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Sample records for rankl mrna expression

  1. Expression of RANKL/OPG during bone remodeling in vivo

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    Tanaka, H., E-mail: tnk@ymghp.jp [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 77 Ohsaki, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Mine, T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Ogasa, H. [Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Taguchi, T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Liang, C.T. [Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); National Health Research Institutes, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first study to determine the relationship between osteogenic differentiation and RANKL/OPG expression during bone remodeling in vivo. {yields} The OPG expression peak occurred during the bone formation phase, whereas the marked elevation of RANKL expression was observed during the bone resorption phase. {yields} Histological analysis showed that RANKL/OPG immunoreactivity was predominantly associated with bone marrow cells in the marrow cavity. {yields} The present study confirmed that RANKL/OPG are key factors linking bone formation to resorption during the bone remodeling process. -- Abstract: The interaction between receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) plays a dominant role in osteoclastogenesis. As both proteins are produced by osteoblast lineage cells, they are considered to represent a key link between bone formation and resorption. In this study, we investigated the expression of RANKL and OPG during bone remodeling in vivo to determine the relationship between osteoclastogenic stimulation and osteoblastic differentiation. Total RNA was prepared from rat femurs after marrow ablation on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. The temporal activation patterns of osteoblast-related genes (procollagen {alpha}1 (I), alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin) were examined by Northern blot analysis. An appreciable increase in the expression of these osteoblast markers was observed on day 3. The peak increase in gene expression was observed on day 6 followed by a slight reduction by day 9. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the OPG mRNA expression was markedly upregulated on day 6 and slightly decreased on day 9. In contrast, RANKL mRNA expression was increased by more than 20-fold on day 9. The RANKL/OPG ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulation, peaked on day 9. Histological analysis showed that RANKL and OPG immunoreactivity were predominantly associated with bone marrow cells. The

  2. cAMP/PKA regulates osteogenesis, adipogenesis and ratio of RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in mesenchymal stem cells by suppressing leptin.

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    Der-Chih Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a pluripotent cell type that can differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and other cells. The reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteogenesis was previously demonstrated; however, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report that activation of PKA by 3-isobutyl-1 methyl xanthine (IBMX and forskolin enhances adipogenesis, the gene expression of PPARgamma2 and LPL, and downregulates the gene expression of Runx2 and osteopontin, markers of osteogenesis. PKA activation also decreases the ratio of Receptor Activator of the NF-kappaB Ligand to Osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG gene expression - the key factors of osteoclastogenesis. All these effects are mediated by the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway by suppressing leptin, and may contribute to PKA stimulators-induced in vivo bone loss in developing zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS: Using MSCs, the center of a newly proposed bone metabolic unit, we identified cAMP/PKA signaling, one of the many signaling pathways that regulate bone homeostasis via controlling cyto-differentiation of MSCs and altering RANKL/OPG gene expression.

  3. Trolox prevents osteoclastogenesis by suppressing RANKL expression and signaling.

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    Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Yang, Daum; Jung, Kyoungsuk; Kim, Hyun-Man; Kim, Hong-Hee; Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Zang Hee

    2009-05-15

    Excessive receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) signaling causes enhanced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Thus, down-regulation of RANKL expression or its downstream signals may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of pathological bone loss. In this study, we investigated the effects of Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL signaling. Trolox potently inhibited interleukin-1-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow cell-osteoblast coculture by abrogating RANKL induction in osteoblasts. This RANKL reduction was attributed to the reduced production of prostaglandin E(2) via a down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 activity. We also found that Trolox inhibited osteoclast formation from bone marrow macrophages induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus RANKL in a reversible manner. Trolox was effective only when present during the early stage of culture, which implies that it targets early osteoclast precursors. Pretreatment with Trolox did not affect RANKL-induced early signaling pathways, including MAPKs, NF-kappaB, and Akt. We found that Trolox down-regulated the induction by RANKL of c-Fos protein by suppressing its translation. Ectopic overexpression of c-Fos rescued the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by Trolox in bone marrow macrophages. Trolox also suppressed interleukin-1-induced osteoclast formation and bone loss in mouse calvarial bone. Taken together, our findings indicate that Trolox prevents osteoclast formation and bone loss by inhibiting both RANKL induction in osteoblasts and c-Fos expression in osteoclast precursors.

  4. Expression of osteoprotegerin and its ligands, RANKL and TRAIL, in rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Pina, Trinitario; Corrales, Alfonso; Blanco, Ricardo; Martín, Javier; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2016-07-12

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-ΚB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathophysiology. In this study, we assessed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these molecules by qPCR in peripheral blood from 26 patients with RA (12 of them with ischemic heart disease -IHD) and 10 healthy controls. Correlation coefficients between OPG, RANKL and TRAIL expression levels in RA patients and their clinical and demographic characteristics were also evaluated. Whereas OPG and OPG/TRAIL ratio expression were significantly increased in RA patients compared to controls (fold change = 1.79, p = 0.013 and 2.07, p = 0.030, respectively), RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly decreased (fold change = 0.50, p = 0.020). No significant differences were found between patients and controls in RANKL and TRAIL expression. Interestingly, TRAIL expression was significantly higher in RA patients with IHD compared to those without IHD (fold change = 1.46, p = 0.033). Moreover, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) significantly decreased RANKL expression in RA patients (p = 0.016). Our study supports an important role of OPG and TRAIL in RA. Furthermore, it highlights an effect of biologic DMARDs in the modulation of RANKL.

  5. RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis

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    Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Jiansheng [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Liu, Xiangyuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  6. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment

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    Okito, Asuka [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakahama, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nakacell@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Akiyama, Masako [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Takashi [Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Morita, Ikuo [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-03-06

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. - Highlights: • RANKL expression was increased in osteoblasts under acidosis via cAMP/PKA pathway. • GRP4 knockdown resulted in decrease of RANKL expression. • GRP4 overexpression resulted in increase of RANKL expression. • Osteoblast mineralization was reduced under acidic condition.

  7. Effects of IL-10 and glucose on expression of OPG and RANKL in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

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    L. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10 and glucose on mRNA and protein expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG, and its ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, were investigated in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs. Primary HPDLFs were treated with different concentrations of IL-10 (0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ng/mL or glucose (0, 5.5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mmol/L. Changes in mRNA and protein expression were examined using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. After IL-10 treatment, mRNA and protein levels of OPG were increased, while mRNA and protein levels of RANKL were decreased (P<0.05, both in a concentration-dependent manner. Glucose stimulation had the opposite concentration-dependent effect to that of IL-10 on OPG and RANKL expression. IL-10 upregulated OPG expression and downregulated RANKL expression, whereas high glucose upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG in HDPLFs. Abnormal levels of IL-10 and glucose may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  8. Effect of ERK1/2 signal pathway on the expression of OPG/RANKL in cementoblasts under stress stimulation

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    Feng-xue YANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2 on the expression of osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (OPG/RANKL in cementoblasts under mechanical tensile stress stimulation. Methods Using Flexcell FX4000T tension loading system and the ERK1/2-specific inhibitor PD98059, cementoblasts OCCM30 were randomly divided into four groups: group A (without loading and inhibitor, group B (without loading but inhibitor, group C (loading but without inhibitor, and group D (with both loading and inhibitor. The phosphorylation level of ERK1/2 was measured by Western blotting after 5, 15, 30 and 60min loading. OPG and RANKL mRNA were analyzed with fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR after 12h loading. Results Mechanical tensile stress activated ERK1/2 signal pathway of group C rapidly, and the P-ERK1/2 levels were significantly higher in group C than in group A at 5, 15 and 30min (P<0.05, then the P-ERK1/2 level of group C resumed to similar level of group A at 60min. The P-ERK levels of group B and D were significantly reduced by inhibitor PD98059. Tension stress up-regulated the expression of RANKL mRNA, and down-regulated the expression of OPG mRNA in OCCM30, the RANKL/OPG ratio increased after tension loading. With PD98059, the expression of RANKL mRNA decreased, that of OPG mRNA increased, and the RANKL/OPG ratio decreased (P<0.05. Conclusion ERK1/2 may be a signal transduction pathway for the regulation of OPG and RANKL expression after tension stress loading, but it is not the only one of activation pathways, and there may be other common signal pathways involved in the regulation of OPG and RANKL expression. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.12.03

  9. Constitutive expression of TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE/receptor activating NF-κB ligand (RANK-L by rat plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

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    Thomas Anjubault

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs are a subset of DCs whose major function relies on their capacity to produce large amount of type I IFN upon stimulation via TLR 7 and 9. This function is evolutionary conserved and place pDC in critical position in the innate immune response to virus. Here we show that rat pDC constitutively express TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE also known as Receptor-activating NF-κB ligand (RANKL. TRANCE/RANKL is a member of the TNF superfamily which plays a central role in osteoclastogenesis through its interaction with its receptor RANK. TRANCE/RANK interaction are also involved in lymphoid organogenesis as well as T cell/DC cross talk. Unlike conventional DC, rat CD4(high pDC were shown to constitutively express TRANCE/RANKL both at the mRNA and the surface protein level. TRANCE/RANKL was also induced on the CD4(low subsets of pDC following activation by CpG. The secreted form of TRANCE/RANKL was also produced by rat pDC. Of note, levels of mRNA, surface and secreted TRANCE/RANKL expression were similar to that observed for activated T cells. TRANCE/RANKL expression was found on pDC in all lymphoid organs as well blood and BM with a maximum expression in mesenteric lymph nodes. Despite this TRANCE/RANKL expression, we were unable to demonstrate in vitro osteoclastogenesis activity for rat pDC. Taken together, these data identifies pDC as novel source of TRANCE/RANKL in the immune system.

  10. Trolox Prevents Osteoclastogenesis by Suppressing RANKL Expression and Signaling*S⃞

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    Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Yang, Daum; Jung, Kyoungsuk; Kim, Hyun-Man; Kim, Hong-Hee; Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Zang Hee

    2009-01-01

    Excessive receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling causes enhanced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Thus, down-regulation of RANKL expression or its downstream signals may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of pathological bone loss. In this study, we investigated the effects of Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL signaling. Trolox potently inhibited interleukin-1-induced osteoclast formation in bone ...

  11. RANK-ligand (RANKL) expression in young breast cancer patients and during pregnancy.

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    Azim, Hatem A; Peccatori, Fedro A; Brohée, Sylvain; Branstetter, Daniel; Loi, Sherene; Viale, Giuseppe; Piccart, Martine; Dougall, William C; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Sotiriou, Christos

    2015-02-21

    RANKL is important in mammary gland development during pregnancy and mediates the initiation and progression of progesterone-induced breast cancer. No clinical data are available on the effect of pregnancy on RANK/RANKL expression in young breast cancer patients. We used our previously published dataset of 65 pregnant and 130 matched young breast cancer patients with full clinical, pathological, and survival information. 85% of patients had available transcriptomic data as well. RANK/RANKL expression by immunohistochemistry using H-score on the primary tumor and adjacent normal tissue was performed. We examined the difference in expression of RANK/RANKL between pregnant and non-pregnant patients and their association with clinicopathological features and prognosis. We also evaluated genes and pathways associated with RANK/RANKL expression on primary tumors. RANKL but not RANK expression was more prevalent in the pregnant group, both on the tumor and adjacent normal tissue, independent of other clinicopathological factors (both P Pregnancy increases RANKL expression both in normal breast and primary tumors. These results could guide further development of RANKL-targeted therapy.

  12. Expression of RANKL in osteolytic membranes: association with fibroblastic cell markers.

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    Ramage, Samuel C; Urban, Nicole H; Jiranek, William A; Maiti, Aparna; Beckman, Matthew J

    2007-04-01

    Aseptic loosening is often mentioned as the primary reason for costly revision of total joint arthroplasties. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) appears to be a major factor in the bone resorption observed in periprosthetic osteolysis. RANKL plays an essential role in the recruitment, differentiation, and survival of the osteoclasts implicated in periprosthetic osteolysis. This study was performed in an effort to identify the cell type in the periprosthetic membrane responsible for expression of RANKL. Tissues harvested from osteolytic lesions in nine patients undergoing total joint revision were serially sectioned for immunohistochemical analysis. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and prolyl 4-hydroxylase (5B5) antibodies were used to detect fibroblasts, and anti-CD-163 (Ber-MAC3) was used to detect macrophages. In addition, antibodies to osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANKL, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) were utilized. The binding pattern of these antibodies was then viewed with confocal microscopy with the use of only secondary antibodies as method controls. Histological analysis was confined to areas of the membrane where cells were detected with use of Hoechst 34580 nuclear stain. In the membrane specimens from all nine patients, diffuse RANKL staining was localized to areas lacking cells and more intense staining was seen in areas containing nucleated cells. There was strong colocalization between RANKL and OPG, and there was weak but specific colocalization between RANKL and both 5B5 and ICAM-1. In contrast, there was complete separation of antibody staining of Ber-MAC3 and RANKL, indicating only generalized overlap of the myeloid markers with the RANKL. RANKL expression was localized to cells that stained positively for fibroblast markers. The data also indicated that there is an intact RANKL/RANK/OPG system in the periprosthetic membrane that could regulate focalized bone resorption in osteolysis

  13. Trolox Prevents Osteoclastogenesis by Suppressing RANKL Expression and Signaling*S⃞

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    Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Yang, Daum; Jung, Kyoungsuk; Kim, Hyun-Man; Kim, Hong-Hee; Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Zang Hee

    2009-01-01

    Excessive receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling causes enhanced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Thus, down-regulation of RANKL expression or its downstream signals may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of pathological bone loss. In this study, we investigated the effects of Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL signaling. Trolox potently inhibited interleukin-1-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow cell-osteoblast coculture by abrogating RANKL induction in osteoblasts. This RANKL reduction was attributed to the reduced production of prostaglandin E2 via a down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 activity. We also found that Trolox inhibited osteoclast formation from bone marrow macrophages induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus RANKL in a reversible manner. Trolox was effective only when present during the early stage of culture, which implies that it targets early osteoclast precursors. Pretreatment with Trolox did not affect RANKL-induced early signaling pathways, including MAPKs, NF-κB, and Akt. We found that Trolox down-regulated the induction by RANKL of c-Fos protein by suppressing its translation. Ectopic overexpression of c-Fos rescued the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by Trolox in bone marrow macrophages. Trolox also suppressed interleukin-1-induced osteoclast formation and bone loss in mouse calvarial bone. Taken together, our findings indicate that Trolox prevents osteoclast formation and bone loss by inhibiting both RANKL induction in osteoblasts and c-Fos expression in osteoclast precursors. PMID:19299513

  14. Comparative immunohistochemical expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG in radicular and dentigerous cysts.

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    de Moraes, Maiara; de Lucena, Hévio Freitas; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; Costa, Antonio de Lisboa Lopes

    2011-11-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are members of the superfamily of ligands and receptors of tumour necrosis factor family involved in bone metabolism. The formation, differentiation and activity of osteoclasts are regulated by these proteins. To clarify the roles of osteoclast regulatory factors in cystic expansion of odontogenic cysts, expression of these proteins were analysed in radicular and dentigerous cysts. The immunohistochemistry expression of these biomarkers were evaluated and measured in lining epithelium and fibrous capsule of the radicular (n=20) and dentigerous cysts (n=20). A similar expression in lining epithelium was observed in the lesions. The fibrous capsule of dentigerous cyst showed a higher content of RANK-positive and RANKL-positive cells than fibrous capsule of radicular cyst. In the lining epithelium the RANKL/OPG ratio showed higher numbers of OPG-positive than RANKL-positive cells, whereas fibrous capsule of the cysts had a tendency to present a similar expression (OPG=RANKL). Ours findings indicate the presence of RANK, RANKL and OPG in cysts. Moreover, increased expression of OPG compared to RANKL in the lining epithelium could contribute to the differential bone resorption activity in theses lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AG490 inhibits NFATc1 expression and STAT3 activation during RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis

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    Li, Chang-hong; Zhao, Jin-xia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhong-qiang; Deng, Xiao-li; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiang-yuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •AG490 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. •AG490 affects cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. •AG490 reduces NFATc1 expression during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. •AG490 disrupts the activation of RANKL-mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. •STAT3 depletion partly mimics the effect of AG490 on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Commonly, JAK/STAT relays cytokine signals for cell activation and proliferation, and recent studies have shown that the elevated expression of JAK/STAT is associated with the immune rejection of allografts and the inflammatory processes of autoimmune disease. However, the role which JAK2/STAT3 signaling plays in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of AG490, specific JAK2 inhibitor, on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. AG490 significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis in murine osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 induced by RANKL. AG490 suppressed cell proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle transition. Furthermore, AG490 also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 but not c-Fos in RAW264.7. Subsequently, we investigated various intracellular signaling components associated with osteoclastogenesis. AG490 had no effects on RANKL-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2. Interestingly, AG490 partly inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of Ser{sup 727} in STAT3. Additionally, down-regulation of STAT3 using siRNA resulted in suppression of TRAP, RANK and NFATc1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AG490 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NFATc1 production and cell proliferation via the STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of JAK2 may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclastogenesis.

  16. Estrogen Regulates Bone Turnover by Targeting RANKL Expression in Bone Lining Cells.

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    Streicher, Carmen; Heyny, Alexandra; Andrukhova, Olena; Haigl, Barbara; Slavic, Svetlana; Schüler, Christiane; Kollmann, Karoline; Kantner, Ingrid; Sexl, Veronika; Kleiter, Miriam; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Kostenuik, Paul J; Erben, Reinhold G

    2017-07-25

    Estrogen is critical for skeletal homeostasis and regulates bone remodeling, in part, by modulating the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), an essential cytokine for bone resorption by osteoclasts. RANKL can be produced by a variety of hematopoietic (e.g. T and B-cell) and mesenchymal (osteoblast lineage, chondrocyte) cell types. The cellular mechanisms by which estrogen acts on bone are still a matter of controversy. By using murine reconstitution models that allow for selective deletion of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) or selective inhibition of RANKL in hematopoietic vs. mesenchymal cells, in conjunction with in situ expression profiling in bone cells, we identified bone lining cells as important gatekeepers of estrogen-controlled bone resorption. Our data indicate that the increase in bone resorption observed in states of estrogen deficiency in mice is mainly caused by lack of ERα-mediated suppression of RANKL expression in bone lining cells.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide increases IL-6 secretion via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway to up-regulate RANKL gene expression in MLO-Y4 cells.

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    Yu, Ke; Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Xianxian; Wu, Xiangnan; Liu, Wenjia; Li, Xiaoyu; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in bone resorption, which involves numerous cytokines through various signaling pathways. RANKL and interleukin (IL)-6 are two important cytokines that are involved in bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LPS on RANKL and IL-6 gene expression, the relationship of RANKL and IL-6, and the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) on IL-6 secretion induced by LPS in MLO-Y4 cells. The cells were stimulated by LPS at different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 500, and 1000 ng/mL) for different durations (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 h), and the mRNA expressions of RANKL and IL-6 were determined by PCR. In the presence of 100 ng/mL LPS at different time points (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 h), IL-6 secretion and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the cells were determined by ELISA and western blotting, respectively. STAT3 phosphorylation in cells simulated by 100 ng/mL LPS at different time points (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h) was assessed by western blotting. We found that LPS significantly up-regulated RANKL expression and activated the ERK1/2 pathway to induce IL-6 mRNA expression and protein synthesis in MLO-Y4 cells. However, the increased IL-6 was blocked by pre-treatment of MLO-Y4 cells with the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10 µM), and the enhanced RANKL was blocked by the STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 (100 µM). Our results indicate that LPS up-regulates osteocyte expression of RANKL and IL-6, and the increased RANKL is associated with the up-regulation of IL-6, which involves the ERK1/2 pathway. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Endotoxins potentiate COX-2 and RANKL expression in compressed PDL cells.

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    Römer, Piero; Köstler, Josef; Koretsi, Vasiliki; Proff, Peter

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to demonstrate in vitro the synergistic effect of orthodontic forces and periodontal pathogens on cyclooxygenase-2 regulation and the subsequent receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) production from periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. In comparison to a control group, three experimental groups were formed from human primary PDL cells stressed with compressive forces, bacterial endotoxins, or a combination of both. Gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and RANKL was analysed with RT real-time PCR. The prostaglandin E2 production was determined with ELISA. A co-culture of PDL cells and an osteoclast-progenitor cell line was used in order to demonstrate the osteoclast formation effect caused by the simultaneous combined stress. The simultaneous combined stress resulted in a 56-fold up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression with a subsequent noticeable rise in the prostaglandin E2 in the culture medium. The RANKL/osteoprotegerin gene expression ratio was 50-fold up-regulated and the osteoclast formation assay revealed 153.5 ± 15.7 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells per well compared with 42.3 ± 3.8 TRAP-positive cells per well of the control group. The synergistic action of periodontal pathogens and orthodontic forces leads to an increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 from PDL cells that intensify the RANKL production which in turn induces osteoclast differentiation and subsequent osteoclastogenesis. The present study puts an emphasis on the detrimental effect of orthodontic forces on patients with an active periodontal disease by underlining the significance of cyclooxygenase-2 activity and RANKL binding on the osteoclastogenesis process.

  19. Effects of high glucose and advanced glycation end products on the expressions of sclerostin and RANKL as well as apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells

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    Tanaka, Ken-ichiro, E-mail: ken1nai@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Toru, E-mail: yamaguch@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Kanazawa, Ippei, E-mail: ippei.k@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu, E-mail: sugimoto@med.shimane-u.ac.jp

    2015-05-29

    In diabetes mellitus (DM), high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration. Osteocytes produce sclerostin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and regulate osteoblast and osteoclast function. However, whether HG or AGEs directly affect osteocytes and regulate sclerostin and RANKL production is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on the expression of sclerostin and RANKL and on apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells. Treatment of the cells with 22 mM glucose, 100 μg/mL either AGE2 or AGE3 significantly increased the expression of sclerostin protein and mRNA; however, both AGEs, but not glucose, significantly decreased the expression of RANKL protein and mRNA. Moreover, treatment of the cells with HG, AGE2, or AGE3 for 72 h induced significant apoptosis. These detrimental effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on sclerostin and RANKL expressions and on apoptosis were antagonized by pretreatment of the cells with 10{sup −8} M human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-(1–34). Thus, HG and AGEs likely suppress bone formation by increasing sclerostin expression in osteocytes, whereas AGEs suppress bone resorption by decreasing RANKL expression. Together, these processes may cause low bone turnover in DM. In addition, HG and AGEs may cause cortical bone deterioration by inducing osteocyte apoptosis. PTH may effectively treat these pathological processes and improve osteocyte function. - Highlights: • AGEs are involved in bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus (DM). • AGEs increased sclerostin as well as apoptosis, and decreased RANKL in osteocytes. • The effects of AGEs on osteocyte function were antagonized by human PTH-(1–34). • AGEs may cause low bone turnover and cortical porosity in DM. • PTH may be effective in bone quality deterioration by improving osteocyte function.

  20. TLR2 Elicits IL-17-Mediated RANKL Expression, IL-17, and OPG Production in Neutrophils from Arthritic Mice

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    Viktoriya Milanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of neutrophils to express receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL, to secrete osteoprotegerin (OPG, and to produce IL-17. Arthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of zymosan, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Frequencies of neutrophils in bone marrow (BM, blood and synovial fluid (SF, receptor expression, and cytokine production were evaluated by flow cytometry. 1A8 antibody (1A8 Ab was used to deplete neutrophils in zymosan-injected SCID mice. IL-17, RANKL, and OPG amounts in SF, serum, or cell cultures were determined by ELISA. The development of arthritis was associated with increased secretion of IL-17, RANKL, and OPG in serum and SF, elevated frequencies of Ly6G+CD11b+ cells in BM, blood, and SF and upregulated RANKL expression. Both IL-17 and OPG were absent in serum and SF after neutrophil depletion; therefore we assume that they were released by neutrophils. In vitro blood Ly6G+CD11b+ cells from arthritic mice produced spontaneously IL-17, IFN-γ, and OPG and expressed RANKL. This phenotype was sustained by IL-17. TLR2 engagement increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production, potentiated IL-17-mediated RANKL expression, and inhibited OPG secretion. We conclude that TLR2 regulates the destructive potential of neutrophils and its targeting might limit joint alterations in arthritis.

  1. Effects of high glucose and advanced glycation end products on the expressions of sclerostin and RANKL as well as apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Yamaguchi, Toru; Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2015-05-29

    In diabetes mellitus (DM), high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration. Osteocytes produce sclerostin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-кB ligand (RANKL) and regulate osteoblast and osteoclast function. However, whether HG or AGEs directly affect osteocytes and regulate sclerostin and RANKL production is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on the expression of sclerostin and RANKL and on apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells. Treatment of the cells with 22 mM glucose, 100 μg/mL either AGE2 or AGE3 significantly increased the expression of sclerostin protein and mRNA; however, both AGEs, but not glucose, significantly decreased the expression of RANKL protein and mRNA. Moreover, treatment of the cells with HG, AGE2, or AGE3 for 72 h induced significant apoptosis. These detrimental effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on sclerostin and RANKL expressions and on apoptosis were antagonized by pretreatment of the cells with 10(-8) M human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-(1-34). Thus, HG and AGEs likely suppress bone formation by increasing sclerostin expression in osteocytes, whereas AGEs suppress bone resorption by decreasing RANKL expression. Together, these processes may cause low bone turnover in DM. In addition, HG and AGEs may cause cortical bone deterioration by inducing osteocyte apoptosis. PTH may effectively treat these pathological processes and improve osteocyte function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis can increase PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL expression in MG63 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zaiying; Lin, Dongfang; Qi, Jun; Qiu, Minli; Lv, Qing; Li, Qiuxia; Lin, Zhiming; Liao, Zetao; Pan, Yunfeng; Jin, Ou; Wu, Yuqiong; Gu, Jieruo

    2015-11-01

    To explore the effects of serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis on the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and to assess whether the serum has an osteogenic effect in MG63 cells. MG63 cells were cultured with serum from 45 ankylosing spondylitis patients, 30 healthy controls, or 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients. The relative PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Associations between gene expression and patient demographics and clinical assessments were then analyzed. MG63 cells treated with serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients had higher PPARD, fra-1, MMP7 and OPG gene expression than did cells treated with serum from controls or rheumatoid arthritis patients (all pankylosing spondylitis or rheumatoid arthritis than in those treated with serum from controls (both pankylosing spondylitis patients than in those treated with serum from controls (p0.05). Serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients increases PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL expression and the OPG/RANKL ratio in MG63 cells; these effects may be due to the stimulatory effect of the serum on the Wnt pathway.

  3. Titanium uptake, induction of RANK-L expression, and enhanced proliferation of human T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadosch, Dieter; Sutanto, Michael; Chan, Erwin; Mhawi, Amir; Gautschi, Oliver P; von Katterfeld, Brilliana; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Filgueira, Luis

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that titanium ions are released from orthopedic implants by biocorrosion. The aim of this study was to investigate titanium uptake by human T-lymphocytes and its effects on phenotype and proliferation. Freshly isolated human nonadherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (NA-PBMC), were exposed to TiCl4 [Ti(IV)]. Bioavailability and distribution of Ti(IV) in T-lymphocytes was determined by energy-filtered electron microscopy (EFTEM). The effects of Ti(IV) challenge on nonactivated and PHA-activated cells were assessed by flow cytometric analysis of surface markers, RANK-L production, and proliferation assays. EFTEM colocalized Ti(IV) with phosphorus in the nucleus, ribosomes, cytoplasmic membranes, and the surface membrane of T-lymphocytes. Ti(IV) increased significantly the expression of CD69, CCR4, and RANK-L in a concentration-dependent manner. Titanium enters T-lymphocytes through a currently unknown mechanism and binds to phosphorus-rich cell structures. Titanium influences phenotype and function of T-lymphocytes, resulting in activation of a CD69+ and CCR4+ T-lymphocyte population and secretion of RANK-L. These results strongly suggest the involvement of titanium ions challenged T-lymphocytes in the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants.

  4. Boric acid inhibits alveolar bone loss in rats by affecting RANKL and osteoprotegerin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, M; Hatipoğlu, M; Köseoğlu, S; Esen, H H; Kelebek, S

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of systemic boric acid on the levels of expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and on histopathologic and histometric changes in a rat periodontitis model. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: nonligated (NL); ligature only (LO); and ligature plus treatment with boric acid (BA) (3 mg/kg per day for 11 d). A 4/0 silk suture was placed in a subgingival position around the mandibular right first molars; after 11 d the rats were killed, and alveolar bone loss in the first molars was histometrically determined. Periodontal tissues were examined histopathologically to assess the differences among the study groups. RANKL and OPG were detected immunohistochemically. Alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the LO group than in the BA and NL groups (p boric acid may reduce alveolar bone loss by affecting the RANKL/OPG balance in periodontal disease in rats. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. In Vivo siRNA Delivery Using JC Virus-like Particles Decreases the Expression of RANKL in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Hoffmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between formation and resorption. This complex process involves numerous factors that orchestrate a multitude of biochemical events. Among these factors are hormones, growth factors, vitamins, cytokines, and, most notably, osteoprotegerin (OPG and the receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL. Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in shifting the RANKL/OPG balance toward excessive RANKL, resulting in osteoclastogenesis, which in turn initiates bone resorption, which is frequently associated with osteoporosis. Rebalancing RANKL/OPG levels may be achieved through either upregulation of OPG or through transient silencing of RANKL by means of RNA interference. Here, we describe the utilization of a viral capsid-based delivery system for in vivo and in vitro RNAi using synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA molecules in rat osteoblasts. Polyoma JC virus-derived virus-like particles are capable of delivering siRNAs to target RANKL in osteoblast cells both in vitro and in a rat in vivo system. Expression levels were monitored using quantitative real-time polymerase reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after single and repeated injections over a 14-day period. Our data indicate that this is an efficient and safe route for in vivo delivery of gene modulatory tools to study important molecular factors in a rat osteoporosis model.

  6. Muramyl Dipeptide Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption through Increased RANKL Expression in Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Ishida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is bacterial cell wall component capable of inducing osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is ubiquitously expressed by bacterium. In this study, we investigated the effect of MDP in LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. LPS was administered with or without MDP into the supracalvariae of mice. The number of osteoclasts, the level of mRNA for cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, the ratio of the bone destruction area, the level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5b (TRACP 5b, and C-terminal telopeptides fragments of type I collagen as a marker of bone resorption in mice administrated both LPS and MDP were higher than those in mice administrated LPS or MDP alone. On the other hand, MDP had no effect on osteoclastogenesis in parathyroid hormone administrated mice. MDP enhanced LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL expression and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression in vivo and in stromal cells in vitro. MDP also enhanced LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, including ERK, p38, and JNK, in stromal cells. These results suggest that MDP might play an important role in pathological bone resorption in bacterial infection diseases.

  7. Differential expression of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system is associated with bone metastasis in human non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Xianbo Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients exhibit a high propensity to develop skeletal metastasis, resulting in excessive osteolytic activity. The RANKL/RANK/OPG system, which plays a pivotal role in bone remodeling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity, is of potential interest in this context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis were used to examine the expression of RANKL, RANK, and OPG in human NSCLC cell lines with different metastatic potentials, as well as in 52 primary NSCLC samples and 75 NSCLC bone metastasis samples. In primary NSCLC patients, the expression of these proteins was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Recombinant human RANKL and transfected RANKL cDNA were added to the PAa cell line to evaluate the promoter action of RANKL during the process of metastasis in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Up-regulated RANKL, RANK, and OPG expression and increased RANKL:OPG ratio were detected in NSCLC cell lines and in tumor tissues with bone metastasis, and were correlated with higher metastatic potential. The metastatic potential of NSCLC in vitro and in vivo, including migration and invasion ability, was significantly enhanced by recombinant human RANKL and the transfection of RANKL cDNA, and was impaired after OPG was added. The increased expression of RANKL and OPG correlated with tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Differential expression of RANKL, RANK, and OPG is associated with the metastatic potential of human NSCLC to skeleton, raising the possibility that the RANKL/RANK/OPG system could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metastatic NSCLC patients.

  8. Irreversible inhibition of RANK expression as a possible mechanism for IL-3 inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khapli, Shruti M.; Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Gupta, Navita; Yogesha, S.D.; Pote, Satish T. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Wani, Mohan R., E-mail: mohanwani@nccs.res.in [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} IL-3 inhibits receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. {yields} IL-3 inhibits RANKL-induced JNK activation. {yields} IL-3 down-regulates expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. {yields} IL-3 down-regulates RANK expression posttranscriptionally and irreversibly. {yields} IL-3 inhibits in vivo RANK expression. -- Abstract: IL-3, a cytokine secreted by activated T lymphocytes, stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and survival of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibitory action of IL-3 on osteoclast differentiation. We show here that IL-3 significantly inhibits receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). IL-3 down-regulates expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) transcription factors. In addition, IL-3 down-regulates RANK expression posttranscriptionally in both purified osteoclast precursors and whole bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of IL-3 on RANK expression was irreversible. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits in vivo RANK expression in mice. Thus, we provide the first evidence that IL-3 irreversibly inhibits RANK expression that results in inhibition of important signaling molecules induced by RANKL.

  9. IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation through the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyomiya, Hiroyasu [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Kaneuji, Takeshi [Division of Oral Medicine, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Mitsugi, Sho [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Sakurai, Takuma [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Habu, Manabu [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Yoshioka, Izumi [Division of Oral Medicine, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Science of Physical Functions, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580 (Japan); and others

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. Several studies have reported that IL-33 inhibits osteoclast differentiation. However, the mechanism of IL-33 regulation of osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-33 on osteoclast formation in vitro. IL-33 suppressed osteoclast formation in both mouse bone marrow cells and monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and/or macrophage stimulating factor (M-CSF). IL-33 also inhibited the expression of RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), thereby decreasing the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including Cathepsin K, Osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Oc-stamp) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap). Blockage of IL-33-ST2 binding suppressed the IL-33-mediated inhibition of NFATc1. RANKL-induced B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) expression was also suppressed by IL-33, which was followed by the stimulation of anti-osteoclastic genes such as interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8). These results suggest that IL-33-ST2 interactions down-regulate both RANKL-induced NFATc1 activation and osteoclast differentiation via the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression. - Highlights: • IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. • IL-33 has inhibitory effect on the RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. • IL-33-induced NFATc1 suppression depends on the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist diminishes osteocytic RANKL and sclerostin expression in diabetes rats with periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hye Kim

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes with periodontitis shows elevated TNF-α expression. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α stimulates the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL and sclerostin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TNF-α expression of osteocytic RANKL and sclerostin in type 1 diabetes rats with periodontitis using infliximab (IFX, a TNF-α antagonist. Rats were divided into two timepoint groups: day 3 and day 20. Each timepoint group was then divided into four subgroups: 1 control (C, n = 6 for each time point; 2 periodontitis (P, n = 6 for each time point; 3 diabetes with periodontitis (DP, n = 8 for each time point; and 4 diabetes with periodontitis treated with IFX (DP+IFX, n = 8 for each time point. To induce type 1 diabetes, rats were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. Periodontitis was then induced by ligature of the mandibular first molars at day 7 after STZ injection (day 0. IFX was administered once for the 3 day group (on day 0 and twice for the 20 day group (on days 7 and 14. The DP group showed greater alveolar bone loss than the P group on day 20 (P = 0.020. On day 3, higher osteoclast formation and RANKL-positive osteocytes in P group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.011, respectively and DP group (P = 0.006 and P = 0.017, respectively than those in C group were observed. However, there was no significant difference in osteoclast formation or RANKL-positive osteocytes between P and DP groups. The DP+IFX group exhibited lower alveolar bone loss (P = 0.041, osteoclast formation (P = 0.019, and RANKL-positive osteocytes (P = 0.009 than that of the DP group. On day 20, DP group showed a lower osteoid area (P = 0.001 and more sclerostin-positive osteocytes (P = 0.000 than P group. On days 3 and 20, the DP+IFX group showed more osteoid area (P = 0.048 and 0.040, respectively but lower sclerostin-positive osteocytes (both P = 0.000 than DP group. Taken together, these

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist diminishes osteocytic RANKL and sclerostin expression in diabetes rats with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ae Ri; Choi, Yun Hui; Jang, Sungil; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Bak, Eun-Jung; Yoo, Yun-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes with periodontitis shows elevated TNF-α expression. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulates the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and sclerostin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TNF-α expression of osteocytic RANKL and sclerostin in type 1 diabetes rats with periodontitis using infliximab (IFX), a TNF-α antagonist. Rats were divided into two timepoint groups: day 3 and day 20. Each timepoint group was then divided into four subgroups: 1) control (C, n = 6 for each time point); 2) periodontitis (P, n = 6 for each time point); 3) diabetes with periodontitis (DP, n = 8 for each time point); and 4) diabetes with periodontitis treated with IFX (DP+IFX, n = 8 for each time point). To induce type 1 diabetes, rats were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer). Periodontitis was then induced by ligature of the mandibular first molars at day 7 after STZ injection (day 0). IFX was administered once for the 3 day group (on day 0) and twice for the 20 day group (on days 7 and 14). The DP group showed greater alveolar bone loss than the P group on day 20 (P = 0.020). On day 3, higher osteoclast formation and RANKL-positive osteocytes in P group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.011, respectively) and DP group (P = 0.006 and P = 0.017, respectively) than those in C group were observed. However, there was no significant difference in osteoclast formation or RANKL-positive osteocytes between P and DP groups. The DP+IFX group exhibited lower alveolar bone loss (P = 0.041), osteoclast formation (P = 0.019), and RANKL-positive osteocytes (P = 0.009) than that of the DP group. On day 20, DP group showed a lower osteoid area (P = 0.001) and more sclerostin-positive osteocytes (P = 0.000) than P group. On days 3 and 20, the DP+IFX group showed more osteoid area (P = 0.048 and 0.040, respectively) but lower sclerostin-positive osteocytes (both P = 0.000) than DP group. Taken together

  12. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Harunori [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Kitano, Masayasu, E-mail: mkitano6@hyo-med.ac.jp [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi [Department of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima Kobe, Hyogo 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Miyazawa, Keiji [Discovery Research III, Research and Development, Kissei Pharmaceutical Company, 4365-1 Hodakakashiwara, Azumino, Nagano 399-8304 (Japan); Hla, Timothy [Center for Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 69, NY 10065 (United States); Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  13. NF-κB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin suppresses osteoclastogenesis and expression of NFATc1 in mouse arthritis without affecting expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin or macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Machiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Komano, Yukiko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of NF-κB is known to be effective in reducing both inflammation and bone destruction in animal models of arthritis. Our previous study demonstrated that a small cell-permeable NF-κB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), suppresses expression of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorates mouse arthritis. It remained unclear, however, whether DHMEQ directly affects osteoclast precursor cells to suppress their differentiation to mature osteoclasts in vivo. The effect of DHMEQ on human osteoclastogenesis also remained elusive. In the present study, we therefore examined the effect of DHMEQ on osteoclastogenesis using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, and using culture systems of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and of osteoclast precursor cells from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. DHMEQ significantly suppressed formation of osteoclasts in arthritic joints, and also suppressed expression of NFATc1 along the inner surfaces of bone lacunae and the eroded bone surface, while serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not affected by the treatment. DHMEQ also did not suppress spontaneous expression of RANKL nor of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in culture of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These results suggest that DHMEQ suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vivo, through downregulation of NFATc1 expression, without significantly affecting expression of upstream molecules of the RANKL/receptor activator of NF-κB/osteoprotegerin cascade, at least in our experimental condition. Furthermore, in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, differentiation and activation of human osteoclasts were also suppressed by DHMEQ, suggesting the possibility of future application of NF-κB inhibitors to rheumatoid arthritis therapy. PMID

  14. PPARγ inhibits inflammation and RANKL expression in epoxy resin-based sealer-induced osteoblast precursor cells E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gun; Lee, Young-Hee; Bhattari, Govinda; Lee, Nan-Hee; Lee, Kwang-Won; Yi, Ho-Keun; Yu, Mi-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The AH26 of epoxy resin-based sealer is used widely owing to its excellent physical characteristics but it induces oxidative stress and cytotoxicity at the periapical tissues. AH26 exhibited cytotoxicity towards MC-3T3-E1 cells, which resulted in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) has an anti-inflammatory effect in several tissue and cells, but its action of AH26-related inflammation is not completely understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastic mechanisms of PPARγ in AH26-induced MC-3T3 E1 cells. AH26 was prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. The 1-day extraction sample, which was diluted by 30%, was tested in this experiment. Recombinant deficiency adenoviral PPARγ (Ad/PPARγ) was used to examine PPARγ over-expression in MC-3T3 E1 cells. AH26-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was analysed using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and inflammatory molecules was determined by immunoblotting. The anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastic mechanisms of the PPARγ-involved signal pathway was examined by immunoblotting. The AH26 elutes induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), RANKL expression and ROS formation. In addition, the AH26 elutes suppressed the expression of PPARγ. However, the recovery of PPARγ expression with Ad/PPARγ resulted in the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, RANKL and ROS formation despite the AH26 treatment in MC-3T3 E1 cells. The mechanism of PPARγ was confirmed by the blocking of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocation to the nucleus after the suppression of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK and AP-1 in AH26-induced MC-3T3 E1 cells. From this result, PPARγ acts to inhibit bone destruction in AH26-induced bone cells. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory and

  15. Integrin beta 4 MRNA expression levels in bronchial asthma patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum total IgE was measured by ELISA and mRNA expression of ITGβ4 was assessed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) using real time PCR.. ITGβ4 mRNA expression was significantly down regulated with increased serum total IgE in patients with asthma compared to controls. Moreover, ITGβ4 expression was ...

  16. Glucose Uptake Inhibition Decreases Expressions of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B Ligand (RANKL) and Osteocalcin in Osteocytic MLO-Y4-A2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, Ayumu; Kanazawa, Ippei; Notsu, Masakazu; Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2017-10-10

    Bone and glucose metabolism are closely associated with each other. Both osteoblast and osteoclast functions are important for the action of osteocalcin, which plays pivotal roles as an endocrine hormone regulating glucose metabolism. However, it is unknown whether osteocytes are involved in the interaction between bone and glucose metabolism. We used MLO-Y4-A2, a murine long bone-derived osteocytic cell line, to investigate effects of glucose uptake inhibition on expressions of osteocalcin and bone-remodeling modulators in osteocytes. We found that glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is expressed in MLO-Y4-A2 cells and that treatment with phloretin, a GLUT inhibitor, significantly inhibited glucose uptake. Real-time PCR and western blot showed that phloretin significantly and dose-dependently decreased the expressions of RANKL and osteocalcin, whereas osteoprotegerin or sclerostin was not affected. Moreover, phloretin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an intracellular energy sensor. Coincubation of ara-A, an AMPK inhibitor, with phloretin canceled the phloretin-induced decrease in osteocalcin expression, but not RANKL. In contrast, phloretin suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and treatments with a p38 inhibitor SB203580 and a MEK inhibitor PD98059, but not a JNK inhibitor SP600125, significantly decreased expressions of RANKL and osteocalcin. These results indicate that glucose uptake by GLUT1 is required for RANKL and osteocalcin expressions in osteocytes, and that inhibition of glucose uptake decreases their expressions through AMPK, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings suggest that lowering glucose uptake into osteocytes may contribute to maintain blood glucose levels by decreasing osteocalcin expression and RANKL-induced bone resorption. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  17. Monosodium Urate in the Presence of RANKL Promotes Osteoclast Formation through Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yoon Choe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the role of monosodium urate (MSU crystals in receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand- (RANKL- RANK-induced osteoclast formation. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were incubated with MSU crystals or RANKL and differentiated into osteoclast-like cells as confirmed by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and actin ring, pit formation assay, and TRAP activity assay. MSU crystals in the presence of RANKL augmented osteoclast differentiation, with enhanced mRNA expression of NFATc1, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, in comparison to RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated in the presence of RANKL alone. Treatment with both MSU crystals and RANKL induced osteoclast differentiation by activating downstream molecules in the RANKL-RANK pathway including tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6, JNK, c-Jun, and NFATc1. IL-1b produced in response to treatment with both MSU and RANKL is involved in osteoclast differentiation in part through the induction of TRAF-6 downstream of the IL-1b pathway. This study revealed that MSU crystals contribute to enhanced osteoclast formation through activation of RANKL-mediated pathways and recruitment of IL-1b. These findings suggest that MSU crystals might be a pathologic causative agent of bone destruction in gout.

  18. Increased vitamin D-driven signalling and expression of the vitamin D receptor, MSX2, and RANKL in tooth resorption in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij-Vrieling, H.E.; Ferbus, D.; Tryfonidou, M.A.; Riemers, F.M.; Penning, L.C.; Berdal, A.; Everts, V.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption occurs in 20-75% of cats (Felis catus). The aetiology is not known, but vitamin D is suggested to be involved. Vitamin D acts through a nuclear receptor (VDR) and increases the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (rankl) and muscle segment homeobox 2 (msx2)

  19. Increased vitamin D-driven signalling and expression of the vitamin D receptor, MSX2, and RANKL in tooth resorption in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483467X; Ferbus, D.; Tryfonidou, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/24306599X; Riemers, F.M.; Penning, L.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110369181; Berdal, A.; Everts, V.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070975760

    2010-01-01

    Eur J Oral Sci. 2010 Feb;118(1):39-46. Increased vitamin D-driven signalling and expression of the vitamin D receptor, MSX2, and RANKL in tooth resorption in cats. Booij-Vrieling HE, Ferbus D, Tryfonidou MA, Riemers FM, Penning LC, Berdal A, Everts V, Hazewinkel HA. Department of Clinical Sciences

  20. Comparison of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and pulsed electromagnetic field treatments on OPG and RANKL expression in human osteoblast-like cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Manon A.; Ren, Yijin; de Haan-Visser, H. Willy; Kuijer, Roel

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two clinically applied treatments to stimulate bone healing-low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF)-for their effects on RANKL and OPG expression in osteoblast-like cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LIPUS or PEMF was applied to

  1. Phytochrome B mRNA expression enhances biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study shows successful transformation and mRNA expression in Phytochrome B transformed CIM 482 cotton plants. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Phytochrome B mRNA have showed more than two times increase in relative leaf growth rate (RLGR) and photosynthetic rate, more than one time increase in ...

  2. Regulatory effect of calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, on IL-6/sIL-6R-mediated RANKL expression through JAK2-STAT3-SOCS3 signaling pathway in fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated whether the calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, suppresses receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) through regulation of IL-6/Janus activated kinase (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) signaling. Methods The expression of RANKL, JAK2, STAT3, and SOCS3 proteins was assessed by western blot analysis, real-time PCR and ELISA in IL-6 combined with soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R)-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-FLS with or without tacrolimus treatment. The effects of tacrolimus on synovial inflammation and bone erosion were assessed using mice with arthritis induced by K/BxN serum. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to identify the effect of tacrolimus on RANKL and SOCS3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining assay was performed to assess the effect of tacrolimus on osteoclast differentiation. Results We found that RANKL expression in RA FLS is regulated by the IL-6/sIL-6R/JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway. Inhibitory effects of tacrolimus on RANKL expression in a serum-induced arthritis mice model were identified. Tacrolimus inhibits RANKL expression in IL-6/sIL-6R-stimulated FLS by suppressing STAT3. Among negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway, such as CIS1, SOCS1, and SOCS3, only SOCS3 is significantly induced by tacrolimus. As compared to dexamethasone and methotrexate, tacrolimus more potently suppresses RANKL expression in FLS. By up-regulating SOCS3, tacrolimus down-regulates activation of the JAK-STAT pathway by IL-6/sIL-6R trans-signaling, thus decreasing RANKL expression in FLS. Conclusions These data suggest that tacrolimus might affect the RANKL expression in IL-6 stimulated FLS through STAT3 suppression, together with up-regulation of SOCS3. PMID:23406906

  3. Hypotonic stress induces RANKL via transient receptor potential melastatin 3 (TRPM3) and vaniloid 4 (TRPV4) in human PDL cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, G Y; Yang, Y M; Park, W S; Chang, I; Shin, D M

    2015-03-01

    Bone remodeling occurs in response to various types of mechanical stress. The periodontal ligament (PDL) plays an important role in mechanical stress-mediated alveolar bone remodeling. However, the underlying mechanism at the cellular level has not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated the effect of shear stress on the expression of bone remodeling factors, including receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), as well as its upstream signaling pathway in primary human PDL cells. We applied hypotonic stress to reproduce shear stress to PDL cells. Hypotonic stress induced the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of RANKL but not OPG. It also increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Extracellular Ca(2+) depletion and nonspecific plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel blockers completely inhibited the increase in both [Ca(2+)]i and RANKL mRNA expression. We identified the expression and activation of transient receptor potential melastatin 3 (TRPM3) and vaniloid 4 (TRPV4) channels in PDL cells. Pregnenolone sulfate (PS) and 4α-phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (4α-PDD), which are agonists of TRPM3 and TRPV4, augmented Ca(2+) influx and RANKL mRNA expression. Both pharmacological (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate [2-APB], ruthenium red [RR], ononetin [Ono], and HC 067047 [HC]) and genetic (small interfering RNA [siRNA]) inhibitors of TRPM3 and TRPV4 reduced the hypotonic stress-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)]i and RANKL mRNA expression. Our study shows that hypotonic stress induced RANKL mRNA expression via TRPM3- and TRPV4-mediated extracellular Ca(2+) influx and RANKL expression. This signaling pathway in PDL cells may play a critical role in mechanical stress-mediated alveolar bone remodeling. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  4. Assessment of OPG/RANK/RANKL gene expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after treatment with strontium ranelate and ibandronate in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuss, Michal; Rieske, Piotr; Cegłowska, Agnieszka; Stêpień-Kłos, Wioletta; Liberski, Paweł P; Brzeziańska, Ewa; Sewerynek, Ewa

    2013-05-01

    Recent research results have confirmed the high significance of the OPG/RANK/RANKL system in the development of bone diseases. The aim of the reported study was to assess gene expression levels of the OPG/RANK/RANKL system in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after strontium ranelate (SR) and ibandronate administered to patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. A total of 89 postmenopausal women, aged 51 to 85 years, patients of the Outpatient Clinic of Osteoporosis of the Military Teaching Hospital in Lodz, were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomly assigned to different medical therapies: ibandronate and SR. Patients of the control group received only calcium and vitamin D₃ supplements. Patient visits were repeated after 3 and 6 months. Measurements of serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations and of RNA expression in PBMCs as well as of total serum calcium and phosphate levels and of their 24-hour urine excretion rates were carried out in material, collected at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of the therapy. Densitometry of the left hip and of the lumbar spine was done at the baseline visit and after 6 months. The differences in gene expressions of RANKL and RANK were not significant during the study period and did not differ between the groups in a statistically significant manner. No OPG gene expression was observed in PBMCs of patients in any of the studied groups and at any time point. The tendency of correlation (P = .07) was observed between decreasing RANK gene expression and increasing bone mineral density in the patients treated with SR. Both ibandronate and SR do not seem to cause any significant changes in gene expression levels of OPG/RANK/RANKL in PBMCs during the first 6 months of treatment.

  5. Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Mikania laevigata extract (MLE (popularly known in Brazil as "guaco" possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study we tested the effects of MLE in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. We also investigated possible mechanisms underlying such effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal disease was induced by a ligature placed around the mandibular first molars of each animal. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-ligated animals treated with vehicle; non-ligated animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily; ligature-induced animals treated with vehicle and ligature-induced animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily. Thirty days after the induction of periodontal disease, the animals were euthanized and mandibles and gingival tissues removed for further analysis. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that MLE-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL measured by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, gingival tissues from the MLE-treated group showed decreased neutrophil migration myeloperoxidase (MPO assay. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MLE may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

  6. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin; Sorensen, P; Khademi, M

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  7. The abundant synovial expression of the RANK/RANKL/Osteoprotegerin system in peripheral spondylarthritis is partially disconnected from inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandooren, Bernard; Cantaert, Tineke; Noordenbos, Troy; Tak, Paul P.; Baeten, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Spondylarthritis (SpA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have different patterns of bone damage, with more pronounced bone erosions in RA. The RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a central role in bone resorption by promoting the maturation and activation of osteoclasts. To assess

  8. Association between VDAC1 mRNA expression and intracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way in which xenobiotics induce apoptotic cell death is to alter the selective permeability of the intracellular voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) in the mitochondrial membrane. In this study, we explored the association between VDAC1 mRNA expression and mitochondrial function during hexavalent chromium ...

  9. Cytokine mRNA expression during experimental corneal allograft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, P. F.; de Vos, A. F.; van der Gaag, R.; Martins, B.; Kijlstra, A.

    1996-01-01

    Allograft rejection is the main cause of corneal graft failure. T lymphocytes and macrophages have been implied to be involved in corneal rejection, but little is known about the molecular mechanism in this process. In this study, cytokine mRNA expression in the cornea was analysed during

  10. Cloning and mRNA expression pattern analysis under low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research cloned endochitinase-antifreeze protein precursor (EAPP) gene of Dong-mu 70 rye (Secale cereale) by designing special primers according to Genbank's EAPP gene sequence, and analyzing the influence of low temperature stress on the expression of mRNA with RT-PCR. The results indicated that the ...

  11. Cloning and mRNA expression pattern analysis under low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-13

    Jul 13, 2011 ... This research cloned endochitinase-antifreeze protein precursor (EAPP) gene of Dong-mu 70 rye. (Secale cereale) by designing special primers according to Genbank's EAPP gene sequence, and analyzing the influence of low temperature stress on the expression of mRNA with RT-PCR. The results.

  12. TRAIL-deficiency accelerates vascular calcification in atherosclerosis via modulation of RANKL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda A Di Bartolo

    Full Text Available The osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL cytokine system, not only controls bone homeostasis, but has been implicated in regulating vascular calcification. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a second ligand for OPG, and although its effect in vascular calcification in vitro is controversial, its role in vivo is not yet established. This study aimed to investigate the role of TRAIL in vascular calcification in vitro using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs isolated from TRAIL(-/- and wild-type mice, as well as in vivo, in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of TRAIL(-/-ApoE(-/- mice. The involvement of OPG and RANKL in this process was also examined. TRAIL dose-dependently inhibited calcium-induced calcification of human VSMCs, while TRAIL(-/- VSMCs demonstrated accelerated calcification induced by multiple concentrations of calcium compared to wild-type cells. Consistent with this, RANKL mRNA was significantly elevated with 24 h calcium treatment, while OPG and TRAIL expression in human VSMCs was inhibited. Brachiocephalic arteries from TRAIL(-/-ApoE(-/- and ApoE(-/- mice fed a high fat diet for 12 w demonstrated increased chondrocyte-like cells in atherosclerotic plaque, as well as increased aortic collagen II mRNA expression in TRAIL(-/-ApoE(-/- mice, with significant increases in calcification observed at 20 w. TRAIL(-/-ApoE(-/- aortas also had significantly elevated RANKL, BMP-2, IL-1β, and PPAR-γ expression at 12 w. Our data provides the first evidence that TRAIL deficiency results in accelerated cartilaginous metaplasia and calcification in atherosclerosis, and that TRAIL plays an important role in the regulation of RANKL and inflammatory markers mediating bone turn over in the vasculature.

  13. The inhibitory effect of vitamin K on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Kim, Min Seuk; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the correlation between vitamin K and bone metabolism, the effects of vitamins K1, menaquinone-4 (MK-4), and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were comparatively investigated. Vitamin K2 groups (MK-4 and MK-7) were found to significantly inhibit RANKL-medicated osteoclast cell formation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner, without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as c-Fos, NFATc1, OSCAR, and TRAP, as well as NFATc1 protein expression and TRAP activity in RANKL-treated BMMs were inhibited by vitamin K2, although MK-4 exhibited a significantly greater efficiency compared to MK-7. In contrast, the same dose of vitamin K1 had no inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast cell formation, but increased the expression of major osteoclastogenic genes. Interestingly, vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 all strongly inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption (p vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 have anti-osteoporotic properties, while their regulation effects on osteoclastogenesis are somewhat different.

  14. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis: interferon-beta treatment increases IL-10 mRNA expression while reducing IL-23 mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M.; Sorensen, P.; Khademi, M.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  15. IL-6 Enhances Osteocyte-Mediated Osteoclastogenesis by Promoting JAK2 and RANKL Activity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Evidence suggests that IL-6 affects bone mass by modulating osteocyte communication towards osteoclasts. However, the mechanism by which IL-6 enhances osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unclear. We aimed to investigate the inflammatory factors in serum after orthodontic surgery and their relationship between osteocytes and osteoclasts. Methods: Serum was obtained from 10 orthognathic surgery patients, and inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA. We treated the osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 with recombinant mouse IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R, and used quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting to explore Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL expression at both the mRNA and protein level. MLO-Y4 cells were co-cultured with osteoclast precursor cells, and the formation of osteoclasts was detected by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining. To explore the role of JAK2 in the osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis, AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor, was used to inhibit the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in osteocytes. Results: In our study, we found that IL-6 and RANKL were stimulated in serum 3-7 days after orthognathic surgery. Therefore, IL-6 and IL-6 receptor enhanced the expression of RANKL at both the mRNA and protein level in MLO-Y4. Furthermore, when MLO-Y4 cells were co-cultured with osteoclast precursor cells, it significantly stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Our study indicated that osteocytes could promote osteoclastic differentiation and the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells after stimulation with IL-6 and IL-6R. Our results also indicated that treatment with IL-6 and IL-6R increased RANKL mRNA expression and the RANKL/OPG expression ratio. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 and Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 also correlated with RANKL levels. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of a specific JAK2 inhibitor, AG490, on the expression of RANKL in

  16. Receptor-Activator of Nuclear KappaB Ligand Expression as a New Therapeutic Target in Primary Bone Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Yamagishi

    Full Text Available The receptor-activator of nuclear kappaB ligand (RANKL signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of bone growth and mediates the formation and activation of osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are involved in significant bone resorption and destruction. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL that specifically inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. It has been approved for use for multiple myeloma and bone metastases, as well as for giant cell tumor of bone. However, there is no previous report quantitatively, comparing RANKL expression in histologically varied bone tumors. Therefore, we analyzed the mRNA level of various bone tumors and investigated the possibility of these tumors as a new therapeutic target for denosumab. We examined RANKL mRNA expression in 135 clinical specimens of primary and metastatic bone tumors using real-time PCR. The relative quantification of mRNA expression levels was performed via normalization with RPMI8226, a human multiple myeloma cell line that is recognized to express RANKL. Of 135 cases, 64 were also evaluated for RANKL expression by using immunohistochemistry. Among all of the tumors investigated, RANKL expression and the RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio were highest in giant cell tumor of bone. High RANKL mRNA expression was observed in cases of aneurysmal bone cyst, fibrous dysplasia, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and enchondroma, as compared to cases of multiple myeloma and bone lesions from metastatic carcinoma. RANKL-positive stromal cells were detected in six cases: five cases of GCTB and one case of fibrous dysplasia. The current study findings indicate that some primary bone tumors present new therapeutic targets for denosumab, particularly those tumors expressing RANKL and those involving bone resorption by osteoclasts.

  17. The participation of RANK, RANKL and OPG in tumor osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Stanisławowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that physiological bone remodeling depends on the dynamic balance of two cytokines that are predominantly secreted by osteoblasts. RANKL promotes the differentiation of osteoclastic precursors and the activation of osteoclasts, whereas osteoprotegerin (OPG inhibits RANKL action. During the development of many tumors, enhanced osteolysis results in pathological bone destruction. Tumor-associated osteolysis is characterized by the degradation and inhibition of osteoprotegerin (OPG and increased RANKL expression and secretion by tumor tissue. The resulting RANKL/OPG imbalance causes increased generation and activation of osteoclasts and, finally, a significant decrease in bone mass and pathological bone fractures. Tumor cells may also produce many other factors which affect the RANK/RANKL/OPG system and accelerate osteolysis, including IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and MIP-1α. The elucidation of the key mechanisms of tumor osteolysis has led to clinical trials of biological therapies based on the inhibition of RANKL and stimulation of OPG activity.

