WorldWideScience

Sample records for ranking system issue

  1. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novack, Steven David; Marshall, Frances Mc Clellan; Stromberg, Howard Merion; Grant, Gary Michael

    1999-06-01

    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEELs lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  2. Ranking of Rankings: Benchmarking Twenty-Five Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Ingo; Hendel, Darwin D.; Horn, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ranking practices of 25 European higher education ranking systems (HERSs). Ranking practices were assessed with 14 quantitative measures derived from the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutions (BPs). HERSs were then ranked according to their degree of congruence with the BPs.…

  3. University Ranking Systems; Criteria and Critiques

    OpenAIRE

    Saka, Yavuz; YAMAN, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore international university ranking systems. As a compilation study this paper provides specific criteria that each ranking system uses and main critiques regarding these ranking systems. Since there are many ranking systems in this area of research, this study focused on only most cited and referred ranking systems. As there is no consensus in terms of the criteria that these systems use, this paper has no intention of identifying the best ranking system ...

  4. International University Ranking Systems and the Idea of University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul; Braddock, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We look at some of the theoretical and methodological issues underlying international university ranking systems and, in particular, their conceptual connection with the idea of excellence. We then turn to a critical examination of the two best-known international university ranking systems--the "Times Higher Education Supplement (THES)" World…

  5. Ranking in Swiss system chess team tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Csató, László

    2015-01-01

    The paper uses paired comparison-based scoring procedures for ranking the participants of a Swiss system chess team tournament. We present the main challenges of ranking in Swiss system, the features of individual and team competitions as well as the failures of official lexicographical orders. The tournament is represented as a ranking problem, our model is discussed with respect to the properties of the score, generalized row sum and least squares methods. The proposed procedure is illustra...

  6. Dynamics of Ranking Processes in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumm, Nicholas; Ghoshal, Gourab; Forró, Zalán; Schich, Maximilian; Bianconi, Ginestra; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-09-01

    The world is addicted to ranking: everything, from the reputation of scientists, journals, and universities to purchasing decisions is driven by measured or perceived differences between them. Here, we analyze empirical data capturing real time ranking in a number of systems, helping to identify the universal characteristics of ranking dynamics. We develop a continuum theory that not only predicts the stability of the ranking process, but shows that a noise-induced phase transition is at the heart of the observed differences in ranking regimes. The key parameters of the continuum theory can be explicitly measured from data, allowing us to predict and experimentally document the existence of three phases that govern ranking stability.

  7. Mining Feedback in Ranking and Recommendation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziming

    2009-01-01

    The amount of online information has grown exponentially over the past few decades, and users become more and more dependent on ranking and recommendation systems to address their information seeking needs. The advance in information technologies has enabled users to provide feedback on the utilities of the underlying ranking and recommendation…

  8. Superfund Hazard Ranking System Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) training course is a four and ½ day, intermediate-level course designed for personnel who are required to compile, draft, and review preliminary assessments (PAs), site inspections (SIs), and HRS documentation records/packag

  9. A network-based dynamical ranking system

    CERN Document Server

    Motegi, Shun

    2012-01-01

    Ranking players or teams in sports is of practical interests. From the viewpoint of networks, a ranking system is equivalent a centrality measure for sports networks, whereby a directed link represents the result of a single game. Previously proposed network-based ranking systems are derived from static networks, i.e., aggregation of the results of games over time. However, the score (i.e., strength) of a player, for example, depends on time. Defeating a renowned player in the peak performance is intuitively more rewarding than defeating the same player in other periods. To account for this factor, we propose a dynamic variant of such a network-based ranking system and apply it to professional men's tennis data. Our ranking system, also interpreted as a centrality measure for directed temporal networks, has two parameters. One parameter represents the exponential decay rate of the past score, and the other parameter controls the effect of indirect wins on the score. We derive a set of linear online update equ...

  10. A Review of Outcomes of Seven World University Ranking Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi; Neda Zeraatkar

    2012-01-01

    There are many national and international ranking systems rank the universities and higher education institutions of the world, nationally or internationally, based on the same or different criteria...

  11. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M. [Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-10-13

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides.

  12. A Global Comparison of Business Journal Ranking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Scherer, Robert F.; Lecoutre, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared business journal ranking systems from 6 countries. Results revealed a low degree of agreement among the systems, and a low to moderate relationship between pairs of systems. In addition, the French and United Kingdom ranking systems were different from each other and from the systems in Australia, Germany, Hong Kong, and the…

  13. Improving CBIR Systems Using Automated Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Reljin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The most common way of searching images on the Internet and in private collections is based on a similarity measuring of a series of text words that are assigned to each image with users query series. This method imposes strong constraints (the number of words to describe the image, the time necessary to thoroughly describe the subjective experience of images, the level of details in the picture, language barrier, etc., and is therefore very inefficient. Modern researches in this area are focused on the contentbased searching images (CBIR. In this way, all described disadvantages are overcome and the quality of searching results is improved. This paper presents a solution for CBIR systems where the search procedure is enhanced using sophisticated extraction and ranking of extracted images. The searching procedure is based on extraction and preprocessing of a large number of low level image features. Thus, when the user defines a query image, the proposed algorithm based on artificial intelligence, shows to the user a group of images which are most similar to a query image by content. The proposed algorithm is iterative, so the user can direct the searching procedure to an expected outcome and get a set of images that are more similar to the query one.

  14. Asian top universities in six world university ranking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi; Zahra Seif Kashani

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of ranking systems for universities throughout the different continents of the world. The majority of the world ranking systems have paid special attention toward evaluation of universities and higher education institutions at the national and international level. This paper tries to study the similarities and status of top Asian universities in the list of top 200 universities by these world ranking systems. Findings show that there are some parallelisms among the...

  15. Relying on topic subsets for system ranking estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauff, C.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Azzopardi, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Ranking a number of retrieval systems according to their retrieval effectiveness without relying on costly relevance judgments was first explored by Soboroff et al [6]. Over the years, a number of alternative approaches have been proposed. We perform a comprehensive analysis of system ranking

  16. International ranking systems for universities and institutions: a critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John PA; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Kavvoura, Fotini K; Tatsioni, Athina; Evangelou, Evangelos; Kouri, Ioanna; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G; Liberopoulos, George

    2007-01-01

    Background Ranking of universities and institutions has attracted wide attention recently. Several systems have been proposed that attempt to rank academic institutions worldwide. Methods We review the two most publicly visible ranking systems, the Shanghai Jiao Tong University 'Academic Ranking of World Universities' and the Times Higher Education Supplement 'World University Rankings' and also briefly review other ranking systems that use different criteria. We assess the construct validity for educational and research excellence and the measurement validity of each of the proposed ranking criteria, and try to identify generic challenges in international ranking of universities and institutions. Results None of the reviewed criteria for international ranking seems to have very good construct validity for both educational and research excellence, and most don't have very good construct validity even for just one of these two aspects of excellence. Measurement error for many items is also considerable or is not possible to determine due to lack of publication of the relevant data and methodology details. The concordance between the 2006 rankings by Shanghai and Times is modest at best, with only 133 universities shared in their top 200 lists. The examination of the existing international ranking systems suggests that generic challenges include adjustment for institutional size, definition of institutions, implications of average measurements of excellence versus measurements of extremes, adjustments for scientific field, time frame of measurement and allocation of credit for excellence. Conclusion Naïve lists of international institutional rankings that do not address these fundamental challenges with transparent methods are misleading and should be abandoned. We make some suggestions on how focused and standardized evaluations of excellence could be improved and placed in proper context. PMID:17961208

  17. International ranking systems for universities and institutions: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsioni Athina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ranking of universities and institutions has attracted wide attention recently. Several systems have been proposed that attempt to rank academic institutions worldwide. Methods We review the two most publicly visible ranking systems, the Shanghai Jiao Tong University 'Academic Ranking of World Universities' and the Times Higher Education Supplement 'World University Rankings' and also briefly review other ranking systems that use different criteria. We assess the construct validity for educational and research excellence and the measurement validity of each of the proposed ranking criteria, and try to identify generic challenges in international ranking of universities and institutions. Results None of the reviewed criteria for international ranking seems to have very good construct validity for both educational and research excellence, and most don't have very good construct validity even for just one of these two aspects of excellence. Measurement error for many items is also considerable or is not possible to determine due to lack of publication of the relevant data and methodology details. The concordance between the 2006 rankings by Shanghai and Times is modest at best, with only 133 universities shared in their top 200 lists. The examination of the existing international ranking systems suggests that generic challenges include adjustment for institutional size, definition of institutions, implications of average measurements of excellence versus measurements of extremes, adjustments for scientific field, time frame of measurement and allocation of credit for excellence. Conclusion Naïve lists of international institutional rankings that do not address these fundamental challenges with transparent methods are misleading and should be abandoned. We make some suggestions on how focused and standardized evaluations of excellence could be improved and placed in proper context.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Darwin D.; Stolz, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    According to Altbach in 2004, "everyone wants a world-class university". Corresponding developmental efforts undertaken by higher education institutions are very often referenced to improvements in ranking results. Surprisingly, there is relatively little analysis of variations in higher education ranking systems across countries…

  19. On the Rank of Cutting-Plane Proof Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schulz, Andreas S.

    We introduce a natural abstraction of propositional proof systems that are based on cutting planes. This new class of proof systems includes well-known operators such as Gomory-Chvátal cuts, lift-and-project cuts, Sherali-Adams cuts (for a fixed hierarchy level d), and split cuts. The rank of such a proof system corresponds to the number of rounds needed to show the nonexistence of integral solutions. We exhibit a family of polytopes without integral points contained in the n-dimensional 0/1-cube that has rank Ω(n/logn) for any proof system in our class. In fact, we show that whenever a specific cutting-plane based proof system has (maximal) rank n on a particular family of instances, then any cutting-plane proof system in our class has rank Ω(n/logn) for this family. This shows that the rank complexity of worst-case instances is intrinsic to the problem, and does not depend on specific cutting-plane proof systems, except for log factors. We also construct a new cutting-plane proof system that has worst-case rank O(n/logn) for any polytope without integral points, implying that the universal lower bound is essentially tight.

  20. INTEL: Intel based systems move up in supercomputing ranks

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    "The TOP500 supercomputer rankings released today at the Supercomputing 2002 conference show a dramatic increase in the number of Intel-based systems being deployed in high-performance computing (HPC) or supercomputing areas" (1/2 page).

  1. A network-based dynamical ranking system for competitive sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Shun; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-12-01

    From the viewpoint of networks, a ranking system for players or teams in sports is equivalent to a centrality measure for sports networks, whereby a directed link represents the result of a single game. Previously proposed network-based ranking systems are derived from static networks, i.e., aggregation of the results of games over time. However, the score of a player (or team) fluctuates over time. Defeating a renowned player in the peak performance is intuitively more rewarding than defeating the same player in other periods. To account for this factor, we propose a dynamic variant of such a network-based ranking system and apply it to professional men's tennis data. We derive a set of linear online update equations for the score of each player. The proposed ranking system predicts the outcome of the future games with a higher accuracy than the static counterparts.

  2. A network-based dynamical ranking system for competitive sports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Motegi, Shun; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    From the viewpoint of networks, a ranking system for players or teams in sports is equivalent to a centrality measure for sports networks, whereby a directed link represents the result of a single game...

  3. A network-based dynamical ranking system for competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Shun; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    From the viewpoint of networks, a ranking system for players or teams in sports is equivalent to a centrality measure for sports networks, whereby a directed link represents the result of a single game. Previously proposed network-based ranking systems are derived from static networks, i.e., aggregation of the results of games over time. However, the score of a player (or team) fluctuates over time. Defeating a renowned player in the peak performance is intuitively more rewarding than defeating the same player in other periods. To account for this factor, we propose a dynamic variant of such a network-based ranking system and apply it to professional men's tennis data. We derive a set of linear online update equations for the score of each player. The proposed ranking system predicts the outcome of the future games with a higher accuracy than the static counterparts.

  4. Superfund Hazard Ranking System Training Course: Table of Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) training course is a four and ½ day, intermediate-level course designed for personnel who are required to compile, draft, and review preliminary assessments (PAs), site inspections (SIs), and HRS documentation records/packag

  5. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  6. The system of world golf ranking among amateur players - WAGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk M.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: justify the particular rating-WAGR and determine its value. Material: More than 40 references, including analysis of 8 protocols of Ukraine competition in golf. Results: The features and significance of the world rankings in golf among amateur players. Displaying ranking tournaments in accordance with the system of WAGR and justified the use of the conversion of the results to determine the specific places the player in the rankings. In Ukraine, held six WAGR-Tournament, the first tournament was held in 2011. Today in the world ranking of amateur players is one player from the Ukraine. Conclusions: It was found that the top-WAGR determines the level of development of the national golf federations and influence in the international arena. For the selection of athletes for the summer Youth Olympic Games is used world-rated golf amateur players (WAGR among boys and girls.

  7. A document clustering and ranking system for exploring MEDLINE citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongjing; Li, Wenyuan; Chen, Keke; Liu, Ying

    2007-01-01

    A major problem faced in biomedical informatics involves how best to present information retrieval results. When a single query retrieves many results, simply showing them as a long list often provides poor overview. With a goal of presenting users with reduced sets of relevant citations, this study developed an approach that retrieved and organized MEDLINE citations into different topical groups and prioritized important citations in each group. A text mining system framework for automatic document clustering and ranking organized MEDLINE citations following simple PubMed queries. The system grouped the retrieved citations, ranked the citations in each cluster, and generated a set of keywords and MeSH terms to describe the common theme of each cluster. Several possible ranking functions were compared, including citation count per year (CCPY), citation count (CC), and journal impact factor (JIF). We evaluated this framework by identifying as "important" those articles selected by the Surgical Oncology Society. Our results showed that CCPY outperforms CC and JIF, i.e., CCPY better ranked important articles than did the others. Furthermore, our text clustering and knowledge extraction strategy grouped the retrieval results into informative clusters as revealed by the keywords and MeSH terms extracted from the documents in each cluster. The text mining system studied effectively integrated text clustering, text summarization, and text ranking and organized MEDLINE retrieval results into different topical groups.

  8. Applying Technology Ranking and Systems Engineering in Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    According to the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program Plan, the Systems Modeling and Analysis Project (SMAP) has two important tasks: 1) prioritizing investments in ALS Research and Technology Development (R&TD), and 2) guiding the evolution of ALS systems. Investments could be prioritized simply by independently ranking different technologies, but we should also consider a technology's impact on system design. Guiding future ALS systems will require SMAP to consider many aspects of systems engineering. R&TD investments can be prioritized using familiar methods for ranking technology. The first step is gathering data on technology performance, safety, readiness level, and cost. Then the technologies are ranked using metrics or by decision analysis using net present economic value. The R&TD portfolio can be optimized to provide the maximum expected payoff in the face of uncertain future events. But more is needed. The optimum ALS system can not be designed simply by selecting the best technology for each predefined subsystem. Incorporating a new technology, such as food plants, can change the specifications of other subsystems, such as air regeneration. Systems must be designed top-down starting from system objectives, not bottom-up from selected technologies. The familiar top-down systems engineering process includes defining mission objectives, mission design, system specification, technology analysis, preliminary design, and detail design. Technology selection is only one part of systems analysis and engineering, and it is strongly related to the subsystem definitions. ALS systems should be designed using top-down systems engineering. R&TD technology selection should consider how the technology affects ALS system design. Technology ranking is useful but it is only a small part of systems engineering.

  9. FIELD TEST OF THE PROPOSED REVISED HAZARD RANKING SYSTEM (HRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to revise the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) so that, to the maximum extent feasible, it accurately assesses the relative risks associated with actual or potent...

  10. Point scoring system to rank traffic calming projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Rahman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The installation of calming measures on a road network is systematically planned way in general to reduce driving speeds, but also reduces the volume of through traffic on local and residential streets. When the demands of traffic calming exceed city resources, there is a need to prioritize or rank them. Asian countries, like Japan, Korea, Bangladesh and etc., do not have a prioritization system to apply in such cases. The objective of this research is to develop a point ranking system to prioritize traffic calming projects. Firstly paired comparison method was employed to obtain residents' opinions about the streets severity and needs of traffic calming treatment. A binary logistic regression model was developed to identify the factors of selecting streets for traffic calming. This model also explored the weight of variables during developing the point ranking system. The weights used in the point ranking system include vehicle speed, pedestrian generation, sidewalk condition and hourly vehicle volume per width (m of street. Results suggest that the severity of street largely depends on the absence of sidewalks, which has a weight of 45%, and high hourly vehicle volume of traffic per width (m of street, which has a weight of 38%. These outcomes are significant to develop the state of traffic safety in Japan and other Asian countries.

