work with nitrogen mustards, where attachment of the mustard unit to carrier molecules can change the normal patterns of both regio- and sequence-selectivity, from reaction primarily at most guanine N7 sites in the major groove to a few adenine N3 sites at the 3'-end of poly(A/T) sequences in the minor groove. Carrier molecules discussed for mustards are intercalators, polypyrroles, polyimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), polybenzamides and anilinoquinolinium salts. In contrast, similar targeting of pyrrolizidine alkylators by a variety of carriers has little effect of their patterns of alkylation (at the 2-amino group of guanine). Recent work on the pyrrolobenzodiazepine and cyclopropaindolone classes of natural product minor groove binders is also reviewed.

  12. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gro Hellesdatter

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns...... the meeting between citizens with an ethnic minority background and the Danish state, represented by welfare institutions, in this case public elementary schools, and changes the character of this meeting for the individuals involved. In the article, I concentrate on two rights at stake in this meeting......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...

  13. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  14. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6,680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status—sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the effects of transitions on happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past five years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  15. The Willink Minority Commission and minority rights in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, copious provisions to protect some basic human rights and fundamental freedoms of all Nigerians were enshrined in the independence constitution. This article examines the debates about minority rights in the work of the Willink Commission and the circumstances leading to the enactment of human rights ...

  16. Minority Enrollments in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Alexander

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, by the Director, Cooperative Institutional Research Program, University of California, Los Angeles, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, is stated to place special emphasis on possible explanations for recent changes in earlier trends in minority enrollments. (Author/JM)

  17. Opening the Suburbs to Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Paul

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, notes that the Suburban Action Institute is involved actively in assisting the cities by working to open opportunities in the suburbs for minority families, and advocates that New York City become alert and active in combating discriminatory…

  18. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA-Copenhagen re......In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA......-Copenhagen results) is based on statistics and test scores - and it often lacks a basis in a theoretical understanding of how learning comes about. Theoretical and qualitative examples of recent educational research about ethnic minorities are often poststructuralist analyses of discourses and social categories...... and transcend negative social categories about a ‘Muslim school girl' as ‘isolated and oppressed' and ‘too studios'. [1] I use the term ethnic minority, not as a distinction with numerical proportions, but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix, 2001). In that way the Danish Palestinian pupils...

  19. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  20. Minority game with SK interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Pedro Castro; Sherrington, David

    2013-01-01

    A batch minority game with fake random history and additional SK-like quenched interaction is introduced and analysed. A mixing parameter λ quantifies the admixture and dictates the relative dominance of the two contributions: if λ → 0, agent decisions are based on their strategies and point-scores alone, as in the pure minority game, whereas for λ > 0 the agents also communicate with each other directly and update their points accordingly. Keeping the minority game dynamics in which the agents’ points are updated in parallel at each time step, the aim is to understand what happens if instead of simply using the normal strategy-based decisions, the agents also take account of an ‘effective field’ generated by the other agents. It is shown that the SK interaction introduces a ‘noise’ term which is broader than that in the normal minority game and which furthermore kills the normal phase transition. It is also shown that the same effect would occur if, instead of an SK interaction, Gaussian-distributed quenched random fields are added. By calculating order parameters in the time-translational invariant phase we show that the system is persistent in a ergodic phase. Both simulational and analytical results are presented. (paper)

  1. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  2. Minor sources of miner exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, J.C.; Green, N.; Brown, K.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The sources of radiation exposure to miners in non-coal mines in addition to radon daughters are thoron daughters in mine air, long-lived radionuclides in mine dust and gamma radiation from the local rocks. A crude estimate of the total annual effective dose equivalent from these minor sources is 2 - 5 mSv which is of secondary importance compared to the dose from radon daughters. (UK)

  3. Principal minors and rhombus tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, Richard; Pemantle, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic relations between the principal minors of a generic n × n matrix are somewhat mysterious, see e.g. Lin and Sturmfels (2009 J. Algebra 322 4121–31). We show, however, that by adding in certain almost principal minors, the ideal of relations is generated by translations of a single relation, the so-called hexahedron relation, which is a composition of six cluster mutations. We give in particular a Laurent-polynomial parameterization of the space of n × n matrices, whose parameters consist of certain principal and almost principal minors. The parameters naturally live on vertices and faces of the tiles in a rhombus tiling of a convex 2n-gon. A matrix is associated to an equivalence class of tilings, all related to each other by Yang–Baxter-like transformations. By specializing the initial data we can similarly parameterize the space of Hermitian symmetric matrices over R,C or H the quaternions. Moreover by further specialization we can parametrize the space of positive definite matrices over these rings. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras mathematical physics’. (paper)

  4. Minority Outlook: Opening the Door in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiherr, Gregory

    1979-01-01

    The national Minority Biomedical Support (MBS) Program, established in 1972 with National Institutes of Health funds, is described with emphasis on its role in increasing minority representation in biomedical research. (LBH)

  5. Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Minority Youth Communication Resources Protective Factors for LGBT Youth Survey of Today’s Adolescent Relationships and Transitions ( ... as a result of challenges such as stigma, discrimination, family disapproval, social rejection, and violence. Sexual minority ...

  6. Minority students benefit from mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, D L; Rodak, B; Fitzgerald, N; Baker, S

    1993-01-01

    Mentoring has been proposed as one strategy to attract minority students to the radiologic sciences profession. This case study describes a minority mentoring program conducted for pre-radiologic science students at a Midwestern university during the 1991-92 academic year. Ten minority radiologic science students enrolled in the mentoring program. The study showed that mentoring may be a viable option to serve the special needs of minorities for recruitment and retention.

  7. PETOM: Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Journal of Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of a two-year program called PETOM (Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities), which receives funding from the Kamehameha Schools and the University of Hawaii to prepare teachers of underachieving minority children. The program educates teachers who can make school successful for Hawaii's minority students.…

  8. The Minority Game : An Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a critical account of the minority game literature. The minority game is a simple congestion game: players need to choose between two options, and those who have selected the option chosen by the minority win. The learning model proposed in this literature seems to differ markedly

  9. The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact or Fable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This research examines national data on the status of the minority teacher shortage--the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of students of color in schools. The authors show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very…

  10. Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female…

  11. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  12. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as one...

  13. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The final rule implements the provisions.... It also requires each regulated entity to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or...

  14. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section... Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities...

  15. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  16. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  17. PIE analysis for minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    Minor actinide (MA) is generated in nuclear fuel during the operation of power reactor. For fuel design, reactivity decrease due to it should be considered. Out of reactors, MA plays key role to define the property of spent fuel (SF) such as α-radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and criticality of SF. In order to evaluate the calculation codes and libraries for predicting the amount of MA, comparison between calculation results and experimentally obtained data has been conducted. In this report, we will present the status of PIE data of MA taken by post irradiation examinations (PIE) and several calculation results. (author)

  18. Workplace harassment: double jeopardy for minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Jennifer L; Moore, Celia

    2006-03-01

    To date there have been no studies of how both sex and ethnicity might affect the incidence of both sexual and ethnic harassment at work. This article represents an effort to fill this gap. Data from employees at 5 organizations were used to test whether minority women are subject to double jeopardy at work, experiencing the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group. The results supported this prediction. Women experienced more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than Whites, and minority women experienced more harassment overall than majority men, minority men, and majority women.

  19. Aspartokinase in Lemna minor L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan F.; Dennis, David T.

    1973-01-01

    The growth of Lemna minor was followed by means of frond number, fresh weight, and dry weight measurements in the presence of various amino acids at a concentration 0.25 mm. Lysine inhibited growth but not to the same extent as threonine and homoserine. Isoleucine was also an inhibitor of growth. In the presence of methionine there was some growth for 2 to 3 days, but by 5 days most of the plants appeared to be dead. When lysine and threonine were added together, there was no growth at all, and the plants were dead after 5 days. This effect of lysine + threonine could be reversed by adding methionine or homoserine to the growth medium. The isolated aspartokinase from Lemna showed inhibition by lysine and higher concentrations of threonine. When these amino acids were added together at low concentrations, there was a concerted inhibition of the aspartokinase. It is suggested that some effects of amino acids on the growth of L. minor can be explained on the basis of a concerted feedback control of aspartokinase. Images PMID:16658324

  20. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  1. Complex cytogeographical patterns reveal a dynamic tetraploid–octoploid contact zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mariana; Castro, Sílvia; Figueiredo, Albano; Husband, Brian; Loureiro, João

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of cytotypes in mixed-ploidy species is crucial for evaluating ecological processes involved in the establishment and evolution of polyploid taxa. Here, we use flow cytometry and chromosome counts to explore cytotype diversity and distributions within a tetraploid–octoploid contact zone. We then use niche modelling and ploidy seed screening to assess the roles of niche differentiation among cytotypes and reproductive interactions, respectively, in promoting cytotype coexistence. Two cytotypes, tetraploids and octoploids, were dominant within the contact zone. They were most often distributed parapatrically or allopatrically, resulting in high geographic isolation. Still, 16.7 % of localities comprised two or more cytotypes, including the intermediate hexaploid cytotype. Tetraploids and octoploids had high environmental niche overlap and associated with similar climatic environments, suggesting they have similar ecological requirements. Given the geographical separation and habitat similarity among cytotypes, mixed-ploidy populations may be transitional and subject to the forces of minority cytotype exclusion which lead to pure-ploidy populations. However, seed ploidy analysis suggests that strong reproductive barriers may enforce assortative mating which favours stable cytotype coexistence. High cytogenetic diversity detected in the field suggests that unreduced gamete formation and hybridization events seem frequent in the studied polyploid complex and might be involved with the recurrent polyploid formation, governing, as well, the gene flow between cytogenetic entities. PMID:29593853

  2. Minority game with arbitrary cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.; Zheng, Dafang; Tai, C. W.

    1999-07-01

    We study a model of a competing population of N adaptive agents, with similar capabilities, repeatedly deciding whether to attend a bar with an arbitrary cutoff L. Decisions are based upon past outcomes. The agents are only told whether the actual attendance is above or below L. For L∼ N/2, the game reproduces the main features of Challet and Zhang's minority game. As L is lowered, however, the mean attendances in different runs tend to divide into two groups. The corresponding standard deviations for these two groups are very different. This grouping effect results from the dynamical feedback governing the game's time-evolution, and is not reproduced if the agents are fed a random history.

  3. Resistance to minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmegna, Benedetta; Uboldi, Sarah; Erba, Eugenio; D'Incalci, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    In this paper multiple resistance mechanisms to minor groove binders (MGBs) are overviewed. MGBs with antitumor properties are natural products or their derivatives and, as expected, they are all substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, a moderate expression of P-gp does not appear to reduce the sensitivity to trabectedin, the only MGB so far approved for clinical use. Resistance to this drug is often related to transcriptional mechanisms and to DNA repair pathways, particularly defects in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). Therefore tumors resistant to trabectedin may become hypersensitive to UV rays and other DNA damaging agents acting in the major groove, such as Platinum (Pt) complexes. If this is confirmed in clinic, that will provide the rationale to combine trabectedin sequentially with Pt derivates.

  4. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health......European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  5. Dynamics of the Minority Game for Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyungsik; Yoon, Seong-Min; Yum, Myung-Kul

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the minority game for patients, and the results known from the minority game are applied to the patient problem consulted at the department of pediatric cardiology. We find numerically the standard deviation and the global efficiency, similar to the El Farol bar problem. After the score equation and the scaled utility are introduced, the dynamical behavior of our model is discussed for particular strategies. Our result presented will be compared with the well-known minority games.

  6. LEGAL PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Klopčič

    2018-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia mentions only Italian and Hungarian national minority and Roma community as holders of special collective minority rights. Special rights of the autochthonous Italian and Hungarian national minorities in Slovenia are defined in Article 64. Although data on the ethnic structure in Slovenia reflect more heterogeneous ethnic structure, members of other ethnic groups than Italian and Hungarian national communities and Roma community, at present, do not...

  7. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  8. Results from occultations by minor planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Since the minor planets are believed to consist of primordial matter dating from the time of the formation of the solar system there is great interest in determining their composition. It is therefore necessary to calculate their densities, for which we need accurate masses and sizes. On the rare occasions when a minor planet occults a star, timed observations of the event from a number of observing sites enable an accurate size of the minor planet to be determined. (Auth.)

  9. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...

  10. Major events and minor episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Pontecorvo was a freshly graduated twenty one years old physicist when he joined, in the summer of 1934, the research group led by Enrico Fermi. In October the Panisperna boys would make their most important discovery – radioactivity induced by slow neutrons – and shortly thereafter would be parted by personal and historical events. This paper describes some episodes of those early years and of later periods, sketching a portrait of the team: starting from the extraordinary human and scientific experience of via Panisperna, up to the patent negotiations in USA, to which Pontecorvo’s flight to URSS put an end with unexpected consequences; getting to his first return in Italy, allowed by the sovietic government in 1978, on the occasion of the conference celebrating Edoardo Amaldi’s 70. anniversary. That was the first of several encounters of the author of this paper with Bruno Pontecorvo, which are here briefly recounted, as minor episodes giving a personal perspective on the man.

  11. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  12. Comparative Models for Preparing Teachers of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Dale; Dolgos, Kathleen

    This paper highlights three programs that prepare culturally sensitive teachers to meet the needs of minority students. The University of Hawaii's Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities has a partnership with the Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate private school for children of Hawaiian ancestry. The school brings new culturally sensitive…

  13. The Shortchanged: Women and Minorities in Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rodney; Sapery, Elisabeth

    The study by a team from the Council on Economic Priorities found: (1) that employment discrimination against minorities and women is endemic to commercial banking; (2) that a majority of the commercial banks studied are unwilling to permit public scrutiny of their employment and minority lending practices; and (3) that both the secrecy and the…

  14. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under § 51.28(a)(5) must be made by a senior passport authorizing officer pursuant to guidance issued by... appearance of the minor is specifically excused by a senior passport authorizing officer pursuant to guidance..., unless the personal appearance of the minor is specifically excused by a senior passport authorizing...

  15. School Effects on Performance of Minority Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    1994-01-01

    Presents results of a study examining the comparative effects of school (system) determinants on the educational careers of minority students in the Netherlands, drawing on rational choice and empowerment theories. Results indicate the importance of a school policy aimed at improving minority student achievement. Pull-out programs are detrimental,…

  16. Minorities and Women and Honors Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Maria Luisa Alvarez

    1986-01-01

    Although honors education can be a key to the liberation of women and minorities, both groups continue to be underrepresented, perhaps because bright women and minority students are uncomfortable displaying their talents and adding pressure in an already stressful situation. (MSE)

  17. Sociolinguistic Minorities, Research, and Social Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Mark; Raschka, Christine; Sercombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests elements of an agenda for future sociolinguistics among minority groups, by seeing it as a mutual relationship that involves benefits to researcher and researched. We focus on two aspects of the relationship. One is the political, economic and social benefits that can accrue to a minority group as a result of the research.…

  18. Minorities Are Disproportionately Underrepresented in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Mattison, Richard; Maczuga, Steve; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether minority children attending U.S. elementary and middle schools are disproportionately represented in special education. We did so using hazard modeling of multiyear longitudinal data and extensive covariate adjustment for potential child-, family-, and state-level confounds. Minority children were consistently less likely…

  19. [Minor Uralic languages...] / Väino Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaus, Väino, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Arvustus: Minor Uralic languages and their contacts / University of Tartu ; editor A. Künnap. Tartu : University of Tartu, 1993 ; Minor Uralic languages: structure and development : [artikleid ja materjale / edited and preface by Ago Künnap]. Tartu : [Tartu University Press] ; Groningen : University of Groningen, 1994

  20. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of April 1...

  1. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  2. Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

  3. LEGAL PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Klopčič

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia mentions only Italian and Hungarian national minority and Roma community as holders of special collective minority rights. Special rights of the autochthonous Italian and Hungarian national minorities in Slovenia are defined in Article 64. Although data on the ethnic structure in Slovenia reflect more heterogeneous ethnic structure, members of other ethnic groups than Italian and Hungarian national communities and Roma community, at present, do not have the status of a national minority in the sense of collective holders of minority rights. In February 2018 the draft Act on the Implementation of Collective Cultural Rights of National Communities of the Nations of the Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the Republic of Slovenia was prepared. The draft received a support within the National Parliament of the Republic of Slovenia for further consideration

  4. Legal protection of informed consent of minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    One of the pillars of healthcare provision is respect for the autonomy of the patient's wishes, which is given substance by the process of obtaining informed consent. Minors deserve special protection, entitled to basic rights and increasingly autonomous as they develop. In certain situations, minors are deemed matures and able to consent to treatment without the involvement of a parent or guardian. The assessment of competence would be based on the child's functional ability, not on age or outcome of the decision. This manuscript includes a brief analysis of legal perspectives on informed consent of minors, and minors' capacities to make medical decisions. Remaining questions of how to evaluate capacity and balance parental and minor autonomy are explored. Considerations on informed consent in different situations as refusing treatment and termination of pregnancy by female children are analyzed.

  5. Multiple Minority Stress and LGBT Community Resilience among Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Janulis, Patrick; Phillips, Gregory; Truong, Roky; Birkett, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i.e., racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood) and community resilience (i.e., connection to LGBT community) among sexual minority men of different racial/ethnic groups who use a geosocial networking application for meeting sexual partners. Results showed that Black sexual minority men reported the highest levels of racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and White sexual minority men reported the lowest levels, with Asian and Hispanic/Latino men falling in between. Consistent with minority stress theory, racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood were associated with greater stress for sexual minority men of all racial/ethnic groups. However, connection to LGBT community played more central role in mediating the relationship between stigma and stress for White than POC sexual minority men. Results suggest that minority stress and community resilience processes may differ for White and POC sexual minority men. Potential processes driving these differences and implications for minority stress theory are discussed.

  6. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  7. CRIMINALITY AT MINORS WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kitkanj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, from penological aspect, the involvement and structure of recidivism at minors with mental deficiency within the whole area of juvenile criminality in Macedonia. The research covers 62 subjects who pay the penalty in juvenile penitentiary or institutional measure directing to correctional institution for minors. Of the total number of minors who hold one of the above-mentioned sanctions, minors with lower average IQ are presented with 56.4%. The shown involvement is in penological terms (refers to minors who hold institutional measure correctional institution for minors or penalty - juvenile penitentiary which does not mean that this category of juvenile delinquents participate in such percent in the total number of reported, accused and convicted minors. According to the research results it can be concluded that falling behind in intellectual development is an indicator for delinquent behavior but in no case it can be crucial or the most important factor for criminality. Of the total number of juvenile delinquents with intellectual deficit, 80% are repeat offenders in criminal legal sense. It is of great concern that 56% of the under average juvenile delinquents defied the law for the first time before the age of 14 years that is as children.

  8. Visual and Computational Modelling of Minority Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Minority Game and focuses on analysis and computational modelling of several variants (variable payoff, coalition-based and ternary voting of Minority Game using UAREI (User-Action-Rule-Entities-Interface model. UAREI is a model for formal specification of software gamification, and the UAREI visual modelling language is a language used for graphical representation of game mechanics. The URAEI model also provides the embedded executable modelling framework to evaluate how the rules of the game will work for the players in practice. We demonstrate flexibility of UAREI model for modelling different variants of Minority Game rules for game design.

  9. Considerations for successful minority investments in independent power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleveans, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    This article considers the role of lead developers and lead investors, and minority investors in power projects. The risks involved in minority investment without control is examined, and minority investor issues, the 'due diligence' of the minority investor, the need for timely information, and the importance of minority investors to the power project are discussed. (UK)

  10. Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor cabanisi in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... in Tanzania: a breeding record in a traditional beehive ... Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the bottom of one of the bee- ... resident of open bushed and wooded habitats in lower rainfall areas east of Lake.

  11. Closing the Minority Achievement Gap in Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Minority students face numerous academic barriers for achievement in the classroom as well as outside the school. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) suggests six principles for maintaining the standard of school mathematics.

  12. Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities. OMH project manager Christine Merenda, M.P.H., R.N. explains ... are disproportionately affected by diabetes. But historically, both women and minorities have been under-represented in clinical ...

  13. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  14. Minority populations in Canadian second language education

    CERN Document Server

    Arnett, Katy

    2013-01-01

    This book broadens the study of second language learning in Canada beyond the examination of majority populations in French immersion to highlight lessons learned from studies of minority populations learning languages in Canada.

  15. International Legislation Specific to the Minor Immigrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pusca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inside the vast array characterizing the phenomenon of migration, in this paper we chose to focus our analysis on a unique and extremely delicate category: the minor immigrants. The main objective is to highlight the heterogeneity of juvenile migratory phenomenon, achieving a prospective of analyses which focuses not only on international law aimed at protecting minors but also on the flaws of European systems which ignore too often the importance of the superior interests of the child. Mainly the Convention on the Rights of the Child, signed in New York in 1959, provides a generalized protection of minor figure and it represents the legal basis for all rules directed towards children and thus to minor immigrants.