  18. Expression of type XXIII collagen mRNA and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Manuel; Veit, Guido; Stricker, Sigmar; Bhatt, Pinaki; Kutsch, Stefanie; Zhou, Peihong; Reinders, Elina; Hahn, Rita A; Song, Rich; Burgeson, Robert E; Gerecke, Donald R; Mundlos, Stefan; Gordon, Marion K

    2006-07-28

    Collagen XXIII is a member of the transmembranous subfamily of collagens containing a cytoplasmic domain, a membrane-spanning hydrophobic domain, and three extracellular triple helical collagenous domains interspersed with non-collagenous domains. We cloned mouse, chicken, and humanalpha1(XXIII) collagen cDNAs and showed that this non-abundant collagen has a limited tissue distribution in non-tumor tissues. Lung, cornea, brain, skin, tendon, and kidney are the major sites of expression. In contrast, five transformed cell lines were tested for collagen XXIII expression, and all expressed the mRNA. In vivo the alpha1(XXIII) mRNA is found in mature and developing organs, the latter demonstrated using stages of embryonic chick cornea and mouse embryos. Polyclonal antibodies were generated in guinea pig and rabbit and showed that collagen XXIII has a transmembranous form and a shed form. Comparison of collagen XXIII with its closest relatives in the transmembranous subfamily of collagens, types XIII and XXV, which have the same number of triple helical and non-collagenous regions, showed that there is a discontinuity in the alignment of domains but that striking similarities remain despite this.

  19. Prolyl carboxypeptidase mRNA expression in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Kwon; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-01-13

    Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP), a serine protease, is widely expressed in the body including liver, lung, kidney and brain, with a variety of known substrates such as plasma prekallikrein, bradykinin, angiotensins II and III, and α-MSH, suggesting its role in the processing of tissue-specific substrates. In the brain, PRCP has been shown to inactivate hypothalamic α-MSH, thus modulating melanocortin signaling in the control of energy metabolism. While its expression pattern has been reported in the hypothalamus, little is known on the distribution of PRCP throughout the mouse brain. This study was undertaken to determine PRCP expression in the mouse brain. Radioactive in situ hybridization was performed to determine endogenous PRCP mRNA expression. In addition, using a gene-trap mouse model for PRCP deletion, X-gal staining was performed to further determine PRCP distribution. Results from both approaches showed that PRCP gene is broadly expressed in the brain. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mingxiang, E-mail: yu.mingxiang@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Xianying [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hainan Provincial Nong Ken Hospital, Hainan (China); Lv, Chaoyang [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yi, Xilu [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Songjiang District Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Yao; Xue, Mengjuan; He, Shunmei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Hongfu, E-mail: hfwang@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Curcumol suppresses osteoclasts differentiation in vitro. • Curcumol impairs JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. • Curcumol may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Osteoclasts, derived from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, have a unique role in bone resorption, and are considered a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of such pathologic bone diseases as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. In the present study, we demonstrate that curcumol, one of the major components of the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits an inhibitory effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation with both bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, is prominently reduced in the presence of curcumol. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action was investigated, and curcumol inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically impairing RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling, which was further identified in rescue studies by means of anisomycin, a JNK signaling-specific activator. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation through the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for bone resorption-associated diseases.

  1. Porphyromonas gingivalis decreases osteoblast proliferation through IL-6-RANKL/OPG and MMP-9/TIMPs pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, is closely associated with inflammatory alveolar bone resorption. This bacterium exerts its pathogenic effect indirectly through multiple virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharides, fimbriae, and proteases. Another possible pathogenic path may be through a direct interaction with the host′s soft and hard tissues (e.g., alveolar bone, which could lead to periodontitis. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effect of live and heat-inactivated P gingivalis on bone resorption, using an in vitro osteoblast culture model. Results: Optical microscopy and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide MTT assay revealed that live P gingivalis induced osteoblast detachment and reduced their proliferation. This effect was specific to live bacteria and was dependent on their concentration. Live P gingivalis increased IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production and downregulated RANKL and OPG mRNA expression. The effect of live P gingivalis on bone resorption was strengthened by an increase in MMP-9 expression and its activity. This increase was accompanied by an increase in TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression and protein production by osteoblasts infected with live P gingivalis. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that direct contact of P gingivalis with osteoblasts induces bone resorption through an inflammatory pathway that involves IL-6, RANKL/OPG, and MMP-9/TIMPs.

  2. Proinsulin C-peptide modulates the expression of ERK1/2, type I collagen and RANKL in human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cristina; Lazzaro, Veronica; Gazzaruso, Carmine; Maurotti, Samantha; Ferro, Yvelise; Pingitore, Piero; Fumo, Francesca; Coppola, Adriana; Gallotti, Pietro; Zambianchi, Valentina; Fodaro, Mariangela; Galliera, Emanuela; Marazzi, Monica Gioia; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Giannini, Sandro; Romeo, Stefano; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2017-02-15

    A lower bone mass accompanied by a higher bone fragility with increased risk of fracture are observed in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Low C-peptide levels are associated with low lumbar mineral density in postmenopausal woman. In this work, we investigated the role of C-peptide on the osteoblast cell biology in vitro. We examined intracellular pathways and we found that C peptide activates ERK1/2 in human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2). We also observed that proinsulin C-peptide prevents a reduction of type I collagen expression and decreases, in combination with insulin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) levels. In this work we show for the first time that Cpeptide activates a specific intracellular pathway in osteoblasts and it modulates the expression of protein involved in bone remodeling. Our results suggest that both C-peptide may have a role in bone metabolism. Further studies are needing to fully clarify its role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biology of RANK, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Brendan F; Xing, Lianping

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system and its role in the regulation of bone resorption exemplifies how both serendipity and a logic-based approach can identify factors that regulate cell function. Before this discovery in the mid to late 1990s, it had long been recognized that osteoclast formation was regulated by factors expressed by osteoblast/stromal cells, but it had not been anticipated that members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands and receptors would be involved or that the factors involved would have extensive functions beyond bone remodeling. RANKL/RANK signaling regulates the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts from their precursors as well as their activation and survival in normal bone remodeling and in a variety of pathologic conditions. OPG protects the skeleton from excessive bone resorption by binding to RANKL and preventing it from binding to its receptor, RANK. Thus, RANKL/OPG ratio is an important determinant of bone mass and skeletal integrity. Genetic studies in mice indicate that RANKL/RANK signaling is also required for lymph node formation and mammary gland lactational hyperplasia, and that OPG also protects arteries from medial calcification. Thus, these tumor necrosis factor superfamily members have important functions outside bone. Although our understanding of the mechanisms whereby they regulate osteoclast formation has advanced rapidly during the past 10 years, many questions remain about their roles in health and disease. Here we review our current understanding of the role of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in bone and other tissues. PMID:17634140

  4. Comparison of protein and mRNA expression evolution in humans and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Fu

    Full Text Available Even though mRNA expression levels are commonly used as a proxy for estimating functional differences that occur at the protein level, the relation between mRNA and protein expression is not well established. Further, no study to date has tested whether the evolutionary differences in mRNA expression observed between species reflect those observed in protein expression. Since a large proportion of mRNA expression differences observed between mammalian species appears to have no functional consequences for the phenotype, it is conceivable that many or most mRNA expression differences are not reflected at the protein level. If this is true, then differences in protein expression may largely reflect functional adaptations observed in species phenotypes. In this paper, we present the first direct comparison of mRNA and protein expression differences seen between humans and chimpanzees. We reproducibly find a significant positive correlation between mRNA expression and protein expression differences. This correlation is comparable in magnitude to that found between mRNA and protein expression changes at different developmental stages or in different physiological conditions within one species. Noticeably, this correlation is mainly due to genes with large expression differences between species. Our study opens the door to a new level of understanding of regulatory evolution and poses many new questions that remain to be answered.

  5. Advanced oxidation protein products induce apoptosis, and upregulate sclerostin and RANKL expression, in osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells via JNK/p38 MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chaoqun; Huang, Dong; Wang, Kunyuan; Lin, Bochuan; Liu, Yuanhang; Liu, Songbo; Wu, Weichi; Zhang, Huiru

    2017-02-01

    Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are recognized as novel markers of oxidative stress and contribute to various medical conditions, which are associated with secondary osteoporosis. However, little is currently known regarding the role of AOPPs in the development of secondary osteoporosis. As the commander cells of bone remodeling, osteocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to determine the cytotoxic mechanisms of AOPPs on osteocytic MLO‑Y4 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with AOPPs significantly triggered apoptosis of MLO‑Y4 cells, in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to AOPPs induced phosphorylation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK). Conversely, N‑acetylcysteine inhibited the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK, thus suggesting that the AOPPs‑induced activation of JNK/p38 MAPK is reactive oxygen species (ROS)‑dependent. In addition, SB203580 and SP600125 suppressed apoptosis, but did not affect ROS production, following AOPPs treatment. Notably, AOPPs also induced a significant upregulation in the expression levels of sclerostin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa‑B ligand (RANKL) in a JNK/p38 MAPK-dependent manner. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying AOPPs‑mediated cell death, and suggest that modulation of apoptotic pathways via the MAPK signaling cascade may be considered a therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of secondary osteoporosis.

  6. Changes in RANKL and osteoprotegerin expression after chronic exposure to indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with biomass fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Hirak; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    The impact of indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with unprocessed biomass on membrane-bound and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa ligand 1 (RANKL), its soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteoclast precursor CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was investigated. Seventy-four pre-menopausal women from eastern India using biomass and 65 control women who cooked with cleaner liquefied petroleum gas were enrolled. PM10 and PM2.5 levels in their indoor air were measured with real-time aerosol monitors. The levels of membrane-bound RANKL on leukocytes and percentage CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes in the subjects' blood were assayed by flow cytometry. Soluble RANKL and OPG in serum were measured by ELISA. The results showed that PM10 and PM2.5 levels were significantly higher in the indoor air of biomass-using households. Compared with the control women, the levels of CD4(+) and CD19(+) lymphocytes and circulating granulocytes with elevated levels of membrane-bound RANKL were higher in biomass users. The serum levels of RANKL were increased by 41% whereas serum OPG was reduced by 22% among biomass users. The absolute number of CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was significantly increased in biomass users than the control women. After controlling for potential confounders, PM10 and PM2.5 levels were found to be positively associated with leukocyte and serum RANKL and CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte levels, but negatively with serum OPG. From these results, we can conclude that chronic exposure to biomass smoke increased membrane-bound and soluble RANKL and circulating osteoclast precursors but decreased OPG, suggesting an increased risk of bone resorption and consequent osteoporosis in biomass-exposed women of a child-bearing age. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Interleukin 17 regulates SHP-2 and IL-17RA/STAT-3 dependent Cyr61, IL-23 and GM-CSF expression and RANKL mediated osteoclastogenesis by fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Ramamoorthi; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2017-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17 predominately produced by the Th17 cells, plays a crucial role in the fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) mediated disease process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-17 exerts its pathogenic effects in RA-FLS by IL-17/IL-17RA/STAT-3 signaling. Recent studies have shown that RA-FLS produces SHP-2, Cyr61, IL-23, GM-CSF and RANKL which results in worsening of the disease. However, whether IL-17/IL-17RA/STAT-3 signaling regulates SHP-2, Cyr61, IL-23, GM-CSF and RANKL expressions in RA-FLS remains unknown. In this study, IL-17 treatment dramatically induced the production of Cyr61, IL-23 and GM-CSF in FLS isolated from adjuvant induced arthritis (AA) rats. Conversely, IL-17 mediated production of Cyr61, IL-23 and GM-CSF was abrogated by knockdown of IL-17RA using a small interfering RNA or blockade of STAT-3 activation with S3I-201 in AA-FLS. Interestingly, IL-17 treatment noticeably increased the expression of IL-17RA and SHP-2 in AA-FLS. However, silencing of IL-17RA reversed the effect of IL-17 on the expression of IL-17RA and SHP-2 in AA-FLS. In addition, an increased number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells were observed in a coculture system consisting of IL-17 treated AA-FLS and rat bone marrow derived monocytes/macrophages. Further, mechanistically we found that IL-17 upregulated RANKL expression in AA-FLS that was dependent on the IL-17/IL-17RA/STAT-3 signaling cascade. Knockdown of IL-17RA or inhibition of STAT-3 activation decreased the IL- 17 induced RANKL expression by AA-FLS and their osteoclastogenic potential. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that IL-17 regulates SHP-2 expression and IL-17RA/STAT-3 dependent production of Cyr61, IL-23, GM-CSF and RANKL in AA-FLS and may reveal a new insight into the pathogenesis of RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... To study the effect of circulation small peptides concentration on mRNA expression in small intestine, graded amount of soybean small peptides (SSP) were infused into lactating goats through duodenal fistulas. Peptide-bound amino acid (PBAA) concentration in arterial plasma and the mRNA expression.

  9. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of circulation small peptides concentration on mRNA expression in small intestine, graded amount of soybean small peptides (SSP) were infused into lactating goats through duodenal fistulas. Peptide-bound amino acid (PBAA) concentration in arterial plasma and the mRNA expression of PepT1 was ...

  10. Expression of cVg1 mRNA during chicken embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somi, Semir; Houweling, Arjan C.; Buffing, Anita A. M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.

    2003-01-01

    Using degenerated PCR-primers to identify known and novel BMPs that are expressed in the developing chicken heart, we identified not only BMP2, -4, and -7 mRNA, but also the TGFbeta superfamily member cVg1. The expression pattern of cVg1 mRNA was determined during chicken development from HH4 to

  11. Expression of mRNA of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in feline mammary adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, S; Nakadai, T; Furuoka, H; Oomachi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Omata, Y; Koyama, T; Hondo, E; Uzuka, Y; Sarashina, T; Ducusin, R J T; Shida, T; Dorf, M E

    2002-12-14

    The expression of mRNA of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in 65 surgically resected mammary adenocarcinomas from cats was investigated by in situ hybridisation. No expression of the receptor's mRNA was detectable in the mammary tissue of healthy cats, but it was expressed in areas adjacent to necrosis, surrounding blood vessels and cells infiltrating the lymphatics of 47 (72.3 per cent) of the 65 samples. There was a significant relationship between lymphatic infiltration by neoplastic cells and the expression of the receptor's mRNA (P < 0.005), but there was no significant relationship between its expression and the one-year survival of the cats.

  12. Glechoma hederacea Suppresses RANKL-mediated Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J K; Erkhembaatar, M; Gu, D R; Lee, S H; Lee, C H; Shin, D M; Lee, Y R; Kim, M S

    2014-07-01

    Glechoma hederacea (GH), commonly known as ground-ivy or gill-over-the-ground, has been extensively used in folk remedies for relieving symptoms of inflammatory disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of GH are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that GH constituents inhibit osteoclastogenesis by abrogating receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced free cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) oscillations. To evaluate the effect of GH on osteoclastogenesis, we assessed the formation of multi-nucleated cells (MNCs), enzymatic activity of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and [Ca(2+)]i alterations in response to treatment with GH ethanol extract (GHE) in primarily cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Treatment of RANKL-stimulated or non-stimulated BMMs with GHE markedly suppressed MNC formation, TRAP activity, and NFATc1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, GHE treatment induced a large transient elevation in [Ca(2+)]i while suppressing RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations, which are essential for NFATc1 activation. GHE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)]i was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP), inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), but was independent of store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Notably, after transient [Ca(2+)] elevation, treatment with GHE desensitized the VGCCs, resulting in an abrogation of RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and MNC formation. These findings demonstrate that treatment of BMMs with GHE suppresses RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by activating and then desensitizing DHP-sensitive VGCCs, suggesting potential applications of GH in the treatment of bone disorders, such as periodontitis, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  13. Applying the breaks on gene expression - mRNA deadenylation by Pop2p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Van, Lan Bich

    When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems to be the ......When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems...

  14. Interleukin-21 mRNA expression during virus infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Christian; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Paludan, Søren Riis

    2006-01-01

    and activational effects of IL-21 on different leukocytes come into play in vivo in an immune response has so far not been fully investigated. We show here for the first time in vivo, that IL-21 mRNA is produced in the spleen when mice are challenged with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or lymphocytic...... choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We show in HSV-2 challenged mice that this production takes place in CD4+ T cell fractions and is absent in CD4+ T cell-depleted fractions. We also show that the peak of IL-21 mRNA production in both the HSV-2 and LCMV-challenged mice coincides with the onset of the adaptive immune...... response. Thus, our data suggest a role for IL-21 in the early stages of adaptive immune response against virus infections....

  15. Dietary glycerol for quail: association between productive performance and COX III mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S C C; Gasparino, E; Batista, E; Tanamati, F; Vesco, A P D; Lala, B; de Oliveira, D P

    2016-05-25

    This study was carry out to evaluate mRNA expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III in the Pectoralis superficialis muscle of 28-day-old quails fed diets containing 0, 8, and 12% glycerol. Total RNA was extracted (N = 10) and cDNA was amplified using specifics primers for qRT-PCR. Feed efficiency and feed intake were evaluated. COX III mRNA expression in breast muscle was higher in the group fed with 12% glycerol (0.863 AU); no differences were observed in the expression of this gene between the muscle of animals fed diets without glycerol (0.357 AU) and 8% glycerol (0.415 AU). Quails that showed greater COX III mRNA expression also showed the lowest feed efficiency. These results show that there is a difference in COX III mRNA expression in breast muscle of 28-day-old quail fed diets different concentrations of glycerol.

  16. Nonparametric testing for DNA copy number induced differential mRNA gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.; van de Wiel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology relates DNA with mRNA. Array CGH measures DNA copy number and gene expression microarrays measure the amount of mRNA. Methods that integrate data from these two platforms may uncover meaningful biological relationships that further our understanding of cancer.

  17. Quantification of substance P mRNA expression in the midbrain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to develop a SYBR green I-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) for quantitative detection of substance P (SP) mRNA in the midbrain of ovariectomized migraine rats and to evaluate the effects of estradiol on the mRNA expression of SP in order to shed light on the mechanisms ...

  18. Estrogens and androgens inhibit association of RANKL with the pre-osteoblast membrane through post-translational mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anthony; Yu, Jiali; Xiong, Jian; Khalid, Aysha B; Katzenellenbogen, Benita; Kim, Sung Hoon; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gabet, Yankel; Krum, Susan A; Frenkel, Baruch

    2017-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that RUNX2 promoted, and 17β-Estradiol (E2) diminished, association of RANKL with the cell membrane in pre-osteoblast cultures. Here we show that, similar to E2, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) diminishes association of RANKL, and transiently transfected GFP-RANKL with the pre-osteoblast membrane without decreasing total RANKL mRNA or protein levels. Diminution of membrane-associated RANKL was accompanied with marked suppression of osteoclast differentiation from co-cultured pre-osteoclasts, even though DHT increased, not decreased, RANKL concentrations in pre-osteoblast conditioned media. A marked decrease in membrane-associated RANKL was observed after 30 min of either E2 or DHT treatment, and near-complete inhibition was observed by 1 hr, suggesting that the diminution of RANKL membrane association was mediated through non-genomic mechanisms. Further indicating dispensability of nuclear action of estrogen receptor, E2-mediated inhibition of RANKL membrane association was mimicked by an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC) that cannot enter the cell nucleus. Finally, the inhibitory effect of E2 and DHT on RANKL membrane association was counteracted by the MMP inhibitor NNGH, and the effect of E2 (and not DHT) was antagonized by the Src inhibitor SU6656. Taken together, these results suggest that estrogens and androgens inhibit osteoblast-driven osteoclastogenesis through non-genomic mechanism(s) that entail, MMP-mediated RANKL dissociation from the cell membrane. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prefrontal cortical–striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicholas W.; Beas, Blanca S.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor mRNA in distinct brain regions was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 mRNA expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 mRNA expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 mRNA expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 mRNA, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 mRNA expression in the insular cortex and low D2 mRNA expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor mRNA in these regions was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331

  20. Elevated proto-oncogene and collagen mRNA expression in PVR retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollborn, Margrit; Faude, Frank; Wiedemann, Peter; Kohen, Leon

    2003-05-01

    Retinal detachment is often accompanied by proliferation and migration of retinal cells and by increased synthesis of structural proteins, known as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Herein we investigate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of proto-oncogenes responsible for cell proliferation and of structural proteins that have a role in membrane formation. Retinal samples were obtained from patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery for the treatment of retinal detachment complicated by PVR. Normal human control retinas were obtained from cornea donors. The mRNA expression of the proto-oncogenes c- myc, c- fos and the proliferation marker Ki67, as well as of collagen type III and type IV, were investigated using the ribonuclease protection assay. Ki67 mRNA expression was not detectable in either sample type, but c- fos and c- myc mRNA expression was found in normal and PVR retinas. Whereas the expression of c- myc showed a marginal increase, the up-regulation in c- fos expression was strongly significant (5.07-fold). The mRNA of collagen type III was detectable at widely varying levels in all the PVR retinas but was found in only 2 of the 16 analysed normal samples. Collagen type IV mRNA was expressed in both PVR and control samples but was higher (2.21-fold) in the PVR retinas. These results indicate that an up-regulation of the proto-oncogene c- fos occurs in human PVR retinas. An increase in mRNA expression of collagen types III and IV takes place simultaneously. These changes in mRNA expression appear to be mainly connected to the initiation of cell proliferation, dedifferentiation and formation of tractional membranes.

  1. Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures.

  2. Carvedilol decrease IL-1β and TNF-α, inhibits MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, and RANKL expression, and up-regulates OPG in a rat model of periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo Júnior

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are initiated primarily by Gram-negative, tooth-associated microbial biofilms that elicit a host response that causes osseous and soft tissue destruction. Carvedilol is a β-blocker used as a multifunctional neurohormonal antagonist that has been shown to act not only as an anti-oxidant but also as an anti-inflammatory drug. This study evaluated whether Carvedilol exerted a protective role against ligature-induced periodontitis in a rat model and defined how Carvedilol affected metalloproteinases and RANKL/RANK/OPG expression in the context of bone remodeling. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10/group: (1 non-ligated (NL, (2 ligature-only (LO, and (3 ligature plus Carvedilol (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg daily for 10 days. Periodontal tissue was analyzed for histopathlogy and using immunohistochemical analysis characterized the expression profiles of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, and RANKL/RANK/OPG and determined the presence of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO, malonaldehyde (MDA and, glutathione (GSH. MPO activity in the group with periodontal disease was significantly increased compared to the control group (p<0.05. Rats treated with 10 mg/kg Carvedilol presented with significantly reduced MPO and MDA concentrations (p<0.05 in addition to presenting with reduced levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 β and TNF-α (p<0.05. IL-10 levels in Carvedilol-treated rats remained unaltered. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated reduced expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, RANK, RANKL, COX-2, and OPG in rats treated with 10 mg/kg Carvedilol. This study demonstrated that Carvedilol affected bone formation/destruction and anti-inflammatory activity in a rat model of periodontitis.

  3. CD133 mRNA expression and microsatellite instability in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jung Wook; Park, Yeon Sun; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Shin, Myung Geun; Kim, Young Jin

    2010-12-01

    The present study was performed to examine the CD133 expression in colorectal cancer and to analyze its relationship with microsatellite instability (MSI) and the clinicopathological factors, including patient survival. The CD133 mRNA levels in 61 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, with normalization relative to GAPDH. Five microsatellite markers were analyzed to evaluate MSI. A CD133 mRNA expression was significantly associated with the depth of invasion (P = 0.017), lymph node involvement (P = 0.012), and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.019). A CD133 expression was significantly correlated with the MSI status (P = 0.035). With a median follow-up period of 45 months, the 5-year disease-free survival rate of patients with a low CD133 mRNA expression was significantly higher than that of those patients with high levels of CD133 mRNA expression (82.9% and 59.0%, respectively; P = 0.027). However, on the multivariate analysis, a CD133 mRNA expression was not an independent predictor of disease-free survival. Elevated CD133 mRNA levels may represent more aggressive tumor biology and poorer survival in patients with colorectal cancer, correlating with a high level of MSI status. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Carboxylesterase 1 gene duplication and mRNA expression in adipose tissue are linked to obesity and metabolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    involved in the control of mRNA expression. Here, we investigated mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and its association with measures of adiposity and metabolic function in a population of elderly twins. Furthermore, the heritability of mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and the effect of gene...

  5. Connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions for stochastic models of gene expression

    CERN Document Server

    Elgart, Vlad; Fenley, Andrew T; Kulkarni, Rahul V

    2011-01-01

    The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression can lead to large variability in protein levels for genetically identical cells. Such variability in protein levels can arise from infrequent synthesis of mRNAs which in turn give rise to bursts of protein expression. Protein expression occurring in bursts has indeed been observed experimentally and recent studies have also found evidence for transcriptional bursting, i.e. production of mRNAs in bursts. Given that there are distinct experimental techniques for quantifying the noise at different stages of gene expression, it is of interest to derive analytical results connecting experimental observations at different levels. In this work, we consider stochastic models of gene expression for which mRNA and protein production occurs in independent bursts. For such models, we derive analytical expressions connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions which show how the functional form of the mRNA burst distribution can be inferred from the protein burst distributio...

  6. OPG/RANKL/RANK cytokine system in renal osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Avberšek-Lužnik

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal osteodystrophy is one of the most common complications affecting patients with endstage renal disease treated with hemodialysis (HD. The action of calciotropic hormones in renal osteodystrophy is regulated by the OPG/RANKL/RANK system. Its function is modulated by interleukines, calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH.The aim of our study was to confirm that this system is involved in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy and supports the mechanism of PTH action on bone.Methods: 106 HD patients (mean age 60 years and 50 healthy volunteers (mean age 64 years were enrolled in the study. In serum samples of patients and controls we determined concentrations of OPG, RANKL, tartarat resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b, serum Cterminal telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen (CTx, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, osteocalcin (OC and parathyroid hormone (PTH. We compared serum measurements of HD patients and controls and assessed the correlation of OPG and RANKL with bone markers. The most frequent OPG promotor gene polymorphisms were also determined. SPSS 12.1 for Windows was used for statistical analysis.Results: Median OPG concentrations were approximately three times higher in HD patients (0.804 µg/l than in healthy volunteers (0.272 µg/l. Mean serum RANKL concentrations were 1.66- fold higher in HD patients (1.36 pmol/l than in controls (0.82 pmol/l. Serum RANKL levels significantly differed between patients with and without calcitriol therapy (p = 0.001. After dividing HD patients into tertiles according to PTH, we observed significantly higher OPG values in the lower and RANKL in the upper tertile (p < 0.001. OPG did not correlate with bone resorption markers. Only weak correlation of bone formation markers with osteocalcin was noted. In contrast to OPG, RANKL correlated well with PTH, OC and CTX. OPG promoter gene polymorphisms (149 T → C, 163 A → G, 950 T → C do not influence OPG expression and

  7. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression...... by elevated levels of plasma visfatin. Recombinant human IL-6 infusion to mimic the exercise-induced IL-6 response (n = 6) had no effect on visfatin mRNA expression in adipose tissue compared with the effect of placebo infusion (n = 6). The finding that exercise enhances subcutaneous adipose tissue visfatin mRNA...... in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4...

  8. I-BET151 inhibits expression of RANKL, OPG, MMP3 and MMP9 in ankylosing spondylitis in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianping; Zhao, Jian; Shao, Jie; Wei, Xianzhao; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is characterized by osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone resorption. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein inhibitor I-BET151 on AS process. A total of 38 AS Chinese patients were recruited and a further 38 sex- and age-matched healthy participants were selected as control. The Bath AS Function Index and Bath AS Disease Activity Index were assessed in AS patients and levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were measured in AS and healthy groups. Serum from AS patients was used to induce MG63 osteoblasts and BET inhibitor I-BET151 at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 ng/ml used for treatment of the cells. A HLA-B27/β2m transgenic AS Lewis rat model was established and treated with 30 mg/kg I-BET151 for 5 weeks. Levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)3, and MMP9 were measured using ELISA in vivo and additionally detected with western blotting and polymerase chain reaction in vitro. The levels of RANKL, OPG, MMP3 and MMP9 were upregulated in AS serum, AS serum treated MG63 cells and HLA-B27/β2m transgenic AS rats. Conversely, levels of RANKL, OPG, MMP3 and MMP9 were significantly inhibited in cells or animals treated with I-BET151. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that BET inhibitor I-BET151 suppresses levels of RANKL, OPG, MMP3 and MMP9 in AS in vivo and in vitro. I-BET151 may exhibit the potential to be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of AS patients.

  9. Testosterone Regulates NUCB2 mRNA Expression in Male Mouse Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, Sojeong; Jeon, Daun; Kim, Heejeong; Chung, Yiwa; Choi, Narae; Yang, Hyunwon

    2017-03-01

    Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is known to take part in the control of the appetite and energy metabolism. Recently, many reports have shown nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression and function in various organs. We previously demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression level is higher in the pituitary gland compared to other organs and its expression is regulated by 17β-estradiol and progesterone secreted from the ovary. However, currently no data exist on the expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 and its regulation mechanism in the pituitary of male mouse. Therefore, we examined whether nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is expressed in the male mouse pituitary and if its expression is regulated by testosterone. As a result of PCR and western blotting, we found that a large amount of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. The NUCB2 mRNA expression level in the pituitary was decreased after castration, but not in the hypothalamus. In addition, its mRNA expression level in the pituitary was increased after testosterone treatment in the castrated mice, whereas, the expression level in the hypothalamus was significantly decreased after the treatment with testosterone. The in vitro experiment to elucidate the direct effect of testosterone on NUCB2 mRNA expression showed that NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased with testosterone in cultured hypothalamus tissue, but increased with testosterone in cultured pituitary gland. The present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was highly expressed in the male mouse pituitary and was regulated by testosterone. This data suggests that reproductive-endocrine regulation through hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis may contribute to NUCB2 mRNA expression in the mouse hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  10. Relationship between Fertilin _ mRNA expression and the fertilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, defective protease can produce incomplete fertilin processing with improper maturation of sperm proteins. Here in this study showed possible direct role of fertilin- in fertilization and also in sperm morphology and hence sperm capicitation. Keywords: Fertilin expression, Infertility, Hormonal profile, Sperm function.

  11. Expression of connexin 37, 40, and 43 mRNA and protein in renal preglomerular arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensbak, B; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte; Gustafsson, F

    2001-01-01

    arterioles in frozen sections was evaluated. SMC were isolated from kidneys using an iron oxide sieve method and explant technique. Total RNA from these cultures was tested by RT-PCR analysis for the expression of the three connexins mRNA. Using immunofluorescence we examined whether the expression pattern...

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Isoform mRNA Expression in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, R. C.; de Jonge, H. J. M.; Kampen, K. R.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.

    In AML high VEGFA protein expression correlates with poor overall and relapse-free survival (OS/RFS). To date, the relevance of the various VEGFA isoforms is unclear. We determined VEGF121, VEGF145, VEGF148, VEGF165, VEGF183, and VEGF189 mRNA expression in pediatric AML samples and investigated the

  13. Effects of ω3- and ω6-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation of RAW264.7 Cells: A Comparative in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. A. Boeyens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to have an anabolic effect on bone in vivo, but comparative studies to identify inhibitors of osteoclast formation amongst ω3- and ω6-PUFAs are still lacking. Here we assessed the effects of the ω3-PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and the ω6-PUFAs, arachidonic acid (AA and γ-linolenic acid (GLA on a RAW264.7 osteoclast differentiation model. The effects of PUFAs on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation were evaluated by counting tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. PUFAs significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner with AA- and DHA-mediated inhibition being the strongest. Furthermore, RANKL-induced mRNA- and protein expression of the key osteoclastogenic genes cathepsin K and TRAP were inhibited by AA and more potently by DHA. Owing to the attenuated osteoclastogenesis by DHA and AA, actin ring formation and bone resorptive activity of these cells as evaluated on bone-mimetic plates were severely compromised. Hence, of the tested PUFAs, AA and DHA were found to be the most effective in inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclast formation with the latter providing the strongest inhibitory effects. Collectively, the data indicates that these PUFAs may play an important role in regulating bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclast activity.

  14. Expression of hepcidin mRNA is uniformly suppressed in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomosugi Naohisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study evaluated the expression of hepcidin mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods Samples of cancerous and non-cancerous liver tissue were taken from 40 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy. Expression of hepcidin mRNA was evaluated by real-time PCR, and compared in tumors differing in their degree of differentiation, number of tumors, and vessel invasion. Correlations between hepcidin expression and the interval until HCC recurrence, and the serum concentration of hepcidin were evaluated, together with the expression of mRNAs for other iron metabolism molecules, ferroportin and transferrin receptor 2 (Trf2. Results Hepcidin mRNA expression in non-cancerous and cancerous tissues was 1891.8 (32.3–23187.4 and 53.4 (1.9–3185.8, respectively (P Conclusion Expression of hepcidin mRNA is strikingly suppressed in cancerous, but not in non-cancerous tissues, in patients with HCC, irrespective of ferroportin or Trf2 expression. Uniform suppression of hepcidin may be linked to the development of HCC.

  15. EXPRESSION OF AID-SPECIFIC mRNA IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mineev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible role of AID (AICDA – activation-induced (cytidine deaminase in the bronchial asthma (BA pathogenesis. Materials and methods. We have examined twelve healthy control persons, forty-two patients with allergic bronchial asthma (ABA and twenty-seven patients with non-allergic bronchial asthma (NABA. The AID mRNA expression was evaluated by means of RT-PCR. Results: AID mRNA was more significantly expressed in BA, than in healthy controls. Meanwhile, no significant differences were revealed between ABA and NABA groups. Correlation analysis of AID mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes has shown that CHε mRNA and total serum IgE revealed significant negative correlation, in the NABA group only. The levels of AID mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes exhibited positive and significant correlations with clinical characteristics, reflecting severity and stage of the disease, in BA patients. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was revealed with eosinophil contents in sputum. Conclusion. It was concluded that normal regulation of IgE class switching normally based on feedback regulation, was impaired in ABA but not affected in NABA. 

  16. Tuning protein expression using synonymous codon libraries targeted to the 5' mRNA coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Borch Jensen, Martin; Bentin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    sequence allowed tuning of protein expression over ~300-fold with preservation of amino acid identity. This approach is simple and should be generally applicable in bacteria. The data support that features in the 5' mRNA coding region near the AUG start codon are key in determining translation output......In bacteria, the 5' mRNA coding region plays an important role in determining translation output. Here, we report synthetic sequences that when placed in the 5'-mRNA coding region, leading to recombinant proteins containing short N-terminal extensions, virtually abolish, enhance or produce...... intermediate expression levels of green fluorescent protein in Escherichia coli. At least in one case, no apparent effect on protein stability was observed, pointing to RNA level effects as the principal reason for the observed expression differences. Targeting a synonymous codon library to the 5' coding...

  17. Eosinophil cationic protein mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H Y; Li, X Y; Cai, Z F; Li, L; Shi, X Z; Song, H X; Liu, X J

    2015-11-13

    Studies have shown that eosinophils are closely related to pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Eosinophils release eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which plays an important role in infection and allergic reactions. Serum ECP mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma has not been adequately investigated. We analyzed serum ECP mRNA expression in 63 children with bronchial asthma and 21 healthy children by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to understand the role of ECP in children with bronchial asthma. The children with bronchial asthma were segregated into acute-phase and stable-phase groups, based on the severity of the illness. Serum ECP mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma (0.375 ± 0.04) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (0.20 ± 0.02; P bronchial asthma.

  18. Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Linjie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship of chemerin expression in EAT and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in Han Chinese patients. Methods Serums and adipose tissue biopsies (epicardial and thoracic subcutaneous were obtained from CAD (n = 37 and NCAD (n = 16 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum levels of chemerin, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Chemerin protein expression in adipose tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of chemerin, chemR23, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in adipose tissue were detected by RT-PCR. Results We found that EAT of CAD group showed significantly higher levels of chemerin and TNF-alpha mRNA, and significantly lower level of adiponectin mRNA than that of NCAD patients. In CAD group, significantly higher levels of chemerin mRNA and protein were observed in EAT than in paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, whereas such significant difference was not found in NCAD group. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was positively correlated with Gensini score (r = 0.365, P P P P P P P > 0.05. Conclusions The expressions of chemerin mRNA and protein are significantly higher in EAT from patients with CAD in Han Chinese patients. Furthermore, the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is positive correlated with the level of chemerin mRNA in EAT rather than its circulating level.

  19. Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiuying; Mi, Shuhua; Zhang, Fuzhuang; Gong, Fengying; Lai, Yongqiang; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Linjie; Tao, Hong

    2011-10-07

    Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD) by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship of chemerin expression in EAT and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in Han Chinese patients. Serums and adipose tissue biopsies (epicardial and thoracic subcutaneous) were obtained from CAD (n = 37) and NCAD (n = 16) patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum levels of chemerin, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Chemerin protein expression in adipose tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of chemerin, chemR23, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in adipose tissue were detected by RT-PCR. We found that EAT of CAD group showed significantly higher levels of chemerin and TNF-alpha mRNA, and significantly lower level of adiponectin mRNA than that of NCAD patients. In CAD group, significantly higher levels of chemerin mRNA and protein were observed in EAT than in paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), whereas such significant difference was not found in NCAD group. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was positively correlated with Gensini score (r = 0.365, P correlation remained statistically significant (r = 0.357, P age, gender, BMI and waist circumference. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was also positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.305, P correlated with adiponectin mRNA expression in EAT (r = -0.322, P chemerin or adiponectin between the two groups. Likewise, neither serum chemerin nor serum adiponectin was associated with Gensini score (P > 0.05). The expressions of chemerin mRNA and

  20. Regulation and function of FTO mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Louise G; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Common variants in FTO (the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and non-genetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle......) and elderly (58-66 years) non-diabetic twins examined by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n=226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n=158). Results. Heritability of FTO expression in both tissues was low, and FTO...... expression was not influenced by FTO rs9939609 genotype. FTO mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was regulated by age and sex, whereas age and BMI were predictors of adipose tissue FTO mRNA expression. FTO mRNA expression in adipose tissue was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. In skeletal muscle...

  1. Regulation of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression by shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, M; Ohara, Y; Navas, J P; Nishida, K; Murphy, T J; Alexander, R W; Nerem, R M; Harrison, D G

    1995-12-01

    Shear stress enhances expression of Ca(2+)-calmodulin-sensitive endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) mRNA and protein in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). The present studies were performed to investigate mechanisms responsible for regulation of ecNOS mRNA expression by shear stress and to determine if this induction of ecNOS mRNA is accompanied by an enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production. Shear stresses of 15 dyn/cm2 for 3-24 h resulted in a two- to threefold increase of ecNOS mRNA content quantified by Northern analysis in BAEC. Shear stresses (1.2-15 dyn/cm2) for 3 h resulted in an induction of ecNOS mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. In human aortic endothelial cells, shear stresses of 15 dyn/cm2 for 3 h also resulted in ecNOS mRNA induction. In BAEC, this induction in ecNOS mRNA was prevented by coincubation with actinomycin D (10 micrograms/ml). The K+ channel antagonist tetraethylammonium chloride (3 mM) prevented increase in ecNOS mRNA in response to shear stress. The ecNOS promotor contains putative binding domains for AP-1 complexes, potentially responsive to activation of protein kinase C (PKC). However, selective PKC inhibitor calphostin C (100 nM) did not inhibit ecNOS induction by shear stress. Finally, production of nitrogen oxides under both basal conditions and in response to the calcium ionophore A-23187 (1 microM) by BAEC exposed to shear stress was increased approximately twofold compared with cells not exposed to shear stress. These data suggest that ecNOS mRNA expression is regulated by K+ channel opening, but not by activation of PKC, and that shear not only enhances ecNOS mRNA expression but increases capacity of endothelial cells to release NO.

  2. Fibronectin 1 mRNA expression correlates with advanced disease in renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenzl Arnulf

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibronectin 1 (FN1 is a glycoprotein involved in cellular adhesion and migration processes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of FN1 in development of renal cell cancer (RCC and to determine a prognostic relevance for optimal clinical management. Methods 212 renal tissue samples (109 RCC, 86 corresponding tissues from adjacent normal renal tissue and 17 oncocytomas were collected from patients undergoing surgery for renal tumors and subjected to total RNA extraction. Detection of FN1 mRNA expression was performed using quantitative real time PCR, three endogenous controls, renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC as biological control and the ΔΔCt method for calculation of relative quantities. Results Mean tissue specific FN1 mRNA expression was found to be increased approximately seven fold comparing RCC and corresponding kidney control tissues (p FN1 expression was increased approx. 11 fold in clear cell compared to papillary RCC (p = 9×10-5; Wilcoxon rank sum test. Patients with advanced disease had higher FN1 expression when compared to organ-confined disease (p FN1 mRNA expression between organ-confined and advanced disease in the papillary and not in the clear cell RCC group (p = 0.02 vs. p = 0.2; Wilcoxon rank sum test. There was an increased expression in RCC compared to oncocytoma (p = 0.016; ANOVA. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that FN1 mRNA expression is higher in RCC compared to normal renal tissue. FN1 mRNA expression might serve as a marker for RCC aggressiveness, indicating early systemic progression particularly for patients with papillary RCC.

  3. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  4. The mRNA expression of hTERT in human breast carcinomas correlates with VEGF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkpatrick Katharine L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that synthesises telomeres after cell division and maintains chromosomal stability leading to cellular immortalisation. hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase is the rate-limiting determinant of telomerase reactivation. Telomerase has been associated with negative prognostic indicators in some studies. The present study aims to detect any correlation between hTERT and the negative prognostic indicators VEGF and PCNA by quantitatively measuring the mRNA expression of these genes in human breast cancer and in adjacent non-cancerous tissue (ANCT. Materials and methods RNA was extracted from 38 breast carcinomas and 40 ANCT. hTERT and VEGF165, VEGF189 and PCNA mRNA expressions were estimated by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR and Taqman methodology. Results The level of expression of VEGF-165 and PCNA was significantly higher in carcinoma tissue than ANCT (p = 0.02. The ratio of VEGF165/189 expression was significantly higher in breast carcinoma than ANCT (p = 0.025. hTERT mRNA expression correlated with VEGF-189 mRNA (p = 0.008 and VEGF165 (p = 0.07. Conclusions hTERT mRNA expression is associated with the expression of the VEGF189 and 165 isoforms. This could explain the poorer prognosis reported in breast tumours expressing high levels of hTERT. The relative expression of the VEGF isoforms is significantly different in breast tumour to ANCT, and this may be important in breast carcinogenesis.

  5. Sclerostin stimulates osteocyte support of osteoclast activity by a RANKL-dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiri R Wijenayaka

    Full Text Available Sclerostin is a product of mature osteocytes embedded in mineralised bone and is a negative regulator of bone mass and osteoblast differentiation. While evidence suggests that sclerostin has an anti-anabolic role, the possibility also exists that sclerostin has catabolic activity. To test this we treated human primary pre-osteocyte cultures, cells we have found are exquisitely sensitive to sclerostin, or mouse osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, with recombinant human sclerostin (rhSCL and measured effects on pro-catabolic gene expression. Sclerostin dose-dependently up-regulated the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANKL mRNA and down-regulated that of osteoprotegerin (OPG mRNA, causing an increase in the RANK:OPG mRNA ratio. To examine the effects of rhSCL on resulting osteoclastic activity, MLO-Y4 cells plated onto a bone-like substrate were primed with rhSCL for 3 days and then either mouse splenocytes or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were added. This resulted in cultures with elevated osteoclastic resorption (approximately 7-fold compared to untreated co-cultures. The increased resorption was abolished by co-addition of recombinant OPG. In co-cultures of MLO-Y4 cells with PBMC, SCL also increased the number and size of the TRAP-positive multinucleated cells formed. Importantly, rhSCL had no effect on TRAP-positive cell formation from monocultures of either splenocytes or PBMC. Further, rhSCL did not induce apoptosis of MLO-Y4 cells, as determined by caspase activity assays, demonstrating that the osteoclastic response was not driven by dying osteocytes. Together, these results suggest that sclerostin may have a catabolic action through promotion of osteoclast formation and activity by osteocytes, in a RANKL-dependent manner.

  6. Multiplex mRNA assay using electrophoretic tags for high-throughput gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huan; Cao, Liching; Tan, Yuping; Williams, Stephen; Chen, Lili; Matray, Tracy; Chenna, Ahmed; Moore, Sean; Hernandez, Vincent; Xiao, Vivian; Tang, Mengxiang; Singh, Sharat

    2004-09-08

    We describe a novel multiplexing technology using a library of small fluorescent molecules, termed eTag molecules, to code and quantify mRNA targets. eTag molecules, which have the same fluorometric property, but distinct charge-to-mass ratios possess pre-defined electrophoretic characteristics and can be resolved using capillary electrophoresis. Coupled with primary Invader mRNA assay, eTag molecules were applied to simultaneously quantify up to 44 mRNA targets. This multiplexing approach was validated by examining a panel of inflammation responsive genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1beta. The laser-induced fluorescence detection and electrokinetic sample injection process in capillary electrophoresis allows sensitive quantification of thousands of copies of mRNA molecules in a reaction. The assay is precise, as evaluated by measuring qualified Z' factor, a dimensionless and simple characteristic for applications in high-throughput screening using mRNA assays. Our data demonstrate the synergy between the multiplexing capability of eTag molecules by sensitive capillary electrophoresis detection and the isothermal linear amplification characteristics of the Invader assay. eTag multiplex mRNA assay presents a unique platform for sensitive, high sample throughput and multiplex gene expression analysis.

  7. The potential lipolysis function of musclin and its mRNA expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musclin is a newly discovered factor and its functions remain to be defined. This study investigated the tissue expression pattern of musclin gene and its potential effect on lipid metabolism. Musclin mRNA levels in adipose, muscle tissues and primary adipocytes were examined by quantitative PCR. The musclin gene ...

  8. PAX5α and PAX5β mRNA expression in breast Cancer: Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies evaluated the role of paired box gene 5 (PAX5) in breast cancer. However, few investigated PAX5α and PAX5β isoforms individually. Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate mRNA expression of PAX5α and PAX5β in breast cancer and assessing their underlying pathological roles ...

  9. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... tides by duodenal fistula, and changed the concentration of circulation peptides, and then monitored how mRNA expression of Pep T1 in duodenum, ileum and jejunum tissue was affected. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Experimental animals and diets. Sixteen Chinese Saanen dairy goats, with an average ...

  10. Lipoprotein Lipase mRNA expression in different tissues of farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) controls triacylglycerol partitioning between adipose tissues and muscles, so it is important enzyme for fattening of animals .The present work was planned to clarify the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of LPL mRNA expression in different tissues representing internal organs of ...

  11. EXPRESSION OF AHR AND ARNT MRNA IN CULTURED HUMAN ENDOMETRIAL EXPLANTS EXPOSED TO TCDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expression of AhR and ARNT mRNA in cultured human endometrial explants exposed to TCDD.Pitt JA, Feng L, Abbott BD, Schmid J, Batt RE, Costich TG, Koury ST, Bofinger DP.Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.Endom...

  12. Expression of LDOC1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients with Down's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression of LDOC1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients with Down's syndrome. Michele Salemi Concetta Barone Carmelo Romano Federico Ridolfo Roberto Salluzzo Francesco Scillato Cataldo Scavuzzo Filippo Caraci Aldo E. Calogero Corrado Romano Paolo Bosco. Research Note Volume 91 Issue 1 April 2011 pp 95-98 ...

  13. Differential expression of PARP1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Differential expression of PARP1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients with Down's syndrome. Michele Salemi Concetta Barone Carmelo Romano Federico Ridolfo Elenora Gulotta Cataldo Scavuzzo Maria Grazia Salluzzo Mariaconcetta Giambirtone Filippo Caraci Carrado Romano Paolo Bosco. Research Note Volume 90 Issue ...

  14. Sheep oocyte expresses leptin and functional leptin receptor mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Jalil Taheri

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The result of present study reveals that leptin and its functional receptor (Ob-Rb mRNA are expressed in sheep oocyte and further studies should investigate the role(s of leptin on sheep oocyte physiology and embryo development.

  15. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, Louise T., E-mail: ltd@ruc.dk [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University (Denmark)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  16. Differential gene expression using mRNA isolated on plastic microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arpita; Klapperich, Catherine M

    2009-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the ability to perform differential gene expression experiments using messenger RNA (mRNA) isolated from crude cell lysates using a plastic microfluidic solid phase extraction column. The microfluidic columns (100microm by 100microm by 1.5 cm) were fabricated in a cyclic polyolefin by hot-embossing with an electroformed master-mold. The solid-phase consisted of a photopolymerized microporous monolith embedded with functional microparticles and covalently attached to the channel walls via photoinitiated grafting. For mRNA isolation from total RNA and direct mRNA isolation from cell lysates, oligo(dT) beads were embedded in the monolith. The extraction efficiency of the system is approximately 80% and the nucleic acid binding capacity of the silica solid-phase in this configuration is approximately 3.5 ng. The micro solid-phase was applied for the extraction and purification of mRNA from human liver total RNA and the isolation of mRNA from neonatal human dermal fibroblast cells (NHDF) and MCF7 breast cancer cell lysates. Differential gene expression between the two cell lines is demonstrated.

  17. High interleukin-6 mRNA expression is a predictor of relapse in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Kirkeby, Lene T.; Olsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL6) in colon cancer tissue, and to examine if the risk of relapse is influenced by IL6 expression. Materials and Methods: Fresh-frozen biopsies from tumor and normal adjacent tissues were taken from patients with colon cancer during surgery...... and stored at −80°C. mRNA expression for interleukin-6 was evaluated with reverse transcription real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival analyses were carried-out using a Cox competing risk regression model. Results: IL6 mRNA was significantly more highly expressed in tumor tissue compared...... for clinicopathological characteristics (Hazard Ratio=2.16, 95% CI=1.07-4.40; pInterleukin-6 is up-regulated in colon cancer tissue at the transcriptional level and is significantly associated with increased risk of relapse....

  18. High interleukin-6 mRNA expression is a predictor of relapse in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Kirkeby, Lene T; Olsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL6) in colon cancer tissue, and to examine if the risk of relapse is influenced by IL6 expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh-frozen biopsies from tumor and normal adjacent tissues were taken from patients with colon cancer during surgery...... and stored at -80 °C. mRNA expression for interleukin-6 was evaluated with reverse transcription real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival analyses were carried-out using a Cox competing risk regression model. RESULTS: IL6 mRNA was significantly more highly expressed in tumor tissue compared...... for clinicopathological characteristics (Hazard Ratio=2.16, 95% CI=1.07-4.40; pInterleukin-6 is up-regulated in colon cancer tissue at the transcriptional level and is significantly associated with increased risk of relapse....

  19. Peripheral Mononuclear Cell Resistin mRNA Expression Is Increased in Type 2 Diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayoula C. Tsiotra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistin has been shown to cause insulin resistance and to impair glucose tolerance in rodents, but in humans its physiological role still remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether resistin mRNA expression in human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs and its corresponding plasma levels are altered in type 2 diabetes. Resistin mRNA levels were easily detectable in human PBMC, and found to be higher in DM2 compared to healthy women (P=.05. Similarly, mononuclear mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 were all significantly higher in DM2 compared to control women (P<.001. The corresponding plasma resistin levels were slightly, but not significantly, increased in DM2 women (P=.051, and overall, they correlated significantly with BMI (r=0.406, P=.010 and waist circumference (r=0.516, P=.003, but not with fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR. Resistin mRNA expression is increased in PBMC from DM2 women, together with increased expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, independent of obesity. These results suggest that resistin and cytokines might contribute to the low-grade inflammation and the increased atherogenic risk observed in these patients.

  20. Maternal mRNA expression levels of H19 are inversely associated with risk of macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Yu, Yang; Xun, Pengcheng; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Guanghua; Wang, Qiuwei

    2014-06-29

    To investigate the associations between the mRNA levels of H19 in term placenta and risk of macrosomia. Term placentas were collected from 37 macrosomia and 37 matched neonates with normal birth weight (controls) born in Changzhou Women and Children Health Hospital, Jiangsu province, P. R. China from March 1 to June 30, 2008. The mRNA levels of H19 in those placentas were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Simple and multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the risk factors in the development of macrosomia. All analyses were performed using Stata 10.0 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA). The average H19 mRNA level of the macrosomia group was 1.450 ±0.456 while in the control group it was 2.080 ±1.296. Based on the result of Student's t test, there was a significant difference in H19 mRNA level between the macrosomia group and the control group (p = 0.008). After controlling for potential confounders, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) of macrosomia for those in the highest tertile of H19 mRNA level was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02-0.59) when compared to those in the lowest tertile (p for linear trend = 0.009). The term placental H19 mRNA levels were inversely related to the occurrence of macrosomia. Our findings suggest that the low expression of H19 mRNA may contribute to the development of macrosomia.

  1. Differential histone deacetylase mRNA expression patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Claas; Schmalbach, Sonja; Boeselt, Sebastian; Sarlette, Alexander; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important regulators of gene expression and cell differentiation. The HDAC inhibitors have recently been considered as potential novel neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A major limitation, however, lies in the broad spectrum of action of currently available HDAC inhibitors that may cause a variety of toxic side effects. The mRNA expression levels of the HDAC isoforms HDACs 1 to 11 have previously been characterized in rat brain but have not been studied in human tissue. Using in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry we assessed the distribution and expression levels of HDACs 1to 11 in postmortem ALS and control brain and spinal cord specimens (n = 6 cases each) to determine alterations in the mRNA expression pattern that could provide a basis for disease-specific therapies. We found a reduction of HDAC 11 mRNA and increased HDAC 2 levels in ALS brain and spinal cord compared with controls. A more precise knowledge of the disease-related expression pattern could lead to the development of more specific pharmacotherapeutic approaches.

  2. Rhythmic expression of Nocturnin mRNA in multiple tissues of the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Carla B

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nocturnin was originally identified by differential display as a circadian clock regulated gene with high expression at night in photoreceptors of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Although encoding a novel protein, the nocturnin cDNA had strong sequence similarity with a C-terminal domain of the yeast transcription factor CCR4, and with mouse and human ESTs. Since its original identification others have cloned mouse and human homologues of nocturnin/CCR4, and we have cloned a full-length cDNA from mouse retina, along with partial cDNAs from human, cow and chicken. The goal of this study was to determine the temporal pattern of nocturnin mRNA expression in multiple tissues of the mouse. Results cDNA sequence analysis revealed a high degree of conservation among vertebrate nocturnin/CCR4 homologues along with a possible homologue in Drosophila. Northern analysis of mRNA in C3H/He and C57/Bl6 mice revealed that the mNoc gene is expressed in a broad range of tissues, with greatest abundance in liver, kidney and testis. mNoc is also expressed in multiple brain regions including suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Furthermore, mNoc exhibits circadian rhythmicity of mRNA abundance with peak levels at the time of light offset in the retina, spleen, heart, kidney and liver. Conclusion The widespread expression and rhythmicity of mNoc mRNA parallels the widespread expression of other circadian clock genes in mammalian tissues, and suggests that nocturnin plays an important role in clock function or as a circadian clock effector.

  3. Orosomucoid serum concentrations and fat depot-specific mRNA and protein expression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A; Fatma, Sumbul; Chishti, M Azhar; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Elawad, Ruba; Mendoza, Carmen Deanna O; Jo, Hyunsun; Lee, Yun Sok

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to systemic metabolic irregularities and obesity-linked metabolic disorders. Orosomucoid (ORM), an acute phase reactant protein, was shown to be produced in response to metabolic and inflammatory signals in the adipose tissue of obese mice, which protects them from severe inflammation and subsequent metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we examined whether there are site-specific differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively) ORM gene and protein expression from individuals with a wide range of obesity and the relationship between expressed and circulating ORM levels and measures of adiposity, insulin resistance, and pro- and anti-inflammatory markers and adipokines. The level of circulating ORM correlated positively with BMI, body fat mass, and serum leptin. It also correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR values and C-reactive protein in men. There were no site-specific differences in ORM mRNA and protein expression between VAT and SAT, nor did we find a relationship between circulating ORM levels and its mRNA expression in either fat depot. We found that ORM mRNA expression correlated with mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and adiponectin in VAT, and with TNF-α and adiponectin in SAT. These observations are the first description linking adipose tissue ORM and pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in humans. The close links of ORM and measures of adiposity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation in humans reinforce previous experimental data and warrant further studies to explore a possible role of ORM in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic derangements.

  4. Modulation of IFNAR1 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serana, Federico; Sottini, Alessandra; Ghidini, Claudia; Zanotti, Cinzia; Capra, Ruggero; Cordioli, Cinzia; Caimi, Luigi; Imberti, Luisa

    2008-06-15

    Interferon-beta receptor (IFNAR) is composed of 2 subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, the latter of which is expressed as functional (IFNAR2.2), non-functional (IFNAR2.1) and soluble (IFNAR2.3) isoform. Real-Time PCR analysis of mRNA for all IFNAR components in multiple sclerosis patients naïve for therapy and undergoing long-term treatment with interferon-beta shows that IFNAR1 mRNA level is lower than in healthy controls. If long-term treated patients are divided according to the production of mRNA for Myxovirus protein-A, a marker of interferon-beta bioactivity, IFNAR1 mRNA reaches the values observed in controls only in Myxovirus protein-A-induced patients. Since chronic cell stimulation by interferon-beta induces IFNAR protein down-regulation, we suggest that the increase of IFNAR1 mRNA might serve as a mechanism for counterbalancing the loss of protein receptor, enhancing, at least in this sub-group of patients, cell responsiveness to interferon-beta.

  5. Advanced Glycation End Product 3 (AGE3) Increases Apoptosis and the Expression of Sclerostin by Stimulating TGF-β Expression and Secretion in Osteocyte-Like MLO-Y4-A2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notsu, Masakazu; Kanazawa, Ippei; Takeno, Ayumu; Yokomoto-Umakoshi, Maki; Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Toru; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2017-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) cause bone fragility due to deterioration in bone quality. We previously reported that AGE3 induced apoptosis and inhibited differentiation via increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling in osteoblastic cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that AGE3 increased apoptosis and sclerostin expression and decreased receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteocyte-like cells. However, it remains unclear whether TGF-β signaling is involved in the effects of AGEs on apoptosis and the expression of sclerostin and RANKL in osteocytes. Effects of AGE3 on apoptosis of mouse osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells were examined by DNA fragmentation ELISA. Expression of TGF-β, sclerostin, and RANKL was evaluated using real-time PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA kits. To block TGF-β signaling, we used SD208, a TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor. AGE3 (200 µg/mL) significantly increased apoptosis and mRNA expression of Sost, the gene encoding sclerostin, and decreased Rankl mRNA expression in MLO-Y4-A2 cells. AGE3 significantly increased the expression of TGF-β. Co-incubation of SD208 with AGE3 significantly rescued AGE3-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SD208 restored AGE3-increased mRNA and protein expression of sclerostin. In contrast, SD208 did not affect AGE3-decreased mRNA and protein expression of RANKL. These findings suggest that AGE3 increases apoptosis and sclerostin expression through increasing TGF-β expression in osteocytes, and that AGE3 decreases RANKL expression independent of TGF-β signaling.