  11. Integrated inventory ranking system for oilfield equipment industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalel Ben Hmida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This case study is motivated by the subcontracting problem in an oilfield equipment and service company where the management needs to decide which parts to manufacture in-house when the capacity is not enough to make all required parts. Currently the company is making subcontracting decisions based on management’s experience. Design/methodology/approach: Working with the management, a decision support system (DSS is developed to rank parts by integrating three inventory classification methods considering both quantitative factors such as cost and demand, and qualitative factors such as functionality, efficiency, and quality. The proposed integrated inventory ranking procedure will make use of three classification methods: ABC, FSN, and VED. Findings: An integration mechanism using weights is developed to rank the parts based on the total priority scores. The ranked list generated by the system helps management to identify about 50 critical parts to manufacture in-house. Originality/value: The integration of all three inventory classification techniques into a single system is a unique feature of this research. This is important as it provides a more inclusive, big picture view of the DSS for management’s use in making business decisions.

  12. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.

  13. Analysis of linear dynamic systems of low rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2003-01-01

    We present here procedures of how obtain stable solutions to linear dynamic systems can be found. Different types of models are considered. The basic idea is to use the H-principle to develop low rank approximations to solutions. The approximations stop, when the prediction ability of the model...... cannot be improved for the present data. Therefore, the present methods give better prediction results than traditional methods that give exact solutions. The vectors used in the approximations can be used to carry out graphic analysis of the dynamic systems. We show how score vectors can display the low...

  14. In Search of a Better Mousetrap: A Look at Higher Education Ranking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swail, Watson Scott

    2011-01-01

    College rankings create much talk and discussion in the higher education arena. This love/hate relationship has not necessarily resulted in better rankings, but rather, more rankings. This paper looks at some of the measures and pitfalls of the current rankings systems, and proposes areas for improvement through a better focus on teaching and…

  15. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  16. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from “BCI Competition III Dataset IVa” and “BCI Competition IV Database 2a.” The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP. PMID:28096809

  17. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common spatial pattern (CSP and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from “BCI Competition III Dataset IVa” and “BCI Competition IV Database 2a.” The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  18. Validation and ranking of seven staging systems of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhan-Hong; Hong, Ying-Fen; Lin, Jinxiang; Li, Xing; Wu, Dong-Hao; Wen, Jing-Yun; Chen, Jie; Ruan, Dan-Yun; Lin, Qu; Dong, Min; Wei, Li; Wang, Tian-Tian; Lin, Ze-Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Kun; Wu, Xiang-Yuan; Xu, Ruihua

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of seven staging systems to predict 3- and 6-month and cumulative survival rates of patients with advanced hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Data were collected from 220 patients with HBV-associated HCC who did not receive any standard anticancer treatment. Participants were patients at The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from September 2008 to June 2010. The participants were classified according to the Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI), the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP), Japan Integrated Staging (JIS), China Integrated Score (CIS) systems, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC), Okuda and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging systems at the time of diagnosis and during patient follow-up. The sensitivity and specificity of the predictive value of each staging system for 3- and 6-month mortality were analyzed by relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with a non-parametric test being used to compare the area under curve (AUC) of the ROC curves. In addition, log-rank tests and Kaplan-Meier estimator survival curves were applied to compare the overall survival rates of the patients with HCC defined as advanced using the various staging systems, and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) were used to evaluate the predictive value for overall survival in patients with advanced HCC. Using univariate and multivariate Cox's model analyses, the factors predictive of survival were also identified. A total of 220 patients with HBV-associated HCC were analyzed. Independent prognostic factors identified by multivariate analyses included tumor size, α-fetoprotein levels, blood urea nitrogen levels, the presence or absence of portal vein thrombus, Child-Pugh score and neutrophil count. When predicting 3-month survival, the AUCs of CLIP, CIS, CUPI, Okuda, TNM, JIS and BCLC were 0.806, 0.772, 0.751, 0

  19. OPG/RANKL/RANK cytokine system in renal osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Avberšek-Lužnik

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal osteodystrophy is one of the most common complications affecting patients with endstage renal disease treated with hemodialysis (HD. The action of calciotropic hormones in renal osteodystrophy is regulated by the OPG/RANKL/RANK system. Its function is modulated by interleukines, calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH.The aim of our study was to confirm that this system is involved in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy and supports the mechanism of PTH action on bone.Methods: 106 HD patients (mean age 60 years and 50 healthy volunteers (mean age 64 years were enrolled in the study. In serum samples of patients and controls we determined concentrations of OPG, RANKL, tartarat resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b, serum Cterminal telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen (CTx, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, osteocalcin (OC and parathyroid hormone (PTH. We compared serum measurements of HD patients and controls and assessed the correlation of OPG and RANKL with bone markers. The most frequent OPG promotor gene polymorphisms were also determined. SPSS 12.1 for Windows was used for statistical analysis.Results: Median OPG concentrations were approximately three times higher in HD patients (0.804 µg/l than in healthy volunteers (0.272 µg/l. Mean serum RANKL concentrations were 1.66- fold higher in HD patients (1.36 pmol/l than in controls (0.82 pmol/l. Serum RANKL levels significantly differed between patients with and without calcitriol therapy (p = 0.001. After dividing HD patients into tertiles according to PTH, we observed significantly higher OPG values in the lower and RANKL in the upper tertile (p < 0.001. OPG did not correlate with bone resorption markers. Only weak correlation of bone formation markers with osteocalcin was noted. In contrast to OPG, RANKL correlated well with PTH, OC and CTX. OPG promoter gene polymorphisms (149 T → C, 163 A → G, 950 T → C do not influence OPG expression and

  20. A computer-aided diagnosis system of nuclear cataract via ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Huiqi; Chan, Kap Luk; Lim, Joo Hwee; Liu, Jiang; Wong, Tien Yin

    2009-01-01

    A novel computer-aided diagnosis system of nuclear cataract via ranking is firstly proposed in this paper. The grade of nuclear cataract in a slit-lamp image is predicted based on its neighboring labeled images in a ranked images list, which is achieved using an optimal ranking function. A new ranking evaluation measure is proposed for learning the optimal ranking function via direct optimization. Our system has been tested by a large dataset composed of 1000 slit-lamp images from 1000 different cases. Both experimental results and comparison with several state-of-the-art methods indicate the superiority of our system.

  1. A stable systemic risk ranking in China's banking sector: Based on principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Libing; Xiao, Binqing; Yu, Honghai; You, Qixing

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we compare five popular systemic risk rankings, and apply principal component analysis (PCA) model to provide a stable systemic risk ranking for the Chinese banking sector. Our empirical results indicate that five methods suggest vastly different systemic risk rankings for the same bank, while the combined systemic risk measure based on PCA provides a reliable ranking. Furthermore, according to factor loadings of the first component, PCA combined ranking is mainly based on fundamentals instead of market price data. We clearly find that price-based rankings are not as practical a method as fundamentals-based ones. This PCA combined ranking directly shows systemic risk contributions of each bank for banking supervision purpose and reminds banks to prevent and cope with the financial crisis in advance.

  2. Ranking of Logistics System Scenarios for Central Business District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Radoman Tadić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the procedure for logistics system scenario selection for the central business district (CBD of the city in the phase of significant urban changes. Scenarios are defined in accordance with the overall logistics concept of the city. Conflicting goals of stakeholders (residents, shippers and receivers, logistics providers and city government generate a vast number of criteria that need to be included when selecting the scenario for the city area logistics system. Due to limited resources and linguistic assessment of criteria, fuzzy extensions of conventional multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods were used. Fuzzy "analytical hierarchy process" (FAHP is applied to determine the relative weights of evaluation criteria, and fuzzy "technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution" (FTOPSIS is applied to rank the logistics systems scenarios. This paper contributes to the literature in the field of city logistics (CL, as it applies the integrated FAHP-FTOPSIS method for the evaluation of scenarios, which are also integrated combinations of different CL initiatives. The integrated combined approach proved to be accurate, effective and a systematic tool for the decision support in the process of selecting CBD logistics scenarios.

  3. The Impact of Ranking Systems on Higher Education and Its Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The arrival of university ranking has changed the landscape of higher education all over the world and is likely to continue to influence further development nationally and internationally. This article provides an overview of rankings systems in which Australian universities feature and it goes on further to discuss the impact ranking systems…

  4. Theoretical issues in quantum computing: Graph isomorphism, PageRank, and Hamiltonian determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinger, Kenneth Michael

    PageRank vector, a necessary step in one of Google's search algorithms. It had been previously believed that this algorithm might offer a non-trivial speedup in preparing the PageRank vector. We demonstrate, however, that when this algorithm is tested on graphs that sufficiently resemble the graph of the World Wide Web, there is no appreciable speedup. Lastly, we consider the problem of Hamiltonian determination. We show that in the high temperature limit, the classical signal processing technique of compressed sensing may be used to recover the Hamiltonian for a system of qubits, provided that the Hamiltonian does not possess too many interactions, i.e., it is "sparse". This new procedure allows for the determination of the Hamiltonian with a number of measurements that can be significantly smaller than required by standard techniques.

  5. Rank Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Carlos

    Studies of rank distributions have been popular for decades, especially since the work of Zipf. For example, if we rank words of a given language by use frequency (most used word in English is 'the', rank 1; second most common word is 'of', rank 2), the distribution can be approximated roughly with a power law. The same applies for cities (most populated city in a country ranks first), earthquakes, metabolism, the Internet, and dozens of other phenomena. We recently proposed ``rank diversity'' to measure how ranks change in time, using the Google Books Ngram dataset. Studying six languages between 1800 and 2009, we found that the rank diversity curves of languages are universal, adjusted with a sigmoid on log-normal scale. We are studying several other datasets (sports, economies, social systems, urban systems, earthquakes, artificial life). Rank diversity seems to be universal, independently of the shape of the rank distribution. I will present our work in progress towards a general description of the features of rank change in time, along with simple models which reproduce it

  6. World University Ranking Systems: An Alternative Approach Using Partial Least Squares Path Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajo, Nethal K.; Harrison, Jen

    2014-01-01

    University rankings are key drivers in national and institutional strategic planning. The increase in the number of university ranking systems and the diversity of methods and indicators used by these systems necessitate the development of an index that can measure a university's performance in all these systems at once. This article presents…

  7. College and University Ranking Systems: Global Perspectives and American Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoff, Alvin P.; Usher, Alex; Savino, Massimo; Clarke, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    When U.S. News & World Report began its ranking of American colleges in 1983, publishers in other countries quickly followed with their own hierarchical measures, providing consumer information (and opportunities for institutional marketing) while attempting to impact the quality of higher education. In the course of the last two decades,…

  8. The U21 Rankings of National Higher Education Systems: Re-Analyze to Optimize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Soh Kay

    2012-01-01

    "The U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems" released in May 2012 is a new player on the scene of university rankings, after ARWU, QSWUR and THEWUR, but with a different perspective--that of whole nations. It has some new features that enhance its validity, but it also shares some of the conceptual and methodological problems…

  9. System for ranking relative threats of U.S. volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology to systematically rank volcanic threat was developed as the basis for prioritizing volcanoes for long-term hazards evaluations, monitoring, and mitigation activities. A ranking of 169 volcanoes in the United States and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (U.S. volcanoes) is presented based on scores assigned for various hazard and exposure factors. Fifteen factors define the hazard: Volcano type, maximum known eruptive explosivity, magnitude of recent explosivity within the past 500 and 5,000 years, average eruption-recurrence interval, presence or potential for a suite of hazardous phenomena (pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, tsunami, flank collapse, hydrothermal explosion, primary lahar), and deformation, seismic, or degassing unrest. Nine factors define exposure: a measure of ground-based human population in hazard zones, past fatalities and evacuations, a measure of airport exposure, a measure of human population on aircraft, the presence of power, transportation, and developed infrastructure, and whether or not the volcano forms a significant part of a populated island. The hazard score and exposure score for each volcano are multiplied to give its overall threat score. Once scored, the ordered list of volcanoes is divided into five overall threat categories from very high to very low. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  10. A practical ranking system to compare toxicity of anti-fouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Breitholtz, Magnus; Eklund, Britta

    2006-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of new anti-fouling paints, claimed to function by physical means and not by leakage of toxic substances, have been tested on two common organisms in the Baltic Sea, i.e., the red macro alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the copepod Nitocra spinipes. In order to compare the toxicity between the paints a ranking system was developed based on the EC(50)- and LC(50)-values. The results showed a wide span in toxicity with the most toxic paints ranked 160 times more toxic than the ones ranked least toxic. Also, TBT, irgarol and diuron, which have been used as active ingredients in traditional anti-fouling paints, were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the two test organisms. The results showed that the test organisms were equally sensitive to the substances as similar organisms in earlier studies. In conclusion, the ranking system presented in this study permits ranking and comparison of total toxicity of complex mixtures.

  11. Limited criminal jurisdiction on investigation and judgement of High-ranking government officials. Procedural issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of Colombia provides that certain senior officials, because of their position, should be investigated and tried by the Supreme Court (members of Congress or by the same Court upon indictment by the General Attorney (art. 235 n. 4. The Constitution provides that the President, the judges of the high courts and the prosecutor also have a special status, as the investigation and prosecution is allocated in the Senate, previous accusation in the House of Representatives, and in the Supreme Court for the common crimes. The criminal and disciplinary jurisdiction of investigation and prosecution has generated countless controversies at the doctrinal and jurisprudential level, related to the exclusive competence of the Prosecutor General’s Office and the judges of the Supreme Court to advance the investigation. In particular, the impossibility of delegating the commission of evidence and proceedings related to jurisdiction in such processes; the courts and their relationship with the position or function; the retention or recovery of competition by the criminal court room after renouncing the jurisdiction in the parapolitics processes; the notion tenure as a basis for criminal jurisdiction in the case of the governors in charge; a second hearing as a minimum guarantee derived from international standards on human rights and the issue related to jurisdiction and impunity on the subject of political or “impeachment” judgments.

  12. Systemic testing on Bradley-Terry model against nonlinear ranking hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shev, Aaron; Fujii, Kevin; Hsieh, Fushing; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    We take a system point of view toward constructing any power or ranking hierarchy onto a society of human or animal players. The most common hierarchy is the linear ranking, which is habitually used in nearly all real-world problems. A stronger version of linear ranking via increasing and unvarying winning potentials, known as Bradley-Terry model, is particularly popular. Only recently non-linear ranking hierarchy is discussed and developed through recognition of dominance information contents beyond direct dyadic win-and-loss. We take this development further by rigorously arguing for the necessity of accommodating system's global pattern information contents, and then introducing a systemic testing on Bradley-Terry model. Our test statistic with an ensemble based empirical distribution favorably compares with the Deviance test equipped with a Chi-squared asymptotic approximation. Several simulated and real data sets are analyzed throughout our development.

  13. Ranked Performance of Canada's Health System on the International Stage: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafizada, Said Ahmad Maisam; Sivanandan, Thushara; Hogan, Kelly; Cohen, Deborah; Harvey, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Since the release of the World Health Report in 2000, health system performance ranking studies have garnered significant health policy attention. However, this literature has produced variable results. The objective of this study was to synthesize the research and analyze the ranked performance of Canada's health system on the international stage. We conducted a scoping review exploring Canada's place in ranked health system performance among its peer Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage scoping review framework was adopted, yielding 48 academic and grey literature articles. A literature extraction tool was developed to gather information on themes that emerged from the literature. Although various methodologies were used to rank health system performance internationally, results generally suggested that Canada has been a middle-of-the-pack performer in overall health system performance for the last 15 years. Canada's overall rankings were 7/191, 11/24, 10/11, 10/17, "Promising" and "B" grade across different studies. According to past literature, Canada performed well in areas of efficiency, productivity, attaining health system goals, years of life lived with disability and stroke mortality. By contrast, Canada performed poorly in areas related to disability-adjusted life expectancy, potential years of life lost, obesity in adults and children, diabetes, female lung cancer and infant mortality. As countries introduce health system reforms aimed at improving the health of populations, international comparisons are useful to inform cross-country learning in health and social policy. While ranking systems do have shortcomings, they can serve to shine a spotlight on Canada's health system strengths and weaknesses to better inform the health policy agenda. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  14. Control system development for an organic Ranking cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergthold, F. M., Jr.; Fulton, D. G.; Haskins, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    An organic Rankine cycle engine is used as part of a solar thermal power conversion assembly (PCA). The PCA, including a direct-heated cavity receiver and a shaft-mounted alternator, is mounted at the focal point of a parabolic dish concentrator. The engine controls are required to maintain approximately constant values of turbine inlet temperature and shaft speed, despite variation in the concentrated solar power input to the receiver. The controls design approach, system models, and initial stability and performance analysis results are presented herein.