  16. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  17. National Minority Organisations in Prague: structure, competence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sulitka, Andrej; Uherek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2015), s. 3-17 ISSN 0862-8351 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : ethnology * social anthropology * Czech Republic * minority * national policy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Cytotype distribution and phylogeography of Hieracium intybaceum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2015), s. 487-498 ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : AFLP * glacial refugia * geographical parthenogenesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2015

  19. Dynamics of the minority game for patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Yoon, Seong-Min; Kul Yum, Myung

    2004-12-01

    We analyze the minority game for patients, and the results known from the minority game are applied to the patient problem consulted at the department of pediatric cardiology. We find numerically the standard deviation and the global efficiency, which is discussed similar to the El Farol bar problem. After the score equation and the scaled utility are introduced, the dynamical behavior of our model is discussed for particular strategies. Our results presented will be compared with recent numerical calculations.

  20. Ethnic Minority Personnel Careers: Hindrances and Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Catharine

    2004-01-01

    Personnel departments often have particular responsibility for equal opportunities within their organizations. This paper explores equal opportunities within personnel departments themselves, in relation to the careers of ethnic minority personnel practitioners. Through primary research, it identifies a range of criteria which can affect personnel careers, of which ethnic origin is often one. However, although being categorized as of ethnic minority origin often hinders personnel careers, the...

  1. International Legislation Specific to the Minor Immigrant

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Pusca

    2016-01-01

    Inside the vast array characterizing the phenomenon of migration, in this paper we chose to focus our analysis on a unique and extremely delicate category: the minor immigrants. The main objective is to highlight the heterogeneity of juvenile migratory phenomenon, achieving a prospective of analyses which focuses not only on international law aimed at protecting minors but also on the flaws of European systems which ignore too often the importance of the superior interests of the ...

  2. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma.

  3. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  4. Tobacco sales to minors in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Tramacere, Irene; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Colombo, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    One of the strategies to control tobacco is to limit purchase of cigarettes to minors. To understand the attitudes of Italian adults towards regulations to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco products, we added specific questions to the annual survey on smoking in Italy. During March-April 2007, we conducted a survey on smoking on 3,057 subjects representative of the Italian population aged > or = 15 years. Two specific questions were included, one investigating the attitudes towards the proposed legislation prohibiting purchase of tobacco to individuals under 18 years of age (instead of 16 years) as a policy to reduce smoking prevalence and consumption. The second question asked whether the current tobacco sales-to-minors law was observed. Overall, 78% of Italians believed that a restriction of the current tobacco sales-to-minors law could be moderately to extremely effective as a strategy to decrease smoking prevalence and consumption. More than 90% of Italians reported that they had never seen in their lifetime a retailer refusing to sell cigarettes to an adolescent or requesting the minor's identification or age. A restriction of the legislation, increasing to 18 years the minimum age for purchasing tobacco, would limit access to tobacco products by minors, only if adopted together with systematic and effective enforcement measures.

  5. Intersectionality, Recruitment and Selection : Ethnic Minority Candidates in Dutch Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections

  6. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA. ACTION: Notice: Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) establish the Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) on... assistance to socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers, methods of maximizing participation of minority...

  7. The impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M

    2011-04-01

    We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social-psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social-psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ²(79) = 414.00, p accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social-psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social-psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 72527 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... fundamental promise. America's minority enterprises include everything from Main Street cornerstones that... to recover, our investments in minority owned and operated firms will help create jobs, strengthen...

  9. The Serbs in Slovenia: A new minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelić Mladena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown of the former Yugoslavia has resulted in formation of new independent states while the former co-citizens and constitutive people have found themselves in new roles. Some have become a majority while some have become a minority, with an aspiration to affirm the status in the public sphere. As a country with a large numbers of immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is facing a challenge of the confirmation of ethnic pluralism within its borders, along with solutions and appropriate places for 'new' minorities (the usual appellation for ethnic groups formed by the members of the former Yugoslavia, where the Serbs are outnumbering the rest. At the same time, the new minorities face a challenge of constitution foundation of their own associations, that is, formation of their own identity and public affirmation in the new context. This paper discusses these ongoing processes with a special attention to the Serbian ethnic group.

  10. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. THE RIGHTS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES TO INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aid Mršić

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The public service, which should be the guardian of the identity of national minorities, fell under the political pressure. In this way, it came out of the scope of its actions. Leading people in independent media believe that the role of the public service is crucial in protecting national minorities.But the media can not do it alone. First of all, the state must regulate, and respect what it has brought. With strong strategies and the inclusion of national minorities in all social trends, it is possible to achieve, not fully, but partially, the equality of all those who liveon the territory of BiH.On the other hand, the public service must respect what the state says. The Communications Regulatory Agency is obliged to impose rules in an adequate manner and at the same time to monitor how much the media (public service meets its obligations.

  12. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  13. Minors' rights in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    In the past, minors were not considered legally capable of making medical decisions and were viewed as incompetent because of their age. The authority to consent or refuse treatment for a minor remained with a parent or guardian. This parental authority was derived from the constitutional right to privacy regarding family matters, common law rule, and a general presumption that parents or guardians will act in the best interest of their incompetent child. However, over the years, the courts have gradually recognized that children younger than 18 years who show maturity and competence deserve a voice in determining their course of medical treatment. This article will explore the rights and interests of minors, parents, and the state in medical decision making and will address implications for nursing administrators and leaders.

  14. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  15. The BCLA Minor: Business, Communication, and Liberal Arts Minor at Towson University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cross-disciplinary minor that combines elements of business, communication, and the liberal arts. The BCLA Minor enhances employment opportunities and cultural awareness for students with majors in the Colleges of Business and Economics, Fine Arts and Communication, and Liberal Arts by integrating the…

  16. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  17. The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority versus White Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Halpin, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    The demographic divide between teachers and students is of growing public concern. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the common argument that students, and particularly minority students, have more favorable perceptions of minority versus White teachers. Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, we find that students…

  18. Self-Esteem Comparisons among Intellectually Gifted Minority/Non-Minority Junior High Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin-Bucell, Cynthia; And Others

    Differences in self-esteem between 48 minority and 62 non-minority intellectually gifted and 75 intellectually average junior-high students were assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated a higher level of self-esteem for the gifted students than for the control group. Significant differences were also found to exist…

  19. [Health and wellbeing of sexual minorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime; Gómez, Fabiola; Cárdenas, Manuel; Gúzman, Mónica; Bahamondes, Joaquín

    2017-09-01

    Most of the information in Chile about health and wellbeing of sexual minorities refers to risk behaviors. To assess health and wellbeing in a sample of Chilean homosexual men and women. Spanish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale and Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) were answered by 191 homosexual women and 256 homosexual men aged 18 to 67 years, from four Chilean cities. Lesbian women have better levels of satisfaction with life and adjustment in personal relationships than homosexual men. Eight percent of respondents had suicidal thoughts in some moment of their life. The information gathered in this work could help in the development of mental health policies for sexual minorities.

  20. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    1987-01-01

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma. (orig.)

  1. Ethnic-minority climbers : Evaluating “minority cultures of mobility” as a lens to study Dutch minority student organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootman, M.W.

    2018-01-01

    The increasing discomfort with ethnic diversity in many countries is paralleled by the emergence of middle classes consisting of second-generation immigrants who articulate their minority identities. This calls for an enhanced understanding of the experiences and identifications of social climbers

  2. The provision of education for minorities in South Africa | Mothata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of a lack of a consensus on the definition of the concept minority and the continuing debates on minorities and their rights in education, policy makers need to consider the adequate provision of education suitable to different minorities. The issue of minority rights in education is particularly sensitive in South Africa ...

  3. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  4. Ethnic Minority Women. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet contains information about the numbers and status of ethnic minority women in Great Britain. In 1991, the last full count, 1.5 million women in Britain classified themselves as other than White. Women from all ethnic groups are less likely to be economically active (paid for work or looking for it) than men. However, among ethnic…

  5. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  6. National Minority Health Month Spotlight: Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    April is National Minority Health Month and in support of the 2016 theme, Accelerating Health Equity for the Nation, the NCI Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities (CRCHD) is highlighting how diversity training and career development opportunities are contributing to efforts to reduce the unequal burden of cancer in our society.

  7. The Deaf Child as a Linguistic Minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    The author offers support for viewing the deaf child as a member of a linguistic minority and considers how this situation affects education of the deaf. Deaf persons are discussed in terms of their intellectual abilities, educational achievement, English competence, and the sociolinguistic factors which point to the existence of a deaf community.…

  8. LIMITING ORGANISATIONAL RIGHTS OF MINORITY UNIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    1996-02-19

    Feb 19, 1996 ... market in recent times can be attributed, in part, to inter-union rivalry.1 Minority unions ... March 2013 – resulting in a negative impact on South Africa's GDP and currency depreciation. In. 2013, the .... Organisational rights are regulated by Part A and B of Chapter 111 of the LRA, and the right to strike is ...

  9. Language and Cultural Minorities Resource Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta.

    The revised edition of the resource catalog lists nearly 1,000 print and non-print materials for use in Maine schools where close to 7,000 children of linguistic minorities are enrolled. There are 19 sections on these groups or topics: Afghan, Asian and refugee, bilingual education, Chinese, civil rights, Eastern Europe, English as a Second…

  10. The SWOT Team Approach: Focusing on Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Susan E.

    1991-01-01

    Underscores the applicability of marketing principles to minority student recruitment and retention at community colleges. Proposes the assessment of an institution's Strengths, Weaknesses, and external Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) to strategically market the college. Considers the development of a plan for action based on the SWOT analysis.…

  11. Building the Minority Faculty Development Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Paul E.; Ganey, James H.; Brown, Marc D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts toward minority faculty development in dentistry, including those of Harlem Hospital-Columbia University School of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, the National Dental Association Foundation, and Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center. Explains that critical elements in the success of these programs are environment, selection criteria,…

  12. Minority Students: Understanding a New Clientele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmy Rudnick, Diane

    1985-01-01

    Provides data on recruitment, family, academic background, attitudes, and extracurricular/cultural interests of 1288 minority engineering technology students. Indicates that although their high school achievement was superior to average freshmen, their limited finances and low self-esteem remain as problems. Recommendations for addressing the…

  13. Stillbirth in an Anglophone minority of Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed trends in stillbirth over time for Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, a large Canadian province with publically funded health care and an English-speaking minority. METHODS: We calculated stillbirth rates for Francophones and Anglophones, and estimated hazard ratios (HR...

  14. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor uses. 161.60 Section 161.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS... until it is applied to the major use registrations. (3) EPA will accept extrapolations and regional data...

  15. Minors and social networks: legal questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramón Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The participation in a company increasingly technological does that numerous questions appear on the protection of the most vulnerable subjects, between them the minors. The influence of the social networks like instrument of communication is not exempt from risks for the quantity of information that is facilitated and is shared. The lack of a specific regulation that he contemplates from the point of view of the Law which is the protection that a minor must have, does that there take place situations of abandonment of the rights of the same ones.The opportunity of regulation has been left to escape in the future law of protection of the infancy, nowadays in phase of preliminary design, since it does not refer to the social networks since it had been desirable. The current procedure as for minors, as well as those of protection of information, between others, do not turn out to be sufficient to contemplate all the situations of risk that can be given in the above mentioned area. In the present work we propose to think on minors and social networks raising some legal questions, and trying to contribute some response to the problematics that appears in the juridical area.

  16. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, t...

  17. The daily life of urban ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Het dagelijks leven van allochtone stedelingen. The integration of ethnic minorities in Dutch society is not an easy process. The present emphasis on the problems means there is little room for attention for the daily lives of people within the various ethnic groups. This

  18. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  19. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  20. Drugs and Minorities. Research Issues 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains summaries of the latest research focusing on the issue of the extent of drug use and abuse among racial and ethnic minorities and the factors influencing it. Taken into consideration are age and sex differences among users, narcotics addiction, socioeconomic influences, cultural factors, racial factors, demographic factors,…

  1. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents’ preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. Methods: MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). Results: The results showed that early fans of

  2. Tribune: Retention Policy for Ethnic Minority Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish

  3. THE NATIONAL MINORITY CONSULTATIVE MECHANISMS - THE COUNCILS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Čorni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to explore the practical application of the soft law, in concrete terms, the documents adopted by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, referring to the models of participation of national minorities in public life in the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objective of the research was to assess the legal and political grounds for functioning national minority councils as participation and consultative mechanisms, scope of responsibilities and capacities in relation to their effectiveness and impact and to identify relevant good practices on such mechanisms. The political and decision-making structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina demonstrated lack of actual commitment to the realization of the rights of minorities referring to participation in decision-making processes. Bearing in mind formal position within parliaments, visibility, and a significant promotional capacity for presence in the public sphere, the councils on national minorities may represent a significant body and channel for the minority – majority dialogue. However, at the moment, the national minority councils’ capacity to ensure participation of national minorities in Bosnian political life and their influence in decision-making process remains insufficient. In general, the consultative mechanisms, within their mandated responsibilities, have had insignificant and minimal impact on the practical, political and legislative segment.

  4. Sextortion of Minors: Characteristics and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Walsh, Wendy; Treitman, Leah

    2018-01-01

    Sextortion (threats to expose sexual images to coerce victims to provide additional pictures, sex, or other favors) has been identified as an emerging online threat to youth, but research is scarce. We describe sextortion incidents from a large sample of victims (n = 1,385) and examine whether incidents occurring to minors (n = 572) are more or less serious than those experienced by young adults (n = 813). We ran advertising campaigns on Facebook to recruit victims of sextortion, ages 18-25, for an online survey. We use cross tabulations and logistic regression to analyze incidents that began when 18- and 19-year-old respondents were minors (ages 17 and younger) and compare them with incidents that began at ages 18-25 years. Most minor victims were female (91%) and aged 16 or 17 when incidents started (75%). Almost 60% of respondents who were minors when sextortion occurred knew perpetrators in person, often as romantic partners. Most knowingly provided images to perpetrators (75%), but also felt pressured to do so (67%). About one-third were threatened with physical assaults and menaced for >6 months. Half did not disclose incidents, and few reported to police or websites. Perpetrators against minors (vs. adults) were more likely to pressure victims into producing initial sexual images, demand additional images, threaten victims for >6 months, and urge victims to harm themselves. Sextortion incidents were serious victimizations, and often co-occurred with teen dating violence. We describe resources so that practitioners can help victims find support and legal advice and remove posted images. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaccines for minor use and minor species (MUMS)--industry's views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönisch, B

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the importance of vaccines for minor use and minor species has changed for multinational animal health companies. The major reasons for this are being reviewed, with a particular focus on technical, financial and business aspects. Key regulatory obstacles to the development of new products for minor uses and minor species are identified, and examples of vaccines falling into the various categories are provided. A number of proposals are offered with the intention of resolving the medicines availability problem between all the stakeholders involved. Finally, based on the presented scientific and regulatory considerations, ideas are shared as to where the legal and economical framework would need to change to reach a viable solution.

  6. Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: testing a minority family stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Yeniad, Nihal

    2013-12-01

    According to the family stress model (Conger & Donnellan, 2007), low socioeconomic status (SES) predicts less-than-optimal parenting through family stress. Minority families generally come from lower SES backgrounds than majority families, and may experience additional stressors associated with their minority status, such as acculturation stress. The primary goal of this study was to test a minority family stress model with a general family stress pathway, as well as a pathway specific to ethnic minority families. The sample consisted of 107 Turkish-Dutch mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children, and positive parenting was observed during a 7-min problem-solving task. In addition, mothers reported their daily hassles, psychological distress, and acculturation stress. The relation between SES and positive parenting was partially mediated by both general maternal psychological stress and maternal acculturation stress. Our study contributes to the argument that stressors specific to minority status should be considered in addition to more general demographic and family stressors in understanding parenting behavior in ethnic minority families.

  7. Sexual Minority Stressors, Internalizing Symptoms, and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexuals to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors. Purpose To examine sexual minority stressors and internalizing symptoms as predictors of unhealthy eating behaviors among sexual minority youth. Methods We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority youth in the Growing Up Today Study, across ages 14-28 years. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors would predict unhealthy eating behaviors, in part due to internalizing symptoms. Linear regression models fit via generalized estimating equations were stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Results Significant positive and inverse associations between stressors and eating behaviors were detected among females and males, with more significant associations among females. Associations were attenuated by up to 71% for females and 12% for males when internalizing symptoms were added to the models. Conclusions Sexual minority stressors predicted unhealthy eating behaviors overall and more so for some sexual orientation and gender groups; associations were partially explained by internalizing symptoms. The conceptual model appears to best describe the experiences of bisexual females. Findings have clinical implications for adolescent health. PMID:26156678

  8. What is a good death? Minority and non-minority perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elizabeth; McGraw, Sarah A; Dobihal, Edward; Baggish, Rosemary; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2003-01-01

    While much attention has been directed at improving the quality of care at the end of life, few studies have examined what determines a good death in different individuals. We sought to identify common domains that characterize a good death in a diverse range of community-dwelling individuals, and to describe differences that might exist between minority and non-minority community-dwelling individuals' views. Using data from 13 focus groups, we identified 10 domains that characterize the quality of the death experience: 1) physical comfort, 2) burdens on family, 3) location and environment, 4) presence of others, 5) concerns regarding prolongation of life, 6) communication, 7) completion and emotional health, 8) spiritual care, 9) cultural concerns, 10) individualization. Differences in minority compared to non-minority views were apparent within the domains of spiritual concerns, cultural concerns, and individualization. The findings may help in efforts to encourage more culturally sensitive and humane end-of-life care for both minority and non-minority individuals.

  9. Issues in contracting with small minority businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.T.; Radford, M.L.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of this investigation was to identify issues central to increasing the involvement of small minority businesses (MBs) in federal or prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE), as a foundation for designing a program to assist buyers of contracted goods and services. The approach to determining issues involved interviewing the owners of 15 MBs, representing a range of businesses, and buyers and purchasing officers from three large DOE prime contractors. The interviewees identified issues related to positive working relationships and rated a predetermined set of 27 potential MB-DOE problems regarding their existence and criticalness. The issues identified by MBs were of two broad types. The predominant issues and barriers were associated with their being small businesses. Secondary issues reflected the disadvantaged status of the business (woman and/or minority-owned).

  10. Mental health issues in unaccompanied refugee minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huemer Julia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance.

  11. The Human Rights of Minority Women:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    2010-01-01

    . These challenges go beyond the Romani issue only and into larger issues of women and minorities. It raises questions as to whether the historical separation between categories of gender and race/ethnicity within the international community in practice has become a gap that isolates Romani women from the human...... rights attention that they claim. It is argued that in order to strengthen the validity of human rights in the lives of Romani women, as a framework that ensures their full and equal protection, special attention needs to be given to interrelated grounds and forms of discrimination. “Intersectionality......This article explores the complexities surrounding the human rights of minority women. With analytical focus on Romani women in Europe it seeks to contribute with new insight into the grey areas of rights issues, where groups within special rights categories share different human rights concerns...

  12. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  13. Education and ethnic minorities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Bjørg

    The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant, ......, among ethnic minorities and native danes can be explainedby differences i parental, family and ethnic background and, second, how education resources are allocated among children within ethnic minorities families.......The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant...

  14. Minor actinide transmutation in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation of radioactive waste, the legacy of nuclear energy use, gains rising interest. This includes the development of facilities able to transmute minor actinides (MA) into stable or short-lived isotopes before final disposal. The most common proposal is to use a double-strata approach with accelerator-driven-systems (ADS) for the efficient transmutation of MA and power reactors to dispose plutonium. An ADS consists of a sub-critical core that reaches criticality with neutrons supplied by a spallation target. An MCNP model of the ADS system Multi Purpose Research Reactor for Hightech Applications will be presented. Depletion calculations have been performed for both standard MOX fuel and transmutation fuel with an increased content of minor actinides. The resulting transmutation rates for MAs are compared to published values. Special attention is given to selected fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129, which impact the radiation from the spent fuel significantly.