  6. Aging alters mRNA expression of amyloid transporter genes at the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Doreen; Miller, Miles C; Messier, Arthur A; Gonzalez, Liliana; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2017-09-01

    Decreased clearance of potentially toxic metabolites, due to aging changes, likely plays a significant role in the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and other macromolecules in the brain of the elderly and in the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aging is the single most important risk factor for AD development. Aβ transport receptor proteins expressed at the blood-brain barrier are significantly altered with age: the efflux transporters lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein are reduced, whereas the influx transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products is increased. These receptors play an important role in maintaining brain biochemical homeostasis. We now report that, in a rat model of aging, gene transcription is altered in aging, as measured by Aβ receptor gene messenger RNA (mRNA) at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 36 months. Gene mRNA expression from isolated cerebral microvessels was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein mRNA were significantly reduced in aging, and receptor for advanced glycation end products was increased, in parallel with the changes seen in receptor protein expression. Transcriptional changes appear to play a role in aging alterations in blood-brain barrier receptor expression and Aβ accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. mRNA expression pattern of gonadotropin receptors in bovine follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Belkis E; Diaz, Pablo U; Salvetti, Natalia R; Rey, Florencia; Ortega, Hugo H

    2014-12-01

    Follicular growth and steroidogenesis are dependent on gonadotropin binding to their receptors in granulosa and theca cells of ovarian follicles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression patterns of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) in ovarian follicular structures from cows with cystic ovarian disease (COD) as compared with those of regularly cycling cows. Relative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR mRNA in granulosa cells was highest in small antral follicles, then decreased significantly as follicles increased in size, and was lowest in cysts. FSHR mRNA was not detected in the theca cells of any follicular category, including cysts. LHCGR mRNA expression in granulosa cells was significantly higher in large antral follicles than in cysts, and not detected in granulosa cells of small and medium antral follicles. In theca cells, the expression level of LHCGR mRNA in medium antral follicles was higher than in small and large antral follicles, whereas that in follicular cysts it was similar to those in small and medium antral follicles, but higher than that in large antral follicles. Our findings provide evidence that there is an altered gonadotropin receptor expression in bovine cystic follicles, and suggest that in conditions characterized by altered ovulation, such as COD, changes in the signaling system of gonadotropins may play a fundamental role in their pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression, apoptosis and risk of colorectal adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omofoye Oluwaseun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and has both anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. Elevated plasma IGFBP-3 has been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, but the role of tissue IGFBP-3 is not well defined. We evaluated the association between tissue or plasma IGFBP-3 and risk of colorectal adenomas or low apoptosis. Methods Subjects were consenting patients who underwent a clinically indicated colonoscopy at UNC Hospitals and provided information on diet and lifestyle. IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colon was assessed by real time RT-PCR. Plasma IGFBP-3 was measured by ELISA and apoptosis was determined by morphology on H & E slides. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a modest correlation between plasma IGFBP-3 and tissue IGFBP-3 expression (p = 0.007. There was no significant association between plasma IGFBP-3 and adenomas or apoptosis. Tissue IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was significantly lower in cases than controls. Subjects in the lowest three quartiles of tissue IGFBP-3 gene expression were more likely to have adenomas. Consistent with previous reports, low apoptosis was significantly associated with increased risk of adenomas (p = 0.003. Surprisingly, local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was inversely associated with apoptosis. Conclusion Low expression of IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colonic mucosa predicts increased risk of adenomas. Our findings suggest that local IGFBP-3 in the colon may directly increase adenoma risk but IGFBP-3 may act through a pathway other than apoptosis to influence adenoma risk.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Receptor Activator of NF-κB (RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Jen Tseng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO have anti-inflammatory effects and can reduce bone erosion in a murine collagen-induced arthritis model. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of CO on receptor activator of NF-γB ligand (RANKL, one of the key stimulators of osteoclastogenesis. Methods: The in vivo effects of CO on RANKL expression were assessed in a collagen antibody-induced arthritis model in mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in the RAW246.7 cell line stimulated with RANKL and exposed to either air or CO. The number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive RAW246.7 cells was also examined after treatment with RANKL and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonist, Troglitazone. Results: CO reduced RANKL expression in the synovium of arthritic mice. Although CO slightly increased RAW246.7 cell proliferation, no differences in activated caspase 3 levels were detected. In addition, Troglitazone ameliorated the inhibitory effects of CO on RANKL-induced TRAP expression by RAW246.7 cells. Conclusions: CO suppresses osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of PPAR-γ. Given the role of the PPAR-γ/cFos (AP-1 pathway in regulating the transcription factor, NFATc1, the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, further studies are warranted to explore CO in treating inflammatory bone disorders.

  10. [Expression of PEPT2 mRNA in lung tissue of rats with pulmonary fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Dianhua; Zhang, Xuan; Song, Xin; Ma, Xiaobiao; Hu, Zaoxiu

    2013-10-20

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a common pathological phenomenon in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is also a key hindrance to the transport of drugs to lung tissue. Peptide transporters have become a target of the rational design of peptides and peptide drugs. The aim of this study is to investigates the expression of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) mRNA in the lungs of rats with bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Fifty healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was untreated (control), the second group was injected with normal saline solution (NS), and the three remaining groups were treated with a single dose of bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis (BLM). Rats from the NS group were killed by exsanguination on day 14. Rats from the BLM group were killed by exsanguination on days 7, 14, and 28. The lung samples were observed under light microscopy and the hydroxyproline concentration was determined. The expression levels of PEPT2 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. The morphological study showed that collagenous fiber proliferated in the lungs of rats injected with BLM, indicating pulmonary fibrosis. This proliferation was apparent at 14 d post-injection and especially at 28 d post-injection. Hydroxyproline levels increased seven days post-injection compared with the control group and NS group, but there was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05). Hydroxyproline levels significantly increased (Ppulmonary PEPT2 mRNA expression levels among the different groups (P>0.05). PEPT2 is a potential peptide drug target in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, although there were no significant changes of PEPT2 mRNA expression in the lungs of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Progressive APOBEC3B mRNA expression in distant breast cancer metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anieta M Sieuwerts

    Full Text Available APOBEC3B was recently identified as a gain-of-function enzymatic source of mutagenesis, which may offer novel therapeutic options with molecules that specifically target this enzyme. In primary breast cancer, APOBEC3B mRNA is deregulated in a substantial proportion of cases and its expression is associated with poor prognosis. However, its expression in breast cancer metastases, which are the main causes of breast cancer-related death, remained to be elucidated.RNA was isolated from 55 primary breast cancers and paired metastases, including regional lymph node (N = 20 and distant metastases (N = 35. APOBEC3B mRNA levels were measured by RT-qPCR. Expression levels of the primary tumors and corresponding metastases were compared, including subgroup analysis by estrogen receptor (ER/ESR1 status.Overall, APOBEC3B mRNA levels of distant metastases were significantly higher as compared to the corresponding primary breast tumor (P = 0.0015, an effect that was not seen for loco-regional lymph node metastases (P = 0.23. Subgroup analysis by ER-status showed that increased APOBEC3B levels in distant metastases were restricted to metastases arising from ER-positive primary breast cancers (P = 0.002. However, regarding ER-negative primary tumors, only loco-regional lymph node metastases showed increased APOBEC3B expression when compared to the corresponding primary tumor (P = 0.028.APOBEC3B mRNA levels are significantly higher in breast cancer metastases as compared to the corresponding ER-positive primary tumors. This suggests a potential role for APOBEC3B in luminal breast cancer progression, and consequently, a promising role for anti-APOBEC3B therapies in advanced stages of this frequent form of breast cancer.

  12. Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase in dorsal raphe nucleus of depressive suicide victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bahillo, A; Bautista-Hernandez, V; Barcia Gonzalez, Carlos; Bañon, R; Luna, A; Hirsch, EC; Herrero, Maria-Trinidad

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC). These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of serotonin re-uptake. No alteration was found in noradrenergic neurons, suggesting that they play no crucial role in the suicidal behavior of depressive patients. PMID:18728743

  14. Basal keratin expression in breast cancer by quantification of mRNA and by immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluciennik Elzbieta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definitions of basal-like breast cancer phenotype vary, and microarray-based expression profiling analysis remains the gold standard for the identification of these tumors. Immunohistochemical identification of basal-like carcinomas is hindered with a fact, that on microarray level not all of them express basal-type cytokeratin 5/6, 14 and 17. We compared expression of cytokeratin 5, 14 and 17 in 115 patients with operable breast cancer estimated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Despite the method of dichotomization and statistical analysis, there were cases with discordant results comparing immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. For dichotomisation based on quartiles and ROC, 14% of cases were negative on immunohistochemical examination for CK5/6, but presented high CK5 mRNA levels. There were also 48-55% cases, which were CK5/6-immunopositive, but were negative by mRNA examination. Similar discordances were observed for CK14 and CK17. Basal keratin mRNAs did not correlate with ER mRNA levels, while immunohistochemistry produced significant relationship with ER status. Our observation suggest that both method may produce different results in a small proportion of cases. Discordance between immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR may confound attempts to establish a simple methods for identification of basal-like tumors.

  15. Changes in the responsiveness of hypothalamic prokineticin 2 mRNA expression to food deprivation in developing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Murakami, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Mikio; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2014-05-01

    Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is highly expressed in several regions of the central nervous system, including the hypothalamus. Recently, it has been suggested that PK2 plays a role in appetite regulation. In adult male rodents, the administration of PK2 decreased food intake, and PK2 mRNA expression was reduced by food deprivation. Usually, the changes in the expression levels of appetite-regulating factors induced in response to fasting are not fully established during the neonatal period. Thus, we investigated the developmental changes in hypothalamic PK2 mRNA expression and the alterations in hypothalamic PK2 mRNA expression induced by fasting during the pre-pubertal period in female rats. The changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression were also examined because NPY is a potent appetite regulatory factor. Hypothalamic PK2 mRNA expression was extremely high during the early neonatal period (postnatal day (PND) 5) compared with that observed during subsequent periods (PND15, 25, and 42), while hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression did not differ among any of the examined periods. A fasting-induced reduction in hypothalamic PK2 mRNA expression was observed on PND5, but no fasting-induced increase in hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression was seen during the same period. In addition, the fasting-induced reduction in hypothalamic PK2 mRNA expression observed on PND5 was more marked than that seen on PND25. These results suggest that the sensitivity of hypothalamic PK2 expression to undernutrition develops during the early neonatal period, when the responses of other appetite regulatory factors to such pressures remain immature. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of Exportin 5 (XPO5 mRNA expression in breast cancer patients

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    Samira Shakerizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Deregulation in the expression of microRNAs is involved in the pathogenesis of various malignancies. Impaired microRNAs processing pathway is one possible mechanism for global deregulation of the miRNAs. Exportin 5 (XPO5 is a key member of this pathway that links nuclear and cytoplasmic steps of miRNAs biogenesis together. XPO5 deregulation has been reported in some cancers but very little is known about its role in breast cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression of XPO5 in breast cancer in an Iranian population. Methods: In this case-control study, 30 tumoral tissues and 30 tumor-free margins were collected from breast cancer patients. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, XPO5 mRNA expression level was assessed using quantitative Real-Time PCR. Results: Our results showed that XPO5 was overexpressed in 53.3% of tumoral tissues but the difference in the gene expression level between tumoral tissues and tumor-free margins was not statistically significant (P-value=0.834. XPO5 expression level showed no statistically significant correlation and association with clinical and pathological parameters. Conclusion: Overexpression of XPO5 in large percent of patients indicates that high level of XPO5 expression may be a tumorigenic factor for breast cancer which needs to be investigated more deeply.

  17. Sequencing of mRNA identifies re-expression of fetal splice variants in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, E G; Lawson, M J; Mackey, A J; Holmes, J W

    2013-09-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy has been well-characterized at the level of transcription. During cardiac hypertrophy, genes normally expressed primarily during fetal heart development are re-expressed, and this fetal gene program is believed to be a critical component of the hypertrophic process. Recently, alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts has been shown to be temporally regulated during heart development, leading us to consider whether fetal patterns of splicing also reappear during hypertrophy. We hypothesized that patterns of alternative splicing occurring during heart development are recapitulated during cardiac hypertrophy. Here we present a study of isoform expression during pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy induced by 10 days of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in rats and in developing fetal rat hearts compared to sham-operated adult rat hearts, using high-throughput sequencing of poly(A) tail mRNA. We find a striking degree of overlap between the isoforms expressed differentially in fetal and pressure-overloaded hearts compared to control: forty-four percent of the isoforms with significantly altered expression in TAC hearts are also expressed at significantly different levels in fetal hearts compared to control (Phypertrophy and fetal heart development are significantly enriched for genes involved in cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, developmental processes, and metabolic enzymes. Our data strongly support the concept that mRNA splicing patterns normally associated with heart development recur as part of the hypertrophic response to pressure overload. These findings suggest that cardiac hypertrophy shares post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional regulatory mechanisms with fetal heart development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitation of the mRNA expression of the epidermal growth factor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B S; Tørring, N; Bor, M V

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is a rapidly expanding system of growth factors involved in many aspects of normal and cancerous growth. We have developed a method for the quantitation of mRNA coding for all six growth factors activating the human EGF receptor (HER-1) and for the quantit......The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is a rapidly expanding system of growth factors involved in many aspects of normal and cancerous growth. We have developed a method for the quantitation of mRNA coding for all six growth factors activating the human EGF receptor (HER-1......) and for the quantitation of mRNA for the receptors HER-1 and its preferred dimerization partner, HER-2. The method is based on the generation of specific RNA standards, which are amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the sample RNA and a set of calibrators. The resulting calibration...... stromal cells in primary culture express EGF, heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), amphiregulin, betacellulin, and epiregulin as well as the HER-1 and HER-2 receptors, whereas no transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA is found. Furthermore, activation of the EGF system in these cells by stimulation with HB...

  19. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase mRNA and protein expression analysis in normal and drug-resistant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, M; Klein, A; Hayek-Ouassini, M; Knecht, W; Konrad, L

    2004-10-01

    To follow the expression of the fourth enzyme of pyrimidine de novo synthesis dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) in cells and tissues, we studied the DHODH mRNA expression by means of RT-PCR in rat tissues. Rabbit polyclonal anti-DHODH immunoglobulins were applied for immunochemical quantification of the enzyme protein by Western blotting. In mouse B-lymphocytes, which were adapted to tolerate up to a 50-fold concentration of the DHODH inhibitor leflunomide, a 20 fold protein overexpression was measured. Southern blotting indicated DHODH gene amplification.

  20. Keratinocyte growth factor mRNA expression in periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Wandall, H H; Grøn, B

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a fibroblast growth factor which mediates epithelial growth and differentiation. KGF is expressed in subepithelial fibroblasts, but generally not in fibroblasts of deep connective tissue, such as fascia and ligaments. Here we demonstrate that KGF mRNA is expres......Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a fibroblast growth factor which mediates epithelial growth and differentiation. KGF is expressed in subepithelial fibroblasts, but generally not in fibroblasts of deep connective tissue, such as fascia and ligaments. Here we demonstrate that KGF m...

  1. [Expressions of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO mRNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei-rong; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Shao-rong; Chi, Ming-ming; Chen, Sen-lin; Liu, Lei-yu

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the mRNA expressions of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO in papillary thyroid carcinoma and some other thyroid benign lesions, and evaluate their diagnostic significance. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of RASSF1A, galectin-3 and TPO in the samples from 73 cases, including 23 cases with papillary thyroid cancer, 16 with nodular goiter, 29 with thyroid adenoma and 5 with Hashimoto's disease. A statistically significant difference in the mRNA expression of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO was observed between papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular benign lesions (P0.05). A negative correlation of the expression of RASSF1A and Galectin-3 mRNA was found between thyroid benign lesions and malignant ones (P = 0.000). While the mRNA expression of RASSF1A and TPO was positively correlated between benign and malignant lesions (P = 0.028). Loss of expression of RASSF1A and TPO mRNA but high expression of Galectin-3 mRNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma are common. Therefore, the products of these three genes may be closely related to the development of thyroid papillary carcinoma, and may be used as useful markers in differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma from the benign lesions. The results are more reliable if this detection method is used in combination with other techniques.

  2. Circulating RANKL and RANKL/OPG and breast cancer risk by ER and PR subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron

    2017-01-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoproteg...

  3. HemaExplorer: a database of mRNA expression profiles in normal and malignant haematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Rapin, Nicolas; Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The HemaExplorer (http://servers.binf.ku.dk/hemaexplorer) is a curated database of processed mRNA Gene expression profiles (GEPs) that provides an easy display of gene expression in haematopoietic cells. HemaExplorer contains GEPs derived from mouse/human haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells...... as well as from more differentiated cell types. Moreover, data from distinct subtypes of human acute myeloid leukemia is included in the database allowing researchers to directly compare gene expression of leukemic cells with those of their closest normal counterpart. Normalization and batch correction...... lead to full integrity of the data in the database. The HemaExplorer has comprehensive visualization interface that can make it useful as a daily tool for biologists and cancer researchers to assess the expression patterns of genes encountered in research or literature. HemaExplorer is relevant for all...

  4. RANKL, osteopontin, and osteoclast homeostasis in a hyperocclusion mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Cameron G.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Dangaria, Smit; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H. (UIC)

    2009-10-21

    The biological mechanisms that maintain the position of teeth in their sockets establish a dynamic equilibrium between bone resorption and apposition. In order to reveal some of the dynamics involved in the tissue responses towards occlusal forces on periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone homeostasis, we developed the first mouse model of hyperocclusion. Swiss-Webster mice were kept in hyperocclusion for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d. Morphological and histological changes in the periodontium were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and ground sections with fluorescent detection of vital dye labels. Sections were stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) and osteopontin (OPN) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Traumatic occlusion resulted in enamel surface abrasion, inhibition of alveolar bone apposition, significant formation of osteoclasts at 3, 6 and 9 d, and upregulation of OPN and RANKL. Data from this study suggest that both OPN and RANKL contribute to the stimulation of bone resorption in the hyperocclusive state. In addition, we propose that the inhibition of alveolar bone apposition by occlusal forces is an important mechanism for the control of occlusal height that might work in synergy with RANKL-induced bone resorption to maintain normal occlusion.

  5. Induction of Ski protein expression upon luteinization in rat granulosa cells without a change in its mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2012-01-01

    The Ski protein is implicated in the proliferation/differentiation of a variety of cells. We previously reported that the Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. However, granulosa cells cannot only undergo apoptosis but can alternatively differentiate into luteal cells. It is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the localization of the Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinization to examine if Ski might play a role in this process. In order to examine the Ski protein expression during the progression of luteinization, follicular growth was induced in immature female rats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadotropin treatment to mimic the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in the preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to the LH surge and was maintained after formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Although the Ski protein is absent from the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-ski) was expressed, and the level of c-ski mRNA was unchanged even after the LH surge. The combined results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggested that its expression is regulated posttranscriptionally.

  6. Whole Blood mRNA Expression-Based Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik V. Giridhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC prognostic score is based on clinical parameters. We analyzed whole blood mRNA expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC patients and compared it to the MSKCC score for predicting overall survival. In a discovery set of 19 patients with mRCC, we performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and selected eighteen candidate genes for further evaluation based on associations with overall survival and statistical significance. In an independent validation of set of 47 patients with mCCRCC, transcript expression of the 18 candidate genes were quantified using a customized NanoString probeset. Cox regression multivariate analysis confirmed that two of the candidate genes were significantly associated with overall survival. Higher expression of BAG1 [hazard ratio (HR of 0.14, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.04–0.36] and NOP56 (HR 0.13, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.05–0.34 were associated with better prognosis. A prognostic model incorporating expression of BAG1 and NOP56 into the MSKCC score improved prognostication significantly over a model using the MSKCC prognostic score only (p < 0.0001. Prognostic value of using whole blood mRNA gene profiling in mCCRCC is feasible and should be prospectively confirmed in larger studies.

  7. mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of computer game addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Eghbali, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Excessive playing of computer games like some other behaviors could lead to addiction. Addictive behaviors may induce their reinforcing effects through stimulation of the brain dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. The status of dopamine receptors in the brain may be parallel to their homologous receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of dopamine D3, D4 and D5 receptors in PBLs of computer game addicts (n = 20) in comparison to normal subjects (n = 20), using a real-time PCR method. The results showed that the expression level of D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts were not statistically different from the control group. However, the expression of the mRNA of D5 dopamine receptor was significantly down-regulated in PBLs of computer game addicts and reached 0.42 the amount of the control group. It is concluded that unlike with drug addiction, the expression levels of the D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts are not altered compared to the control group. However, reduced level of the D5 dopamine receptor in computer game addicts may serve as a peripheral marker in studies where the confounding effects of abused drugs are unwanted.

  8. Downregulation of TIM-3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, X.Z. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Huang, W.Y.; Qiao, Y.; Chen, Y.; Du, S.Y.; Chen, D.; Yu, S. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Liu, N. [Department of Nephrology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Dou, L.Y. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Jiang, Y. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2014-10-17

    The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is associated with autoimmune diseases, but its expression level in the immune cells of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of TIM-3 mRNA is associated with pathogenesis of SLE. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) was used to determine TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 132 patients with SLE and 62 healthy controls. The PBMC surface protein expression of TIMs in PBMCs from 20 SLE patients and 15 healthy controls was assayed by flow cytometry. Only TIM-3 mRNA expression decreased significantly in SLE patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). No significant differences in TIM family protein expression were observed in leukocytes from SLE patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) had a significantly lower expression of TIM-3 mRNA than those without LN (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the expression of TIM-3 mRNA within different classes of LN (P>0.05). Correlation of TIM-3 mRNA expression with serum IgA was highly significant (r=0.425, P=0.004), but was weakly correlated with total serum protein (r{sub s}=0.283, P=0.049) and serum albumin (r{sub s}=0.297, P=0.047). TIM-3 mRNA expression was weakly correlated with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; r{sub s}=-0.272, P=0.032). Our results suggest that below-normal expression of TIM-3 mRNA in PBMC may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  9. IL-1β directly suppress ghrelin mRNA expression in ghrelin-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Mika; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoko; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hidefumi; Furukawa, Yasushi; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Akamizu, Takashi

    2017-05-15

    In animal models, ghrelin production is suppressed by LPS administration. To elucidate the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in the phenomenon, we investigated the effects of LPS and LPS-inducible cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, on the expression of ghrelin in the ghrelin-producing cell line MGN3-1. These cells expressed IL-1R, and IL-1β significantly suppressed ghrelin mRNA levels. The suppressive effects of IL-1β were attenuated by knockdown of IKKβ, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. These results suggested that IL-1β is a major regulator of ghrelin expression during inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Defining transcriptional networks through integrative modeling of mRNA expression and transcription factor binding data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussemaker Harmen J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional genomics studies are yielding information about regulatory processes in the cell at an unprecedented scale. In the yeast S. cerevisiae, DNA microarrays have not only been used to measure the mRNA abundance for all genes under a variety of conditions but also to determine the occupancy of all promoter regions by a large number of transcription factors. The challenge is to extract useful information about the global regulatory network from these data. Results We present MA-Networker, an algorithm that combines microarray data for mRNA expression and transcription factor occupancy to define the regulatory network of the cell. Multivariate regression analysis is used to infer the activity of each transcription factor, and the correlation across different conditions between this activity and the mRNA expression of a gene is interpreted as regulatory coupling strength. Applying our method to S. cerevisiae, we find that, on average, 58% of the genes whose promoter region is bound by a transcription factor are true regulatory targets. These results are validated by an analysis of enrichment for functional annotation, response for transcription factor deletion, and over-representation of cis-regulatory motifs. We are able to assign directionality to transcription factors that control divergently transcribed genes sharing the same promoter region. Finally, we identify an intrinsic limitation of transcription factor deletion experiments related to the combinatorial nature of transcriptional control, to which our approach provides an alternative. Conclusion Our reliable classification of ChIP positives into functional and non-functional TF targets based on their expression pattern across a wide range of conditions provides a starting point for identifying the unknown sequence features in non-coding DNA that directly or indirectly determine the context dependence of transcription factor action. Complete analysis results are

  11. Expression of PEPT2 mRNA in Lung Tissue of Rats with Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Pulmonary fibrosis is a common pathological phenomenon in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is also a key hindrance to the transport of drugs to lung tissue. Peptide transporters have become a target of the rational design of peptides and peptide drugs. The aim of this study is to investigates the expression of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2 mRNA in the lungs of rats with bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods Fifty healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was untreated (control, the second group was injected with normal saline solution (NS, and the three remaining groups were treated with a single dose of bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis (BLM. Rats from the NS group were killed by exsanguination on day 14. Rats from the BLM group were killed by exsanguination on days 7, 14, and 28. The lung samples were observed under light microscopy and the hydroxyproline concentration was determined. The expression levels of PEPT2 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. Results The morphological study showed that collagenous fiber proliferated in the lungs of rats injected with BLM, indicating pulmonary fibrosis. This proliferation was apparent at 14 d post-injection and especially at 28 d post-injection. Hydroxyproline levels increased seven days post-injection compared with the control group and NS group, but there was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05. Hydroxyproline levels significantly increased (P0.05. Conclusion PEPT2 is a potential peptide drug target in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, although there were no significant changes of PEPT2 mRNA expression in the lungs of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Characterization and mRNA expression analysis of a novel ARG1 splicing mutation causing hyperargininemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Ruiz, Vanessa; Campos-Garcia, Felix J; Contreras-Capetillo, Silvina; Moreno-Graciano, Claudia M; Maldonado-Solis, Felipe A; Maldonado-Solis, Mario A; Zenteno, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Biallelic mutations in the ARG1 gene result in an uncommon autosomal recessive inborn defect of the urea cycle known as hyperargininemia (OMIM #207800). ARG1 splicing mutations are not reported often, and they are probably related to a more severe phenotype than missense mutations. In this article, we describe the results of molecular studies in a young hyperargininemia patient carrying a novel splicing mutation in ARG1. Molecular analyses included PCR amplification and direct nucleotide sequencing of the ARG1 gene. RT-PCR analysis was performed to investigate the effect of the mutation in mRNA splicing and in the expression of ARG1 isoforms. Mutational analysis identified a novel homozygous ARG1 IVS4-1G>C point mutation in the patient's DNA. Blood leukocyte mRNA was analyzed to demonstrate the splicing defect caused by this mutation. Sequencing of ARG1 RT-PCR products allowed the characterization of a mutated transcript retaining 51-bp from intron 4. In addition, two new, alternatively spliced ARG1 transcripts lacking either exon 4 or exons 4 and 5 were identified in mRNA from the patient and from controls. Our results expand the mutational spectrum in hyperargininemia patients and indicate that the novel splicing mutation results in an aberrant transcript retaining intronic sequences. Two novel alternatively spliced ARG1 transcripts were also recognized. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On a stochastic gene expression with pre-mRNA, mRNA and protein contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicki, Ryszard; Tomski, Andrzej

    2015-12-21

    In this paper we develop a model of stochastic gene expression, which is an extension of the model investigated in the paper [T. Lipniacki, P. Paszek, A. Marciniak-Czochra, A.R. Brasier, M. Kimmel, Transcriptional stochasticity in gene expression, J. Theor. Biol. 238 (2006) 348-367]. In our model, stochastic effects still originate from random fluctuations in gene activity status, but we precede mRNA production by the formation of pre-mRNA, which enriches classical transcription phase. We obtain a stochastically regulated system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing evolution of pre-mRNA, mRNA and protein levels. We perform mathematical analysis of a long-time behavior of this stochastic process, identified as a piece-wise deterministic Markov process (PDMP). We check exact results using numerical simulations for the distributions of all three types of particles. Moreover, we investigate the deterministic (adiabatic) limit state of the process, when depending on parameters it can exhibit two specific types of behavior: bistability and the existence of the limit cycle. The latter one is not present when only two kinds of gene expression products are considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fasting and exercise differentially regulate BDNF mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jeremy J; Edgett, Brittany A; Tschakovsky, Michael E; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression was measured in human skeletal muscle following 3 intensities of exercise and a 48-h fast. No change in BDNF mRNA was observed following exercise, while fasting upregulated BDNF by ∼ 3.5-fold. These changes were dissociated from changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) following exercise (+2- to 15-fold) and fasting (∼-25%). These results challenge our understanding of the response of BDNF to energetic stress and highlight the importance of future work in this area.

  15. Tumor-associated antigens identified by mRNA expression profiling as tumor rejection epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise; Ruhwald, Morten; Thorn, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen H-2b-binding peptides derived from six potentially overexpressed proteins in p53-/- thymoma (SM7) cells were studied for immunogenecity and vaccine-induced prevention of tumor growth in mice inoculated with SM7 tumor cells. Six of the peptides generated specific CTL responses after immun...... derived from potentially overexpressed tumor proteins, as identified by mRNA expression profiling of p53-/- thymoma cells, at best results in a weak tumor protection thus questioning this way of detection of new tumor rejection epitopes....

  16. Ustilago maydis natural antisense transcript expression alters mRNA stability and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Michael E; Saville, Barry J

    2013-07-01

    Ustilago maydis infection of Zea mays leads to the production of thick-walled diploid teliospores that are the dispersal agent for this pathogen. Transcriptome analyses of this model biotrophic basidiomycete fungus identified natural antisense transcripts (NATs) complementary to 247 open reading frames. The U. maydis NAT cDNAs were fully sequenced and annotated. Strand-specific RT-PCR screens confirmed expression and identified NATs preferentially expressed in the teliospore. Targeted screens revealed four U. maydis NATs that are conserved in a related fungus. Expression of NATs in haploid cells, where they are not naturally occurring, resulted in increased steady-state levels of some complementary mRNAs. The expression of one NAT, as-um02151, in haploid cells resulted in a twofold increase in complementary mRNA levels, the formation of sense-antisense double-stranded RNAs, and unchanged Um02151 protein levels. This led to a model for NAT function in the maintenance and expression of stored teliospore mRNAs. In testing this model by deletion of the regulatory region, it was determined that alteration in NAT expression resulted in decreased pathogenesis in both cob and seedling infections. This annotation and functional analysis supports multiple roles for U. maydis NATs in controlling gene expression and influencing pathogenesis. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Expression of Antibiotic Resistance Methyltransferase Correlates with mRNA Stability Independently of Ribosome Stalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyubak, Ekaterina; Yap, M N

    2016-12-01

    Members of the Erm methyltransferase family modify 23S rRNA of the bacterial ribosome and render cross-resistance to macrolides and multiple distantly related antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that the expression of erm is activated when a macrolide-bound ribosome stalls the translation of the leader peptide preceding the cotranscribed erm Ribosome stalling is thought to destabilize the inhibitory stem-loop mRNA structure and exposes the erm Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence for translational initiation. Paradoxically, mutations that abolish ribosome stalling are routinely found in hyper-resistant clinical isolates; however, the significance of the stalling-dead leader sequence is largely unknown. Here, we show that nonsense mutations in the Staphylococcus aureus ErmB leader peptide (ErmBL) lead to high basal and induced expression of downstream ErmB in the absence or presence of macrolide concomitantly with elevated ribosome methylation and resistance. The overexpression of ErmB is associated with the reduced turnover of the ermBL-ermB transcript, and the macrolide appears to mitigate mRNA cleavage at a site immediately downstream of the ermBL SD sequence. The stabilizing effect of antibiotics on mRNA is not limited to ermBL-ermB; cationic antibiotics representing a ribosome-stalling inducer and a noninducer increase the half-life of specific transcripts. These data unveil a new layer of ermB regulation and imply that ErmBL translation or ribosome stalling serves as a "tuner" to suppress aberrant production of ErmB because methylated ribosome may impose a fitness cost on the bacterium as a result of misregulated translation. Copyright © 2016 Dzyubak and Yap.

  18. mRNA Expression Signature of Gleason Grade Predicts Lethal Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Kathryn L.; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Fall, Katja; Pawitan, Yudi; Hoshida, Yujin; Kraft, Peter; Stark, Jennifer R.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Perner, Sven; Finn, Stephen; Calza, Stefano; Flavin, Richard; Freedman, Matthew L.; Setlur, Sunita; Sesso, Howard D.; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Martin, Neil; Kantoff, Philip W.; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Adami, Hans-Olov; Rubin, Mark A.; Loda, Massimo; Golub, Todd R.; Andrén, Ove; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Prostate-specific antigen screening has led to enormous overtreatment of prostate cancer because of the inability to distinguish potentially lethal disease at diagnosis. We reasoned that by identifying an mRNA signature of Gleason grade, the best predictor of prognosis, we could improve prediction of lethal disease among men with moderate Gleason 7 tumors, the most common grade, and the most indeterminate in terms of prognosis. Patients and Methods Using the complementary DNA–mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation assay, we measured the mRNA expression of 6,100 genes in prostate tumor tissue in the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort (n = 358) and Physicians' Health Study (PHS; n = 109). We developed an mRNA signature of Gleason grade comparing individuals with Gleason ≤ 6 to those with Gleason ≥ 8 tumors and applied the model among patients with Gleason 7 to discriminate lethal cases. Results We built a 157-gene signature using the Swedish data that predicted Gleason with low misclassification (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91); when this signature was tested in the PHS, the discriminatory ability remained high (AUC = 0.94). In men with Gleason 7 tumors, who were excluded from the model building, the signature significantly improved the prediction of lethal disease beyond knowing whether the Gleason score was 4 + 3 or 3 + 4 (P = .006). Conclusion Our expression signature and the genes identified may improve our understanding of the de-differentiation process of prostate tumors. Additionally, the signature may have clinical applications among men with Gleason 7, by further estimating their risk of lethal prostate cancer and thereby guiding therapy decisions to improve outcomes and reduce overtreatment. PMID:21537050

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Alpha, Beta, and Gamma mRNA and Protein Expression in Human Fetal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara D. Abbott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study examines expression of PPAR, , and mRNA and protein in human fetal tissues. With increasing fetal age, mRNA expression of PPAR and increased in liver, but PPAR decreased in heart and intestine, and PPAR decreased in adrenal. Adult and fetal mean expression of PPAR, , and mRNA did not differ in intestine, but expression was lower in fetal stomach and heart. PPAR and mRNA in kidney and spleen, and PPAR mRNA in lung and adrenal were lower in fetal versus adult. PPAR in liver and PPAR mRNA in thymus were higher in fetal versus adult. PPAR protein increased with fetal age in intestine and decreased in lung, kidney, and adrenal. PPAR protein in adrenal and PPAR in kidney decreased with fetal age. This study provides new information on expression of PPAR subtypes during human development and will be important in evaluating the potential for the developing human to respond to PPAR environmental or pharmaceutical agonists.

  20. Increased leptin mRNA expression in the blood of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Loria, Antonio; Squillacioti, Caterina; De Luca, Adriana; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mirabella, Nicola; Guccione, Jacopo; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-12-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CL) is a severe and potentially fatal zoonosis caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Severe forms of CL are commonly associated with a non-protective, humoral immune-response and high parasitic loads. Leptin, a 16 kD hormone mainly secreted by adipocytes, regulates both the innate and adaptive immunity. The goal of this study was to evaluate leptin mRNA expression levels in blood samples from privately owned dogs with CL (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 10) using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples from dogs with CL expressed significantly higher leptin mRNA levels (two-fold) compared to healthy controls (P = 0.018). The results suggest a possible involvement of leptin in the pathophysiology of Leishmania infection in dogs and the possible use of leptin as a biomarker for CL. Future studies investigating the immunological role of leptin in dogs with CL are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. cWords - systematic microRNA regulatory motif discovery from mRNA expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Horskjær; Jacobsen, Anders; Krogh, Anders

    2013-01-01

    -transcriptional regulation by small RNAs is mediated through partial complementary binding to messenger RNAs leaving nucleotide signatures or motifs throughout the entire transcriptome. Computational methods for discovery and analysis of sequence motifs in high-throughput mRNA expression profiling experiments are becoming......BACKGROUND:Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by small RNAs and RNA binding proteins is of fundamental importance in development of complex organisms, and dysregulation of regulatory RNAs can influence onset, progression and potentially be target for treatment of many diseases. Post...... clustering and visualization that accompany the cWords analysis for more intuitive and effective data interpretation. To demonstrate the versatility of cWords we show that it can also be used for identification of potential siRNA off-target binding. Moreover, cWords analysis of an experiment profiling mRNAs...

  2. Expression of TRAF6 and ubiquitin mRNA in skeletal muscle of gastric cancer patients

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    Sun Yuan-Shui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR,-associated factor 6 (TRAF6,-and ubiquitin in gastric cancer patients. Methods Biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained intra operatively from 102 gastric cancer patients and 29 subjects undergoing surgery for benign abdominal diseases, and muscle TRAF6 and ubiquitin mRNA expression and proteasome proteolytic activities were assessed. Results TRAF6 was significantly upregulated in muscle of gastric cancer compared with the control muscles. TRAF6 was upregulated in 67.65% (69/102 muscle of gastric cancer. Over expression of TRAF6 in muscles of gastric cancer were associated with TNM stage, level of serum albumin and percent of weight loss. Ubiquitin was significantly upregulated in muscle of gastric cancer compared with the control muscles. Ubiquitin was upregulated in 58.82% (60/102 muscles of gastric cancer. Over expression of ubiquitin in muscles of gastric cancer were associated with TNM (Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage and weight loss. There was significant relation between TRAF6 and ubiquitin expression. Conclusions We found a positive correlation between TRAF6 and ubiquitin expression, suggesting that TRAF6 may up regulates ubiquitin activity in cancer cachexia. While more investigations are required to understand its mechanisms of TRAF6 and ubiquitin in skeletal muscle. Correct the catabolic-anabolic imbalance is essential for the effective treatment of cancer cachexia.

  3. RANKL/RANK/MMP-1 molecular triad contributes to the metastatic phenotype of breast and prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Casimiro

    Full Text Available The osteolytic nature of bone metastasis results from a tumor-driven increased bone resorption. Bone remodeling is orchestrated by the molecular triad RANK-RANKL-OPG. This process is dysregulated in bone metastases, mostly via induction of RANKL by tumor-derived factors. These factors increase expression of RANKL, which induce osteoclast formation, function, and survival, thereby increasing bone resorption. RANK is unexpectedly expressed by cancer cells, and the activation of RANKL-RANK pathway correlates with an increased invasive phenotype. To investigate the interaction between RANK expression in human breast and prostate cancer cells and their pro-metastatic phenotype we analyzed the activation of RANKL-RANK pathway and its effects on cell migration, invasion, gene expression in vitro, and osteolysis-inducing ability in vivo. RANKL activates kinase signaling pathways, stimulates cell migration, increases cell invasion, and up-regulates MMP-1 expression. In vivo, MMP-1 knockdown resulted in smaller x-ray osteolytic lesions and osteoclastogenesis, and decreased tumor burden. Therefore, RANKL inhibition in bone metastatic disease may decrease the levels of the osteoclastogenesis inducer MMP-1, contributing to a better clinical outcome.

  4. Ets-1 mRNA expression in effusions of serous ovarian carcinoma patients is a marker of poor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B; Risberg, B; Goldberg, I; Nesland, J M; Berner, A; Tropé, C G; Kristensen, G B; Bryne, M; Reich, R

    2001-12-01

    Ets-1 proto-oncogene is a transcription factor with a role in the activation of metastasis-associated molecules. We recently found that Ets-1 mRNA expression in solid tumors is a marker of poor prognosis in ovarian carcinoma. The objective of this study was to compare the expression of Ets-1 mRNA in effusions and primary and metastatic tumors of serous ovarian carcinoma patients and to evaluate its prognostic role in effusions. Sections from 67 malignant effusions and 90 primary and metastatic lesions were evaluated for expression of Ets-1 using mRNA in situ hybridization. Expression of Ets-1 mRNA was detected in carcinoma cells in 24 of 67 (36%) effusions. Expression in cancer cells was similar in peritoneal and pleural effusions. In solid lesions Ets-1 expression was detected in both tumor cells and stromal cells in 34 of 90 (38%) lesions. Ets-1 expression in tumor cells showed a strong association with that of stromal cells (p <0.001). Ets-1 expression in effusions showed an association with mRNA expression of basic fibroblast growth factor, previously studied in this patient cohort (p = 0.019). Ets-1 expression in solid lesions showed an association with mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (p <0.001 for both carcinoma and stromal cells), basic fibroblast growth factor (p = 0.007 for carcinoma cells, p = 0.006 for stromal cells), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (p = 0.001 for tumor cells). Ets-1 mRNA showed upregulation in metastases when compared with effusion specimens (p = 0.028). In univariate survival analysis Ets-1 expression in carcinoma cells in effusions correlated with poor survival (p = 0.003). Our findings confirm the role of Ets-1 as a novel prognostic marker in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma and extend it to effusion specimens. The elevated expression in solid metastases supports a central role in tumor progression as well. The association between Ets-1 mRNA expression and the expression of angiogenic genes, documented also in our

  5. O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT mRNA expression predicts outcome in malignant glioma independent of MGMT promoter methylation.

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    Simone Kreth

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed prospectively whether MGMT (O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase mRNA expression gains prognostic/predictive impact independent of MGMT promoter methylation in malignant glioma patients undergoing radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide or temozolomide alone. As DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs are the enzymes responsible for setting up and maintaining DNA methylation patterns in eukaryotic cells, we analyzed further, whether MGMT promoter methylation is associated with upregulation of DNMT expression.ADULT PATIENTS WITH A HISTOLOGICALLY PROVEN MALIGNANT ASTROCYTOMA (GLIOBLASTOMA: N = 53, anaplastic astrocytoma: N = 10 were included. MGMT promoter methylation was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP and sequencing analysis. Expression of MGMT and DNMTs mRNA were analysed by real-time qPCR. Prognostic factors were obtained from proportional hazards models. Correlation between MGMT mRNA expression and MGMT methylation status was validated using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA database (N = 229 glioblastomas. Low MGMT mRNA expression was strongly predictive for prolonged time to progression, treatment response, and length of survival in univariate and multivariate models (p<0.0001; the degree of MGMT mRNA expression was highly correlated with the MGMT promoter methylation status (p<0.0001; however, discordant findings were seen in 12 glioblastoma patients: Patients with methylated tumors with high MGMT mRNA expression (N = 6 did significantly worse than those with low transcriptional activity (p<0.01. Conversely, unmethylated tumors with low MGMT mRNA expression (N = 6 did better than their counterparts. A nearly identical frequency of concordant and discordant findings was obtained by analyzing the TCGA database (p<0.0001. Expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was strongly upregulated in tumor tissue, but not correlated with MGMT promoter methylation and MGMT mRNA expression.MGMT mRNA expression plays a direct

  6. Oxidative stress induced Interleukin-32 mRNA expression in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow obstruction and persistent inflammation in the airways and lung parenchyma. Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD. Interleukin (IL)-32 expression has been reported to increase in the lung tissue of patients with COPD. Here, we show that IFNγ upregulated IL-32 expression and that oxidative stress augmented IFNγ-induced-IL-32 expression in airway epithelial cells. We further investigated transcriptional regulation responsible for IFNγ induced IL-32 expression in human airway epithelial cells. Methods Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were stimulated with H2O2 and IFNγ, and IL-32 expression was evaluated. The cell viability was confirmed by MTT assay. The intracellular signaling pathways regulating IL-32 expression were investigated by examining the regulatory effects of MAPK inhibitors and JAK inhibitor after treatment with H2O2 and IFNγ, and by using a ChIP assay to identify transcription factors (i.e. c-Jun, CREB) binding to the IL-32 promoter. Promoter activity assays were conducted after mutations were introduced into binding sites of c-Jun and CREB in the IL-32 promoter. IL-32 expression was also examined in HBE cells in which the expression of either c-Jun or CREB was knocked out by siRNA of indicated transcription factors. Results There were no significant differences of cell viability among groups. After stimulation with H2O2 or IFNγ for 48 hours, IL-32 expression in HBE cells was increased by IFNγ and synergistically upregulated by the addition of H2O2. The H2O2 augmented IFNγ induced IL-32 mRNA expression was suppressed by a JNK inhibitor, but not by MEK inhibitor, p38 inhibitor, and JAK inhibitor I. Significant binding of c-Jun and CREB to the IL-32 promoter was observed in the IFNγ + H2O2 stimulated HBE cells. Introducing mutations into the c-Jun/CREB binding sites in the IL-32 promoter prominently suppressed its transcriptional activity

  7. NMD: multitasking between mRNA surveillance and modulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu-Yilik, Gabriele; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression is a highly specific and regulated multilayer process with a plethora of interconnections as well as safeguard and feedback mechanisms. Messenger RNA, long neglected as a mere subcarrier of genetic information, is more recently recognized as a linchpin of regulation and control of gene expression. Moreover, the awareness of not only proteins but also mRNA as a modulator of genetic disorders has vastly increased in recent years. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a posttranscriptional surveillance mechanism that uses an intricate network of nuclear and cytoplasmic processes to eliminate mRNAs, containing premature termination codons. It thus helps limit the synthesis of potentially harmful truncated proteins. However, recent results suggest functions of NMD that go far beyond this role and affect the expression of wild-type genes and the modulation of whole pathways. In both respects--the elimination of faulty transcripts and the regulation of error-free mRNAs--NMD has many medical implications. Therefore, it has earned increasing interest from researchers of all fields of the life sciences. In the following text, we (1) present current knowledge about the NMD mechanism and its targets, (2) define its relevance in the regulation of important biochemical pathways, (3) explore its medical significance and the prospects of therapeutic interventions, and (4) discuss additional functions of NMD effectors, some of which may be networked to NMD. The main focus of this chapter lies on mammalian NMD and resorts to the features and factors of NMD in other organisms if these help to complete or illuminate the picture.

  8. Variabilidad de la síntesis de RANKL por linfocitos T frente a distintos serotipos capsulares de Porphyromonas gingivalis Variability in the RANKL synthesis by T lymphocytes in response to different Porphyromonas gingivalis capsular serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Navarrete

    2010-04-01

    de P. gingivalis podrían asociarse a la destrucción del hueso alveolar y a la pérdida de los dientes durante la periodontitis.Aim: Periodontitis represents a heterogenic group of periodontal infections elicited by bacteria residing at the subgingival biofilm. Although this biofilm is constituted by a broad variety of bacterial species, only a limited number has been associated with the periodontitis aetiology, among them Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis express a number of virulence factors that contribute to direct tissue damage; however, their pathogenicity relies mainly on the induction of a host immuno-inflammatory response. This leads to the release of a broad array of cytokines, chemokines and inflammatory mediators, which cause destruction of the tooth-supporting alveolar bone and ultimately tooth loss. Method: In the present investigation, in order to determine whether different P. gingivalis serotypes might lead to a differential RANKL synthesis, a key cytokine involved in alveolar bone resorption, the mRNA expression and secretion of RANKL and the expression of transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORC2 and Foxp3, the master-switch genes controlling the Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cell differentiation, respectively, were analyzed on human T cells activated with different P. gingivalis capsular (K serotypes. Results: T lymphocytes responding to P. gingivalis serotypes K1 or K2, but not to the other serotypes, led to an increased expression and secretion of RANKL. In addition, these higher RANKL levels correlate with RORC2 expression upon activation with K1 or K2 serotypes. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that RANKL expression and secretion by T lymphocytes was restricted to particular P. gingivalis serotypes (namely K1 and K2, and allowed to suggest a link between these serotypes with alveolar bone destruction and teeth loosening during the periodontitis.

  9. BORIS/CTCFL mRNA isoform expression and epigenetic regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Petra A.; Zhang, Wa; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer germline (CG) genes are normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers; their immunogenicity has led to the widespread development of cancer vaccines targeting these antigens. BORIS/CTCFL is an autosomal CG antigen and promising cancer vaccine target. BORIS is the only known paralog of CTCF, a gene intimately involved in genomic imprinting, chromatin insulation, and nuclear regulation. We have previously shown that BORIS is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and that its expression coincides with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation. Recently, 23 different BORIS mRNA variants have been described, and have been functionally grouped into six BORIS isoform families (sf1–sf6). In the present study, we have characterized the expression of BORIS isoform families in normal ovary (NO) and EOC, the latter of which were selected to include two groups with widely varying global DNA methylation status. We find selective expression of BORIS isoform families in NO, which becomes altered in EOC, primarily by the activation of BORIS sf1 in EOC. When comparing EOC samples based on methylation status, we find that BORIS sf1 and sf2 isoform families are selectively activated in globally hypomethylated tumors. In contrast, CTCF is downregulated in EOC, and the ratio of BORIS sf1, sf2, and sf6 isoform families as a function of CTCF is elevated in hypomethylated tumors. Finally, the expression of all BORIS isoform families was induced to varying extents by epigenetic modulatory drugs in EOC cell lines, particularly when DNMT and HDAC inhibitors were used in combination. PMID:23390377

  10. Increased mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase in dorsal raphe nucleus of depressive suicide victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanchez-Bahillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A Sanchez-Bahillo1, V Bautista-Hernandez1, Carlos Barcia Gonzalez1, R Bañon2, A Luna2, EC Hirsch3, Maria-Trinidad Herrero11Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED; 2Department of Legal Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia 30100, Spain; 3INSERM U679 Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC. These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of

  11. Distribution and mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor system in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, J C; Matsui, K; Bondy, C; Zhou, J; Rasmussen, A; Cullen, K; Yu, Z X; Moss, J; Ferrans, V J

    2001-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2), the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are involved in normal pulmonary development and in the pathogenesis of smooth muscle cell tumors. To evaluate the role of the IGF system in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), we used immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques to characterize the expression of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1R, and IGFBP-2, -4, -5, and -6 in lung tissue from 18 LAM patients. IGF-1, ICGF-2, IGF-1R, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5, and IGFBP-6 were expressed by LAM cells. Reactivity and mRNA expression for IGF-2 were observed in LAM cells and resembled that found in normal smooth muscle cells during pulmonary development as well as in smooth muscle cell tumors. IGFBP-2, IGFBP-4, and IGFBP-6 were associated with spindle-shaped LAM cells, whereas IGFBP-5 was associated mainly with epithelioid LAM cells. These findings suggest that the IGFBPs modulate the effects of the IGFs on LAM cells. Thus, the patterns of localization and expression of components of the IGF system in LAM strongly suggest that these agents are involved in the proliferation of LAM cells.

  12. Chronic social subordination stress modulates glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinson, Ryan; Lundgren, Kerstin H.; Seroogy, Kim B.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic social subordination is a well-known precipitant of numerous psychiatric and physiological health concerns. In this study, we examine the effects of chronic social stress in the visible burrow system (VBS) on the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) mRNA in forebrain stress circuitry. Male rats in the VBS system form a dominance hierarchy, whereby subordinate males exhibit neuroendocrine and physiological profiles characteristic of chronic exposure to stress. We found that social subordination decreases GAD67 mRNA in the peri-paraventricular nucleus region of the hypothalamus and the interfascicular nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and increases in GAD67 mRNA in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsal medial hypothalamus. Expression of BDNF mRNA increased in the dorsal region of the BNST, but remained unchanged in all other regions examined. Results from this study indicate that social subordination is associated with several region-specific alterations in GAD67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits, whereas changes in the expression of BDNF mRNA are limited to the BNST. PMID:26066725

  13. The mRNA expression of SATB1 and SATB2 in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansel Robert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SATB1 is a nuclear protein that has been recently reported to be a 'genome organizer' which delineates specific epigenetic modifications at target gene loci, directly up-regulating metastasis-associated genes while down-regulating tumor-suppressor genes. In this study, the level of mRNA expression of SATB1 and SATB2 were assessed in normal and malignant breast tissue in a cohort of women with breast cancer and correlated to conventional clinico-pathological parameters. Materials and methods Breast cancer tissues (n = 115 and normal background tissues (n = 31 were collected immediately after excision during surgery. Following RNA extraction, reverse transcription was carried out and transcript levels were determined using real-time quantitative PCR and normalized against β-actin expression. Transcript levels within the breast cancer specimens were compared to the normal background tissues and analyzed against TNM stage, nodal involvement, tumour grade and clinical outcome over a 10 year follow-up period. Results The levels of SATB1 were higher in malignant compared with normal breast tissue (p = 0.0167. SATB1 expression increased with increasing TNM stage (TNM1 vs. TNM2 p = 0.0264, increasing tumour grade (grade1 vs. grade 3 p = 0.017; grade 2 vs. grade 3 p = 0.0437; grade 1 vs. grade 2&3 p = 0.021 and Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI (NPI-1 vs. NPI-3 p = 0.0614; NPI-2 vs. NPI-3 p = 0.0495. Transcript levels were associated with oestrogen receptor (ER positivity (ER(- vs. ER(+ p = 0.046. SABT1 expression was also significantly correlated with downstream regulated genes IL-4 and MAF-1 (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.21 and r = 0.162 and SATB2 (r = 0.506. After a median follow up of 10 years, there was a trend for higher SATB1 expression to be associated with shorter overall survival (OS. Higher levels of SATB2 were also found in malignant compared to background tissue (p = 0.049. SATB2 expression increased with

  14. Differential between Protein and mRNA Expression of CCR7 and SSTR5 Receptors in Crohn's Disease Patients

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    Nathalie Taquet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown cause. The aim of the present study was to explore if mRNA over-expression of SSTR5 and CCR7 found in CD patients could be correlated to respective protein expression. When compared to healthy donors, SSTR5 was over-expressed 417 ± 71 times in CD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Flow cytometry experiments showed no correlation between mRNA and protein expression for SSTR5 in PBMCs. In an attempt to find a reason of such a high mRNA expression, SSTR5 present on CD PBMCs were tested and found as biologically active as on healthy cells. In biopsies of CD intestinal tissue, SSTR5 was not over-expressed but CCR7, unchanged in PBMCs, was over-expressed by 10 ± 3 times in the lamina propria. Confocal microscopy showed a good correlation of CCR7 mRNA and protein expression in CD intestinal biopsies. Our data emphasize flow and image cytometry as impossible to circumvent in complement to molecular biology so to avoid false interpretation on receptor expressions. Once confirmed by further large-scale studies, our preliminary results suggest a role for SSTR5 and CCR7 in CD pathogenesis.

  15. Halenaquinone inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Takeuchi, Tomoharu; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Kato, Hikaru; Yamakuma, Michiko; Matsuo, Kanae; El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Arata, Yoichiro; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi

    2014-11-15

    Halenaquinone was isolated from the marine sponge Petrosia alfiani as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenic differentiation of murine RAW264 cells. It inhibited the RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand)-induced upregulation of TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) activity as well as the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts. In addition, halenaquinone substantially suppressed RANKL-induced IκB degradation and Akt phosphorylation. Thus, these results suggest that halenaquinone inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis at least by suppressing the NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced expression of androgen receptor and myosin heavy chain mRNA in cremaster muscle of boys with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthold, Julia Spencer; Wang, Yanping; Reilly, Anita; Robbins, Alan; Figueroa, T Ernesto; Banihani, Ahmad; Hagerty, Jennifer; Akins, Robert E

    2012-10-01

    To better define the developmental mechanisms of nonsyndromic cryptorchidism, we measured the expression of hormone receptor and muscle type specific mRNAs in target tissues of boys with and those without nonsyndromic cryptorchidism. Prospectively collected cremaster muscle and/or hernia sac tissues from boys with congenital (79) or acquired (66) nonsyndromic cryptorchidism and hernia/hydrocele (controls, 84) were analyzed for hormone receptor (RXFP2, AR, ESR1, ESR2) and myosin heavy chain specific (MYH1, MYH2, MYH7) mRNA expression using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Log transformed mRNA, phenotype and feeding history data were statistically analyzed using Pearson's correlation, ANOVA and 2-sample t tests. AR mRNA expression was higher in cremaster muscle than in sac tissue, and significantly lower in congenital and acquired nonsyndromic cryptorchidism cases vs controls (p MYH7 mRNA expression was also significantly reduced in both nonsyndromic cryptorchidism groups (p ≤ 0.002), while a reduction in type 2 (fast) MYH2 expression was more modest and significant only for the congenital cryptorchidism group (p MYH7 and AR levels were strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.751, p MYH7 and ESR1 mRNA levels were higher and lower, respectively, in boys with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism who were fed soy formula. Expression of other genes was not measurable. Our data suggest that boys with congenital and acquired nonsyndromic cryptorchidism differentially express AR and slow twitch specific MYH7 mRNA in the cremaster muscle, and that MYH7 expression is correlated with AR levels and soy formula use. These differences in gene expression may reflect aberrant hormonal signaling and/or innervation during development with the potential for secondary functional effects and failed testicular descent. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bicarbonate-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) mRNA expression and activity in peripheral chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A R; Monteiro, E C; Johnson, S M; Gauda, E B

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body (CB) are modulated by pH/CO(2). Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly stimulated by bicarbonate ions (HCO(3)). Because CO(2)/HCO(3) mediates depolarization in chemoreceptors, we hypothesized that sAC mRNA would be expressed in the CB, and its expression and function would be regulated by CO(2)/HCO(3).Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal days 16-17 were used to compare sAC mRNA gene expression between CB and non-chemosensitive tissues: superior cervical (SCG), petrosal (PG) and nodose ganglia (NG) by quantitative real time-PCR. Rat sAC gene expression was standardized to the expression of GAPDH (housekeeping gene) and the data were analyzed with the Pfaffl method. Gene and protein expression, and sAC regulation in the testis was used as a positive control. To determine the regulation of sAC mRNA expression and activity, all tissues were exposed to increasing concentrations of bicarbonate (0, 24, 44 mM, titrated with CO(2) and maintained a constant pH of 7.40). sAC mRNA expression was between 2-11% of CB expression in the SCG, PG and NG. Furthermore, only in the CB did HCO(3) upregulate sAC gene expression and increase cAMP levels. sAC mRNA and protein expression is present in peripheral arterial chemoreceptors and non-chemoreceptors. In the CB, CO(2)/HCO(3) not only activated sAC but also regulated its expression, suggesting that sAC may be involved in the regulation of cAMP levels in response to hyper/hypocapnia.

  18. Analysis of xanthine dehydrogenase mRNA levels in mutants affecting the expression of the rosy locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Covington, M; Fleenor, D; Devlin, R B

    1984-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) mRNA levels were measured in a number of mutants and natural variants affecting XDH gene expression. Two variants, ry+4 and ry+10, contain cis-acting elements which map to a region flanking the 5' end of the XDH gene. Ry+4, which has 2-3 times more XDH protein than a wild type strain, has 3.2 times more XDH mRNA. Ry+10 has 50% of the wild type XDH level and 54% of the wild type XDH mRNA level. Three rosy mutants which map within the structural gene were also exami...

  19. Salinity Regulates Claudin mRNA and Protein Expression in the Teleost Gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Baltzegar, David A; Ozden, Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    The teleost gill carries out NaCl uptake in fresh water (FW) and NaCl excretion in seawater (SW). This transformation with salinity requires close regulation of ion transporter capacity and epithelial permeability. This study investigates the regulation of tight junctional claudins during salinity...... was localized deep in the FW gill filament, whereas staining was found apically in SW gill. Claudin 4-like proteins are localized predominantly in the filament outer epithelial layer and staining appears more intense in gill of FW versus SW fish. Additionally, tilapia claudin 28a and 30 genes were characterized......, and mRNA expression was found to increase during FW acclimation. These studies are the first to detect putative claudin proteins in teleosts and show their localization and regulation with salinity in gill epithelium. The data indicate that claudins may be important in permeability changes associated...

  20. Endurance exercise induces mRNA expression of oxidative enzymes in human skeletal muscle late in recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Plomgaard, Peter S.; Grønløkke, L.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes are suggested to result from the cumulative effects of transient changes in gene expression after each single exercise session. However, for several oxidative enzymes, no changes in mRNA expression are detected up to 8 h after......-responsive oxidative enzymes is up-regulated in human skeletal muscle at 10-24 h of recovery, supporting that exercise-induced adaptations of these oxidative enzymes can be the result of the cumulative effects of transient changes in mRNA expression....... exercise. To test the hypothesis that mRNA expression of many oxidative enzymes is up-regulated late in recovery (10-24 h) after exercise, male subjects (n=8) performed a 90-min cycling exercise (70% VO(2-max)), with muscle biopsies obtained before exercise (pre), and after 10, 18 and 24 h of recovery...

  1. Multiple correlation analyses revealed complex relationship between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Fei; Deng, Fei-Yan; Wu, Long-Fei; Mo, Xing-Bo; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Jian; Guo, Yu-Fan; Zeng, Ke-Qin; Wang, Ming-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Wei; Xia, Wei; Wang, Lan; He, Pei; Bing, Peng-Fei; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Lei, Shu-Feng

    2017-07-22

    DNA methylation is an important regulator on the mRNA expression. However, a genome-wide correlation pattern between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is largely unknown. The comprehensive relationship between mRNA and DNA methylation was explored by using four types of correlation analyses and a genome-wide methylation-mRNA expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in PBMCs in 46 unrelated female subjects. An enrichment analysis was performed to detect biological function for the detected genes. Single pair correlation coefficient (r T1) between methylation level and mRNA is moderate (-0.63-0.62) in intensity, and the negative and positive correlations are nearly equal in quantity. Correlation analysis on each gene (T4) found 60.1% genes showed correlations between mRNA and gene-based methylation at P correlation (R T4 > 0.8). Methylation sites have regulation effects on mRNA expression in eQTL analysis, with more often observations in region of transcription start site (TSS). The genes under significant methylation regulation both in correlation analysis and eQTL analysis tend to cluster to the categories (e.g., transcription, translation, regulation of transcription) that are essential for maintaining the basic life activities of cells. Our findings indicated that DNA methylation has predictive regulation effect on mRNA with a very complex pattern in PBMCs. The results increased our understanding on correlation of methylation and mRNA and also provided useful clues for future epigenetic studies in exploring biological and disease-related regulatory mechanisms in PBMC.