  15. Analysis of linear dynamic systems of low rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinikainen, S.P.; Aaljoki, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how the procedures of traditional chemometrics like stepwise evaluation of the model, graphic analysis of the latent structure, etc., can be applied to common modeling methods in chemical engineering like for instance Kalman filtering. Procedures of how...... to carry out graphic analysis of the dynamic systems. It is shown how score vectors can display the low dimensional variation in data, the loading vectors display the correlation structure, and the transformation vectors how the variables generate the resulting variation in data; these graphic analysis...... have proven their importance in traditional chemometric methods. These graphics methods are important in supervising and controlling the process in light of the variation in data. The algorithms can provide with solutions of models having hundreds or thousands of variables. It is shown here how...

  16. The Influence of Rankings and Incentive Systems on Academic Publishing in South African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudien, Crain

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the influence of ranking and incentive systems on decisions higher education institutions are making with respect to research and academic publishing. It describes and analyses how institutions within the South African higher education system have navigated their way through the contradictory forces confronting them.…

  17. EPA Seeks Public Comments on Addition of Subsurface Intrusion Component to the Superfund Hazard Ranking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking public comment on the proposed addition of a subsurface intrusion (SsI) component to the Superfund Hazard Ranking System (HRS). The HRS is a scoring system EPA uses to identify

  18. A fuzzy rule based remedial priority ranking system for contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Sener; Aksoy, Aysegul; Unlu, Kahraman

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated site remediation is generally difficult, time consuming, and expensive. As a result ranking may aid in efficient allocation of resources. In order to rank the priorities of contaminated sites, input parameters relevant to contaminant fate and transport, and exposure assessment should be as accurate as possible. Yet, in most cases these parameters are vague or not precise. Most of the current remediation priority ranking methodologies overlook the vagueness in parameter values or do not go beyond assigning a contaminated site to a risk class. The main objective of this study is to develop an alternative remedial priority ranking system (RPRS) for contaminated sites in which vagueness in parameter values is considered. RPRS aims to evaluate potential human health risks due to contamination using sufficiently comprehensive and readily available parameters in describing the fate and transport of contaminants in air, soil, and groundwater. Vagueness in parameter values is considered by means of fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy expert system is proposed for the evaluation of contaminated sites and a software (ConSiteRPRS) is developed in Microsoft Office Excel 2007 platform. Rankings are employed for hypothetical and real sites. Results show that RPRS is successful in distinguishing between the higher and lower risk cases. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

  20. From rankings to mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Darrell G; Prescott, John E

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1980s, school ranking systems have been a topic of discussion among leaders of higher education. Various ranking systems are based on inadequate data that fail to illustrate the complex nature and special contributions of the institutions they purport to rank, including U.S. medical schools, each of which contributes uniquely to meeting national health care needs. A study by Tancredi and colleagues in this issue of Academic Medicine illustrates the limitations of rankings specific to primary care training programs. This commentary discusses, first, how each school's mission and strengths, as well as the impact it has on the community it serves, are distinct, and, second, how these schools, which are each unique, are poorly represented by overly subjective ranking methodologies. Because academic leaders need data that are more objective to guide institutional development, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has been developing tools to provide valid data that are applicable to each medical school. Specifically, the AAMC's Medical School Admissions Requirements and its Missions Management Tool each provide a comprehensive assessment of medical schools that leaders are using to drive institutional capacity building. This commentary affirms the importance of mission while challenging the leaders of medical schools, teaching hospitals, and universities to use reliable data to continually improve the quality of their training programs to improve the health of all.

  1. CONCEPTUAL PRINCIPLES OF ATLAS GEOENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING OF GEOSPATIAL OBJECTS AND SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENT RANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk I.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses contemporary issues of digital atlas thematic mapping, which has been gaining momentum in recent decades. It shows that the atlas geoenvironmental mapping allows to perform high quality visualization of various spatial and temporal information in dynamic and static states, reflects the geoenvironmental state of objects that vary by rank, trends in its changes, and evaluates the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on it. Solution to this problem is possible with the correct choice of cartographic service, which can serve as the basis for creating a wide range of interactive digital atlases. Using the ArcGIS Online service allows you to use a larger range of cartographic imagery, which attracts users. At the same time, there are few examples of the creation of atlases of geoenvironmental issues both in paper and in digital form, so the article discusses actual problems in this area. The views of various scientists on the nature of geoenvironmental atlas are characterized. It is shown that atlases of geoenvironmental content should have in their structure basic maps of such subjects: physical geography (hypsometric, geological, tectonic, hydrogeological, geomorphological, soil, hydrological, meteorological, biogeographical, etc.; Socio-economic (demographic, labor resource potential, health, industry, agrogeography, forestry, water management, mining, recreation and tourism, etc.; Ecological (ecology-geomorphological, ecology-geological, hydroecological, soil-ecological, bioecological, landscape-ecological, air pollution, medical-ecological, sanitary-epidemiological, etc.; Applied maps (recommendations aimed at solving geoenvironmental problems, optimizing the use of natural resources and improving living conditions of the population and biota. The article considers the options of atlases classifications and thematic maps that are part of their composition, offered by domestic and foreign authors. The range of

  2. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF AN INCINERABILITY RANKING SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subject study was conducted to evaluate an incinerability ranking system developed by teh University of Dayton Research Institute under contract to the EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. Fixtures of organic compounds were prepared and combined with a clay-based sorben...

  3. Moving beyond University Rankings: Developing a World Class University System in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Tony

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines why the development of a world class university system represents a rational, even inevitable, policy approach for Australia in response to world university rankings. It assembles evidence questioning the value of policies which direct undue emphasis on the concentration of resources and the development of elite universities,…

  4. A Markov chain model for image ranking system in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Thi Thi; Tin, Pyke; Toriu, Takashi; Hama, Hiromitsu

    2014-03-01

    In today world, different kinds of networks such as social, technological, business and etc. exist. All of the networks are similar in terms of distributions, continuously growing and expanding in large scale. Among them, many social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and many others provides a powerful abstraction of the structure and dynamics of diverse kinds of inter personal connection and interaction. Generally, the social network contents are created and consumed by the influences of all different social navigation paths that lead to the contents. Therefore, identifying important and user relevant refined structures such as visual information or communities become major factors in modern decision making world. Moreover, the traditional method of information ranking systems cannot be successful due to their lack of taking into account the properties of navigation paths driven by social connections. In this paper, we propose a novel image ranking system in social networks by using the social data relational graphs from social media platform jointly with visual data to improve the relevance between returned images and user intentions (i.e., social relevance). Specifically, we propose a Markov chain based Social-Visual Ranking algorithm by taking social relevance into account. By using some extensive experiments, we demonstrated the significant and effectiveness of the proposed social-visual ranking method.

  5. The impact of classification systems in the evaluation of the research performance of the Leiden Ranking Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Perianes-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the consequences of choosing different classification systems – namely, the way publications (or journals) are assigned to scientific fields– for the ranking of research units. We study the impact of this choice on the ranking of 500 universities in the 2013 edition of the Leiden Ranking in two cases. Firstly, we compare a Web of Science journal-level classification system, consisting of 236 subject categories, and a publication-level algorithmically construct...

  6. Issues in holistic system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia L.; Probst, Christian W.; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2006-01-01

    The coordination of layers in computer and software systems is one of the main challenges in designing such systems today. In this paper we consider Holistic System Design as a way of integrating requirements and facilities of different system layers. We also discuss some of the challenges...... that this kind of system design poses for computer science in general as well as programming languages and operating systems in particular....

  7. Fast and precise method of contingency ranking in modern power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Contingency Analysis is one of the most important aspect of Power System Security Analysis. This paper presents a fast and precise method of contingency ranking for effective power system security analysis. The method proposed in this research work takes due consideration of both apparent power...... is based on realistic approach taking practical situations into account. Besides taking real situations into consideration the proposed method is fast enough to be considered for on-line security analysis....

  8. Flexible manufacturing system selection using preference ranking methods : A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Chatterjee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs offer opportunities for the manufacturers to improve their technology, competitiveness and profitability through a highly efficient and focused approach to manufacturing effectiveness. Justification, evaluation and selection of FMSs have now been receiving significant attention in the manufacturing environment. Evaluating alternative FMSs in the presence of multiple conflicting criteria and performance measures is often a difficult task for the decision maker. Preference ranking tools are special types of multi-criteria decision-making methods in which the decision maker’s preferences on criteria are aggregated together to arrive at the final evaluation and selection of the alternatives. This paper deals with the application of six most potential preference ranking methods for selecting the best FMS for a given manufacturing organization. It is observed that although the performances of these six methods are almost similar, ORESTE (Organization, Rangement Et Synthese De Donnes Relationnelles method slightly outperforms the others. These methods use some preference function or utility value or Besson ranking of criteria and alternatives, to indicate how much an alternative is preferred to the others. Most of these methods need quantification of criteria weights or different preference parameters, but ORESTE method, being an ordinal outranking approach, only requires ordinal data and attribute rankings according to their importance. Therefore, it is particularly applicable to those situations where the decision maker is unable to provide crisp evaluation data and attribute weights.

  9. Evaluating user reputation in online rating systems via an iterative group-based ranking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Reputation is a valuable asset in online social lives and it has drawn increased attention. Due to the existence of noisy ratings and spamming attacks, how to evaluate user reputation in online rating systems is especially significant. However, most of the previous ranking-based methods either follow a debatable assumption or have unsatisfied robustness. In this paper, we propose an iterative group-based ranking method by introducing an iterative reputation-allocation process into the original group-based ranking method. More specifically, the reputation of users is calculated based on the weighted sizes of the user rating groups after grouping all users by their rating similarities, and the high reputation users' ratings have larger weights in dominating the corresponding user rating groups. The reputation of users and the user rating group sizes are iteratively updated until they become stable. Results on two real data sets with artificial spammers suggest that the proposed method has better performance than the state-of-the-art methods and its robustness is considerably improved comparing with the original group-based ranking method. Our work highlights the positive role of considering users' grouping behaviors towards a better online user reputation evaluation.

  10. A ranking system for reference libraries of DNA barcodes: application to marine fish species from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Filipe O; Landi, Monica; Martins, Rogelia; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Maria E; Carneiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria J; Steinke, Dirk; Carvalho, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability of reference libraries of DNA barcodes (RLDB) offers the opportunity to the screen the level of consistency in DNA barcode data among libraries, in order to detect possible disagreements generated from taxonomic uncertainty or operational shortcomings. We propose a ranking system to attribute a confidence level to species identifications associated with DNA barcode records from a RLDB. Here we apply the proposed ranking system to a newly generated RLDB for marine fish of Portugal. Specimens (n = 659) representing 102 marine fish species were collected along the continental shelf of Portugal, morphologically identified and archived in a museum collection. Samples were sequenced at the barcode region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI-5P). Resultant DNA barcodes had average intra-specific and inter-specific Kimura-2-parameter distances (0.32% and 8.84%, respectively) within the range usually observed for marine fishes. All specimens were ranked in five different levels (A-E), according to the reliability of the match between their species identification and the respective diagnostic DNA barcodes. Grades A to E were attributed upon submission of individual specimen sequences to BOLD-IDS and inspection of the clustering pattern in the NJ tree generated. Overall, our study resulted in 73.5% of unambiguous species IDs (grade A), 7.8% taxonomically congruent barcode clusters within our dataset, but awaiting external confirmation (grade B), and 18.7% of species identifications with lower levels of reliability (grades C/E). We highlight the importance of implementing a system to rank barcode records in RLDB, in order to flag taxa in need of taxonomic revision, or reduce ambiguities of discordant data. With increasing DNA barcode records publicly available, this cross-validation system would provide a metric of relative accuracy of barcodes, while enabling the continuous revision and annotation required in taxonomic work.

  11. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Study of ranking of bio-indices using benthic macroinvertebrates for Lower Dongnai River System, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Le Phi; Quoi, Le Phat; Duc, Pham Anh

    2012-04-01

    It has been demonstrated by research that the most successful assessment methods have been based on the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. A lot of bio-indices have been applied to evaluate the water quality widely. However, most of them have got the rankings for the water quality assessment. In this study, based on the monitoring results of the benthic macroinvertebrate and the environmental parameters in the Lower Dongnai River System during three-year periods (2007 - 2009), the linear correlations among the most popular bio-indices and each environmental parameter were considered. These environmental variables having the most closed correlation with the biological indices were DO (dissolved oxygen), WQI (water quality index) and total nitrogen. From the analysis, the ranking of bio-indices using benthic macroinvertebrate for the Lower Dongnai River System were established. The findings proved that the ranking of bio-indices for water quality assessment can be used to evaluate the water quality for the Lower Dongnai River System.

  13. A ranking system for prescribed burn prioritization in Table Mountain National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Carly Ruth; Cheney, Chad

    2017-04-01

    To aid prescribed burn decision making in Table Mountain National Park, in South Africa a priority ranking system was tested. Historically a wildfire suppression strategy was adopted due to wildfires threatening urban areas close to the park, with few prescribed burns conducted. A large percentage of vegetation across the park exceeded the ecological threshold of 15 years. We held a multidisciplinary workshop, to prioritize areas for prescribed burning. Fire Management Blocks were mapped and assessed using the following seven categories: (1) ecological, (2) management, (3) tourism, (4) infrastructure, (5) invasive alien vegetation, (6) wildland-urban interface and (7) heritage. A priority ranking system was used to score each block. The oldest or most threatened vegetation types were not necessarily the top priority blocks. Selected blocks were burnt and burning fewer large blocks proved more effective economically, ecologically and practically due to the limited burning days permitted. The prioritization process was efficient as it could be updated annually following prescribed burns and wildfire incidents. Integration of prescribed burn planning and wildfire suppression strategies resulted in a reduction in operational costs. We recommend protected areas make use of a priority ranking system developed with expert knowledge and stakeholder engagement to determine objective prescribed burn plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contemporary issues in systems science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, M; Weijnen, M

    2015-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive overview of all important areas in systems science and engineering and poses the issues and challenges in these areas in order to deal with ever-increasingly complex systems and newly emergent applications. The topics range from discrete event systems, distributed intelligent systems, grey systems, and enterprise information systems to conflict resolution, robotics and intelligent sensing, smart grids, and system of systems approaches. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in the field.

  15. Ranking Operations Management conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U

    2007-01-01

    Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences

  16. Innovative issues in intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yager, Ronald; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Jotsov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a broad variety of different contemporary IT methods and applications in Intelligent Systems is displayed. Every book chapter represents a detailed, specific, far reaching and original re-search in a respective scientific and practical field. However, all of the chapters share the common point of strong similarity in a sense of being innovative, applicable and mutually compatible with each other. In other words, the methods from the different chapters can be viewed as bricks for building the next generation “thinking machines” as well as for other futuristic logical applications that are rapidly changing our world nowadays.

  17. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Tensor Rank

    OpenAIRE

    Erdtman, Elias; Jönsson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    This master's thesis addresses numerical methods of computing the typical ranks of tensors over the real numbers and explores some properties of tensors over finite fields. We present three numerical methods to compute typical tensor rank. Two of these have already been published and can be used to calculate the lowest typical ranks of tensors and an approximate percentage of how many tensors have the lowest typical ranks (for some tensor formats), respectively. The third method was developed...