  15. Implementing Minority Rights in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-27

    strengthening the autonomous powers of local government over taxation , delivery of services, and language use. The government of the Republic of Macedonia...or a considerable number. The Center for Ethnic Relations at the Institute for Sociological, Political, and Juridical Research, as a scientific...Affairs, members of national minorities represent 16.5 percent of the total number of those employed, a figure that has almost doubled in only two to

  16. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  17. The circumstances of minor planet discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilcher, F.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances of discoveries of minor planets are presented in tabular form. Complete data are given for planets 2125-4044, together with notes pertaining to these planets. Information in the table includes the permanent number; the official name; for planets 330 and forward, the table includes the provisional designation attached to the discovery apparition and the year, month, the day of discovery, and the discovery place

  18. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G. Ivan; Christenson, John M.; Renier, J.P.; Marcille, T.F.; Casal, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs). A top-level objective of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis program element of the DOE NERI program is to investigate spent fuel treatment and recycling options for current light water reactors (LWRs). Accordingly, this project targets to expand the traditional scope of nuclear fuel management optimization into the following two complementary specific objectives: (1) To develop a direct coupling between the pin-by-pin within-bundle loading control variables and core-wide (bundle-by-bundle) optimization objectives, (2) to extend the methodology developed to explicitly encompass control variables, objectives, and constraints designed to maximize minor actinide incineration in BWR bundles and cycles. The first specific objective is projected to 'uncover' dormant thermal margin made available by employing additional degrees of freedom within the optimization process, while the addition of minor actinides is expected to 'consume' some of the uncovered thermal margin. Therefore, a key underlying goal of this project is to effectively invest some of the uncovered thermal margin into achieving the primary objective.

  19. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  20. Solar-wind minor ions: recent observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the years following the Solar Wind Four Conference at Burghausen our knowledge of the solar wind ion composition and dynamics has grown. There have been some surprises, and our understanding of the evolution of the solar wind has been improved. Systematic studies have shown that the minor ions generally travel with a common bulk speed and have temperatures roughly proportional to their masses. It has been determined that the 3 He ++ content varies greatly; 3 He ++ / 4 He ++ ranges from as high as 10 2 values to below 2 x 10 - 4 . In some solar wind flows which can be related to energetic coronal events, the minor ions are found in unusual ionization states containing Fe 16 + as a prominent ion, showing that the states were formed at unusually high temperatures. Unexpectedly, in a few flows substantial quantities of 4 He + have been detected, sometimes with ions identifiable as O 2 + and O 3 + . Surprisingly, in some of these examples the ionization state is mixed showing that part of the plasma escaped the corona without attaining the usual million-degree temperatures while other parts were heated more nearly in the normal manner. Additionally, detailed studies of the minor ions have increased our understanding of the coronal expansion. For example, such studies have contributed to identifying near equatorial coronal streamers as the source of solar wind flows between high speed streams

  1. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  2. Minority stressors, rumination, and psychological distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Liam; Rimes, Katharine A; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-11-07

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics. Thirty-eight twin pairs in which one was heterosexual and the other was LGB completed a survey. Differences between twin pairs in minority stressors, rumination, psychological distress, and gender non-conformity were examined. Associations between these variables were also tested. Although there were no significant group differences for distress, LGB twins had higher rumination, a vulnerability factor for distress, than heterosexual co-twins. LGB twins also had higher scores than heterosexual co-twins on expectations of rejection, active concealment, self-stigma, prejudice events, childhood gender non-conformity, and lower scores on sexual orientation disclosure. Differences between twin pairs in rumination were positively associated with differences in acceptance concerns and self-stigma. Finally, self-stigma was positively associated with rumination in the full sample of heterosexual co-twins and microaggressions were positively associated with rumination when looking at exclusively heterosexual co-twins. These results support environmental factors as a causal explanation for disparities in rumination between LGB and heterosexual individuals. These factors likely include minority stressors. Rumination may also be associated with minority stressors in heterosexual MZ co-twins of LGB individuals.

  3. Minority Institution ARO Fuel Cell/Battery Manufacturing Research Hub

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selman, J

    2001-01-01

    ...) high-energy rechargeable battery research concentrated on Li-ion batteries; (3) minority outreach to give undergraduate minority students hands-on experience in electrochemical energy conversion technology and attract them to graduate studies...

  4. Minority Language Education in Malaysia: Four Ethnic Communities' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karla J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses minority language education in Malaysia, a multilingual and multicultural country. Looks at four language minority groups and what they have done to to provide beginning education programs for their children that use the children's native languages. (Author/VWL)

  5. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  6. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  7. Introduction-Minority Language Policy: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Oeter

    2007-01-01

    In practice the Charter has created legal standards that work like individual and collective rights and that empower minority language speakers to insist upon education in minority languages, on using the languages before judicial courts and the administration, on claiming a right to receive radio and television programmes in minority languages, and on insisting to be treated in the minority language in hospitals and homes for the elderly, to name only some of the most important guarantees of...

  8. Taking the struggle elsewhere. Minority representation in the European Parliament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005......This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005...

  9. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta | Quaker-Dokubo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a conceptual background typical types of minorities and typical sources of minority conflict are outlined. A historical overview is given of the problems Niger Delta minorities have been experiencing. Their grievances and demands are highlighted, and the responses of different Nigerian governments are discussed.

  10. Minority Students and Faculty in Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a brief summary of the current minority situation in university and college music programs in the United States. Research in this area has concentrated to varying degrees on specific subsets of the minority population (e.g., African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians) as well as on minorities in a more general…

  11. 78 FR 59425 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...] Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) announces a meeting of the Minority Depository... discussion of the status of the minority depository institution industry and current topics of interest to...

  12. 78 FR 79076 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...] Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) announces a meeting of the Minority Depository..., DC 20219. Agenda items include a discussion of the status of the minority depository institution...

  13. 78 FR 5871 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...] Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency... Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) announces a meeting of the Minority Depository Institutions Advisory... be open to the public. Agenda items include a discussion of the status of the minority depository...

  14. 75 FR 51169 - OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [Docket ID: OTS-2010-0026] OTS Minority... (OTS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Charter for the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory... of the Treasury to announce the renewal of the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory...

  15. 76 FR 71438 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...] Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Office of the... Currency (OCC) has determined to carry on the work of the Minority Depository Institutions Advisory... and in the public interest in order for the OCC to preserve the present number of minority depository...

  16. 75 FR 22576 - Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA No. 84.120A] Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program... the fiscal year (FY) 2009 grant slate for the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program. SUMMARY: The Secretary intends to use the grant slate developed in FY 2009 for the Minority Science and...

  17. 77 FR 48204 - Minority Depository Institution Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...] Minority Depository Institution Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency... renewal of the Charter of the OCC Minority Depository Institution Advisory Committee (MDIAC) is necessary... and future development of minority depository institutions, in accordance with the goals established...

  18. Minority Stress across the Career-Lifespan Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispenza, Franco; Brown, Colton; Chastain, Taylor E.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority persons (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) are likely to encounter "minority stress", such as discrimination, concealment, expectation of rejection, and internalized heterosexism. Minority stress occurs alongside one's lifespan and has considerable implications in the context of the career lifespan trajectory.…

  19. Minor's healthcare: who decides? | Osime | Port Harcourt Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Virtually all legal authorities are in agreement that minors can indeed give valid informed consent for treatment (or make informed refusal) provided the minor is mature or emancipated. And for minors indeed, the overall best interest of the child should be taken into consideration with respect to parents or guardians ...

  20. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of this...

  1. 40 CFR 158.60 - Minor use data policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to, the following: (a) A new data requirement pertinent to both an unregistered minor use and a registered major use will not be applied to a minor use applicant until it is applied to the major use... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor use data policies. 158.60...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2184 - Operating permits for minor sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating permits for minor sources. 52... permits for minor sources. Emission limitations and related provisions established in South Dakota minor... right to deem permit conditions not federally enforceable. Such a determination will be made according...

  3. Growth limitation of Lemna minor due to high plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of high population densities on the growth rate of Lemna minor (L.) was studied under laboratory conditions at 23°C in a medium with sufficient nutrients. At high population densities, we found a non-linear decreasing growth rate with increasing L. minor density. Above a L. minor biomass

  4. 7 CFR 772.7 - Leasing minor program loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing minor program loan security. 772.7 Section 772..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.7 Leasing minor program loan security. (a) Eligibility. The Agency may consent to the borrower leasing all or a portion of security...

  5. Self-Regulation in Children and Minors in Institutional Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbackova, Karla; Vavrova, Sona

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ…

  6. 38 CFR 10.51 - Payments to minor child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments to minor child. 10.51 Section 10.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Payments § 10.51 Payments to minor child. Payments to minor child through legal guardian, natural...

  7. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  8. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  9. Russian Minorities in the Former USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Pérez González

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Soviet Empire has brought out the importance of the nationalities problem and the contradictory results produced by the various formulas applied since 1922 for resolving it. Two characteristics conditioned the evolution of this problem in the Soviet Union: the choice of a territorial model which would give a important role to the Empire’s non-Russian peoples; and the contradiction between the theoretical base established by Lenin and Stalin for solving the problem and actual practice, which followed traditional channels. The result was a new territorial structure endowed with the external elements characteristic of a state but cancelled out by the superiority of a party and by a policy ofprotecting minorities deliberately designed to make the new national entities nonviable. The lack of an adequately institutionalized state was at the root, of the virtual disappearance, after the collapse of the Communist Party, of links between the center and the periphery, a situation that nationalism, where it existed, exploited to gain powerand that governing minorities, meaningless outside the framework created by the USSR, exploited to stay in power. The result was none other than the appearance of new ethnically heterogeneous states with imprecise borders, bereft of the systems of interethnic equilibriumthe Soviet administration had created, and willing to consolidate their independence and identity at the expense of minorities such as the Russians, which have been discriminated against at times and excluded from political and cultural life at others. This phenomenonhas reduced the chances for the new states’ integration on an international level, placed a burden on the incipient democratic systems and made for tense relations with Russia.

  10. Operational safety evaluation for minor reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address a concern of applying conservatism in analysing minor reactor incidents. A so-called ''conservative'' safety analysis may exaggerate the system responses and result in a reactor scram tripped by the reactor protective system (RPS). In reality, a minor incident may lead the reactor to a new thermal hydraulic steady-state without scram, and the mitigation or termination of the incident may entirely depend on operator actions. An example on a small steamline break evaluation for a pressurized water reactor recently investigated by the staff at the Washington Public Power Supply System is presented to illustrate this point. A safety evaluation using mainly the safety-related systems to be consistent with the conservative assumptions used in the Safety Analysis Report was conducted. For comparison, a realistic analysis was also performed using both the safety- and control-related systems. The analyses were performed using the RETRAN plant simulation computer code. The ''conservative'' safety analysis predicts that the incident can be turned over by the RPS scram trips without operator intervention. However, the realistic analysis concludes that the reactor will reach a new steady-state at a different plant thermal hydraulic condition. As a result, the termination of the incident at this stage depends entirely on proper operator action. On the basis of this investigation it is concluded that, for minor incidents, ''conservative'' assumptions are not necessary, sometimes not justifiable. A realistic investigation from the operational safety point of view is more appropriate. It is essential to highlight the key transient indications for specific incident recognition in the operator training program

  11. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Phalet, K.; Lens, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination

  12. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  14. Strategy selection in the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the choice of an active strategy in the minority game. A history distribution is introduced as an analytical tool to study the asymmetry between the two choices offered to the agents. Its properties are studied numerically. It allows us to show that the departure from uniformity in the initial attribution of strategies to the agents is important even in the efficient market. Also, an approximate expression for the variance of the number of agents at one side in the efficient phase is proposed. All the analytical propositions are supported by numerical simulations of the system.

  15. ISLAM AND MINORITIES: Managing Identity in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suaedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian general election in March 2008 raised an interesting and new phenomenon. For the first time since independence in 1957, the ruling alliance known as the National Front (Barisan Nasional, BN failed to secure two thirds of seats in parliament and lost control of five of Malaysia’s 13 states. This was due to the challenge presented by the new opposition alliance known as the Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif, BA or the People’s Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat, PK which won more than 36% of seats in parliament and gained control of the five states. In the 2004 election, BN secured the largest ever percentage of seats in parliament with 91%. What is interesting is that it seems that this significant increase in support for the opposition is  due to their offer to change the way minorities and ethnicity is managed. They  propose a move from “Bumiputera Supremacy”, or affirmative action for the approximately 65% of “Bumiputera” Malaysians (the rest being largely of Chinese or Indian ethnicity, to “The People’s Supremacy”, which involves eradicating affirmative action based on ethnicity, basing it instead on need, for  instance need due to poverty. This would potentially increase the likelihood  of justice and equality for all ethnic or racial groups. This paper connects the phenomenon of change, as seen in the about turn in the results between the  2004 and 2008 elections, to the more global trend in which minorities are standing up to demand their rights in this era of globalization, and to the challenge multiculturalism presents to parts of the Muslim world such as Malaysia. Malaysia, a Muslim majority nation that has formally declared Islam the official state religion with Yang di-Pertuan Agong (the King as  Head of the State and symbol of Islam, is one example, though not necessarily  representative, of how Islam and Muslims manage minorities and identity or  multiculturalism within the process of globalization

  16. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specifi...

  17. On freak minor octopus, Octopus minor, found out in Imabari Fish Market, Ehime Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Higashide, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    The three male freak minor octopus, Octopus minor were found out on Fish Market of Imabari Fisheries Cooperative, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One of them was the octopus landed on May 25, 2006, which had two hectocotilized arms on both of the third right and left, though male octopus usually has only one hectocotilized arm on the third right arm. It was seemed to be arisen from the abnormal generation. Another ones were landed on the Fish Market on April 16 and June 26, 2007, respectively. Both ...

  18. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority students. To replicate across cultures the known motivational benefits of perceived instrumentality and internal regulation by distant future goals; to clarify when and how the future motivates minority students' educational performance. Participants in this study were 279 minority students (100 of Turkish and 179 of Moroccan origin) and 229 native Dutch students in Dutch secondary schools. Participants rated the importance of future goals, their perceptions of instrumentality, their task motivation and learning strategies. Dependent measures and their functional relations with future goal setting were simultaneously validated across minority and non-minority students, using structural equation modelling in multiple groups. As expected, Positive Perceived Instrumentality for the future increases task motivation and (indirectly) adaptive learning of both minority and non-minority students. But especially internally regulating future goals are strongly related to more task motivation and indirectly to more adaptive learning strategies. Our findings throw new light on the role of future goal setting in minority school careers: distant future goals enhance minority and non-minority students' motivation and learning, if students perceive positive instrumentality and if their schoolwork is internally regulated by future goals.

  19. Language, Ethnicity and Education: Case Studies on Immigrant Minority Groups and Immigrant Minority Languages. Multilingual Matters 111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus

    Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe are viewed from three perspectives (demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational) through case studies. The first part, using a demographic approach, includes research on immigrant minority groups in population statistics of both European Union and English-dominant countries…

  20. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

  1. Trabectedin – the DNA minor groove binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Belitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trabectedin (ET-743, Yondelis is an alkaloid that was originally isolated from the Caribbean Sea squirt, Ecteinascidia turbinata and is now produced synthetically. Its chemical structure consists in three fused tetrahydroisoquinoline rings. Two of them, A and B, binds covalently to guanine residues in the minor groove of the DNA double helix to bend the molecule toward the major groove and the third ring C protrudes from the DNA duplex, apparently allowing interactions with several nuclear proteins. Binding to the minor groove of DNA, trabectedin trigger a cascade of events that interfere with several transcription factors, DNA binding proteins, and DNA repair pathways in particular nucleotide excision repair. It acts both as a DNA-alkylating drug and topoisomerase poison. Trabectedin-DNA adduct traps the nucleotide excision repair proteins repairing the DNA damage in transcribing genes and induces DNA strand breaks. Cells deficient in homologous recombination pathway which repairs these double-strand breaks show increased sensitivity to trabectedin. The most sensitive of them were myxoid liposarcomas. Trabectedin is also effective in chemotherapy-experienced patients with advanced, recurrent liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma as well as in women with ovarian cancer and breast cancer with BRCAness phenotype. Besides of tumor cells Trabectedin inhibits inflammatory cells by affecting directly monocytes and tumorassociated macrophages and indirectly by inhibiting production of inflammatory mediators, the cytokines and chemokines. It inhibits also the MDR-1 gene, which is responsible for the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and strikes tumor angiogenesis.

  2. Assessment of acculturation in minority health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2017-03-01

    Acculturation represents an important construct in the context of health disparities. Although several studies have reported relationships between various aspects of acculturation and health in minority populations, crucial inconsistencies remain. One likely reason for these inconsistencies may relate to limitations in the conceptualization and operationalization of acculturation, particularly in the context of health research. The acculturation construct underwent major conceptual and operational change when it was adapted from anthropology to psychology, and we argue another major shift is now required for use of this construct in health research. Issues include determining whether acculturation measures should focus on an individual's internal attitudes or overt behaviors; whether they should characterize cultural orientation status at a given point in time or change over time; whether measures should be culture-specific or more global in nature; how the issue of multiculturalism should be addressed; how measures can optimally incorporate multiple dimensions of acculturation; and whether proxy measures should be used. These issues are important in the context of health research because of their implications for determining the direct and indirect effects of cultural change on health-related biological and behavioral processes. We elaborate on and address each of these issues from a perspective that spans multiple disciplines across the biological and social sciences, and offer concrete recommendations with the ultimate goal of achieving a better understanding of the role of acculturation in minority health and health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of acculturation in minority health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

    2017-01-01

    Acculturation represents an important construct in the context of health disparities. Although several studies have reported relationships between various aspects of acculturation and health in minority populations, crucial inconsistencies remain. One likely reason for these inconsistencies may relate to limitations in the conceptualization and operationalization of acculturation, particularly in the context of health research. The acculturation construct underwent major conceptual and operational change when it was adapted from anthropology to psychology, and we argue another major shift is now required for use of this construct in health research. Issues include determining whether acculturation measures should focus on an individual’s internal attitudes or overt behaviors; whether they should characterize cultural orientation status at a given point in time or change over time; whether measures should be culture-specific or more global in nature; how the issue of multiculturalism should be addressed; how measures can optimally incorporate multiple dimensions of acculturation; and whether proxy measures should be used. These issues are important in the context of health research because of their implications for determining the direct and indirect effects of cultural change on health-related biological and behavioral processes. We elaborate on and address each of these issues from a perspective that spans multiple disciplines across the biological and social sciences, and offer concrete recommendations with the ultimate goal of achieving a better understanding of the role of acculturation in minority health and health disparities. PMID:28135691

  4. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.

  5. Minority games, evolving capitals and replicator dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, Tobias; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a simple version of the minority game (MG) in which agents hold only one strategy each, but in which their capitals evolve dynamically according to their success and in which the total trading volume varies in time accordingly. This feature is known to be crucial for MGs to reproduce stylized facts of real market data. The stationary states and phase diagram of the model can be computed, and we show that the ergodicity breaking phase transition common for MGs, and marked by a divergence of the integrated response, is present also in this simplified model. An analogous majority game turns out to be relatively void of interesting features, and the total capital is found to diverge in time. Introducing a restraining force leads to a model akin to the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory, and we demonstrate that here a different type of phase transition is observed. Finally we briefly discuss the relation of this model with one strategy per player to more sophisticated minority games with dynamical capitals and several trading strategies per agent

  6. Minority Engineering Program Pipeline: A Proposal to Increase Minority Student Enrollment and Retention in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charity, Pamela C.; Klein, Paul B.; Wadhwa, Bhushan

    1995-01-01

    The Cleveland State University Minority Engineering Program Pipeline consist of programs which foster engineering career awareness, academic enrichment, and professional development for historically underrepresented minority studies. The programs involved are the Access to Careers in Engineering (ACE) Program for high school pre-engineering students: the LINK Program for undergraduate students pursuing degree which include engineering; and the PEP (Pre-calculus Enrichment Program) and EPIC (Enrichment Program in Calculus) mathematics programs for undergraduate academic enrichment. The pipeline is such that high school graduates from the ACE Program who enroll at Cleveland State University in pursuit of engineering degrees are admitted to the LINK Program for undergraduate level support. LINK Program students are among the minority participants who receive mathematics enrichment through the PEP and EPIC Programs for successful completion of their engineering required math courses. THese programs are interdependent and share the goal of preparing minority students for engineering careers by enabling them to achieve academically and obtain college degree and career related experience.

  7. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  8. Minority within a Minority Paradox: Asian Experiences in Latino Schools & Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sarai; Nishimura, Trisha S.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Critical Race Theory (CRT), the authors report on narratives of education collected from three young Asian women living in and attending a predominately Latina/o community and school. The authors explored how Asians and Latina/o groups intersect in a majority minority community. Specifically, they sought to understand: (1) How young…

  9. 77 FR 35837 - Conditionally Approved New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species; Masitinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    .... The supplemental CNADA provides for a revised indication for masitinib mesylate tablets in dogs. DATES... in dogs that have not previously received radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy except corticosteroids. In accordance with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Minor Use and...