  2. Schisantherin A suppresses osteoclast formation and wear particle-induced osteolysis via modulating RANKL signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi; Zhang, Qing; Shen, Yi; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Dan, E-mail: xyeypd@163.com

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • Schisantherin A suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Schisantherin A impairs RANKL signaling pathway. • Schisantherin A suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Schisantherin A may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays critical role in osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RANKL signaling pathways has been a promising strategy for treating osteoclast related bone diseases such as osteoporosis and aseptic prosthetic loosening. Schisantherin A (SA), a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruit of Schisandra sphenanthera, has been used as an antitussive, tonic, and sedative agent, but its effect on osteoclasts has been hitherto unknown. In the present study, SA was found to inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. The osteoclastic specific marker genes induced by RANKL including c-Src, SA inhibited OSCAR, cathepsin K and TRAP in a dose dependent manner. Further signal transduction studies revealed that SA down-regulate RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling activation by suppressing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and subsequently preventing the NF-κB transcriptional activity. Moreover, SA also decreased the RANKL-induced MAPKs signaling pathway, including JNK and ERK1/2 posphorylation while had no obvious effects on p38 activation. Finally, SA suppressed the NF-κB and MAPKs subsequent gene expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos. In vivo studies, SA inhibited osteoclast function and exhibited bone protection effect in wear-particle-induced bone erosion model. Taken together, SA could attenuate osteoclast formation and wear particle-induced osteolysis by mediating RANKL signaling pathways. These data indicated that SA is a promising therapeutic natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related prosthesis loosening.

  3. Sequencing and expression analysis of hepcidin mRNA in donkey (Equus asinus liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Oliveira-Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypoferremia that is observed during systemic inflammatory processes is mediated by hepcidin, which is a peptide that is mainly synthesized in the livers of several mammalian species. Hepcidin plays a key role in iron metabolism and in the innate immune system. It's up-regulation is particularly useful during acute inflammation, and it restricts the iron availability that is necessary for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, the hepcidin mRNA of Equus asinus has been characterized, and the expression of donkey hepcidin in the liver has been determined. The donkey hepcidin sequence has an open reading frame (ORF of 261 nucleotides, and the deduced corresponding protein sequence has 86 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of donkey hepcidin was most homologous to Equus caballus (98%. The mature donkey hepcidin sequence (25 amino acids was 100% homologous to the equine mature hepcidin and has eight conserved cysteine residues that are found in all of the investigated hepcidin sequences. The expression profile of donkey hepcidin in the liver was high and was similar to the reference gene expression. The donkey hepcidin sequence was deposited in GenBankTM (HQ902884 and may be useful for additional studies on iron metabolism and the inflammatory process in this species.

  4. Expression of clusterin (testosterone-repressed prostate message-2) mRNA during growth and regeneration of rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursch, W. [Inst. fuer Tumorbiologie-Krebsforschung, Univ. Wien (Austria); Gleeson, T. [Dept. of Biochemistry, Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kleine, L. [Dept. of Biochemistry, Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada); Tenniswood, M. [Dept. of Biochemistry, Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    In the present study, we have looked at the expression of clusterin during the growth and regression of rat liver induced by short term administration of the hepatomitogen, cyproterone acetate. The steady state level of clusterin mRNA, as measured by Northern and slot blot analysis, is low in control hepatocytes. Following administration of cyproterone acetate, the clusterin mRNA level is increased during both liver growth and regression. In situ hybridization reveals that clusterin is expressed in all hepatocytes, indicating that it is not confined to cell death by apoptosis. These results suggest that the gene product may be involved in maintaining membrane integrity, which is necessary during both mitosis and apoptosis. To determine whether clusterin mRNA is induced by membrane remodelling independent of either mitosis or apoptosis, we examined the expression of clusterin mRNA in the liver after a necrogenic dose of carbon tetrachloride. During the first 24-48 h of this time period, necrosis is the predominant form of cell death and liver regeneration starts after approximately 24 h. Elevated levels of clusterin mRNA are found as early as 12 h after carbon tetrachloride administration and persist for at least 72 h. Clusterin expression in tissues such as the prostate and mammary gland appears to be confined to the apoptotic pathway; however, our results suggest that in hepatocytes, the expression of the gene is induced in processes other than apoptosis, including mitosis and necrosis. (orig.)

  5. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Karl A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL; however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Methods Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment. Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Results Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Conclusions These results explain the sclerotic and osteopetrotic changes of periodontal tissue following BP application and substantiate clinical findings of BP-related impaired remodeling specific to periodontal tissue. RANKL suppression substantiated the clinical finding of impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ-affected bone structures. Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to

  6. mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from differently polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, Martina Galatea [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Biology, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Rusten, Marte; Goksøyr, Anders [University of Bergen, Department of Biology, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Genes regulating lipid metabolism were studied in ringed seals. •We compared highly contaminated Baltic seals and less contaminated Svalbard seals. •mRNA expression of hepatic PPARγ was higher in the Baltic seals. •mRNA expression of adipose PPARγ target genes was higher in the Baltic seals. •Contaminant exposure may affect lipid metabolism in the Baltic ringed seals. -- Abstract: There is a growing concern about the ability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to influence lipid metabolism. Although POPs are found at high concentrations in some populations of marine mammals, for example in the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) from the Baltic Sea, little is known about the effects of POPs on their lipid metabolism. An optimal regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial for ringed seals during the fasting/molting season. This is a physiologically stressful period, during which they rely on the energy stored in their fat reserves. The mRNA expression levels for seven genes involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed in liver and/or blubber tissue from molting ringed seals from the polluted Baltic Sea and a less polluted reference location, Svalbard (Norway). mRNA expression of genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α and γ and their target genes acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) were analyzed in liver. mRNA expression level of genes encoding PPARβ, PPARγ and their target genes encoding fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) were measured in inner and middle blubber layers. In addition, we evaluated the influence of molting status on hepatic mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARs and their target genes in ringed seals from Svalbard. Our results show higher mRNA expression of genes encoding hepatic PPARγ and adipose PPARβ, FABP4, and ADIPOQ in the Baltic seals compared to the Svalbard seals. A positive relationship between mRNA expressions of genes

  7. Thymidylate synthase (TS) protein expression as a prognostic factor in advanced colorectal cancer: a comparison with TS mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tateo; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kurita, Nobuhiro; Iwata, Takashi; Nishioka, Masanori; Yoshikawa, Kozo; Higashijima, Jun; Utsunomiya, Tohru

    2012-06-01

    The role of intratumoral thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA or protein expression is still controversial and little has been reported regarding relation of them in colorectal cancer. Forty-six patients with advanced colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection were included. TS mRNA expression was determined by the Danenberg tumor profile method based on laser-captured micro-dissection of the tumor cells. TS protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. TS mRNA expression tended to relate TS protein expression. Statistical significance was not found in overall survival between the TS mRNA high group and low group regardless of performing adjuvant chemotherapy. The overall survival in the TS protein negative group was significantly higher than that in positive group in all and the patients without adjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed TS protein expression was as an independent prognostic factor. TS protein expression tends to be related TS mRNA expression and is an independent prognostic factor in advanced colorectal cancer.

  8. RANKL Signaling and ErbB Receptors in Breast Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoi, Ilianna; Karamouzis, Michalis V; Adamopoulos, Christos; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2016-10-01

    ErbB family members, ErbB1/EGFR/HER-1, ErbB2/HER-2, ErbB3/HER-3 and ErbB4/HER-4, have been implicated in breast cancer (BC) tumorigenicity. Recently, crucial roles for RANK/RANKL signaling in addition to key downstream factor NF-κB have been demonstrated in mammary tumorigenesis. Here, we present the hypothesis of a novel association between ErbB and RANK pathways in promoting BC. The proposed model alludes to the cross-talk that might occur between RANK and ErbB receptors. This interplay might regulate RANK signaling and consequently, modulate carcinogenesis, mainly in ErbB2 over-expressing BC cells. Thus, we highlight the significance of the RANK/RANKL axis as a putative therapeutic target in this malignancy, and furthermore, suggest that the combination of ErbB and RANK/RANKL inhibitors may have therapeutic benefit for certain BC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DETERMINATION OF LEVEL EXPRESSION OF mRNA SPLICING VARIANTS FOR DR3 IN BLOOD CELLS IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Cvetkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The DR3 «death receptor» plays an important role in the initiation of apoptosis, proliferation, or inflammation. This receptor is shown to be involved in various diseases, including infectious conditions. Different variants of mRNA DR3 are formed as a result of alternative splicing. These variant transcripts encode membrane and soluble forms of the receptor which have different functions. Features of their expression and contribution of individual DR3 variants to the immune pathogenesis of infectious mononucleosis (IM are poorely understood.The purpose of this work was to develop, validate and test the techniques of DR3 gene expression assays, as well as to evaluate the DR3 mRNA splice variants by means of real-time RT-PCR and RT-PCR in the IM patients.The original version of real-time RT-PCR allowed to determine relative amounts of DR3 mRNA, DR3 membrane variants (LARD1a + LARD8, and ratios of mRNAs encoding membrane and soluble forms of the receptor. The technique proved to be specific and sensitive (a semi-quantitative detection limit = 34-35 cycles when tested in healthy volunteers and patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM. Lower expression levels were shown for two alternative membrane variants of DR3 mRNA (LARD1b and DR3beta thus regarding these isoforms as minor fractions. The relative levels of total DR3 mRNA expression were decreased in patients with AIM, as compared to healthy volunteers, whereas mRNA expression of membrane receptor variants did not differ between IM and controls.To determine a qualitative contribution of either LARD1a and LARD8 variants into the expression of membrane forms of DR3, a two-step «nested» version of RT-PCR has been developed. It was shown that, in majority of control and IM samples, both main LARD1a, and alternative LARD8 membrane forms are contributing to mRNA expression of membrane DR3 variants.The presented methods for evaluation of expression and occurrence of DR3 mRNA variants allow

  10. Altered prefrontal cortical MARCKS and PPP1R9A mRNA expression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopaske, Glenn T; Subburaju, Sivan; Coyle, Joseph T; Benes, Francine M

    2015-05-01

    We previously observed dendritic spine loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder subjects. In the current study, we sought to determine if the mRNA expression of genes known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton and spines correlated with spine loss. Five candidate genes were identified using previously obtained microarray data from the DLPFC from schizophrenia and control subjects. The relative mRNA expression of the genes linked to dendritic spine growth and function, i.e. IGF1R, MARCKS, PPP1R9A, PTPRF, and ARHGEF2, was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in the DLPFC from a second cohort including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and control subjects. Functional pathway analysis was conducted to determine which actin cytoskeleton-regulatory pathways the genes of interest interact with. MARCKS mRNA expression was increased in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder subjects. PPP1R9A mRNA expression was increased in bipolar disorder subjects. For IGF1R, mRNA expression did not differ significantly among groups; however, it did show a significant, negative correlation with dendrite length. MARCKS and PPP1R9A mRNA expression did not correlate with spine loss, but they interact with NMDA receptor signaling pathways that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and spines. MARCKS and PPP1R9A might contribute to spine loss in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder through their interactions, possibly indirect ones, with NMDA signaling pathways that regulate spine structure and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenic Induces Polyadenylation of Canonical Histone mRNA by Down-regulating Stem-Loop-binding Protein Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Jason; Fang, Lei; Chervona, Yana; Chen, Danqi; Kiok, Kathrin; Sun, Hong; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi; Xu, Dazhong; Shamy, Magdy; Jin, Chunyuan; Costa, Max

    2014-01-01

    The replication-dependent histone genes are the only metazoan genes whose messenger RNA (mRNA) does not terminate with a poly(A) tail at the 3′-end. Instead, the histone mRNAs display a stem-loop structure at their 3′-end. Stem-loop-binding protein (SLBP) binds the stem-loop and regulates canonical histone mRNA metabolism. Here we report that exposure to arsenic, a carcinogenic metal, decreased cellular levels of SLBP by inducing its proteasomal degradation and inhibiting SLBP transcription via epigenetic mechanisms. Notably, arsenic exposure dramatically increased polyadenylation of canonical histone H3.1 mRNA possibly through down-regulation of SLBP expression. The polyadenylated H3.1 mRNA induced by arsenic was not susceptible to normal degradation that occurs at the end of S phase, resulting in continued presence into mitosis, increased total H3.1 mRNA, and increased H3 protein levels. Excess expression of canonical histones have been shown to increase sensitivity to DNA damage as well as increase the frequency of missing chromosomes and induce genomic instability. Thus, polyadenylation of canonical histone mRNA following arsenic exposure may contribute to arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25266719

  12. Immunolocalization and mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in human clear cell renal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic-Jukic, Nikolina; Radic-Antolic, Margareta; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Coric, Marijana; Zadro, Renata; Pasini, Josip; Kastelan, Zeljko; Kes, Petar

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. Dysregulation of BMP signaling has been suggested in the carcinogenesis of different organs. We determined BMP-6 mRNA and protein expression in localized human clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC), obtained from 20 patients who underwent nephrectomy, by the real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. 15/20 patients exhibited higher BMP-6 mRNA expression in malignant than in healthy renal tissue relative to the PBGD expression (p < 0.05). Immunostaining intensity for BMP-6 in healthy renal tissue ranged from 0 to 2 (average 0.9), as well as in renal clear cell carcinoma (average 1.1). Seven of 20 (35%) healthy tissue samples failed to stain with BMP-6 antibody, compared to 2/20 (10%) tumor samples (p < 0.05). BMP-6 immunostaining was positive in 18/20 CCRC samples. Staining was localized in the cytoplasm and/or membrane of malignant cells. Malignant tissue had significantly higher BMP-6 mRNA expression than healthy tissue. There was no significant correlation between BMP-6 mRNA and protein expression with disease presentation, disease progression and patients' characteristics. Long-term follow-up of our patients is needed to determine the possible role of increased expression of BMP-6 in CCRC. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. mRNA expression of the lipid and mechano-gated 2P domain K+ channels during rat brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Pan, Yaping; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2002-01-01

    mRNAs encoded by genes for the lipid-sensitive mechano-gated K(+) channels TREK-1, TREK-2, and TRAAK were detected in rat brain at different life-cycle stages: 18-day embryos, postnatal days 1, 7, 28, and 60 (adulthood). mRNA expression of TREK-1 or TREK-2 showed no appreciable changes during the development of cortex and hippocampus. TRAAK mRNA expression increased with development and reached an apparent maximum at postnatal day 28 in hippocampus and day 60 in cortex. These data suggest that TRAAK might be important in the development of rat brain.

  14. Immune-Inflammatory Cell Profile and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin Expression in Persistent Apical Periodontitis after Root Canal Retreatment Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Decurcio, Daniel de Almeida; Silva, Júlio Almeida; Batista, Aline Carvalho; de Souza Lima, Nathália Caroline; de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; de Souza, João Antonio Chaves; Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the immune-inflammatory profile and the expression of bone resorption activators receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG) in apical periodontitis (n = 20) that persisted after root canal retreatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize lymphocyte populations (CD3+, CD45RO+, CD8+, and FoxP3+ cells), macrophages (CD68+), RANKL+ and OPG+ cells in persistent apical periodontitis (PAP) and primary periapical lesions (PPLs). By using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression of RANKL and OPG in PAP and periodontal ligament from healthy teeth was comparatively analyzed. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney, Pearson χ2, and Wilcoxon tests (5% level). PAP showed an elevated number of FoxP3+ cells compared with PPL (P .05 for all comparisons). No differences in the RANKL, OPG, and immune-inflammatory cells were demonstrated when comparing PAP microscopically classified as cyst with those classified as granulomas (P > .05 for all comparisons). The assessment of mRNA expression revealed higher levels of RANKL and OPG in PAP compared with the periodontal ligament from healthy teeth (control) samples (P < .001). Also, a greater expression of RANKL in comparison with OPG was observed in PAP (P < .001). These findings indicate that PAP consists of biologically active lesions that demonstrate potential of bone resorption (higher expression of RANKL) and is characterized by an immune-inflammatory cell profile that suggests a suppressive and regulatory environment (higher number of FoxP3+ cells and lower number of macrophages) favorable to more chronic clinical behavior. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In ovo leptin administration modulates glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression specifically in the hypothalamus of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lixia; Wang, Yufeng; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Ruqian

    2017-01-18

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is well documented to play a crucial role in the central control of energy homeostasis in mammals. However, the distribution and function of the GR in the chicken brain are less clear. Leptin is a key hormone regulating energy homeostasis in mammals, yet its action in the chicken is still under debate. In this study, the distribution of GR mRNA in the chicken brain and the effects of in ovo administration of leptin and its antagonist on early post-hatch growth and GR mRNA expression in different hypothalamic nuclei were investigated via in situ hybridization (ISH) and quantitative PCR. GR mRNA was widely expressed in the chicken brain, mainly in the corpus striatum, nucleus rotundus, dorsolateral nucleus, nucleus ovoidalis, nucleus reticularis superior and the hippocampus (Hp) and in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. High doses of leptin (5.0μg) significantly promoted post-hatch growth, resulting in a significant high body weight increased by 24.64% at day (D) 21 of life. Meanwhile, hypothalamic expression of GR mRNA in the LL and HL groups was down-regulated significantly by 7.02% and 13.65% respectively (Phypothalamus of D21 broiler chickens. The leptin antagonist was able to reverse the effect of leptin on the growth rate and hypothalamic GR mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that in ovo administration of leptin influences early post-hatch growth and the hypothalamic expression of GR mRNA in broiler chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Uncoupling protein-2 mRNA expression in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rodrigues Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia-a model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA-on pancreatic expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2, as well as on glycemic and lipid profiles, in C57BL mice. Methods: For 8 h/day over a 35-day period, male C57BL mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (hypoxia group or to a sham procedure (normoxia group. The intermittent hypoxia condition involved exposing mice to an atmosphere of 92% N and 8% CO2 for 30 s, progressively reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 8 ± 1%, after which they were exposed to room air for 30 s and the cycle was repeated (480 cycles over the 8-h experimental period. Pancreases were dissected to isolate the islets. Real-time PCR was performed with TaqMan assays. Results: Expression of UCP2 mRNA in pancreatic islets was 20% higher in the normoxia group than in the hypoxia group (p = 0.11. Fasting serum insulin was higher in the hypoxia group than in the normoxia group (p = 0.01. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance indicated that, in comparison with the control mice, the mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia showed 15% lower insulin resistance (p = 0.09 and 21% higher pancreatic β-cell function (p = 0.01. Immunohistochemical staining of the islets showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the area or intensity of α- and β-cell staining for insulin and glucagon. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of intermittent hypoxia on UCP2 expression. Our findings suggest that UCP2 regulates insulin production in OSA. Further study of the role that UCP2 plays in the glycemic control of OSA patients is warranted.

  17. Incorporation of RANKL promotes osteoclast formation and osteoclast activity on β-TCP ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, John; Albers, Christoph E; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Dolder, Silvia; Hofstetter, Wilhelm; Klenke, Frank M

    2014-12-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics are approved for the repair of osseous defects. In large defects, however, the substitution of the material by authentic bone is inadequate to provide sufficient long-term mechanical stability. We aimed to develop composites of β-TCP ceramics and receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) to enhance the formation of osteoclasts and promote cell mediated calcium phosphate resorption. RANKL was adsorbed superficially onto β-TCP ceramics or incorporated into a crystalline layer of calcium phosphate by the use of a co-precipitation technique. Murine osteoclast precursors were seeded onto the ceramics. After 15 days, the formation of osteoclasts was quantified cytologically and colorimetrically with tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) staining and TRAP activity measurements, respectively. Additionally, the expression of transcripts encoding the osteoclast gene products cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, and of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHA2 were quantified by real-time PCR. The activity of newly formed osteoclasts was evaluated by means of a calcium phosphate resorption assay. Superficially adsorbed RANKL did not induce the formation of osteoclasts on β-TCP ceramics. When co-precipitated onto β-TCP ceramics RANKL supported the formation of mature osteoclasts. The development of osteoclast lineage cells was further confirmed by the increased expression of cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, and NHA2. Incorporated RANKL stimulated the cells to resorb crystalline calcium phosphate. Our in vitro study shows that RANKL incorporated into β-TCP ceramics induces the formation of active, resorbing osteoclasts on the material surface. Once formed, osteoclasts mediate the release of RANKL thereby perpetuating their differentiation and activation. In vivo, the stimulation of osteoclast-mediated resorption may contribute to a coordinated sequence of material resorption and bone formation. Further in vivo studies

  18. Expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms mRNA transcripts in the temporalis muscle of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurana, Neus; Artells, Rosa; Muñoz, Carmen; Arias-Martorell, Júlia; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Casado, Aroa; Cuesta, Elisabeth; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Pastor, Juan Francisco; Potau, Josep Maria

    2017-11-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the primate that is phylogenetically most closely related to humans (Homo sapiens). In order to shed light on the anatomy and function of the temporalis muscle in the chimpanzee, we have analyzed the expression patterns of the mRNA transcripts of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in different parts of the muscle. We dissected the superficial, deep and sphenomandibularis portions of the temporalis muscle in five adult P. troglodytes and quantified the expression of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC isoforms in each portion using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed significant differences in the patterns of expression of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC-IIM isoform between the sphenomandibularis portion and the anterior superficial temporalis (33.6% vs 47.0%; P=0.032) and between the sphenomandibularis portion and the anterior deep temporalis (33.6% vs 43.0; P=0.016). We also observed non-significant differences between the patterns of expression in the anterior and posterior superficial temporalis. The differential expression patterns of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC isoforms in the temporalis muscle in P. troglodytes may be related to the functional differences that have been observed in electromyographic studies in other species of primates. Our findings can be applicable to the fields of comparative anatomy, evolutionary anatomy, and anthropology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression and localization of human oxytocin receptor mRNA and its protein in chorion and decidua during parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, M; Kimura, T; Nomura, S; Makino, Y; Inoue, T; Kikuchi, T; Kubota, Y; Tokugawa, Y; Nobunaga, T; Kamiura, S

    1994-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is widely used to induce labor in the clinical setting. However, its physiological role in normal human parturition remains unclear. We demonstrated the enhanced expression of OT receptor (OTR) mRNA in chorio-decidual tissue, using the polymerase chain reaction after the reverse transcriptase reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analysis. OTR gene expression in chorio-decidual tissue increased fivefold during the course of parturition. In situ hybridization of fetal membrane revealed the expression of OTR mRNA in maternally derived decidual cells. The OTR mRNA was also detected in fetally derived chorionic trophoblast cells. Immunohistochemistry, using a newly developed anti-OTR monoclonal antibody, demonstrated the distribution of OTR protein in fetal membrane. The distribution pattern of OTR protein and OTR mRNA was identical, indicating that the regulation of OTR expression occurs mainly at the transcriptional level. These results support the idea that the expression of decidual OTR regulates the initiation and amplification of labor. The implications of these findings with regard to the pathogenesis of preterm labor are also discussed. Images PMID:8200965

  20. The mRNA expression profile of metabolic genes relative to MHC isoform pattern in human skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Leick, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic profile of rodent muscle is generally reflected in the myosin heavy chain (MHC) fiber-type composition. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that metabolic gene expression is not tightly coupled with MHC fiber-type composition for all genes in human skeletal muscle...... was more than twofold higher in soleus and vastus than in triceps. Contrary, phosphofructokinase and total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was approximately three- and twofold higher in triceps than in both soleus and vastus. Expression of metabolic genes was assessed by determining the mRNA content...... of a broad range of metabolic genes. The triceps muscle had two- to fivefold higher MHC IIa, phosphofructokinase, and LDH A mRNA content and two- to fourfold lower MHC I, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, hormone-sensitive lipase, and LDH B and hexokinase II mRNA than vastus lateralis or soleus. Interestingly...

  1. Expression of neuropeptide receptor mRNA during osteoblastic differentiation of mouse iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Satomi; Goto, Tetsuya; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Joujima, Takaaki; Egusa, Hiroshi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Maki, Kenshi

    2014-12-01

    Various studies have shown a relationship between nerves and bones. Recent evidence suggests that both sensory and sympathetic nerves affect bone metabolism; however, little is known about how neuropeptides are involved in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into osteoblastic (OB) cells. To evaluate the putative effects of neuropeptides during the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into calcified tissue-forming OB cells, we investigated the expression patterns of neuropeptide receptors at each differentiation stage. Mouse iPS cells were seeded onto feeder cells and then transferred to low-attachment culture dishes to form embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs were cultured for 4 weeks in osteoblastic differentiation medium. The expression of α1-adrenergic receptor (AR), α2-AR, β2-AR, neuropeptide Y1 receptor (NPY1-R), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2-R), calcitonin gene-related protein receptor (CGRP-R), and neurokinin 1-R (NK1-R) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Among these neuropeptide receptors, CGRP-R and β2-AR were expressed at all stages of cell differentiation, including the iPS cell stage, with peak expression occurring at the early osteoblastic differentiation stage. Another sensory nervous system receptor, NK1-R, was expressed mainly in the late osteoblastic differentiation stage. Furthermore, CGRP-R mRNA showed an additional small peak corresponding to EBs cultured for 3 days, suggesting that EBs may be affected by serum CGRP. These data suggest that the sensory nervous system receptor CGRP-R and the sympathetic nervous system receptor β2-AR may be involved in the differentiation of iPS cells into the osteoblastic lineage. It follows from these findings that CGRP and β2-AR may regulate cell differentiation in the iPS and EB stages, and that each neuropeptide has an optimal period of influence during the differentiation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Sorting live stem cells based on Sox2 mRNA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans M Larsson

    Full Text Available While cell sorting usually relies on cell-surface protein markers, molecular beacons (MBs offer the potential to sort cells based on the presence of any expressed mRNA and in principle could be extremely useful to sort rare cell populations from primary isolates. We show here how stem cells can be purified from mixed cell populations by sorting based on MBs. Specifically, we designed molecular beacons targeting Sox2, a well-known stem cell marker for murine embryonic (mES and neural stem cells (NSC. One of our designed molecular beacons displayed an increase in fluorescence compared to a nonspecific molecular beacon both in vitro and in vivo when tested in mES and NSCs. We sorted Sox2-MB(+SSEA1(+ cells from a mixed population of 4-day retinoic acid-treated mES cells and effectively isolated live undifferentiated stem cells. Additionally, Sox2-MB(+ cells isolated from primary mouse brains were sorted and generated neurospheres with higher efficiency than Sox2-MB(- cells. These results demonstrate the utility of MBs for stem cell sorting in an mRNA-specific manner.

  3. Changes in mRNA expression of arcuate nucleus appetite-regulating peptides during lactation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Okame, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation periods. During lactation, ARC expression of mRNAs for agouti-related protein (AgRP) and peptide YY was increased, whereas that of mRNAs for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was decreased, in comparison with non-lactation periods. The increase in AgRP mRNA expression during lactation was especially marked. The plasma level of leptin was significantly decreased during the course of lactation, whereas that of acyl-ghrelin was unchanged. In addition, food intake was negatively correlated with the plasma leptin level during lactation. This study has clarified synchronous changes in the expression of many appetite-regulating peptides in ARC of rats during lactation. Our results suggest that hyperphagia during lactation in rats is caused by decreases in POMC and CCK expression and increases in AgRP expression in ARC, the latter being most notable. Together with the decrease in the blood leptin level, such changes in mRNA expression may explain the further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation. PMID:24299740

  4. Prognostic Utility of a New mRNA Expression Signature of Gleason Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Jennifer A; Peisch, Sam F; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Gerke, Travis; Lis, Rosina; Rider, Jennifer R; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Stampfer, Meir J; Mucci, Lorelei A; Loda, Massimo; Penney, Kathryn L

    2017-01-01

    Gleason score strongly predicts prostate cancer mortality; however, scoring varies among pathologists, and many men are diagnosed with intermediate-risk Gleason score 7. We previously developed a 157-gene signature for Gleason score using a limited gene panel. Using a new whole-transcriptome expression dataset, we verified the previous signature's performance and developed a new Gleason signature to improve lethal outcome prediction among men with Gleason score 7. We generated mRNA expression data from prostate tumor tissue from men in the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (N = 404) using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarray. The Prediction Analysis for Microarrays method was used to develop a signature to distinguish high (≥8) versus low (≤6) Gleason score. We evaluated the signature's ability to improve prediction of lethality among men with Gleason score 7, adjusting for 3 + 4/4 + 3 status, by quantifying the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). We identified a 30-gene signature that best distinguished Gleason score ≤6 from ≥8. The AUC to predict lethal disease among Gleason score 7 men was 0.76 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67-0.84] compared with 0.68 (95% CI, 0.59-0.76) using 3 + 4/4 + 3 status alone (P = 0.0001). This signature was a nonsignificant (P = 0.09) improvement over our previous signature (AUC = 0.72). Our new 30-gene signature improved prediction of lethality among men with Gleason score 7. This signature can potentially become a useful prognostic tool for physicians to improve treatment decision making. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 81-87. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Yin et al., p. 6. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. TAK1 mRNA Expression in the Tumor Tissue of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Beatriz; Alcalde, Juan; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Zabalegui, Natalia; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to radio and chemotherapy is one of the major drawbacks in the progression of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) patients, evidencing the importance of finding optimum molecular prognosis markers to develop personalized treatment schedules. TGF-β effector TAK1 activity has been related to a greater aggressiveness in several types of cancer (Kondo et al. 1998; Edlund et al. 2003; Kaur et al. 2005) and, although there has been described no significant implication of TAK1 in HNSCC development, we have further examined the role of its mRNA expression as a marker of prognosis in HNSCC. Fifty-nine advanced HNSCC patients were recruited for the study. The tumor expression of TAK1 mRNA was analyzed with RT-PCR using Taqman technology and its relationship with the clinical outcome of the patients studied. TAK1 mRNA expression was lower in patients that relapsed than in those that did not, but the difference was only significant between the patients that showed response to treatment (p < 0.001). ROC curve analyses pointed a 0.5 expression ratio TAK1/B2M value as an optimum cut-off point for relapse and response. Our data suggest the TAK1 mRNA analysis by Taqman RT-PCR can predict the risk of relapse in HNSCC patients. PMID:19787075

  6. TAK1 mRNA Expression in the Tumor Tissue of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Honorato

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to radio and chemotherapy is one of the major drawbacks in the progression of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC patients, evidencing the importance of finding optimum molecular prognosis markers to develop personalized treatment schedules. TGF-β effector TAK1 activity has been related to a greater aggressiveness in several types of cancer (Kondo et al. 1998; Edlund et al. 2003; Kaur et al. 2005 and, although there has been described no significant implication of TAK1 in HNSCC development, we have further examined the role of its mRNA expression as a marker of prognosis in HNSCC. Fifty-nine advanced HNSCC patients were recruited for the study. The tumor expression of TAK1 mRNA was analyzed with RT-PCR using Taqman technology and its relationship with the clinical outcome of the patients studied. TAK1 mRNA expression was lower in patients that relapsed than in those that did not, but the difference was only significant between the patients that showed response to treatment (p < 0.001. ROC curve analyses pointed a 0.5 expression ratio TAK1/B2M value as an optimum cut-off point for relapse and response. Our data suggest the TAK1 mRNA analysis by Taqman RT-PCR can predict the risk of relapse in HNSCC patients.

  7. REAL-TIME DETECTION OF SURVIVIN mRNA EXPRESSION IN CERVICAL CANCER CELL LINES USING MOLECULAR BEACON IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Ruifang; He Dalin; Xue Yan; Wang Shu; Xie Li; Zhao Jun; Wang Xinyang; Yang Lili

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression of survivin mRNA in cervical cancer cell lines using molecular beacon imaging technology. Methods Human cervical cancer cells (HeLa and SiHa) and human fetal lung fibroblast HFL-I were cultured in vitro. After adding 100 nmol/L survivin mRNA molecular beacon, the fluorescent signals were observed under fluorescent microscope. The expressions of survivin in cervical cancer cells and HFL-I cell were examined by immunocytochemical streptravidin-biothin peroxidase (SP) assay at the same time. Results Two kinds of survivin mRNA molecular beacon, with different color fluorescence, had strong fluorescent signal in cervical cancer cell lines, and the signal in SiHa cell line was stronger, but these signals were not found in HFL-I ; Immunocytochemical staining of positive survivin was located in the cytoplasm of cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa, whereas, no expression of survivin was detected in HFL-I cell line. Conclusion The technology of molecular beacon imaging can be used to detect the expression of survivin mRNA in viable cells successfully, and may provide a new approach to the diagnosis of early stage cervical cancer and the following-up in the clinic.

  8. CDNA cloning and mRNA expression of the six mouse insulin-like growth factor binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.P. Schuller (Alwin); C. Groffen (Cora); J.W. van Neck (Han); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) comprise a family of six distinct proteins which modulate insulin-like growth factor action. We have isolated cDNAs encoding the six mouse IGFBPs (mIGFBPs). In addition, we studied the mRNA expression of the six mIGFBPs during

  9. Integrated Analysis of DNA Methylation and mRNA Expression Profiles to Identify Key Genes in Severe Oligozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe oligozoospermia (SO is a complex disorder, whose etiology is the combined effect of genetic factors and epigenetic conditions. In this study, we examined DNA methylation and mRNA expression status in a set of testicular tissues of SO patients (n = 3, and compared methylated data with those derived from obstructive azoospermia (OA patients (n = 3 with normal spermatogenesis phenotype. We identified 1,960 differentially methylated CpG sites showing significant alterations in SO vs. OA using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 bead array. By integrating above DNA methylation data and mRNA expression results, we totally identified 72 methylated CpG sites located in 65 genes with anti-correlation between DNA methylation and mRNA expression. Integrated pathways analysis indicates that these genes are involved in response to hormone stimulus, activation of protein kinase activity, and apoptotic process, among others. We also observed some genes with inversely correlated difference is novel in male infertility field, including PTPRN2, EPHX1, SERPINB9, SLIT3, etc. Our results lay a groundwork for further biological study of SO. Moreover, we generated a workflow for integrated analysis of DNA methylation and mRNA expression, which is expandable to other study types.

  10. Regulation of adeno-associated virus gene expression in 293 cells: control of mRNA abundance and translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trempe, J.P.; Carter, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) rep gene on the control of gene expression from the AAV p/sub 40/ promoter in 293 cells in the absence of an adenovirus coinfection. AAV vectors containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene were used to measure the levels of cat expression and steady-state mRNA from p/sub 40/. When the rep gene was present in cis or in trans, cat expression from p/sub 40/ was decreased 3- to 10-fold, but there was a 2- to 10-fold increase in the level of p/sub 40/ mRNA. Conversely, cat expression increased and the p/sub 40/ mRNA level decreased in the absence of the rep gene. Both wild-type and carboxyl-terminal truncated Rep proteins were capable of eliciting both effects. These data suggest two roles for the pleiotropic AAV rep gene: as a translational inhibitor and as a positive regulator of p/sub 40/ mRNA levels. They also provide additional evidence for a cis-acting negative regulatory region which decreases RNA from the AAV p/sub 5/ promoter in a fashion independent of rep.

  11. PAX5О± and PAX5ОІ mRNA expression in breast Cancer: Relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Basyouni Ahmed

    Background: Many studies evaluated the role of paired box gene 5 (PAX5) in breast cancer. However, few investigated PAX5a and PAX5b isoforms individually. Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate. mRNA expression of PAX5a and PAX5b in breast cancer and assessing their underlying pathological roles.

  12. Intragraft interleukin 2 mRNA expression during acute cellular rejection and left ventricular total wall thickness after heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kruseman, H A; Baan, C C; Hagman, E M; Mol, W M; Niesters, H G; Maat, A P; Zondervan, P E; Weimar, W; Balk, A H

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether diastolic graft function is influenced by intragraft interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rejecting cardiac allografts. DESIGN: 16 recipients of cardiac allografts were monitored during the first three months after transplantation. The presence of IL-2

  13. REDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND INOS MRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-G STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH INOS SIRNAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the inhibition or knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-y' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biolo...

  14. Inhibitory effects of eugenol on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation via attenuation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kasonga, Abe; Kruger, Marlena C; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Bone loss diseases are often associated with increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. Compounds that can attenuate RANKL-mediated osteoclast formation are of great biomedical interest. Eugenol, a phenolic constituent of clove oil possesses medicinal properties; however, its anti-osteoclastogenic potential is unexplored hitherto. Here, we found that eugenol dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced multinucleated osteoclast formation and TRAP activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. The underlying molecular mechanisms included the attenuation of RANKL-mediated degradation of IκBα and subsequent activation of NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, increase in phosphorylation and activation of RANKL-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways (MAPK) was perturbed by eugenol. RANKL-induced expression of osteoclast-specific marker genes such as TRAP, cathepsin K (CtsK) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was remarkably downregulated by eugenol. These findings provide the first line of evidence that eugenol mediated attenuation of RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK pathways could synergistically contribute to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. Eugenol could be developed as therapeutic agent against diseases with excessive osteoclast activity.

  15. Effects of the β2 -agonist clenbuterol on testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA expression in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J-K; Zhu, W-J

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of clenbuterol (CLB) on the testicular (steroidogenic acute regulatory, StAR) protein mRNA expression in rats. Thirty adult male rats were administered CLB by gavage daily at the doses of 0.4, 2.0 and 18.5 mg/kg bw for 14 days in the subacute experiment, whereas 20 rats received a single treatment with CLB at the doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg bw in the acute experiment and 20 rats were treated with 0.9% NaCl solution as vehicle groups. Testicular tissues were collected and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -70 °C until use. The levels of StAR mRNA were detected by RT-PCR. The levels of StAR mRNA were markedly increased (P  0.05) in the expression levels of StAR mRNA, and the mRNA levels were recovered to near normal level in the groups treated with CLB at dosages of 0.4 and 2.0 mg/kg bw/day following a 7-day withdrawal period, compared with the control animals. The mRNA levels of StAR showed a significant decrease in the groups treated with CLB at the dosage of 18.5 mg/kg bw/day (P < 0.05) after a 1- or 7-day withdrawal period with respect to the control animals. These results demonstrated transient stimulative effects of CLB on testicular StAR mRNA levels and inhibitory effects after treatment with CLB for 14 consecutive days. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The Impact of Ramadan Fasting on SIRT1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Haji Molahoseini; kanaan Gorjipour; Farshid Yeganeh

    2016-01-01

    Background:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on SIRT1 mRNA expression in healthy men.Islamic Ramadan fasting is a holy religious ceremony that has many spiritual benefits. Additionally, it can be considered as the equivalent of calorie restriction that may affect physical health. The results of previous studies revealed that calorie restriction increases the lifespan in laboratory rodents via increasing the expression of a histone deacetylase named SIRT1. Add...

  17. Increased IRS2 mRNA Expression in SGA Neonates: PCR Analysis of Insulin/IGF Signaling in Cord Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Masanobu; Sonoyama, Yuki Kawashima; Fukushima, Kenji; Imamoto, Aya; Miyahara, Fumiko; Miyahara, Naoki; Nishimura, Rei; Yamada, Yuko; Miura, Mazumi; Adachi, Kaori; Nanba, Eiji; Hanaki, Keiichi; Kanzaki, Susumu

    2017-12-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most common metabolic problem among small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates. However, the pathological mechanism and insulin/ insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis in neonates remain unknown. To determine the insulin/IGF axis in neonates, we analyzed the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of insulin/IGF signaling in fetal umbilical cord blood. The Perinatal Medical Center of Tottori University Hospital. Fifty-two [42 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and 10 SGA] neonates. Immediately collected cord blood was placed into a PAXgene Blood RNA Tube. Total RNA from the blood was purified using reagents provided in the PAXgene Blood RNA Kit within 4 days, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was applied to evaluate the mRNA expression of insulin receptor (INSR), IGF-I receptor (IGF1R), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), IRS2, and glucose transporters (SLC2A2 and SLC2A4). β-Actin was used as a control gene. Serum glucose and IGF-I levels in SGA neonates were significantly lower. The cord serum insulin levels were similar between AGA and SGA neonates. The IRS2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in SGA than in AGA neonates (P SGA neonates than in normoglycemic SGA neonates. We determined that intrauterine growth restriction induces increased IRS2 mRNA expression in cord blood, without hyperinsulinemia. The increased expression of IRS2 mRNA might be associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in SGA neonates. Our findings might lead to the elucidation of abnormal glucose metabolism in SGA neonates.

  18. Modulation of estrogen receptor mRNA expression by melatonin in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molis, T M; Spriggs, L L; Hill, S M

    1994-12-01

    Melatonin, the hormonal product of the pineal gland, has been shown to inhibit the development of mammary tumors in vivo and the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro by mechanisms not yet identified. However, previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin significantly decreased estrogen-binding activity and the expression of immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. To determine the mechanism(s) by which melatonin regulates ER expression in MCF-7 cells, the relationship between the level of steady state ER mRNA and the rate of ER gene transcription were examined in response to melatonin. Physiological concentrations of melatonin decreased steady state levels of ER mRNA expression in a dose- and time-specific manner. This decrease was not dependent upon the presence of estrogen since similar decreases in steady state ER mRNA levels were seen in MCF-7 cells cultured in both complete and estrogen-depleted media. The decreased expression of ER mRNA in response to melatonin appears to be directly related to the suppression of transcription of the ER gene. This regulation is independent of the synthesis of new proteins, as cycloheximide was unable to block the melatonin-induced decrease of steady-state ER mRNA levels. The down-regulation of ER by melatonin appears to not be mediated via a direct interaction with the ER and subsequent feedback on its own expression, since melatonin treatment did not alter the transcriptional regulatory ability of the fully activated wild type ER or a constitutively active hormone-binding domain-deleted ER variant. In addition, the stability of the ER transcript was unaffected by melatonin. Thus, it appears that the antiproliferative actions of this pineal indoleamine are mediated, at least in part, through the suppression of the transcription of the ER gene in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

  19. A case of cervical cancer expressed three mRNA variant of Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Ruíz, Vanessa; Salcedo, Mauricio; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; de Oca, Edén V Montes; Román-Basaure, Edgar; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Dávila-Borja, Víctor M; Juárez-Méndez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second malignancy in Mexico, little is known about the prognostic factors associated with this disease. Several cellular components are important in their transformation and progression. Alternative mRNA splice is an important mechanism for generating protein diversity, nevertheless, in cancer unknown mRNA diversity is expressed. Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR, RHAMM, CD168) is a family member of proteins, hyaluronan acid dependent, and has been associated with different malignant processes such as: angiogenesis, cell invasiveness, proliferation, metastasis and poor outcome in some tumors. In the present study we identified expression of HMMR in cervical cancer by means of RT-PCR and sequencing. Our results indicate co-expression of two HMMR variants in all samples, and one case expressed three alternative HMMR splice transcripts. These results showed the heterogeneity of mRNA transcripts of HMMR that could express in cancer and the expression of HMMR could be marker of malignancy in CC. PMID:24966934

  20. Regulation of vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Ochotny, Noelle [Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Manolson, Morris F. [Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Holliday, L. Shannon, E-mail: sholliday@dental.ufl.edu [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2009-11-06

    Vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  1. Successful expression in pollen of various plant species of in vitro synthesized mRNA introduced by particle bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Nishihara, M; Seki, M; Sakamoto, A; Tanaka, K; Irifune, K; Morikawa, H

    1995-05-01

    Gold particles coated with beta-glucuronidase (GUS) mRNA with a 5' cap structure that had been synthesized in vitro were introduced, by use of a pneumatic particle gun, into pollen grains of lily (Lilium longiflorum), freesia (Freesia refracta) and tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). A fluorometric assay for the GUS activity indicated that in vitro synthesized GUS mRNA introduced into these pollen cells by particle bombardment was successfully expressed. GUS activity in extracts of the bombarded lily pollen became detectable fluorometrically within 30 min after bombardment, peaked at 6 h, then gradually decreased. This activity changed as a function of the developmental stage of the pollen cell of lily.

  2. Multiplex mRNA assay using electrophoretic tags for high-throughput gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Huan; Cao, Liching; Tan, Yuping; Williams, Stephen; Chen, Lili; Matray, Tracy; Chenna, Ahmed; Moore, Sean; Hernandez, Vincent; Xiao, Vivian; Tang, Mengxiang; Singh, Sharat

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel multiplexing technology using a library of small fluorescent molecules, termed eTag molecules, to code and quantify mRNA targets. eTag molecules, which have the same fluorometric property, but distinct charge-to-mass ratios possess pre-defined electrophoretic characteristics and can be resolved using capillary electrophoresis. Coupled with primary Invader® mRNA assay, eTag molecules were applied to simultaneously quantify up to 44 mRNA targets. This multiplexing approach w...

  3. Relationship Between the DPD and TS mRNA Expression and the Response to S-1-Based Chemotherapy and Prognosis in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Chong; Lian, Lian; Li, Li-Qun; Li, Wei; Tao, Min

    2015-04-01

    The aim was to determine changes in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNAs in the blood of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients to see whether these enzymes affected the patients' response to S-1-based chemotherapy and prognosis. For this purpose, pretreatment DPD/TS mRNA expressions were determined in 40 AGC patients using RT-PCR. The patients were then administered with S-1-based regimen (S-1 + cisplatin) and toxicities were recorded. The relationship between the DPD/TS mRNA expressions and the chemotherapy response, drug resistance, and prognosis was analyzed. The data show that DPD mRNA expression correlated significantly with Lauren type while TS mRNA expression correlated with distant metastasis. Patients with higher DPD and/or TS mRNA expression(s) showed poor response, while those with low DPD mRNA expression showed better response to the chemotherapy. Pooled analysis showed that the patients with low DPD/TS mRNA expressions had better therapeutic response. The incidence of bone marrow suppression, diarrhea, and oral mucositis was high in patients with low DPD mRNA expression. Median overall survival (OS) in 40 patients was 13.5 months. It was 17 months for low and 10 months for high DPD (P = 0.044) and TS mRNA expression (P = 0.047). Pooled analysis showed that the patients with both low DPD/TS mRNA expressions had longer OS (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the detection of DPD and/or TS mRNA expression can be used to predict the response to S-1-based chemotherapy, drug resistance, and prognosis in AGC patients as well as to help guide the individualized treatment of gastric cancer.

  4. Abnormal Glucocorticoid Receptor mRNA and Protein Isoform Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex in Psychiatric Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Duncan; Tsai, Shan Yuan; Woon, Heng Giap; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2011-01-01

    Stress has been implicated in the onset and illness course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The effects of stress in these disorders may be mediated by abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, and its corticosteroid receptors. We investigated mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and protein expression of multiple GRα isoforms, in the prefrontal cortex of 37 schizophrenia cases and 37 matched controls. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and luciferase assays were employed. In multiple regression analysis, schizophrenia diagnosis was a significant predictor of total GR mRNA expression (pschizophrenia cases relative to controls. No significant effect of diagnosis on MR mRNA was detected. At the protein level, no significant predictors of total GRα protein or the full-length GRα isoform were identified. However, schizophrenia diagnosis was a strong predictor (pschizophrenia cases (80.4%) relative to controls. This finding was replicated in a second cohort of 35 schizophrenia cases, 34 bipolar disorder cases, and 35 controls, in which both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder diagnoses were significant predictors of putative GRα-D1 abundance (pschizophrenia cases. Luciferase assays demonstrated that the GRα-D1 isoform can activate transcription at glucocorticoid response elements. These findings confirm total GR mRNA reductions in schizophrenia and provide the first evidence of GR protein isoform abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:21881570

  5. Myogenic, matrix and growth factor mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle: effect of contraction intensity and feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Reitelseder, Søren; Pedersen, T.G.

    2013-01-01

    exercise. No major differences were seen in atrophy-related genes between HL and LL resistance exercise. No changes were seen over 12-week training for any of the targets. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance exercise at LL and HL elevated the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, although......INTRODUCTION: We examined short-term (3-hour) and long-term (12-week) training effects after heavy load [HL; 70% 1RM] and light load (LL; 16% 1RM) exercise. METHODS: mRNA expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle remodeling were analyzed and muscle activity (EMG measurements) was measured....... RESULTS: Relative muscle activity differed between HL and LL resistance exercise, whereas median power frequency was even, suggesting an equal muscle-fiber-type recruitment distribution. mRNA expression of Myf6, myogenin, and p21 was mostly increased, and myostatin was mostly depressed by HL resistance...

  6. Increased vimentin mRNA expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line after repeated endoxifen-treatment

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    Paramita Paramita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a significant role in the development of cancer cell resistance to drugs. Vimentin, a type III intermediate filament protein, is a marker of EMT. Vimentin's over-expression in cancer correlates well with increased tumor growth, change in cell shape and poor prognosis. Endoxifen is an active metabolite of tamoxifen  and has become a new potent agent in the treatment of breast cancer. This is a study that aimed to investigate the effect of endoxifen exposure with or without estradiol on cell viability, cell morphology and EMT progression through the analysis of vimentin mRNA expression after 4-week treatment.Methods: Endoxifen, 100 nM or 1,000 nM, with or without beta-estradiol were given repeatedly to MCF-7 cells. Cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO 0.001% were used as control. After 2- and 4-week exposure, the cells were counted, analyzed for mRNA vimentin expression, and observed for morphological changes.Results: Compared to control, there were significant decreases in vimentin mRNA expressions in endoxifen and endoxifen+β-estradiol treated cells after 2-weeks, which then significantly increased after 4-week compared with the 2-week exposure. We found no change in morphology of MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Repeated exposure of endoxifen might induce EMT progression through increased expression of vimentin in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  7. The Impact of Ramadan Fasting on SIRT1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

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    Mostafa Haji Molahoseini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on SIRT1 mRNA expression in healthy men.Islamic Ramadan fasting is a holy religious ceremony that has many spiritual benefits. Additionally, it can be considered as the equivalent of calorie restriction that may affect physical health. The results of previous studies revealed that calorie restriction increases the lifespan in laboratory rodents via increasing the expression of a histone deacetylase named SIRT1. Additionally, SIRT1 is known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Materials and Methods: Overall, 43 men volunteered for participating in this one-group before and after (self-controlled study. Two mL blood samples were taken prior to fasting and at the end of the 30th day of fasting. Routine biochemical tests and SIRT1 mRNA expression analysis were performed. Results: Cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins increase, however, high-density lipoproteins level decreased after Ramadan fasting. The analysis of real-time PCR results revealed that SIRT1 mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells increased 4.63 fold in fasting state in comparison with non-fasting state. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has a significant effect on SIRT1 gene expression. Considering the immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties of SIRT1, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of SIRT1 up-regulation on the autoimmune and inflammatory diseases during Ramadan fasting.

  8. Synergistic Effect of Caffeine and Glucocorticoids on Expression of Surfactant Protein B (SP-B) mRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrholz, Markus; Bersani, Iliana; Kramer, Boris W.; Speer, Christian P.; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Administration of glucocorticoids and caffeine is a common therapeutic intervention in the neonatal period, but possible interactions between these substances are still unclear. The present study investigated the effect of caffeine and different glucocorticoids on expression of surfactant protein (SP)-B, crucial for the physiological function of pulmonary surfactant. We measured expression levels of SP-B, various SP-B transcription factors including erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 4 (ErbB4) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), as well as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) after administering different doses of glucocorticoids, caffeine, cAMP, or the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor rolipram in the human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H441. Administration of dexamethasone (1 µM) or caffeine (5 mM) stimulated SP-B mRNA expression with a maximal of 38.8±11.1-fold and 5.2±1.4-fold increase, respectively. Synergistic induction was achieved after co-administration of dexamethasone (1 mM) in combination with caffeine (10 mM) (206±59.7-fold increase, pcaffeine with hydrocortisone (87.9±39.0), prednisolone (154±66.8), and betamethasone (123±6.4). Rolipram also induced SP-B mRNA (64.9±21.0-fold increase). We detected a higher expression of ErbB4 and GR mRNA (7.0- and 1.7-fold increase, respectively), whereas TTF-1, Jun B, c-Jun, SP1, SP3, and HNF-3α mRNA expression was predominantly unchanged. In accordance with mRNA data, mature SP-B was induced significantly by dexamethasone with caffeine (13.8±9.0-fold increase, p = 0.0134). We found a synergistic upregulation of SP-B mRNA expression induced by co-administration of various glucocorticoids and caffeine, achieved by accumulation of intracellular cAMP. This effect was mediated by a caffeine-dependent phosphodiesterase inhibition and by upregulation of both ErbB4 and the GR. These results suggested that caffeine is able to induce the expression of SP-transcription factors and affects the

  9. The role of RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling pathways in osteoclastogenesis in odontogenic keratocysts, radicular cysts, and ameloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekkesin, Merva Soluk; Mutlu, Sevcihan; Olgac, Vakur

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of molecules involved in osteoclastogenesis, including the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), which has been named as a keratocystic odontogenic tumour by the WHO, and compare their expression with radicular cysts and ameloblastomas. RANK is a member of tumour necrosis factor receptor family and it is activated by RANK ligand. OPG binds to RANKL and inactivates it. The imbalance of these factors could cause the differential bone resorption activity in some diseases and tumours. The expression of these molecules was evaluated in ameloblastomas (n = 20), OKCs (n = 20), and radicular cysts (n = 20) by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical reactivity for RANK, RANKL, and OPG was detected in neoplastic and nonneoplastic epithelium and connective tissue cells. RANK showed the greatest expression in OKCs followed by ameloblastomas, with the lowest expression seen in radicular cysts. Expression of RANKL was detected in all lesions and no significant differences were observed between groups. OPG was expressed very low in all groups. In the stroma, the number of RANK positive cells was higher in OKCs when compared with ameloblastomas and radicular cysts but radicular cyst had higher numbers of RANKL positive cells in the stroma than ameloblastomas. The molecular system of RANK/RANKL/OPG is variably expressed in OKCs, radicular cysts, and ameloblastomas and this system may be involved in the osteoclastogenic mechanisms in OKCs and ameloblastomas. Advanced studies could further clarify the role of RANK, RANKL, and OPG in mediating tumour associated bone osteolysis.

  10. NPY mRNA Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex: Selective Reduction in the Superficial White Matter of Subjects with Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Harvey M.; Stopczynski, Rachelle E.; Lewis, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of NPY mRNA have also been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, whether the alterations in these two transcripts identify the same, particularly vulnerable, subset of GABA neurons has not been examined. Methods We used in situ hybridization to quantify NPY mRNA levels in DLPFC gray and white matter from 23 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched normal control subjects; results were compared to those from a previous study of SST mRNA expression in the same subjects. Results In contrast to SST mRNA, NPY mRNA levels were not significantly lower in the gray matter of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. However, NPY, but not SST, mRNA expression was significantly lower in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Conclusion These findings suggest that the alterations in SST-containing interneurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are selective for the subset that do not express NPY mRNA, and that lower NPY mRNA expression in the superficial white matter may distinguish subjects with schizoaffective disorder from those with schizophrenia. PMID:19804960

  11. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (pintensity exercise, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Cat (phigh intensity interval training was superior to sedentary behaviour and low intensity exercise as high intensity interval training beneficially influenced expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Statins Activate Human PPAR Promoter and Increase PPAR mRNA Expression and Activation in HepG2 Cells

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    Makoto Seo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR mRNA expression, but the mechanism of this increased PPAR production remains elusive. To examine the regulation of PPAR production, we examined the effect of 7 statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin on human PPAR promoter activity, mRNA expression, nuclear protein levels, and transcriptional activity. The main results are as follows. (1 Majority of statins enhanced PPAR promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells transfected with the human PPAR promoter. This enhancement may be mediated by statin-induced HNF-4. (2 PPAR mRNA expression was increased by statin treatment. (3 The PPAR levels in nuclear fractions were increased by statin treatment. (4 Simvastatin, pravastatin, and cerivastatin markedly enhanced transcriptional activity in 293T cells cotransfected with acyl-coenzyme A oxidase promoter and PPAR/RXR expression vectors. In summary, these data demonstrate that PPAR production and activation are upregulated through the PPAR promoter activity by statin treatment.

  13. Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation: clinical findings and its effect on hepcidin mRNA expression in horses

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    José P. Oliveira-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoferremia observed during systemic inflammatory disorders is regulated by hepcidin. Hepcidin up-regulation is particularly important during acute inflammation, as it restricts the availability of iron, which is necessary for pathogenic microorganism growth before adaptive immunity occurs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression in horses using a Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA model of inflammation. The expression of hepcidin mRNA in the liver was determined in healthy horses following two intramuscular injections of FCA at 0 h and 12 h. Plasma iron and fibrinogen concentrations were measured at multiple time points between 0 h and 240 h post-FCA injection (PI. Hepcidin mRNA expression was determined by RT-qPCR using liver biopsy samples performed at 0 h (control, 6 h and 18 h PI. The mean plasma fibrinogen level was significantly different from the control values only between 120 and 216 h PI. The mean plasma iron level was significantly lower than the control between 16 and 72 h PI, reaching the lowest levels at 30 h PI (33 % of the initial value, and returned to the reference value from 96 h PI to the end of the experiment. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased at 6 h PI and remained high at 18 h PI. The iron plasma concentration was an earlier indicator of inflammatory processes in horses when compared with fibrinogen and might be useful for the early detection of inflammation in the horse. FCA administration caused the rapid onset of hypoferremia, and this effect was likely the result of up-regulated hepatic hepcidin gene expression. This study emphasizes the importance of hepcidin and iron metabolism during inflammation in horses.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 and 2 mRNA and a new variant expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Gao, Y; Yang, B; Liang, Z; Wang, Y; Zhai, D; Jing, L; Liu, T; Wang, F; DU, Z; Wang, Y

    2014-01-01

    New tools for diagnostic of HCC remain to further investigate. We have evaluated the expression of SCCA1, 2 mRNA and their prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing were performed to evaluate the mRNA expression of SCCA1 and SCCA2 in 93 HCCs, and 93 paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues (PNT), 16 cirrhosis livers and 9 normal livers. The correlation of SCCA variants expression with the clinical parameters and the factors affecting survival were analyzed statistically.Total SCCA was detected in 33.3% of HCCs (31/93), in 9.68% of PNT (9/93) and 22.2% of normal livers (2/9). No expression was found in cirrhosis livers (0/16). The frequencies of total SCCA expression were significantly higher in HCCs than that in PNT and liver cirrhosis (p = 0.000, 0.006). From mRNA sequencing of HCCs, a new SCCA1 variant (presenting a T357A mutation) was identified in 16 specimens, while wild type SCCA1 was identified in 11 specimens and SCCA2 in 27 specimens. Clinicopathological analysis showed that the frequency of SCCA1 was significantly higher in poorly differentiated HCC, compared with moderately and well differentiated tumors (p = 0.021). T357A variant has a significantly higher frequency in nonencapsulated tumors than wild type SCCA1 (p = 0.034).The SCCA1, 2 mRNA is effective for detecting HCC and could be potentially applied in HCC diagnosis.

  15. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation of sheep fetal adrenal cortex can occur without increased expression of ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Petersen, Y M; Towstoless, M

    2002-01-01

    ); and beta-actin. Ratios of mRNA expression to beta-actin mRNA expression (arbitrary units) were calculated to correct for differences in RNA quality between samples. The concentration (mean +/- SEM) of immunoreactive cortisol in fetal plasma was greater after ACTH infusion than after vehicle infusion (47...

  16. Circulating RANKL and RANKL/OPG and Breast Cancer Risk by ER and PR Subtype : Results from the EPIC Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Overvad, Kim; Holm, Marianne; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; His, Mathilde; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; van Gils, Carla H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17443068X; Peeters, Petra H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Mark; Rinaldi, Sabina; Merritt, Melissa A.; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by

  17. [Expression and significance of P-gp/mdr1 mRNA, MRP and LRP in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Su, Li-ping; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jin; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Yong-an

    2009-03-01

    To explore the expression and clinical significance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/mdr1mRNA, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and lung resistance protein (LRP) in newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. mdr1 mRNA of in 41 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was assayed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expressions of P-gp, MRP and LRP proteins in lymph node viable blasts were identified by flow cytometry. The results were compared with those obtained from control cases, and the correlation of the changes with clinical outcomes was analyzed. (1) Among the 41 cases, the positive expression of P-gp protein was detected in 8 cases, MRP in 7 cases, LRP in 15 cases, and mdr 1 mRNA in 11 cases. (2) The P-gp and LRP levels in NHL were significantly higher than those in control group, but MRP wasn't. The P-gp over-expression was significantly associated with mdr1mRNA (r = 0.396, P = 0.01). No correlation was showed among the expressions of P-gp, MRP and LRP. (3) Patients with P-gp expression had a poorer outcome of chemotherapy than those with P-gp-negative (P = 0.005). P-gp expression was significantly associated with higher clinical stage (P = 0.046) and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level (P = 0.032), but not associated with malignant degree (P = 0.298). MRP had no impact on the outcome of chemotherapy (P = 0.212), and wasn't significantly associated with higher clinical stage (P = 0.369), elevated LDH (P = 0.762) and higher malignant degree (P = 0.451). Patients with LRP expression had a poorer outcome of chemotherapy than those LRP-negative (P = 0.012). LRP expression was significantly associated with higher clinical stage (P = 0.0019), elevated LDH (P = 0.02) and higher malignant degree (P = 0.01). The data of this study indicate that P-gp and LRP expressions but not MRP expression are important in the mechanism of drug resistance associated with a poor clinical outcome in previously untreated NHL.