  19. An Analytic Hierarchy Process-based Method to Rank the Critical Success Factors of Implementing a Pharmacy Barcode System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, Hana; Sultana, Nahid; Al-Amoudi, Amjaad; Basudan, Afrah

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacy barcode scanning is used to reduce errors during the medication dispensing process. However, this technology has rarely been used in hospital pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. This article describes the barriers to successful implementation of a barcode scanning system in Saudi Arabia. A literature review was conducted to identify the relevant critical success factors (CSFs) for a successful dispensing barcode system implementation. Twenty-eight pharmacists from a local hospital in Saudi Arabia were interviewed to obtain their perception of these CSFs. In this study, planning (process flow issues and training requirements), resistance (fear of change, communication issues, and negative perceptions about technology), and technology (software, hardware, and vendor support) were identified as the main barriers. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one of the most widely used tools for decision making in the presence of multiple criteria, was used to compare and rank these identified CSFs. The results of this study suggest that resistance barriers have a greater impact than planning and technology barriers. In particular, fear of change is the most critical factor, and training is the least critical factor.

  20. The participatory vulnerability scoping diagram - deliberative risk ranking for community water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Peter D.; Yarnal, Brent; Coletti, Alex; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards and climate change present growing challenges to community water system (CWS) managers, who are increasingly turning to vulnerability assessments to identify, prioritize, and adapt to risks. Effectively assessing CWS vulnerability requires information and participation from various sources, one of which is stakeholders. In this article, we present a deliberative risk-ranking methodology, the participatory vulnerability scoping diagram (P-VSD), which allows rapid assessment and integration of multiple stakeholder perspectives of vulnerability. This technique is based on methods of deliberative risk evaluation and the vulnerability scoping diagram. The goal of the methodology is to engage CWS managers and stakeholders collectively to provide qualitative contextual risk rankings as a first step in a vulnerability assessment. We conduct an initial assessment using a case study of CWS in two U.S. counties, sites with broadly similar exposures but differences in population, land use, and other social sensitivity factors. Results demonstrate that CWS managers and stakeholders in the two case study communities all share the belief that their CWS are vulnerable to hazards but differ in how this vulnerability manifests itself in terms of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of the system.

  1. Improving University Ranking to Achieve University Competitiveness by Management Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachyar, M.; Dewi, F.

    2015-05-01

    One way to increase university competitiveness is through information system management. A literature review was done to find information system factors that affect university performance in Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Ranking: Asia evaluation. Information system factors were then eliminated using Delphi method through consensus of 7 experts. Result from Delphi method was used as measured variables in PLS-SEM. Estimation with PLS-SEM method through 72 respondents shows that the latent variable academic reputation and citation per paper have significant correlation to university competitiveness. In University of Indonesia (UI) the priority to increase university competitiveness as follow: (i) network building in international conference, (ii) availability of research data to public, (iii) international conference information, (iv) information on achievements and accreditations of each major, (v) ease of employment for alumni.

  2. Preventive maintenance for computer systems - concepts & issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performing preventive maintenance activities for the computer is not optional. The computer is a sensitive and delicate device that needs adequate time and attention to make it work properly. In this paper, the concept and issues on how to prolong the life span of the system, that is, the way to make the system last long and ...

  3. Science Information Systems Newsletter, issue 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Information Systems Newsletter is to inform the space science and applications research community about information systems development and to promote coordination and collaboration by providing a forum for communication. This quarterly publication focuses on programs sponsored by the Information Systems Branch in support of NASA's Office of Space Science. Articles of interest for other programs and agencies are presented as well. The April 1993 issue is presented.

  4. An expert system for ranking companies and investments: wood industry case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hliadis Lazaros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood industry is a very important part of both the Greek Rural and industrial sector. The discovery of the differentiation in the level of growth and in the quality of financial management between the Greek wood companies can provide very important aid in the design of an effective rural development policy. The evaluation and ranking of Greek wood companies based on actual financial data is a very complicated task and it requires expertise knowledge and skills. On the other hand a computer expert system can perform validation and evaluation in an efficient way and can substitute human experts. An expert system was designed and developed towards this direction. It uses multicriteria analysis for each one of the wood companies based on actual financial data and it applies fundamental principles of fuzzy logic in order to calculate the expected intervals of flows for the following years. .

  5. Views on the peer review system of biomedical journals: an online survey of academics from high-ranking universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Peer review is the major method used by biomedical journals for making the decision of publishing an article. This cross-sectional survey assesses views concerning the review system of biomedical journals among academics globally. Methods A total of 28,009 biomedical academics from high-ranking universities listed by the 2009 Times Higher Education Quacquarelli Symonds (THE-QS) World University Rankings were contacted by email between March 2010 and August 2010. 1,340 completed an online survey which focused on their academic background, negative experiences and views on biomedical journal peer review and the results were compared among basic scientists, clinicians and clinician scientists. Results Fewer than half of the respondents agreed that the peer review systems of biomedical journals were fair (48.4%), scientific (47.5%), or transparent (25.1%). Nevertheless, 58.2% of the respondents agreed that authors should remain anonymous and 64.4% agreed that reviewers should not be disclosed. Most, (67.7%) agreed to the establishment of an appeal system. The proportion of native English-speaking respondents who agreed that the “peer review system is fair” was significantly higher than for non-native respondents (p = 0.02). Similarly, the proportion of clinicians stating that the “peer review system is fair” was significantly higher than that for basic scientists and clinician-scientists (p = 0.004). For females, (β = −0.1, p = 0.03), the frequency of encountering personal attacks in reviewers’ comments (β = −0.1, p = 0.002) and the frequency of imposition of unnecessary references by reviewers (β = −0.06, p = 0.04) were independently and inversely associated with agreement that “the peer review system is fair”. Conclusion Academics are divided on the issue of whether the biomedical journal peer review system is fair, scientific and transparent. A majority of academics agreed with the double-blind peer

  6. Views on the peer review system of biomedical journals: an online survey of academics from high-ranking universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Roger Chun-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Tao, Ren; Lu, Yanxia; Day, Jeffrey R; Pan, Fang

    2013-06-07

    Peer review is the major method used by biomedical journals for making the decision of publishing an article. This cross-sectional survey assesses views concerning the review system of biomedical journals among academics globally. A total of 28,009 biomedical academics from high-ranking universities listed by the 2009 Times Higher Education Quacquarelli Symonds (THE-QS) World University Rankings were contacted by email between March 2010 and August 2010. 1,340 completed an online survey which focused on their academic background, negative experiences and views on biomedical journal peer review and the results were compared among basic scientists, clinicians and clinician scientists. Fewer than half of the respondents agreed that the peer review systems of biomedical journals were fair (48.4%), scientific (47.5%), or transparent (25.1%). Nevertheless, 58.2% of the respondents agreed that authors should remain anonymous and 64.4% agreed that reviewers should not be disclosed. Most, (67.7%) agreed to the establishment of an appeal system. The proportion of native English-speaking respondents who agreed that the "peer review system is fair" was significantly higher than for non-native respondents (p = 0.02). Similarly, the proportion of clinicians stating that the "peer review system is fair" was significantly higher than that for basic scientists and clinician-scientists (p = 0.004). For females, (β = -0.1, p = 0.03), the frequency of encountering personal attacks in reviewers' comments (β = -0.1, p = 0.002) and the frequency of imposition of unnecessary references by reviewers (β = -0.06, p = 0.04) were independently and inversely associated with agreement that "the peer review system is fair". Academics are divided on the issue of whether the biomedical journal peer review system is fair, scientific and transparent. A majority of academics agreed with the double-blind peer review and to the establishment of an appeal system. Female academics, experience of

  7. Research Issues in Distributed Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; van Renesse, R.; Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoogland, W.

    1986-01-01

    As distributed computing becomes more widespread, both in high-energy physics and in other applications, centralized operating systems will gradually give way to distributed ones. In this paper the authors discuss some current research on five issues that are central to the design of distributed

  8. Inventory management systems : Control and information issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.B.S.L.P.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the management of inventory systems. The thesis starts with an exposition on mathematical models that can be used in inventory theory. Then we deal with some information issues related to the demand process. Namely, how to control products that have intermittent demand.

  9. Input and state estimation for linear systems with a rank-deficient direct feedthrough matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haokun; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Zuhua; Shao, Zhijiang

    2015-07-01

    The problem of joint input and state estimation for linear stochastic systems with a rank-deficient direct feedthrough matrix is discussed in this paper. Results from previous studies only solve the state estimation problem; globally optimal estimation of the unknown input is not provided. Based on linear minimum-variance unbiased estimation, a five-step recursive filter with global optimality is proposed to estimate both the unknown input and the state. The relationship between the proposed filter and the existing results is addressed. We show that the unbiased input estimation does not require any new information or additional constraints. Both the state and the unknown input can be estimated under the same unbiasedness condition. Global optimalities of both the state estimator and the unknown input estimator are proven in the minimum-variance unbiased sense. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of International Accreditation and Rankings on the Transformation of Higher Education System in RF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Zapryagaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of quality of modern higher education is the subject of research in the public academic and administrative environments. Accreditation and rating are considered as the tools to assess national systems of higher education. In this case, the rating associated usually with superlative characteristic, but the accreditation meets only the minimum requirements. In this paper the impact of these tools discusses on the example of Russian universities. The conclusion of the work is the assertion of the need to develop a new form of quality accreditation in the form of international accreditation. International accreditation allows universities to achieve superlative quality based on a set of estimated parameters, as opposed to an integrated, faceless rankings parameter.

  11. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkov, V. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  12. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T., E-mail: markku.kuitunen@jyu.fi

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  13. Role of interleukin-6 on RANKL-RANK/osteoprotegerin system in hypothyroid ovariectomized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Kaminski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal women frequently develop hypothyroidism. Estrogen depletion is accompanied by an increase of IL-6, accelerating bone turnover. The influence of hypothyroidism on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was an attempt to clarify the role of interleukin-6 on RANKL-RANK/osteoprotegerin system in hypothyroid ovariectomized mice. The study was performed on 56, 12-13 weeks old, female mice: C57BL/6J (wild-type; WT and C57BL/6JIL6-/-Kopf (IL-6 knock-out; IL6KO. The mice were randomly divided into 8 groups with 7 mice in each one: 1/ WT controls, 2/ IL6KO controls, 3/ WT hypothyroid mice, 4/ IL6KO hypothyroid mice, 5/ WT ovariectomized, 6/ IL6KO ovariectomized, 7/ WT ovariectomized hypothyroid mice and 8/ IL6KO ovariectomized hypothyroid mice. Experimental model of menopause was produced by bilateral ovariectomy carried out in 8-9 weeks old mice. Experimental model of hypothyroidism was induced by propylthiouracyl administration in driking water. The serum levels of TRACP 5b, osteocalcin, OPG and RANKL were determined by ELISA. Serum RANKL concentrations were elevated significantly in all groups of ovariectomized mice as compared to respective controls, but in a minor degree in IL6KO hypothyroid mice as compared to wild-type animals. Moreover sRANKL values were significantly lower in IL6KO as compared to WT controls and IL6KO PTU injected mice. Osteoprotegerin serum levels were decreased in all IL-6 deficient mice and in a highest degree in sham-operated hypothyroid mice. To sum up, the results of the present study suggest that estrogens deficit is a strong stimulus for RANKL-RANK/OPG pathway that breaks an inhibitory influence of hypothyroidism even in IL-6 deficient mice.

  14. Problems of Indicator Weights and Multicolinearity in World University Rankings: Comparisons of Three Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2014-01-01

    World university rankings (WUR) use the weight-and-sum approach to arrive at an overall measure which is then used to rank the participating universities of the world. Although the weight-and-sum procedure seems straightforward and accords with common sense, it has hidden methodological or statistical problems which render the meaning of the…

  15. An Efficient Rank Adaptation Algorithm for Cellular MIMO Systems with IRC Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2014-01-01

    of linear interference rejection combining (IRC) receivers. Typically, rank adaptation algorithms are aimed at balancing the trade-off between increasing the spatial gain, and improving the interference resilience property. In this paper, we propose an efficient and computationally effective rank adaptation...

  16. An AHP-based methodology to rank Critical Success Factors of Executive Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salmerón, Jose L.; Herrero, Inés

    2005-01-01

    For academics and practitioners concerned with computer-based Information Systems, one central issue is the study of Critical Success Factors of Information Systems development and implementation. Whereas several Critical Success Factors analyses appear in the literature, most of them do not have any technical background. In this paper we propose the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to set Critical Success Factors priorities. Results suggest that technical elements are less critical than...

  17. The issue of contract system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obalyaeva Julia, I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of contract system and its institutions in the national economy, the development of public procurement, the rational use of budgetary funds is explored in the paper. Dynamics of purchases in electronic trading for 2011-2014 is given. Author's vision on the problems in the formation and development institutions such as tendering and organization of interaction of participants of procurement on an electronic platform is submitted. Among the institutions of the contract system stand out: the staff, the system of institutional relations, study, planning and regulation of public procurement, unified information system. The authors suggest possible ways of increasing the efficiency of electronic platforms, the formation of a unified information system. It addresses the issue of affiliation of the bidders, its content, assesses customer actions on the part of the Federal Antimonopoly Service.

  18. Construction of a chemical ranking system of soil pollution substances for screening of priority soil contaminants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2012-04-01

    The Korean government recently proposed expanding the number of soil-quality standards to 30 by 2015. The objectives of our study were to construct a reasonable protocol for screening priority soil contaminants for inclusion in the planned soil quality standard expansion. The chemical ranking system of soil pollution substances (CROSS) was first developed to serve as an analytical tool in chemical scoring and ranking of possible soil pollution substances. CROSS incorporates important parameters commonly used in several previous chemical ranking and scoring systems and the new soil pollution parameters. CROSS uses soil-related parameters in its algorithm, including information related to the soil environment, such as soil ecotoxicological data, the soil toxic release inventory (TRI), and soil partitioning coefficients. Soil TRI and monitoring data were incorporated as local specific parameters. In addition, CROSS scores the transportability of chemicals in soil because soil contamination may result in groundwater contamination. Dermal toxicity was used in CROSS only to consider contact with soil. CROSS uses a certainty score to incorporate data uncertainty. CROSS scores the importance of each candidate substance and assigns rankings on the basis of total scores. Cadmium was the most highly ranked. Generally, metals were ranked higher than other substances. Pentachlorophenol, phenol, dieldrin, and methyl tert-butyl ether were ranked the highest among chlorinated compounds, aromatic compounds, pesticides, and others, respectively. The priority substance list generated from CROSS will be used in selecting substances for possible inclusion in the Korean soil quality standard expansion; it will also provide important information for designing a soil-environment management scheme.

  19. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  20. Ethical Issues in Network System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Langford

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, most desktop computers and PCs are networked that is, they have the ability to link to other machines, usually to access data and other information held remotely. Such machines may sometimes be connected directly to each other, as part of an office or company computer system. More frequently, however, connected machines are at a considerable distance from each other, typically connected through links to global systems such as the Internet, or World Wide Web (WWW. The networked machine itself may be anything from a powerful company computer with direct Internet connections, to a small hobbyist machine, accessing a bulletin board through telephone and modem. It is important to remember that, whatever the type or the location of networked machines, their access to the network, and the network itself, was planned and constructed following deliberate design considerations. In this paper I discuss some ways in which the technical design of computer systems might appropriately be influenced by ethical issues, and examine pressures on computer scientists and others to technically control network related actions perceived as 'unethical'. After examination of the current situation, I draw together the issues, and conclude by suggesting some ethically based recommendations for the future design of networked systems.

  1. Ranking system for national regulatory jurisdictions based on pesticide standard values in major exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To control the risk of human exposure to pesticides, about 50 nations have promulgated pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs, and 104 nations have provided pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs. In addition, 90 nations have regulated pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs. Pesticide standard values (PSVs for one single pesticide varied in a range of six, seven, or even eight orders of magnitude. Some PSVs are too large to prevent the impact of pesticides on human health. Many nations have not provided PSVs for some commonly used pesticides until now. This research has introduced several completeness values and numerical values methods to evaluate the national jurisdiction’s performance on PSVs on a nation base. The national jurisdiction ranking system developed by these methods will be beneficial to the environmental regulation makers in the management of PSVs. Results also indicate that European countries perform better in the regulation of pesticide soil RGVs, drinking water MCLs, and agricultural commodity MRLs.

  2. Advanced CO2 Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan [Tda Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO2 scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO2 emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO2 above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO2 scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO2 emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO2 above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO2. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent

  3. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation systems industrial application issues

    CERN Document Server

    Callegari, Sergio; Montisci, Augusto; Ricci, Marco; Versaci, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the practical implementation of ultrasonic NDT techniques in an industrial environment, discussing several issues that may emerge and proposing strategies for addressing them successfully.  It aims to bridge advanced academic research results and their application to industrial procedures. The topics covered in the text range from the basic operation of an ultrasonic NDT system to the simulation of the measurement operations; from the choice and generation of the signals energizing the system to the different ways of exploiting the probes and their output signals; and from quality assessment evaluation to the use of soft computing techniques for classification. Throughout the text, an effort is made to embrace a system view where the physical and technological aspects of sensing are addressed together with higher abstraction levels, such as signal and information processing. Consequently, the book aims at guiding the reader through the various tasks requested for developing a complete ultras...