  10. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Callahan, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources, including industry, scientific societies, individuals, and during the last 10 years, the NSF. College-level students apply for the MPP awards or award renewals, and the MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. Mentoring is a long-standing hallmark of the AGI MPP. Every AGI MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars. The MPP Advisory Committee aims to match the profession of the mentor with the scholar's academic interest. Throughout the year, mentors and scholars communicate about possible opportunities in the geosciences such as internships, participation in symposia, professional society meetings, and job openings. Mentors have also been active in helping younger students cope with the major changes involved in relocating to a new region of the country or a new college culture. We believe that AGI is well-positioned to advance diversity in the geosciences through its unique standing as the major professional organization in the

  11. Management of minor salivary gland carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of radiotherapy alone or in combination with surgery in the treatment of patients with malignant minor salivary gland carcinomas. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and November 1992, 95 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas of the head and neck received radiotherapy with curative intent. Eighty-seven patients were previously untreated, and 8 were treated for postsurgical recurrence. Fifty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, and 44 were treated by surgical resection plus radiotherapy. Patients were staged according to the 1983 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria for squamous cell carcinomas. Results: The 20-year actuarial rate of local control was 57% with no significant difference according to histologic type. When tumor stage was taken into consideration, there were no significant differences in local control according to tumor site. The 12-year actuarial probability of distant metastases was 40% (19% as the only site of failure). In multivariate analyses, local control was significantly affected only by tumor stage and treatment type (combined therapy better than radiotherapy alone); tumor stage was a significant predictor of cause-specific survival and freedom from relapse. Freedom-from-relapse rates were higher for patients who received combined treatment (p = 0.068). Conclusions: Treatment of minor salivary gland carcinomas is usually by combined surgery and radiotherapy, but there are situations where surgery alone or radiotherapy alone may be used. The ability to control these tumors with radiotherapy alone is not widely recognized. In the present series, the tumor was locally controlled in 20 patients with previously untreated primary lesions after radiotherapy alone (2.5 to 21 years) and in 4 other patients who were treated by radiotherapy alone for postsurgical recurrent tumor (3.5 to 14 years after radiotherapy). Contrary to the widely held belief that local recurrence

  12. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  13. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  14. Social Interaction and the Minority-Majority Earnings Inequality : Why Being a Minority Hurts but being a big Minority Hurts More

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahanec, M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical findings that minorities typically attain lower economic status than majorities and that relatively larger minorities perform worse than smaller ones pose a challenge to economics.To explain this scale puzzle, I model an economy where the society is bifurcated into two social groups that

  15. Thermal treatment of the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, E.; Ceva, Horacio; Perazzo, R. P.

    2002-03-01

    We study a cost function for the aggregate behavior of all the agents involved in the minority game (MG) or the bar attendance model (BAM). The cost function allows us to define a deterministic, synchronous dynamic that yields results that have the main relevant features than those of the probabilistic, sequential dynamics used for the MG or the BAM. We define a temperature through a Langevin approach in terms of the fluctuations of the average attendance. We prove that the cost function is an extensive quantity that can play the role of an internal energy of the many-agent system while the temperature so defined is an intensive parameter. We compare the results of the thermal perturbation to the deterministic dynamics and prove that they agree with those obtained with the MG or BAM in the limit of very low temperature.

  16. Towards the Enhancement of "MINOR" Archaeological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research, maintenance and presentation with interactive products. The use of three-dimensional models managed through AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies with mobile devices gives several opportunities in the field of study and communication. It also improves on-site exploration of the landscape, enhancing the "minor" archaeological sites, daily subjected to numerous emergency works and facilitating the understanding of heritage sites.

  17. Dynamics of a spherical minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, T; Coolen, A C C; Sherrington, D

    2003-01-01

    We present an exact dynamical solution of a spherical version of the batch minority game (MG) with random external information. The control parameters in this model are the ratio of the number of possible values for the public information over the number of agents, and the radius of the spherical constraint on the microscopic degrees of freedom. We find a phase diagram with three phases: two without anomalous response (an oscillating versus a frozen state) and a further frozen phase with divergent integrated response. In contrast to standard MG versions, we can also calculate the volatility exactly. Our study reveals similarities between the spherical and the conventional MG, but also intriguing differences. Numerical simulations confirm our analytical results

  18. Information visualization of the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; Herbert, R. D.; Webber, R.

    2008-02-01

    Many dynamical systems produce large quantities of data. How can the system be understood from the output data? Often people are simply overwhelmed by the data. Traditional tools such as tables and plots are often not adequate, and new techniques are needed to help people to analyze the system. In this paper, we propose the use of two spacefilling visualization tools to examine the output from a complex agent-based financial model. We measure the effectiveness and performance of these tools through usability experiments. Based on the experimental results, we develop two new visualization techniques that combine the advantages and discard the disadvantages of the information visualization tools. The model we use is an evolutionary version of the Minority Game which simulates a financial market.

  19. Quenching and annealing in the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, E.; Ceva, Horacio; Perazzo, R. P. J.

    2001-05-01

    We study the bar attendance model (BAM) and a generalized version of the minority game (MG) in which a number of agents self organize to match an attendance that is fixed externally as a control parameter. We compare the probabilistic dynamics used in the MG with one that we introduce for the BAM that makes better use of the same available information. The relaxation dynamics of the MG leads the system to long lived, metastable (quenched) configurations in which adaptive evolution stops in spite of being far from equilibrium. On the contrary, the BAM relaxation dynamics avoids the MG glassy state, leading to an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we introduce in the MG model the concept of annealing by defining a new procedure with which one can gradually overcome the metastable MG states, bringing the system to an equilibrium that coincides with the one obtained with the BAM.

  20. Information visualization of the minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W; Herbert, R D; Webber, R

    2008-01-01

    Many dynamical systems produce large quantities of data. How can the system be understood from the output data? Often people are simply overwhelmed by the data. Traditional tools such as tables and plots are often not adequate, and new techniques are needed to help people to analyze the system. In this paper, we propose the use of two spacefilling visualization tools to examine the output from a complex agent-based financial model. We measure the effectiveness and performance of these tools through usability experiments. Based on the experimental results, we develop two new visualization techniques that combine the advantages and discard the disadvantages of the information visualization tools. The model we use is an evolutionary version of the Minority Game which simulates a financial market

  1. The transition to efficiency in minority games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, Tobias; De Martino, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The existence of a phase transition with diverging susceptibility in batch minority games (MGs) is the mark of informationally efficient regimes and is linked to the specifics of the agents' learning rules. Here, we study how the standard scenario is affected in a mixed population game in which agents with the 'optimal' learning rule (i.e. the one leading to efficiency) coexist with those whose adaptive dynamics is sub-optimal. Our generic finding is that any non-vanishing intensive fraction of optimal agents guarantees the existence of an efficient phase. Specifically, we calculate the dependence of the critical point on the fraction q of 'optimal' agents focusing our analysis on three cases: MGs with market impact correction, grand-canonical MGs and MGs with heterogeneous comfort levels

  2. The Hamming distance in the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1999-08-01

    We investigate different versions of the minority game, a toy model for agents buying and selling a commodity. The Hamming distance between the strategies used by agents to make decisions is introduced as an analytical tool to determine several properties of these models. The success rate of the agents in an adaptive version of the game is compared with the rate from a stochastic version. It is shown numerically and analytically that the adaptive process is inefficient, increasing the success rate of the unused strategies while decreasing the success rate of the strategies used by the agents. The agents do not do as well as if they were forced to use only one strategy permanently. A version of the game in which the agents strategies evolve is also analysed using the notion of distance. The agents evolve into a state in which they are all using one strategy, which is again the state that yields the maximum success rate.

  3. Own education institutions as an option for minority groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Steyn

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the introductory part deals with Christian guidelines regarding the rights of minority groups. In the ensuing part the provision of education according to the unique educational needs of minority groups is discussed within the context of the presented guidelines. It is indicated that own education is internationally accepted as one of the major rights of minority groups. Within the international context, for example in the treaties of Unesco and in the educational provision of several countries, it is accepted that minority groups also prefer their own education institutions in order to effectively provide in their unique educational needs. In this article the more general requirements, regarding the characteristics of the education institution needed to meet the unique educational needs of a particular minority group are also identified. The impending problems in South Africa regarding own education schools for minorities are discussed briefly. In order to find possible solutions the situation in the Netherlands regarding "bijzondere scholen” to provide in the unique educational needs of particular interest groups and particularly religious groups is analysed. The conclusion arrived at is that the mentioned situation does not oppose Christian guidelines if minorities need each other to influence educational change, that the acknowledgement of the educational rights of minority groups promotes national unity, that the educational rights of minorities should imply freedom of establishment, denomination and institution and that the educational rights of minorities are fully realised if their education is financially supported by government on an equal basis to that of the majority.

  4. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  5. NATIONAL MINORITIES IN THE LAW OF THE EC/EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Šmihula

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the law of the EC/EU the protection of national minorities is still a marginal matter. The EU has relied on general international law and on a European regional system of international law and, in case of necessity, accepted their norms. But in the 1990s there began a process of “de-economisation of the European integration” and the importance of national minorities became higher. Protection of the national minorities has not become a generally accepted legally binding principle of the EU, although in several legal acts issues of national minorities are mentioned. On the other hand, the political relevance of national minorities´ protection is very high. The importance of protection of national minorities in future will probably grow. It is a result of the adoption of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (2000 and of the discussions regarding the European constitution and the Treaty of Lisbon.

  6. Low velocity encounters of minor bodies with the outer planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusi, A.; Perozzi, E.; Valsecchi, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies of close encounters of minor bodies with Jupiter have shown that the perturbations are stronger either if the encounter is very deep or if the velocity of the minor body relative to the planet is low. In the present research the author investigates the effects of low velocity encounters between fictitious minor bodies and the four outer planets. Two possible outcomes of this type of encounter are the temporary satellite capture of the minor body by the planet, and the exchange of perihelion with aphelion of the minor body orbit. Different occurrence rates of these processes are found for different planets, and the implications for the orbital evolution of minor bodies in the outer Solar System are discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  8. Fracture toughness of Al-Cr alloys with minor additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.; Banerjee, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fracture toughness behavior of aluminium chromium alloys with minor additions is studied to determine its relation with microstructure and ageing conditions. The effect of the minor additions on the fracture toughness property of the alloys is also studied. Fracture toughness of Al-Cr alloys has been improved by selected minor additions. Also, the fracture toughness of the investigated alloys is found to be sensitive to ageing conditions. (author)

  9. Fixed Costs and the Product Market Treatment of Preference Minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Berry; Alon Eizenberg; Joel Waldfogel

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that, in the presence of substantial fixed costs, markets offer preference majorities more variety than preference minorities. This fact alone, however, does not demonstrate the market outcome is in any way biased against preference minorities. In this paper, we clarify the sense in which the market outcome may in fact be biased against preference minorities, and we provide some conditions for such bias to occur. We then estimate the degree of bias in a particular indust...

  10. Majority and minority influence: A dual role interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, N.K.; de Dreu, C.; Gordijn, E.; Schuurman, M.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter offers an analysis of majority vs. minority influence using the Heuristic-Systematic Model of persuasion (HSM). We evaluate evidence for and against leading perspectives such as Conversion Theory. Next, research and theory is reviewed suggesting that majority vs. minority influence differentially affect the processing of persuasive arguments. A dual-role interpretation of majority and minority influence is presented. First, numerical support for discrepant messages affects the de...

  11. Separator Theorems for Minor-Free and Shallow Minor-Free Graphs with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    . As corollaries of our results, we get improved algorithms for shortest paths and maximum matching. Furthermore, for integers l and h, we give an O(m + n(2+is an element of)/l) time algorithm that either produces a K(h)-minor of depth O(l log n) or a separator of size at most O(n/l + lh(2) log n). This improves...

  12. Minority Status and Labor Market Outcomes : Does India Have Minority Enclaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Maitreyi Bordia

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 61st Round of the National Sample Survey to understand the employment outcomes of Dalit and Muslim men in India. It uses a conceptual framework developed for the US labor market that states that ethnic minorities skirt discrimination in the primary labor market to build successful self-employed ventures in the form of ethnic enclaves or ethnic labor markets. ...

  13. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, J T; Gibbs, J J

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14-19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions.

  14. Explanations for Special Neighbourhood Preferences among Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper is examined if preferences exist among ethnic minorities for living close to an ethnic social network, in so-called ethnic enclaves, or living in neighbourhoods with many residents belonging to different ethnic minorities. It is analysed to what extent these preferences can be expla......In this paper is examined if preferences exist among ethnic minorities for living close to an ethnic social network, in so-called ethnic enclaves, or living in neighbourhoods with many residents belonging to different ethnic minorities. It is analysed to what extent these preferences can...

  15. MINOR INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES AND METHODS OF THEIR FINANCING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Komissarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor enterprises do not have resources sufficient for investment. Present experience of venture financing and attraction of funds from finance markets is poor in Russia. Main minor entrepreneurship financing sources are state allocations in the form of subsidies, subventionsand donations. This support promotes economics diversification and increases jobs. The state becomes client of innovations and provides for business environment favorable for minor entrepreneurship and for subsequent diffusion of innovations. One of most efficient innovationactivity stimulation methods (applied to minor enterprises as well is provision for tax privileges, favorable state bank credits and preferences to innovation activity supporting commercial banks.

  16. Self-regulation in children and minors in institutional care

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbáčková, Karla; Vávrová, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ significantly in perception of the wards' self-regulation of behaviour in the short and long-term context. The lowest rate of self-regulation in children and minor...

  17. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems.

  18. Proposing a Health Humanities Minor: Some Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Virginia Bucurel; Boria, Damon

    2017-12-01

    For those interested in developing baccalaureate programs in health humanities, this essay draws on our experience of developing a minor in health humanities to share insights on what to expect, strategies that work well, and how to deal with obstacles. These insights range from how to explain the concept of health humanities to stakeholders (faculty, administrators, and community partners) to how to decide where to house a health humanities program. We share our insights in a way that promises to translate well to different institutional contexts. That said, this paper is more relevant for institutional contexts where budgets are stressed and, consequently, proposals to invest in humanities programs are a difficult sell. This paper is divided into sections addressing how to (a) earn institutional support, (b) gain campus buy-in, (c) identify benefits of the proposed program, (d) decide where to house the program, (e) calculate program cost, and (f) secure external funding. We conclude with some final reflections on the current status of our program and why we are committed to health humanities education.

  19. Cultural Minorities and Life Styles: Iranian Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fakouhi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Globalization accelerated the paradoxical processes of modernization by introducing the cultural homogenizations and heterogenizations: construction and deconstruction of local-communitarian identities. This is why we are facing on the one hand, the increasing of local identities and visions and on the other hand, the interference, sometimes in a conflicted way, of the latter forms with the national and global identities. In this context, the Iranian problematic is discussed by an urban anthropological theoretical approach. The main concern in this article is the everyday life styles as the most important means of the cultural identity formation and their self expressions. Social constructed space as Lefebvre put it, and Cultural Studies tradition of everyday life, have been the starting points of this paper aiming to analyze the cultural resistance phenomenon expressed in physical and bodily spaces as well as in social and intercultural relations in domains such as age, ethnics and gender. These identity schemes have been taken as minority situations when they express in a way or other, some sort of cultural or social resistance facing a dominant pattern and by this way the paper try to present some practical and applied solutions to decrease the social tensions.

  20. Stillbirth in an Anglophone minority of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Mortensen, Laust; Toa-Lou, Clarisse; Costopoulos, André

    2015-03-01

    We assessed trends in stillbirth over time for Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, a large Canadian province with publically funded health care and an English-speaking minority. We calculated stillbirth rates for Francophones and Anglophones, and estimated hazard ratios (HR) by decade from 1981 to 2010, adjusting for maternal characteristics. We analyzed temporal trends by gestational interval and cause of fetal death. Stillbirth rates decreased in Quebec during the three decades, due to improved rates in Francophones. Rates decreased for Anglophones in 1991-2000, but increased in 2001-2010 at term, during the second trimester, and for most causes of fetal death. In the 2000s, the hazard of stillbirth for Anglophones was nearly the same as the hazard for Francophones in the 1980s (HR 0.93, 95 % confidence interval 0.82, 1.05). Stillbirth rates declined in both Francophones and Anglophones before the turn of the century, but increased thereafter for Anglophones, suggesting that linguistic inequalities in stillbirth may be emerging in Quebec. Linguistic status may be a useful marker for surveillance of inequalities in stillbirth.

  1. Behavior changes after minor emergency procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, Holly; Iyer, Srikant

    2013-10-01

    Procedures are common in pediatric emergency departments and frequently cause distress from pain and/or anxiety. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, types, and magnitude of long-term behavior changes after procedures in the emergency setting. This is a descriptive pilot study to determine if children display negative behavioral changes after a minor emergency department procedure (abscess drainage or laceration repair). Behavior change was measured at 1 week by telephone follow-up using the 27-item Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire, a well-validated instrument that measures behavior changes across 6 categories: general anxiety, separation anxiety, anxiety about sleep, eating disturbances, aggression toward authority, and apathy/withdrawal. Significant behavior change was defined as 5 or more negative behavior changes on the 27-item questionnaire. Twenty percent of children who underwent abscess drainage (n = 30) and 20% who underwent laceration repair (n = 30) displayed significant negative behavior change at 1 week. Children who displayed significant negative behavior change tended to be younger (3.6 vs 5.9 years) and trended toward being more likely to have received anxiolysis or sedation (16.7% vs 8.3%). Separation anxiety, sleep difficulties, and aggression toward authority were the most common behavior changes. In this pilot study, a significant percentage of children undergoing common emergency procedures exhibited an appreciable burden of negative behavior change at 1 week; these results demonstrate the need for further rigorous investigation of predictors of these changes and interventions, which can ameliorate these changes.

  2. Work-related injuries in minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, S E; Handke, J L; Halperin, W E; Moll, M B; Thun, M J

    1988-01-01

    Since 1938, federal child labor laws have restricted employment of persons under 18 years old, in part to protect them from hazardous occupations. Workers' compensation claims reported to the Supplementary Data System of the Bureau of Labor Statistics were examined to define the current status of occupational injuries among minors. Data tapes from 1980 to 1983 were searched to identify all current claims for injuries and illnesses occurring in 1980 in persons under age 18. Injury rates were calculated using information about employment in 1979 available from the 1980 census. In the 24 states included in this study, 23,823 claims were reported for persons less than 18 years old. Of these claims, approximately 10% were from persons under age 16. Rates of injuries in 16- and 17 year olds were 12.6 per 100 full-time male workers and 6.6 per 100 full-time female workers. Serious injuries included fractures, dislocations, and amputations, accounting for 5.8%, 0.7%, and 0.6% of cases, respectively. California, the only state that coded whether injuries resulted in fatalities, reported 12 deaths in this age group. Machines and vehicles, many of which are restricted under child labor laws, accounted for 8.3% and 5.8% of claims. These data suggest that persons under age 18 years are not adequately protected from occupational injury. Further attention and, possibly, new preventive strategies are needed.

  3. Minority dissent, social acceptance in collaborative learning groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Schruijer, S.G.L.; Fodor, Oana

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to test the extent to which social acceptance moderates the impact of minority dissent on group cognitive complexity (GCC). We hypothesize that divergent views expressed by a minority increase GCC especially when the group climate is open to divergent contributions

  4. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  5. Fear and anxiety in patients undergoing minor oral surgery | Saheeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the causes of fear and anxiety in consecutive patients who attended the University of Benin Teaching Hospital for minor oral surgical treatment. Method: All consenting consecutive patients referred for minor oral surgery were studied. Information on all the patients was ...

  6. Ethnic Minorities' Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  7. Transmutation of minor actinide using thorium fueled BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati

    2002-01-01

    One of the methods to conduct transmutation of minor actinide is the use of BWR with thorium fuel. Thorium fuel has a specific behaviour of producing a little secondary minor actinides. Transmutation of minor actinide is done by loading it in the BWR with thorium fuel through two methods, namely close recycle and accumulation recycle. The calculation of minor actinide composition produced, weigh of minor actinide transmuted, and percentage of reminder transmutation was carried SRAC. The calculations were done to equivalent cell modeling from one fuel rod of BWR. The results show that minor actinide transmutation is more effective using thorium fuel than uranium fuel, through both close recycle and accumulation recycle. Minor actinide transmutation weight show that the same value for those recycle for 5th recycle. And most of all minor actinide produced from 5 unit BWR uranium fuel can transmuted in the 6 t h of close recycle. And, the minimal value of excess reactivity of the core is 12,15 % Δk/k, that is possible value for core operation

  8. A Model Assessing Relevant Factors in Building Minority Library Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Kenneth Roy

    1983-01-01

    Presents research design applicable to definition of minority library service needs for any minority language group in Canada, focusing on French-speaking population outside Quebec. Profiles of the target group's population, culture, needs, and library services are highlighted. Five sources are given. (EJS)

  9. Minority International Research Training Program: Global Collaboration in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElmurry, Beverly J.; Misner, Susan J.; Buseh, Aaron G.