  18. The quantification of COMT mRNA in post mortem cerebellum tissue: diagnosis, genotype, methylation and expression

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    Craig Ian W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The COMT gene is located on chromosome 22q11, a region strongly implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia. Previous research has suggested that activity and expression of COMT is altered in schizophrenia, and is mediated by one or more polymorphisms within the gene, including the functional Val158Met polymorphism. Method In this study we examined the expression levels of COMT mRNA using quantitative RT-PCR in 60 post mortem cerebellum samples derived from individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and no history of psychopathology. Furthermore, we have examined the methylation status of two CpG sites in the promoter region of the gene. Results We found no evidence of altered COMT expression or methylation in any of the psychiatric diagnoses examined. We did, however, find evidence to suggest that genotype is related to COMT gene expression, replicating the findings of two previous studies. Specifically, val158met (rs165688; Val allele rs737865 (G allele and rs165599 (G allele all showed reduced expression (P COMT expression, with females exhibiting significantly greater levels of COMT mRNA. Conclusion The expression of COMT does not appear to be altered in the cerebellum of individuals suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression, but does appear to be influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene.

  19. Localization of RANK, RANKL and osteoprotegerin during healing of surgically created periodontal defects in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, N A; Coates, D E; Cullinan, M; Seymour, G; Duncan, W

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of periodontal bone regeneration in a large animal enables better examination of the spatial and temporal regulation of osteogenesis and the remodeling of the healing defect. RANK, RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are known to be important regulators of bone healing. The aim of this study was to create periodontal defects surgically in a large animal model and to examine bone regeneration and the expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG proteins in the defect site during bone regeneration. Periodontal defects were made in the furcation of the second mandibular premolar of sheep. Wound healing was examined 6 h, and 1, 4 and 6 wk after surgery and in control tissue. The teeth and defect region were decalcified and paraffin embedded. Immunohistochemistry for RANK, RANKL and OPG was conducted. Osteoclasts were identified using TRAP staining. The defects were examined at different time points after surgery and by 6 wk the defect region had fully regenerated with new bone, albeit less dense than that in the unwounded controls. RANK-positive osteoclasts were present at the edge of the wound from week 1 and were found within the defect at week 6, corresponding to osteoclast activation and bone remodeling. RANKL staining increased from week 1 compared with unwounded tissue, and peaked at 4 and 6 wk, as the osteoblast numbers increased. At the same time, OPG immunostaining was high in controls and at week 6, suggesting that it may act to block RANKL and control the bone remodeling within the defect. Distinctive temporal and spatial expression patterns for RANK, RANKL and OPG proteins were observed during healing of surgically created periodontal wounds in a sheep model. The research identifies possible therapeutic approaches to periodontal bone repair via modulation of these members of the tumor necrosis factor family. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Serum leptin concentrations, leptin mRNA expression, and food intake during the estrous cycle in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fungfuang, Wirasak; Nakada, Tomoaki; Nakao, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    :00) of the 4-day estrous cycle in female rats. Serum leptin levels were measured by ELISA, and leptin mRNA expression levels were analyzed using real-time PCR on diestrous- and proestrous-stage rats. Our results revealed that during the sexual cycle, food intake was significantly higher in the dark phase......The aim of this study was to investigate food intake, serum leptin levels, and leptin mRNA expression during the sexual cycle in rats. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats aged 8-10 weeks were used in this experiment. Food intake was measured during the light and dark phases (light on at 07:00 and off at 19...... compared with the light phase. Food intake in proestrous females was significantly lower in the light and dark phases compared with the other groups. Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in both phases in proestrous rats compared with diestrous rats. There was a significant increase...

  1. Expression and autoregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor mRNA in small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Spang-Thomsen, M; Poulsen, H S

    1996-01-01

    In small-cell lung cancer cell lines resistance to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, was previously shown to correlate with lack of TGF-beta receptor I (RI) and II (RII) proteins. To further investigate the role of these receptors, the expression of mRNA for RI, RII......-beta receptor proteins beta-glycan mRNA was rapidly down-regulated and this effect was sustained throughout the 24 h observation period. RI and RII mRNAs were slightly increased 24 h after treatment. In one cell line sensitive to growth inhibition by TGF-beta, 1 but lacking beta-glycan expression, and one cell...

  2. Increased expression of dermatopontin mRNA in the infarct zone of experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats: comparison with decorin and type I collagen mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Syunji; Murakami, Takashi; Kusachi, Shozo; Iwabu, Akihiro; Hirohata, Satoshi; Nakamura, Keigo; Sezaki, Satoshi; Havashi, Junichi; Suezawa, Chisato; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Tsuji, Takao

    2002-11-01

    Dermatopontin, a 22 kDa extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, has been shown to interact with other ECM components, especially decorin, and to regulate ECM formation. We examined dermatopontin mRNA expression in the myocardial infarct zone. The cDNA encoding the rat dermatopontin was cloned by RT-PCR based on screening results from the Expressed Sequence Tag database. The dermatopontin mRNA expression was examined in the infarct zone after experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats by the methods of Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. The expression of dermatopontin mRNA was compared to that of decorin and type I collagen mRNAs. The isolated clone contained a 609 bp cDNA insert containing a complete open reading frame encoding 202 amino acids. The rat dermatopontin cDNA showed high homology to human and mouse counterparts (>96 %). Northern blotting demonstrated that dermatopontin mRNA expression did not markedly increase on day 2, but was increased on days 7, 14 and 28 by 2.4-, 4.1- and 4.2-fold, respectively, compared to that in preligation hearts. Dermatopontin mRNA expression was regulated almost in parallel with decorin mRNA expression. In situ hybridization demonstrated mRNA signals for dermatopontin in macrophages and spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts and myofibroblasts) located in the infarct interior zone around infarcted necrotic tissue on day 7. Coexpression of dermatopontin mRNA with decorin and type I collagen mRNAs was observed in spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells. The present results demonstrated the time-dependent increase in the expression of dermatopontin mRNA in parallel with that of decorin mRNA in the infarct zone. Coexpression of dermatopontin mRNA with decorin and type I collagen mRNAs suggests that dermatopontin plays a role in ECM (fibrillar collagen matrix) reformation in the infarct along with decorin and type I collagen.

  3. Analysis of p130 protein and mRNA expression in ten patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-ting XU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine p130 protein and mRNA expression in uterine papillary serous carcinoma(UPSC and their clinical and pathologic significance.Methods A total of 10 UPSC patients(Stage I were included,with 10 cases of high-level endometrial carcinoma of the same stage taken as the control group and 10 cases of normal proliferative stage endometrium(EM taken as the disease control group.The level of p130 protein expression was determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining,microscopic observation,and immunohistochemistry,whereas the p130 mRNA levels were examined through real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.The clinicopathologic analysis was carried out in combination with clinical data.Results The p130 protein and p130 mRNA expression levels in the UPSC group(0.46±0.01 and 0.56±0.06,respectively were apparently less than that of the normal proliferative stage endometrium group(0.91±0.04 and 2.81±0.40,respectively;P < 0.01 and also less than those in high-level endometrial carcinoma(P < 0.05.Clinicopathologic analysis shows that all patients are post-menopausal women with symptoms of irregular vaginal bleeding and the average tumor size was 7.5cm(range: 1.2-14.8cm.The pathologic features are same as that of high-level ovarian papillary serous carcinoma.Conclusion Reduced p130 protein and p130 mRNA expression in UPSC might correlate with poor prognosis in UPSC patients.

  4. ESTRADIOL IN FEMALES MAY NEGATE SKELETAL MUSCLE MYOSTATIN MRNA EXPRESSION AND SERUM MYOSTATIN PROPEPTIDE LEVELS AFTER ECCENTRIC MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric contractions produce a significant degree of inflammation and muscle injury that may increase the expression of myostatin. Due to its anti- oxidant and anti-flammatory effects, circulating 17-β estradiol (E2 may attenuate myostatin expression. Eight males and eight females performed 7 sets of 10 reps of eccentric contractions of the knee extensors at 150% 1-RM. Each female performed the eccentric exercise bout on a day that fell within her mid-luteal phase (d 21-23 of her 28-d cycle. Blood and muscle samples were obtained before and 6 and 24 h after exercise, while additional blood samples were obtained at 48 and 72 h after exercise. Serum E2 and myostatin LAP/propeptide (LAP/pro levels were determined with ELISA, and myostatin mRNA expression determined using RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and bivariate correlations (p 0.05. Compared to pre-exercise, males had significant increases (p < 0.05 in LAP/propetide and mRNA of 78% and 28%, respectively, at 24 h post-exercise, whereas females underwent respective decreases of 10% and 21%. E2 and LAP/propeptide were correlated at 6 h (r = -0.804, p = 0.016 and 24 h post- exercise (r = -0.841, p = 0.009 in males, whereas in females E2 levels were correlated to myostatin mRNA at 6 h (r =0.739, p = 0.036 and 24 h (r = 0.813, p = 0.014 post-exercise and LAP/propeptide at 6 h (r = 0.713, p = 0.047 and 24 h (r = 0.735, p = 0.038. In females, myostatin mRNA expression and serum LAP/propeptide levels do not appear to be significantly up-regulated following eccentric exercise, and may be due to higher levels of circulating E2

  5. CCL20/MIP-3 alpha mRNA expression in the conjunctival epithelium of normal individuals and patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Noriko; Ishimori, Akiko; Shoji, Jun

    2014-12-01

    CCL20, the single chemokine ligand for CCR6, contributes to recruiting CCR6-expressing memory B cells, memory T cells, Th17 cells and dendritic cells, and is involved in regulating immune responses, homeostasis, and inflammation in mucosal tissues. CCL20 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was analyzed in the conjunctival epithelium in an in vivo study of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC group) and healthy volunteers (control group) using impression cytology. In vitro analysis of CCL20 mRNA was performed using cultured conjunctival epithelial cells (CECs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess IL-8 and eotaxin-2 mRNA expression for comparison with CCL20 mRNA expression. In the control group, CCL20 mRNA expression was present in all conjunctival locations. However, CCL20 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the upper palpebral conjunctiva in the severe VKC group than in the mild VKC and control groups (p < 0.05, Steel test). In vitro stimulation of CECs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased CCL20 expression in a concentration-dependent manner that was significantly correlated with expression of IL-8 (p < 0.001, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient), but not eotaxin-2. We conclude that CCL 20 mRNA expression in the conjunctival epithelium plays a crucial role in regulating homeostasis at the ocular surface and in exacerbation of VKC.

  6. Soluble serum VCAM-1, whole blood mRNA expression and treatment response in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E R; Søndergaard, H B; Oturai, A B

    2016-01-01

    Background Natalizumab reduces disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Natalizumab binds to the very late antigen-4 and inhibits vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-mediated transmigration of immune cells across the blood-brain-barrier. This is associated with decreased serum concentr......Background Natalizumab reduces disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Natalizumab binds to the very late antigen-4 and inhibits vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-mediated transmigration of immune cells across the blood-brain-barrier. This is associated with decreased serum...... concentrations of soluble (s)VCAM-1 and an altered composition of immune cell-subsets in the blood. Objective We aimed to examine if sVCAM-1 serum concentrations and whole blood mRNA expression levels of immune activation biomarkers is associated with disease activity in natalizumab-treated MS-patients. Methods...... sVCAM-1 serum concentrations and whole blood mRNA expression were measured in blood samples from untreated RRMS-patients and from two independent groups of natalizumab-treated patients. Results sVCAM-1 serum concentrations and whole blood expression of HLX1 and IL1B mRNA were lower, whereas...

  7. PNPase autocontrols its expression by degrading a double-stranded structure in the pnp mRNA leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, Anne-Charlotte; Mathy, Nathalie; Portier, Claude

    2001-01-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase synthesis is autocontrolled at a post-transcriptional level in an RNase III-dependent mechanism. RNase III cleaves a long stem–loop in the pnp leader, which triggers pnp mRNA instability, resulting in a decrease in the synthesis of polynucleotide phosphorylase. The staggered cleavage by RNase III removes the upper part of the stem–loop structure, creating a duplex with a short 3′ extension. Mutations or high temperatures, which destabilize the cleaved stem–loop, decrease expression of pnp, while mutations that stabilize the stem increase expression. We propose that the dangling 3′ end of the duplex created by RNase III constitutes a target for polynucleotide phosphorylase, which binds to and degrades the upstream half of this duplex, hence inducing pnp mRNA instability. Consistent with this interpretation, a pnp mRNA starting at the downstream RNase III processing site exhibits a very low level of expression, regardless of the presence of polynucleotide phosphorylase. Moreover, using an in vitro synthesized pnp leader transcript, it is shown that polynucleotide phosphorylase is able to digest the duplex formed after RNase III cleavage. PMID:11726520

  8. PNPase autocontrols its expression by degrading a double-stranded structure in the pnp mRNA leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, A C; Mathy, N; Portier, C

    2001-12-03

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase synthesis is autocontrolled at a post-transcriptional level in an RNase III-dependent mechanism. RNase III cleaves a long stem-loop in the pnp leader, which triggers pnp mRNA instability, resulting in a decrease in the synthesis of polynucleotide phosphorylase. The staggered cleavage by RNase III removes the upper part of the stem-loop structure, creating a duplex with a short 3' extension. Mutations or high temperatures, which destabilize the cleaved stem-loop, decrease expression of pnp, while mutations that stabilize the stem increase expression. We propose that the dangling 3' end of the duplex created by RNase III constitutes a target for polynucleotide phosphorylase, which binds to and degrades the upstream half of this duplex, hence inducing pnp mRNA instability. Consistent with this interpretation, a pnp mRNA starting at the downstream RNase III processing site exhibits a very low level of expression, regardless of the presence of polynucleotide phosphorylase. Moreover, using an in vitro synthesized pnp leader transcript, it is shown that polynucleotide phosphorylase is able to digest the duplex formed after RNase III cleavage.

  9. FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD influence the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA but not LRP mRNA assessed with RQ-PCR method in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasilowska-Adamska, Barbara; Solarska, Iwona; Paluszewska, Monika; Malinowska, Iwona; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw W; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) and mixed-lineage leukemia gene-partial tandem duplication (MLL-PTD) are aberrations associated with leukemia which indicate unsatisfactory prognosis. Downstream regulatory targets of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD are not well defined. We have analyzed the expression of MDR-1, multidrug resistant protein-1 (MRP-1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and lung resistance protein (LRP) messenger RNA (mRNA) in relation to the mutational status of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD in 185 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adult patients. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was performed to assess the expression of the MDR-1, MRP-1, BCRP, and LRP mRNA, and the results were presented as coefficients calculated using an intermediate method according to Pfaffl's rule. Significantly higher expressions of MDR-1 mRNA were found in patients who did not harbor FLT3-ITD (0.20 vs. 0.05; p = 0.0001) and MRP-1 mRNA in patients with this mutation (0.96 vs. 0.70; p = 0.002) and of BCRP mRNA in patients with MLL-PTD (0.61 vs. 0.38; p = 0.03). In univariate analysis, the high expression of MDR-1 mRNA (≥0.1317) negatively influenced the outcome of induction therapy (p = 0.05), whereas the high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) was associated with a high relapse rate (RR) (p = 0.013). We found that the high expression of MDR-1 (≥0.1317), MRP-1 (≥0.8409), and BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) significantly influenced disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.059, 0.032, and 0.009, respectively) and overall survival (0.048, 0.014, and 0.059, respectively). Moreover, a high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) proved to be an independent prognostic factor for RR (p = 0.01) and DFS (p = 0.002) in multivariate analysis. The significant correlation between the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA and FLT3-ITD or MLL-PTD in AML patients requires further investigation.

  10. Arabidopsis mRNA polyadenylation machinery: comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Min

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyadenylation of mRNA is one of the critical processing steps during expression of almost all eukaryotic genes. It is tightly integrated with transcription, particularly its termination, as well as other RNA processing events, i.e. capping and splicing. The poly(A tail protects the mRNA from unregulated degradation, and it is required for nuclear export and translation initiation. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that the polyadenylation process is also involved in the regulation of gene expression. The polyadenylation process requires two components, the cis-elements on the mRNA and a group of protein factors that recognize the cis-elements and produce the poly(A tail. Here we report a comprehensive pairwise protein-protein interaction mapping and gene expression profiling of the mRNA polyadenylation protein machinery in Arabidopsis. Results By protein sequence homology search using human and yeast polyadenylation factors, we identified 28 proteins that may be components of Arabidopsis polyadenylation machinery. To elucidate the protein network and their functions, we first tested their protein-protein interaction profiles. Out of 320 pair-wise protein-protein interaction assays done using the yeast two-hybrid system, 56 (~17% showed positive interactions. 15 of these interactions were further tested, and all were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and/or in vitro co-purification. These interactions organize into three distinct hubs involving the Arabidopsis polyadenylation factors. These hubs are centered around AtCPSF100, AtCLPS, and AtFIPS. The first two are similar to complexes seen in mammals, while the third one stands out as unique to plants. When comparing the gene expression profiles extracted from publicly available microarray datasets, some of the polyadenylation related genes showed tissue-specific expression, suggestive of potential different polyadenylation complex configurations. Conclusion An

  11. Distribution of PTPN22 polymorphisms in SLE from western Mexico: correlation with mRNA expression and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Contreras, Jesús René; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Cruz, Alvaro; Salazar-Camarena, Diana Celeste; Marín-Rosales, Miguel; Palafox-Sánchez, Claudia Azucena

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by loss of self-tolerance with hyperactivation of autoreactive T and B cells. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) encodes for lymphoid-specific phosphatase (Lyp), which is a key negative regulator of T lymphocyte activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic contribution of PTPN22 -1123G>C and +1858C>T polymorphisms and their haplotypes in SLE patients, as well as mRNA expression according to -1123G>C promoter polymorphism and disease activity. One hundred and fifty SLE patients and 150 unrelated healthy controls (HC), both Mexican mestizos, were genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique for the PTPN22 -1123G>C and +1858C>T polymorphisms. PTPN22 mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR from PBMCs of thirty patients with SLE and fifteen HC carrying different genotypes. Distributions of genotype and allelic frequencies were similar between SLE and HC. The most frequent alleles were -1123 G and +1858 C in both groups (69 vs. 66 % and 97 vs. 98 %, in SLE and HC, respectively). However, the recessive model of inheritance analysis showed a lower frequency of -1123 CC genotype in SLE patients (7 vs. 15 %), suggesting a protection effect to develop SLE (OR 0.41, CI 1.10-5.28, p = 0.02). Haplotype analysis showed strong linkage disequilibrium D' = 0.98 for PTPN22 -1123G>C and +1858C>T polymorphisms, but haplotypes were not associated with SLE. The PTPN22 mRNA expression did not show differences among -1123G>C genotypes; nevertheless, a significant negative correlation with disease activity was found (r = -0.64, p SLE inactive patients showed similar PTPN22 mRNA expression levels to healthy controls, whereas in patients with severe flare, the expression was nearly depleted. In conclusion, we found a lack of association of PTPN22 -1123G>C and +1858C>T polymorphisms with the risk of developing SLE in a Mexican population

  12. A circadian neuropeptide PDF in the honeybee, Apis mellifera: cDNA cloning and expression of mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Miho; Sato, Seiji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Sumida, Kazunori; Koga, Keita; Itoh, Tsunao; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2011-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a pacemaker hormone regulating the locomotor rhythm in insects. In the present study, we cloned the cDNAs encoding the Apis PDF precursor protein, and found that there are at least seven different pdf mRNAs yielded by an alternative splicing site and five alternative polyadenylation sites in the 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions. The amino acid sequence of Apis PDF peptide has a characteristic novel amino acid residue, aspargine (Asn), at position 17. Quantitative real-time PCR of total and 5'UTR insertion-type pdf mRNAs revealed, for the first time, that the expression levels change in a circadian manner with a distinct trough at the beginning of night in LD conditions, and at the subjective night under DD conditions. In contrast, the expression level of 5'UTR deletion-type pdf mRNAs was about half of that of the insertion type, and the expression profile failed to show a circadian rhythm. As the expression profile of the total pdf mRNA exhibited a circadian rhythm, transcription regulated at the promoter region was supposed to be controlled by some of the clock components. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that 14 lateral neurons at the frontal margin of the optic lobe express these mRNA isoforms. PDF expressing cells examined with a newly produced antibody raised against Apis PDF were also found to have a dense supply of axon terminals in the optic lobes and the central brain.

  13. Regulation of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression by shear stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uematsu, M; Ohara, Y; Navas, J P; Nishida, K; Murphy, T J; Alexander, R W; Nerem, R M; Harrison, D G

    1995-01-01

    ... by an enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production. Shear stresses of 15 dyn/cm2 for 3-24 h resulted in a two- to threefold increase of ecNOS mRNA content quantified by Northern analysis in BAEC. Shear stresses (1.2-15 dyn/cm2...

  14. Progressive APOBEC3B mRNA expression in distant breast cancer metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Schrijver, Willemijne A M E; Dalm, Simone U; de Weerd, Vanja; Moelans, CB; ter Hoeve, Natalie; van Diest, Paul J; Martens, John W M; van Deurzen, Carolien H M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: APOBEC3B was recently identified as a gain-of-function enzymatic source of mutagenesis, which may offer novel therapeutic options with molecules that specifically target this enzyme. In primary breast cancer, APOBEC3B mRNA is deregulated in a substantial proportion of cases and its

  15. Progressive APOBEC3B mRNA expression in distant breast cancer metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sieuwerts (Anieta); W.A.M.E. Schrijver (Willemijne); S.U. Dalm (Simone); V. de Weerd (Vanja); C.B. Moelans (Cathy); N. Ter Hoeve (Natalie); P.J. van Diest (Paul); J.W.M. Martens (John); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ APOBEC3B was recently identified as a gain-of-function enzymatic source of mutagenesis, which may offer novel therapeutic options with molecules that specifically target this enzyme. In primary breast cancer, APOBEC3B mRNA is deregulated in a substantial proportion of

  16. Interleukin-6 modifies mRNA expression in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Helle Adser; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Anne Hviid

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 plays a role in exercise-induced PGC-1a and TNFa mRNA responses in skeletal muscle and to examine the potential IL-6 mediated AMPK regulation in these responses. Methods: Whole body IL-6 knockout and wildtype (WT) male...

  17. Developmental changes in hypothalamic oxytocin and oxytocin receptor mRNA expression and their sensitivity to fasting in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Iwasa, Takeshi; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Murakami, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Mikio; Yamamoto, Yuri; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) affects the central nervous system and is involved in a variety of social and non-social behaviors. Recently, the role played by OT in energy metabolism and its organizational effects on estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) during the neonatal period have gained attention. In this study, the developmental changes in the hypothalamic mRNA levels of OT, the OT receptor (OTR), and ER-α were evaluated in male and female rats. In addition, the fasting-induced changes in the hypothalamic mRNA levels of OT and the OTR were evaluated. Hypothalamic explants were taken from postnatal day (PND) 10, 20, and 30 rats, and the mRNA level of each molecule was measured. Hypothalamic OT mRNA expression increased throughout the developmental period in both sexes. The rats' hypothalamic OTR mRNA levels were highest on PND 10 and decreased throughout the developmental period. In the male rats, the hypothalamic mRNA levels of ER-α were higher on PND 30 than on PND 10. On the other hand, no significant differences in hypothalamic ER-α mRNA expression were detected among the examined time points in the female rats, although hypothalamic ER-α mRNA expression tended to be higher on PND 30 than on PND 10. Significant positive correlations were detected between hypothalamic OT and ER-α mRNA expression in both the male and female rats. Hypothalamic OT mRNA expression was not affected by fasting at any of the examined time points in either sex. These results indicate that hypothalamic OT expression is not sensitive to fasting during the developmental period. In addition, as a positive correlation was detected between hypothalamic OT and ER-α mRNA expression, these two molecules might interact with each other to induce appropriate neuronal development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative Expression of HIF-1α mRNA in Rat Heart, Brain and Blood During Induced Systemic Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Dewi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole or region of the body (tissue or cell deprived of adequate oxygen supply. The transcriptional regulator hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is an essential mediator of O2 homeostasis. Unlike the β sub unit (HIF-1β, the activity of HIF-1α is controlled in an oxygen-dependent manner. It has been reported that the stability and expression of HIF-1α during hypoxia is remarkably higher than those under normoxic conditions.The aim of this study was to analyze the adaptive tissue responses during induced systemic hypoxia by comparation of relative expression of mRNA HIF-1α in rat heart, brain and blood. Twenty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to systemic hypoxia by placing them in the hypoxic chamber supplied by 8-10% of O2 for 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. The relative expression level of HIF-1α mRNA in brain, heart and leucocyte cells were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR assay (Real Time PCR based on Pfaff's formula. This study demonstrates that the increased of relative expression of HIF-1α mRNA during induced systemic hypoxia reached its maximum level at day 7 (in heart or at day 14 (in brain, whereas in leucocyte cells the stimulation of HIF-1α expression was intensively maintained up to 21 days although the expression has reached the remarkably high level. We could conclude that HIF-1α as an oxygen sensing during systemic hypoxia has different capacity and sensitivity in brain, heart and blood tissues, due to the importance of oxygen homeostasis in each tissue.

  19. Correlation between BPI Gene Upstream CpG Island Methylation and mRNA Expression in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea and edematous disease are two major causes of mortality in postweaning piglets, and these conditions lead to huge economic losses in the swine industry. E. coli F18 is the primary causative agent of these two diseases. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI plays an important role in the natural defense of the host. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between BPI gene upstream CpG island methylation and mRNA expression. In this study, bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP was used to detect the methylation status of the BPI gene upstream CpG island and fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect BPI expression in the duodenum of piglets from birth to weaning age. BPI upstream CpG islands were shown to have many putative transcription factor binding sites, 10 CpG sites and every CpG site was methylated. The CpG island methylation level was lowest in 30-day piglets and was significantly lower than levels in 8-day piglets (p < 0.05. BPI mRNA expression was significantly higher in 30-day piglets than at any other age (p < 0.05. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that the methylation status of the CpG island was negatively correlated with BPI mRNA expression. Statistical significances were found in CpG_1, CpG_3, CpG_4, CpG_7 and CpG_10 (p < 0.05. The data indicate that BPI expression is improved by demethylation of the BPI gene upstream CpG island. Furthermore, CpG_1, CpG_3, CpG_4, CpG_7 and CpG_10 may be critical sites in the regulation of BPI gene expression.

  20. A Candida albicans gene expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a distinct pattern of mRNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra, A; Sentandreu, R; Gozalbo, D

    1996-09-01

    Two plasmids (derived from YCplac22 and YEplac112) carrying a Candida albicans gene (including the 5' non-coding promoter sequences) coding for a 30 kDa membrane-bound protein, were used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. A 30 kDa protein was immunodetected by Western blot in the membrane fraction of transformants. Northern analysis showed the presence of three mRNA species (of about 1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 kb) hybridizing with the C. albicans gene as a probe. The same result was obtained using the 5' and 3' regions of the gene as probes, whereas only a 1.1 kb mRNA was found in C. albicans and none was detected in S. cerevisiae control transformants. Thus, heterologous expression of this gene in S. cerevisiae results in a distinct pattern of mRNA processing, either due to the location on plasmid vectors and/or to differences in the mRNA processing systems in the two microorganisms.

  1. Effect of water accommodated fraction of 0# diesel oil and crude oil on EROD activity of liver of Sparus macrocephlus and its mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Shen, Xinqiang; Jiang, Mei

    2016-12-01

    We studied the effect of water accommodated fractions (WAF) of 0# diesel and crude oil on ethoxy resorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression quantity in the liver of Sparus macrocephlus. We found that there were some differences in the EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA induction between these two petroleum hydrocarbons. Both the EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression of fish exposed to 0# diesel WAF were higher than those of crude oil WAF fish. The EROD activities and CYP1A1 mRNA expressions in the livers 0# diesel WAF exposed group declined faster than those of crude oil WAF and the recovery of EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression in the crude oil group was higher than that of 0# diesel group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic analysis of inflammation, cytokine mRNA expression and disease course of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J C; Andersson, M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    -MHC genes were decisive since a high incidence of SPR-EAE only occurred in rats with DA non-MHC genes. Analysis of cytokine mRNA expression and infiltrating cells in the spinal cords of congenic strains revealed that the av1 haplotype associated with a high CD4/CD8 ratio and expression of m......Genetic analysis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can provide clues to the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying the susceptibility genes of DA rats may be particularly rewarding since they are prone to develop a remarkably MS-like chronic and demyelinating disease...

  3. Comparative Analysis of mRNA Isoform Expression in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Development Reveals Multiple Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Li, Wencheng; Zheng, Dinghai; Zhai, Peiyong; Zhao, Yun; Matsuda, Takahisa; Vatner, Stephen F.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Tian, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is enlargement of the heart in response to physiological or pathological stimuli, chiefly involving growth of myocytes in size rather than in number. Previous studies have shown that the expression pattern of a group of genes in hypertrophied heart induced by pressure overload resembles that at the embryonic stage of heart development, a phenomenon known as activation of the “fetal gene program”. Here, using a genome-wide approach we systematically defined genes and pathways regulated in short- and long-term cardiac hypertrophy conditions using mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC), and compared them with those regulated at different stages of embryonic and postnatal development. In addition, exon-level analysis revealed widespread mRNA isoform changes during cardiac hypertrophy resulting from alternative usage of terminal or internal exons, some of which are also developmentally regulated and may be attributable to decreased expression of Fox-1 protein in cardiac hypertrophy. Genes with functions in certain pathways, such as cell adhesion and cell morphology, are more likely to be regulated by alternative splicing. Moreover, we found 3′UTRs of mRNAs were generally shortened through alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in hypertrophy, and microRNA target genes were generally de-repressed, suggesting coordinated mechanisms to increase mRNA stability and protein production during hypertrophy. Taken together, our results comprehensively delineated gene and mRNA isoform regulation events in cardiac hypertrophy and revealed their relations to those in development, and suggested that modulation of mRNA isoform expression plays an importance role in heart remodeling under pressure overload. PMID:21799842

  4. Opg, Rank, and Rankl in tooth development: co-ordination of odontogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohazama, A; Courtney, J-M; Sharpe, P T

    2004-03-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK), and RANK ligand (RANKL) are mediators of various cellular interactions, including bone metabolism. We analyzed expression of these three genes during murine odontogenesis from epithelial thickening to cytodifferentiation stages. Opg showed expression in the thickening and bud epithelium. Expression of Opg and Rank was observed in both the internal and the external enamel epithelium as well as in the dental papilla mesenchyme. Although Rankl expression was not detected in tooth epithelium or mesenchyme, it was expressed in pre-osteogenic mesenchymal cells close to developing tooth germs. All three genes were detected in developing dentary bone at P0. The addition of exogenous OPG to explant cultures of tooth primordia produced a delay in tooth development that resulted in reduced mineralization. We propose that the spatiotemporal expression of these molecules in early tooth and bone primordia cells has a role in co-ordinating bone and tooth development.

  5. Low regulatory T cell and high IL-17 mRNA expression in a mouse Graves' disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q; Zhao, Y; Zhu, X; Liu, X

    2017-04-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease, and the most important characteristic of it is the presence of the thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb). The mechanisms of the TSAb elevation are still uncertain. Recent studies have suggested that the dysregulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) might stimulate the production of TSAb and be a pathogenesis of GD. However, the role of Treg and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of GD is still debated. Our aim is to assess changes of Treg and Th17 cells in the spleen of a mouse in an in vivo GD model and try to explain the pathogenesis of GD. We used an adenovirus expressing the autoantigen thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (Ad-TSHR289) to immunise mice in order to induce GD in the model. Flow cytometry was used to measure the frequencies of splenic Treg and Th17 cells and real-time PCR to analyse the mRNA expression of forkhead box P3(Foxp3) and interleukin-17(IL-17). Compared with the Ad-Control group, the frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells were significantly decreased (p = 0.007) and gene expression of Foxp3 was down-regulated (p = 0.001) in the Ad-TSHR289 group. Though there was no significant difference in CD4 + IL-17 + T cell subpopulation between the two groups (p = 0.336), the IL-17 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in the Ad-TSHR289 group (p = 0.001). The pathogenesis of GD may be associated with reduced Treg cells and increased IL-17 gene expression. The increased IL-17 mRNA needs to be explained by other mechanisms but not Th17 cells.

  6. Time-dependent mRNA expression of selected pro-inflammatory factors in the endometrium of primiparous cows postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drillich Marc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory processes and infections of the uterine wall must be accepted as a physiological event in dairy cows after calving. This might result in clinical or subclinical endometritis which is assumed to impair reproductive performance in the current lactation. Several cytokines and acute phase proteins have been discussed as local and systemic mediators of these inflammatory processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the endometrial mRNA expression of the chemokine CXC ligand 5 (CXCL5, interleukin 1β (IL1B, IL6, IL8, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2 and haptoglobin (HP in the postpartum period. Methods Endometrial samples were obtained from primiparous cows (n = 5 on days 10, 17, 24, 31, 38 and 45 postpartum (pp using the cytobrush technique. Cytological smears were prepared from cytobrush samples to determine the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN. Total RNA was extracted from endometrial samples, and real-time RT-PCR was performed. Results A time-dependent mRNA expression of the investigated factors was found for the course of the postpartum period. In detail, a significantly higher expression of these factors was observed on day 17 pp compared to day 31 pp. Furthermore, the proportion of PMN peaked between days 10-24 pp and decreased thereafter to low percentages (CXCL5, IL1B, IL8 and HP mRNA expression correlated significantly with the proportion of PMN (P CXCL5, IL1B, IL6, IL8, PTGS2 and TNF mRNA content was observed in samples from cows with an inflamed endometrium compared with samples from cows with a healthy endometrium (P Conclusions These results show that inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins are expressed in the bovine endometrium in a time-related manner during the postpartum period, with a significant expression peak on day 17 pp as a possible mucosal immune response in the uterus. The evaluation of the expression

  7. Molecular Cloning, mRNA Expression, and Localization of the G-protein Subunit Galphaq in Sheep Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive function of G-protein subunit Galphaq (GNAQ, a member of the G protein alpha subunit family, has been extensively studied in humans and rats. However, no data is available on its status in ruminants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expression pattern of the GNAQ in the testis and epididymis of sheep by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The mRNA expression levels were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and cellular localization of GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was examined by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, GNAQ protein was qualitatively evaluated via western blot, with the results indicating that similarities between GNAQ mRNA levels from sheep was highly conserved with those observed in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa. Our results also indicated that GNAQ exists in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, while GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was localized to Leydig cells, spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, spermatid, principal cells, and epididymis interstitial cells. The concentrations of GNAQ mRNA and protein in the caput and cauda epididymis were significantly greater than those observed in the corpus epididymis (p<0.01 and testis (p<0.05. Our results indicated that GNAQ exists at high concentrations in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, suggesting that GNAQ may play an important role in gonad development and sperm maturation.

  8. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Thomas; Bouvier, Marie; Turlan, Catherine; Carpousis, Agamemnon J; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2016-04-26

    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. coli (MG1655) and isogenic mutant strains deficient in CsrA or CsrD activity demonstrating for the first time that CsrA and CsrD are global negative and positive regulators of transcription, respectively. The role of CsrA in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.6-fold increase in csrD mRNA concentration in the CsrA deficient strain. Transcriptional action of CsrA and CsrD on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. In addition to an effect on transcription, CsrA stabilizes thousands of mRNAs. This is the first demonstration that CsrA is a global positive regulator of mRNA stability. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by CsrA might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation.

  9. Effect of vitamin C and lipoic acid on streptozotocin-induced diabetes gene expression: mRNA and protein expressions of Cu-Zn SOD and catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Okkes; Güray, Tülin

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus has been confirmed by numerous studies. In this study, the expression of two antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase which are involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species was studied in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat liver tissues. The enzyme assays showed a significant decrease in both enzymes activities compared to control animals. The RT-PCR and Western-blot analysis results demonstrated that this decrease in activity is regulated at the level of gene expression, as both catalase and Cu-Zn SOD mRNA and protein expressions were also suppressed. Supplementing the animals with vitamin C, a powerful antioxidant increased both SOD and catalase activities with no change in both mRNA and protein expressions suggesting a role of post-translational modification. However, even though mRNA expressions of both catalase and Cu-Zn SOD were not changed, the protein levels increased in parallel to activities in the case of another antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid. An increase in the rate of translation, without changing the rate of transcription indicates a translational effect of lipoic acid in changing the activities of antioxidant enzymes to prevent the oxidative damage in diabetes.

  10. Interleukin-35 upregulates OPG and inhibits RANKL in mice with collagen-induced arthritis and fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Li, D; Li, Y; Wu, S; Jiang, S; Lin, T; Xia, L; Shen, H; Lu, J

    2016-04-01

    IL-35 is a novel anti-inflammatory cytokine, but the exact role of IL-35 in the progression of RA remains unclear, especially associated with osteoporosis and bone erosion. The present research has not been reported. Our purpose is to study how IL-35 affects RA bone destruction. This study investigated the effect of interleukin-35 (IL-35) on OPG and RANKL expression in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and in cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Thirty DBA/1J mice were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10 per group): the control group, the CIA group, and the CIA + IL-35 group. Collagen-induced arthritis was induced by immunization with collagen. IL-35 was intraperitoneally injected daily for 10 days, starting from the 24(th) day after immunization. FLS cells were isolated and cultured from CIA. The expression of IL-17, RANKL, and OPG was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Each experiment was repeated three times. CIA mice exhibited arthritis symptoms on day 24, followed by a rapid progression of arthritis. The expression of IL-17 and RANKL was increased and the expression of OPG was decreased in CIA mice compared with control mice. IL-35 treatment inhibited the development of arthritis in CIA mice, accompanied by a decrease in the expression of IL-17 and RANKL and an increase in the expression of OPG. Furthermore, IL-35 dose-dependently inhibited the expression of RANKL and increased the expression of OPG in cultured FLS cells. IL-35 inhibits RANKL expression and increases OPG expression in CIA mice. IL-35 may be used for treating rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Occupational Toluene Exposure Induces Cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; de León, Mario Bermúdez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rojas-García, Aurora E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Alberto; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo

    2006-01-01

    Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzoxazone (CHZ) quotient (known as CHZ metabolic ratio) in plasma, and the role of genotype (5′-flanking region RsaI/PstI polymorphic sites) in 97 male print workers. The geometric mean (GM) of toluene concentration in the air was 52.80 ppm (10–760 ppm); 54% of the study participants were exposed to toluene concentrations that exceeded the maximum permissible exposure level (MPEL). The GM of urinary hippuric acid at the end of a work shift (0.041 g/g creatinine) was elevated relative to that before the shift (0.027 g/g creatinine; p < 0.05). The GM of the CHZ metabolic ratio was 0.33 (0–9.3), with 40% of the subjects having ratios below the GM. However, the average CYP2E1 mRNA level in peripheral lymphocytes was 1.07 (0.30–3.08), and CYP2E1 mRNA levels within subjects correlated with the toluene exposure ratio (environmental toluene concentration:urinary hippuric acid concentration) (p = 0.014). Genotype did not alter the association between the toluene exposure ratio and mRNA content. In summary, with further validation, CYP2E1 mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes could be a sensitive and noninvasive biomarker for the continuous monitoring of toluene effects in exposed persons. PMID:16581535

  12. Effect of pioglitazone, quercetin, and hydroxy citric acid on vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (VEGF mRNA) expression in experimentally induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Vishnu Priya, Veeraraghavan; Mallika, Jainu

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is associated with various ischemic and inflammatory diseases, and plays an important role in the development of liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, the comparative effect of pioglitazone, quercetin, and hydroxy citric acid on VEGF mRNA in experimentally induced NASH was investigated. The experimental protocol consisted of five groups: control, NASH, NASH + pioglitazone, NASH + quercetin, and NASH + hydroxy citric acid. The VEGF mRNA expression was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) analysis for all experimental groups, and the levels of VEGF mRNA were quantitatively measured by densitometry. A higher expression of VEGF mRNA was found in the hepatic cells of rats with experimentally induced NASH compared to the control group. A very mild increase in VEGF mRNA expression was observed in the rats treated with quercetin. In contrast, a mild increase in the expression of VEGF mRNA was observed in the rats treated with pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid. Quercetin exhibited an effective inhibition of VEGF mRNA expression, while a lower inhibition of the VEGF mRNA level was observed in the hydroxy citric acid- and the pioglitazone-treated rats.

  13. Interleukin-6-induced reciprocal expression of SERCA and natriuretic peptides mRNA in cultured rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Kanda, T; Takahashi, T; Saegusa, S; Moriya, J; Kurabayashi, M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression on sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA levels in cultured rat neonatal ventricular myocytes. IL-6 plays a key role in regulating cardiac hypertrophy and the development of heart failure, and SERCA, ANP and BNP are all cardiac hormones with regulatory properties. Compared with baseline measurements, treatment with 50 U/ml IL-6 significantly decreased SERCA gene expression, but significantly increased ANP and BNP gene expression in the cardiac myocytes. These results suggest that the clinical overproduction of IL-6 in response to infection, autoimmune disease and cancer might be responsible for cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy may result from the imbalance of both natriuretic peptides and SERCA transcription levels, caused by elevated IL-6 expression.

  14. Amitriptyline induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression through ERK-dependent modulation of multiple BDNF mRNA variants in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Kajitani, Naoto; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shigetou, Takahiro; Kasai, Miho; Matsumoto, Chie; Yokoe, Toshiki; Azuma, Honami; Takebayashi, Minoru; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    A significant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been previously implicated in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. To ascertain the contribution of specific cell types in the brain that produce BDNF following antidepressant treatment, the effects of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline on rat primary neuronal, astrocytic and microglial cortical cultures were examined. Amitriptyline increased the expression of BDNF mRNA in astrocytic and microglial cultures but not neuronal cultures. Antidepressants with distinct mechanisms of action, such as clomipramine, duloxetine and fluvoxamine, also increased BDNF mRNA expression in astrocytic and microglial cultures. There are multiple BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IIA, IV and VI) expressed in astrocytes and microglia and the variant induced by antidepressants has yet to be elaborated. Treatment with antidepressants increased the expression of exon I, IV and VI in astrocyte and microglia. Clomipramine alone significantly upregulated expression of exon IIA. The amitriptyline-induced expression of both total and individual BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IV and VI) were blocked by MEK inhibitor U0126, indicating MEK/ERK signaling is required in the expression of BDNF. These findings indicate that non-neural cells are a significant target of antidepressants and further support the contention that glial production of BDNF is crucial role in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. The current data suggest that targeting of glial function could lead to the development of antidepressants with a truly novel mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation between mutations and mRNA expression of APC and MUTYH genes: new insight into hereditary colorectal polyposis predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Gitana Maria; Fantini, Fabiana; De Iure, Sabrina; Di Nicola, Marta; Palka, Giandomenico; Valanzano, Rosa; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Stigliano, Vittoria; Genuardi, Maurizio; Battista, Pasquale; Cama, Alessandro; Curia, Maria Cristina

    2015-10-28

    Transcript dosage imbalance may influence the transcriptome. To gain insight into the role of altered gene expression in hereditary colorectal polyposis predisposition, in the present study we analyzed absolute and allele-specific expression (ASE) of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and mutY Homolog (MUTYH) genes. We analyzed DNA and RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 49 familial polyposis patients and 42 healthy blood donors selected according similar gender and age. Patients were studied for germline alterations in both genes using dHPLC, MLPA and automated sequencing. APC and MUTYH mRNA expression levels were investigated by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis using TaqMan assay and by ASE assays using dHPLC-based primer extension. Twenty out of 49 patients showed germline mutations: 14 in APC gene and six in MUTYH gene. Twenty-nine patients did not show mutations in both genes. Results from qRT-PCR indicated that gene expression of both APC and MUTYH was reduced in patients analyzed. In particular, a significant reduction in APC expression was observed in patients without APC germline mutation vs control group (P mutation carrier patients, although lower compared to control individuals, did not show statistical significance. On the other hand a significant reduced MUTYH expression was detected in patients with MUTYH mutations vs control group (P mutation carriers. In particular one case showed a complete loss of one allele. Among APC mutation negative cases, 4 out of 13 showed a moderate ASE. ASE of MUTYH did not show any altered expression in the cases analyzed. Spearman's Rho Test analysis showed a positive and significant correlation between APC and MUTYH genes both in cases and in controls (P = 0.020 and P gene mutation. Expression of APC is decreased in mutation negative cases and this appears to be a promising indicator of FAP predisposition, while for MUTYH gene, mutation is associated to reduced mRNA

  16. Adaptive effects of the beta2-agonist clenbuterol on expression of beta2-adrenoceptor mRNA in rat fast-twitch fiber-rich muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shogo; Nomura, Sachiko; Kawano, Fuuun; Tanihata, Jun; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

    2010-03-01

    Administration of the beta(2)-agonist clenbuterol has been shown to reduce the expression of beta(2)-adrenoceptor (AR) mRNA in fast-twitch fiber-rich (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) muscle without changing that in slow-twitch fiber-rich (soleus, SOL) muscle in rats. However, the regulatory mechanism for muscle fiber type-dependent down-regulation of the expression of beta(2)-AR mRNA induced by clenbuterol is still unclear. Therefore, mRNA expression of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory factors for beta(2)-AR mRNA levels in fast-twitch fiber-rich (EDL and plantaris, PLA) and slow-twitch fiber-rich (SOL) muscles in clenbuterol-administered (1.0 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days, subcutaneous) rats was studied by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Administration of clenbuterol significantly reduced expression of beta(2)-AR mRNA in EDL and PLA muscles without changing that in SOL muscle. Administration of clenbuterol also significantly reduced the mRNA expression of transcriptional regulatory factor (glucocorticoid receptor) and mRNA stabilizing factor (Hu antigen R) in EDL and PLA muscles without changing those in SOL muscle. These results suggest that muscle fiber type-dependent effects of clenbuterol on expression of beta(2)-AR mRNA are closely related to the down-regulation of mRNA expression of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory factors for beta(2)-AR mRNA levels.

  17. Taxonomer: an interactive metagenomics analysis portal for universal pathogen detection and host mRNA expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Steven; Simmon, Keith; Miller, Chase; Qiao, Yi; Kennedy, Brett; Di Sera, Tonya; Graf, Erin H; Tardif, Keith D; Kapusta, Aurélie; Rynearson, Shawn; Stockmann, Chris; Queen, Krista; Tong, Suxiang; Voelkerding, Karl V; Blaschke, Anne; Byington, Carrie L; Jain, Seema; Pavia, Andrew; Ampofo, Krow; Eilbeck, Karen; Marth, Gabor; Yandell, Mark; Schlaberg, Robert

    2016-05-26

    High-throughput sequencing enables unbiased profiling of microbial communities, universal pathogen detection, and host response to infectious diseases. However, computation times and algorithmic inaccuracies have hindered adoption. We present Taxonomer, an ultrafast, web-tool for comprehensive metagenomics data analysis and interactive results visualization. Taxonomer is unique in providing integrated nucleotide and protein-based classification and simultaneous host messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript profiling. Using real-world case-studies, we show that Taxonomer detects previously unrecognized infections and reveals antiviral host mRNA expression profiles. To facilitate data-sharing across geographic distances in outbreak settings, Taxonomer is publicly available through a web-based user interface. Taxonomer enables rapid, accurate, and interactive analyses of metagenomics data on personal computers and mobile devices.

  18. Effect of propionate on mRNA expression of key genes for gluconeogenesis in liver of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Koser, Stephanie L; Bequette, Brian J; Donkin, Shawn S

    2015-12-01

    Elevated needs for glucose in lactating dairy cows are met through a combination of increased capacity for gluconeogenesis and increased supply of gluconeogenic precursors, primarily propionate. This study evaluated the effects of propionate on mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1), mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), key gluconeogenic enzymes, and capacity for glucose synthesis in liver of dairy cattle. In experiment 1, six multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design consisting of a 6-d acclimation or washout phase followed by 8h of postruminal infusion of either propionate (1.68mol), glucose (0.84mol), or an equal volume (10mL/min) of water. In experiment 2, twelve male Holstein calves [39±4 kg initial body weight (BW)] were blocked by birth date and assigned to receive, at 7d of age, either propionate [2mmol·h(-1)·(BW(0.75))(-1)], acetate [3.5mmol·h(-1)·(BW(.75))(-1)], or an equal volume (4mL/min) of saline. In both experiments, blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8h relative to the start of infusion and liver biopsy samples were collected at the end of the infusion for mRNA analysis. Liver explants from experiment 1 were used to measure tricarboxylic acid cycle flux and gluconeogenesis using (13)C mass isotopomer distribution analysis from (13)C3 propionate. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not altered by infusions in cows. Serum insulin concentration in cows receiving propionate was elevated than cows receiving water, but was not different from cows receiving glucose. Hepatic expression of PCK1 and G6PC mRNA and glucose production in cows receiving propionate were not different from cows receiving water, but tended to be higher compared with cows receiving glucose. Hepatic expression of PCK2 and PC mRNA was not altered by propionate infusion in cows. Blood glucose, insulin, and

  19. Complex control of GABA(A receptor subunit mRNA expression: variation, covariation, and genetic regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K Mulligan

    Full Text Available GABA type-A receptors are essential for fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are critical in brain function. Surprisingly, expression of receptor subunits is highly variable among individuals, but the cause and impact of this fluctuation remains unknown. We have studied sources of variation for all 19 receptor subunits using massive expression data sets collected across multiple brain regions and platforms in mice and humans. Expression of Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabrb2, Gabrb3, and Gabrg2 is highly variable and heritable among the large cohort of BXD strains derived from crosses of fully sequenced parents--C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. Genetic control of these subunits is complex and highly dependent on tissue and mRNA region. Remarkably, this high variation is generally not linked to phenotypic differences. The single exception is Gabrb3, a locus that is linked to anxiety. We identified upstream genetic loci that influence subunit expression, including three unlinked regions of chromosome 5 that modulate the expression of nine subunits in hippocampus, and that are also associated with multiple phenotypes. Candidate genes within these loci include, Naaa, Nos1, and Zkscan1. We confirmed a high level of coexpression for subunits comprising the major channel--Gabra1, Gabrb2, and Gabrg2--and identified conserved members of this expression network in mice and humans. Gucy1a3, Gucy1b3, and Lis1 are novel and conserved associates of multiple subunits that are involved in inhibitory signaling. Finally, proximal and distal regions of the 3' UTRs of single subunits have remarkably independent expression patterns in both species. However, corresponding regions of different subunits often show congruent genetic control and coexpression (proximal-to-proximal or distal-to-distal, even in the absence of sequence homology. Our findings identify novel sources of variation that modulate subunit expression and highlight the extraordinary capacity of biological networks to buffer

  20. Integrated Analysis of Dysregulated ncRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Humans Exposed to Carbon Nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Shvedova

    Full Text Available As the application of carbon nanotubes (CNT in consumer products continues to rise, studies have expanded to determine the associated risks of exposure on human and environmental health. In particular, several lines of evidence indicate that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT could pose a carcinogenic risk similar to asbestos fibers. However, to date the potential markers of MWCNT exposure are not yet explored in humans.In the present study, global mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of exposed workers, having direct contact with MWCNT aerosol for at least 6 months (n = 8, were compared with expression profiles of non-exposed (n = 7 workers (e.g., professional and/or technical staff from the same manufacturing facility.Significant changes in the ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles were observed between exposed and non-exposed worker groups. An integrative analysis of ncRNA-mRNA correlations was performed to identify target genes, functional relationships, and regulatory networks in MWCNT-exposed workers. The coordinated changes in ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles revealed a set of miRNAs and their target genes with roles in cell cycle regulation/progression/control, apoptosis and proliferation. Further, the identified pathways and signaling networks also revealed MWCNT potential to trigger pulmonary and cardiovascular effects as well as carcinogenic outcomes in humans, similar to those previously described in rodents exposed to MWCNTs.This study is the first to investigate aberrant changes in mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of humans exposed to MWCNT. The significant changes in several miRNAs and mRNAs expression as well as their regulatory networks are important for getting molecular insights into the MWCNT-induced toxicity and pathogenesis in humans. Further large-scale prospective studies are necessary to validate the potential applicability of such changes in mRNAs and miRNAs as prognostic markers

  1. Increased IL-17 and 22 mRNA expression in pediatric patients with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Eun; Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sung Su; Shim, Haeng Seon; Kim, Min Gyeong; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2016-11-01

    Middle ear effusion has been reported to be associated with immune responses in patients with otitis media with effusion (OME). Although various cytokines are involved in immunologic responses in patients with OME, no study to date has assessed the involvement of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22. This study analyzed the levels of expression of IL-17 and IL-22 in the middle ear effusion of patients with OME. Patients aged <11 years who were diagnosed with chronic OME and underwent ventilation tube insertion from May 2013 to August 2015 were enrolled. Effusion fluid samples were obtained during surgery and levels of IL-17 and IL-22 mRNAs assessed by real-time PCR. IL-17 and IL-22 mRNA levels were compared in patients with effusion fluid positive and negative for bacteria; in patients with and without accompanying diseases, recurrent disease, and re-operation; and relative to fluid characteristics. The study cohort included 70 pediatric patients, 46 boys and 24 girls, of mean age 4.31 ± 2.11 years. The levels of IL-17 and IL-22 mRNA were higher in patients with than without sinusitis, but only IL-22 mRNA levels differed significantly (p < 0.05). The level of IL-17 mRNA was significantly higher in patients who did than did not undergo T&A (p < 0.05). The level of IL-22 expression was significantly higher in mucoid and purulent middle ear fluid samples than in serous fluid samples (p < 0.05). IL-17 and IL-22 mRNAs are involved in the pathophysiology of OME and are significantly higher in subjects with than without accompanying diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. mRNA expression levels in failing human hearts predict cellular electrophysiological remodeling: a population-based simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walmsley

    Full Text Available Differences in mRNA expression levels have been observed in failing versus non-failing human hearts for several membrane channel proteins and accessory subunits. These differences may play a causal role in electrophysiological changes observed in human heart failure and atrial fibrillation, such as action potential (AP prolongation, increased AP triangulation, decreased intracellular calcium transient (CaT magnitude and decreased CaT triangulation. Our goal is to investigate whether the information contained in mRNA measurements can be used to predict cardiac electrophysiological remodeling in heart failure using computational modeling. Using mRNA data recently obtained from failing and non-failing human hearts, we construct failing and non-failing cell populations incorporating natural variability and up/down regulation of channel conductivities. Six biomarkers are calculated for each cell in each population, at cycle lengths between 1500 ms and 300 ms. Regression analysis is performed to determine which ion channels drive biomarker variability in failing versus non-failing cardiomyocytes. Our models suggest that reported mRNA expression changes are consistent with AP prolongation, increased AP triangulation, increased CaT duration, decreased CaT triangulation and amplitude, and increased delay between AP and CaT upstrokes in the failing population. Regression analysis reveals that changes in AP biomarkers are driven primarily by reduction in I[Formula: see text], and changes in CaT biomarkers are driven predominantly by reduction in I(Kr and SERCA. In particular, the role of I(CaL is pacing rate dependent. Additionally, alternans developed at fast pacing rates for both failing and non-failing cardiomyocytes, but the underlying mechanisms are different in control and heart failure.

  3. High BMI levels associate with reduced mRNA expression of IL10 and increased mRNA expression of iNOS (NOS2) in human frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, J K; Olesen, R H; Vendelbo, J

    2017-01-01

    analysis was performed with BMI as variable on data on IL10, IL1β, IL6, PTGS2 (COX2) and NOS2 (iNOS). Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in the mRNA expression of IL10 (P=0.014) and an increase in the expression of NOS2 (iNOS; P=0.040). Expressions of IL10 and NOS2 (iNOS) were negatively...... correlated (PIL10 was mostly affected by individuals with BMI ⩾40. Multiple linear regression analyses with BMI, age, sex and race as variables were performed in order to identify potential confounders. In conclusion, increasing BMI could affect the IL10-mediated anti...

  4. Assessment of cathepsin mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during early embryonic development in the yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Jaime; Herrera, Giannina; Torres-Fuentes, Jorge; Dettleff, Phillip; Patel, Alok; Martínez, Víctor

    2017-05-01

    In pelagic species such as Seriola lalandi, survival of both the eggs and embryos depends on yolk processing during oocyte maturation and embryo development. The main enzymes involved in these processes are the cathepsins, which are essential for the hydration process, acquiring buoyancy and nutrition of the embryo before hatching. This study aimed to investigate the mRNA expression profiles of cathepsins B, D and L (catb, catd and catl) and the activity of these enzymes during early development in S. lalandi. We included previtellogenic oocytes (PO). All three enzymes were highly expressed in PO, but the expression was reduced throughout development. Between PO and recently spawned eggs (E1) the transcript to catb and catd decreased, unlike catl. Cathepsin B activity, showed stable levels between PO until blastula stage (E4). High activities levels of cathepsins D and L were observed in E1 in comparison with later developmental stages. Cathepsin L activity remained constant until E1, consistent with observations in other pelagic spawners, where its participation in a second protolithic cleavage of the yolk proteins, has been proposed for this enzyme. Their profiles of both mRNA expression and enzymatic activity indicate the importance of these enzymes during early development and suggest different roles in egg yolk processing for the hydration process and nutrition in early embryos in this species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. α2A -Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and mRNA expression levels are associated with delay discounting in cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havranek, Michael M; Hulka, Lea M; Tasiudi, Eve; Eisenegger, Christoph; Vonmoos, Matthias; Preller, Katrin H; Mössner, Rainald; Baumgartner, Markus R; Seifritz, Erich; Grünblatt, Edna; Quednow, Boris B

    2017-03-01

    Cocaine users characteristically display preferences for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, and this delay discounting (DD) has been proposed as an endophenotype of cocaine addiction. Recent evidence suggests that the norepinephrine system and more specifically the α2A -adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) are impacted by chronic cocaine use while also being potentially involved in the neural mechanisms underlying DD. Hence, we investigated the effects of ADRA2A polymorphisms and ADRA2A mRNA expression levels on DD of cocaine users and stimulant-naïve controls. Two hundred and twenty-three participants (129 cocaine users and 94 stimulant-naïve healthy controls) completed a computerized DD paradigm and were genotyped for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1800544, rs521674 and rs602618) in the ADRA2A gene, while their peripheral ADRA2A mRNA expression was quantified in whole blood samples. The three SNPs were in near-perfect linkage disequilibrium. Accordingly, significant group*genotype interactions were found for all three ADRA2A variants revealing steeper DD in cocaine users (but not in controls) carrying the G-allele of SNP rs1800544, the T-allele of rs521674 and the C-allele of rs602618. Similarly, high ADRA2A mRNA expression levels were significantly associated with a reduced tendency to choose smaller more immediate rewards (over larger delayed rewards) in cocaine users but not in controls. As the relationship between DD and cocaine use was moderated by ADRA2A SNPs and by peripheral ADRA2A gene expression, we propose that the norepinephrine system is involved in DD deficits observed in cocaine using individuals. Consequently, pharmacological compounds targeting ADRA2As might be considered for the symptom-specific treatment of delay aversion in stimulant addiction. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Exploration of the molecular mechanism of prostate cancer based on mRNA and miRNA expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Xing Zhang,1 YuYan Sun,1 Peng Wang,1 Changfu Yang,1 Shengwei Li2 1Department of Urology, 2Surgery of Chinese Medicine, Yangzhou TCM Hospital, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Yangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Prostate cancer, the second most common cancer in men, has been rarely explored by integrating mRNA and miRNA expression profiles. In this study, we combined two mRNA expression datasets and six documented miRNAs to uncover the comprehensive molecular mechanism of prostate cancer. Results showed that a total of 30 genes were significantly differentially expressed in 49 tumor samples by comparing with 22 normal samples. Importantly, all samples from the two datasets can be clearly classified into two groups, tumor group and normal group, based on the selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs. The miRNA–mRNA regulation network indicated that 4 out of 30 DEGs can be regulated by three miRNAs. In addition, prognostic performance validation using in silico databases showed that the DEGs can significantly differentiate between low-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. In summary, multiple biological processes are probably involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. First, dysregulation of SV2 can regulate transporter and transmembrane transporter activity and then provide the necessary nutrients for tumor cell proliferation. Second, HOXD10 can induce cell proliferation via TCF-4. Finally, dysregulation of CACNA1D can further suppress tumor apoptosis in prostate cancer. The identification of critical genes and valuable biological processes can be useful for the understanding of the molecular mechanism of prostate cancer. Keywords: mRNA, DEGs, miRNA, prognostic

  7. Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) Activates Hepcidin mRNA Expression in Hepatocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Simeng; Feng, Teng; Vujić Spasić, Maja; Altamura, Sandro; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Altenöder, Jutta; Weiss, Thomas S.; Dooley, Steven; Muckenthaler, Martina U.