  4. Laser satellite power systems - Concepts and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbridge, E. W.

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by Earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the Earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for a microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

  5. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  6. Prioritization of VHTR system modeling needs based on phenomena identification, ranking and sensitivity studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, R. B.; Pointer, W. D.; Wei, T. Y. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-04-30

    Quantification of uncertainty is a key requirement for the design of a nuclear power plant and the assurance of its safety. Historically the procedure has been to perform the required uncertainty assessment through comparison of the analytical predictions with experimental simulations. The issue with this historical approach has always been that the simulations through experiments could not be at full scale for the practical reasons of cost and scheduling. Invariably, only parts of the system were tested separately or if integral testing was performed for the complete system, the size or scale of the experimental apparatus was significantly smaller than the actual plant configuration.

  7. Review on security issues in RFID systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Beqqal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency Identification (RFID is currently considered as one of the most used technologies for an automatic identification of objects or people. Based on a combination of tags and readers, RFID technology has widely been applied in various areas including supply chain, production and traffic control systems. However, despite of its numerous advantages, the technology brings out many challenges and concerns still not being attracting more and more researchers especially the security and privacy issues. In this paper, we review some of the recent research works using RFID solutions and dealing with security and privacy issues, we define our specific parameters and requirements allowing us to classify for each work which part of the RFID system is being secured, the solutions and the techniques used besides the conformity to RFID standards. Finally, we present briefly a solution that consists of combining RFID with smartcard based biometric to enhance security especially in access control scenarios. Hence the result of our study aims to give a clear vision of available solutions and techniques used to prevent and secure the RFID system from specific threats and attacks.

  8. Item Calibration Samples and the Stability of Achievement Estimates and System Rankings: Another Look at the PISA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Using an empirically-based simulation study, we show that typically used methods of choosing an item calibration sample have significant impacts on achievement bias and system rankings. We examine whether recent PISA accommodations, especially for lower performing participants, can mitigate some of this bias. Our findings indicate that standard…

  9. The abundant synovial expression of the RANK/RANKL/Osteoprotegerin system in peripheral spondylarthritis is partially disconnected from inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandooren, Bernard; Cantaert, Tineke; Noordenbos, Troy; Tak, Paul P.; Baeten, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Spondylarthritis (SpA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have different patterns of bone damage, with more pronounced bone erosions in RA. The RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a central role in bone resorption by promoting the maturation and activation of osteoclasts. To assess

  10. Effect of social ranks and gestation housing systems on oxidative stress status, reproductive performance, and immune status of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Flowers, W L; Saraiva, A; Yeum, K-J; Kim, S W

    2013-12-01

    Ninety-six multiparous sows were randomly assigned into 2 different gestation housing systems on d 35 of gestation: individual gestational crates (n = 24) or small groups with 3 sows in gestational pens (n = 24). Sows were classified into 4 treatments based on gestation housing systems and social ranks within each gestational pen: sows housed in individual gestational crates were in control treatment (CON), and sows destined to high, middle, or low social ranks within each pen were classified into high social rank treatment (HR), middle social rank treatment (MR), and low social rank treatment (LR). The social rank of sows within a pen was determined by their winning percentage during aggressive interactions observed for a 4-d period after mixing on d 35 of gestation. Plasma samples collected from each sow on d 35, 60, 90, and 109 of gestation and d 1 and 18 of lactation were used to determine concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), IgG, and IgM. Sows in HR had higher (P gestation and lactation, smallest (P gestation, d 3 and 18 of lactation, and greater (P gestation and lactation. Collectively, the reproductive performance, oxidative stress status, and immune status did not differ between sows housed in gestational crates (CON) and pens (HR + MR + LR). Sows in CON and MR did not show inferior reproductive performance during gestation and lactation. Sows in HR and LR had increased oxidative damage during late gestation and lactation which could contribute to the reduced litter size and litter weight in HR and lower farrowing rate in LR.

  11. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  12. Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be

  13. Multidimensional ranking the design and development of U-Multirank

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegele, Frank

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades ranking has become one of the most controversial issues in higher education and research. It is widely recognized now that, although some of the current rankings can be severely criticized, they seem to be here to stay. In addition, rankings appear to have a great impact on decision-makers at all levels of higher education and research systems worldwide, including in universities. Rankings reflect a growing international competition among universities for talent and resources; at the same time they reinforce competition by their very results. Yet major concerns remain a

  14. A Centralized Inter-Cell Rank Coordination Mechanism for 5G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    Multiple transmit and receive antennas can be used to increase the number of independent streams between a transmitter-receiver pair, or to improve the interference resilience property with the help of linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE) receivers. An interference aware inter-cell rank coord...

  15. Interference Aware Inter-Cell Rank Coordination for 5G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    Multiple transmit and receive antennas can be used to increase the number of independent streams between a transmitter-receiver pair, and/or to improve the interference resilience with the help of linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE) receivers. Typically, rank adaptation algorithms aim at bal...

  16. A least square support vector machine-based approach for contingency classification and ranking in a large power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Pratap Soni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an effective supervised learning approach for static security assessment of a large power system. Supervised learning approach employs least square support vector machine (LS-SVM to rank the contingencies and predict the system severity level. The severity of the contingency is measured by two scalar performance indices (PIs: line MVA performance index (PIMVA and Voltage-reactive power performance index (PIVQ. SVM works in two steps. Step I is the estimation of both standard indices (PIMVA and PIVQ that is carried out under different operating scenarios and Step II contingency ranking is carried out based on the values of PIs. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated on IEEE 39-bus (New England system. The approach can be beneficial tool which is less time consuming and accurate security assessment and contingency analysis at energy management center.

  17. Assessment of the relationship between the output of the educational systems and the assumed effective factors in Medical Education written in Data Banks and Ranking of Iran Medical Faculties book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishmast Nehy, GhA

    2015-01-01

    Developing and expanding the universities and increasing the admission of medical students did resolve the physician shortage, but it brought down the educational quality in return. To face this problem, the administrates needed to promote the quality of education which in turn needed accurate up to date information about conditions in different universities. Information about these issues was collected by the Medical Education Council Secretariat and finally published as the Data Bank and Ranking of the Medical Faculties. Method: Although nowadays ranking is more qualitative rather than quantitative, the above ranking was done by a statistical method. In this research, the intended statistic population consisted of the data included in the database and the ranking of all 38 medical faculties. To perform this research, the ranking of faculties in the comprehensive entrance exam which indicated the input of educational system was considered the index at first, and later, the ranking of the faculties in the effective factors in education, was arranged according to the regulation of the input system; then outputs of the educational system were adjusted according to the input system and finally a comprehensive table of all the educational information was provided. Then, the relationship of various factors in education with outputs of educational system were discussed. Result: The correlations of each and all factors, which have an effective part on education were considered separately, collectively, and together, based on the information of the above book. No connection was detected within the factors, which affected the education and the output in different universities. The only relation notable was the admission degree and the outcomes of the national basic science exams. Since no meaningful connection was found within the present parameters, it seemed to be wrong to follow the path that the other sections of the world have taken in choosing the ranking factors.

  18. Assessment of the relationship between the output of the educational systems and the assumed effective factors in Medical Education written in Data Banks and Ranking of Iran Medical Faculties book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishmast Nehy, GhA

    2015-01-01

    Developing and expanding the universities and increasing the admission of medical students did resolve the physician shortage, but it brought down the educational quality in return. To face this problem, the administrates needed to promote the quality of education which in turn needed accurate up to date information about conditions in different universities. Information about these issues was collected by the Medical Education Council Secretariat and finally published as the Data Bank and Ranking of the Medical Faculties. Method: Although nowadays ranking is more qualitative rather than quantitative, the above ranking was done by a statistical method. In this research, the intended statistic population consisted of the data included in the database and the ranking of all 38 medical faculties. To perform this research, the ranking of faculties in the comprehensive entrance exam which indicated the input of educational system was considered the index at first, and later, the ranking of the faculties in the effective factors in education, was arranged according to the regulation of the input system; then outputs of the educational system were adjusted according to the input system and finally a comprehensive table of all the educational information was provided. Then, the relationship of various factors in education with outputs of educational system were discussed. Result: The correlations of each and all factors, which have an effective part on education were considered separately, collectively, and together, based on the information of the above book. No connection was detected within the factors, which affected the education and the output in different universities. The only relation notable was the admission degree and the outcomes of the national basic science exams. Since no meaningful connection was found within the present parameters, it seemed to be wrong to follow the path that the other sections of the world have taken in choosing the ranking factors

  19. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

  20. Can College Rankings Be Believed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Davis

    Full Text Available The article summarizes literature on college and university rankings worldwide and the strategies used by various ranking organizations, including those of government and popular media. It traces the history of national and global rankings, indicators used by ranking systems, and the effect of rankings on academic programs and their institutions. Although ranking systems employ diverse criteria and most weight certain indicators over others, there is considerable skepticism that most actually measure educational quality. At the same time, students and their families increasingly consult these evaluations when making college decisions, and sponsors of faculty research consider reputation when forming academic partnerships. While there are serious concerns regarding the validity of ranking institutions when so little data can support differences between one institution and another, college rankings appear to be here to stay.

  1. PageRank (II): Mathematics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maths/stats

    INTRODUCTION. PageRank is Google's system for ranking web pages. A page with a higher PageRank is deemed more important and is more likely to be listed above a ... Felix U. Ogban, Department of Mathematics/Statistics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of ..... probability, 2004, 41, (3): 721-734.

  2. Critical review of methodology and application of risk ranking for prioritisation of food and feed related issues, on the basis of the size of anticipated health impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; van Asselt, E. D.; Raley, M.

    This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies...... assessment, comparative risk assessment, risk ratio method, scoring method, cost of illness, DALY/QALY, willingness to pay, multi criteria decision analysis, risk matrix, flow charts/decision trees and expert judgment methods. Based on the characteristics of the individual methods and the method categories...... for risk ranking in the fields of feed and food safety and nutritional hazards, as well as the socio-economic field. Risk ranking methods from the environmental field were studied as well to determine whether approaches used in this field could also be applied for ranking human health risks related to feed...

  3. Reduced-Rank Shift-Invariant Technique and Its Application for Synchronization and Channel Identification in UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy RodneyA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate reduced-rank shift-invariant technique and its application for synchronization and channel identification in UWB systems. Shift-invariant techniques, such as ESPRIT and the matrix pencil method, have high resolution ability, but the associated high complexity makes them less attractive in real-time implementations. Aiming at reducing the complexity, we developed novel reduced-rank identification of principal components (RIPC algorithms. These RIPC algorithms can automatically track the principal components and reduce the computational complexity significantly by transforming the generalized eigen-problem in an original high-dimensional space to a lower-dimensional space depending on the number of desired principal signals. We then investigate the application of the proposed RIPC algorithms for joint synchronization and channel estimation in UWB systems, where general correlator-based algorithms confront many limitations. Technical details, including sampling and the capture of synchronization delay, are provided. Experimental results show that the performance of the RIPC algorithms is only slightly inferior to the general full-rank algorithms.

  4. A simplified risk-ranking system for prioritizing toxic pollution sites in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravanos, Jack; Gualtero, Sandra; Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Keith, John; Hanrahan, David; Fuller, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), chemical exposures in the environment due to hazardous waste sites and toxic pollutants are typically poorly documented and their health impacts insufficiently quantified. Furthermore, there often is only limited understanding of the health and environmental consequences of point source pollution problems, and little consensus on how to assess and rank them. The contributions of toxic environmental exposures to the global burden of disease are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to describe the simple but effective approach taken by Blacksmith Institute's Toxic Sites Identification Program to quantify and rank toxic exposures in LMICs. This system is already in use at more than 3000 sites in 48 countries such as India, Indonesia, China, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Ukraine. A hazard ranking system formula, the Blacksmith Index (BI), takes into account important factors such as the scale of the pollution source, the size of the population possibly affected, and the exposure pathways, and is designed for use reliably in low-resource settings by local personnel provided with limited training. Four representative case studies are presented, with varying locations, populations, pollutants, and exposure pathways. The BI was successfully applied to assess the extent and severity of environmental pollution problems at these sites. The BI is a risk-ranking tool that provides direct and straightforward characterization, quantification, and prioritization of toxic pollution sites in settings where time, money, or resources are limited. It will be an important and useful tool for addressing toxic pollution problems in LMICs. Although the BI does not have the sophistication of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System, the case studies presented here document the effectiveness of the BI in the field, especially in low-resource settings

  5. Implementation Issues for Departure Planning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, R. John; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul; Odoni, Amedeo

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the proposed effort is to investigate issues associated with the design and implementation of decision aiding tools to assist in improving the departure process at congested airports. This effort follows a preliminary investigation of potential Departure Planning approaches and strategies, which identified potential benefits in departure efficiency, and also in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft in the departure queue. The preliminary study bas based, in large part, on observations and analysis of departure processes at Boston, Logan airport. The objective of this follow-on effort is to address key implementation issues and to expand the observational base to include airports with different constraints and traffic demand. Specifically, the objectives of this research are to: (1) Expand the observational base to include airports with different underlying operational dynamics. (2) Develop prototype decision aiding algorithms/approaches and assess potential benefits. and (3) Investigate Human Machine Integration (HMI) issues associated with decision aids in tower environments.

  6. Verification and Validation Issues in Systems of Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Honour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cutting edge in systems development today is in the area of "systems of systems" (SoS large networks of inter-related systems that are developed and managed separately, but that also perform collective activities. Such large systems typically involve constituent systems operating with different life cycles, often with uncoordinated evolution. The result is an ever-changing SoS in which adaptation and evolution replace the older engineering paradigm of "development". This short paper presents key thoughts about verification and validation in this environment. Classic verification and validation methods rely on having (a a basis of proof, in requirements and in operational scenarios, and (b a known system configuration to be proven. However, with constant SoS evolution, management of both requirements and system configurations are problematic. Often, it is impossible to maintain a valid set of requirements for the SoS due to the ongoing changes in the constituent systems. Frequently, it is even difficult to maintain a vision of the SoS operational use as users find new ways to adapt the SoS. These features of the SoS result in significant challenges for system proof. In addition to discussing the issues, the paper also indicates some of the solutions that are currently used to prove the SoS.

  7. A Similarity-Ranking Method on Semantic Computing for Providing Information-Services in Station-Concierge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Yokoyama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smartphones and wireless broadband networks have been progressing as a new Railway infomration environment. According to the spread of such devices and information technology, various types of information can be obtained from databases connected to the Internet. One scenario of obtaining such a wide variety of information resources is in the phase of user’s transportation. This paper proposes an information provision system, named the Station Concierge System that matches the situation and intention of passengers. The purpose of this system is to estimate the needs of passengers like station staff or hotel concierge and to provide information resources that satisfy user’s expectations dynamically. The most important module of the system is constructed based on a new information ranking method for passenger intention prediction and service recommendation. This method has three main features, which are (1 projecting a user to semantic vector space by using her current context, (2 predicting the intention of a user based on selecting a semantic vector subspace, and (3 ranking the services by a descending order of relevant scores to the user’ intention. By comparing the predicted results of our method with those of two straightforward computation methods, the experimental studies show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Using this system, users can obtain transit information and service map that dynamically matches their context.