    2003-01-01

    The Minority International Research Training Program pairs minority nursing students with faculty mentors at international sites for short-term research. A total of 26 undergraduate, 22 graduate, and 6 postdoctoral students have participated. Challenges include recruitment, orientation, and preparation of students; identification and preparation…

  10. The Broccoli Syndrome: Higher Education's Pubdown Of The Minority Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Penfield; Delworth, Ursula

    1973-01-01

    The assumption underlying the broccoli syndrome is that minority group students are not familiar with a whole range of Anglo goodies''. This article points out how, as the minority student is enlightened time and again to such facts'', he perceives inherent racism in his enlightener.'' (JC)

  11. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  12. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  13. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; Graaf, de R.; Have, M. ten; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n ¼ 5504) the costs

  14. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  15. Audience and the Use of Minority Languages on Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Cornips, Leonie

    On Twitter, many users tweet in more than one language. In this study, we examine the use of two Dutch minority languages. Users can engage with different audiences and by analyzing different types of tweets, we find that characteristics of the audience influence whether a minority language is used.

  16. Leadership Identity Development through an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership development among postsecondary students can occur through a variety of experiences; one such experience is a leadership minor. The purpose of this descriptive interpretive study was to analyze students' experiences while enrolled in a leadership minor with a focus on exploring evidence of leadership identity development. By exploring…

  17. Identifying Inputs to Leadership Development within an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of students' experiences while enrolled in an interdisciplinary leadership minor with the intent to determine programmatic inputs that spur leadership development. Based on students' reflections, three domains of programmatic inputs for leadership development within the minor were identified. These…

  18. Comparative Analysis of Language Minorities: A Sociopolitical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesizes theoretical typologies in the fields of ethnic relations, ethnonationalism, and sociolinguistics into a sociopolitical framework for analyzing various types of ethnolinguistic minority situations. Particular reference is made to minority situations in Europe, North America, and developing countries. (35 references) (Author/CB)

  19. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

  20. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kamen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions.

  1. Community College Organizational Climate for Minorities and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issues of what would constitute a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within the community college setting and ways in which such a climate might be achieved. It first describes some traditional or standard measures of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities and then evaluates how…

  2. Lines of Deterritorialization: The Becoming-Minor of Carter's Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Invoking Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's configuration of minor literature, the author of this case study theorizes the drawing practice of a young boy (Carter) as a process of becoming-minor. Critical to this theorization is the creation and activation of a semblance between Brent and Marjorie Wilson's (1977) treatment of the…

  3. Fiscal federalism, ethnic minorities and the national question in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, using content analysis, examined the impact of fiscal federalism and the struggles of ethnic minority groups in the Niger Delta on the trajectories of the national question in Nigeria. It discovered a positive relationship between the changes in the fiscal structure and the aggravation of ethnic minorities' struggles.

  4. Collecting Data among Ethnic Minorities in an International Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, R.C.W.; Hox, J.J.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.; Schmeets, J.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines strategies to reduce nonresponse rates among ethnic minorities. The authors review nonresponse rates and data collection strategies among ethnic minorities with respect to response rates and response bias in six European countries. The national statistical institutes of these

  5. Successful Minority Pedagogy in Mathematics: US and Japanese Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth; Catbagan, Paula; Tamayo, Kristin; I, Ji Yeong; Lopez, Mario; Walker, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This study examines best practices in teaching mathematics to minority students through two case studies conducted at high-minority junior high schools in the USA and Japan. Observations, interviews, and conversations with the teachers in both countries focused on the research question: how do teachers successfully teach mathematics to minority…

  6. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  7. Colloquy on Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Catherine; Fortenberry, Norman L.; Cady, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    On August 8-12, 2010 the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), convened the Colloquy on Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), following the release of several reports highlighting the educational challenges facing minority males. The NSF recognized the…

  8. Chromatic roots and minor-closed families of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Given a minor-closed class of graphs G, what is the in mum of the non-trivial roots of the chromatic polynomial of G ε G? When G is the class of all graphs, the answer is known to be 32/27. We answer this question exactly for three minor-closed classes of graphs. Furthermore, we conjecture precis...

  9. Building Bridges: Cultivating Partnerships between Libraries and Minority Student Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Emily

    2007-01-01

    Research on multiculturalism in libraries focuses primarily on collection development and on the recruitment of minorities to the profession. Although multicultural student outreach is relatively uncommon, it is essential in helping to combat the social, education, technological and financial barriers that leave many minority students at a…

  10. Perceptions of the Workplace: Focus on Minority Women Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined workplace satisfaction, decision making and institutional participation of minority women faculty. Findings suggest minority women are somewhat satisfied with certain dimensions of the workplace but do perceive themselves to be excluded from institutional contexts that would promote their professional advancement. (BF)

  11. On Reconstruction of a Matrix by Its Minors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtyamov, Azamat; Amram, Meirav; Mouftakhov, Artour

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we reconstruct matrices from their minors, and give explicit formulas for the reconstruction of matrices of orders 2 × 3, 2 × 4, 2 × n, 3 × 6 and m × n. We also formulate the Plücker relations, which are the conditions of the existence of a matrix related to its given minors.

  12. Medical Rights of Minors: Some Answered and Unanswered Legal Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbutt, Lou

    1980-01-01

    Because school counselors work with minors they must keep up with current laws, as well as state and local school policies. Special caution is needed concerning medical rights of minors and parental consent in dealing with student pregnancy, abortion, drug abuse, and child abuse. (JAC)

  13. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

  14. Ethnic Identity of Minority No-Fee Preservice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuhan; Li, Ling; Yalikunjiang, Aisige; Tao, Xunyu; Li, Quan; Gong, Siyuan

    2013-01-01

    This study used a questionnaire to survey ethnic identity among 329 ethnic minority no-fee preservice students at Southwest University. The results indicated that: (1) Ethnic minority no-fee students have a relatively strong sense of identity with both their ethnicity and the Chinese nation, and the correlation between the two is positive. Their…

  15. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  16. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4...

  17. 77 FR 72679 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... are also making it easier for business owners to find Federal resources with www.BusinessUSA.gov , a... belief in tomorrow's promise is guiding minority entrepreneurs across our country to start the kinds of businesses that make up the backbone of our economy. With a combined economic output of $1 trillion, minority...

  18. Majority and minority influence: A dual role interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, N.K.; de Dreu, C.; Gordijn, E.; Schuurman, M.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter offers an analysis of majority vs. minority influence using the Heuristic-Systematic Model of persuasion (HSM). We evaluate evidence for and against leading perspectives such as Conversion Theory. Next, research and theory is reviewed suggesting that majority vs. minority influence

  19. 20 CFR 725.507 - Guardian for minor or incompetent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian for minor or incompetent. 725.507... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Payment of Benefits General Provisions § 725.507 Guardian for minor or incompetent. An adjudication officer may require that a legal guardian or representative...

  20. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  1. Impact of minor actinide recycling on sustainable fuel cycle options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The recent Evaluation and Screening study chartered by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has identified four fuel cycle options as being the most promising. Among these four options, the two single-stage fuel cycles rely on a fast reactor and are differing in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The two other fuel cycles are two-stage and rely on both fast and thermal reactors. They also differ in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The current study assesses the impact of recycling minor actinides on the reactor core design, its performance characteristics, and the characteristics of the recycled material and waste material. The recycling of minor actinides is found not to affect the reactor core performance, as long as the same cycle length, core layout and specific power are being used. One notable difference is that the required transuranics (TRU) content is slightly increased when minor actinides are recycled. The mass flows are mostly unchanged given a same specific power and cycle length. Although the material mass flows and reactor performance characteristics are hardly affected by recycling minor actinides, some differences are observed in the waste characteristics between the two fuel cycles considered. The absence of minor actinides in the waste results in a different buildup of decay products, and in somewhat different behaviors depending on the characteristic and time frame considered. Recycling of minor actinides is found to result in a reduction of the waste characteristics ranging from 10% to 90%. These results are consistent with previous studies in this domain and depending on the time frame considered, packaging conditions, repository site, repository strategy, the differences observed in the waste characteristics could be beneficial and help improve

  2. Gambling Disorder and Minority Populations: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Mayumi; Liu, Weiwei; Cisewski, Jodi A; Segura, Luis; Storr, Carla L; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrate disparities in health and health services including gambling disorders (GD) among ethnic and racial minority groups. In this review, we summarize studies examining the prevalence of GD across different ethnic and racial minorities. We describe the sociodemographic subgroup variations at heightened risk for GD and factors associated with GD in racial and ethnic minority groups including gambling availability, comorbid substance use, psychiatric conditions, stress, acculturation, and differences in cultural values and cognitions. We found that research of GD among minority groups is scant, and the prevalence of GD among these groups is at a magnitude of concern. Racial and ethnic minority status in it of itself is not a risk factor for GD but may be a proxy for underlying potential risk factors. The need for prevention and treatment programs for different cultural group remains unmet.

  3. Vojvodina’s national minorities: Current realities and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petsinis Vasilis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a critical overview of the situation of the national minorities resident in the Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina is pursued. First of all, the novel legal framework with regard to national minorities, on the federal as well as the provincial level, is outlined. Then, the state of education in Vojvodina’s minority languages, as well as the situation of the national minorities’ media and press, is assessed. What the author tries to demonstrate is that the effective safeguard of the collective identity of Vojvodina’s national minorities primarily relies on two factors: a. the full implementation of the novel legal (federal as well as provincial provisions; b. the attitude of the national minorities themselves towards the question of preserving their group identities.

  4. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse......This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject...... to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen...

  5. How minorities fare under referendums: A cross-national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Hug, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Referendums are often viewed as a threat to the rights of minorities. Empirical studies, so far, have tried to deal with the impact of referendums on minorities and civil rights at the subnational level by comparing either referendum or policy outcomes across subnational units. These units are......' preferences, either by protecting minority rights or reducing them. We test this proposition with national-level information on preferences and institutions as well as minority policies from countries spanning the whole globe......., however, often constrained by the national level of government. Hence, to understand the full effect of referendums on minority policies, cross-national comparisons are required. Based on existing game-theoretical models, we argue that referendums and initiatives push policies towards the voters...

  6. Limited rights of minors in the Dutch healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Wolter; Brands, Marieke; Brands-Bottema, Gea

    2014-11-30

    In many countries, if not all, the autonomy of minors is limited. Especially in countries with comprehensive legislation in the field of health law the (lack of) autonomy of minors may create challenges. These problems become more complex if the costs of treatment are not paid by the government or covered by insurance. Some challenges are: At what age is a minor able to decide about his health? As not every treatment is the same, how should the system take this into account? The Netherlands has a long history of very comprehensive health care legislation. This legislation includes a section about the treatment of minors that addresses the questions of the conditions in which the autonomy of minors is limited. Though this legislation is limited to the Netherlands other countries face the same challenges.

  7. Boron accumulation by Lemna minor L. under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Gu, Wancong; Dai, Zheng; Li, Jia; Jiang, Hongru; Zhang, Qian

    2018-06-12

    Excess boron (B) is toxic to aquatic organisms and humans. Boron is often present in water with high salinity. To evaluate the potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) for removing B from water under salt stress, we cultured duckweed in water with 2 mg/L of B and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM for 4 days. The results show that with increasing salinity, the capacity of L. minor to accumulate B initially decreased and then increased. L. minor used different mechanisms to accumulate boron at lower and higher levels of salt stress. The growth and chlorophyll synthesis of L. minor were significantly inhibited when the concentration of NaCl reached 100 mM. Our results suggest that L. minor is suitable for the accumulation of B when NaCl salinity is below 100 mM.

  8. Variation in Subjective Aging by Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne; Barbee, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The past few decades have seen increased scholarly attention to gay and lesbian individuals' aging experiences; however, few studies examine differences in subjective aging by sexual minority status. We identify four perspectives on the association between sexual minority status and subjective aging-double jeopardy, crisis competence, gender interactive, and limited salience perspectives. We examine each perspective's predictions using data from the first wave of Midlife in the United States (1995-1996; MIDUS). Ordinary least square regression models reveal strongest support for the limited salience perspective, suggesting that sexual minority status has weaker effects on subjective aging than do other social factors, such as age, health, and gender. However, some results provide support for the gender interactive perspective, positing that the effect of sexual minority status on subjective aging varies by gender. Our study provides an organizational framework of theoretical perspectives that can guide further examinations of variation in aging experiences by sexual minority status.

  9. Persistence among Minority STEM Majors: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Watson, Stacey

    The United States needs to increase the number of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates to remain competitive in the global market and maintain national security. Minority students, specifically African-American and Hispanic, are underrepresented in STEM fields. As the minority population continues to grow it is essential that higher education institutions improve minority students' persistence in STEM education. This study examined the problem of minority students' lack of persistence in STEM programs. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences that minority students perceived as contributing to their persistence in STEM. The central research question was: What are the lived experiences of minority STEM students that have contributed to their persistence in a STEM program? The sub-questions were: a) What led participants to majors in STEM?; b) What contributed to students' success and persistence in STEM?; and c) What advice do students have to offer? The researcher interviewed 12 minority STEM students and uncovered 10 themes that described the lived experiences of minority students' persistence in STEM programs. The themes were 1) Childhood experiences and interests; 2) Positive educational experiences in secondary school; 3) Self- motivation; 4) Positive experiences with professors; 5) Family encouragement and values; 6) Lack of minorities; 7) Lack of educational preparation; 8) The need for financial assistance; 9) Clubs and organizations; and 10) Friends within the major. The significance of these findings is the potential to produce changes in curricula, programs, and retention methods that may improve the persistence of minority students in STEM programs.

  10. Academic Achievement and Behavioral Health among Asian American and African American Adolescents: Testing the Model Minority and Inferior Minority Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the model minority and inferior minority assumptions by examining the relationship between academic performance and measures of behavioral health in a subsample of 3,008 (22%) participants in a nationally representative, multicultural sample of 13,601 students in the 2001 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey, comparing Asian…

  11. Testing the tenets of minority stress theory in workplace contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L; Moradi, Bonnie; Brewster, Melanie E

    2013-10-01

    The links of minority stressors (workplace discrimination, expectations of stigma, internalized heterosexism, and identity management strategies) with psychological distress and job satisfaction were examined in a sample of 326 sexual minority employees. Drawing from minority stress theory and the literature on the vocational experiences of sexual minority people, patterns of mediation and moderation were tested. Minority stressors were associated with greater distress and lower job satisfaction. A mediation model was supported in which the links of discrimination and internalized heterosexism with psychological distress were mediated by a concealment-focused identity management strategy (i.e., avoiding), and the links of discrimination, expectations of stigma, and internalized heterosexism with job satisfaction were mediated by a disclosure-focused identity management strategy (i.e., integrating). Tests of moderation indicated that for sexual minority women (but not men), the positive association of discrimination with distress was stronger at higher levels of internalized heterosexism than at lower levels. In addition, lower levels of internalized heterosexism and concealment strategies (i.e., counterfeiting and avoiding) and higher levels of a disclosure strategy (i.e., integrating) were associated with higher job satisfaction in the context of low discrimination, but this buffering effect disappeared as level of discrimination increased. The implications of these findings for minority stress research are discussed, and clinical recommendations are made.

  12. [Judicial framework for medical decision-making concerning minors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvent, N; Bérard, E

    2010-02-01

    One aim of the law promulgated in France on March 4, 2002 concerning patients' rights and the quality of the health care system was to reconsider the bases of the physician-patient relationship. The new legal framework recommends establishment of a true dialogue between the two protagonists, and it assigns decisional priority to the patient rather than to the physician or third parties. In the case of minors, the principle of parental authority requires that the physician consults the holders of this authority before making any medical decision. However, the law of March 4, 2002 also reinforced the participation of minors in medical decisions concerning them. The lawmaker explicitly envisaged the possibility of overruling the principle of parental authority. This new "balance of power" obliges the physician to inform the minor of his or her medical condition in a manner appropriate to the child's degree of maturity. The minor may even put forward the principle of medical secrecy to prevent the sharing of information with his or her parents. This new "autonomy" of minors gives rise to at least two reservations: i) the difficulty involved in assessment of a minor's degree of discernment; ii) the minor's vulnerability with respect to his or her entourage. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Recruitment of minority physicians into careers in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, J T

    1992-06-15

    Despite some initial success in the early 1970s, the important goal of increasing the numbers of underrepresented minorities in medical school and on medical faculties has stalled short of proportionate representation. To further the current efforts of the Association of Professors in Medicine (APM) and other national medical groups that are devoted to improving the numbers of minorities in medicine, ideas and program information must be shared among institutions. In this spirit, we review our experience at Massachusetts General Hospital. We found that the first step toward this goal must be an institutional commitment based on increased awareness and on special effort focused on housestaff recruitment. Once the numbers of minorities increase, the department chairperson, training program directors, and other involved faculty can work with younger minority physicians; the cooperative relationship thus created can guide the development of a strong minority recruitment program without requiring an undue time commitment from minority trainees and faculty. The APM has a combined goal: to achieve early practical results in individual departments, to play a catalytic role with the community and other national medical organizations, and to increase the number of minorities entering medical school and careers in medicine generally.

  14. Sexual Minority Stress, Coping, and Physical Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenar, Delphia J; Tucker, Carolyn M; Williams, Jaime L

    2017-12-01

    Sexual minorities experience higher rates of several physical health problems compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The present study uses Meyer's Minority Stress Model (Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674-697, 2003) to examine physical health indicators among 250 adults who identified as sexual minorities. Study hypotheses include that sexual minority stress is predictive of two physical health indicators (i.e., engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle and number of physical health problems) and that planning (i.e., problem-focused) and social support coping will partially mediate the relationship between sexual minority stress and each physical health indicator. Results showed that as level of sexual minority stress increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle decreased and the number of physical health problems increased. Planning and social support coping did not mediate these relationships; however, as levels of coping increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle increased. These findings have implications for researchers and healthcare professionals in their efforts to promote the physical health of sexual minorities.

  15. Minor Crashes and ‘Whiplash’ in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Adam J.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R.; Wiechel, John F.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define ‘whiplash’ injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4g (s.d. = 0.5...

  16. Minor Actinide Laboratory at JRC-ITU: Fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Minor Actinide Laboratory (MA-lab) of the Institute for Transuranium Elements is a unique facility for the fabrication of fuels and targets containing minor actinides (MA). It is of key importance for research on Partitioning and Transmutation in Europe, as it is one of the only dedicated facilities for the fabrication of MA containing materials, either for property measurements or for the production of test pins for irradiation experiments. In this paper a detailed description of the MA-Lab facility and the fabrication processes developed to fabricate fuels and samples containing high content of minor actinides is given. In addition, experience gained and improvements are also outlined. (authors)

  17. Language in education: Minorities and multilingualism in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Kamal K.

    1996-07-01

    The question of education in India cannot be properly discussed without referring to its socio-linguistic context. This paper provides background information on the linguistic profile of India. The term "minorities" in the Indian context is defined, and the protection offered to linguistic minorities in the Indian Constitution is examined. A discussion of language policy in Indian education follows in which the recommendations of the different education commissions are analysed. The important issues covered include: the number of languages that are taught, the medium of instruction, and the educational policies regarding speakers of minority languages. The article also discusses different language movements and their impact on Indian education.

  18. Extra Federal aid for minorities presents challenges for CBOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-27

    Congress awarded $156 million to deal with the HIV epidemic among African-Americans and other minorities. AIDS service providers welcomed the money but said that much more needs to be done. Community-based organizations (CBOs) serving minority populations are relatively new, and many need improved accounting and auditing procedures, information technology, and leadership development systems if they are to be productive. Hurdles faced by CBOs include competing for funding, recruiting volunteers, educating minority physicians, and planning community responses. The opinions of two former U.S. Surgeon Generals regarding this new funding and how it should be used are discussed.

  19. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power project with a license not subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act. (a...

  20. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  1. MEASUREMENT OF MINORITY-ARRIER LIFETIME IN SILICON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1982-09-01

    Sep 1, 1982 ... This manuscript describes the measurement of minority ... In thermal equilibrium, the voltage drop along ... can be determined from observations ... during the period of conductance ... laser beam, bunch of glass slides were.