    2016-01-01

    The hepatic hormone hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Its expression level is adjusted to alterations in iron levels, inflammatory cues, and iron requirements for erythropoiesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) contributes to the iron-dependent control of hepcidin. In addition, TGF-β1 may stimulate hepcidin mRNA expression in murine hepatocytes and human leukocytes. However, receptors and downstream signaling proteins involved in TGF-β1-induced hepcidin expression are still unclear. Here we show that TGF-β1 treatment of mouse and human hepatocytes, as well as ectopic expression of TGF-β1 in mice, increases hepcidin mRNA levels. The hepcidin response to TGF-β1 depends on functional TGF-β1 type I receptor (ALK5) and TGF-β1 type II receptor (TβRII) and is mediated by a noncanonical mechanism that involves Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. Interestingly, increasing availability of canonical Smad2/3 decreases TGF-β1-induced hepcidin regulation, whereas the BMP6-hepcidin signal was enhanced, indicating a signaling component stoichiometry-dependent cross-talk between the two pathways. Although ALK2/3-dependent hepcidin activation by BMP6 can be modulated by each of the three hemochromatosis-associated proteins: HJV (hemojuvelin), HFE (hemochromatosis protein), and TfR2 (transferrin receptor 2), these proteins do not control the ALK5-mediated hepcidin response to TGF-β1. TGF-β1 mRNA levels are increased in mouse models of iron overload, indicating that TGF-β1 may contribute to hepcidin synthesis under these conditions. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that a complex regulatory network involving TGF-β1 and BMP6 may control the sensing of systemic and/or hepatic iron levels. PMID:27129231

  8. Cellular retinoic-acid-binding-protein and retinol-binding-protein mRNA expression in the cells of the rat seminiferous tubules and their regulation by retinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraonio, R; Galdieri, M; Colantuoni, V

    1993-02-01

    The levels of the mRNA corresponding to the intracellular binding proteins for retinoic acid and retinol (CRABP1 and CRBP1, respectively) were studied in primary cultures of somatic and germ cells of the rat seminiferous tubules. We show that the CRABP1 mRNA is expressed in Sertoli and germ cells and a single molecular species of mRNA is detected. CRBP1 mRNA is detected in Sertoli and peritubular cells. The regulation of the expression of both genes by retinoids was studied in Sertoli cells. CRABP1 mRNA levels are not affected by either retinoic acid or retinol, whereas both compounds positively regulate CRBP1 mRNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. A fivefold increase in CRBP1 mRNA levels was observed 32-48 h after addition of either agent. These results demonstrate that in Sertoli cells the expression of CRABP1 is not affected by retinoids, similar to the situation observed in vivo and in other in-vitro cultures. CRBP1-gene expression is, instead, induced and the variations in CRBP1-mRNA levels may regulate the intracellular concentrations of retinoids, as a response to changes in the vitamin-A nutritional status.

  9. [Influence of Heat-reinforcing Needling on Expression of Plasma Atp 5 O mRNA and Atp 6 V 1 B 2 mRNA in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis of Wind-cold-damp Retention Type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Zheng; Wang, Jin-Hai; Zhang, Xing-Hua; Tian, Jie-Xiang; Qin, Xiao-Guang; Fang, Xiao-Li; Tian, Liang; Yuan, Bo

    2016-08-25

    To observe influences of heat-reinforcing needling (HRN) on scores of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms and expression of plasma ATP synthase subunit O (Atp 5 O) mRNA and lysosomal V 1 subunit B 2 (Atp 6 V 1 B 2) mRNA in patients with wind-cold-damp retention type rheumatoid arthritis (RA), so as to investigate its biological mechanisms in "heat production". Sixty wind-cold-damp retention type RA patients were randomly allocated to HRN group (n=30) and control group (n=30). Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), bilateral Zusanli (ST 36), and local acupoints near the knee-joint were selected for needling stimulation. Patients of the HRN group were treated by manipulating the acupuncture needle with HRN, and those of the control group treated by manipulating the needle with uniform reinforcing-reducing method. The treatments were performed once daily, 5 days a week, and two weeks altogether. The other 30 healthy volunteers were recruited as the normal control group. The TCM symptom scoring system (0-31 points, 11 items as the severities of pain, swelling and tenderness of the knee-joint) was used to evaluate the status of RA, and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of plasma Atp 5 O mRNA and Atp 6 V 1 B 2 mRNA following removal of red blood cells. After the treatment, the TCM scores of both the HRN and control groups were significantly decreased (PB 2 mRNA in RA patients were significantly lower than those of the normal group (PB 2 mRNA were significantly increased in both HRN and control groups compared to pre-treatment in the same one group (PB 2 mRNA levels were remarkably higher in the control group than in the HRN group (PB 2 mRNA.

  10. Analysis of the Tumor Microenvironment Transcriptome via NanoString mRNA and miRNA Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Boutchou, Marie-Noël; van Kempen, Léon C

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in the tumor microenvironment using archived clinical samples is challenging because of formalin fixation, RNA degradation, and limiting sample volume. NanoString gene expression profiling is a RNA-DNA hybrid capture technology that does not require PCR and can accurately quantify the expression of to 800 transcripts in a single reaction. The technology requires 50-100 ng of RNA, which can be degraded ( is this correct?) to a 200 bp fragment size. In contrast to amplification technologies, nanoString counts the actual numbers of transcripts that are captured with transcript-specific and fluorescently-barcoded probes. This chapter describes protocols for RNA extraction, quantification, mRNA and miRNA profiling and data analysis.

  11. Effect of L-Caldesmon on Osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-Induced RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Ying-Ming; Chan, Chu-Lung; Huang, Renjian; Wang, Chih-Lueh Albert

    2018-01-29

    Non-muscle caldesmon (l-CaD) is involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeletal remodeling in the podosome formation, but its function in osteoclastogenesis remains to be determined. In this study, RANKL-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 murine macrophages to osteoclast-like cells (OCs) was used as a model to determine the physiological role of l-CaD and its phosphorylation in osteoclastogenesis. Upon RANKL treatment, RAW264.7 cells undergo cell-cell fusion into multinucleate and TRAP-positive large OCs with a concomitant increase of l-CaD expression. Using gain- and loss-of-function in OC precursor cells followed by RANKL induction, we showed that the expression of l-CaD in response to RANKL activation is an important event for osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. To determine the effect of l-CaD phosphorylation in osteoclastogenesis, three decoy peptides of l-CaD were used with, respectively, Ser-to-Ala mutations at the Erk- and Pak1-mediated phosphorylation sites, and Ser-to-Asp mutation at the Erk-mediated phosphorylation sites. Both the former two peptides competed with the C-terminal segment of l-CaD for F-actin binding and accelerated formation of podosome-like structures in RANKL-induced OCs, while the third peptide did not significantly affect the F-actin binding of l-CaD and decreased the formation of podosome-like structures in OCs. With the experiments using dephosphorylated and phosphorylated l-CaD mutants, we further showed that dephosphorylated l-CaD mutant facilitated RANKL-induced TRAP activity with an increased cell fusion index, whereas phosphorylated l-CaD decreased the TRAP activity and cell fusion. Our findings suggested that both the level of l-CaD expression and the extent of l-CaD phosphorylation play a role in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Anatomical characterization of bombesin receptor subtype-3 mRNA expression in the rodent central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Parks, Gregory S; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Lien; Lew, Michelle; Civelli, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Mice deficient in BRS-3 develop late-onset mild obesity with metabolic defects, while synthetic agonists activating BRS-3 show antiobesity profiles by inhibiting food intake and increasing metabolic rate in rodent models. The molecular mechanisms and the neural circuits responsible for these effects, however, remain elusive and demand better characterization. We report here a comprehensive mapping of BRS-3 mRNA in the rat and mouse brain through in situ hybridization. Furthermore, to investigate the neurochemical characteristics of the BRS-3-expressing neurons, double in situ hybridization was performed to determine whether BRS-3 colocalizes with other neurotransmitters or neuropeptides. Many, but not all, of the BRS-3-expressing neurons were found to be glutamatergic, while few were found to be cholinergic or GABAergic. BRS-3-containing neurons do not express some of the well-characterized neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin/hypocretin, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and kisspeptin. Interestingly, BRS-3 mRNA was found to partially colocalize with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), suggesting novel interactions of BRS-3 with stress- and growth-related endocrine systems. Our study provides important information for evaluating BRS-3 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Estrogen-dependent changes in estrogen receptor-β mRNA expression in middle-aged female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoko; Yuri, Kazunari

    2014-01-16

    During aging, estrogen production and circulating levels of estrogen are markedly decreased in females. Although several differences exist in the process of reproductive aging between women and female rats, the results of many studies suggest that the female rat, especially the middle-aged or aged ovariectomized female, is an important animal model of hormone loss in women. In target tissues including the brain, the actions of estrogen are mediated mainly via the alpha and beta subtypes of the estrogen receptor (ER-α and ER-β). Estrogen treatment is known to change the expression of ER-α mRNA and protein in specific regions of the brain in middle-aged female rodents. In contrast, we do not know if estrogen regulates the expression of ER-β in the brain at this stage of life. In the present study, we performed in situ hybridization on brain sections of ovariectomized and estrogen-treated middle-aged female rats to reveal the effects of estrogen on the expression of ER-β throughout the brain. Our results showed that estrogen treatment decreased the number of ER-β mRNA-positive cells in the mitral cell and external plexiform layers of the olfactory bulb, central amygdaloid nucleus, medial geniculate nucleus, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and reticular part of the substantia nigra. As compared to the results of previous studies of young females, our data revealed that the regions in which expression of ER-β mRNA expression is affected by estrogen differ in middle age. These results suggest that the effects of estrogen on ER-β expression change with age. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Strong correlation between tax and HBZ mRNA expression in HAM/TSP patients: distinct markers for the neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela Gomes; Gonçalves, Poliane de Cássia; Ribeiro, Maisa Aparecida; Romanelli, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira; Ribas, João Gabriel; Torres, Elídio Barbosa; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Martins, Marina Lobato

    2013-02-01

    HTLV-1 proviral load is a risk marker for HAM/TSP, but it is insufficient to determine the disease outcome. HTLV-1 Tax and HBZ proteins have been implicated in HAM/TSP pathogenesis in inducing cell proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocytes response. To quantify the expression of tax and HBZ mRNA in asymptomatic carriers (AC) and HAM patients, and to investigate their association with HAM/TSP. We quantified the expression of HTLV-1 tax and HBZ mRNA in 37 AC and 26 HAM patients classified according to proviral load as low (AC(L) and HAM(L): 1%). The AC(L) subgroup showed the lowest frequency of individuals expressing tax mRNA in comparison with AC(H), HAM(L) and HAM(H), and tax mRNA load normalized by proviral load was significantly lower in the AC(L). In turn, normalized HBZ mRNA expression was similar in all subgroups. Both tax and HBZ mRNA expression were moderately correlated with proviral load in AC (r=0.6, pTSP, whereas HBZ mRNA appears to be a surrogate marker to disease progression, indicating that they have important but distinct roles in HAM/TSP pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered mRNA editing and expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors after kainic acid exposure in cyclooxygenase-2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Caracciolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kainic acid (KA binds to the AMPA/KA receptors and induces seizures that result in inflammation, oxidative damage and neuronal death. We previously showed that cyclooxygenase-2 deficient (COX-2(-/- mice are more vulnerable to KA-induced excitotoxicity. Here, we investigated whether the increased susceptibility of COX-2(-/- mice to KA is associated with altered mRNA expression and editing of glutamate receptors. The expression of AMPA GluR2, GluR3 and KA GluR6 was increased in vehicle-injected COX-2(-/- mice compared to wild type (WT mice in hippocampus and cortex, whereas gene expression of NMDA receptors was decreased. KA treatment decreased the expression of AMPA, KA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, with a significant effect in COX-2(-/- mice. Furthermore, we analyzed RNA editing levels and found that the level of GluR3 R/G editing site was selectively increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the cortex in COX-2(-/- compared with WT mice. After KA, GluR4 R/G editing site, flip form, was increased in the hippocampus of COX-2(-/- mice. Treatment of WT mice with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib for two weeks decreased the expression of AMPA/KA and NMDAR subunits after KA, as observed in COX-2(-/- mice. After KA exposure, COX-2(-/- mice showed increased mRNA expression of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, such as cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, microglia (CD11b and astrocyte (GFAP. Thus, COX-2 gene deletion can exacerbate the inflammatory response to KA. We suggest that COX-2 plays a role in attenuating glutamate excitotoxicity by modulating RNA editing of AMPA/KA and mRNA expression of all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and, in turn, neuronal excitability. These changes may contribute to the increased vulnerability of COX-2(-/- mice to KA. The overstimulation of glutamate receptors as a consequence of COX-2 gene deletion suggests a functional coupling between COX-2 and the

  16. PCB-associated changes in mRNA expression in killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the NE Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Andrea H; Veldhoen, Nik; Ellis, Graeme; Ford, John K B; Helbing, Caren C; Ross, Peter S

    2011-12-01

    Killer whales in the NE Pacific Ocean are among the world's most PCB-contaminated marine mammals, raising concerns about implications for their health. Sixteen health-related killer whale mRNA transcripts were analyzed in blubber biopsies collected from 35 free-ranging killer whales in British Columbia using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed PCB-related increases in the expression of five gene targets, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR; r(2) = 0.83; p physiological effects of persistent environmental contaminants in these endangered killer whales.

  17. Heterologous Expression of Membrane and Soluble Proteins Derepresses GCN4 mRNA Translation in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, L.; Pedersen, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the first physiological response at the translational level towards heterologous protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast, the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 ) by Gcn2p protein kinase mediates derepression of GCN4 mRNA translation. Gcn4......p is a transcription factor initially found to be required for transcriptional induction of genes responsible for amino acid or purine biosynthesis. Using various GCN4-lacZ fusions, knockout yeast strains, and anti-eIF-2 -P/anti-eIF-2 antibodies, we observed that heterologous expression...

  18. Influence of different forms of fluid shear stress on vascular endothelial TGF-beta1 mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, R M; Wiley, L M; Barakat, A I

    2000-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term exposure of steady (19 dyne/cm2), 1-Hz non-reversing pulsatile (19+/-6 dyne/cm2) and 1-Hz purely oscillatory (0+/-19 dyne/cm2) shear stress on endothelial transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA expression. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were systematically exposed to the three flow conditions for periods of 2, 6, 12 and 24 h, and relative differences in TGF-beta1 mRNA levels were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In response to steady shear stress, TGF-beta1 mRNA levels normalized to no-flow controls were 1.24, 1.42, 1.30 and 1.47 at the 2-, 6-, 12- and 24-h time points, respectively. In response to non-reversing pulsatile flow, these levels were 1.49, 1.64, 1.64 and 1.73, while the respective transcript levels for oscillatory flow were 1.33, 1.12, 1.12 and 1. 93. These results indicate that BAEC TGF-beta1 mRNA was up-regulated with the kinetics of the up-regulation faster for steady and non-reversing pulsatile flow than for oscillatory flow. Given the preferential localization of early atherosclerotic lesions in arterial regions exposed to low and/or oscillatory shear stress and the implication of TGF-beta1 as an athero-protective gene, these results are consistent with the notion that regions transiently exposed to oscillatory flow may be particularly prone to atherosclerosis.

  19. In vitro gene expression and mRNA translocation from transformed walnut (Juglans regia) rootstocks expressing DsRED fluorescent protein to wild-type scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochen; Walawage, Sriema L; Leslie, Charles A; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Tricoli, David M; Hu, Hengkang; Huang, Youjun; Zhang, Jiaqi; Xv, Chuanmei; Huang, Jianqin; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-06-01

    An in vitro grafting method was developed for examining gene translocation from rootstock to scion in walnut. Results showed the DsRED gene itself was not translocated but expressed mRNA was. Grafting is widely used in plants, especially in fruit and nut crops. Selected rootstocks can control scion growth and physiological traits, including shortening of the juvenile phase and controlling tree size. Rootstocks also can provide improved soil adaptation and pathogen resistance. Development of genetically modified (GM) fruit crops has progressed recently, but commercial cultivation is still limited due to the time required for evaluation and issues with deregulation. In this study, we evaluated the stability of DsRED marker gene expression in in vitro walnut shoots and examined translocation of the gene and its mRNA from transformed rootstock to wild-type scion. Results show that DsRED was expressed uniformly in transformed tissue-cultured shoots. When used as in vitro rootstocks, these had good graft affinity with wild-type control scion. PCR and qRT-PCR analysis showed that the DsRED gene was not transported from rootstock to scion, but the transcribed mRNA was translocated. This result provides further evidence of gene signal transport from rootstock to scion in fruit and nut crops.

  20. Testosterone Regulates NUCB2 mRNA Expression in Male Mouse Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Seon, Sojeong; Jeon, Daun; Kim, Heejeong; Chung, Yiwa; Choi, Narae; Yang, Hyunwon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is known to take part in the control of the appetite and energy metabolism. Recently, many reports have shown nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression and function in various organs. We previously demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression level is higher in the pituitary gland compared to other organs and its expression is regulated by 17?-estradiol and progesterone secreted from the ovary. However, currently no data exist on the expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 and its regulat...

  1. Decreased mRNA expression of transcription factor forkhead box F2 is an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Zhen; Wen, Jing; Cao, Xun; Yang, Hong; Luo, Kong-Jia; Liu, Qian-Wen; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Jun-Ying; Fu, Jian-Hua

    2015-05-01

    The transcription factor forkhead box F2 (FOXF2) is an evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding protein involved in embryogenesis and metabolism. Although recent studies prove that FOXF2 is a tumor suppressor in various human cancers, the role of FOXF2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unknown. Therefore, samples were collected from 188 ESCC patients, including 33 pairs of tumor and non-tumor tissues, and FOXF2 mRNA expression was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that FOXF2 mRNA is downregulated in tumor tissues compared to paired non-tumor tissues (P=0.048). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated 1.2 as a cut-off point and, thus, 125 and 63 tumors were classified as low- and high-level FOXF2 mRNA expression, respectively. We observed that low-level FOXF2 mRNA expression in the tumors was associated with a higher frequency of lymph node metastasis (P=0.044), an effect further suggested by the multivariate logistic regression analysis (P=0.060). According to the univariate Cox analysis, patients harboring tumors with low-level FOXF2 mRNA expression had a significantly increased mortality risk compared to those with high-level expression (hazard ratio=1.700, 95% confidence interval, 1.077-2.681), with 5-year survival rates of 41.1 and 61.9%, respectively. This negative prognostic effect of low-level FOXF2 mRNA expression was further validated in the multivariate Cox analysis (P=0.021). The subgroup analysis demonstrated that the effect of FOX2 mRNA expression was limited to male patients and those with advanced-stage disease. Taken together, these findings suggest that FOXF2 may be an anti-oncogene for ESCC and decreased FOXF2 mRNA expression is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with ESCC.

  2. Vitellogenin mRNA expression in Cherax quadricarinatus during secondary vitellogenic at first maturation females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Landais, Igor; Ogliastro, Marie-Helene; Gutiérrez-Ayala, Meliza; Mejía-Ruíz, Humberto; Villarreal-Colmenares, Humberto; García-Gasca, Alejandra; Vázquez-Boucard, Celia

    2004-09-01

    PCR products of 1.1 and 0.9 kb were generated using Cherax quadricarinatus genomic DNA in the first case, and hepatopancreas and ovary cDNAs in the second case. These PCR products were cloned and analyzed for nucleotide sequences. The 1.1 kb fragment was used as a probe for Northern hybridization, revealing a transcript of approximately 8 kb in both tissues. Results from both Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the mRNA enconding the 3' end of the vitellogenin cDNA was present simultaneously in both hepatopancreas and ovary tissues in secondary vitellogenic at first maturation females, but was not detected in male hepatopancreas. The deduced amino acid sequences of Vitellogenin (Vg) cDNAs from ovary and hepatopancreas confirmed the existence at least two different Vg genes, and two different sites of synthesis.

  3. LARP6 Meets Collagen mRNA: Specific Regulation of Type I Collagen Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Type I collagen is the most abundant structural protein in all vertebrates, but its constitutive rate of synthesis is low due to long half-life of the protein (60–70 days. However, several hundred fold increased production of type I collagen is often seen in reparative or reactive fibrosis. The mechanism which is responsible for this dramatic upregulation is complex, including multiple levels of regulation. However, posttranscriptional regulation evidently plays a predominant role. Posttranscriptional regulation comprises processing, transport, stabilization and translation of mRNAs and is executed by RNA binding proteins. There are about 800 RNA binding proteins, but only one, La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (LARP6, is specifically involved in type I collagen regulation. In the 5′untranslated region (5’UTR of mRNAs encoding for type I and type III collagens there is an evolutionally conserved stem-loop (SL structure; this structure is not found in any other mRNA, including any other collagen mRNA. LARP6 binds to the 5′SL in sequence specific manner to regulate stability of collagen mRNAs and their translatability. Here, we will review current understanding of how is LARP6 involved in posttranscriptional regulation of collagen mRNAs. We will also discuss how other proteins recruited by LARP6, including nonmuscle myosin, vimentin, serine threonine kinase receptor associated protein (STRAP, 25 kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP25 and RNA helicase A (RHA, contribute to this process.

  4. Validation of four reference genes for quantitative mRNA expression studies in a rat model of inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Roxanne Y; Wattiez, Anne-Sophie; White, Stephanie R; Marquez de Prado, Blanca; Hamity, Marta V; Hammond, Donna L

    2014-09-04

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a technique frequently used to measure changes in mRNA expression. To ensure validity of experimental findings, it is important to normalize the qPCR data to reference genes that are stable and unaffected by the experimental treatment to correct for variability among samples. Unlike in some models of neuropathic pain, reference genes for models of inflammatory injury have not been validated. This study examined four candidate reference genes in an effort to identify and validate optimal genes for normalization of transcriptional changes occurring in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) following intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The expression of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (Hprt1), beta-actin (Actb), mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (Mapk6), and beta-2-microglobulin (B2m) was quantified in the dorsal horn and RVM of rats four days or two weeks after intraplantar injection of CFA or saline. The range of expression levels among these four genes differed by as much as 16-fold within the dorsal horn and the RVM. All four of these reference genes were stably expressed in both tissues and did not differ between saline and CFA-treated animals. Analyses using the statistical algorithms in geNorm and NormFinder programs determined that Mapk6 was the most stable gene and recommended the combination of Mapk6 and Actb, or Mapk6 and Hprt1, in such experimental conditions. This study validated the four genes Hprt1, Actb, Mapk6 or B2m and showed that any one or combination of two of them are good reference genes for normalization of mRNA expression in qPCR experiments in the spinal cord and RVM in the CFA model of inflammatory injury.

  5. RANKL, Osteopontin, and Osteoclast Homeostasis in a Hyper-Occlusion Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Cameron G.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Dangaria, Smit; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H. (UIC)

    2010-11-15

    The biological mechanisms that maintain the position of teeth in their sockets establish a dynamic equilibrium between bone resorption and apposition. In order to reveal some of the dynamics involved in the tissue responses towards occlusal forces on periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone homeostasis, we developed the first mouse model of hyperocclusion. Swiss-Webster mice were kept in hyperocclusion for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d. Morphological and histological changes in the periodontium were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and ground sections with fluorescent detection of vital dye labels. Sections were stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) and osteopontin (OPN) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Traumatic occlusion resulted in enamel surface abrasion, inhibition of alveolar bone apposition, significant formation of osteoclasts at 3, 6 and 9 d, and upregulation of OPN and RANKL. Data from this study suggest that both OPN and RANKL contribute to the stimulation of bone resorption in the hyperocclusive state. In addition, we propose that the inhibition of alveolar bone apposition by occlusal forces is an important mechanism for the control of occlusal height that might work in synergy with RANKL-induced bone resorption to maintain normal occlusion.

  6. Evaluation of mRNA Expression Profile of ABCG2/BCRP in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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    M Entezar-e-Ghaem

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study showed no effect of ABCG2/BCRP expression level on MDR development in ALL. Accordingly, clinical value of ABCG2/BCRP expression profile determination was rejected as the prognosis value for childhood ALL in our geographical area.

  7. E-cadherin mRNA expression in breast carcinomas correlates with overall and disease-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guriec, N; Marcellin, L; Gairard, B; Caldéroli, H; Wilk, A; Renaud, R; Bergerat, J P; Oberling, F

    1996-01-01

    E-cadherin (Epithelial-cadherin) is a subclass of the cadherin family that plays a major role in the maintenance of intercellular junctions in epithelial tissues. E-cadherin is also involved in the interactions between epithelial cells and T lymphocytes. In order to explore the relationship between E-cadherin expression, cancer invasion and metastases in vivo, we estimated its expression in normal breast specimens, fibroadenomas, cystic samples and primary breast carcinomas using a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The relationship between E-cadherin expression, survival and disease-free survival was also investigated. In comparison with normal breasts, 70% of the primary tumors showed reduced expression of E-cadherin suggesting that downregulation of this cell adhesion molecule is a common event in breast carcinoma. Significant correlation was found between E-cadherin expression and the histological classification. Most of the advanced tumors grades (10/13 tumors with grade III) presented decreased E-cadherin expression. No correlation was found between E-cadherin expression, estrogen and progesteron receptors, age and menopausal status at diagnosis. However, disease-free and overall survival was associated with E-cadherin expression. Patients showing poorly expressed E-cadherin in tumor tissue had a worse prognosis. The same results were observed for women without lymph node invasion or metastasis at diagnosis even when they were grouped according to their histological grade for statistical analysis. Therefore, E-cadherin mRNA expression in invasive breast carcinomas might be an early prognostic factor of metastasis.

  8. Antisense RNA directed to the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 mRNA from herpes simplex virus type 1 derived vectors is expressed in CaSki cells and downregulates E7 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Ilkka; Syrjänen, Stina; Johansson, Bo; Peri, Piritta; He, Bin; Roizman, Bernard; Hukkanen, Veijo

    2007-06-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to be the most important etiologic factor of cervical cancer. There is no HPV specific therapy available for treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and its precursor lesions. The present study elucidates the potential to use herpes simplex virus (HSV) derived vectors for expression of antisense RNA to HPV -16 E7 oncogene. We have constructed replication competent, nonneuroinvasive HSV-1 vectors, deleted of the gamma134.5 gene. The vectors express RNA antisense to the first 100 nucleotides of the HPV-16 E7 gene. We assayed the ability of the antisense E7 vectors R5225 (tk-) and R5226 (tk+), to produce antisense RNA, as well as the consequent effects on E7 mRNA and protein levels in HPV-16 positive CaSki cells. Anti-E7 RNA was expressed by both constructs in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of HPV-16 E7 mRNA was downregulated effectively in CaSki cells infected with the tk- recombinant R5225 or with R5226. The tk+ recombinant R5226 was effective in downregulating E7 protein expression. We have shown that anti-E7 RNA expressed from an HSV vector could efficiently downregulate HPV-16 E7 mRNA and E7 protein expression in CaSki cells. We conclude that HSV vectors may become a useful tool for gene therapy of HPV infections.

  9. Antisense RNA directed to the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 mRNA from herpes simplex virus type 1 derived vectors is expressed in CaSki cells and downregulates E7 mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Bo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is known to be the most important etiologic factor of cervical cancer. There is no HPV specific therapy available for treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and its precursor lesions. The present study elucidates the potential to use herpes simplex virus (HSV derived vectors for expression of antisense RNA to HPV -16 E7 oncogene. Results We have constructed replication competent, nonneuroinvasive HSV-1 vectors, deleted of the γ134.5 gene. The vectors express RNA antisense to the first 100 nucleotides of the HPV-16 E7 gene. We assayed the ability of the antisense E7 vectors R5225 (tk- and R5226 (tk+, to produce antisense RNA, as well as the consequent effects on E7 mRNA and protein levels in HPV-16 positive CaSki cells. Anti-E7 RNA was expressed by both constructs in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of HPV-16 E7 mRNA was downregulated effectively in CaSki cells infected with the tk- recombinant R5225 or with R5226. The tk+ recombinant R5226 was effective in downregulating E7 protein expression. Conclusion We have shown that anti-E7 RNA expressed from an HSV vector could efficiently downregulate HPV-16 E7 mRNA and E7 protein expression in CaSki cells. We conclude that HSV vectors may become a useful tool for gene therapy of HPV infections.

  10. Integrative genomics analysis of genes with biallelic loss and its relation to the expression of mRNA and micro-RNA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Wang, Chaoyu; Clifford, Robert J; Yang, Howard H; Su, Hua; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Yi; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Ding, Ti; Zhang, Tongwu; Goldstein, Alisa M; Giffen, Carol; Lee, Maxwell P; Taylor, Philip R

    2015-09-26

    Genomic instability plays an important role in human cancers. We previously characterized genomic instability in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) in terms of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and copy number (CN) changes in tumors. In the current study we focus on biallelic loss and its relation to expression of mRNA and miRNA in ESCC using results from 500 K SNP, mRNA, and miRNA arrays in 30 cases from a high-risk region of China. (i) Biallelic loss was uncommon but when it occurred it exhibited a consistent pattern: only 77 genes (RNA expression data, and 41 (79%) showed lower expression levels in cases with biallelic loss compared to those without. (iii) The relation of biallelic loss to miRNA expression was less clear but appeared to favor higher miRNA levels: of 60 miRNA-target gene pairs, 34 pairs (57%) had higher miRNA expression with biallelic loss than without, while 26 pairs (43%) had lower miRNA expression. (iv) Finally, the effect of biallelic loss on the relation between miRNA and mRNA expression was complex. Biallelic loss was most commonly associated with a pattern of elevated miRNA and reduced mRNA (43%), but a pattern of both reduced miRNA and mRNA was also common (35%). Our results indicate that biallelic loss in ESCC is uncommon, but when it occurs it is localized to a few specific chromosome regions and is associated with reduced mRNA expression of affected genes. The effect of biallelic loss on miRNA expression and on the relation between miRNA and mRNA expressions was complex.

  11. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine{sup 727}. Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser{sup 727} signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  12. Abnormal mRNA Expression Levels of Telomere-Binding Proteins Represent Biomarkers in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As evidence was shown that abnormal shortening of telomeres begins to accumulate in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS patients, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the mRNA expression levels of telomere-binding proteins (TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1 and the risk level in MDS. Materials and Methods: There were 40 patients with MDS and 40 normal controls in this study. Methods including telomere content assays and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the mRNA levels of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/ TPP1/POT1/RAP1 in patients with MDS. Results: Compared to the normal group used as a control, the mRNA expression levels of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 of the patients with MDS were decreased, whereas their levels of TRF1/TRF2 and TIN2 were increased. A positive correlation was found between the TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mRNA expression levels and the risk level of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS and the World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS criteria; however, a negative correlation was found between RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression levels and the risk levels of IPSS and WPSS criteria. Conclusion: Because the reduction of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2 mRNA expression and the increase of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression are closely related to the risk levels of the IPSS and WPSS criteria in MDS, it is thought that these telomere-binding proteins could lead to abnormal telomere length and function, which cause chromosomal abnormalities in MDS. With this evidence, we suggest that those proteins’ mRNA expressions could be used as biomarkers for the assessment of the risk degree of MDS patients.

  13. UV-laser microdissection and mRNA expression analysis of individual neurons from postmortem Parkinson's disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründemann, Jan; Schlaudraff, Falk; Liss, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Cell specificity of gene expression analysis is essential to avoid tissue sample related artifacts, in particular when the relative number of target cells present in the compared tissues varies dramatically, e.g., when comparing dopamine neurons in midbrain tissues from control subjects with those from Parkinson's disease (PD) cases. Here, we describe a detailed protocol that combines contact-free UV-laser microdissection and quantitative PCR of reverse-transcribed RNA of individual neurons from postmortem human midbrain tissue from PD patients and unaffected controls. Among expression changes in a variety of dopamine neuron marker, maintenance, and cell-metabolism genes, we found that α-synuclein mRNA levels were significantly elevated in individual neuromelanin-positive dopamine midbrain neurons from PD brains when compared to those from matched controls.

  14. Metallothionein coding sequence identification and seasonal mRNA expression of detoxification genes in the bivalve Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Aurélie; Doyen, Périne; Vasseur, Paule; Rodius, François

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a metallothionein (MT) coding sequence from the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea and to measure the seasonal transcriptional pattern of MT in parallel with several detoxification genes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx), in the digestive gland and the gills of this bivalve during a 1-year period. We identified a C. fluminea MT complete cDNA sequence using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR. The amino acid sequence deduced from the coding sequence encodes for a protein of 73 amino acids containing 21 cysteine residues. This protein exhibits high identities and similarities with the MT sequences of numerous bivalves. MT, SOD, CAT, pi-GST and Se-GPx expression patterns did not exhibit major seasonal variations. A slight increase of MT was observed in July. Therefore, the mRNA expression of these five genes could be used as biomarkers for monitoring studies.

  15. Plasmatocyte spreading peptide is encoded by an mRNA differentially expressed in tissues of the moth Pseudoplusia includens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K D; Witherell, A; Strand, M R

    1998-09-18

    It has long been known that blood cells (hemocytes) are an essential component of the invertebrate immune system, yet little is known about the molecules mediating their function. Recently, we identified plasmatocyte spreading peptide (PSP1) from the moth Pseudoplusia includens which regulates the trafficking and adhesion of a hemocyte subclass called plasmatocytes. Here, we report the cloning of a cDNA (p15) that encodes a PSP1 precursor protein. Northern blot analysis revealed that a homologous prepro-PSP1 mRNA is expressed in fat body, and that other PSP1-related transcripts are expressed in nervous tissue and hemocytes. Coupled in vitro transcription/translation reactions indicated that p15 produces a protein recognized by a PSP1 polyclonal antibody. Immunoblotting experiments further revealed that a putative pro-PSP1 protein is present in P. includens plasma and fat body.

  16. Echinocystic acid inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by regulating NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jian-hui, E-mail: jianhui_yangxa@163.com [Rehabilitation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710061, Shaanxi Province (China); Li, Bing [Department of Dermatology, the 451st Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Xi’an 710054, Shaanxi Province (China); Wu, Qiong; Lv, Jian-guo; Nie, Hui-Yong [Rehabilitation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710061, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2016-09-02

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is a key factor in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Echinocystic acid (EA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the fruits of Gleditsia sinensis Lam, was reported to prevent reduction of bone mass and strength and improve the cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties in ovariectomy rats. However, the molecular mechanism of EA on the osteoclast formation has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of EA on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results showed that EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast, as well as the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). At molecular levels, EA inhibited RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and ERK phosphorylation in BMMs. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that EA can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Moreover, we clarified that these inhibitory effects of EA occur through suppression of NF-κB and ERK activation. Therefore, EA may be a potential agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast in BMMs. • EA inhibits the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced ERK phosphorylation in BMMs.

  17. Differential expression of melanopsin mRNA and protein in the Brown Norwegian rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Melanopsin is expressed in a subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells rendering these cells intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs). The ipRGCs are the primary RGCs mediating light entrainment of the circadian clock and control of the pupillary light reflex, light regulated melatonin secretion...... and negative masking behaviour. Previous studies have demonstrated that melanopsin expression in albino rats is regulated by light and darkness. The present study was undertaken to study the influence of light and darkness during the circadian day and after extended periods of constant light and darkness...... on melanopsin expression in the pigmented retina of the Brown Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus). The diurnal and circadian expressions were examined in retinal extracts from rats euthanized every 4 h during a 24 h light/dark (LD) and a 24 h dark cycle (DD) using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting...

  18. Neurotrophin mRNA expression in the developing tooth suggests multiple roles in innervation and organogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luukko, K; Arumäe, U; Karavanov, A; Moshnyakov, M; Sainio, K; Sariola, H; Saarma, M; Thesleff, I

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the roles of neurotrophins during early development of rat teeth, we studied the expression of neurotrophin mRNAs from the initiation of first molar formation to the completion of crown morphogenesis...

  19. Antiatherogenic effect of Pistacia lentiscus via GSH restoration and downregulation of CD36 mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedoussis, George V Z; Kaliora, Andriana C; Psarras, Stellios; Chiou, Antonia; Mylona, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2004-06-01

    Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (Anacardiaceae) grows almost exclusively on Chios Island, Greece, and gives a resinous exudate resin used for culinary purposes by Mediterranean people. We investigated the molecular mechanisms through which total polar extract of the resin inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). Cells exposed to oxLDL underwent apoptosis and necrosis, dependent on the duration of exposure. When culturing cells with oxLDL and the polar extract concurrently, we observed inhibition of both the phenomena. Because under oxidative stress the pro-oxidant systems outbalance the antioxidant, potentially producing oxidative damage and ultimately leading to cell death, we measured the levels of intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Additionally, we measured CD36 expression, a class B scavenger receptor, on CD14-positive cells, as CD36 has been identified as the oxLDL receptor in macrophages and may play a pivotal role in atherosclerotic foam cell formation. oxLDL decreased GSH levels and upregulated CD36 expression. P. lentiscus extract restored GSH levels and downregulated CD36 expression, even at the mRNA level. In order to find out the biologically drastic constituents of the resin's polar extract, fractions derived from RP-HPLC analysis were examined for their antioxidant effect on oxidatively stressed PBMC. The triterpenoid fraction revealed remarkable increase in intracellular GSH. We suggest GSH restoration and downregulation of CD36 mRNA expression as the pathways via which P. lentiscus triterpenes exert antioxidant/antiatherogenic effect. Additionally, our results provide strong evidence of the resin's antiatherogenic effect; therefore it is credited with beneficial health aspects.

  20. Steady-state levels of aquaporin 1 mRNA expression are increased in idiopathic polyhydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Stephanie E; Dvorak, Natalia; Gilbert, Heather; Taylor, Robert N

    2006-03-01

    Polyhydramnios is a condition associated with significant perinatal morbidity. While the exact pathophysiology of this condition is unknown in the absence of obvious anatomic or organic etiologies, impaired intramembranous water transport has been shown. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is expressed in human fetal membranes from term pregnancies with normal amniotic fluid (AF) volume. Therefore, we hypothesized that in pregnancies with idiopathic polyhydramnios, AQP1 expression might be reduced in fetal membranes from pregnancies with this AF volume disorder. Placentas were collected from women at term (37-40 weeks) who presented with either polyhydramnios (amniotic fluid index [AFI] >24.0 cm) or normal AF volume (AFI 5.0-23.9 cm). Immediately after delivery, the membranes (amnion and chorion) directly overlying the placenta and the free-floating reflected membranes were sampled (total of 4 samples from each placenta). RNA was isolated from each sample and expression was quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and relative quantification of gene expression. Relative to pregnancies with normal AF volume, there was an increase in expression of the water channel AQP1 in all regions of the fetal membranes. The greatest increase (33-fold) was seen in the reflected amnion. AQP1 expression is increased in polyhydramnios. This finding suggests that alterations in AQP1 expression may be a compensatory response to and not a cause of idiopathic polyhydramnios. We speculate that therapies focused on regulating AQP1 expression may be useful for treating this condition.

  1. Correlation of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood with undesirable clinicopathological features in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Riming; Hao, Shaolong; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jihong; Liu, Xincheng; Xu, Jie; Liu, Xin; Ning, Jinyao; Sun, Yan; Jiang, Lixin; Li, Guojun; Song, Xicheng; Zheng, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    To determine the extent to which thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) mRNA in peripheral blood (PB) has diagnostic value for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We obtained pre- and postoperative PB samples from 104 thyroid disease patients and collected 11 healthy volunteers’ PB samples twice apiece at different times. We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to quantify TSHR mRNA expression levels in the samples. T-test and chi-square test were used to compare quantitative data and rates. The mean preoperative PB TSHR mRNA expression level of the PTC patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy volunteers. However, on the postoperative day 1, PB TSHR mRNA level of PTC patients significantly decreased but not for healthy controls. Preoperative PB TSHR mRNA expression levels were significantly associated with patient age, capsular invasion status, lymph node metastasis status, and BRAFV600E mutation status (P cancer foci, or Hashimoto thyroiditis status. Preoperative assessment of the PB TSHR mRNA expression level combined with ultrasonography of the thyroid had better accuracy in the diagnosis of PTC than either method alone did. Moreover, TSHR mRNA expression significantly affected recurrence of PTC patients. Our findings suggest that PB TSHR mRNA expression level is a promising novel biomarker for the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of PTC. It may serve as a noninvasive means of PTC detection and a prognostic biomarker of residual tumor and help guide further treatment. PMID:29088773

  2. Differential and quantitative analyses of mRNA expression of glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus mutans MT8148.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T; Hoshino, T; Ooshima, T; Hamada, S

    2002-02-01

    Streptococcus mutans produces three glucosyltransferases, coded by gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD, whose cooperative action is essential for sucrose-dependent cellular adhesion. This cellular adhesion plays an important role in the formation of dental plaque and the initiation of dental caries. Since they bear genetic similarities and are large in size, differentiation of their gene expression has been difficult, and little is known about the dynamic process of gtf expression. Using a real-time reverse-transcription/polymerase chain-reaction, we determined the expression of each gtf. Under various conditions, the relative levels of transcription were gtfB > gtfD > gtfC. Sucrose enhanced gtfD expression, whereas it reduced that of gtfB and gtfC, suggesting the presence of independent promoters. Quantitative analyses demonstrated coincidence between the ratio of expression of each gtf and the ratio previously identified as optimal for sucrose-dependent adhesion in vitro, suggesting that S. mutans produces GTF at an optimal ratio to adhere to the tooth surface.

  3. Identification of novel thymic epithelial cell subsets whose differentiation is regulated by RANKL and Traf6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichole M Danzl

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are critical for the normal development and function of the thymus. Here, we examined the developmental stages of TECs using quantitative assessment of the cortical and medullary markers Keratin 5 and Keratin 8 (K5 and K8 respectively, in normal and gain/loss of function mutant animals. Gain of function mice overexpressed RANKL in T cells, whereas loss of function animals lacked expression of Traf6 in TECs (Traf6ΔTEC. Assessment of K5 and K8 expression in conjunction with other TEC markers in wild type mice identified novel cortical and medullary TEC populations, expressing different combinations of these markers. RANKL overexpression led to expansion of all medullary TECs (mTECs and enlargement of the thymic medulla. This in turn associated with a block in thymocyte development and loss of CD4+ CD8+, CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes. In contrast, Traf6 deletion inhibited the production of most TEC populations including cortical TECs (cTECs, defined by absence of UEA-1 binding and LY51 expression, but had no apparent effect on thymocyte development. These results reveal a large degree of heterogeneity within the TEC compartment and the existence of several populations exhibiting concomitant expression of cortical, medullary and epithelial markers and whose production is regulated by RANKL and Traf6.

  4. Enhancement of XPG mRNA expression by human interferon-beta in Cockayne syndrome cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, K; Suzuki, N; Higuchi, Y; Kita, K; Suzuki, Y; Lehmann, A

    1998-07-01

    Using PCR-differential display, we have searched for genes expressed specially in human interferon (HuIFn)-beta-treated Cockayne syndrome (CS) fibroblast cells. Eighteen expressed genes induced by HuIFN-beta were identified, the sequences of seven of which were highly homologous to previously cloned sequences. The cDNAs of six of these seven clones were similar to expression tagged sequences from unknown genes in databases and the remaining one was identical to the cDNA of the xeroderma pigmentosum XPG gene. These results, together with our previous finding of increased resistance to ultraviolet (UV) cell-killing of CS cells pretreated with HuIFN-beta prior to UV irradiation suggest that XPG might be one of the genes possibly involved in the HuIFN-beta-induced UV-resistance.

  5. XPG mRNA expression levels modulate prognosis in resected non-small-cell lung cancer in conjunction with BRCA1 and ERCC1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Roberta; Wei, Jia; Sanchez, Jose Javier; Perez-Roca, Laia; Chaib, Imane; Puma, Francesco; Farabi, Raffaele; Mendez, Pedro; Roila, Fausto; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Taron, Miquel; Rosell, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Molecular markers can help identify patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a high risk of relapse. Excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG), and breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) are involved in DNA damage repair, whereas ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is implicated in DNA synthesis. Expression levels of these molecules might therefore have a prognostic role in lung cancer. We examined ERCC1, RRM1, XPG, and BRCA1 mRNA levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 54 patients with stage IB-IIB resected NSCLC. A strong correlation was observed between the 4 genes. For patients with low BRCA1, regardless of XPG mRNA expression levels, disease-free survival (DFS) was not reached. For patients with intermediate/high BRCA1 and high XPG, DFS was 50.7 months. However, for patients with intermediate/high BRCA1 and low/intermediate XPG, DFS decreased to 16.3 months (P = .002). Similar differences were observed in overall survival, with median survival not reached for patients with low BRCA1, regardless of XPG levels, or for patients with intermediate/high BRCA1 and high XPG. Conversely, for patients with intermediate/high BRCA1 levels and low/intermediate XPG levels, median survival dropped to 25.5 months (P = .007). BRCA1 and XPG were identified as independent prognostic factors for both median survival and DFS. High BRCA1 mRNA expression confers poor prognosis in early NSCLC, and the combination of high BRCA1 and low XPG expression still further increases the risk of shorter survival. These findings can help optimize the customization of adjuvant chemotherapy.

  6. RTE and CTE mRNA export elements synergistically increase expression of unstable, Rev-dependent HIV and SIV mRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalowski Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies of retroviral mRNA export identified two distinct RNA export elements utilizing conserved eukaryotic mRNA export mechanism(s, namely the Constitutive Transport Element (CTE and the RNA Transport Element (RTE. Although RTE and CTE are potent in nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport and expression, neither element is as powerful as the Rev-RRE posttranscriptional control. Here, we found that whereas CTE and the up-regulatory mutant RTEm26 alone increase expression from a subgenomic gag and env clones, the combination of these elements led to a several hundred-fold, synergistic increase. The use of the RTEm26-CTE combination is a simple way to increase expression of poorly expressed retroviral genes to levels otherwise only achieved via more cumbersome RNA optimization. The potent RTEm26-CTE element could be useful in lentiviral gene therapy vectors, DNA-based vaccine vectors, and gene transfer studies of other poorly expressed genes.

  7. Modeling Genome-Scale mRNA Expression Datasets: From Matrix Algebra to Genetic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Orly

    2003-03-01

    DNA microarray genome-wide expression data promise to enhance fundamental understanding of life on the molecular level, and may prove useful in medical diagnosis, treatment and drug design. Analysis of these new data requires mathematical tools that use large quantities of data and reduce the complexity of the data to make them comprehensible. These tools should provide predictive models, i.e., mathematical frameworks for the description of the data, in which the mathematical variables and operations may be assigned biological meaning. Such models will facilitate the unraveling of the cellular machineries that generate, sense and react to the expression signal. I will start with a description of the use of singular value decomposition (SVD) to construct the first model for genome-wide expression data. SVD is a unique data-driven linear transformation of the expression data from the genes × arrays space to the reduced ``eigengenes'' × ``eigenarrays'' space, where the eigengenes (eigenarrays) are unique orthonormal superpositions of the genes (arrays). Normalizing the data, by detecting and filtering out additive and multiplicative experimental artifacts and irrelevant biological processes, enables meaningful comparison of the expression of different genes across different arrays in different experiments. Sorting the data, according to a chosen subset of eigengenes (and eigenarrays), rather than by overall expression, gives a global picture of gene expression in which individual genes and arrays appear to be classified into groups of similar regulation and function, or similar cellular state and biological phenotype, respectively. In some experiments, the significant eigengenes and eigenarrays can be associated with genome-wide effects of regulators, or with measured samples in which these regulators are overactive or underactive, respectively. I will then describe the use of generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) to construct the first comparative model

  8. Periapical fluid RANKL and IL-8 are differentially regulated in pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenberg, Dan-K; Bostanci, Nagihan; Zehnder, Matthias; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2014-09-01

    The dental pulp space can become infected due to a breach in the surrounding hard tissues. This leads to inflammation of the pulp (pulpitis), soft tissue breakdown, and finally to bone loss around the root apex (apical periodontitis). The succession of the molecular events leading to apical periodontitis is currently not known. The main inflammatory mediator associated with neutrophil chemotaxis is interleukin-8 (IL-8), and with bone resorption the dyad of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The levels of RANKL, OPG and IL-8 were studied in periapical tissue fluid of human teeth (n = 48) diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP). SIP represents the starting point, and AAP an established steady state of the disease. Periapical tissue fluid samples were collected using paper points and then evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Target protein levels per case were calibrated against the corresponding total protein content, as determined fluorometrically. RANKL was expressed at significantly higher levels in SIP compared to AAP (P < 0.05), whereas OPG was under the detection limit in most samples. In contrast, IL-8 levels were significantly lower in SIP compared to AAP (P < 0.05). Spearman's correlation analysis between RANKL and IL-8 revealed a significantly (P < 0.05) negative correlation between the two measures (rho = -.44). The results of this study suggest that, in the development of apical periodontitis, periapical bone resorption signaling, as determined by RANKL, occurs prior to inflammatory cell recruitment signaling, as determined by IL-8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Constitutional high expression of an APC mRNA isoform in a subset of attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venesio, Tiziana; Balsamo, Antonella; Sfiligoi, Christian; Fuso, Luca; Molatore, Sara; Ranzani, Guglielmina Nadia; Risio, Mauro

    2007-03-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited condition associated with hundreds to thousands of colorectal adenomas conferring a very high risk of cancer at a young age. In addition to "classical" form, there is also an attenuated polyposis, with fewer than 100 polyps and a delayed age of cancer onset. Both classical and attenuated polyposis are characterized by a relevant phenotypic heterogeneity. The disease has been linked to constitutive mutations of either APC tumor suppressor gene, or less frequently, MYH base-excision repair gene. However, the genetic cause remains undetected in up to 70-80% of patients with the attenuated form. This analysis was performed on 26 polyposis patients with the attenuated phenotype. All patients had formerly proven to be negative for APC truncating mutations that typically represent the majority of APC gene alterations. We evaluated the APC mRNA constitutional level by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven patients (42%) showed an anomalous APC transcription level. One patient with reduced mRNA was a carrier of a whole APC gene deletion. In seven out of the ten remaining cases, we found the increased expression of an APC mRNA isoform resulting from exon 10/15 connection and giving rise to a stable truncated peptide. Mutations neither in the invariant splice sites nor in the known transcription regulatory signals were found. Our results support the notion that in attenuated polyposis patients, a detailed investigation of APC transcription can allow detection of rare alterations. Although functional data are required, the isoform we observed might have some pathogenic role, accounting for the heterogeneous phenotype that characterizes the polyposis syndrome.

  10. Nerve growth factor mRNA expression in the regenerating antler tip of red deer (Cervus elaphus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyi Li

    Full Text Available Deer antlers are the only mammalian organs that can fully regenerate each year. During their growth phase, antlers of red deer extend at a rate of approximately 10 mm/day, a growth rate matched by the antler nerves. It was demonstrated in a previous study that extracts from deer velvet antler can promote neurite outgrowth from neural explants, suggesting a possible role for Nerve Growth Factor (NGF in antler innervation. Here we showed using the techniques of Northern blot analysis, denervation, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization that NGF mRNA was expressed in the regenerating antler, principally in the smooth muscle of the arteries and arterioles of the growing antler tip. Regenerating axons followed the route of the major blood vessels, located at the interface between the dermis and the reserve mesenchyme of the antler. Denervation experiments suggested a causal relationship exists between NGF mRNA expression in arterial smooth muscle and sensory axons in the antler tip. We hypothesize that NGF expressed in the smooth muscle of the arteries and arterioles promotes and maintains antler angiogenesis and this role positions NGF ahead of axons during antler growth. As a result, NGF can serve a second role, attracting sensory axons into the antler, and thus it can provide a guidance cue to define the nerve track. This would explain the phenomenon whereby re-innervation of the regenerating antler follows vascular ingrowth. The annual growth of deer antler presents a unique opportunity to better understand the factors involved in rapid nerve regeneration.

  11. Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces expression of HIF1 alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal Tomasz; Liu, Xiaoli; Wong, W

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of malignant cell transformation mediated by the oncogenic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase remain only partially understood. In this study, we report that T-cell lymphoma (TCL) cells carrying the nucleophosmin (NPM)/ALK fusion protein (ALK+ TCL) strongly express...

  12. Improving the expression of recombinant pullulanase by increasing mRNA stability in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The addition of the 5′ SD sequence at the 5′ UTR and a 3′ stem-loop structure at the 3′ UTR of the pulA gene is an effective approach to increase pulA gene expression and fermentation enzyme activity.

  13. Over-expression of COX-2 mRNA in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, H.M.J.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Heumen, B.W.H van; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, PTGS2) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, which are regulators of biologic processes such as inflammation, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. COX-2 over-expression was reported in many (pre) malignant tissues, but data

  14. Shift in expression of HLA-G mRNA spliceforms in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmer, P.M.; Joosten, I.; Schut, M.H.; Zusterzeel, P.L.M.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite emerging data on the in vitro modulatory effects of trophoblast-associated human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), its in vivo function needs to be determined. Immunohistochemical studies show a decrease in protein expression of trophoblast HLA-G in preeclampsia. Such a decrease in

  15. Quantification of Chitinase mRNA Levels in Human and Mouse Tissues by Real-Time PCR: Species-Specific Expression of Acidic Mammalian Chitinase in Stomach Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Misa; Togashi, Yuto; Tsuda, Kyoko; Okawa, Kazuaki; Kamaya, Minori; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2013-01-01

    Chitinase hydrolyzes chitin, which is an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer that is present in a wide range of organisms, including insects, parasites and fungi. Although mammals do not contain any endogenous chitin, humans and mice express two active chitinases, chitotriosidase (Chit1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). Because the level of expression of these chitinases is increased in many inflammatory conditions, including Gaucher disease and mouse models of asthma, both chitinases may play important roles in the pathophysiologies of these and other diseases. We recently established a quantitative PCR system using a single standard DNA and showed that AMCase mRNA is synthesized at extraordinarily high levels in mouse stomach tissues. In this study, we applied this methodology to the quantification of chitinase mRNAs in human tissues and found that both chitinase mRNAs were widely expressed in normal human tissues. Chit1 mRNA was highly expressed in the human lung, whereas AMCase mRNA was not overexpressed in normal human stomach tissues. The levels of these mRNAs in human tissues were significantly lower than the levels of housekeeping genes. Because the AMCase expression levels were quite different between the human and mouse stomach tissues, we developed a quantitative PCR system to compare the mRNA levels between human and mouse tissues using a human-mouse hybrid standard DNA. Our analysis showed that Chit1 mRNA is expressed at similar levels in normal human and mouse lung. In contrast, the AMCase expression level in human stomach was significantly lower than that expression level observed in mouse stomach. These mRNA differences between human and mouse stomach tissues were reflecting differences in the chitinolytic activities and levels of protein expression. Thus, the expression level of the AMCase in the stomach is species-specific.

  16. Relative quantification of AXIN2 mRNA expression in different pathological types of colorectal polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Golmohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Methods: In the present analytical-descriptive study, the investigated population was chosen from the cases with colonic polyps that referred to the Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2014 to April 2015. Forty four biopsy polyp samples and 10 normal tissue samples were collected, as well as the demographic and clinical properties of the patients and the expression level of AXIN2 gene was quantified by Real-time PCR. The outcomes were analyzed by the ABI Prism 7500 Sequence Detection System (SDS software, version 2.1.0 (Applied Biosystems Inc., Foster City, CA, USA and GraphPad Prism, version 3 (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA Also, the expression changes of the intended gene in target groups were compared with the normal tissues using the 2-ΔΔCt equation. Results: The data showed enhanced level of the expression of AXIN2 gene in the colonic polyps in comparison to the normal tissues (RQ>2, which was significantly upper in adenoma polyps compared to the hyperplastic group (P=0.015. Also, unlike the rectum, the AXIN2 gene activity in colon area was higher than normal tissue. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that the expression pattern of AXIN2 gene, was markedly changed during the transformation of the normal tissue to polyp. The increased expression level of this gene could be applied as a diagnostic marker in dissociation of the adenoma polyps from hyperplastic ones. On the other hand, the location of the polyps modulates the AXIN2 gene function. Taking together, evaluating the changes of AXIN2, has a precise diagnostic value in the CRC related studies.

  17. Comprehensive mRNA expression profiling distinguishes tauopathies and identifies shared molecular pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraad F Bronner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the aetiologies of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD, Pick's disease (PiD, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is often hampered by the considerable clinical and molecular overlap between these diseases and normal ageing. The development of high throughput genomic technologies such as microarrays provide a new molecular tool to gain insight in the complexity and relationships between diseases, as they provide data on the simultaneous activity of multiple genes, gene networks and cellular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have constructed genome wide expression profiles from snap frozen post-mortem tissue from the medial temporal lobe of patients with four neurodegenerative disorders (5 AD, 5 PSP, 5 PiD and 5 FTD patients and 5 control subjects. All patients were matched for age, gender, ApoE-epsilon and MAPT (tau haplotype. From all groups a total of 790 probes were shown to be differently expressed when compared to control individuals. The results from these experiments were then used to investigate the correlations between clinical, pathological and molecular findings. From the 790 identified probes we extracted a gene set of 166 probes whose expression could discriminate between these disorders and normal ageing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From genome wide expression profiles we extracted a gene set of 166 probes whose expression could discriminate between neurological disorders and normal ageing. This gene set can be further developed into an accurate microarray-based classification test. Furthermore, from this dataset we extracted a disease specific set of genes and identified two aging related transcription factors (FOXO1A and FOXO3A as possible drug targets related to neurodegenerative disease.

  18. Association between OPG, RANK and RANKL gene polymorphisms ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009) and MMP-9 production. (Sandberg et al. 2006). .... rupture. RANKL promoted vascular smooth muscle cell. (VSMC) calcification via induction of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) (Panizo et al. 2009). RANKL was highly. 88 ... Bunimov N., Smith J. E., Gosselin D. and Laneuville O. 2007. Translational regulation of ...

  19. Customized Treatment in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Based on EGFR Mutations and BRCA1 mRNA Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rafael; Perez-Roca, Laia; Sanchez, Jose Javier; Cobo, Manuel; Moran, Teresa; Chaib, Imane; Provencio, Mariano; Domine, Manuel; Sala, Maria Angeles; Jimenez, Ulpiano; Diz, Pilar; Barneto, Isidoro; Macias, Jose Antonio; de las Peñas, Ramon; Catot, Silvia; Isla, Dolores; Sanchez, Jose Miguel; Ibeas, Rafael; Lopez-Vivanco, Guillermo; Oramas, Juana; Mendez, Pedro; Reguart, Noemi; Blanco, Remei; Taron, Miquel

    2009-01-01

    Background Median survival is 10 months and 2-year survival is 20% in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. A small fraction of non-squamous cell lung cancers harbor EGFR mutations, with improved outcome to gefitinib and erlotinib. Experimental evidence suggests that BRCA1 overexpression enhances sensitivity to docetaxel and resistance to cisplatin. RAP80 and Abraxas are interacting proteins that form complexes with BRCA1 and could modulate the effect of BRCA1. In order to further examine the effect of EGFR mutations and BRCA1 mRNA levels on outcome in advanced NSCLC, we performed a prospective non-randomized phase II clinical trial, testing the hypothesis that customized therapy would confer improved outcome over non-customized therapy. In an exploratory analysis, we also examined the effect of RAP80 and Abraxas mRNA levels. Methodology/Principal Findings We treated 123 metastatic non-squamous cell lung carcinoma patients using a customized approach. RNA and DNA were isolated from microdissected specimens from paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. Patients with EGFR mutations received erlotinib, and those without EGFR mutations received chemotherapy with or without cisplatin based on their BRCA1 mRNA levels: low, cisplatin plus gemcitabine; intermediate, cisplatin plus docetaxel; high, docetaxel alone. An exploratory analysis examined RAP80 and Abraxas expression. Median survival exceeded 28 months for 12 patients with EGFR mutations, and was 11 months for 38 patients with low BRCA1, 9 months for 40 patients with intermediate BRCA1, and 11 months for 33 patients with high BRCA1. Two-year survival was 73.3%, 41.2%, 15.6% and 0%, respectively. Median survival was influenced by RAP80 expression in the three BRCA1 groups. For example, for patients with both low BRCA1 and low RAP80, median survival exceeded 26 months. RAP80 was a significant factor for survival in patients treated according to BRCA1 levels (hazard ratio, 1

  20. [Differential analyses of mRNA expression of gtfs from Streptococcus mutans in different pH condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Liu, Tian-jia; Yang, Jin-bo

    2008-12-01

    To determine the expression level of each gtf under different pH cultural conditions and to find the relationship between gtf expression levels with environmental pH in different strains of Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans). S. mutans form clinical isolation with different extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) producibility and UA159 were selected. Their ability to produce EPS under pH5.5 and pH7 were tested. Then in two strains, the relative quantity of gtfA, gtfB, gtfC, gtfD's mRNA which were related to S. mutan's ability to produce EPC, were examined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) methods under different pH culture condition. At pH5.5, expression levels of gtfA, gtfB, gtfD were increased while that of gtfC were decreased in both strains, and that of gtfB, gtfC were higher in strain which produces more ECP. The expression levels of gtfs related closely to the cariogenicity of S. mutan.