  8. Manifold ranking based scoring system with its application to cardiac arrest prediction: A retrospective study in emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianchi; Lin, Zhiping; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Koh, Zhi Xiong; Pek, Pin Pin; Yeo, Yong Kiang; Oh, Beom-Seok; Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Liu, Nan

    2015-12-01

    The recently developed geometric distance scoring system has shown the effectiveness of scoring systems in predicting cardiac arrest within 72h and the potential to predict other clinical outcomes. However, the geometric distance scoring system predicts scores based on only local structure embedded by the data, thus leaving much room for improvement in terms of prediction accuracy. We developed a novel scoring system for predicting cardiac arrest within 72h. The scoring system was developed based on a semi-supervised learning algorithm, manifold ranking, which explores both the local and global consistency of the data. System evaluation was conducted on emergency department patients׳ data, including both vital signs and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. Comparison of the proposed scoring system with previous work was given in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV). Out of 1025 patients, 52 (5.1%) met the primary outcome. Experimental results show that the proposed scoring system was able to achieve higher area under the curve (AUC) on both the balanced dataset (0.907 vs. 0.824) and the imbalanced dataset (0.774 vs. 0.734) compared to the geometric distance scoring system. The proposed scoring system improved the prediction accuracy by utilizing the global consistency of the training data. We foresee the potential of extending this scoring system, as well as manifold ranking algorithm, to other medical decision making problems. Furthermore, we will investigate the parameter selection process and other techniques to improve performance on the imbalanced dataset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Some Issues on Management Information System Course Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dingquan

    2008-01-01

    This paper discuses the following issues about Management Information System course for the major of information management & Information System: Teaching Object, the difference between Information System Analysis and Design course, teaching content, and experiment plan.

  10. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-10

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  11. Multiplex PageRank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Halu

    Full Text Available Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  12. Multiplex PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  13. Urolithiasis and Genitourinary Systems Issues for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Pietryzk, Robert; Sams, C.; Stepaniak, Phillip; Whitson, P.

    2008-09-01

    Genitourinary medical events have shown to be an issue for both short duration and long duration spaceflight, and are anticipated to also be a potential issue for future exploration missions as well. This is based on actual historical pre-, in- and post-flight medical events, as well as assessment of what future flight challenges lay ahead. For this study, retrospective record review, as well as prospective studies of ultrasound and contingency management procedure development, and oral urinary stone prophylaxis were conducted. Results showed that the incidence of prior urinary calculi in- and post-flight was a risk driver for development of on-orbit countermeasures, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic methods for a possible in-flight calculus contingency. Oral potassium citrate and bisphosphonate preparations show promise for prophylaxis in spaceflight risk reduction. We conclude that a properly developed approach of selection, monitoring, and preventive medicine with effective countermeasures, along with early imaging diagnosis and minimally-invasive contingency intervention, should prevent issues such as urinary calculi from having a significant mission impact for exploration-class spaceflight.

  14. Critical review of methodology and application of risk ranking for prioritisation of food and feed related issues, on the basis of the size of anticipated health impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.; Raley, M.; Poulsen, M.; Korsgaard, H.; Bredsdorff, L.; Nauta, M.; Flari, V.; Agostino, D' M.; Coles, D.G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies for

  15. Avoidance and Engagement: Issue Competition in Multiparty Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Pedersen, Christoffer; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    A substantial literature claims that political parties compete over issues by selectively emphasizing favorable issues and avoiding issues emphasized by their opponents. In recent years, this understanding of issue competition has been challenged by empirical studies showing issue engagement to b...... of parties from their own party family than to the issue agendas of non-family parties and that large mainstream parties are more responsive than niche parties to the common issue agenda of the other parties in the party system.......A substantial literature claims that political parties compete over issues by selectively emphasizing favorable issues and avoiding issues emphasized by their opponents. In recent years, this understanding of issue competition has been challenged by empirical studies showing issue engagement...... to be the rule rather than the exception. To move the discussion beyond the descriptive question about degree of issue avoidance or issue engagement, this article offers a theoretical framework of issue competition that addresses central but hitherto neglected questions about which parties respond to which...

  16. Development of a multi-criteria index ranking system for urban runoff best management practices (BMPs) selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Yao, Hairong; Tang, Ying; Yu, Shaw L; Zhen, Jenny X; Lu, Yuwen

    2013-09-01

    Low impact development best management practices (LID-BMPs) are considered to be cost-effective measures for mitigating the water quantity and quality impact of urban runoff. Currently, there are many types of LID-BMPs, and each type has its own intrinsic technical and/or economical characteristics and limitations for implementation. The selection of the most appropriate BMP type(s) for a specific installation site is therefore a very important planning step. In the present study, a multi-criteria selection index system (MCIS) for LID-BMP planning was developed. The selection indexes include 12 first-level indices and 26 second-level indices which reflect the specific installation site characteristics pertaining to site suitability, runoff control performance, and economics of implementation. A mechanism for ranking the BMPs was devised. First, each individual second-level index was assigned a numeric value that was based on site characteristics and information on LID-BMPs. The quantified indices were normalized and then integrated to obtain the score for each of the first-level index. The final evaluation scores of each LID-BMP were then calculated based on the scores for the first-level indices. Finally, the appropriate BMP types for a specific installation site were determined according to the rank of the final evaluation scores. In order to facilitate the application of the MCIS BMP ranking system, the computational process has been coded into a software program, BMPSELEC. A case study demonstrating the MCIS methodology, using an LID-BMP implementation planning at a college campus in Foshan, Guangdong Province, is presented.

  17. An Impossible Dream? The Efficacy of Using Rankings to Improve the Perception of a Non-OECD Country's Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Chris J.

    2008-01-01

    Rankings have an increasing impact on higher education. Regardless of their true ability to judge a university's success or failure, rankings are used by students, their families, and, increasingly, policy makers to define the quality of institutions. Rankings have gone beyond comparisons among universities within individual countries: Today, they…

  18. Issues in Big-Data Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    be needed, perhaps with the help of an Extract-Transform- Load ( ETL ) system, but there are no major conceptual problems. A somewhat more difficult...attribute for the degree of electric assist in the motor. Data may need to be restructured (again, with the help of an ETL system). There may also be...interactions with external sources were a top-level design goal. 4.3 Data Integration Many ETL systems, data cleaning suites, and ad hoc

  19. Power System Event Ranking Using a New Linear Parameter-Varying Modeling with a Wide Area Measurement System-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Abolhasani Jabali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Detecting critical power system events for Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA is required for reliability improvement. The approach proposed in this paper investigates the effects of events on dynamic behavior during nonlinear system response while common approaches use steady-state conditions after events. This paper presents some new and enhanced indices for event ranking based on time-domain simulation and polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV modeling of a power system. In the proposed approach, a polytopic LPV representation is generated via linearization about some points of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of power system using wide-area measurement system (WAMS concepts and then event ranking is done based on the frequency response of the system models on the vertices. Therefore, the nonlinear behaviors of the system in the time of fault occurrence are considered for events ranking. The proposed algorithm is applied to a power system using nonlinear simulation. The comparison of the results especially in different fault conditions shows the advantages of the proposed approach and indices.

  20. Novel Ranking System for Identifying Efficacious Anti-Influenza Virus PB2 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alice W; McNeil, Colleen F; Leeman, Joshua R; Bennett, Hamilton B; Nti-Addae, Kwame; Huang, Cassey; Germann, Ursula A; Byrn, Randal A; Berlioz-Seux, Francoise; Rijnbrand, Rene; Clark, Michael P; Charifson, Paul S; Jones, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    Through antigenic drift and shifts, influenza virus infections continue to be an annual cause of morbidity in healthy populations and of death among elderly and at-risk patients. The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 and H7N9 and the rapid spread of the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 demonstrate the continued need for effective therapeutic agents for influenza. While several neuraminidase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of influenza virus infections, these have shown a limited window for treatment initiation, and resistant variants have been noted in the population. In addition, an older class of antiviral drugs for influenza, the adamantanes, are no longer recommended for treatment due to widespread resistance. There remains a need for new influenza therapeutic agents with improved efficacy as well as an expanded window for the initiation of treatment. Azaindole compounds targeting the influenza A virus PB2 protein and demonstrating excellent in vitro and in vivo properties have been identified. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of these PB2 inhibitors, we utilized a mouse influenza A virus infection model. In addition to traditional endpoints, i.e., death, morbidity, and body weight loss, we measured lung function using whole-body plethysmography, and we used these data to develop a composite efficacy score that takes compound exposure into account. This model allowed the rapid identification and ranking of molecules relative to each other and to oseltamivir. The ability to identify compounds with enhanced preclinical properties provides an opportunity to develop more-effective treatments for influenza in patients. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Application of fuzzy-MOORA method: Ranking of components for reliability estimation of component-based software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Component-based software system (CBSS development technique is an emerging discipline that promises to take software development into a new era. As hardware systems are presently being constructed from kits of parts, software systems may also be assembled from components. It is more reliable to reuse software than to create. It is the glue code and individual components reliability that contribute to the reliability of the overall system. Every component contributes to overall system reliability according to the number of times it is being used, some components are of critical usage, known as usage frequency of component. The usage frequency decides the weight of each component. According to their weights, each component contributes to the overall reliability of the system. Therefore, ranking of components may be obtained by analyzing their reliability impacts on overall application. In this paper, we propose the application of fuzzy multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis, Fuzzy-MOORA. The method helps us find the best suitable alternative, software component, from a set of available feasible alternatives named software components. It is an accurate and easy to understand tool for solving multi-criteria decision making problems that have imprecise and vague evaluation data. By the use of ratio analysis, the proposed method determines the most suitable alternative among all possible alternatives, and dimensionless measurement will realize the job of ranking of components for estimating CBSS reliability in a non-subjective way. Finally, three case studies are shown to illustrate the use of the proposed technique.

  2. Usability issues in Learning Management Systems (LMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Maria Isabella de Porto Alegre; Moraes, Anamaria de

    2012-01-01

    This project is about the usability of Learning Management Systems (LMS), focusing on the specific case of the open source system Moodle. Specifically, this project is about communication and collaboration tools that are used by teachers on the system. This study investigates whether usability problems hamper the use teachers make of these tools. Focused interviews were conducted with professionals working in distance education and the answers of the respondents were subjected to techniques of content analysis in order to obtain data for developing the tools needed to prove the hypothesis.

  3. RFID systems in medical environment: EMC issues

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Chimeno, Mireya; Silva Martínez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    RFID is a promising technology in the healthcare area in order to improve patient safety and increase efficiency and reduce costs in the daily healthcare work. This paper analyzes the available literature regarding both interference of RFID systems in medical equipment and the interferences of medical equipment on RFID systems. The conclusion of this analysis is that is necessary to develop standards in order to protect medical equipment from RFID interferences, and standards to plan...

  4. Efficient volatile metal removal from low rank coal in gasification, combustion, and processing systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Alan E.; Sellakumar, Kumar Muthusami; Newcomer, Jesse D.

    2017-03-21

    Efficient coal pre-processing systems (69) integrated with gasification, oxy-combustion, and power plant systems include a drying chamber (28), a volatile metal removal chamber (30), recirculated gases, including recycled carbon dioxide (21), nitrogen (6), and gaseous exhaust (60) for increasing the efficiencies and lowering emissions in various coal processing systems.

  5. Development of archetypes for non-ranking classification and comparison of European National Health Technology Assessment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicola; Pichler, Franz; Wang, Tina; Patel, Sundip; Salek, Sam

    2013-12-01

    European countries are increasingly utilising health technology assessment (HTA) to inform reimbursement decision-making. However, the current European HTA environment is very diverse, and projects are already underway to initiate a more efficient and aligned HTA practice within Europe. This study aims to identify a non-ranking method for classifying the diversity of European HTA agencies process and the organisational architecture of the national regulatory review to reimbursement systems. Using a previously developed mapping methodology, this research created process maps to describe national processes for regulatory review to reimbursement for 33 European jurisdictions. These process maps enabled the creation of 2 HTA taxonomic sets. The confluence of the two taxonomic sets was subsequently cross-referenced to identify 10 HTA archetype groups. HTA is a young, rapidly evolving field and it can be argued that optimal practices for performing HTA are yet to emerge. Therefore, a non-ranking classification approach could objectively characterise and compare the diversity observed in the current European HTA environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Validation and ranking of established staging-systems in a large western HCC-cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark op den Winkel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCC is diagnosed in approximately half a million people per year, worldwide. Staging is a more complex issue than in most other cancer entities and, mainly due to unique geographic characteristics of the disease, no universally accepted staging system exists to date. Focusing on survival rates we analyzed demographic, etiological, clinical, laboratory and tumor characteristics of HCC-patients in our institution and applied the common staging systems. Furthermore we aimed at identifying the most suitable of the current staging systems for predicting survival. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 405 patients with HCC were identified from an electronic medical record database. The following seven staging systems were applied and ranked according to their ability to predict survival by using the Akaike information criterion (AIC and the concordance-index (c-index: BCLC, CLIP, GETCH, JIS, Okuda, TNM and Child-Pugh. Separately, every single variable of each staging system was tested for prognostic meaning in uni- and multivariate analysis. Alcoholic cirrhosis (44.4% was the leading etiological factor followed by viral hepatitis C (18.8%. Median survival was 18.1 months (95%-CI: 15.2-22.2. Ascites, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, AFP, number of tumor nodes and the BCLC tumor extension remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Overall, all of the tested staging systems showed a reasonable discriminatory ability. CLIP (closely followed by JIS was the top-ranked score in terms of prognostic capability with the best values of the AIC and c-index (AIC 2286, c-index 0.71, surpassing other established staging systems like BCLC (AIC 2343, c-index 0.66. The unidimensional scores TNM (AIC 2342, c-index 0.64 and Child-Pugh (AIC 2369, c-index 0.63 performed in an inferior fashion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with six other staging systems, the CLIP-score was identified as the most suitable staging system for

  7. Neophilia Ranking of Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packalen, Mikko; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The ranking of scientific journals is important because of the signal it sends to scientists about what is considered most vital for scientific progress. Existing ranking systems focus on measuring the influence of a scientific paper (citations)—these rankings do not reward journals for publishing innovative work that builds on new ideas. We propose an alternative ranking based on the proclivity of journals to publish papers that build on new ideas, and we implement this ranking via a text-based analysis of all published biomedical papers dating back to 1946. In addition, we compare our neophilia ranking to citation-based (impact factor) rankings; this comparison shows that the two ranking approaches are distinct. Prior theoretical work suggests an active role for our neophilia index in science policy. Absent an explicit incentive to pursue novel science, scientists underinvest in innovative work because of a coordination problem: for work on a new idea to flourish, many scientists must decide to adopt it in their work. Rankings that are based purely on influence thus do not provide sufficient incentives for publishing innovative work. By contrast, adoption of the neophilia index as part of journal-ranking procedures by funding agencies and university administrators would provide an explicit incentive for journals to publish innovative work and thus help solve the coordination problem by increasing scientists' incentives to pursue innovative work. PMID:28713181

  8. Design of a fuzzy ranking system for admission processes in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was used to evaluate candidates' credentials and every other determinant factor for admitting students. The results showed each candidate's chances of admission, while the system minimized the level of subjectivity in decision making. Keywords: Fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence, decision making, fuzzy inference system ...

  9. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin.

  10. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  11. Global Rankings, World-Class Universities and Dilemma in Higher Education Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2016-01-01

    Global university rankings and world-class universities have become buzzwords almost in every country. Both exercise positive and not-so-positive impact on higher education systems. Universities everywhere are trying hard to improve their status and global rankings. The article reviews some of the important issues related to these two strongly…

  12. Profiling Universities, Not Only Ranking Them: Maximising the Information of Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Three university ranking systems in vogue have been shown in the previous issue of "Higher Education Review" to be capable of modifications to make them more parsimonious by using only about half of the number of predictors currently in use. This makes some of the predictors "redundant" as they contributed little to the overall ranking. It is…

  13. Critical issues in process control system security : DHS spares project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Jacquelynne; McIntyre, Annie; Henrie, Morgan

    2010-10-01

    The goals of this event are: (1) Discuss the next-generation issues and emerging risks in cyber security for control systems; (2) Review and discuss common control system architectures; (3) Discuss the role of policy, standards, and supply chain issues; (4) Interact to determine the most pertinent risks and most critical areas of the architecture; and (5) Merge feedback from Control System Managers, Engineers, IT, and Auditors.

  14. Pilot Implementation of Health Information Systems: Issues and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen Peter; Havn, Erling C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to explore the issues and challenges involved in designing and organizing pilot implementations of health information systems (HIS). Pilot implementations are a widely used approach for identifying design flaws and implementation issues before full-scale deployment...... of conventional implementations; they are fundamentally different and they have their own complications and issues to deal with that make them hard to design and manage....