  2. The Minority Recruitment Program at the Pennsylvania College of Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Karen

    1987-01-01

    A program to recruit and retain minority group optometry students is described, including the program's design, student financial aid, a preenrollment enrichment program to ease the adjustment to professional school, and the personal and academic program outcomes. (MSE)

  3. A minority perspective in the diagnosis of child language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, H N; Bland, L

    1991-01-01

    The effective diagnosis and treatment of persons from diverse minority language backgrounds has become an important issue in the field of speech and language pathology. Yet, many SLPs have had little or no formal training in minority language, there is a paucity of normative data on language acquisition in minority groups, and there are few standardized speech and language tests appropriate for these groups. We described a diagnostic process that addresses these problems. The diagnostic protocol we have proposed for a child from a Black English-speaking background characterizes many of the major issues in treating minority children. In summary, we proposed four assessment strategies: gathering referral source data; making direct observations; using standardized tests of non-speech and language behavior (cognition, perception, motor, etc.); and eliciting language samples and probes.

  4. Retention of minority participants in clinical research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen S; Gonzales, Adelita; Fleuriet, K Jill

    2005-04-01

    Recruitment of minority participants for clinical research studies has been the topic of several analytical works. Yet retention of participants, most notably minority and underserved populations, is less reported and understood, even though these populations have elevated health risks. This article describes two related, intervention-based formative research projects in which researchers used treatment theory to address issues of recruitment and retention of minority women participants in an exercise program to reduce obesity. Treatment theory incorporates a model of health promotion that allows investigators to identify and control sources of extraneous variables. The authors' research demonstrates that treatment theory can improve retention of minority women participants by considering critical inputs, mediating processes, and substantive participant characteristics in intervention design.

  5. Entrepreneurial Education: A Realistic Alternative for Women and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, James F.; Boyd, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    Entrepreneurial education is a valid, realistic occupational training alternative for minorities and women in business. Entrepreneurship requires that one become involved with those educational programs that contribute significantly to one's success. (Author)

  6. HIGHER EDUCATION FOR NATIONAL MINORITIES IN THE PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Pomelova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines China's educational policies in terms of historical, political and ideological contexts. Practical issues of organization and implementation of educational policy in relation to higher education for ethnic minorities are discussed.

  7. Differential processing and attitude change following majority versus minority arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; van de Vliert, E.

    1996-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that majority (MAJ) influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change (AC) on focal issues (FISs), whereas minority (MIN) influence produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Ss were 86 high school students. Results

  8. Multiculturalism and England's Muslim Minority: Solution or Problem?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleming, Todd D

    2007-01-01

    .... While the United Kingdom takes great pride in its past multicultural policies, it finds itself increasingly estranged from its Muslim minority community while seeing a notable rise in the growth of radicalism...

  9. Evaluating the efficacy of a minor actinide burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Omberg, R.P.; Wootan, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    The efficacy of a minor actinide burner can be evaluated by comparing safety and economic parameters to the support ratio. Minor actinide mass produced per unit time in this number of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) can be burned during the same time period in one burner system. The larger the support ratio for a given set of safety and economic parameters, the better. To illustrate this concept, the support ratio for selected Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) burner core designs was compared with corresponding coolant void worths, a fundamental safety concern following the Chernobyl accident. Results can be used to evaluate the cost in reduced burning of minor actinides caused by LMR sodium void reduction efforts or to compare with other minor actinide burner systems

  10. Minority Business Enterprises and Woman Business Enterprises Grant Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The policy goal of the MBE/WBE Programs is to assure that minority business enterprises and woman business enterprises are given the opportunity to participate in contract and procurement for supplies, construction, equipment & services under any EPA grant

  11. A Complete Security of Criminological Safety of Minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Saveliev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers questions relating to the diversity of theoretical comprehension levels of criminological safety of minors. The Author analyzes the normative legal basis of activities of subjects of prevention and protection of children's rights

  12. Strategies for minority actinides transmutation in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, S.; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of the strategies that can be followed in fast reactors designed for the fourth generation to reduce the inventory of minority actinides generated in current light water reactors, as the actinides generation in fast reactor.

  13. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...

  14. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asachi Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  15. Thermochemical and thermophysical properties of minor actinide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Takano, Masahide; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Burning or transmutation of minor actinides (MA: Np, Am, Cm) that are classified as the high-level radioactive waste in the current nuclear fuel cycle is an option for the advanced nuclear fuel cycle. Although the thermochemical and thermophysical properties of minor actinide compounds are essential for the design of MA-bearing fuels and analysis of their behavior, the experimental data on minor actinide compounds are limited. To support the research and development of the MA-bearing fuels, the property measurements were carried out on minor actinide nitrides and oxides. The lattice parameters and their thermal expansions were measured by high-temperature X-ray diffractometry. The specific heat capacities were measured by drop calorimetry and the thermal diffusivities by laser-flash method. The thermal conductivities were determined by the specific heat capacities, thermal diffusivities and densities. The oxygen potentials were measured by electromotive force method.

  16. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  17. POTENSI DAN KARAKTERISTIK PRODUKSI Lemna minor PADA BERBAGAI MEDIA TANAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Prihantoro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lemna minor merupakan jenis tanaman yang hidup dominan pada perairan dengan kualitas nutrisi tinggi dan potensial sebagai sumber hijauan pakan bagi ternak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur potensi Lemna minor dan karakteristiknya pada berbagai media tanam untuk mendapatkan teknik produksi yang optimal. Penelitian dilakukan pada bak plastik dengan ukuran 36.5×27×10 cm3 selama dua minggu. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan lima perlakuan media dan lima ulangan. Jenis media yang digunakan adalah kontrol, hoagland, hyponex, kompos dan NPK. Parameter yang diukur meliputi serapan nitrogen, pH media, cover area, penyusutan media, dan produksi biomassa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lemna minor efektif dalam memanfaatkan nitrogen dengan nilai serapan > 98 %, media kompos memberikan status pH media yang stabil/netral dan pertambahan luas cover area (LCA tercepat dan tingkat produksi biomassa Lemna minor terbaik pada media kompos dan Hoagland.

  18. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  19. Reducing the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D G; Foster, V; Rasenick-Douss, L; Tye, J B

    1989-01-06

    This study reports on an effort to stop the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors. In Santa Clara County, Calif, 412 stores and 30 vending machines were visited by 18 minors aged 14 through 16 years with the intent to purchase cigarettes; they were successful at 74% of the stores and 100% of the vending machines. After an aggressive six-month campaign using communitywide media, direct merchant education, contact with the chief executive officers of chain stores and franchise operations owned by major companies, and grassroots work with community organizations, the percentage of stores with illegal over-the-counter sale of cigarettes to minors was reduced to 39%. Sales from vending machines were not reduced. While much remains to be accomplished in stopping the illegal sale of tobacco to minors, data from this study illustrate that a well-designed community and merchant education campaign can significantly reduce such sales.

  20. Differential processing and attitude change following majority versus minority arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeDreu, CKW; DeVries, NK

    This experiment tested the general hypothesis that majority influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change on focal issues, whereas minority influence sometimes produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Results of a numerical support

  1. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  2. Experimental life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 Ciclo evolutivo experimental de Lagochilascaris minor, Leiper 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa Campos

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor was studied using material collected from human lesion and applying the experimental model: rodents (mice, hamsters, and carnivorae (cats, dogs. In mice given infective eggs, orally, hatch of the third stage larvae was noted in the gut wall, with migration to liver, lungs, skeletal musculature and subcutaneous tissue becoming, soon after, encysted. In cats infected with skinned carcasses of mice (60 to 235 days of infection it was observed: hatch of third stage larvae from the nodules (cysts in the stomach, migration through the oesophagus, pharynx, trachea, related tissues (rhino-oropharynx, and cervical lymphonodes developing to the mature stage in any of these sites on days 9-20 post inoculation (P.I.. There was no parasite development up to the mature stage in cats inoculated orally with infective eggs, which indicates that the life cycle of this parasite includes an obligatory intermediate host. In one of the cats (fed carcass of infected mice necropsied on day 43 P.I., it was observed the occurence of the self-infective cycle of L. minor in the lung tissues and in the cervical region which was characterized by the finding of eggs in different stages of development, third stage larvae and mature worms. It's believed that some component of the carnivorae gastrointestinal tracts may preclude the development of third stage larvae from L. minor eggs what explains the interruption of the life cycle in animals fed infective eggs. It's also pointed out the role of the intermediate host in the first stages of the life cycle of this helminth.A partir de material colhido de lesões humanas estudou-se o ciclo evolutivo de Lagochilascaris minor empregando-se o modelo experimental: roedores (camundongos, hamster e carnívoros (gatos, cão. Em camundongos inoculados com ovos infectantes, por via oral, observou-se eclosão de larvas de 3º estágio na parede do intestino, migração das mesmas para o fígado, pulm

  3. A study on the anatomical morphology of the minor fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Hyung Jin; You, Jin Jong; Ahn, In Oak; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1993-01-01

    The minor fissure is an important anatomical landmark in the localization of the pulmonary disease. For the evaluation of the normal feature of the minor fissure, we analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans in 51 normal patients. The purpose of this study are to evaluate the normal appearance of the minor fissure on high-resolution CT scans and to compare it with that on the conventional CT and radiographys. We analyzed the morphologic feature of the minor fissure on the high-resolution CT scans in 51 normal patients, and compared it with that on the conventional CT scans. On the high-resolution CT scans, we particularly paid attention to the completeness and types according to Berkmen classification. And finally, we compared the types determined by the high-resolution CT scans with those by the plain radiographys. In most patients (n=47), the minor fissure was seen as a hyperattenuating line or band on the high resolution CT scans. In contrast, it was mostly seen as a lucent zone on the conventional CT scans (n=44). Of 47 patient having a hyperattenuating line or band on the high-resolution CT scans, the minor fissure was considered to be complete in 17 patients (36%), and incomplete in 30 patients (64%), who had a defeat at medial portion of the minor fissure. The most common type of the minor fissure seen on the high-resolution CT scans was type I variety (n=23), followed by tape IIa (n=8). We could not determined the type in six patients. The type determined by the high-resolution CT scans was highly well correlated with that determined by the plain radiographys (p<0.05). In conclusion, the minor fissure was seen CT studies as variable appearances and high-resolution CT scans were superior to the conventional CT scans in the evaluation of the minor fissure. The types of the minor fissure determined by the high-resolution CT scans were well correlated with those seen on the radiographys

  4. Colin Mackerras, China’s Ethnic Minorities and Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Allès, Élisabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this short work, the Australian political scientist Colin Mackerras offers a general overview of the situation of ethnic minorities in China over the past twenty years. He takes as the basis for his study principal works published recently and his own interviews conducted in China since the beginning of the 1980s, while also collating statistical data. He synthesises data and elements of understanding of China’s policies with regard to minority peoples there. He analyses the economic data ...

  5. Minorities and educational testing in schools in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Kousholt, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    The conditions that ethnic minorities currently live under in the Western world, where education is a significant condition for social inclusion, have changed drastically in recent decades. Globalization, in particular, seen as a process, has been influential in this context via many routes......, including large international organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, or OECD (Lawn & Grek, 2012). In these processes, minorities, including indigenous populations, are vulnerable (e...

  6. Ethnic Minorities? Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    OpenAIRE

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities’ interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred ‘entitlements’ whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians...

  7. Telemann. Musique de table - Quartet in E minor / Anderson, Nicholas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anderson, Nicholas

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Telemann. Musique de table - Quartet in E minor. Paris Quartets. "Nouveaux quatuors en six suites" - Nr. 1 in D, TWV43: D3, Nr. 2 in A minor, TWV43: a2. Six Concerts et Six Suites - Concert Nr. 3 in A, TWV42: A3. Hortus Musicus (Neeme Punder (fl.), Imbi Tarum (hpd.), Peeter Klaas (va da gamba), Tarmo Toom (vc) / Andres Mustonen (vn). Finlandia CD 4509-95578-2 (52 minutes)

  8. Majority versus Minority: ‘Governmentality’ and Muslims in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority–minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim minority communities and how majority society’s approach to Muslims and Islam influences both the relationship Muslims have with non-Muslims and the understandings that Muslims have of Islam.

  9. MAIN TYPES OF MINOR AND MEDIUM INNOVATIVE ENTEPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Komissarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of Eastern Europe countries and RF to market economics causes many organizational, legal and infrastructural problems to rise. By the degree of «innovativeness», minor and medium enterprises are classified to three categories: «leader», «successor» and «outsider». Minor enterprises to whom different support may be extended by regional powers are grouped to 4 types.

  10. Minority Political Representation: Muslim Councilors in Newham and Hackney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have long been intrigued by the role of minority elected officials in representing the interests of their communities. There is an on-going debate on whether distinctive minority agendas exist and whether the existence of minority representatives (descriptive representation is a necessary condition to secure the representation of minority interests (substantive representation. This article analyzes original interview data to examine these issues through a case study of Muslim city councilors and the dynamics of local government in the Newham and Hackney Borough Councils of London. It finds that the exceptionally high ethnic diversity of Newham with no dominant ethnic group, the lack of racial or religious divides among neighborhoods, and low racial tensions shapes the political culture of the Council, as well as the Muslim councilors, and yields high responsiveness for all minorities. It also finds that non-Muslim councilors play a significant role in the substantive representation of minority interests, including Muslim interests. In contrast, the case study of the Hackney Council reveals that beyond high party fragmentation, ethnicity and religiosity of the Muslim councilors vary widely and hinder effective representation. In addition, their political incorporation is low, and the leadership positions they hold seem to have symbolic rather than substantive impact. The political behavior and representative styles of Muslim councilors reveal a balancing perspective, whereby they advocate for group interests with a more moderate tone. These factors account for the low government responsiveness to Muslim interests in Hackney.

  11. Clinical research involving minors in international and serbian regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planojević, Nina; Zivojinović, Dragica

    2013-07-01

    Participation in clinical trials can be useful for the health of a person, in who it is conducted, but it does not have to be - it can even be harmful. Therefore, primary motive to accept such risk is humanity and human wish to contribute to the progress of medicine; this is expressed by personal consent. The consent, however, can be an expression of personal humanity, and for this, it is not logical that someone can give consent on behalf of someone else, as it is done by a legally authorized representative on behalf of a minor. Therefore, authors raise 3 questions: What are the reasons to consider representative's consent acceptable? How should a model of regulations look like in order to provide the most complete possible protection to a minor? Is actual regulation of minors' position within international and Serbian law, analyzed here by authors for their specific solutions, acceptable? Representative's consent is acceptable only for therapeutic research, because these can bring benefits to everyone's health, including a minor in which those are conducted - this is an acceptable (secondary) motive of participation in the research. Expression of humanity on other's behalf, typical for non-therapeutic research, is not acceptable; this makes ban of minors' participation in non-therapeutic research more appropriate regulation model. International regulations are not in accordance to results presented in the paper for allowing participation of minors both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic research. Serbian regulation is closer to the most acceptable regulation model.

  12. Minority recruitment and retention in dietetics: issues and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, H P; Davis, R A

    2000-08-01

    To better understand the reasons why minorities and males are underrepresented among registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered, (DTRs) and to develop focuses for intervention, the investigators performed a telephone survey of newly credentialed RDs and DTRs and directors of RD and DTR education programs. Using lists of students recruited by the American Dietetic Association for participation in the survey, the investigators interviewed 83 RDs and DTRs and 20 education program directors. RDs and DTRs attributed minority underrepresentation primarily to the field's lack of visibility and underrepresentation of men to the traditional association with women. Education program directors attributed minority underrepresentation to educational disadvantages, particularly in scientific subjects. Findings from this study support program-level interventions such as increasing program flexibility, initiating outreach to K-12 schools and lower-division college students, providing tutoring in a nondemeaning atmosphere, and visibly expressing commitment to minority representation. More fundamental changes in the profession itself appear necessary for large-scale increases in minority representation. These include increasing internship opportunities; raising the profession's level of remuneration, prestige, and independence; increasing scholarship support; and advertising nationally through channels capable of reaching minorities.

  13. The surgeon and the law on patient's rights for minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneyer, M; Clybouw, C; De Groot, E; De Backer, A; Van den Brande, P; Vandenplas, Y

    2011-01-01

    The law of August 22nd, 2002 concerning patients' rights (LPR) gave a new dimension to the relationship between the physician and the patient. According to this law, it is up to the physician to judge if a patient is able to exercise his own rights or if the patient needs assistance from a representative. In the particular case of the patient being a minor, this often leads to a difficult situation because of the absence of validated criteria to evaluate the capacity of judgment of a minor patient. The triangular relationship physician-patient-parents might be hampered when the parents are involved in a divorce. In daily practice, there are many questions concerning the physicians' attitude towards the rights of the minor patient, particularly in cases of medical intervention. By means of case histories, we describe several problematic situations: the right of free choice of the physician, the right of the minor to obtain informational privacy, obtaining consent for a medical intervention. In cases where there is a divorce, the situation is even more difficult. Solutions are provided to act as effectively as possible in the minors' interests and to offer support to the physician. Note: According to article 388 of the Belgian Civil Code a minor is a person, either male or female, who has not attained the age of 18 years.

  14. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens.

  15. Minority faculty members' resilience and academic productivity: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora-Bramble, Denice; Zhang, Kehua; Castillo-Page, Laura

    2010-09-01

    To explore whether there is a relationship between resilience and academic productivity of minority faculty members in U.S. academic health centers. For the purposes of the study, the authors defined academic productivity as peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications, grants, and academic promotion. In 2007, the authors simultaneously collected quantitative and qualitative data by using a triangulation (mixed-method) design. Past participants in the Association of American Medical Colleges' Minority Faculty Career Development Seminar completed the Web-based 70-item Personal Resilience Questionnaire (PRQ). In addition, two focus groups were conducted with past seminar participants. Seventy-four minority faculty members completed the PRQ, and 15 participated in the two focus groups. The quantitative data showed a positive correlation between demographic, educational, and academic productivity variables and certain resilience subscale scores. Common themes that emerged from the qualitative data were categorized under four major domains: existing barriers to academic advancement, internal protective factors or cultural buffers, external institutional or environmental facilitators, and necessary attributes for ensuring academic productivity and advancement. Certain resilience subscales showed correlation with academic productivity of minority faculty members, and specific personal and/or cultural characteristics were identified as enablers. Minority faculty members may benefit from skill development and coaching that extends beyond the traditional scope of faculty development programs and that specifically targets modifiable resilience characteristics. Additional research is needed, but such nontraditional, resilience-centered intervention strategies may positively affect the advancement of minority faculty in academic medicine.

  16. National minorities in legislation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagradić Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 17 recognized national minorities living and working in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At least, they have been enumerated, identified and sanctioned as such by the Law on the Protection of Rights of National Minorities adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2003. Apart from that law, the rights of national minorities and its members have also been regulated by the whole set of many different laws, from the election, criminal, education and other identity-related laws to the laws addressing the specific areas and/or life issues, all adopted at the level of the state, the entities, the cantons, and the Brcko District of BiH. This paper analyses the content, the significance, and the legal and sociopolitical implications of certain provisions of the Law on the Protection of Rights of National Minorities from the sociological and political views and methods, as well as the relation and the impact of its norms on social sphere and individual existence (in politics, education, culture, the media, employment etc. of minority members within a multi-specific and asymmetric state as post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina. The causa finalis of this tractatus's narrative is to give a better understanding of human rights of minorities, their etiology and determination.

  17. Contested minorities – the case of Upper Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierczak Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Upper Silesia in terms of ethnicity is a typical example of a historical region in Europe, but in fact, one of the few exceptions in contemporary Poland, where its mixed ethnic and religious structures have at least partly survived until today. While their existence had been denied by Nazi Germany (1933-1945 as well as by the Polish People's Republic (1945-1989, the emancipation of the German and Silesian minorities after the democratic changes of 1989 have evoked strong emotions in the ethnically almost uniform country. Nonetheless, the recent situation of minorities has improved as never before. Minority organisations has been officially recognized and German finally has become the second language in some municipalities of Upper Silesia, but the largest ethnic group in the whole country, the Silesians, have still experienced no formal recognition as a national minority. This article deals with the demographic aspects of the ethnic groups in Upper Silesia since the 19th century until recent times. The census results concerning the ethnic minorities or languages in Upper Silesia have been contested since the first records of that kind have been taken. The outcomes of the both last censuses of 2002 and 2011 concerning the minority question reflected for the first time a much more realistic picture of the status quo. Furthermore, they showed that the idea of Silesian identification found an unexpected high number of supporters. This fact indicates an emerging meaning of regional identification amid significant changes of cultural values in Polish society.