  1. Adiponectin Effect on The Viability of Human Endometrial Stromal Cells and mRNA Expression of Adiponectin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bohlouli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is one of the most important adipokines secreted from fattytissue that has a direct inhibitory effect on the development of cancer cells. Adiponectinplays an important role in human reproduction system and fertility of women. Adiponectinconcentration decreases in women with endometriosis and endometrial cancer.The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of adiponectin on humanendometrial stromal cell (HESC viability as well as mRNA expression of Adipo R1and Adipo R2 receptors.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eight endometrial biopsies weretaken and stromal cells were separated by enzymatic digestion and cell filtrations. Stromalcells of each biopsy were divided into four groups: control, 10, 100, and 200 ng/mladiponectin concentrations. The effect of adiponectin on viability of the normal HESCswas studied by trypan blue staining and the relative expression levels of Adipo R1 andR2 were analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and unpaired student’s t test andp<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Adiponectin decreased viability of normal human endometrial stromal cells ina dose and time dependent manner. Expression of Adipo R1 and Adipo R2 receptors didnot change in the presence of adiponectin.Conclusion: Adiponectin can directly influence the viability of HESCs and decreasetheir viability, but it didn’t change expression of adiponectin receptors.

  2. Expression of Heat Stress Protein 70 mRNA in Patients with Chronic Ob-structive Pulmonary Disease and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianping; XIE Jungang; XU Yongjian; ZHANG Zhenxiang; ZHANG Ning

    2005-01-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the expression of heat stress protein 70(Hsp70) in human bronchi smooth muscle cells were investigated in vitro, and the changes in Hsp70 mRNA in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their significance were explored. Human bronchi smooth muscle cells were cultured with CSE at the different concentrations. The expression of Hsp70 mRNA and Hsp70 was detected by reverse translation-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting respectively. Levels of Hsp70 mRNA and Hsp70 in lymphocytes from 20 patients with COPD and 20 healthy smoking control subjects were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed the expression of both Hsp70 mRNA and Hsp70 was decreased conformably in human bronchi smooth muscle cells treated with CSE at certain concentration in vitro. The A values of the Hsp70 mRNA expression were 0. 24±0.11 and 0.42±0.13 respectively in COPD patients and healthy smoking controls with the difference being significant (P<0.01). There was also significant difference in the A values of the Hsp70 expression between COPD patients and healthy smoking controls (20.9±9.9 vs 44.8±15.3, P<0.01). The levels of Hsp70 mRNA had strongly positive correlation with Hsp70 protein (r = 0. 85, P<0.01). It was suggested that the expression of Hsp70 mRNA was in concordance with the expression of Hsp70, which could provide a basis on the study of Hsp70 gene regulation and Hsp70 gene in the development of COPD.

  3. [Relationship between socs3 mRNA expression and jak2v617f point mutation in bcr-abl negative patients with myelo-proliferative disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Mei; Pan, Ling; Zhang, Jun-Mian; Li, Ying-Hua; Wang, Hong-Fen; Wang, Xiu-Qian

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between socs3 mRNA expression and jak2v617f point mutation in bcr-abl negative patients with myelo-proliferative disease (MPD), 62 bcr-abl negative MPD patients (26 cases of PV, 26 cases of ET, 9 cases of IMF, and one case of CNL) were arranged as experiment group, and the others (20 cases of CML, 10 cases of AL and 15 healthy volunteers) were arranged as control group. All the diagnosis had been made according to the 2001 WHO criteria. jak2v617f point mutation was detected by AS-PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. The expression level of socs3 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. The association jak2v617f point mutation with socs3 mRNA expression in bcr-abl negative MPD patients was observed and analyzed. The results showed that among 62 bcr-abl negative MPD patients, the somatic jak2v617f point mutation was positive in 44 patients (PV 23, ET 15, IMF 5, CNL 1) while negative in the other 18 patients and control group. The expression of socs3 mRNA could be detected in 39 patients from 44 jak2v617f mutation positive patients and in 10 patients from 18 jak2v617f mutation-negative patients. There was a statistically significant difference in socs3 mRNA expression rates between jak2v617f mutation positive and negative group (chi(2) = 8.44, p < 0.005). There was a statistically significant difference in socs3 mRNA expression levels between jak2v617f mutation positive and negative groups (p = 0.035). It is concluded that there is a statistically significant difference in the expression level of socs3 mRNA in the patients between jak2v617f mutation positive group and negative group.

  4. Developmental changes in hypothalamic toll-like-receptor 4 mRNA expression and the effects of lipopolysaccharide on such changes in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Kawami, Takako; Yamasaki, Mikio; Murakami, Masahiro; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-02-01

    Hypothalamic pro-inflammatory cytokine expression exhibits a weaker response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) during the early neonatal period than during the later developmental period. Although toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which recognizes bacterial molecules, activates pro-inflammatory cytokine responses, the developmental changes in hypothalamic TLR4 expression have not been evaluated. In this study, the hypothalamic TLR4 mRNA levels of saline-injected and LPS-injected rats were measured during the neonatal, pre-pubertal, and post-pubertal periods. The rats' hypothalamic TLR4 mRNA levels gradually increased from the neonatal to pubertal period and were altered by the injection of LPS at all examined ages (postnatal day (PND) 5, 15, 25, and 42). LPS injection resulted in decreased hypothalamic TLR4 mRNA expression at PND5, whereas it increased hypothalamic TLR4 mRNA expression at PND15, 25, and 42. After the injection of LPS, the hypothalamic mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-6 were attenuated during the early developmental period and increased acutely on PND42. The expression profiles of these pro-inflammatory cytokines exhibited similar, but not entirely consistent, changes to those displayed by TLR4 during the developmental period. Hypothalamic TLR4 mRNA expression gradually increased throughout the developmental period, whereas the mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines increased acutely at PND42. Thus, it is assumed that hypothalamic TLR4 hypoactivity contributes to the low sensitivity of pro-inflammatory cytokines to LPS during the early developmental period. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Exercise on Expression of CYP19 and StAR mRNA in Steroid-Induced Polycystic Ovaries of Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Fatemeh; Khazali, Homayoun; Hedayati, Mehdi; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) mRNA in the ovaries of an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCOS rat model, and the effect of treadmill and running wheel (voluntary) exercise on these parameters. In this experimental study, we divided adult female Wistar rats that weighed approximately 220 ± 20 g initially into control (n=10) and PCOS (n=30). Subsequently, PCOS group were divided to PCOS, PCOS with treadmill exercise (P-ExT), and PCOS with running wheel exercise (P-ExR) groups (n=10 per group). The expressions of StAR and CYP19 mRNA in the ovaries were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software, version 16. The data were assessed at α=0.05. There was significantly lower mRNA expression of CYP19 in the EV-induced PCOS, running wheel and treadmill exercise rats compared to the control group (PStAR in the ovaries of the PCOS group indicated an increasing trend compared to the control group, however this was not statistically significant (P=0.810). We observed that 8 weeks of running wheel and treadmill exercises could not statistically decrease StAR mRNA expression compared to the PCOS group (P=0.632). EV-induced PCOS in rats decreased CYP19 mRNA expression, but had no effect on StAR mRNA expression. We demonstrated that running wheel and moderate treadmill exercise could not modify CYP19 and StAR mRNA expressions.

  6. Associations of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, ACE Activity, and ACE mRNA Expression with Hypertension in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingfang; Fan, Chunhong; Yu, Min; Wallar, Gina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994) polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese population. In addition, a new detection method for circulating ACE mRNA expression was explored. Methods The research was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the investigation. 221 hypertensives (cases) and 221 normotensives (controls) were interviewed, subjected to a physical examination, and provided blood for biochemical and genetic tests. The ACE mRNA expression was analyzed by real time fluorescent quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (FQ-RT-PCR). We performed logistic regression to assess associations of ACE I/D genotypes, ACE activity, and ACE mRNA expression levels with hypertension. Results The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the additive model (ID, DD versus II) of the ACE genotype revealed an association with hypertension with adjusted OR of 1.43(95% CI: 1.04-1.97), and ACE ID genotype with adjusted OR of 1.72(95% CI: 1.01-2.92), DD genotype with adjusted OR of 1.94(95% CI: 1.01-3.73), respectively. In addition, our data also indicate that plasma ACE activity (adjusted OR was 1.13(95% CI: 1.08-1.18)) was significantly related to hypertension. However, the plasma ACE mRNA expressions were not different between the cases and controls. Conclusion ACE I/D polymorphism and ACE activity revealed significant influence on hypertension, while circulating ACE mRNA expression was not important factors associated with hypertension in this Chinese population. The detection of circulating ACE mRNA expression by FQ-RT-PCR might be a useful method for early screening and monitoring of EH. PMID:24098401

  7. Effect of sodium hydrosulfide on mRNA expression of prostaglandin E2 receptors in response to mucosal acidification and distention-induced gastric acid secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Prostaglandins have been shown to mediate the gastro-protective effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS but effect of NaHS on mRNA expression of prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, 3-4; EPs has not been investigated. Therefore, this study designed to evaluate the effect of NaHS on mRNA expression of EPs receptors in response to mucosal acidification and distention-induced gastric acid secretion in rats. Materials and Methods: Fasted rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n=6/group. They were control, and NaHS-treated groups. To evaluate the effect of NaHS on mucosal mRNA expression of EPs receptors, the gastric mucosa exposed to stimulated gastric acid output and mucosal acidification. The pylorus sphincter catheterized for instillation of isotonic neutral saline or acidic solution. Ninety min after beginning the experiments, animals sacrificed and the gastric mucosa collected to determine the pH, mucus secretion and to quantify the mRNA expression of EPs receptors by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: present results showed that a NaHS increased the mucus secretion, mRNA expression of EP3 and EP4 receptors in response to distention-induced expression; b The mRNA expression of EP1 receptors increased while EP4 mRNA receptors decreased in response to mucosal acidification in NaHS-pretreated rats; and c NaHS increased pH of gastric contents both in response to distention-induced gastric acid secretion and mucosal acidification. Conclusion: NaHS behaves in a different manner. It effectively only increased the pH of gastric contents to reinforce the gastric mucosa against a highly acidic solution but modulated both acid and mucus secretion when the rate of acid increase in the stomach was slower.

  8. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Rebecchi, Mario, E-mail: Mario.rebecchi@SBUmed.org [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is a

  9. Vitamin D is not linked to folate status and mRNA expression of intestinal proton-coupled folate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsch, C; Zibolka, J; Frommhagen, M; Lehmann, U; Dierkes, J; Kühne, H; Hirche, F; Stangl, G I

    2014-06-01

    In vitro studies discovered intestinal proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) as a vitamin D hormone-responsive gene. In vivo effects of vitamin D on PCFT and folate status are currently not available. Three experiments were conducted. At first, vitamin D receptor knockout (VDR(-/-)) mice and corresponding wild-type (WT) mice were compared for their plasma and hepatic folate concentration and PCFT mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. In a second experiment with rats, we analyzed the folate status of offspring in response to a maternal vitamin D-adequate (1,000 IU/kg) or vitamin D-deficient (0 IU/kg) diet that was fed for 11 weeks. Finally, the plasma folate concentration of healthy individuals was studied at baseline (in winter) and in response to an oral treatment for 8 weeks with 2,000 IU vitamin D3 per day or a placebo, respectively. Here, we show that folate status and intestinal PCFT mRNA abundance did not differ between the VDR(-/-) and the WT mice. No effect of vitamin D on folate status was also found in rat dams and their offspring, and plasma folate levels of individuals did not change in response to vitamin D. Current data from studies with model animals and humans provide no indication for a vitamin D effect on intestinal uptake and status of folate.

  10. Altered mRNA expression after long-term soleus electrical stimulation training in humans with paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher M; Suneja, Manish; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K

    2011-01-01

    In humans, spinal cord injury (SCI) induces deleterious changes in skeletal muscle that may be prevented or reversed by electrical stimulation muscle training. The molecular mechanisms underlying muscle stimulation training remain unknown. We studied two unique SCI subjects whose right soleus received >6 years of training (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week). Training preserved torque, fatigue index, contractile speed, and cross-sectional area in the trained leg, but not the untrained leg. Training decreased 10 mRNAs required for fast-twitch contractions and mRNA that encodes for myostatin, an autocrine/paracrine hormone that inhibits muscle growth. Conversely, training increased 69 mRNAs that mediate the slow-twitch, oxidative phenotype, including PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator that inhibits muscle atrophy. When we discontinued right soleus training, training-induced effects diminished slowly, with some persisting for >6 months. Training of paralyzed muscle induces localized and long-lasting changes in skeletal muscle mRNA expression that improve muscle mass and function. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Alterations in mRNA 3' UTR Isoform Abundance Accompany Gene Expression Changes in Human Huntington's Disease Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Lindsay; Ashar-Patel, Ami; Pfister, Edith; Aronin, Neil

    2017-09-26

    The huntingtin gene has two mRNA isoforms that differ in their 3' UTR length. The relationship of these isoforms with Huntington's disease is not established. We provide evidence that the abundance of huntingtin 3' UTR isoforms differs between patient and control neural stem cells, fibroblasts, motor cortex, and cerebellum. Huntingtin 3' UTR isoforms, including a mid-3' UTR isoform, have different localizations, half-lives, polyA tail lengths, microRNA sites, and RNA-binding protein sites. Isoform shifts in Huntington's disease motor cortex are not limited to huntingtin; 11% of alternatively polyadenylated genes change the abundance of their 3' UTR isoforms. Altered expression of RNA-binding proteins may be associated with aberrant isoform abundance; knockdown of the RNA-binding protein CNOT6 in control fibroblasts leads to huntingtin isoform differences similar to those in disease fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that mRNA 3' UTR isoform changes are a feature of molecular pathology in the Huntington's disease brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A database of mRNA expression patterns for the sea urchin embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, ZHENG; Angerer, Robert C.; Angerer, Lynne M.

    2006-01-01

    We present an initial characterization of a database that contains temporal expression profiles of sequences found in 35,282 gene predictions within the sea urchin genome. The relative RNA abundance for each sequence was determined at 5 key stages of development using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays that were hybridized with populations of polyA+ RNA sequence. These stages were two-cell, which represents maternal RNA, early blastula, the time at which major tissue territories are spe...

  13. Expression of cell cycle regulating factor mRNA in small cell lung cancer xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    and CDK6 when in vitro and in vivo data were compared. Two of the cell lines that express the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein had no sign of a deregulated Rb pathway but further studies at the protein level are necessary to demonstrate whether these two cell lines should have a normal Rb pathway or whether...... they will join the majority of cell lines with deregulated Rb pathway....

  14. NLRC and NLRX gene family mRNA expression and prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangkun; Yang, Chengkun; Liao, Xiwen; Han, Chuangye; Yu, Tingdong; Huang, Ketuan; Yu, Long; Qin, Wei; Zhu, Guangzhi; Su, Hao; Liu, Xiaoguang; Ye, Xinping; Chen, Bin; Peng, Minhao; Peng, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR)C and NLRX family proteins play a key role in the innate immune response. The relationship between these proteins and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. This study investigated the prognostic significance of NLRC and NLRX family protein levels in HCC patients. Data from 360 HCC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas database and 231 patients in the Gene Expression Omnibus database were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox regression model were used to determine median survival time (MST) and overall and recurrence-free survival by calculating the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). High NOD2 and low NLRX1 expression in tumor tissue was associated with short MST (P = 0.012 and 0.014, respectively). A joint-effects analysis of NOD2 and NLRX1 combined revealed that groups III and IV had reduced risk of death from HCC as compared to group I (adjusted P = 0.001, adjusted HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.16-0.61 and adjusted P = 0.043, adjusted HR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.41-0.99, respectively). NOD2 and NLRX1 expression levels are potential prognostic markers in HCC following hepatectomy. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The classification of mRNA expression levels by the phosphorylation state of RNAPII CTD based on a combined genome-wide approach

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    Tachibana Taro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular function is regulated by the balance of stringently regulated amounts of mRNA. Previous reports revealed that RNA polymerase II (RNAPII, which transcribes mRNA, can be classified into the pausing state and the active transcription state according to the phosphorylation state of RPB1, the catalytic subunit of RNAPII. However, genome-wide association between mRNA expression level and the phosphorylation state of RNAPII is unclear. While the functional importance of pausing genes is clear, such as in mouse Embryonic Stem cells for differentiation, understanding this association is critical for distinguishing pausing genes from active transcribing genes in expression profiling data, such as microarrays and RNAseq. Therefore, we examined the correlation between the phosphorylation of RNAPII and mRNA expression levels using a combined analysis by ChIPseq and RNAseq. Results We first performed a precise quantitative measurement of mRNA by performing an optimized calculation in RNAseq. We then visualized the recruitment of various phosphorylated RNAPIIs, such as Ser2P and Ser5P. A combined analysis using optimized RNAseq and ChIPseq for phosphorylated RNAPII revealed that mRNA levels correlate with the various phosphorylation states of RNAPII. Conclusions We demonstrated that the amount of mRNA is precisely reflected by the phased phosphorylation of Ser2 and Ser5. In particular, even the most "pausing" genes, for which only Ser5 is phosphorylated, were detectable at a certain level of mRNA. Our analysis indicated that the complexity of quantitative regulation of mRNA levels could be classified into three categories according to the phosphorylation state of RNAPII.

  16. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via AMPK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling

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    Oh, Se Jeong [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Gu, Dong Ryun [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Su Hyun [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun Ha [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seoung Hoon, E-mail: leesh2@wku.ac.kr [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Wonkwang Institute of Biomaterials and Implant, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-17

    Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (malate dehydrogenase 1, MDH1) plays pivotal roles in the malate/aspartate shuttle that might modulate metabolism between the cytosol and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation and formation. MDH1 expression was induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) treatment. Knockdown of MDH1 by infection with retrovirus containing MDH1-specific shRNA (shMDH1) reduced mature osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. Moreover, the expression of marker genes associated with osteoclast differentiation was downregulated by shMDH1 treatment, suggesting a role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation. In addition, intracellular ATP production was reduced following the activation of adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor and negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, in shMDH1-infected osteoclasts compared to control cells. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a critical transcription factor of osteoclastogenesis, was decreased with MDH1 knockdown during RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings provide strong evidence that MDH1 plays a critical role in osteoclast differentiation and function via modulation of the intracellular energy status, which might affect AMPK activity and NFATc1 expression.

  17. Distinct prognostic values of alcohol dehydrogenase mRNA expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

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    Liao X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiwen Liao,1,* Rui Huang,2,* Xiaoguang Liu,1,3 Chuangye Han,1 Long Yu,1,4 Shijun Wang,5 Na Sun,2 Bopei Li,6 Xin Ning,7 Tao Peng1 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 2Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 3Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, 4Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, 5Department of Colorectal and Anal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 6Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 7Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH isoenzymes have been reported as a potential diagnostic marker for pancreatic cancer, but their prognostic value in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. The aim of this investigation was to identify the prognostic value of ADH genes in human patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD.Materials and methods: An RNA sequencing dataset and corresponding survival profiles of PAAD were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Survival analysis and gene set enrichment analysis were used to investigate the prediction value and potential mechanism of ADH genes in PAAD prognosis.Results: Survival analysis of ADH genes suggests that a high expression of ADH1A (adjusted P=0.037, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] =0.627, 95% CI =0.404–0.972 and ADH6 (adjusted P=0.018, adjusted HR =0.588, 95% CI =0.378–0.914 were associated with a significantly decreased risk of death, while a high expression of ADH5 was associated with a significantly increased risk of death (adjusted P=0.043, adjusted HR =1.564, 95% CI =1.013–2.414. Joint effects analysis of three ADH gene prognostic markers suggests that the prognosis difference for any marker combination was more significant than that for any

  18. Effects of acute stressors on the expression of oxytocin receptor mRNA in hearts of rats with different activity of HPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopek, Petr; Hynie, Sixtus; Chottova-Dvorakova, Magdalena; Sida, Pavel; Slavikova, Jana; Mistrova, Eliska; Klenerova, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular system is regulated by a diverse array of hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Oxytocin and its receptors (OTR) were also shown to regulate cardiovascular functions and this hormone was even called cardiovascular hormone. In recent publication, we demonstrated the expression of mRNA of OTR by real-time quantitative PCR (RT qPCR) in all rat heart compartments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute restraint stress on OTR mRNA expression in two rat strains with different activity of HPA axis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley and Lewis rats, the latter strain reported to have lower HPA activity, were used in RT qPCR studies and Wistar rats in immunofluorescent ones. Both acute restraint (IS) and this stress combined with the immersion of rats in water (ICS) lasted 60 min. Gene expression of OTR mRNA was estimated in all heart compartments after 1 or 3 hours after stress termination (IS1, IS3, ICS1, ICS3). The relative expression was calculated using 2(-ΔΔC)T method. In immunofluorescent studies we used commercial specific OTR antibodies. In RT qPCR studies we found higher expression of OTR mRNA in atria than in ventricles and no statistical differences between Sprague-Dawley and Lewis rats under basal conditions. Relative expression of OTR mRNA after 60 min lasting stress exposure differed in dependence on the stress type and partly on the time interval after the stress termination. When compared to controls, in rat left atria both stressors caused inhibition of OTR mRNA expression in both rat strains. In rat ventricles, which have very low OTR mRNA expression, there was a significant difference in the effect of two stressors. In most groups ICS displayed the increase of OTR mRNA expression if compared to IS groups. Immunofluorescent studies revealed changes induced by acute restraint stress in all heart compartments. The immunofluorescent studies suggested that acute stress induces higher colocalization of OTR with the

  19. Changes of rat kidney AQP2 and Na,K-ATPase mRNA expression in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Ulla Helt; Pihakaski-Maunsbach, Kaarina; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Østergaard Jensen, Erik; Nielsen, Søren; Maunsbach, Arvid B

    2004-01-01

    In a rat model, lithium treatment is associated with polyuria and severe downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein in the inner medulla (IM) or in the whole kidney. However, it is not known (1) to what extent this downregulation occurs at the mRNA level; (2) whether the main sodium transporter of the nephron, Na,K-ATPase, is regulated in parallel at the mRNA level, and (3) whether lithium treatment induces zonal or segmental differences in AQP2 and Na,K-ATPase mRNA levels. We examined the changes in mRNA expression levels for AQP2 and Na,K-ATPase in kidney cortex, inner stripe of the outer medulla (ISOM), and IM of rats treated with lithium orally using semiquantitative Northern blot analyses and in situ hybridization at the light and electron microscopic levels. The AQP2 mRNA levels decreased significantly (p dabetes insipidus and moderately decreased Na,K-ATPase mRNA levels in the ISOM and in the IM. The results suggest that decreased mRNA expressions of AQP2 and Na,K-ATPase contribute to the development of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Genome-wide mRNA and miRNA expression profiling reveal multiple regulatory networks in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnubalaji, R; Hamam, R; Abdulla, M-H

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in cancer management, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer and a major health-care problem worldwide. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of cancer development and progression by targeting multiple cancer-related genes; however......, such regulatory networks are not well characterized in CRC. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform global messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression profiling in the same CRC samples and adjacent normal tissues and to identify potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks. Our data revealed 1273 significantly...... in cell proliferation, and migration in vitro. Concordantly, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of EZH2 led to similar effects on CRC cell growth in vitro. Therefore, our data have revealed several hundred potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks in CRC and suggest targeting relevant networks...

  1. Genome-wide mRNA and miRNA expression profiling reveal multiple regulatory networks in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnubalaji, R; Hamam, R; Abdulla, M-H

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in cancer management, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer and a major health-care problem worldwide. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of cancer development and progression by targeting multiple cancer-related genes; however......, such regulatory networks are not well characterized in CRC. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform global messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression profiling in the same CRC samples and adjacent normal tissues and to identify potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks. Our data revealed 1273 significantly......-β (using SB-431542) pathways led to dose- and time-dependent inhibition of CRC cell growth. Similarly, our data revealed up- (42) and downregulated (61) microRNAs in the same matched samples. Using target prediction and bioinformatics, ~77% of the upregulated genes were predicted to be targeted by microRNAs...

  2. Reduced mRNA expression of PTGDS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    that mRNA expression of PTGDS and AKR1C3 is deregulated in rapid-cycling disorder patients in a euthymic or current affective state compared with healthy control subjects, and that expression alters with affective states. METHODS: PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells......BACKGROUND: Disturbances related to the arachidonic acid cascade and prostaglandin metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, as supported by a recent genome-wide association study meta-analysis; however, evidence from clinical studies on a transcriptional level...... was measured in 37 rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repeated measurements of PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression were obtained in various affective states during 6-12 months...

  3. Intervention of rosiglitazone on myocardium Glut-4 mRNA expression during ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardio-pulmonary bypass in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Liang, Guiyou; Xu, Gang; Liu, Daxin; Cai, Qingyong; Gao, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    During cardiac pulmonary bypass (CPB), myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induces heart glucose metabolism impairment. Our previous research showed that the decreased glucose utilization is due to decreased glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) expression and translocation to myocyte surface membranes. This study further examined whether rosiglitazone, a synthetic agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, could intervene glucose metabolism by regulating Glut-4 mRNA during I/R in dogs. Cardiac ischemia was induced by cardiopulmonary bypass for 30 or 120 min. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were measured at pre-bypass (control), aortic cross-clamp off (I/R) at 15, 45, and 75 min. The left ventricle biopsies were taken for the expression of Glut-4 mRNA by real-time RT-PCR. In dogs receiving 120 min ischemia, coronary arterial, venous glucose concentrations, plasma insulin levels, and insulin resistant index (IRI) were increased, but the expression of Glut-4 mRNA was decreased obviously at 15 min of reperfusion, and recovered gradually. On the other hand, these changes were relatively mild in dogs treated with rosiglitazone in cardioplegic solution and expression of Glut-4 mRNA was increased remarkably. It is concluded that the decrease in total amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression could be one of the important molecular mechanisms, which causes the myocardium insulin resistance. The longer the ischemia period, the decrease in amount of Glut-4 mRNA was more dramatic. Adding rosiglitazone into the cardioplegic solution during I/R can increase the amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression, mitigate the myocardium insulin resistance and improve the myocardium I/R injury during CPB.

  4. Using digital RNA counting and flow cytometry to compare mRNA with protein expression in acute leukemias.

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    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of malignant hematologic diseases has become increasingly complex during the last decade. It is based on the interpretation of results from different laboratory analyses, which range from microscopy to gene expression profiling. Recently, a method for the analysis of RNA phenotypes has been developed, the nCounter technology (Nanostring® Technologies, which allows for simultaneous quantification of hundreds of RNA molecules in biological samples. We evaluated this technique in a Swiss multi-center study on eighty-six samples from acute leukemia patients. METHODS: mRNA and protein profiles were established for normal peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Signal intensities of the various tested antigens with surface expression were similar to those found in previously performed Affymetrix microarray analyses. Acute leukemia samples were analyzed for a set of twenty-two validated antigens and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient for nCounter and flow cytometry results was calculated. RESULTS: Highly significant values between 0.40 and 0.97 were found for the twenty-two antigens tested. A second correlation analysis performed on a per sample basis resulted in concordant results between flow cytometry and nCounter in 44-100% of the antigens tested (mean = 76%, depending on the number of blasts present in a sample, the homogeneity of the blast population, and the type of leukemia (AML or ALL. CONCLUSIONS: The nCounter technology allows for fast and easy depiction of a mRNA profile from hematologic samples. This technology has the potential to become a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute leukemias, in addition to multi-color flow cytometry.

  5. An exploration of heat tolerance in mice utilizing mRNA and microRNA expression analysis.

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    Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals who rapidly develop hyperthermia during heat exposure (heat-intolerant are vulnerable to heat associated illness and injury. We recently reported that heat intolerant mice exhibit complex alterations in stress proteins in response to heat exposure. In the present study, we further explored the role of genes and molecular networks associated with heat tolerance in mice. METHODOLOGY: Heat-induced physiological and biochemical changes were assessed to determine heat tolerance levels in mice. We performed RNA and microRNA expression profiling on mouse gastrocnemius muscle tissue samples to determine novel biological pathways associated with heat tolerance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice (n = 18 were assigned to heat-tolerant (TOL and heat-intolerant (INT groups based on peak core temperatures during heat exposures. This was followed by biochemical assessments (Hsp40, Hsp72, Hsp90 and Hsf1 protein levels. Microarray analysis identified a total of 3,081 mRNA transcripts that were significantly misregulated in INT compared to TOL mice (p<0.05. Among them, Hspa1a, Dnajb1 and Hspb7 were differentially expressed by more than two-fold under these conditions. Furthermore, we identified 61 distinct microRNA (miRNA sequences significantly associated with TOL compared to INT mice; eight miRNAs corresponded to target sites in seven genes identified as being associated with heat tolerance pathways (Hspa1a, Dnajb1, Dnajb4, Dnajb6, Hspa2, Hspb3 and Hspb7. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of mRNA and miRNA data from the skeletal muscle of adult mice following heat stress provides new insights into the pathophysiology of thermoregulatory disturbances of heat intolerance.

  6. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and mRNA expression for melatonin synthesis rate-limiting enzyme in recurrent depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecki, Piotr; Szemraj, Janusz; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Gałecka, Elzbieta; Florkowski, Antoni; Lewiński, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewińska, Małgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Depressive disorder (DD) is characterised by disturbances in blood melatonin concentration. It is well known that melatonin is involved in the control of circadian rhythms, sleep included. The use of melatonin and its analogues has been found to be effective in depression therapy. Melatonin synthesis is a multistage process, where the last stage is catalysed by acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT), the reported rate-limiting melatonin synthesis enzyme. Taking into account the significance of genetic factors in depression development, the gene for ASMT may become an interesting focus for studies in patients with recurrent DD. The goal of the study was to evaluate two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4446909; rs5989681) of the ASMT gene, as well as mRNA expression for ASMT in recurrent DD-affected patients. We genotyped two polymorphisms in a group of 181 recurrent DD patients and in 149 control subjects. The study was performed using the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The distribution of genotypes in both studied SNPs in the ASMT gene differed significantly between DD and healthy subjects. The presence of AA genotype of rs4446909 polymorphism and of GG genotype of rs5989681 polymorphism was associated with lower risk for having recurrent DD. In turn, patients with depression were characterised by reduced mRNA expression for ASMT. In addition, ASMT transcript level in both recurrent DD patients and in healthy subjects depended significantly on genotype distributions in both polymorphisms. In conclusion, our results suggest the ASMT gene as a susceptibility gene for recurrent DD.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Mrna Expression Analysis of Sichuan White Goose (Anser Cygnoides Chrebp Gene

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    HY Xu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP is an important nuclear factor that regulates glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. However, the role of ChREBP in fatty liver development in geese remains unclear. In order to understand the function of ChREBP in lipid metabolism of geese, we first cloned the complete cDNA of the ChREBP of the Sichuan White goose (Anser cygnoides using RT-PCR, 5’ RACE and 3’ RACE, and analyzed goose ChREBP expression in nine different tissues using real-time PCR technology. The results showed that the goose ChREBP CDS consists of 945bp nucleotides that encode 314 amino acids, and the sequence has high similarities with the swan goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus and duck (Anas platyrhynchos sequences, both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. The predicted ChREBP protein had a molecular mass of 35.64 kDa with pI value of 5.36. The phylogenetic analysis indicated its evolutionary relationships with corresponding orthologous sequences in swan geese and ducks. The qPCR assays revealed that ChREBP is highly expressed in liver in the Sichuan White goose. Together, these results indicate that goose ChREBP may play an important role in the development of hepatic steatosis.

  8. IL-2 induction of IL-1 beta mRNA expression in monocytes. Regulation by agents that block second messenger pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Varesio, L

    1989-01-01

    We have previously shown that in mixed cultures of PBL incubation with human rIL-2 induces the rapid expression of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA. Because studies have demonstrated that IL-2R can be expressed on the surface of human peripheral blood monocytes, we chose to investigate whether IL-1 ...

  9. Muscarinic receptor subtype mRNA expression in the human prostate: association with age, pathological diagnosis, prostate size, or potentially interfering medications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Lambertus P. W.; Teitsma, Christine A.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Michel, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    As the prostate abundantly expresses muscarinic receptors and antagonists for such receptors are increasingly used in the treatment of men with voiding function and large prostates, we have explored an association of the mRNA expression of human M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 receptors in human prostate

  10. The porcine skin associated T-cell homing chemokine CCL27: molecular cloning and mRNA expression in piglets infected experimentally with Staphylococcus hyicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C. K.; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Ahrens, P.

    2003-01-01

    . In this paper, we report the cloning of porcine CCL27 cDNA and investigation of CCL27 mRNA expression in Staphylococcus hyicus infected piglets. At the protein level, 77 and 74% homology was found to human and mouse CCL27 sequences, respectively. The results of the expression analyses show that CCL27 m...

  11. Enhancement of Bovine oocyte maturation by leptin is accompanied by an upregulation in mRNA expression of leptin receptor isoforms in cumulus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Helena T A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072455993; Colenbrander, Ben; Roelen, Bernard A J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/109291859

    In this study, the mechanisms of supposed leptin action on oocyte maturation were examined. Expression of leptin mRNA, as determined with RT-PCR, was present in oocytes but not in cumulus cells. The long isoform of the leptin receptor (ObR-L) was expressed exclusively in cumulus cells after 7 and 23

  12. Glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in high trained compared to low trained athletes and untrained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, M; Mencarelli, M; Fedele, V; Ceccarelli, I; Pecorelli, A; Grasso, G; Aloisi, A M; Muscettola, M

    2009-11-01

    Physiological needs during prolonged exercise are a potent stimulus for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hence, athletes undergoing daily endurance training sessions may have frequent and prolonged phases of endogenous hypercortisolism. Since chronic glucocorticoids treatment leads to down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GR-alpha) mRNA expression, endurance training could lead to modulation of GR expression. The aim of the study was to evaluate GR-alpha and GR-beta mRNA expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma cortisol, ACTH and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) concentrations at rest in subjects undergoing different training regimes. Nine high trained (HT) swimmers (training volume: 21.6+/-1.7 hours/week in 10-12 sessions) were compared with two age-matched control groups represented by 8 low trained (LT) runners (training volume: 6.4+/-2.6 h/week in 3-5 sessions) and 9 untrained subjects. Expression of GR was determined by RT-PCR of total RNA. Hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay methods. HT athletes showed 10 times less GR-alpha mRNA expression than the untrained subjects, while LT athletes exhibited values about twofold less than the untrained subjects. GR-beta mRNA expression was undetectable in all subjects. No differences were observed among the three groups in hormone levels. GR- alpha mRNA expression is repressed in proportion to the amount and frequency of the stressful stimuli due to training. Hence, this down-regulation may be a consequence of the frequent and prolonged exposure to cortisol acute elevations induced by training. GR-beta did not play an important role in inducing the down-regulation of GR-alpha mRNA expression observed.

  13. Fas ligand expression in human and mouse cancer cell lines; a caveat on over-reliance on mRNA data

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    Ryan Aideen E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During carcinogenesis, tumors develop multiple mechanisms for evading the immune response, including upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L expression. Expression of FasL may help to maintain tumor cells in a state of immune privilege by inducing apoptosis of anti-tumor immune effector cells. Recently this idea has been challenged by studies reporting that tumor cells of varying origin do not express FasL. In the present study, we aimed to comprehensively characterize FasL expression in tumors of both murine and human origin over a 72 hour time period. Methods RNA and protein was extracted from six human (SW620, HT29, SW480, KM12SM, HCT116, Jurkat and three mouse (CMT93, CT26, B16F10 cancer cell lines at regular time intervals over a 72 hour time period. FasL expression was detected at the mRNA level by RT-PCR, using intron spanning primers, and at the protein level by Western Blotting and immunofluorescence, using a polyclonal FasL- specific antibody. Results Expression of FasL mRNA and protein was observed in all cell lines analysed. However, expression of FasL mRNA varied dramatically over time, with cells negative for FasL mRNA at many time points. In contrast, 8 of the 9 cell lines constitutively expressed FasL protein. Thus, cells can abundantly express FasL protein at times when FasL mRNA is absent. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the importance of complete analysis of FasL expression by tumor cells in order to fully characterize its biological function and may help to resolve the discrepancies present in the literature regarding FasL expression and tumor immune privilege.

  14. Cytokine mRNA expressions after racing at a high altitude and at sea level in horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulez, Montague N; Godfroid, Jacques; Bosman, Anamarie; Stiltner, Jackie L; Breathnach, Cormac C; Horohov, David W

    2010-04-01

    To determine concentrations of cytokine mRNA in horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) after racing. 97 Thoroughbreds. Following tracheobronchoscopy, the severity of EIPH was graded (scale of 0 to 4), and venous blood samples were collected from 10 horses in each grade. After RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR assay was conducted to detect cytokinespecific mRNA for interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-10; interferon (INF)-gamma; and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Neither location nor grade of EIPH affected the expression of IL-1 and INF-gamma. There was significantly greater overall expression of IL-6 mRNA at sea level, with significantly more IL-6 expressed in horses with grade 4 EIPH than in horses with grade 0, 1, or 2 EIPH. At a high altitude, no difference was detected for IL-6 expression among the various EIPH grades. There was significantly greater overall expression of TNF-alpha mRNA at a high altitude; however, there was no difference within the various grades of EIPH. Expression of IL-10 was significantly affected by grade of EIPH because horses with grade 3 EIPH expressed significantly more IL-10 mRNA than did horses with grade 0 or 2 EIPH; this expression was not affected by location. At sea level, increased IL-6 expression was associated with more severe EIPH, and altitude may affect gene expressions of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Studies on protein concentrations of cytokine expression are needed. The pathophysiologic importance of these findings remains to be explained.

  15. Prognostic Impact of mRNA Expression Levels of HER1–4 (ERBB1–4 in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

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    Melanie Kripp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No predictive or prognostic biomarker is available for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC undergoing perioperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT. Members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER family of receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR (HER1, ERBB1, HER2 (ERBB2, HER3 (ERBB3, and HER4 (ERBB4 are therapeutic targets in several cancers. The analysis was performed to assess expression levels and study the potential prognostic impact for disease-free and overall survival in patients with LARC. Patients and Methods. ERBB1–4 mRNA expression and tumor proliferation using Ki-67 (MKI67 mRNA were evaluated using RT-quantitative PCR in paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 86 patients (median age: 63 treated with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil-based CRT within a phase 3 clinical trial. Results. A positive correlation of HER4 and HER2, HER3 and HER2, and HER4 and HER3 with each other was observed. Patients with high mRNA expression of ERBB1 (EGFR, HER1 had significantly increased risk for recurrence and death. Patients with high mRNA expression of MKI67 had reduced risk for relapse. Conclusion. This analysis suggests a prognostic impact of both ERBB1 and MKi67 mRNA expression in LARC patients treated with capecitabine or fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy.

  16. Clinical Usefulness of Monitoring Expression Levels of CCL24 (Eotaxin-2) mRNA on the Ocular Surface in Patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis and Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yukiko; Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of using expression levels of CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA on the ocular surface as a biomarker in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Methods. Eighteen patients with VKC or AKC (VKC/AKC group) and 12 control subjects (control group) were enrolled in this study. The VKC/AKC clinical score was determined by objective findings in patients by using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. All subjects underwent modified impression cytology and specimens were obtained from the upper tarsal conjunctiva. Expression levels of CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA on the ocular surface were determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results. The VKC group was divided into two subgroups, depending on the clinical score: the active stage subgroup with 100 points or more of clinical scores and the stable stage subgroup with 100 points or less. CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA expression levels in the active VKC/AKC stage subgroup were significantly higher than those in the stable VKC/AKC subgroup and the control group. Clinical scores correlated significantly with CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA expression levels in the VKC group. Conclusions. CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA expression levels on the ocular surface are a useful biomarker for clinical severity of VKC/AKC.

  17. Correlation between expressions of ERCC1/TS mRNA and effects of gastric cancer to chemotherapy in the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liqi; Li, Guoli; Li, Jieshou; Fan, Chaogang; Xu, Jian; Wu, Bo; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Caihua

    2013-04-01

    To study the correlation between expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA and the susceptibility of preoperative chemotherapy for patients with gastric cancer. A total of forty cases with advanced gastric cancer of T3-4N1-2M0 were treated with preoperative chemotherapy according to FLEEOX regimen based on endarterial-intravenous coadministration. Sufficient, fresh gastric tissue specimens were obtained with the help of gastroscope, and the expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR before chemotherapy. The chemotherapeutic response was evaluated with Choi Criteria after chemotherapy, and pathologic remission extent was observed after surgery. The correlation between the expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA before chemotherapy and the chemotherapeutic effect based on imageology and pathology was analyzed. The response rate of Chemotherapy in this cohort was 80.0 % based on imageology and 51.43 % based on pathology. The expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA were significantly associated with imageology remission extent (P = 0.033, P = 0.025) and pathologic remission extent (P = 0.044, P = 0.016), respectively. The chemotherapeutic effect on patients with low-expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA was better. From the perspective of pathology and imageology evaluating the preoperative chemotherapeutic response for patients with gastric cancer, ERCC1 and TS were used as the molecular predictors and provided prognostic information in this study.

  18. The mRNA Expression Status of Dopamine Receptor D2, Dopamine Receptor D3 and DARPP-32 in T Lymphocytes of Patients with Early Psychosis

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    Yin Cui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood lymphocytes are an attractive tool because there is accumulating evidence indicating that lymphocytes may be utilized as a biomarker in the field of psychiatric study as they could reveal the condition of cells distributed in the brain. Here, we measured the mRNA expression status of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2, DRD3, and dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32 in T lymphocytes of patients with early psychosis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR and explored the relationships between their mRNA levels and the psychopathological status of patients. The present study demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of DRD3 in T lymphocytes were significantly different among controls, and in patients with psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS and schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. However, no significant differences in mRNA expression levels of DRD2 and DARPP-32 were found among the three groups. We found a significant positive correlation between the DRD2 mRNA level and the score of the excited factor of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS in patients with schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. These findings suggest that DRD3 mRNA levels may serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker differentiating patients with early psychosis from controls.

  19. Volcano plots in analyzing differential expressions with mRNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentian

    2012-12-01

    A volcano plot displays unstandardized signal (e.g. log-fold-change) against noise-adjusted/standardized signal (e.g. t-statistic or -log(10)(p-value) from the t-test). We review the basic and interactive use of the volcano plot and its crucial role in understanding the regularized t-statistic. The joint filtering gene selection criterion based on regularized statistics has a curved discriminant line in the volcano plot, as compared to the two perpendicular lines for the "double filtering" criterion. This review attempts to provide a unifying framework for discussions on alternative measures of differential expression, improved methods for estimating variance, and visual display of a microarray analysis result. We also discuss the possibility of applying volcano plots to other fields beyond microarray.

  20. A novel actin mRNA splice variant regulates ACTG1 expression.

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    Meghan C Drummond

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic actins are abundant, ubiquitous proteins in nucleated cells. However, actin expression is regulated in a tissue- and development-specific manner. We identified a novel cytoplasmic-γ-actin (Actg1 transcript that includes a previously unidentified exon (3a. Inclusion of this exon introduces an in-frame termination codon. We hypothesized this alternatively-spliced transcript down-regulates γ-actin production by targeting these transcripts for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD. To address this, we investigated conservation between mammals, tissue-specificity in mice, and developmental regulation using C2C12 cell culture. Exon 3a is 80% similar among mammals and varies in length from 41 nucleotides in humans to 45 in mice. Though the predicted amino acid sequences are not similar between all species, inclusion of exon 3a consistently results in the in the introduction of a premature termination codon within the alternative Actg1 transcript. Of twelve tissues examined, exon 3a is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and diaphragm. Splicing to include exon 3a is concomitant with previously described down-regulation of Actg1 in differentiating C2C12 cells. Treatment of differentiated C2C12 cells with an inhibitor of NMD results in a 7-fold increase in exon 3a-containing transcripts. Therefore, splicing to generate exon 3a-containing transcripts may be one component of Actg1 regulation. We propose that this post-transcriptional regulation occurs via NMD, in a process previously described as "regulated unproductive splicing and translation" (RUST.

  1. Investigation of mRNA expression for secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Tien; Lin, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2007-08-01

    The roles of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in organ development of vertebrate animals are not well understood. We investigated expression of sFRP2 during embryogenesis of Arbor Acre broiler chicken eggs. Expression of sFRP2 was detected in the folds and lateral layer of developing brains. The sFRP2 signals in the developing eye were marked as a circle along the orbit. In younger embryos on days 3-6, the sFRP2 signals were consistent with growth of the sclerotome, suggesting that sFRP2 may be associated with somite development. Furthermore, with the exception of bones, sFRP2 mRNA was detectable in the interdigital tissue of embryos older than eight days as the limbs matured. This revealed that sFRP2 might play a role in myogenesis. In situ hybridization was also used to analyze the expression of sFRP2 in day 3-10 chick embryos. Signals were expressed in the gray matter of the developing brain coelom, including the optic lobe, metencephalon, myelencephalon, mesencephalon and diencephalon. The developing eyes contained an intercellular distribution of sFRP2 in the pigmented layer of the retina and photoreceptors. Furthermore, sFRP2 was expressed in the mantle layer of the neural tube and notochord. Based on these findings, it seems reasonable to suggest that sFRP2 may play an active role in embryogenesis, especially in development of the neural system, eyes, muscles and limbs.

  2. [Two Elovl5-like elongase genes in Cyprinus carpio var. Jian: Gene characterization, mRNA expression, and nutritional regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H-T; Huang, Y; Tang, Y-K; Yu, J-H; Xu, P

    2015-01-01

    Elovl5 elongase is a critical enzyme involved in the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) biosynthesis. There is very little information on the evolution and functional characterization of Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In the present study, the genomic sequences and structures of two putative Elovl5-like elongase genes in the common carp genome were obtained. The mRNA expression patterns of Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b in tissues, hatching carp embryos, and juveniles under nutritional regulation were investigated. The results show that the two Elovl5 elongase genes have similar organization, coding 8 exons of high identity and introns of distinct size and sequence composition. They are not allelic variants of a single gene. Both Elovl5 elongase genes are highly expressed in liver, intestine (pyloric caeca) and brain. Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b mRNAs showed increased expression from newly hatched to 20 days after hatching. The regulation of Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b in response to dietary fatty acid composition was determined in liver, brain and intestine (pyloric caeca) of common carp fed with diets: (i) fish oil (FO) rich in n-3 HUFA, (ii) corn oil (CO, 18:2n-6) or (iii) linseed oil (LO, 18:3n-3). Also the differential expression of Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b genes in liver, brain and intestine in common carps fed with different oil sources was studied. Further work aimed at the determination of the mechanisms of differential expression of the Elovl5-a and Elovl5-b in different tissues and the roles of transcription factors in regulating HUFA synthesis is in progress.

  3. Immunoexpression of RANK, RANKL, OPG, VEGF, and vWF in radicular and dentigerous cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Maiara; de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; de Souza, Lélia Batista; de Almeida Freitas, Roseana; de Lisboa Lopes Costa, Antônio

    2013-07-01

    Radicular (RC) and dentigerous cysts (DC) can show a range from little to quite extensive primary/secondary inflammation and it is possible that the variation seen in the fibrous capsule of these cysts might reflect differences in the osteolytic activity. Moreover, the presence of hemorrhagic areas in the fibrous capsule of DC could also contribute to the increase in osteolytic activity. The aim of this study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor κappaB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenic index in RC and DC. These proteins were evaluated in 20 RC and DC by immunohistochemistry. Angiogenic index was determined by microvessel count (MVC) using anti-von Willebrand factor antibody. RANK and RANKL were higher in DC than RC in fibrous capsule. RC showed higher expression of VEGF in the epithelium and capsule. DC exhibited higher MVC than RC. Ours results suggest that RANK and RANKL play an important role in bone resorption in DC and the hemorrhagic areas in the capsule of DC could be explained by increased vessel's number. The higher VEGF expression in RC might be related to nature of these lesions, where the inflammatory process contributes significantly to these findings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. SOD mRNA and MDA expression in rectus femoris muscle of rats with different eccentric exercise programs and time points.

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    Heng Zhao

    Full Text Available Although superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA affect Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS, their effects are unclear in rectus femoris muscles (RFM of rats with different eccentric exercise programs and time points. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the various eccentric exercise programs at different time points on the SOD mRNA expression and MDA using rat as the animal model.248 male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (CTL, n = 8, once-only exercise group (OEG, n = 80, continuous exercise group (CEG, n = 80, and intermittent exercise group (IEG, n = 80. Each exercise group was divided into 10 subgroups that exercised 0.5 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, 144 h, or 168 h. Rats were sacrificed and their SOD mRNA expression, and MDA concentrations of skeletal muscle tissue were measured.The specimen in all eccentric exercise programs showed increased RFM SOD1 mRNA expression levels at 0.5 h (P<0.05, and decreased RFM SOD3 mRNA expression at 0.5 h (P<0.05. The continuous eccentric exercise (CE significantly enhanced muscle SOD2 mRNA level at 0.5 h (P<0.05. After once-only eccentric exercise (OE, SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3 mRNA expression significantly increased at 96 h, whereas MDA concentrations decreased at 96 h. After CE, the correlation coefficients of SOD1, SOD2, SOD3 mRNA expression levels and MDA concentrations were -0.814, -0.763, -0.845 (all P<0.05 at 12 h.Regular eccentric exercise, especially CE could enhance SOD1 and SOD2 mRNA expression in acute stage and the SOD2 mRNA expression correlates to MDA concentration in vivo, which may improve the oxidative adaption ability of skeletal muscles.

  5. [Correlation between the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion-weighted imaging in rats' liver fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuefu; Liang, Xianwen; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jianqiang; Zhang, Shufang; Tan, Shun; Li, Qun; Wang, Xiong; Liu, Fan

    2017-02-28

    To explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in different stages of liver fibrosis in rats.
 Methods: A model of liver fibrosis in rats was established by intraperitoneal injection of high-fat diet combined with porcine serum. After drug administration for 4 weeks, 48 rats served as a model group and 12 rats served as a control group, then they underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scanning. The value of ADC was calculated at b value=800 s/mm2. The rats were sacrificed and carried out pathologic examination after DWI scanning immediately. The mRNA expression of TIMP-1 was detected by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The rats of hepatic fibrosis were also divided into a S0 group (n=4), a S1 group (n=11), a S2 group (n=12), a S3 group (n=10), and a S4 group (n=9) according to their pathological stage. The value of ADC and the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA among the different stage groups of liver fibrosis were compared, and the correlation between ADC and the TIMP-1 mRNA were analyzed.
 Results: The ADC value and the TIMP-1 mRNA expression were significantly different between the control group and the liver fibrosis group (F=46.54 and 53.87, P0.05). For the comparison of TIMP-1 mRNA, there was no significant difference between the S1 group and the S2 group, the S3 group and the S4 group (both P>0.05). There were significant differences among the rest of the groups (all Pcorrelation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the ADC value and the TIMP-1 mRNA expression (r=-0.76, Pcorrelation between them.

  6. Sodium arsenite-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is related to inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression in mouse activated T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Patricia; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, CINVESTAV, Seccion Toxicologia, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Goytia-Acevedo, Raquel C. [Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Facultad de Medicina, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    A proposed mechanism for the As-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is the inhibition of IL-2 secretion. However, the effects of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression or on the ERK pathway in activated-T cells have not yet been described. We examined the effect of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression, cell activation and proliferation in PHA-stimulated murine lymphocytes. Arsenite (1 and 10 {mu}M) decreased IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation. Arsenite (10 {mu}M) strongly inhibited ERK-phosphorylation. However, the partial inhibition (50%) of IL-2 mRNA produced by 1 {mu}M, consistent with the effects on IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation, could not be explained by the inhibition of ERK-phosphorylation, which was not affected at this concentration. The inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression caused by 1 {mu}M could be associated to effects on pathways located downstream or parallel to ERK. Arsenite also decreased early activation (surface CD69{sup +} expression) in both CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +}, and decreased total CD8{sup +} count without significantly affecting CD4{sup +}, supporting that the cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T cells is an arsenic target. Thus, our results suggest that arsenite decreases IL-2 mRNA levels and T-cell activation and proliferation. However, further studies on the effects of arsenite on IL-2 gene transcription and IL-2 mRNA stability are needed. (orig.)

  7. Temporal regulation of HTLV-2 expression in infected cell lines and patients: evidence for distinct expression kinetics with nuclear accumulation of APH-2 mRNA

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    Bender Cecilia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are delta retroviruses with similar genetic organization. Although both viruses immortalize T-cells in vitro, they exhibit distinct pathogenic potential in vivo. To search for possible differences in its expression strategy with respect to HTLV-1, we investigated the pattern of HTLV-2 expression in infected cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from infected patients using splice site-specific quantitative RT-PCR. Findings A novel alternative splice acceptor site for exon 2 was identified; its usage in env transcripts was found to be subtype-specific. Time-course analysis revealed a two-phase expression kinetics in an infected cell line and in PBMCs of two of the three patients examined; this pattern was reminiscent of HTLV-1. In addition, the minus-strand APH2 transcript was mainly detected in the nucleus, a feature that was similar to its HTLV-1 orthologue HBZ. In contrast to HTLV-1, expression of the mRNA encoding the main regulatory proteins Tax and Rex and that of the mRNAs encoding the p28 and truncated Rex inhibitors is skewed towards p28/truncated Rex inhibitors in HTLV-2. Conclusion Our data suggest a general converging pattern of expression of HTLV-2 and HTLV-1 and highlight peculiar differences in the expression of regulatory proteins that might influence the pathobiology of these viruses.

  8. A comparative study of mRNA and protein expression of the autoimmune regulator gene (Aire) in embryonic and adult murine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, K A; Pearce, S H S; Lamb, J R; Seckl, J R; Howie, S E M

    2004-02-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) and characterized by multiple autoimmune diseases. As reports of the tissue expression pattern of the murine Aire gene are discordant, a comprehensive survey of Aire expression was undertaken in adult and embryonic tissues at the mRNA and protein levels using real-time RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. In the adult, the highest Aire mRNA expression was in the thymus. All the other tissues investigated expressed Aire mRNA at low levels, but it was barely detectable in the adrenal gland. Aire protein expression was observed in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. A common pattern was observed in other tissues, with staining in epithelial cells. An exception to this was the gut, where staining was seen in the mucin spaces. In embryonic tissue, Aire mRNA and protein expression was detected from E14.5 in the thymus. In the fetal liver, unlike the adult, staining was observed at E14.5 and decreased towards term. Thus, Aire is expressed in immunologically relevant tissues and in a restricted number of extra-immunological tissues in the adult. Furthermore, the presence of Aire protein is reported in extra-thymic tissues of the embryo. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Significance of the BRAF mRNA Expression Level in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: An Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas Data.

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    Young Jun Chai

    Full Text Available BRAFV600E is the most common mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, and it is associated with high-risk prognostic factors. However, the significance of the BRAF mRNA level in PTC remains unknown. We evaluated the significance of BRAF mRNA expression level by analyzing PTC data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA database.Data from 499 patients were downloaded from the TCGA database. After excluding other PTC variants, we selected 353 cases of classic PTC, including 193 cases with BRAFV600E and 160 cases with the wild-type BRAF. mRNA abundances were measured using RNA-Seq with the Expectation Maximization algorithm.The mean BRAF mRNA level was significantly higher in BRAFV600E patients than in patients with wild-type BRAF (197.6 vs. 179.3, p = 0.031. In wild-type BRAF patients, the mean BRAF mRNA level was higher in cases with a tumor > 2 cm than those with a tumor ≤ 2.0 cm (189.4 vs. 163.8, p = 0.046, and was also higher in cases with lymph node metastasis than in those without lymph node metastasis (188.5 vs. 157.9, p = 0.040. Within BRAFV600E patients, higher BRAF mRNA expression was associated with extrathyroidal extension (186.4 vs. 216.4, p = 0.001 and higher T stage (188.1 vs. 210.2, p = 0.016.A higher BRAF mRNA expression level was associated with tumor aggressiveness in classic PTC regardless of BRAF mutational status. Evaluation of BRAF mRNA level may be helpful in prognostic risk stratification of PTC.

  10. Expression of mRNA of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, and matricellular proteins in the myocardium and intensity of fibroplastic processes during experimental hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Pichigin, V I; Klinnikova, M G; Nepomnyashchikh, R D; Sergeevichev, D S

    2013-12-01

    The expression of mRNA of matricellular proteins (osteopontin, and lumican), apolipoproteins E and A-IV, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and the intensity of fibroplastic processes were studied in the myocardium of rats during experimental chronic hypercholesterolemia. We have found that the development of chronic hypercholesterolemia was followed by an increase in volume density of interstitial connective tissue in the myocardium reflecting the activation of fibroplastic processes. A slight positive correlation was observed between the connective tissue density in the myocardium and expression of osteopontin mRNA (r=0.408) and lumican mRNA (r=0.470). Myocardium remodeling during hypercholesterolemia is realized against the background of increased expression of apolipoproteins E and A-IV mRNA and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA involved in transport and metabolism of lipoproteins in several tissues and probably play a pivotal role in the regulation of lipoprotein transport and metabolism in the myocardium. We concluded that the increase in the expression of apolipoproteins (E and A-IV) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein play adaptive and compensatory role and is related to the increase in lipoprotein utilization by macrophages.

  11. Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression as Supporting Marker to Cytokeratin 19 mRNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients

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    Marek Murawski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA detects and quantifies, with the use of a polymerase chain reaction, the presence of cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes. The main advantage of the OSNA assay is the avoidance of second surgery in case of positive sentinel lymph node diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression by immunohistochemistry as supporting marker to cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients and to relate this expression with clinicopathological data. This study was conducted on fresh sentinel lymph nodes obtained from 40 patients with tumors classified as carcinoma of no special type. The presence of metastatic cells in the slices of lymph nodes was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for CK19 and MMP-9. Expression of CK19 and MMP-9 in lymph nodes was also confirmed by means of Western blot analysis. Results indicated that the strongest correlation with CK19 mRNA was displayed by MMP-9, CK19 (by immunohistochemistry, IHC, and nodal metastases (p < 0.001. Higher histological grading also positively correlated with CK19 mRNA, however that correlation was less significant. Since MMP-9 shows very strong correlation with CK19 mRNA in breast carcinoma of no special type metastases, expression of MMP-9 in sentinel lymph nodes should be considered as useful method whenever OSNA analysis is not available.

  12. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and nitric oxide production during the development of liver abscess in hamster inoculated with Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel; González-Hernández, Angélica; Arias-Negrete, Sergio

    2005-06-01

    The present study analyzed iNOS and eNOS mRNA expression and NO production during development of hepatic abscess caused by Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. One 374-bp sequence, which displayed 88% identity to mammalian iNOS protein, was isolated from LPS-stimulated peritoneal hamster macrophages. A separate 365-bp cDNA sequence showed 99% identity with eNOS protein. iNOS mRNA was detected in hamsters during formation of amoebic liver abscesses, but not in control hamsters. eNOS mRNA expression was not modified. Serum nitrite concentration in hamsters infected with E. histolytica was 33 +/- 6 microM, in control hamsters was 20 +/- 3 microM. The study shows that iNOS mRNA expression and NO production are induced by E. histolytica trophozoites during amoebic liver abscess formation. However, in spite of iNOS mRNA expression and NO production, E. histolytica trophozoites induced liver abscess formation in hamster.