  15. A Semi-Preemptive Computational Service System with Limited Resources and Dynamic Resource Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yie Leu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we integrate a grid system and a wireless network to present a convenient computational service system, called the Semi-Preemptive Computational Service system (SePCS for short, which provides users with a wireless access environment and through which a user can share his/her resources with others. In the SePCS, each node is dynamically given a score based on its CPU level, available memory size, current length of waiting queue, CPU utilization and bandwidth. With the scores, resource nodes are classified into three levels. User requests based on their time constraints are also classified into three types. Resources of higher levels are allocated to more tightly constrained requests so as to increase the total performance of the system. To achieve this, a resource broker with the Semi-Preemptive Algorithm (SPA is also proposed. When the resource broker cannot find suitable resources for the requests of higher type, it preempts the resource that is now executing a lower type request so that the request of higher type can be executed immediately. The SePCS can be applied to a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET, users of which can then exploit the convenient mobile network services and the wireless distributed computing. As a result, the performance of the system is higher than that of the tested schemes.

  16. Decision-Oriented Project Ranking for Asset Management System: Rail Net Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Timm, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    resulting in priority indices for the state-of-repair data. This paper is disposed as follows; firstly, a description of the Asset Management system is set-up including an overview of the state-of-repair data and the case study. Secondly, is the AMS-PM software model implemented through an exploratory case......The Danish rail net operator, Rail Net Denmark, has through the past years built up an Asset Management system, containing a certain percentile of all the company’s assets. This paper contains an elaborate overview on how to strengthen the system seen from a decision-support perspective. The focus...... study and finally conclusions and a perspective are given....

  17. The effect of discrete vs. continuous-valued ratings on reputation and ranking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medo, Matúš; Rushton Wakeling, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    When users rate objects, a sophisticated algorithm that takes into account ability or reputation may produce a fairer or more accurate aggregation of ratings than the straightforward arithmetic average. Recently a number of authors have proposed different co-determination algorithms where estimates of user and object reputation are refined iteratively together, permitting accurate measures of both to be derived directly from the rating data. However, simulations demonstrating these methods' efficacy assumed a continuum of rating values, consistent with typical physical modelling practice, whereas in most actual rating systems only a limited range of discrete values (such as a 5-star system) is employed. We perform a comparative test of several co-determination algorithms with different scales of discrete ratings and show that this seemingly minor modification in fact has a significant impact on algorithms' performance. Paradoxically, where rating resolution is low, increased noise in users' ratings may even improve the overall performance of the system.

  18. Credit Delivery Systems In Rural Nigeria: Issues And Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource mobilization and distribution for the development of backward areas has remained a critical issue in the Nigerian nation in recent times. This paper takes a look on Credit Deliver Systems in rural Nigeria: Issues and Implication for rural transformation. Attempt is made to examine the available credit delivery ...

  19. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  20. A New Measurement and Ranking System for the UK National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, John

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous criticisms of the UK National Student Survey (NSS) institutional managers still strongly support its use in informing student choice, quality and assurance and quality enhancement activities. This article outlines a granular and nuanced benchmarking system for the NSS which provides both a "raw" score (weighted student…

  1. A System Dynamics Simulation Model for a Four-Rank Military Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    bullwhip effect [31, 32] encountered in supply chain management [15, 33]. A supply chain is simply defined as ‘the set of structures and processes an...Training System (unpublished). 2006. 31. Lee, H.L., V. Padmanabhan, and S. Whang, The Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains . Sloan Management Review, 1997...research is still ongoing to explore various techniques to mitigate or eliminate the instability in the management of business

  2. Asset ranking manager (ranking index of components)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, S.M.; Engle, A.M.; Morgan, T.A. [Applied Reliability, Maracor Software and Engineering (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The Ranking Index of Components (RIC) is an Asset Reliability Manager (ARM), which itself is a Web Enabled front end where plant database information fields from several disparate databases are combined. That information is used to create a specific weighted number (Ranking Index) relating to that components health and risk to the site. The higher the number, the higher priority that any work associated with that component receives. ARM provides site Engineering, Maintenance and Work Control personnel with a composite real time - (current condition) look at the components 'risk of not working' to the plant. Information is extracted from the existing Computerized Maintenance management System (CMMS) and specific site applications and processed nightly. ARM helps to ensure that the most important work is placed into the workweeks and the non value added work is either deferred, frequency changed or deleted. This information is on the web, updated each night, and available for all employees to use. This effort assists the work management specialist when allocating limited resources to the most important work. The use of this tool has maximized resource usage, performing the most critical work with available resources. The ARM numbers are valued inputs into work scoping for the workweek managers. System and Component Engineers are using ARM to identify the components that are at 'risk of failure' and therefore should be placed into the appropriate work week schedule.

  3. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  4. PageRank tracker: from ranking to tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Fu, Keren; Loza, Artur; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Video object tracking is widely used in many real-world applications, and it has been extensively studied for over two decades. However, tracking robustness is still an issue in most existing methods, due to the difficulties with adaptation to environmental or target changes. In order to improve adaptability, this paper formulates the tracking process as a ranking problem, and the PageRank algorithm, which is a well-known webpage ranking algorithm used by Google, is applied. Labeled and unlabeled samples in tracking application are analogous to query webpages and the webpages to be ranked, respectively. Therefore, determining the target is equivalent to finding the unlabeled sample that is the most associated with existing labeled set. We modify the conventional PageRank algorithm in three aspects for tracking application, including graph construction, PageRank vector acquisition and target filtering. Our simulations with the use of various challenging public-domain video sequences reveal that the proposed PageRank tracker outperforms mean-shift tracker, co-tracker, semiboosting and beyond semiboosting trackers in terms of accuracy, robustness and stability.

  5. Information Systems Management: an Australasian view of key issues - 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a longitudinal study of key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by the IS executives as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The most critical issues were revealed to be a mix of technology management issues (IT infrastructure, communications, disaster recovery, strategic management issues (competitive advantage, IS planning, aligning the IS organisation, people management issues (organisational learning, educating senior management in IT, systems development and data management issues (effective use of the data resource, and end-user computing. This reflects the need for a balance of business, technical, and people skills in an IS executive. Non-critical issues were mostly related to systems development and the individual technologies which must be integrated and managed to ensure a responsive IT infrastructure. The study also reveals that some issues are much more important than problematic (disaster recovery, competitive advantage, information architecture, and IS alignment while others are much more problematic than important (end-user computing, IS role and contribution, and BPR. The former reflects a growing level of knowledge in handling these issues, while the latter reflects a continuing problem with them. The differences between this study and similar studies conducted in 1988 and 1992 show that there is a growing confidence in the IS executive's ability to manage the strategic issues, a continuing concern about providing a responsive IT infrastructure (especially communications, and a continuing concern with educating all 'customers' in the organisation in the effective use of IT, including senior management.

  6. Ranking library materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses ranking factors suitable for library materials and shows that ranking in general is a complex process and that ranking for library materials requires a variety of techniques. Design/methodology/approach: The relevant literature is reviewed to provide a systematic overview of suitable ranking factors. The discussion is based on an overview of ranking factors used in Web search engines. Findings: While there are a wide variety of ranking factors appl...

  7. Ranking sources of hospital quality information for orthopedic surgery patients: consequences for the system of managed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes, Romy Evelien; van den Berg, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare quality information is crucial for the system of managed competition. Within a system of managed competition, health insurers can selectively contract care providers and are allowed to channel patients towards contracted providers. The idea is that insurers have a stronger bargaining position compared to care providers when they are able to channel patients. In the Dutch system of managed competition that was implemented in 2006, channelling patients to preferred providers has not yet been very successful. Empirical knowledge of which sources of hospital quality information they find important may help us to understand how to channel patients to preferred providers. The objective of this survey was to measure how patients rank various sources of information when they compare hospital quality in a system of managed competition. A written survey was conducted among clients of a large Dutch health insurance company. These clients underwent orthopedic surgery on the hip or knee no longer than 12 months ago. Two major players within a system of managed competition-health insurers and the government-were not seen as important sources of hospital quality information. In contrast, own experience and general practitioners (GPs) were seen as the most important sources of hospital quality information within the Dutch system of managed competition. Health insurers should take the main finding-that GPs are the most important source of hospital quality information-into account when they contract care providers and develop strategies for channeling patients towards preferred providers. A well-functioning system of managed competition will benefit patients, as it involves incentives for care providers to increase healthcare quality and to produce at the lowest cost per unit of quality.

  8. Comparative ranking of 0. 1 to 10 MW(e) solar thermal electric power systems. Volume I. Summary of results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kowalik, J.S.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1 to 10 MW(e), operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW(e), a range that is attractive to industrial and other non-utility applications. This volume summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 10 MW(e). Volume II presents data on performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  9. Software Engineering Issues for Cyber-Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) provide many smart features for enhancing physical processes. These systems are designed with a set of distributed hardware, software, and network components that are embedded in physical systems and environments or attached to humans. Together they function seamlessly...... is not a trivial task. This paper provides an overview discussion of software engineering issues related to the analysis, design, development, verification and validation, and quality assurance of CPS software. Some of these issues are related to the nature/type of CPS while others are related to the complexity...... of the software development processes used to develop such systems....

  10. Pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine-disrupting chemicals in U.S. surface and finished drinking waters: a proposed ranking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2010-11-01

    This study developed a comprehensive ranking system, for the first time as per authors' knowledge, for prioritizing the monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (together termed as EOCs, hereafter; a total of 100 EOCs considered) in U.S. stream water/source water and finished drinking water (termed as "EOCRank," hereafter). The EOCRank system was developed using a total of 4 criteria: (1) occurrence, (2) treatment in drinking water treatment plants, (3) ecological effects, and (4) health effects and characterized using 7 attributes: prevalence, frequency of detection, removal, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity (for fish, daphnid, and algae aquatic indicator species), pregnancy effects, and health effects. The health effects attribute was characterized using 7 sub-attributes: carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, impairment of fertility, central nervous system acting, endocrine effects, immunotoxicity, and developmental effects. Rank scores of EOCs were calculated as summations of multiplications of importance weights and utility functions of multiple criteria and were arranged to highlight EOCs needing immediate attention. Two different ranking lists of EOCs were developed for U.S. finished drinking water and stream water/source water and observed to differ with each other, indicating the effect of water type on ranking of EOCs. A ranking list of priority EOCs, developed using a particular criterion, was observed to differ with that, developed using multiple criteria. Health effects and treatment criteria were observed to be important criteria influencing overall data gap rank scores and need further data collection. The generalized nature of the system could be customized for specific geographical locations (occurrence information and importance weights of different components). The developed database of the EOCRank system is available on: http://www.egr.msu.edu/~xagorara/research.html). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES IN THE LOOP OF THE WORLD EDUCATION RANKINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtseva Ekaterina Sergeevna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: a research on different sociological and economic aspects of world education rankings (THE, ARWU, QS, evaluation of their role and impact on the world education market’s main consumers (i.e. students and academic staff as a subject to discussion in terms of the customers’ preferences and choice motivators. Methodology: general scientific research tools were applied throughout the research: analysis, synthesis, deduction. Results: world ranking approach and methodology was assessed, defined and systemized, a unique general ranking of the countries was developed and performed (based on the researched body – the US ranked #1, Russia #30, expert recommendations for Russian universities have been developed and concluded. Practical implications: the main statements could be used within learning courses on the internationalization of higher education and applied in sociological and economic research dedicated to macroeconomic problems and issues analysis.

  12. RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES IN THE LOOP OF THE WORLD EDUCATION RANKINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Сергеевна Иноземцева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: a research on different sociological and economic aspects of world education rankings (THE, ARWU, QS, evaluation of their role and impact on the world education market’s main consumers (i.e. students and academic staff as a subject to discussion in terms of the customers’ preferences and choice motivators.  Methodology: general scientific research tools were applied throughout the research: analysis, synthesis, deduction.Results: world ranking approach and methodology was assessed, defined and systemized, a unique general ranking of the countries was developed and performed (based on the researched body – the US ranked #1, Russia #30, expert recommendations for Russian universities have been developed and concluded.Practical implications: the main statements could be used within learning courses on the internationalization of higher education and applied in sociological and economic research dedicated to macroeconomic problems and issues analysis.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-18

  13. University ranking methodologies. An interview with Ben Sowter about the Quacquarelli Symonds World University Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Baccini; Antono Banfi; Giuseppe De Nicolao; Paola Galimberti

    2015-01-01

    University rankings represent a controversial issue in the debate about higher education policy. One of the best known university ranking is the Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings (QS), published annually since 2004 by Quacquarelli Symonds ltd, a company founded in 1990 and headquartered in London. QS provides a ranking based on a score calculated by weighting six different indicators. The 2015 edition, published in October 2015, introduced major methodological innovations and, as...

  14. Raloxifene pharmacodynamics is influenced by genetic variants in the RANKL/RANK/OPG system and in the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencej-Bedrač, Simona; Zupan, Janja; Mlakar, Simona Jurković; Zavratnik, Andrej; Preželj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2014-01-01

    Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator (SERM) used for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, its efficacy and also its safety vary greatly among treated patients, and it might be influenced by the individuals' genetic background. As the receptor activator of the nuclear factor κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system is essential for osteoclastogensis and Wnt signaling pathway for osteoblastogenesis, we decided to evaluate the raloxifene treatment in regard to selected polymorphisms in key genes of these two main bone regulatory pathways. Fifty-six osteoporotic postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene were genotyped for 11 polymorphisms located in six genes: -290C>T, -643C>T, and -693G>C in tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11), +34694C>T, +34901G>A, and +35966insdelC in tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11A (TNFRSF11A), K3N and 245T>G in tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B (TNFRSF11B), A1330V in LRP5, I1062V in LRP6, and -1397_-1396insGGA in SOST. For evaluation of treatment efficacy, bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured. One-year change in total hip BMD was associated with +34901G>A in TNFRSF11A (p=0.040), whereas, for lumbar spine BMD, the association was shown for -1397_-1396insGGA in SOST (p=0.015). C-terminal crosslinking telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) concentrations showed significant association with -643C>T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TNFSF11 (p=0.049) and +34694C>T in TNFRSF11A (p=0.022). No other association was found between 1-year change in BMDs or biochemical markers and the studied SNPs. We have shown that, in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with raloxifene, the efficacy of raloxifene treatment might be influenced by +34901G>A in TNFRSF11A gene and -1397_-1396insGGA in the SOST gene as well as -643C>T in TNFSF11 gene and +34694C>T in TNFRSF11A gene. However, these findings

  15. A Computer-Aided Bibliometrics System for Journal Citation Analysis and Departmental Core Journal Ranking List Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Chearng Shiue

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the tremendous increase and variation in serial publications, faculties in department of university are finding it difficult to generate and update their departmental core journal list regularly and accurately, and libraries are finding it difficult to maintain their current serial collection for different departments. Therefore, the evaluation of a departmental core journal list is an important task for departmental faculties and librarians. A departmental core journal list not only helps departments understand research performances of faculties and students, but also helps librarians make decisions about which journals to retain and which to cancel. In this study, a Computer-Aided Bibliometrics System was implemented and two methodologies (JCDF and LibJF were proposed in order to generate a departmental core journal ranking list and make the journal citation analysis. Six departments were taken as examples, with MIS as the major one. One journal citation pattern was found and the ratio of Turning point-to-No. journal was always around 0.07 among the 10 journals and 6 departments. After comparing with four methodologies via overlapping rate and standard deviation distances, the two proposed methodologies were shown to be better than questionnaire and library subscription method.

  16. Understanding Visitors’ Responses to Intelligent Transportation System in a Tourist City with a Mixed Ranked Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One important function of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS applied in tourist cities is to improve visitors’ mobility by releasing real-time transportation information and then shifting tourists from individual vehicles to intelligent public transit. The objective of this research is to quantify visitors’ psychological and behavioral responses to tourism-related ITS. Designed with a Mixed Ranked Logit Model (MRLM with random coefficients that was capable of evaluating potential effects from information uncertainty and other relevant factors on tourists’ transport choices, an on-site and a subsequent web-based stated preference survey were conducted in a representative tourist city (Chengde, China. Simulated maximum-likelihood procedure was used to estimate random coefficients. Results indicate that tourists generally perceive longer travel time and longer wait time if real-time information is not available. ITS information is able to reduce tourists’ perceived uncertainty and stimulating transport modal shifts. This novel MRLM contributes a new derivation model to logit model family and for the first time proposes an applicable methodology to assess useful features of ITS for tourists.

  17. Hazard ranking system evaluation of CERCLA inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 2: Engineered-facility sites (HISS data base)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.; Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the assessment activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that address the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program for the cleanup of inactive waste sites. The DOE orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. This methodology includes: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the Hazard Ranking System methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 13 refs.