  18. 77 FR 2700 - National Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprise: Meeting of the National Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Business Enterprise: Meeting of the National Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprise AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The National Advisory Council for Minority Business Enterprise (NACMBE) will hold its fifth... deliberate on possible recommendations. The Subcommittee topics include: (1) Definition of Minority Business...

  19. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two gro...

  20. Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.

  1. Physician Knowledge and Attitudes around Confidential Care for Minor Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Ahmed, Sana; Reed, Barbara D; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2015-08-01

    Minor adolescent patients have a legal right to access certain medical services confidentially without parental consent or notification. We sought to assess physicians' knowledge of these laws, attitudes around the provision of confidential care to minors, and barriers to providing confidential care. An anonymous online survey was sent to physicians in the Departments of Family Medicine, Internal Medicine-Pediatrics, Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Pediatrics at the University of Michigan. Response rate was 40% (259/650). The majority of physicians felt comfortable addressing sexual health, mental health, and substance use with adolescent patients. On average, physicians answered just over half of the legal knowledge questions correctly (mean 56.6% ± 16.7%). The majority of physicians approved of laws allowing minors to consent for confidential care (90.8% ± 1.7% approval), while substantially fewer (45.1% ± 4.5%) approved of laws allowing parental notification of this care at the physician's discretion. Most physicians agreed that assured access to confidential care should be a right for adolescents. After taking the survey most physicians (76.6%) felt they needed additional training on confidentiality laws. The provision of confidential care to minors was perceived to be most inhibited by insurance issues, parental concerns/relationships with the family, and issues with the electronic medical record. Physicians are comfortable discussing sensitive issues with adolescents and generally approve of minor consent laws, but lack knowledge about what services a minor can access confidentially. Further research is needed to assess best methods to educate physicians about minors' legal rights to confidential healthcare services. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Accessing medication information by ethnic minorities: barriers and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Evelyn S; Raynor, Theo D; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T

    2003-10-01

    This review discusses two main questions: how suitable is current consumer medication information for minority ethnic groups, and what are effective strategies to overcome existing barriers. The focus is on minority groups whose first language is not the language of the healthcare system. We searched electronic databases and printed scientific journals focusing on (ethnic) minorities, health and/or (intercultural) communication. We also asked a discussion group for references. We found only a few articles on intercultural communication on medication or pharmacy information and one article on the improvement of intercultural communication in the pharmacy. Barriers to the access of medication information by ethnic minorities include second language issues and cultural differences due to different health beliefs, together with the low socio-economic status often seen among ethnic minorities. Cultural differences also exist among different socio-economic classes rather than only among ethnic groups. Most often, informal interpreters are used to improve intercultural communication. However, this may result in miscommunication due to a lack of medical knowledge or training on the part of the interpreter. To minimise miscommunication, bilingual health professionals or health interpreters/advocates can be used, although communication problems may still occur. The effectiveness of written information depends on the literacy skills of the target population. Cultural, medical and dialect biases should be avoided by testing the material. Multimedia systems may be alternatives to conventional written information. Barriers that ethnic minorities face in accessing medication information and possible solutions involving counselling and additional tools were identified for pharmacy practice. However, more research is needed to develop effective strategies for patient counselling in pharmacy to meet the needs of ethnic minorities.

  3. Phoenix type concepts for transmutation of LWR waste minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, M.

    1994-01-01

    A number of variations on the original Phoenix theme were studied. The basic rationale of the Phoenix incinerator is making oxide fuel of the LWR waste minor actinides, loading it in an FFTF-like subcritical core, then bombarding the core with the high current beam accelerated protons to generate considerable energy through spallation and fission reactions. As originally assessed, if the machine is fed with 1600 MeV protons in a 102 mA current, then 8 core modules are driven to transmute the yearly minor actinides waste of 75 1000 MW LWRs into Pu 238 and fission products; in a 2 years cycle the energy extracted is 100000 MW d/T. This performance cannot be substantiated in a rigorous analysis. A calculational consistent methodology, based on a combined execution of the Hermes, NCNP, and Korigen codes, shows, nonetheless that changes in the original Phoenix parameters can upgrade its performance.The original Phoenix contains 26 tons minor actinides in 8 core modules; 1.15 m 3 module is shaped for 40% neutron leakage; with a beam of 102 mA the 8 modules are driven to 100000 MW/T in 10.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinide waste of 15 LWRs; the operation must be assisted by grid electricity. If the 1.15 m 3 module is shaped to allow only 28% leakage, then a beam of 102 mA will drive the 8 modules to 100000 MW/T in 3.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 45 LWRs. Some net grid electricity will be generated. If 25 tons minor actinides are loaded into 5 modules, each 1.72 m 3 in volume and of 24% leakage, then a 97 mA beam will drive the module to 100000 MW/T in 2.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 70 LWRs. A considerable amount of net grid electricity will be generated. If the lattice is made of metal fuel, and 26 tons minor actinides are loaded into 32 small modules, 0.17 m 3 each, then a 102 mA beam will drive the modules to 100000 MW/T in 2 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 72 LWRs. A considerable

  4. Increasing the graduation rates of minority medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J L; Nowacki, C M; Girotti, J A; Townsel, J; Plagge, J C; Beckham, T W

    1986-05-01

    The University of Illinois College of Medicine has operated a program since 1969 to recruit minority students into the college and to increase the graduation rates of these students once they enroll. Known as the Medical Opportunities Program (MOP) until 1978, the program was expanded in 1978 and renamed the Urban Health Program (UHP). The authors of the present paper discuss the results of these programs, particularly the effect of granting minority students delays in completing graduation requirements. The MOP (1969 through 1978) increased graduation rates for minority students from 55 percent for those who graduated on time to 81 percent for both on-time and delayed graduates. Under the first seven years of the UHP (1979 through 1985), more minority students have been offered places, and more have enrolled than in the 10 years of the MOP. The retention rate under the UHP, if it holds, will be higher than that under the MOP. For the combined MOP-UHP period, the retention rate for minority students was 88 percent; 69.8 percent of the graduates were on time, and 30.2 were delayed.

  5. Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adults Who Solicit Minors Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anja; Bergen, Emilia; Schuhmann, Petya; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the association of social anxiety, loneliness, and problematic Internet use (PIU) with the online solicitation of minors. Within a convenience sample of adult Internet users from Germany, Finland, and Sweden ( N = 2,828), we compared the responses of participants who had not interacted sexually with strangers online ( n = 2,049) with participants who sexually interacted with unknown adults online ( n = 642), and both groups with adults who sexually solicited unknown minors online ( n = 137). Online sexual interaction with adults was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with not sexually interacting with strangers online. Sexually soliciting minors online was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with sexually interacting with adults and not sexually interacting with strangers at all. Interestingly, compared with those with adult contacts, loneliness was specifically pronounced for participants who solicited children, whereas social anxiety and PIU were pronounced for participants soliciting adolescents. These findings suggest that social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU may be among the motivators for using the Internet to solicit individuals of different age groups for sexual purposes. These factors emerged as specifically relevant for adults who sexually solicited minors and who reported greater impairments compared with adults who sexually interacted with adults. These characteristics may thus be important to consider for assessment and treatment procedures for individuals soliciting minors online.

  6. Sex Offenses Against Minors in China: An Empirical Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming; Liang, Bin; Huang, Siwen

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, due to a number of notorious sex offense cases against minors, a new punitive public attitude emerged in China and pressed for harsher crackdown and punishment against sex offenders. In particular, an "engagement in prostitution with a minor" law (Article 360 of the Criminal Law) was targeted as "unjust" based on the belief that offenders of such crimes often received "lenient" punishment, and many called for its abolition. In this study, based on 440 adjudicated sex offense cases, we examine potential differences across three sex offenses (including rape, child molestation, and engagement in prostitution with a minor) in the demographics of defendants and victims, offending characteristics, and trials and sentences of convicted offenders. Our empirical inquiry pointed to the unique nature of engagement in prostitution with a minor. Offenders of such crimes seemingly carried a different profile, compared with offenders of the other two sex crimes. Moreover, our data casted some doubt on the "lenient" punishment received by offenders of engagement in prostitution with a minor. Policy implications were also drawn based on our findings.

  7. Casting of metallic fuel containing minor actinide additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trybus, C.L.; Henslee, S.P.; Sanecki, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A significant attribute of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is the transmutation of long-lived minor actinide fission products. These isotopes require isolation for thousands of years, and if they could be removed from the waste, disposal problems would be reduced. The IFR utilizes pyroprocessing of metallic fuel to separate auranium, plutonium, and the minor actinides from nonfissionable constituents. These materials are reintroduced into the fuel and reirradiated. Spent IFR fuel is expected to contain low levels of americium, neptunium, and curium because the hard neutron spectrum should transmute these isotopes as they are produced. This opens the possibility of using an IFR to trnasmute minor actinide waste from conventional light water reactors (LWRs). A standard IFR fuel is based on the alloy U-20% Pu-10% Zr (in weight percent). A metallic fuel system eases the requirements for reprocessing methods and enables the minor actinide metals to be incorporated into the fuel with simple modifications to the basic fuel casting process. In this paper, the authors report the initial casting experience with minor actinide element addition to an IFR U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel

  8. Major and minor axis kinematics of 22 ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.; Heckman, T.

    1989-01-01

    Rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles have been determined for the major and the minor axes of 22 elliptical galaxies. Rotation was detected in all but one galaxy, even though the sample was biased toward round ellipticals. Minor axis rotation larger than major axis rotation was measured in two galaxies, NGC 4406 and NGC 7507. Roughly 10 percent of ellipticals may show large minor axis velocities relative to those on the major axis. A simple model is used to derive a rotational axis from the observed minor and major axis velocities to a typical accuracy of 6 deg. The rotational and photometric minor axes aligned to better than 10 deg for 60 percent of the sample, implying that the direction of the angular momentum is related to the orientation of the figure of the galaxy. IC 1459 has a kinematically distinct core with its angular momentum opposite to the angular momentum of the outer parts, and NGC 4406 has a core with its angular momentum perpendicular to that of the outer parts. 46 refs

  9. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  10. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  12. Safe and effective use of medicines for ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Pernille; El-Souri, Mira Mahmoud; Herborg, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    , there was a need to adapt a previously developed and validated medicine-based intervention “safe and effective use of medicines” to this vulnerable group of unemployed ethnic minority patients. Methods: The objective of this before-after study was to improve medicines adherence, health status and work ability...... of the target group through an individualized pharmacist delivered intervention with focus on safe and effective implementation of medical treatments. The target group was ethnic minorities of non-western origin affiliated with a job center. Results: At baseline, 35.7 % of the patients had a potential adherence...... to the intervention. Conclusion: The counseling program “Safe and effective use of medicines” was successfully adapted to unemployed ethnic minority patients, and tested in a new collaboration between job centers and community pharmacies. The counseling program resulted in statistically significant improvements...

  13. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is b......-based hygiene promotion is also recommended to curb dependency and spark initiatives in ethnic minority communities. Finally, interventions should focus on hygiene "software"--promoting hygiene behaviour changes known to effectively prevent hygiene related diseases.......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...

  14. Characterization and Computational Modeling of Minor Phases in Alloy LSHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng; Olson, Gregory; Gabb, Timothy; Garg, Anita; Miller, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The minor phases of powder metallurgy disk superalloy LSHR were studied. Samples were consistently heat treated at three different temperatures for long times to approach equilibrium. Additional heat treatments were also performed for shorter times, to assess minor phase kinetics in non-equilibrium conditions. Minor phases including MC carbides, M23C6 carbides, M3B2 borides, and sigma were identified. Their average sizes and total area fractions were determined. CALPHAD thermodynamics databases and PrecipiCalc(TradeMark), a computational precipitation modeling tool, were employed with Ni-base thermodynamics and diffusion databases to model and simulate the phase microstructural evolution observed in the experiments with an objective to identify the model limitations and the directions of model enhancement.

  15. Comparative analysis of minor histocompatibility antigens genotyping methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vdovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of techniques could be employed to find mismatches in minor histocompatibility antigens between transplant recipients and their donors. In the current study we compared three genotyping methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR for four minor antigens. Three of the tested methods: allele-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time PCR with TaqMan probes demonstrated 100% reliability when compared to Sanger sequencing for all of the studied polymorphisms. High resolution melting analysis was unsuitable for genotyping of one of the tested minor antigens (HA-1 as it has linked synonymous polymorphism. Obtained data could be used to select the strategy for large-scale clinical genotyping.

  16. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  17. Evolutionary Analysis of Minor Histocompatibility Genes In Hydra

    KAUST Repository

    Aalismail, Nojood

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we took initiative to study the self/nonself recognition in hydra and its relation to the immune response. Moreover, performing phylogenetic analysis to look for annotated immune genes in hydra gave us a potential to analyze the expression of minor histocompatibility genes that have been shown to play a major role in grafting and transplantation in mammals. Here we obtained the cDNA library that shows expression of minor histocompatibility genes and confirmed that the annotated sequences in databases are actually present. In addition, grafting experiments suggested, although still preliminary, that homograft showed less rejection response than in heterograft. Involvement of possible minor histocompatibility gene orthologous in immune response was examined by qPCR.

  18. Providing Criminological Security of Minors at the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei I. Savelev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues related to the provision of criminological security of minors at the national level. The Author analyzes the normative legal basis and main directions of activity of subjects of prevention of the violation of child rights in the Russian Federation. The Author believes that the current system of legal guarantees of criminological security of minors not fully meet modern requirements of protection of rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of adolescents. In particular, the legislation of the Russian Federation is largely focused on protecting the interests of disadvantaged segments of the population, including minors, being in socially dangerous position. It is proposed to improve the existing legislation through the adoption of a new federal law “The bases of the system of prevention of offences and security of minors”, which will be an important step towards building a legal state.

  19. Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. RESULTS Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001, among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014 and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (p<0.05, as exposure to different forms of violence increased the chances of these disorders by 60% (CI 95%: 1.2-2.1. The three Burnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Health workers experience violence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  20. Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. RESULTS Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001, among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014 and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (p<0.05, as exposure to different forms of violence increased the chances of these disorders by 60% (CI 95%: 1.2-2.1. The three Burnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Health workers experience violence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  1. High frequency characterization of Galfenol minor flux density loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Weng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first measurement of ring-shaped Galfenol’s high frequency-dependent minor flux density loops. The frequencies of applied AC magnetic field are 1k, 5k, 10k, 50k, 100k, 200k, 300k, 500 kHz. The measurements show that the cycle area between the flux density and magnetic field curves increase with increasing frequency. High frequency-dependent characterization, including coercivity, specific power loss, residual induction, and maximum relative permeability are discussed. Minor loops for different max induction are also measured and discussed at the same frequency 100 kHz. Minor loops with the same max induction 0.05 T for different frequencies 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kHz are measured and specific power loss are discussed.

  2. Adolescent brain development and the mature minor doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Tomas J

    2011-08-01

    The medical rights of minors have been questioned, especially due to information on adolescent brain development and studies on adolescent decision-making. This chapter briefly introduces the mature minor doctrine (MMD) and its history, justification, and practice and then presents some of the objections to the MMD. The article then highlights new knowledge about adolescent brain development (ABD) and what this may contribute to this debate and describes "hot cognition" and "cold cognition". It concludes by alerting the reader to the danger of making inappropriate use of the discoveries of brain science and proposing a prudent approach to adolescent consent and confidentiality, one that incorporates the new knowledge on ABD without "turning back the clock" on the medical rights of minors.

  3. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...... anomalies may provide important clues to understanding schizophrenia spectrum disorders from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Minor physical anomalies appear to signal stressors relevant to schizophrenia spectrum development, especially in those at genetic risk for schizophrenia....

  4. Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration.

  5. Ambient workplace heterosexism: Implications for sexual minority and heterosexual employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kathi N; Costa, Paula L

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism, emotional reactions (i.e., fear and anger), and outcomes for sexual minority and heterosexual employees. Five hundred thirty-six restaurant employees (68% female, 77% White) completed an online survey assessing the variables of interest. Results showed that greater experiences of ambient workplace heterosexism were associated with heightened fear and anger and, in turn, with heightened psychological distress (for fear) and greater physical health complaints, turnover intentions, and lowered job satisfaction (for anger). Fear also mediated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and psychological distress. In addition, sexual orientation moderated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and fear such that sexual minority employees reported more fear than heterosexuals with greater ambient heterosexism. These effects occurred after controlling for personal experiences of interpersonal discrimination. Our findings suggest that ambient workplace heterosexism can be harmful to all employees, not only sexual minorities or targeted individuals. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Minor Crashes and ‘Whiplash’ in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R.; Wiechel, John F.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define ‘whiplash’ injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4g (s.d. = 0.5g), respectively. A total of 113 struck vehicle occupants were diagnosed within five weeks post-crash with 761 ICD-9-CM complaints and 427 AIS injuries (99.5% AIS1) attributed to the crashes. No striking vehicle occupants reported complaints. The main ICD-9-CM diagnoses were 40.6% cervical, 22.5% lumbar/sacral and 10.2% thoracic and the main AIS1 diagnoses were 29.7% cervical, 23.2% lumbar/sacral and 14.3% thoracic. The diagnosis disparity was mainly due to coding for pre-existing degenerative diagnosis in ICD-9-CM. Degenerative spine conditions were not significant for increased AIS1 injury risk. Surprisingly, many non-‘whiplash’ diagnoses were found. The AIS injury diagnosis distribution and frequency in these minor delta-V crashes did not correspond with previous minor rear crash studies. A prospectively collected and unbiased minor rear crash databank in the model of CIREN or NASS is highly desirable to verify or refute these results for the U.S. population since the current study cohort may have been influenced by litigation. PMID:19026229

  7. Minor crashes and 'whiplash' in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Gilbertson, Lars G; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R; Wiechel, John F

    2008-10-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define 'whiplash' injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4 g (s.d. = 0.5 g), respectively. A total of 113 struck vehicle occupants were diagnosed within five weeks post-crash with 761 ICD-9-CM complaints and 427 AIS injuries (99.5% AIS1) attributed to the crashes. No striking vehicle occupants reported complaints. The main ICD-9-CM diagnoses were 40.6% cervical, 22.5% lumbar/sacral and 10.2% thoracic and the main AIS1 diagnoses were 29.7% cervical, 23.2% lumbar/sacral and 14.3% thoracic. The diagnosis disparity was mainly due to coding for pre-existing degenerative diagnosis in ICD-9-CM. Degenerative spine conditions were not significant for increased AIS1 injury risk. Surprisingly, many non-'whiplash' diagnoses were found. The AIS injury diagnosis distribution and frequency in these minor delta-V crashes did not correspond with previous minor rear crash studies. A prospectively collected and unbiased minor rear crash databank in the model of CIREN or NASS is highly desirable to verify or refute these results for the U.S. population since the current study cohort may have been influenced by litigation.

  8. Electronic cigarette initiation among minority youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammig, Bart; Daniel-Dobbs, Page; Blunt-Vinti, Heather

    2017-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) use among youth is a pressing public health issue, with prevalence of use surpassing that of tobacco cigarettes. While research concerning e-cigarettes has proliferated in recent years, there is a dearth of information regarding those whose first exposure to tobacco products was an e-cigarette. To examine factors associated with e-cigarette initiation among minority youth in the United States. Data on minority students in middle and high schools in the United States derived from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) were sampled (weighted N = 27,294,454). We examined e-cigarette initiation among minority youth using logistic regression models to identify related factors. In 2014, 736,158 minority youth were e-cigarette initiators. Odds of e-cigarette initiation was highest among Hispanic youth [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.60-4.56]. Exposure to e-cigarette advertising (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.07-2.50), perceptions of little to no harm (AOR = 7.08; 95% CI = 4.03-12.46), and believing e-cigarettes were less addictive than tobacco (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.52-3.02) were associated with e-cigarette initiation. Odds of initiating e-cigarette use was highest among Hispanic youth. Among minority youth, e-cigarette initiation was associated with perceptions of harm and addiction potential, as well as exposure to e-cigarette advertising. Therefore, prevention efforts targeting minority youth who are at risk of becoming e-cigarette initiators may benefit by incorporating these factors into prevention campaigns.