  13. Involvement of second messengers in the signaling pathway of vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone and their effects on vitellogenin mRNA expression in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sun-Hye; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Kang, Bong Jung; Chen, Hsiang-Yin; Wilder, Marcy N

    2017-05-15

    We incubated fragments of Litopenaeus vannamei ovary to investigate second messengers involved in the regulation of vitellogenin (vg) mRNA levels. The use of 100nM recombinant vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) (corresponding to recombinant L. vannamei sinus gland peptide-G: rLiv-SGP-G) significantly reduced vg mRNA expression in sub-adults after 8h incubation to less than 20% of the control. The concentration of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) increased 3.2-fold relative to the control after 2h incubation with rLiv-SGP-G. However, it reached levels 18-fold relative to the control after 0.5h incubation with rLiv-SGP-G where 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) was also added. Moreover, vg mRNA expression was significantly reduced to less than 50% of the control after 24h incubation with 1μM A23187 (a calcium ionophore). Thus, rLiv-SGP-G and calcium ionophore reduced vg mRNA expression in in vitro-cultured ovary, and cGMP may be involved in the signaling pathway of VIH. Overall, the above results suggest that vg mRNA expression might be inhibited in vitro by increasing intracellular cGMP and Ca2+ in L. vannamei ovary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contraction induced changes in skeletal muscle Na+, K+ pump mRNA expression - importance of exercise intensity and Ca2+ mediated signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Kusuhara, Keiko; Hellsten, Ylva

    2010-01-01

    pronounced after high- than after moderate- and low-intensity exercise 2) Both prolonged low and short-duration high intensity exercise increase alpha1 mRNA expression in untrained subjects 3) Ca(2+) (i) regulates alpha1 mRNA expression in oxidative muscles via CaMK and calcineurin signalling pathways....... and trained subjects. In trained subjects, intermittent exercise at approximately 70% of VO(2peak) resulted in a less (Plow intensity exercise increased (P...Abstract Aim: To investigate if exercise intensity and Ca(2+) signalling regulate Na(+), K(+) pump mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Methods: The importance of exercise intensity was evaluated by having trained and untrained humans perform intense intermittent and prolonged exercise...

  15. Plasma cytokines do not reflect expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA at organ level after cardiopulmonary bypass in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix-Christensen, V.; Vestergaard, C.; Chew, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers are increased in response to the trauma of cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). It is, however, unknown whether the plasma cytokine levels and cytokine mRNA expression at organ level reflect each other. Methods: Twenty...... increase in OI and increased plasma IL-8 and IL-10 concentrations in the CPB-pigs compared with the sham-pigs. Conclusion: The cytokine mRNA expression pattern was very different for the pigs killed already 0.5 h after the CPB procedure compared with the pigs killed 4 h post-CPB. The plasma cytokine levels...... poorly reflected mRNA expression of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines....

  16. [Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA expression in rat trigeminal ganglion at different interval after molar extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hong-Chen; Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2009-05-01

    To observe the expression and function of extraction. Real-time reverse transcription PCR paralleled with vitro-established cRNA standard curves was applied to measure the expression of Nav1.8, Nav1.9 at 30 min, 2 h, 1 d, 3 d and 6 d respectively after extraction of rat right mandibular molars. The right mandibular molars were used as control. Both Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA in right trigeminal ganglion showed little change after 30 min, and increased slowly after 2 h. Nav1.8, Nav1.9 mRNA expressions increased by 27% and 24.5% respectively compared to the left trigeminal ganglion after 3 d, reaching the highest level (P Nav1.9 mRNA, indicating the participation of sodium channels in regulations of peripheral tissue pain after molar extraction.

  17. Protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1δ (PPM1D mRNA expression is a prognosis marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Bing Li

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1δ (PPM1D is an oncogene, overexpressed in many solid tumors, including ovarian cancer and breast cancer. The current study examined the expression and the prognostic value of PPM1D mRNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.Total RNA was extracted from 86 HCC and paired non-cancerous liver tissues. PPM1D mRNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Immunohistochemistry assay was used to verify the expression of ppm1d protein in the HCC and non-cancerous liver tissues. HCC patients were grouped according to PPM1D mRNA expression with the average PPM1D mRNA level in non-cancerous liver tissue samples as the cut-off. Correlations between clinicopathologic variables, overall survival and PPM1D mRNA expression were analyzed.PPM1D mRNA was significantly higher in HCC than in the paired non-cancerous tissue (p<0.01. This was confirmed by ppm1d staining. 56 patients were classified as high expression group and the other 30 patients were categorized as low expression group. There were significant differences between the two groups in term of alpha-fetoprotein (α-FP level (p<0.01, tumor size (p<0.01, TNM stage (p<0.01, recurrence incidence (p<0.01 and family history of liver cancer (p<0.01. The current study failed to find significant differences between the two groups in the following clinical characteristics: age, gender, portal vein invasion, lymphnode metastasis, hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and alcohol intake. Survival time of high expression group was significantly shorter than that of low expression group (median survival, 13 months and 32 months, respectively, p<0.01.Up-regulation of PPM1D mRNA was associated with progressive pathological feature and poor prognosis in HCC patients. PPM1D mRNA may serve as a prognostic marker in HCC.

  18. Small, synthetic, GC-rich mRNA stem-loop modules 5' proximal to the AUG start-codon predictably tune gene expression in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamping, Erwin; Niimi, Masakazu; Cannon, Richard D

    2013-07-29

    A large range of genetic tools has been developed for the optimal design and regulation of complex metabolic pathways in bacteria. However, fewer tools exist in yeast that can precisely tune the expression of individual enzymes in novel metabolic pathways suitable for industrial-scale production of non-natural compounds. Tuning expression levels is critical for reducing the metabolic burden of over-expressed proteins, the accumulation of toxic intermediates, and for redirecting metabolic flux from native pathways involving essential enzymes without negatively affecting the viability of the host. We have developed a yeast membrane protein hyper-expression system with critical advantages over conventional, plasmid-based, expression systems. However, expression levels are sometimes so high that they adversely affect protein targeting/folding or the growth and/or phenotype of the host. Here we describe the use of small synthetic mRNA control modules that allowed us to predictably tune protein expression levels to any desired level. Down-regulation of expression was achieved by engineering small GC-rich mRNA stem-loops into the 5' UTR that inhibited translation initiation of the yeast ribosomal 43S preinitiation complex (PIC). Exploiting the fact that the yeast 43S PIC has great difficulty scanning through GC-rich mRNA stem-loops, we created yeast strains containing 17 different RNA stem-loop modules in the 5' UTR that expressed varying amounts of the fungal multidrug efflux pump reporter Cdr1p from Candida albicans. Increasing the length of mRNA stem-loops (that contained only GC-pairs) near the AUG start-codon led to a surprisingly large decrease in Cdr1p expression; ~2.7-fold for every additional GC-pair added to the stem, while the mRNA levels remained largely unaffected. An mRNA stem-loop of seven GC-pairs (∆G = -15.8 kcal/mol) reduced Cdr1p expression levels by >99%, and even the smallest possible stem-loop of only three GC-pairs (∆G = -4.4 kcal/mol) inhibited

  19. Small, synthetic, GC-rich mRNA stem-loop modules 5′ proximal to the AUG start-codon predictably tune gene expression in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A large range of genetic tools has been developed for the optimal design and regulation of complex metabolic pathways in bacteria. However, fewer tools exist in yeast that can precisely tune the expression of individual enzymes in novel metabolic pathways suitable for industrial-scale production of non-natural compounds. Tuning expression levels is critical for reducing the metabolic burden of over-expressed proteins, the accumulation of toxic intermediates, and for redirecting metabolic flux from native pathways involving essential enzymes without negatively affecting the viability of the host. We have developed a yeast membrane protein hyper-expression system with critical advantages over conventional, plasmid-based, expression systems. However, expression levels are sometimes so high that they adversely affect protein targeting/folding or the growth and/or phenotype of the host. Here we describe the use of small synthetic mRNA control modules that allowed us to predictably tune protein expression levels to any desired level. Down-regulation of expression was achieved by engineering small GC-rich mRNA stem-loops into the 5′ UTR that inhibited translation initiation of the yeast ribosomal 43S preinitiation complex (PIC). Results Exploiting the fact that the yeast 43S PIC has great difficulty scanning through GC-rich mRNA stem-loops, we created yeast strains containing 17 different RNA stem-loop modules in the 5′ UTR that expressed varying amounts of the fungal multidrug efflux pump reporter Cdr1p from Candida albicans. Increasing the length of mRNA stem-loops (that contained only GC-pairs) near the AUG start-codon led to a surprisingly large decrease in Cdr1p expression; ~2.7-fold for every additional GC-pair added to the stem, while the mRNA levels remained largely unaffected. An mRNA stem-loop of seven GC-pairs (∆G = −15.8 kcal/mol) reduced Cdr1p expression levels by >99%, and even the smallest possible stem-loop of only three GC-pairs (

  20. Characterization of a cDNA Encoding Lens culinaris Glycolate Oxidase and Developmental Expression of Glycolate Oxidase mRNA in Cotyledons and Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludt, Claudia; Kindl, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    mRNA obtained from green leaves of lentil (Lens culinaris) was used to construct a cDNA library in phage λgt11. The cDNA library was screened with antibodies raised against lentil glycolate oxidase and catalase. Clone CL 1 containing the full-length sequence complementary to glycolate oxidase mRNA was characterized and sequenced. In addition, a 800-base pair catalase cDNA clone was sequenced. To prove the correlation of cDNA insert in CL 1 with glycolate oxidase, the cDNA was transcribed in vitro. The mRNA was translated in vitro yielding a 43 kilodalton protein immunoprecipitable with anti-glycolate oxidase serum. Nucleotide sequences of lentil cDNA and spinach cDNA were 86% identical. Lentil glycolate oxidase was characterized by a C-terminal sequence -P-R-A-L-P-R-L. The expression of glycolate oxidase mRNA in cotyledons, leaves and roots was compared with that of catalase. In leaves, the relative amount of glycolate oxidase mRNA increased during the first 2 days of greening, but decreased later, and was hardly detectable during senescence. In cotyledons of germinating seeds, the level of glycolate oxidase mRNA was markedly lower than the catalase mRNA. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667816

  1. Low force contractions induce fatigue consistent with muscle mRNA expression in people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Michael A; Suneja, Manish; Faidley, Elizabeth; Shields, Richard K

    2014-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with muscle atrophy, transformation of muscle fibers to a fast fatigable phenotype, metabolic inflexibility (diabetes), and neurogenic osteoporosis. Electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscle may mitigate muscle metabolic abnormalities after SCI, but there is a risk for a fracture to the osteoporotic skeletal system. The goal of this study was to determine if low force stimulation (3 Hz) causes fatigue of chronically paralyzed muscle consistent with selected muscle gene expression profiles. We tested 29 subjects, nine with a SCI and 20 without and SCI, during low force fatigue protocol. Three SCI and three non-SCI subjects were muscle biopsied for gene and protein expression analysis. The fatigue index (FI) was 0.21 ± 0.27 and 0.91 ± 0.01 for the SCI and non-SCI groups, respectively, supporting that the low force protocol physiologically fatigued the chronically paralyzed muscle. The post fatigue potentiation index (PI) for the SCI group was increased to 1.60 ± 0.06 (P stimulation. The mRNA expression from genes that regulate atrophy and fast properties (MSTN, ANKRD1, MYH8, and MYCBP2) was up regulated, while genes that regulate oxidative and slow muscle properties (MYL3, SDHB, PDK2, and RyR1) were repressed in the chronic SCI muscle. MSTN, ANKRD1, MYH8, MYCBP2 gene expression was also repressed 3 h after the low force stimulation protocol. Taken together, these findings support that a low force single twitch activation protocol induces paralyzed muscle fatigue and subsequent gene regulation. These findings suggest that training with a low force protocol may elicit skeletal muscle adaptations in people with SCI.

  2. Patterns of dioxin-altered mRNA expression in livers of dioxin-sensitive versus dioxin-resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franc, Monique A. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Department of Pharmacogenomics, 1000 Route 202 South, P.O. Box 300, Raritan, NJ (United States); Moffat, Ivy D.; Boutros, Paul C.; Okey, Allan B. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Tuomisto, Jouko [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, Centre for Environmental Health Risk Analysis, Kuopio (Finland); Pohjanvirta, Raimo [University of Helsinki, Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Dioxins exert their major toxicologic effects by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and altering gene transcription. Numerous dioxin-responsive genes previously were identified both by conventional biochemical and molecular techniques and by recent mRNA expression microarray studies. However, of the large set of dioxin-responsive genes the specific genes whose dysregulation leads to death remain unknown. To identify specific genes that may be involved in dioxin lethality we compared changes in liver mRNA levels following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in three strains/lines of dioxin-sensitive rats with changes in three dioxin-resistant rat strains/lines. The three dioxin-resistant strains/lines all harbor a large deletion in the transactivation domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Despite this deletion, many genes exhibited a ''Type-I'' response - that is, their responses were similar in dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rats. Several genes that previously were well established as being dioxin-responsive or under AHR regulation emerged as Type-I responses (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and Gsta3). In contrast, a relatively small number of genes exhibited a Type-II response - defined as a difference in responsiveness between dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rat strains. Type-II genes include: malic enzyme 1, ubiquitin C, cathepsin L, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and ferritin light chain 1. In silico searches revealed that AH response elements are conserved in the 5'-flanking regions of several genes that respond to TCDD in both the Type-I and Type-II categories. The vast majority of changes in mRNA levels in response to 100 {mu}g/kg TCDD were strain-specific; over 75% of the dioxin-responsive clones were affected in only one of the six strains/lines. Selected genes were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in dose-response and time-course experiments and responses of some genes were

  3. The effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride on the expression of CaMK II mRNA in the dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianjie; Lai, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Hua

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we identified the subtype of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) mRNA in dorsal root ganglion neurons and observed the effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration and different exposure time on the mRNA expression. Dorsal root ganglion neurons were isolated from the SD rats and cultured in vitro. The mRNA of the CaMK II subtype in dorsal root ganglion neurons were detected by real-time PCR. As well as, the dorsal root ganglion neurons were treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration (1mM,2mM, 3mM and 4mM) for the same exposure time of 4h, or different exposure time (0h,2h,3h,4h and 6h) at the same concentration(3mM). The changes of the mRNA expression of the CaMK II subtype were observed with real-time PCR. All subtype mRNA of the CaMK II, CaMK IIα, CaMK IIβ, CaMK II δ, CaMK IIγ, can be detected in dorsal root ganglion neurons. With the increased of the concentration and exposure time of the ropivacaine hydrochloride, all the subtype mRNA expression increased. Ropivacaine hydrochloride up-regulate the CaMK IIβ, CaMK IIδ, CaMK IIg mRNA expression with the concentration and exposure time increasing. The nerve blocking or the neurotoxicity of the ropivacaine hydrochloride maybe involved with CaMK II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. There is no correlation between glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression and protein binding in the brains of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carlos O; Lattin, Christine R; McVey, M; Romero, L Michael

    2013-11-01

    The stress response represents an animal's attempt to cope with a noxious stimulus through a rapid release of corticosterone or cortisol (CORT) into the bloodstream, resulting in a suite of physiological and behavioral changes. These changes are mediated in large part through CORT's binding to two different intracellular receptors, the high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the lower-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We tested the hypothesis that GR and MR mRNA expression would correlate with functional protein expression in neuronal tissue of wild-caught house sparrows (Passer domesticus). To test this hypothesis, we performed a parallel procedure in which protein concentrations were quantified in one half of house sparrow brains (n=16) using radioligand binding assays, and mRNA levels were quantified in the other brain half using reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Two reference genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and TATA-box binding protein (TBP), were used for relative quantification of GR and MR mRNA. Quantifications showed that these two reference genes were not correlated with each other. Furthermore, there was no correlation between mRNA and protein levels for GR or MR using either reference gene, suggesting that regulation of mRNA and protein levels for MR and GR is not tightly linked. This study provides insight into the importance of regulatory steps between mRNA expression and the creation and stability of a functional protein. The overall conclusion is that mRNA expression cannot be used as a proxy for GR or MR binding in house sparrows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In phyllodes tumors of the breast expression of SPARC (osteonectin/BM40) mRNA by in situ hybridization correlates with protein expression by immunohistochemistry and is associated with tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nah Ihm; Kim, Ga-Eon; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho

    2017-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) plays an essential role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The present work was undertaken to detect expression of SPARC mRNA in phyllodes tumors (PTs) and its association with SPARC protein expression. This study also evaluated expression of SPARC mRNA and its correlation between grade and clinical behavior of PTs. In addition, we assessed in PTs the association of expression of SPARC with that of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and of MMP-9. SPARC mRNA expression was determined by RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH) in 50 benign, 22 borderline, and 10 malignant PTs using a tissue microarray. Furthermore, we applied immunohistochemistry (IHC) to examine expression of SPARC, MMP-2, and MMP-9. SPARC mRNA appeared to be concentrated mainly in the stromal compartment of PTs. IHC staining patterns of SPARC protein showed concordance with SPARC mRNA ISH results. Stromal SPARC expression increased continuously as PTs progress from benign through borderline to malignant PTs, both at mRNA (using ISH) (P = 0.044) and protein level (using IHC) (P = 0.000). The recurrence percentage was higher in the stromal SPARC mRNA or protein-positive group than in the SPARC-negative group but this difference was not statistically significant. Stromal SPARC mRNA and protein expression was associated with PT grade and correlated with MMP-2 expression. These results indicate that SPARC-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix, and its possible association with MMPs, might contribute to progression of PTs.

  6. [IL-32 mRNA Expression of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Its Correlation with Cell Apoptosis in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Xu, Li; Li, Da-Qi; Shao, Jian-Hua; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Hong-Yu; Dong, Xue-Bin; Gu, Lin-Ping; Wu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the IL-32 mRNA expression of bone marrow stromal cells and its correlation with apoptosis of bone marrow mononuclear cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Bone marrow samples from 26 MDS patients and 10 iron deficiency anemia (IDA, as control) patients were collected, RT-PCR was used to detect the IL-32 mRNA expression of bone marrow stromal cells, and the apoptosis of bone marrow mononuclear cells was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI dowble staining. The born marrow lymphocytes and NK cells were detected by means of direct immunofluorescence labeling whole blood hemolysis and flow cytometry. IL-32 mRNA expression of bone marrow stromal cells in the MDS patients was significantly higher than that of control group, the IL-32 mRNA expression of bone marrow stromal cells in patients with RA, RAS and RCMD was significantly higher than that in patients with RAEB. There was no obvious difference between RAEB and the control groups. The apoptosis of bone marrow mononuclear cells in MDS group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the apoptosis of bone marrow mononuclear cells in patients with RA, RAS and RCMD was significantly higher than that in RAEB. There was no significant difference between RAEB group and control group. The IL-32 mRNA expression in bone marrow stromal cells significantly correlated with the apoptosis of bone marrow mononuclear cells in MDS patients. The NK cell number in born marrow of MDS patients and the control group had no significant difference. The expression of IL-32 mRNA in bone marrow stromal cells significantly relates with the apoptosis of MDS cells, and the secretion of IL-32 by bone marrow stromal cells may be one of the reasons for the apoptosis of MDS bone marrow cells. It is speculated that the abnormal MDS bone marrow microenvironment is involved in the apoptosis of bone marrow cells.

  7. IFNAR1 is a predictor for overall survival in colorectal cancer and its mRNA expression correlated with IRF7 but not TLR9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Che; Fan, Chung-Wei; Tseng, Wen-Ko; Chein, Hui-Ping; Hsieh, Tsan-Yu; Chen, Jim-Ray; Hwang, Cheng-Cheng; Hua, Chung-Ching

    2014-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 plays a role in intestinal inflammation that, in turn, is related to the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer. Nuclear factor κB (NFκB), and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 5 and IRF7 can be activated by TLR9 and induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferon, respectively. This study investigated the mRNA expressions of TLR9 and its downstream signaling molecules in both the tumor and the normal tissues of colorectal cancer. Eighty-four subjects with colorectal cancer were consecutively recruited at a community-based hospital, and the mRNA expression of TLR9, NFκB, IRF5, IRF7, interleukin 6 (IL6), and interferon α/β/ω receptor 1 (IFNAR1) in the tumor and normal tissue were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan FAM-labeled MGB probes (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). The tumor had higher percentages of detection of TLR9, IFNAR1, and IL6 mRNA expressions than normal tissue. The absence of detectable TLR9 mRNA expression was associated with an absence of significance in the correlation between IL6 and NFκB or IRF5, but not that between IRF7 and IFNAR1 in both the tumor and the normal tissues. An absence of detectable IFNAR1 mRNA expression in the tumor (hazard ratio: 3.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.60) and advanced stage (stages III and IV, 7.86; 1.76-35.40) were significant predictors for overall survival. IFNAR1 is a predictor for overall survival and mRNA expression is correlated to IRF7, but not TLR9 in colorectal cancer. The results cast doubt on the usefulness of TLR9 agonist in treating colorectal cancer.

  8. [TfR2 mRNA expression in bone marrow mononuclear cells of children with hyperplastic anemia and its implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Yuan, Li-Xing; Pan, Ling-Li; Ma, Zhi-Gui; Gu, Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Gao, Ju

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) mRNA in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) of children with hyperplastic anemia (HA), to analyze the correlation of TfR2 mRNA expression level with Hb level, bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia, iron status in body and underlying diseases, and to evaluate the role of TfR2 in erythroid hemopoiesis and the useful value in diagnosis of HA. The experiment was divided into 2 groups: test group, in which 40 patients with HA were enrolled, and control group in which 10 patients without erythroid disorders and hematological malignancies confirmed by bone marrow examination were enrolled. The bone marrow samples of patients in mentioned above 2 groups were collected, the TfR2 mRNA expression in BMMNC of patients with HA was detected by fluorescence-quantitative PCR, the correlation of HA with bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia, iron status of body and underlying diseases was analyzed. The results showed that the relative level of TfR2 mRNA expression in HA patients was significantly higher than that in control patients. The TfR2 mRNA expression level negatively correlated with Hb level in peripheral blood (r = -0.715), while it positively correlated with ratio of bone marrow erythroblasts (r = 0.533). It is concluded that TfR2 mRNA expression in HA patients increases and closely correlates with hyperplasia status of bone marrow and anemia level in peripheral blood.

  9. Early-life stress induces persistent alterationsin 5-HT1Areceptor and serotonin transporter mRNA expression in the adultrat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Bravo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Early-life experience plays a major role in the stress response throughout life. Neonatal maternal separation (MS is an animal model of depression with an altered serotonergic response. We hypothesize that this alteration may be caused by differences in 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter (SERT mRNA expression in brain areas involved in the control of emotions, memory and fear as well as in regions controlling the central serotonergic tone.To test this, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MS for 3h daily during post-natal days 2-12. As control, age matched rats were not separated (NS from their dams. When animals reached adulthood (11-13 weeks brain was extracted and mRNA expression of 5-HT1A receptor in amygdala, hippocampus and dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN and SERT in the DRN was analyzed through in-situ hybridisation.Densitometric analysis revealed that MS increased 5-HT1A receptor mRNA expression in the amygdala, and reduced its expression in the DRN, but no changes were observed in the hippocampus in comparison to NS controls. Also, MS reduced SERT mRNA expression in the DRN when compared to NS rats.These results suggest that early-life stress induces persistent changes in 5-HT1A receptor and SERT mRNA expression in key brain regions involved in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. The reduction in SERT mRNA indicates an alteration that is in line with clinical findings such as polymorphic variants in individuals with higher risk of depression. These data may help to understand how early-life stress contributes to the development of mood disorders in adulthood.

  10. Th17- and Treg-related cytokine and mRNA expression are associated with acute and resolving Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M M-H; Tseng, W-N; Ko, C-H; Pan, H-M; Hsieh, K-S; Kuo, H-C

    2015-03-01

    Kawasaki disease is a vasculitis most commonly afflicting children Kawasaki disease. Blood samples were obtained from 186 children with Kawasaki disease at 24 h before IVIG therapy, followed by 3 days and 21 days after IVIG therapy. Thirty children with an acute febrile infectious disease and 30 healthy children were obtained as control. Plasma levels of Th17- and Treg-related cytokines including IL-6, IL-17A, IL-10, TGF-β, and mRNA expression levels of RORγt and Foxp3 were tested. Patients with Kawasaki disease had higher levels of plasma IL-17A (25.35 ± 3.21 vs 7.78 ± 1.78 pg/ml, P Kawasaki disease was associated with higher IL-17A and IL-6, a cytokine profile similar to other autoimmune diseases. IVIG therapy resulted in increased expression of Treg-related FoxP3. IVIG resistance was associated with higher levels of IL-10 and IL-17A. Our findings provide further evidence that Kawasaki disease is an autoimmune-like disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. mRNA TLR2 AND TLR4 EXPRESSION IN THE ENDOMETRIUM TISSUE IN WOMEN WITH ENDOMETRIOSIS ASSOSIATED WITH INFERTILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, H; Chopiak, V; Kamyshnyi, А

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an important medical and social problem as it causes stable pelvic pains, afflicts women of the reproductive age, provokes infertility characterized by poor outcome of treatment. In recent times much attention is paid to the mechanisms of congenital immunity as possible mediators of the development of endometriosis and targets of therapy. The work deals with the investigation of the levels of mRNA TLR2 and TLR4 expression in the tissue of eutopic endometrium in women with endometriosis and infertility in comparison with women afflicted with infertility of a tubular character with the aim to define the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in the development of infertility in case of endometriosis. The study was conducted by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) real-time method. The results of the study are indicative of an increased TLR2 and TLR4 expression (especially TLR2) in the endometrium in women with endometriosis. The results obtained may be indicative of an important role of TLR2 and TLR4 in the development of endometrioid ectopia and should be considered while treating infertility in women with endometriosis.

  12. Sub-cellular mRNA localization modulates the regulation of gene expression by small RNAs in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Hamid; Korkmazhan, Elgin; Stavans, Joel; Levine, Erel

    2017-10-01

    Small non-coding RNAs can exert significant regulatory activity on gene expression in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding bacterial gene expression by sRNAs. However, recent findings that demonstrate that families of mRNAs show non-trivial sub-cellular distributions raise the question of how localization may affect the regulatory activity of sRNAs. Here we address this question within a simple mathematical model. We show that the non-uniform spatial distributions of mRNA can alter the threshold-linear response that characterizes sRNAs that act stoichiometrically, and modulate the hierarchy among targets co-regulated by the same sRNA. We also identify conditions where the sub-cellular organization of cofactors in the sRNA pathway can induce spatial heterogeneity on sRNA targets. Our results suggest that under certain conditions, interpretation and modeling of natural and synthetic gene regulatory circuits need to take into account the spatial organization of the transcripts of participating genes.

  13. Unaltered mRNA expression of calcitonin-like receptor and receptor activity modifying proteins in human arteries in stroke and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Karen; János, Tajti; Tibor, Hortobágyi

    2007-01-01

    (CA), pulmonary (PA) and middle cerebral arteries (MCA), and 2. to examine the level of mRNA expression in cerebra- and cardiovascular diseases. The method was validated with respect to the use of postmortem tissue and we compared beta-actin and GAPDH as housekeeping genes. There was no time......-dependent change in total RNA and level of mRNA for p-actin or GAPDH could be detected in vessels removed from 1 and 5 days post mortem. The expression of beta-actin appears lower in coronary artery than in pulmonary artery and middle cerebral artery with no significant difference for GAPDH; both worked well...

  14. TRPV4 regulates insulin mRNA expression and INS-1E cell death via ERK1/2 and NO-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billert, M; Skrzypski, M; Sassek, M; Szczepankiewicz, D; Wojciechowicz, T; Mergler, S; Strowski, M Z; Nowak, K W

    2017-07-01

    TRPV4 is a Ca 2+ -permeable, nonselective cation channel. Recently, TRPV4 was implicated in controlling peripheral insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells. Here, we characterize the role and potential mechanisms of TRPV4 in regulating insulin mRNA expression and cell death in insulin producing INS-1E cells and rat pancreatic islets. TRPV4 protein production was downregulated by siRNA. Intracellular calcium level was measured using Fluo-3 AM. Gene expression was studied by real-time PCR. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1 and ERK2) was detected by Western blot. Nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed by chemiluminescent reaction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was analysed using a fluorogenic dye (DCFDA). Cell death was evaluated by determination of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments. Downregulation of TRPV4 neither affected insulin mRNA expression nor INS-1E cell growth. By contrast, pharmacological TRPV4 activation by 100nmol/l GSK1016790A increased Ca 2+ levels in INS-1E cells and enhanced insulin mRNA expression after 1 and 3h, whereas a suppression of insulin mRNA expression was detected after 24h incubation. GSK1016790A increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NO production but not ROS production. Pharmacological blockade of ERK1/2 attenuated GSK1016790A-induced insulin mRNA expression. Inhibition of NO synthesis by l-NAME failed to affect insulin mRNA expression in GSK1016790A treated INS-1E cells. Furthermore, inhibition of NO production attenuated GSK1016790A-induced INS-1E cell death. In pancreatic islets, 100nmol/l GSK1016790A increased insulin mRNA levels after 3h without inducing cytotoxicity after 24h. In conclusion, TRPV4 differently regulates insulin mRNA expression in INS-1E cells via ERK1/2 and NO-dependent mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fucoidan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Modulating RANKL Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woo Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-κB, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-κB activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 3 and Interferon β mRNA Expressions Were Increased in Peripheral Blood of Ischemic Stroke Patients with Good Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingna; Pan, Jingrui; Peng, Qingxia; Dong, Zhaofei; Wang, Yidong

    2017-03-01

    Innate immunity plays an important role in brain ischemic injury, but there are only few studies on the effects of toll-like receptors (TLRs) on cerebral infarction patients up to now. We aimed to evaluate the TLR mRNA expression of patients with different outcomes. Eighty-six cases suffering from cerebral infarction within 14 days were assigned into the good outcome group (n = 47) and the bad outcome group (n = 39) depending on the modified Rankin Scale scores (mRS ≤2 at 90 days following stroke onset was good outcome). We measured the mRNA expression of TLRs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients at 24 hours, 3 days, 4 days, 7 days, and 14 days from onset. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and infarction volume were assessed on admission and at 7-14 days, respectively. Only TLR3 mRNA expression of the good outcome group was higher than that of the bad outcome group at acute and subacute phases. TLR7 expressions of the good outcome group increased within 3 days following stroke onset. Moreover, the two groups had no significant differences in terms of mRNA expressions of TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, and TLR9. The expression of interferon β of the good outcome group was higher than that of the bad outcome group, and it had a positive correlation with the expressions of TLR3 and interferon regulatory factor 3. TLR3 and interferon β mRNA expressions were increased in the peripheral blood of ischemic stroke patients with good outcome, which may imply their neuroprotection. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Integrated Analysis of MicroRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles to Identify RNA Expression Signatures in Lambskin Hair Follicles in Hu Sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Lv

    Full Text Available Wave patterns in lambskin hair follicles are an important factor determining the quality of sheep's wool. Hair follicles in lambskin from Hu sheep, a breed unique to China, have 3 types of waves, designated as large, medium, and small. The quality of wool from small wave follicles is excellent, while the quality of large waves is considered poor. Because no molecular and biological studies on hair follicles of these sheep have been conducted to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of different wave patterns is currently unknown. The aim of this article was to screen the candidate microRNAs (miRNA and genes for the development of hair follicles in Hu sheep. Two-day-old Hu lambs were selected from full-sib individuals that showed large, medium, and small waves. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles employed high-throughout sequencing technology. Approximately 13, 24, and 18 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively. A total of 54, 190, and 81 differentially expressed genes were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively, by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis. Differentially expressed genes were classified using gene ontology and pathway analyses. They were found to be mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, immune response, and ion transport, and were associated with MAPK and the Notch signaling pathway. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analyses of differentially-expressed miRNA and genes were consistent with sequencing results. Integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression indicated that, compared to small waves, large waves included 4 downregulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 8 upregulated genes and 3 upregulated miRNAs, which in turn influenced 13 downregulated genes. Compared to

  18. Effects of the beta2-agonist clenbuterol on beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor mRNA expressions of rat skeletal and left ventricle muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shogo; Nomura, Sachiko; Kawano, Fuuun; Tanihata, Jun; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

    2008-08-01

    The beta2-agonist clenbuterol [4-amino-alpha(t-butyl-amino)methyl-3,5-dichlorobenzyl alcohol] is used as a non-steroidal anabolic drug for sports doping. The effects of clenbuterol on the transcriptional process and mRNA stability of beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) in skeletal and cardiac muscles are still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of clenbuterol on beta1- and beta2-AR mRNA expressions of fast-twitch fiber-rich extensor digitorum longus (EDL), slow-twitch fiber-rich soleus (SOL), and left ventricle (LV) muscles by real-time RT-PCR. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the clenbuterol-administered group and control group. The administration (dose = 1.0 mg/kg body weight/day, s.c.) of clenbuterol was maintained for 10 days. The administration of clenbuterol significantly increased the weight, RNA concentration, and total RNA content of EDL muscle. No effects of clenbuterol on those of SOL and LV muscles, however, were observed. The administration of clenbuterol significantly decreased beta1-AR mRNA expression of LV muscle. Furthermore, the administration of clenbuterol significantly decreased beta2-AR mRNA expression of EDL and LV muscles. No effect of clenbuterol on beta2-AR mRNA expression of SOL muscle, however, was observed. These results suggest that the effects of clenbuterol on beta1- and beta2-AR mRNA expressions and muscle hypertrophy depend on muscle fiber types.

  19. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and collagen mRNA in mechanically loaded plantaris tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens L; Heinemeier, Katja M; Haddad, Fadia

    2006-01-01

    . However, it is not known whether MGF is expressed and upregulated in mechanically loaded tendon. This study examined the effect of mechanical load on tendon collagen mRNA in relation to changes in the IGF-I systems mRNA expression. Data were collected at 2, 4, 8 and 16 days after surgical removal...... of synergistic muscle to the plantaris muscle of the rat, thus increasing the load to plantaris muscle and tendon. Nearly a doubling of the tendon mass was observed after 16 days of loading. A rapid rise in tendon procollagen III mRNA was seen after 2 days whereas the increase in procollagen I m......RNA was significant from day 8. MGF was expressed and upregulated in loaded tendon tissue with a faster response than IGF-I, which was increased from day 8. Finally, IGFBP-4 mRNA was increased with a time pattern similar to procollagen III, whereas IGFBP-5 decreased at day 8. In conclusion, loading of tendon tissue...

  20. Micro-RNA and mRNA myocardial tissue expression in biopsy specimen from patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka-Bik; Sanderson, John E; Izzat, Mohammad Bashar; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2015-11-15

    There is increasing evidence that changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression occur in chronic heart failure and these may be involved in the pathogenesis. In this study we have explored the expression of selected myocyte and fibroblast-related microRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are associated with hypertrophy, apoptosis and fibrosis in biopsy specimens from patients with relatively new onset heart failure compared to a group of patients without heart failure. Myocardial biopsy specimens taken from Chinese patients presenting with recent heart failure were compared with a group of patients without heart failure undergoing routine cardiac surgery (n=34). miRNAs (miR-1, -21, -23, -29, -30, -130, -133, -195, -199, -208, and -320) and corresponding mRNA expression were measured by real-time quantitative-PCR method. miR-1, -21, -23, -29, -130, -195 and -199 were significantly up-regulated in the heart failure group when compared to those without heart failure (all p<0.01). However, miR-30, -133, -208 and -320 were not significantly different. Related mRNAs (casp3, coll I, coll III and TGF) were also significantly up-regulated (all p<0.05) in the heart failure group. Certain selected microRNAs involved in apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis are up-regulated in the myocardium of patients with a clinical history of heart failure compared to those without. These specific miRNAs may be the most suitable for circulating biomarkers in the early stages of chronic heart failure and possibly future therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Expression of a constitutively active calcineurin encoded by an intron-retaining mRNA in follicular keratinocytes.

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    Atsushi Fujimura

    Full Text Available Hair growth is a highly regulated cyclical process. Immunosuppressive immunophilin ligands such as cyclosporin A (CsA and FK506 are known as potent hair growth modulatory agents in rodents and humans that induce active hair growth and inhibit hair follicle regression. The immunosuppressive effectiveness of these drugs has been generally attributed to inhibition of T cell activation through well-characterized pathways. Specifically, CsA and FK506 bind to intracellular proteins, principally cyclophilin A and FKBP12, respectively, and thereby inhibit the phosphatase calcineurin (Cn. The calcineurin (Cn/NFAT pathway has an important, but poorly understood, role in the regulation of hair follicle development. Here we show that a novel-splicing variant of calcineurin Aß CnAß-FK, which is encoded by an intron-retaining mRNA and is deficient in the autoinhibitory domain, is predominantly expressed in mature follicular keratinocytes but not in the proliferating keratinocytes of rodents. CnAß-FK was weakly sensitive to Ca(2+ and dephosphorylated NFATc2 under low Ca(2+ levels in keratinocytes. Inhibition of Cn/NFAT induced hair growth in nude mice. Cyclin G2 was identified as a novel target of the Cn/NFATc2 pathway and its expression in follicular keratinocytes was reduced by inhibition of Cn/NFAT. Overexpression of cyclin G2 arrested the cell cycle in follicular keratinocytes in vitro and the Cn inhibitor, cyclosporin A, inhibited nuclear localization of NFATc2, resulting in decreased cyclin G2 expression in follicular keratinocytes of rats in vivo. We therefore suggest that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway has a unique regulatory role in hair follicle development.

  2. Vanillin Suppresses Cell Motility by Inhibiting STAT3-Mediated HIF-1α mRNA Expression in Malignant Melanoma Cells

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    Eun-Ji Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α in A2058 and A375 human malignant melanoma cells. Immunoblotting and quantitative real time (RT-PCR analysis revealed that vanillin down-regulates HIF-1α protein accumulation and the transcripts of HIF-1α target genes related to cancer metastasis including fibronectin 1 (FN1, lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2, and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. It was also found that vanillin significantly suppresses HIF-1α mRNA expression and de novo HIF-1α protein synthesis. To understand the suppressive mechanism of vanillin on HIF-1α expression, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed. Consequently, it was found that vanillin causes inhibition of promoter occupancy by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, on HIF1A. Furthermore, an in vitro migration assay revealed that the motility of melanoma cells stimulated by hypoxia was attenuated by vanillin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vanillin might be a potential anti-metastatic agent that suppresses metastatic gene expression and migration activity under hypoxia via the STAT3-HIF-1α signaling pathway.

  3. Voluntary wheel running decreases adipose tissue mass and expression of leptin mRNA in Osborne-Mendel rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachwieja, J J; Hendry, S L; Smith, S R; Harris, R B

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of voluntary wheel running on the expression of leptin mRNA in rats that are either sensitive (OM) or resistant (S5B/Pl) to diet-induced obesity. Male OM and S5B/Pl rats had ad libitum access to standard rodent diet and water. At 3-5 weeks of age, animals of both strains were randomly assigned to either an exercise or sedentary control group. The exercise groups had 24-h access to a running wheel, and they trained for 7 weeks. During weeks 1-4, animals in both OM and S5B/Pl exercise groups progressively increased their running. During weeks 5-7, S5B/Pl exercisers tended to run more than did OM (approximately 60 vs. 45 km/week), but by the end of the study both groups had an equally greater heart weight (mg/g body weight) and planteris citrate synthase activity than their sedentary controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests performed during the last week of training revealed that compared with their appropriate controls, insulin sensitivity was enhanced (P rats of both strains (P food intake was increased in the exercise-trained animals of both strains (P food intake in this rat model of dietary obesity remains to be determined. Nonetheless, these results suggest that the expression and secretion of leptin can be influenced by exercise training and that these changes (i.e., reduced expression and secretion of protein) can occur independently of changes in whole-body insulin sensitivity and susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

  4. Integrating mRNA and miRNA Weighted Gene Co-Expression Networks with eQTLs in the Nucleus Accumbens of Subjects with Alcohol Dependence.

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    Mohammed Mamdani

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is known to lead to gene expression changes in the brain. After performing weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA on genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA expression in Nucleus Accumbens (NAc of subjects with alcohol dependence (AD; N = 18 and of matched controls (N = 18, six mRNA and three miRNA modules significantly correlated with AD were identified (Bonferoni-adj. p≤ 0.05. Cell-type-specific transcriptome analyses revealed two of the mRNA modules to be enriched for neuronal specific marker genes and downregulated in AD, whereas the remaining four mRNA modules were enriched for astrocyte and microglial specific marker genes and upregulated in AD. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that neuronal specific modules were enriched for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPK signaling. Glial-specific modules were predominantly enriched for genes involved in processes related to immune functions, i.e. cytokine signaling (all adj. p≤ 0.05. In mRNA and miRNA modules, 461 and 25 candidate hub genes were identified, respectively. In contrast to the expected biological functions of miRNAs, correlation analyses between mRNA and miRNA hub genes revealed a higher number of positive than negative correlations (χ2 test p≤ 0.0001. Integration of hub gene expression with genome-wide genotypic data resulted in 591 mRNA cis-eQTLs and 62 miRNA cis-eQTLs. mRNA cis-eQTLs were significantly enriched for AD diagnosis and AD symptom counts (adj. p = 0.014 and p = 0.024, respectively in AD GWAS signals in a large, independent genetic sample from the Collaborative Study on Genetics of Alcohol (COGA. In conclusion, our study identified putative gene network hubs coordinating mRNA and miRNA co-expression changes in the NAc of AD subjects, and our genetic (cis-eQTL analysis provides novel insights into the etiological mechanisms of AD.

  5. cDNA sequence, mRNA expression and genomic DNA of trypsinogen from the indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y C; Oppert, B; Kramer, K J; McGaughey, W H; Dowdy, A K

    2000-02-01

    Trypsin-like enzymes are major insect gut enzymes that digest dietary proteins and proteolytically activate insecticidal proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Resistance to Bt in a strain of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was linked to the absence of a major trypsin-like proteinase (Oppert et al., 1997). In this study, trypsin-like proteinases, cDNA sequences, mRNA expression levels and genomic DNAs from Bt-susceptible and -resistant strains of the Indianmeal moth were compared. Proteinase activity blots of gut extracts indicated that the susceptible strain had two major trypsin-like proteinases, whereas the resistant strain had only one. Several trypsinogen-like cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced from cDNA libraries of both strains using a probe deduced from a conserved sequence for a serine proteinase active site. cDNAs of 852 nucleotides from the susceptible strain and 848 nucleotides from the resistant strain contained an open reading frame of 783 nucleotides which encoded a 261-amino acid trypsinogen-like protein. There was a single silent nucleotide difference between the two cDNAs in the open reading frame and the predicted amino acid sequence from the cDNA clones was most similar to sequences of trypsin-like proteinases from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. The encoded protein included amino acid sequence motifs of serine proteinase active sites, conserved cysteine residues, and both zymogen activation and signal peptides. Northern blotting analysis showed no major difference between the two strains in mRNA expression in fourth-instar larvae, indicating that transcription was similar in the strains. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the restriction sites for the trypsinogen genes from the susceptible and resistant strains were different. Based on an enzyme size comparison, the cDNA isolated in this study corresponded to the gene for the smaller of two

  6. Prognostic impact of clinical course-specific mRNA expression profiles in the serum of perioperative patients with esophageal cancer in the ICU: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Yoshiaki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that measuring circulating serum mRNAs using quantitative one-step real-time RT-PCR was clinically useful for detecting malignancies and determining prognosis. The aim of our study was to find crucial serum mRNA biomarkers in esophageal cancer that would provide prognostic information for post-esophagectomy patients in the critical care setting. Methods We measured serum mRNA levels of 11 inflammatory-related genes in 27 post-esophagectomy patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. We tracked these levels chronologically, perioperatively and postoperatively, until the two-week mark, investigating their clinical and prognostic significance as compared with clinical parameters. Furthermore, we investigated whether gene expression can accurately predict clinical outcome and prognosis. Results Circulating mRNAs in postoperative esophagectomy patients had gene-specific expression profiles that varied with the clinical phase of their treatment. Multivariate regression analysis showed that upregulation of IL-6, VWF and TGF-β1 mRNA in the intraoperative phase (p = 0.016, 0.0021 and 0.009 and NAMPT and MUC1 mRNA on postoperative day 3 (p ®, Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. significantly correlated with MUC1 and NAMPT mRNA expression (p = 0.048 and 0.045. IL-6 mRNA correlated with hypercytokinemia and recovery from hypercytokinemia (sensitivity 80.9% and was a significant biomarker in predicting the onset of severe inflammatory diseases. Conclusion Chronological tracking of postoperative mRNA levels of inflammatory-related genes in esophageal cancer patients may facilitate early institution of pharamacologic therapy, prediction of treatment response, and prognostication during ICU management in the perioperative period.

  7. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Inhibits the RANKL Pathway and Impacts on the Production of Pathway-Associated Cytokines in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Jing Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 on RANKL signaling pathway and pathway-associated cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-4 were examined in 54 patients with incipient RA using a cytometric bead array (CBA or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. After 72 hours of incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with 1,25(OH2D3 in RA patients, the levels of RANKL, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-6 significantly decreased compared to those of the control. 1,25(OH2D3 had no significantly impact on the levels of OPG, RANKL/OPG, and IL-4. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that 1,25(OH2D3 reduced the production of RANKL and the secretion of TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-6 in PBMCs of RA patients, which indicated that 1,25(OH2D3 might be able to decrease damage of cartilage and bone in RA patients by regulating the expression of RANKL signaling pathway and pathway-associated cytokines.

  8. Expression Profile of IL-35 mRNA in Gingiva of Chronic Periodontitis and Aggressive Periodontitis Patients: A Semiquantitative RT-PCR Study

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    Nagaraj B. Kalburgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Secretion of bioactive IL-35 has been described by T regulatory cells ( and is required for their maximal suppressive activity. are involved in the modulation of local immune response in chronic periodontitis patients. Objective. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the expression of IL-35 mRNA in chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods. The present study was carried out in 60 subjects, which included 20 chronic periodontitis patients, 20 aggressive periodontitis patients, and 20 periodontally healthy controls. IL-35 mRNA expression in gingival tissue samples of all subjects was semiquantitatively analyzed using Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Results. The present study demonstrated the expression of IL-35 mRNA in gingival tissues of all the three groups. IL-35 mRNA expression was highest in chronic periodontitis subjects ( as compared to the aggressive periodontitis group ( and least seen in healthy patients (. Conclusion. The increased expression of IL-35 in chronic and aggressive periodontitis suggests its possible role in pathogenesis of periodontitis. Future studies done on large samples with intervention will strengthen our result.

  9. Expression profile of IL-35 mRNA in gingiva of chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis patients: a semiquantitative RT-PCR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalburgi, Nagaraj B; Muley, Akshay; Shivaprasad, B M; Koregol, Arati C

    2013-01-01

    Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Secretion of bioactive IL-35 has been described by T regulatory cells (T(regs)) and is required for their maximal suppressive activity. T(regs) are involved in the modulation of local immune response in chronic periodontitis patients. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the expression of IL-35 mRNA in chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis patients. The present study was carried out in 60 subjects, which included 20 chronic periodontitis patients, 20 aggressive periodontitis patients, and 20 periodontally healthy controls. IL-35 mRNA expression in gingival tissue samples of all subjects was semiquantitatively analyzed using Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The present study demonstrated the expression of IL-35 mRNA in gingival tissues of all the three groups. IL-35 mRNA expression was highest in chronic periodontitis subjects (6.87 ± 2.32) as compared to the aggressive periodontitis group (4.71 ± 1.43) and least seen in healthy patients (3.03 ± 1.91). The increased expression of IL-35 in chronic and aggressive periodontitis suggests its possible role in pathogenesis of periodontitis. Future studies done on large samples with intervention will strengthen our result.

  10. Effects of age and R848 stimulation on expression of Toll-like receptor 8 mRNA by foal neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jessica R; Wilkerson, Cameron P; Brake, Courtney N; Cohen, Noah D

    2012-11-15

    The innate immune system plays a critical role in protecting neonates against infections early in life and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of innate immune recognition of pathogens. This study examined the effects of age and stimulation with a TLR 7/8 agonist (R848) on TLR8 mRNA expression by foal neutrophils during the first month of life. We also examined the effects of R848 stimulation on mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 at 1 and 14 days of life. We observed that TLR8 mRNA was constitutively expressed (Pfoal neutrophils express constitutive levels of TLR8 mRNA. The increased expression of IL-6 and IL-8, both downstream products of the TLR 7/8 signaling pathway, following stimulation with R848 suggests that additional experiments to confirm the signaling pathway by which R848 stimulates foal neutrophils, and to investigate its ability to stimulate functional responses of foal neutrophils, are merited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal phthalate ester exposure induced placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP mRNA expression in two districts of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Xu, Xijin; Zhu, Yueqin; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2016-02-12

    Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP). A total of 187 mother-infant pairs were recruited, 127 from Chenghai (high exposed group) and 60 from Haojiang (low exposed group), to investigate the association between neonatal PAE exposure and mRNA expression of placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Umbilical cord blood and placenta samples were collected for measuring five PAE concentrations and detecting mRNA levels of MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were significantly higher in the high exposed group compared to the low exposed group. FATP1 and HFABP mRNA in the high exposed group were higher than that in the low exposed group while MT-1A was contrary. Both dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and DEHP were correlated with higher MT and MT-2A expression, while diethyl phthalate (DEP) was also positively correlated with MT-1A and FATP1 expression in female infants. DEHP exposure was negatively correlated with birth weight and gestational age in male infants. These results show that neonatal PAE exposure alters the mRNA expression of placental MTs and FATP1, which are related to fetal growth and development.

  12. Neonatal expression of amh, sox9 and sf-1 mRNA in Caiman latirostris and effects of in ovo exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durando, Milena; Cocito, Laura; Rodríguez, Horacio A; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Ramos, Jorge G; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica

    2013-09-15

    Caiman latirostris is a reptilian species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Male-to-female sex reversal can be achieved after in ovo estrogen/xenoestrogen exposure. This is known as hormone-dependent sex determination (HSD). The amh, sox9 and sf-1 genes are involved in sex determination, sex differentiation, and steroidogenesis. The aims of this study were: (a) to establish the expression patterns of amh, sox9 and sf-1 mRNA in the gonad-adrenal-mesonephros (GAM) complexes of neonatal TSD-male and TSD-female caimans, (b) to compare the expression of these genes between TSD-females and HSD-females (born from E2-exposed eggs incubated at the male-producing temperature) and (c) to evaluate whether in ovo exposure to a low dose of E2 or bisphenol A (BPA) or to a high dose of endosulfan (END) modifies amh, sox9 or sf-1 mRNA expressions in neonatal males. The mRNA expressions of amh, sox9 and sf-1 in GAM complexes from TSD-males and TSD-females and from HSD-females were quantitatively compared by RT-PCR. A sexually dimorphic pattern of amh and sox9 mRNA expression was found, with a higher expression in TSD-males than in TSD-females. sf-1 mRNA did not differ between TSD-males and TSD-females. HSD-females exhibited a higher expression of sox9 than TSD-females. In males, increased mRNA expression of sex-determining genes was observed after in ovo exposure to END. E2 decreased sox9 but increased sf-1 mRNA expression. Changes induced by BPA were evident although not significant. These results provide new insights into the potential mechanisms that lead to the gonadal histo-functional alterations observed in caimans exposed to contaminated environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental changes in the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of PACAP and its receptor PAC1 and their sensitivity to fasting in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Maira; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    The actions and responses of hypothalamic appetite regulatory and factors change markedly during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been found to play pivotal roles in the regulation of metabolic and nutritional status through its specific receptor PAC1. PACAP/PAC1 have anorectic roles, and their functions are regulated by leptin in adulthood. In the present study, we showed that hypothalamic PACAP mRNA expression decreases during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period (from postnatal day 10-30) in both male and female rats. During this period, hypothalamic PACAP mRNA expression was not affected by 24h fasting in either sex, while the serum leptin levels (leptin is a positive regulator of hypothalamic PACAP expression in adulthood) of both sexes were decreased by fasting. On the other hand, hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA expression did not change during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period in either sex; however, its levels were consistently higher in males than in females. Hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA expression was decreased by 24h fasting in males, but no such changes were observed in females. These results indicate while hypothalamic PACAP expression is sensitive to a negative energy state and the serum leptin level in adulthood, no such relationships are seen in the pre-pubertal period. In addition, we speculate that differences in the gonadal steroidal milieu might induce sexual dimorphism in the basal hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA level and its response to fasting. The mechanisms responsible for and the physiological effects of such changes in hypothalamic PACAP and PAC1 expression during the developmental period remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Therapy-relevant aberrant expression of MRP3 and BCRP mRNA in TCC-/SCC-bladder cancer tissue of untreated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mona; Mostageer, Marwa; Rohde, Jan; Zaghloul, Ashraf; Knüchel-Clarke, Ruth; Saad, Shady; Attia, Deena; Mahran, Laila; Spahn-Langguth, Hilde

    2017-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a critical factor, which results in suboptimal outcomes in cancer chemotherapy. One principal mechanism of MDR is the increased expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Of these, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) confer MDR when overexpressed in cancer cell lines. We measured the mRNA expression of MRP3 and BCRP in primary untreated bladder cancer specimens using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in comparison to normal bladder tissue. The MRP3 and BCRP expression in the two major histotypes of bladder cancer; transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; urothelial type of bladder cancer) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 'Schistosoma-induced' bladder cancer) were compared. Furthermore, the association between MRP3 and BCRP expression and tumor grade and stage were investigated. MRP3 mRNA expression in bladder cancer specimens was increased ~13-fold on average compared to normal bladder tissue (n=36, PTCC showed significantly increased MRP3 mRNA expression compared to SCC of the bladder (PTCC and SCC of the bladder (P=0.1072). The increased MRP3 mRNA expression was not related to bladder tumor grade (P=0.3465) but was, however, significantly higher in superficial than in invasive bladder tumors (P=0.0173). The decreased expression of BCRP was not related to bladder tumor grade (P=0.1808) or stage (P=0.8016). The current data show that bladder cancer is associated with perturbed expression of MRP3 and BCRP. Representing drug resistance factors, determining the expression of these transporters in native tumors may be predictive of the outcome of chemotherapy based-treatment of bladder cancer.

  15. [The study of the influence of different shear stress on the mRNA expression of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengxu; Zhang, Ying; Ling, Shenglin; Shi, Yingkang; Liao, Bin; Wu, Jiang

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is to research the expression level of the mRNA of scavenger receptor class B type 1-receptor of high-density lipoprotein in endothelial cells after being treated by different shear stress. The second to fourth generations of the cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiment. The cells were divided into two groups. The first group was the control group which was not dealt with shear stress; the second group was the experimental group which concluded low shear stress group (4.2 dyne/cm2), moderate shear stress group (8.4 dyne/cm2) and high shear stress group (15 dyne/cm2). The load time was 1h, 2h, 4h and 8h, respectively. Harvesting the cells and extracting total RNA after being treated by different shear stresses, the expression level of the SR-B1 mRNA was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technic. It was found that the expression of SR-B1 mRNA became weaker and weaker compared to the control group when it was stimulated continuously by the low shear stress, the lowest expression of SR-B1 mRNA appeared at 8h. In the moderate shear stress group, the expression of SR-B1 mRNA increased obviously. Compared to the control group, there was significant difference after being treated with 2h. In the high shear stress group, the expression of SR-B1 mRNA increased immediately when it was stimulated by the shear stress. And the expression of SR-B1 mRNA arrived peak value at 4h. Compared to the control group, there was significant difference after being treated for 1h. It was concluded that the harmful mechanism of the low shear stress is that it can increase the incidence of the atherosclerosis by reducing the reverse cholesterol transport and endothelial protection through decreasing the expression of the SR-B1. Otherwise, the high shear stress prevent the genesis of atherosclerosis by the contrary mechanism.

  16. Data supporting the effects of lysozyme on mRNA and protein expression in a colonic epithelial scratch wound model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Abey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colonic epithelial health is implicated in a host of gastrointestinal (GI diseases and disorders. Lysozyme is suspected to play a role in the ability of the epithelium to recover from injury (Abey et al., in press; Gallo, 2012; Rubio, 2014 [1–3]. Disrupted repair mechanisms may lead to delayed or ineffective recovery and disruptions to epithelial biology resulting in GI symptoms and altered barrier function (Peterson and Artis, 2014 [4]. The effect of lysozyme on the transcriptomic and proteomic profile of healthy colonic epithelial cells was investigated. Epithelial cells in culture were scratch wounded and treated with lysozyme. mRNA and protein profiles were simultaneously quantified in the same sample using a digital counting technology. Gene and protein expressions altered by the presence or absence of lysozyme are described in this article. Extensive statistical and bioinformatic analysis, and interpretation of the results can be found in “Lysozyme association with circulating RNA, extracellular vesicles, and chronic stress” (Abey et al., in press [1].

  17. Modulation by extracellular pH of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes injected with rat brain mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robello, M; Balduzzi, R; Cupello, A

    2000-01-01

    Rat brain poly(A)(+) mRNA was injected into Xenopus oocytes. After 72-96 hr, GABA(A) receptors expressed in this heterologous system were studied by perfusion of GABA and recording of GABA evoked chloride current under voltage-clamp conditions. The GABA activated currents were blocked by bicuculline and enhanced by flunitrazepam. Acidic (6.4) extracellular pH (pH(e) ) augmented, whereas basic pH (8.4) decreased the current evoked by 100 microM GABA in the respect of the current evoked at pH 7.4. Concentration-response curves for GABA evoked chloride currents were built at the three pHs. These data showed that acidic pH does not change the EC50 for GABA but it increases significantly I(max) in comparison to pH 7.4. At pH 8.4 there was a significant decrease of EC50 for GABA. However, there was also a very strong decrease of I(max), so that the overall effect at 100 microM GABA was a decrease of GABA activated chloride current in the respect of the one activated at neutral pH. These data may indicate that on average brain GABA(A) receptors are positively modulated by extracellular acidosis. The opposite may occur in extracellular alcalosis.

  18. Expression of NK1 receptor at the protein and mRNA level in the porcine female reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, R

    2014-01-01

    The presence and distribution of substance P (SP) receptor NK1 was studied in the ovary, the oviduct and the uterus (uterine horn and cervix) of the domestic pig using the methods of molecular biology (RT-PCR and immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry. The expression of NK1 receptor at mRNA level was confirmed with RT-PCR in all the studied parts of the porcine female reproductive system by the presence of 525 bp PCR product and at the protein level by the detection of 46 kDa protein band in immunoblot. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the cellular distribution of NK1 receptor protein. In the ovary NKI receptor was present in the wall of arterial blood vessels, as well as in ovarian follicles of different stages of development. In the tubular organs the NK1 receptor immunohistochemical stainings were observed in the wall of the arterial blood vessels, in the muscular membrane, as well as in the mucosal epithelium. The study confirmed the presence of NK1 receptor in the tissues of the porcine female reproductive tract which clearly points to the possibility that SP can influence porcine ovary, oviduct and uterus.

  19. Temporal expression of types XII and XIV collagen mRNA and protein during avian corneal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M K; Foley, J W; Lisenmayer, T F; Fitch, J M

    1996-05-01

    Using immunohistochemistry and competitive PCR for collagen types XII and XIV, we have followed the expression of these fibril-associated molecules during development of the avian cornea. By immunofluorescence histochemistry, both molecules are found in the acellular primary stroma and are therefore presumably of epithelial origin. During formation and development of the secondary corneal stroma, which is populated by mesenchymal cells, the molecules generally appear to be spatially segregated from each other. Type XIV collagen is found throughout most of the stroma, and therefore is predominantly a product of stromal fibroblasts. During subsequent compaction of the cornea, an event necessary for corneal transparency, the collagen XIV mRNA level increases dramatically, suggesting that this molecule may play a role in this event. Type XII collagen is more localized, occurring mainly in regions of the secondary stroma where matrices interface, such as where Bowman's membrane and Descemet's membrane abut the orthogonally layered collagen fibrils of the stromal matrix. These interfacial regions are highly stable areas of the cornea as determined previously by protease digestion and thermal denaturation studies. Type XII collagen may be involved in this stabilization.

  20. Design of an Optimized Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT1 mRNA Construct for Enhanced WT1 Expression and Improved Immunogenicity In Vitro and In Vivo

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