  9. Retaining minorities in engineering: Assessment of a program prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jennifer Marie (Phillips)

    Program assessment is an essential part of healthy program development. Assessment should include multiple considerations, dimensions, and outcomes that match the program's objectives. As a newly formed retention program, the Auburn University Minority Engineering Program, designed to help pre-engineering minority students make the transition into their freshman year of university studies, incorporated evaluation and assessment into all three components of the program (the interactive learning laboratory, critical-thinking workshops, and Sunday-evening tutorials) from the program's inception. If students successfully adapted to the university environment and the demands of the pre-engineering course of study, then retention of minority students in the College of Engineering should improve. Data were gathered on the students involved in the various program components. Students who entered the Minority Engineering Program were pre- and posttested on three standardized subtests (critical thinking, mathematics, and science reasoning) of the Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency. The first-quarter grade-point averages of the students were also gathered to compare their grades to freshman students in previous quarters within the College of Engineering. Qualitative data were also gathered on this same group of students. An analysis of the data revealed that student achievement is affected by involvement in the Minority Engineering Program. Specifically, the first quarter grade point averages of students involved in the program exceeded those of their peers in earlier years of study prior to the program's existence. In addition, mathematics and science reasoning scores on standardized tests increased pre- to postintervention. Comments collected in journals and files also demonstrated use of critical-thinking and problem-solving skills employed by the students. Recommendations for alterations of the program were made based on the outcome of the program evaluation

  10. Prostitution of minors in registered places in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many children in Mexico are working in registered places where the sex trade is allowed, such as canteens, bars or nightclubs. This article, based on a qualitative methodology that includes in-depth interviews with owners of 73 centers dedicated to the sexual commerce in nine Mexican States, examines the prostitution of minors in these places towards the appreciations of the pimps, and concludes that the spread of a culture of bribery in the prostitution industry leads to the solidification of networks of complicity between the police and pimps leading to the prostitution of minors.

  11. Gettering improvements of minority-carrier lifetimesin solar grade silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinniy, Viktor; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Dahl, Espen

    2012-01-01

    The minority-carrier lifetime in p-type solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) produced by Elkem Solar was investigated after different types of heat treatment. Two groups of samples differing by the as-grown lifetimes were exposed to internal and phosphorus gettering using constant and variable temperature...... processes. Optimal heat-treatment parameters for each group of samples were then identified which improved the minority-carrier lifetimes to values higher than the minimum value needed for solar cells. Phosphorus gettering using a variable temperature process enhanced in particular the lifetime within each...

  12. Equality, Human Dignity and Minorities: A Social Democracy in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Gross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with equality, human dignity and the need to build a social democracy. Bringing equality concepts in a broad sense as foundation work, is set to develop writing by making some remarks on the dignity of the individual and minorities, often not heard, even within democratic scenarios since democracy is the voice the most by hiding voices and demands of sectors or groups excluded from the agenda. Minorities such as LGBT, black, residents of peripheral areas of large cities, among others, do not have their demands heard from this idea, we seek a concept of social democracy, which is wider than just the voice of the majority.

  13. Minority Carrier Lifetime Studies of Narrow Bandgap Antimonide Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglund, Linda; Ting, David Z.; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Fisher, Anita; Keo, Sam; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study optical modulation response and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to study mid-wave Ga-free InAs/InAsSb superlattices. The minority carrier lifetimes in the different samples varied from 480 ns to 4700 ns, partly due to different background doping concentrations. It was shown that the photoluminescence intensity can be used as a fast non-destructive tool to predict the material quality. It was also demonstrated that it is crucial to use a low excitation power in the photoluminescence measurements in order to get a good correlation between the photoluminescence intensity and the minority carrier lifetime.

  14. Patrones ferrocin??ticos en la beta-talasemia minor

    OpenAIRE

    P??rez Blanco, Francisco Jos??; Jim??nez Jim??nez, M. J.; Mart??n Fern??ndez, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudiar los par??metros del metabolismo del hierro en la beta-talasemia minor. Casu??stica y M??todos: Se estudian 58 sujetos (30 hombre y 28 mujeres) de edades entre 18-72 a??os diagnosticados de talasemia beta minor. Como controles se estudiaron 30 hombres y 28 mujeres del mismo espectro de edad. El estudio hematol??gico se realiz?? en el Coulter Counter, el bioqu??mico en el autoanalizador Hitachi, la hemoglobina A2 mediante electroforesis en celogel. El hierro m...

  15. Burning minor actinides in a HTR energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Christoph; Rütten, H. Jochem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Burn-up analysis for varying plutonium/minor actinide fuel compositions. ► The influence of varying heavy metal fuel element loads is investigated. ► Significant burn-up via radiative capture and subsequently fission is observed. ► Difference observed between fuel element burn-up and total actinide burning rate. - Abstract: The generation of nuclear energy by means of the existing nuclear reactor systems is based mainly on the fission of U-235. But this comes along with the capture of neutrons by the U-238 faction and results in a build-up of plutonium isotopes and minor actinides as neptunium, americium and curium. These actinides are dominant for the long time assessment of the radiological risk of a final disposal therefore a minimization of the long living isotopes is aspired. Burning the actinides in a high temperature helium cooled graphite moderated reactor (HTR) is one of these options. The use of plutonium isotopes to sustain the criticality of the system is intended to avoid on the one hand highly enriched uranium because of international regulations and on the other hand low enriched uranium because of the build up of new actinides from neutron capture in the U-238 fraction. Because initial minor actinide isotopes are typically not fissionable by thermal neutrons the idea is to fission instead the intermediate isotopes generated by the first neutron capture. This paper comprises calculations for plutonium/minor actinides/thorium fuel compositions and their correlated final burn-up for a generic pebble bed HTR based on the reference design of the 400 MW PBMR. In particular the cross sections and the neutron balance of the different minor actinide isotopes in the higher thermal energy spectrum of a HTR will be discussed. For a fuel mixture of plutonium and minor actinides a significant burn-up of these actinides up to 20% can be achieved but at the expense of a higher residual fraction of plutonium in the burned fuel. Combining

  16. Attempts at establishing the culture conditions for Lemna minor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krzychowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration, composition and pH of the substrate as well as of light intensity on the growth and vegetative propagation of Lemna minor L. was investigated. The media of Hutner, Hoagland and Pirson and Seidel were used. At first the experiments were carried out under unsterile conditions. Later sterilized duckweed was cultured in aseptic conditions. The dry matter was determined. Surface area increment and an increase in the number of fronds were evaluated by the planimetric method. For total protein determination in Lemna minor L. from unsterile and sterile cultures Lowry's method was used.

  17. Sexual minority women's gender identity and expression: challenges and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  18. Total retinal detachment occurring after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Pienaru; Ramona, Serban; Mircea, Filip; Andrei, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the case of a patient with a severe decrease of visual acuity that occurred after an apparently minor head injury. Following the investigations, the patient was diagnosed with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that was triggered by a fall from the same level and which occurred on a background of lattice degeneration. In this case, a minor trauma caused a severe complication because the patient had a contributing factor for the complication. The patient was operated and the end result was satisfactory.

  19. Nitrousoxide as a conscious sedative in minor oral surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rakesh; Asir, Vigil Dev; Shanmugapriyan; Ebenezr, Vijay; Dakir, Abu; Balakrishnan; Jacob, Jeffin

    2015-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably. However, as a single agent, it has an impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive minor oral surgical procedure. In this article, action of N2O in overcoming the anxiety and pain of the patient during the minor oral surgery and its advantages and disadvantages, have been reviewed.

  20. Nitrousoxide as a conscious sedative in minor oral surgical procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N 2 O is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably. However, as a single agent, it has an impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive minor oral surgical procedure. In this article, action of N 2 O in overcoming the anxiety and pain of the patient during the minor oral surgery and its advantages and disadvantages, have been reviewed.

  1. 21 CFR 516.125 - Investigational use of minor species new animal drugs to support indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for investigational use only in laboratory animals or for tests in vitro in support of index listing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investigational use of minor species new animal... DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor...

  2. The Research Administrator's Responsibility for Buying from Minority-Owned Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Lyle E.

    1979-01-01

    The author, the president of Amoco Venture Capital Company, a subsidiary of Standard Oil Company of Indiana designed to promote minority purchasing and finance minority enterprise, describes his program and the national program to promote minority enterprise. Ways that research administrators can develop minority sources for laboratory needs are…

  3. Special Issues in Working with Gifted Minority Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Rena R.; Van Sant, Sondra

    1986-01-01

    Gifted adolescents from minority groups face the same issues all gifted young people face, but the addition of racial and cultural factors increases the complexity of these issues. Discusses individual versus cultural pressures that affect identity, issues related to assisting students with long-range planning, and two models for programming.…

  4. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  5. Lifelong Learning for Social Inclusion of Ethnic Minorities in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its overall economic success, most citizens living in the remote areas of Botswana face poverty and are unemployed. The article argues that minority communities in remote areas are excluded because education programs use unfamiliar languages and de-contextualized curricula, there is no national qualifications framework to sufficiently…

  6. Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors: background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C

    2009-01-01

    Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a backgroun...

  7. Practices of Citizenship Rights among Minority Students at Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how Chinese minority students participate and defend citizenship rights on a university campus against the backdrop of ongoing social changes. Three rights are focused on: freedom of religion, freedom of association, and freedom to use an ethnic language. The data were collected at three universities. Research methods involved…

  8. Limiting organisational rights of minority unions: POPCRU v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... current socioeconomic and political landscape. Strike violence, loss of confidence in existing bargaining structures, and the alienation of vulnerable employees from majority unions has resulted in minority unions taking up the cudgels of frustrated and disempowered employees, as witnessed in the Marikana experience.

  9. Ethnicity, Alienation, Identity: Themes in Hispanic Minority Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marvin A.

    This paper presents a thematic examination of three novels by Hispanic minority writers. In their assessment of the human condition, Chicano, Puerto Rican, and Cuban exile writers share many concerns. Among them are the problems of ethnicity, alienation, and identity. These preoccupations are manifested primarily through character portrayal in…

  10. Gender differences among Czech youth in prejudice towards minorities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnáč, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2017), s. 583-604 ISSN 1367-6261 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : prejudice * youth * attitudes towards minorities Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2016

  11. Understanding the Minority Child in the American Educational System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Mary Lee

    1984-01-01

    Provides an historical review of social, religious, and educational attitudes toward child welfare. Examines the causes of racial prejudice, the plight of today's minority group children, and the responsibility of schools and educators toward this group. Discusses the nature of the school and the rights of students and teachers. (JHZ)

  12. Applying Diversity Management Concepts to Improve the Minority Educational Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntebi, Joy; Shcherbakova, Maria; Wooten, Lynn P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this conceptual article is to investigate existing diversity management paradigms and extend their implications toward the goal of increasing minority representation in management education. We suggest that the existing learning-and-effectiveness diversity management paradigm (Thomas & Ely, 1996, "Harvard Business…

  13. Positive parenting in ethnic minority families : challenges and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, Rosalia Antonia Grada (Rosanneke)

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the current dissertation is to uncover predictors and outcomes of positive parenting in ethnic minority families. Chapter 2 provides an overview of commonly used observational instruments to measure sensitivity, showing the versatility and scientific importance of the construct.

  14. Structural and functional analysis of bovine herpesvirus 1 minor glycoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranowski, E.; Keil, G.; Lyaku, J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Pastoret, P.P.; Thiry, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the structure and functions of bovine herpesvirus 1 minor glycoproteins gH, gE, gG and gp42. It reviews the progress which has been made in their identification and characterization, in the study of their temporal expression and processing in infected cells, and finally in the

  15. Insecure Identities: Unaccompanied Minors as Refugees in Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the financial circumstances and social income of nearly one hundred unaccompanied minors who have come to Hamburg as refugees from various regions of Africa. It is based on extensive qualitative surveys, analysing their objective conditions of life and in particular their legal situation. A wide range of interview material and…

  16. HPV in minority populations : Epidemiology and vaccination acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation describes the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the social-psychological aspects of HPV vaccination acceptability in two different minority populations. Both populations are at higher risk of developing HPV induced disease (notably cervical, penile, anal, and head and

  17. Boyzone and Bhangra: The Place of Popular and Minority Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Ikhlaq; Cullingford, Cedric

    2004-01-01

    There are many studies of young people's preferences for music, films, books and magazines, the most detailed and committed of which are carried out by market researchers. There is far less attention paid to the tastes of a minority or ethnic group. This paper explores the tastes of young people of a Pakistani background as they adapt themselves…

  18. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to…

  19. For data's sake: dilemmas in the measurement of gender minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer L; Theall, Katherine; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kendall, Carl

    2018-03-13

    Gender-minority health disparity research is limited by binary gender measurement practices. This study seeks to broaden current discourse on gender identity measurement in the USA, including measurement adoption challenges and mitigation strategies, thereby allowing for better data collection to understand and address health disparities for people of all genders. Three data sources were used to triangulate findings: expert interviews with gender and sexuality research leaders; key-informant interviews with gender minorities in New Orleans, LA; and document analysis of relevant surveys, guides and commentaries. Ten key dilemmas were identified: 1) moving beyond binary gender construction; 2) conflation of gender, sex and sexual orientation; 3) emerging nature of gender-related language; 4) concerns about item sensitivity; 5) research fatigue among gender minorities; 6) design and analytical limitations; 7) categorical and procedural consistency; 8) pre-populated vs. open-field survey items; 9) potential misclassification; and 10) competing data collection needs. Researchers must continue working toward consensus concerning better practices is gender measurement and be explicit about their methodological choices. The existence of these dilemmas must not impede research on important health issues affecting gender minorities.

  20. MINORITY LANGUAGE POLICY REGARDING PERSONAL NAMES – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Walkowiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Language Policy (LP with language planning as its implementation is now a well-established field; yet, as evidenced by the scarcity of scholarly literature, seldom concerned with personal names. The paper looks at personal names (given names and surnames and discusses the ways in which they can be perceived as objects of minority LP. Policies regarding personal names are analysed within the framework of the traditional division of language planning into status, corpus and acquisition planning. These policies are then further examined according to other dimensions: what the object of a LP is, who its agent is, what motivates a LP, what effects it exerts, and how a LP is carried out. Finally, the paper looks at EU minority legislation with reference to personal names,especially at the country-specific opinions which reflect the FCNM monitoring process, highlighting areas of controversy. In conclusion, it is shown how vital personal names are to personal and group identity and, consequently, how control over them helps the nation-state control a minority, although – it is argued – not every regulation constitutes a minority LP.

  1. Minority Language Researchers and Their Role in Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of researchers in the development of language policies for European minority languages. This question is placed in the context of a long-standing debate in sociology to which several authors have contributed; among them are Max Weber, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner. This article also briefly refers to the European…

  2. Lived Islam: Religious identity with Non-organized Muslim minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeldtoft, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how a focus on ‘non-organized’ Muslims in Europe can contribute with insights on the everyday lives and practices of Muslim minorities. The empirical foundation is interviews conducted in Germany and Denmark. I argue that by focusing on institutionalized for...

  3. Interval Routing and Minor-Monotone Graph Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.M.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Tan, R.B.; Leeuwen, J. van

    2006-01-01

    We survey a number of minor-monotone graph parameters and their relationship to the complexity of routing on graphs. In particular we compare the interval routing parameters κslir(G) and κsir(G) with Colin de Verdi`ere’s graph invariant μ(G) and its variants λ(G) and κ(G). We show that for all the

  4. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Caler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341 to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394, Black (n = 261, or Asian/other (n = 177. Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. 24 CFR 92.351 - Affirmative marketing; minority outreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... available housing without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, religion, familial status or... women, including, without limitation, real estate firms, construction firms, appraisal firms, management... assure that minority business enterprises and women business enterprises are used when possible in the...

  6. Subtle and Severe: Microaggressions Among Racially Diverse Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Amanda; Collins, Shelly-Ann; Robinson-Wood, Tracy; Zeko-Underwood, Elda; Poindexter, Bianca

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, understanding prejudice and discrimination toward minorities has developed to include the investigation of microaggressions. Microaggressions are brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities. They are intentional or unintentional and communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights toward racial and sexual minorities. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to chronicle the prevalence and type of microaggressions experienced among a sample of 18 highly educated and racially diverse sexual minorities, 24-65 years of age. The impact of microaggressions on physical and psychological health is central to our investigation. Thematic data analysis was used to analyze 14 interviews and one focus group, which resulted in the following themes of microaggressions: (a) discomfort/disapproval with LGBT experience, (b) assumption of universal experience, (c) traditional gender role stereotyping, (d) denial of personal privacy, (e) exoticization, (f) ascription of intelligence, (g) policing bodies, and (h) assumption of criminality. Research findings may have implications for the development of interventions that can serve clinicians in their therapeutic work with microaggressed sexual minorities across racial diversity.

  7. Minor traumatic brain injuries – what is new? | Hollander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minor traumatic brain injuries – what is new? D Hollander, J Coventry, M Du Trevou. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  8. Minority heating scenarios in and SST-1 plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asim Kumar Chattopadhyay

    2017-12-19

    Dec 19, 2017 ... ... it has been observed that minority ion heating is the principal heating mechanism compared to electron ..... (∂Fi/∂t)QL has a strong pitch angle, μ, dependence. ..... related to complex change in elements of dielectric ten-.

  9. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention...

  10. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL...

  11. Major and minor music compared to excited and subdued speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Daniel L; Gill, Kamraan; Choi, Jonathan D; Prinz, Joseph; Purves, Dale

    2010-01-01

    The affective impact of music arises from a variety of factors, including intensity, tempo, rhythm, and tonal relationships. The emotional coloring evoked by intensity, tempo, and rhythm appears to arise from association with the characteristics of human behavior in the corresponding condition; however, how and why particular tonal relationships in music convey distinct emotional effects are not clear. The hypothesis examined here is that major and minor tone collections elicit different affective reactions because their spectra are similar to the spectra of voiced speech uttered in different emotional states. To evaluate this possibility the spectra of the intervals that distinguish major and minor music were compared to the spectra of voiced segments in excited and subdued speech using fundamental frequency and frequency ratios as measures. Consistent with the hypothesis, the spectra of major intervals are more similar to spectra found in excited speech, whereas the spectra of particular minor intervals are more similar to the spectra of subdued speech. These results suggest that the characteristic affective impact of major and minor tone collections arises from associations routinely made between particular musical intervals and voiced speech.

  12. Promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity in overweight minority girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. The purpose of this study was to assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. The sample consisted of 31 overweight Latina ...

  13. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  14. Science Lives: Women and Minorities in the Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. KUOM Radio.

    This pamphlet and accompanying brochure of the same title describe a radio series of 13 half hour programs on the participation of women and minorities in science in the United States. The series attempts to make the public aware of the crisis in the sciences and science education and provides role models for young people, particularly young women…

  15. Status of National Minorities in Developed European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Raduški

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary geopolitical changes, interethnic conflicts and clashes, and the connection between minority and territorial problems considerably influence the quality of inter-state relations and the preservation of global peace and security. National problems and ethnic confrontations found a firm ground on the territory of the Balkans, although they are known in democratic West-European countries as well, despite high standards in respecting human rights. However, even though they deserve special attention due to their seriousness, they remain exclusively under those countries’ jurisdiction, as opposed to countries in transition that are in the focus of interest and intervention of the international community. In developed countries, the method of regulating the minority question greatly depends on the position of that country on the world economic and political scene, apart from numerous historical and political factors. In each of these countries, there are specific models of coexistence of majority and minority population conditioned by numerous factors, so there does not exist a universal model that would be valid for all countries. Respecting basic human rights, as well as national minority protection, represent the basic factors of the stability, and democratic and socio-economic development of every country.

  16. Mental Health and Substance Use of Sexual Minority College Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Davoren, Ann Kearns

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the mental health and substance use of sexual minority collegiate student-athletes in the United States, as compared with heterosexual college students and heterosexual student-athletes. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 196,872) who completed the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment…

  17. Federal Recognition of the Rights of Minority Language Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Arnold H.

    Federal laws, policies, and court decisions pertaining to the civil rights of minority language groups are reviewed, with an emphasis on political, legal, economic, and educational access. Areas in which progress has been made and those in which access is still limited are identified. It is argued that a continuing federal role is necessary to…

  18. DNA minor groove binding of small molecules: Experimental and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Eight indole derivatives were studied for their DNA binding ability using fluorescence quenching and molecular docking methods. These indole compounds have structural moieties similar as in few indole alkaloids. Experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that indole derivatives bind in the minor ...

  19. South Carolina's best management practices for forestry for minor drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya Smith; Herb Nicholson

    2016-01-01

    Minor drainage is normally used to facilitate regeneration and timber harvesting by temporarily removing surface water from inundated forestland. Specific ditch depth and spacing recommendations are not listed in our manual, as each site is individually evaluated.

  20. Shame in Sexual Minorities: Stigma, Internal Cognitions, and Counseling Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Veronica R. F.; Yarhouse, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Theorists, clinicians, and researchers have suggested that shame is a central concern in the lives of sexual minority individuals. Cognitive theorists believe that shame occurs when a person fails to achieve his or her standards, which are often based on social, cultural, and spiritual values. Although it is asserted that stigma causes shame among…