  18. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  19. Universal scaling in sports ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weibing; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu; Bulou, Alain; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2012-09-01

    Ranking is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human society. On the web pages of Forbes, one may find all kinds of rankings, such as the world's most powerful people, the world's richest people, the highest-earning tennis players, and so on and so forth. Herewith, we study a specific kind—sports ranking systems in which players' scores and/or prize money are accrued based on their performances in different matches. By investigating 40 data samples which span 12 different sports, we find that the distributions of scores and/or prize money follow universal power laws, with exponents nearly identical for most sports. In order to understand the origin of this universal scaling we focus on the tennis ranking systems. By checking the data we find that, for any pair of players, the probability that the higher-ranked player tops the lower-ranked opponent is proportional to the rank difference between the pair. Such a dependence can be well fitted to a sigmoidal function. By using this feature, we propose a simple toy model which can simulate the competition of players in different matches. The simulations yield results consistent with the empirical findings. Extensive simulation studies indicate that the model is quite robust with respect to the modifications of some parameters.

  20. Universal scaling in sports ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Weibing; Cai, Xu; Bulou, Alain; Wang, Qiuping A

    2011-01-01

    Ranking is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the human society. By clicking the web pages of Forbes, you may find all kinds of rankings, such as world's most powerful people, world's richest people, top-paid tennis stars, and so on and so forth. Herewith, we study a specific kind, sports ranking systems in which players' scores and prize money are calculated based on their performances in attending various tournaments. A typical example is tennis. It is found that the distributions of both scores and prize money follow universal power laws, with exponents nearly identical for most sports fields. In order to understand the origin of this universal scaling we focus on the tennis ranking systems. By checking the data we find that, for any pair of players, the probability that the higher-ranked player will top the lower-ranked opponent is proportional to the rank difference between the pair. Such a dependence can be well fitted to a sigmoidal function. By using this feature, we propose a simple toy model which can simul...

  1. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

  2. A classification and ranking system on the H2 gas sensing capabilities of nanomaterials based on proposed coefficients of sensor performance and sensor efficiency equations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwakikunga, BW

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors and Actuators B 184 (2013) 170– 178 A classification and ranking system on the H2 gas sensing capabilities of nanomaterials based on proposed coefficients of sensor performance and sensor efficiency equations Bonex W. Mwakikungaa,b,∗, Sarah...

  3. NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration, Continuum Magazine: Issue 4 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    Continuum Magazine showcases NREL's latest and most impactful clean energy innovations. This issue, 'NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration' explores the discipline of energy systems integration, in particular the role of the laboratory's new, one-of-a-kind Energy System Integration Facility. NREL scientists, engineers, and analysts deeply understand the fundamental science and technologies underpinning major energy producing and consuming systems, as well as the transmission infrastructure and communications and data networks required to integrate energy systems at all scales.

  4. The Privilege of Ranking: Google Plays Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of ranking systems used in various settings, including college football and academic admissions, focuses on the Google search engine. Explains the PageRank mathematical formula that scores Web pages by connecting the number of links; limitations, including authenticity and accuracy of ranked Web pages; relevancy; adjusting algorithms;…

  5. Methodology, Meaning and Usefulness of Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ross

    2008-01-01

    University rankings are having a profound effect on both higher education systems and individual universities. In this paper we outline these effects, discuss the desirable characteristics of a good ranking methodology and document existing practice, with an emphasis on the two main international rankings (Shanghai Jiao Tong and THES-QS). We take…

  6. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating e...... eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We give a number of different applications to regression and time series analysis, and show how the reduced rank regression estimator can be derived as a Gaussian maximum likelihood estimator. We briefly mention asymptotic results......The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  7. The RANKL/RANK system as a therapeutic target for bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimi, Eijiro; Shin, Masashi; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Tada, Yukiyo; Kusukawa, Jingo

    2013-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the gingiva frequently invade the mandible or maxilla; this invasion is associated with a worse prognosis. The bone destruction associated with carcinomal invasion is mediated by osteoclasts rather than directly by the carcinoma. Therefore, if the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which oral SCC regulates bone invasion were known, it could inform the development of new therapeutic targets. Recently, dysregulation of the functional equilibrium in the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) triad has been shown to be responsible for osteolysis associated with the development of malignant tumors in bone sites. Furthermore, the administration of OPG or soluble RANK prevents bone metastasis by cancer cells. In this review, we discuss recent findings indicating that bone invasion by oral SCC is mediated via RANKL/RANK and may be successfully prevented by RANKL inhibition.

  8. The Apprenticeship System in Canada: Trends and Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sharpe; James Gibson

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the trends and issues related to the apprenticeship system in Canada. It first discusses theoretical perspectives on apprenticeship, then reviews the institutional features of apprenticeship systems in Canada and in other countries. The report concludes that the market for apprenticeship is principally constrained by employer demand rather than by the supply of potential apprentices. Consequently, it proposes reforms based on three main principles: apprenti...

  9. Key issues and technical route of cyber physical distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P. X.; Chen, B.; Zheng, L. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Fan, Y. L.; Pei, T.

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the National High Technology Research and Development Program, this paper introduced the key issues in Cyber Physical Distribution System (CPDS), mainly includes: composite modelling method and interaction mechanism, system planning method, security defence technology, distributed control theory. Then on this basis, the corresponding technical route is proposed, and a more detailed research framework along with main schemes to be adopted is also presented.

  10. Human computer interaction issues in Clinical Trials Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starren, Justin B; Payne, Philip R O; Kaufman, David R

    2006-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly rely upon web-based Clinical Trials Management Systems (CTMS). As with clinical care systems, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues can greatly affect the usefulness of such systems. Evaluation of the user interface of one web-based CTMS revealed a number of potential human-computer interaction problems, in particular, increased workflow complexity associated with a web application delivery model and potential usability problems resulting from the use of ambiguous icons. Because these design features are shared by a large fraction of current CTMS, the implications extend beyond this individual system.

  11. Special Issue on Second Generation General System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Minati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this editorial is to briefly introduce some papers of different nature presented by the contributors to the special issue on “Second Generation General System Theory”. These contributions have been focused on the need for building a post-Bertalanffy Systemics, based on new problems, representations, and approaches to complexity. Furthermore, such new Systemics is expected to be able to theoretically generalize new related systemic concepts and approaches introduced by different disciplines. Such a theoretical generalization is going to coincide with a new kind of interdisciplinarity. The latter should substitute the classical one, based on considering problems and solutions within a discipline as equivalent to problems and solutions within another one. This equivalence was used within the framework of general systemic concepts like Anticipation, Completeness, Feedback, Finality, Forecast, Separability, Openness, and Reversibility. The contributions contained in this special issue constitute very interesting examples of new approaches and of their possibilities of theoretical generalization. Therefore, the issue itself can be considered as a window on the new Systemics and its challenges.

  12. Ranking transmission projects in large scale systems using an AC power flow model; Priorizacao de obras em sistemas de grande porte usando um modelo AC da rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, A.C.G. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontoura Filho, R.N. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Peres, L.A.P. Pecorelli [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morozowski Filho, M. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Initially, this paper summarizes the approach developed by the Brazilian Planning Criteria Working Group (GTCP/ELETROBRAS) for identifying which subset of transmission investments should be postponed to meet a pre-stablished budget constraint with the least possible impact on system performance. Next, this paper presents the main features of the computational model PRIO, which allows the application of the ranking process to large scale power systems (2,000 buses and 3,000 circuits), with as many as 100 projects to be ranked. In this model, the adequacy analysis of each system state is carried out through an AC power flow coupled to a successive linear programming based remedial actions model. Case studies with the IEEE-RTS system and a configuration of the Brazilian Southeastern are presented and discussed. (author) 7 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Ranking structures and Rank-Rank Correlations of Countries. The FIFA and UEFA cases

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2014-01-01

    Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures, in both cases.

  14. Ranking structures and rank-rank correlations of countries: The FIFA and UEFA cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Cloots, Rudi; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2014-04-01

    Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures in both cases.

  15. Assessment of distributed solar power systems: Issues and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R. A.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T. C.; Patton, J. B.

    1982-11-01

    The installation of distributed solar-power systems presents electric utilities with a host of questions. Some of the technical and economic impacts of these systems are discussed. Among the technical interconnect issues are isolated operation, power quality, line safety, and metering options. Economic issues include user purchase criteria, structures and installation costs, marketing and product distribution costs, and interconnect costs. An interactive computer program that allows easy calculation of allowable system prices and allowable generation-equipment prices was developed as part of this project. It is concluded that the technical problems raised by distributed solar systems are surmountable, but their resolution may be costly. The stringent purchase criteria likely to be imposed by many potential system users and the economies of large-scale systems make small systems (less than 10 to 20 kW) less attractive than larger systems. Utilities that consider life-cycle costs in making investment decisions and third-party investors who have tax and financial advantages are likely to place the highest value on solar-power systems.

  16. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HO,CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH,JIM; WILSON,MICHAEL L.

    1999-12-21

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided.

  17. University Rankings as Instruments for the Reform of the System of Higher Education in the Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    Global rankings constitute a powerful instrument for the positioning of universities in the world educational space. Institutions that are included on the list of the top five hundred get financial support from the state and from business structures; they attract the best instructors and professors from all over the world. In recognition of this,…

  18. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  19. Mobile technology and healthcare: the adoption issues and systemic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Susan; Standing, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits that are associated with mobile technology have been recognised as offering great potential in the healthcare sector, its widespread adoption has been lagging. We propose that fundamental systemic issues are likely to be the main barriers to adoption. We explain that the fragmented nature of the conservative healthcare system, the contradictory incentives and improper outcome measures conspire to make the innovative adoption of mobile technology problematic. Researchers can only gain a limited understanding of a technology's potential success by using technology adoption frameworks and need to supplement this with a 'systems' perspective that takes a more strategic view.

  20. Database issues in object-oriented clinical information systems design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S C; Thom, J B

    1997-01-01

    A clinical information system (CIS) prototype was created from an Object-Oriented (OO) design. We experienced considerable difficulties when implementing the OO data model in a relational database management system (RDBMS), including lack of semantic power and support for complex objects, inability to encapsulate object methods, and performance degradation due to extensive join operations. This paper reflects on the experiences of a CIS research project and explores issues related to the use of RDBMS and Object-Oriented Database Management Systems (OODBMS) in CIS design and development.

  1. Extending systems ergonomics thinking to accommodate the socio-technical issues of Systems of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2014-01-01

    Socio-technical issues for Systems of Systems (SoS) differ in several ways from those for systems, mainly because the individual systems that are components of the SoS are usually owned by different organisations, each responsible for the optimisation and operation of its own system. Consequently, management of the SoS is about negotiation and management of the interfaces. Because of issues of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), commercial confidence, and the like, there is seldom sufficient, timely information in circulation about the SoS. Surprises are endemic to SoS, and resilience is a fundamental requirement. This paper outlines the different characteristics of SoS compared to ordinary systems, discusses many of the socio-technical issues involved, and then outlines a generic approach to these issues, treating the SoS as a 'wicked problem'. Endemic to this is the need for governance, which is discussed briefly. This is followed by a description of the evident gaps in knowledge about the functioning of SoS, and a listing of tool classes, the development of which would enable progress to be made more effectively. Finally, the paper discusses how the SoS approach might be the best way to entrain ICT to address global drivers, thus pointing to the importance of the SoS approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential expression of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system is associated with bone metastasis in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients exhibit a high propensity to develop skeletal metastasis, resulting in excessive osteolytic activity. The RANKL/RANK/OPG system, which plays a pivotal role in bone remodeling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity, is of potential interest in this context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis were used to examine the expression of RANKL, RANK, and OPG in human NSCLC cell lines with different metastatic potentials, as well as in 52 primary NSCLC samples and 75 NSCLC bone metastasis samples. In primary NSCLC patients, the expression of these proteins was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Recombinant human RANKL and transfected RANKL cDNA were added to the PAa cell line to evaluate the promoter action of RANKL during the process of metastasis in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Up-regulated RANKL, RANK, and OPG expression and increased RANKL:OPG ratio were detected in NSCLC cell lines and in tumor tissues with bone metastasis, and were correlated with higher metastatic potential. The metastatic potential of NSCLC in vitro and in vivo, including migration and invasion ability, was significantly enhanced by recombinant human RANKL and the transfection of RANKL cDNA, and was impaired after OPG was added. The increased expression of RANKL and OPG correlated with tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Differential expression of RANKL, RANK, and OPG is associated with the metastatic potential of human NSCLC to skeleton, raising the possibility that the RANKL/RANK/OPG system could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metastatic NSCLC patients.

  3. University ranking methodologies. An interview with Ben Sowter about the Quacquarelli Symonds World University Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Baccini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available University rankings represent a controversial issue in the debate about higher education policy. One of the best known university ranking is the Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings (QS, published annually since 2004 by Quacquarelli Symonds ltd, a company founded in 1990 and headquartered in London. QS provides a ranking based on a score calculated by weighting six different indicators. The 2015 edition, published in October 2015, introduced major methodological innovations and, as a consequence, many universities worldwide underwent major changes of their scores and ranks. Ben Sowter, head of division of intelligence unit of Quacquarelli Symonds, responds to 15 questions about the new QS methodology.

  4. Workshop on technology issues of superconducting Maglev transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegrzyn, J.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Shaw, D.T. (New York State Inst. of Superconductivity, Buffalo, NY (United States))

    1991-09-27

    There exists a critical need in the United States to improve its ground transportation system. One suggested system that offers many advantages over the current transportation infrastructure is Maglev. Maglev represents the latest evolution in very high and speed ground transportation, where vehicles are magnetically levitated, guided, and propelled over elevated guideways at speeds of 300 miles per hour. Maglev is not a new concept but is, however, receiving renewed interest. The objective of this workshop was to further promote these interest by bringing together a small group of specialists in Maglev technology to discuss Maglev research needs and to identify key research issues to the development of a successful Maglev system. The workshop was organized into four sessions based on the following technical areas: Materials, Testing, and Shielding; Magnet Design and Cryogenic Systems; Propulsion and Levitation Systems; and, System Control and Integration.

  5. Protective effect of zinc supplementation against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance in the bone tissue of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M., E-mail: Malgorzata.Brzoska@umb.edu.pl; Rogalska, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    It was investigated whether protective influence of zinc (Zn) against cadmium (Cd)-induced disorders in bone metabolism may be related to its antioxidative properties and impact on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κΒ (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Numerous indices of oxidative/antioxidative status, and Cd and Zn were determined in the distal femur of the rats administered Zn (30 and 60 mg/l) or/and Cd (5 and 50 mg/l) for 6 months. Soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG were measured in the bone and serum. Zn supplementation importantly protected from Cd-induced oxidative stress preventing protein, DNA, and lipid oxidation in the bone. Moreover, Zn protected from the Cd-induced increase in sRANKL concentration and the sRANKL/OPG ratio, and decrease in OPG concentration in the bone and serum. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status, concentrations of sRANKL and OPG in the bone and serum, as well as the bone concentrations of Zn and Cd, and previously reported by us in these animals (Brzóska et al., 2007) indices of bone turnover and bone mineral density. The results allow us to conclude that the ability of Zn to prevent from oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance may be implicated in the mechanisms of its protective impact against Cd-induced bone damage. This paper is the first report from an in vivo study providing evidence that beneficial Zn impact on the skeleton under exposure to Cd is related to the improvement of the bone tissue oxidative/antioxidative status and mediating the RANK/RANKL/OPG system. - Highlights: • Cd induces oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Cd disturbs bone metabolism via disorder of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system balance. • Zn supplementation protects from Cd-induced oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Zn protects from the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance caused by Cd in the bone tissue. • Enhanced Zn intake protects from Cd

  6. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  7. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  8. Designing Ranking Systems for Hotels on Travel Search Engines by Mining User-Generated and Crowdsourced Content

    OpenAIRE

    Anindya Ghose; Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis; Beibei Li

    2012-01-01

    User-generated content on social media platforms and product search engines is changing the way consumers shop for goods online. However, current product search engines fail to effectively leverage information created across diverse social media platforms. Moreover, current ranking algorithms in these product search engines tend to induce consumers to focus on one single product characteristic dimension (e.g., price, star rating). This approach largely ignores consumers' multidimensional pref...

  9. Pilot Implementation of Health Information Systems: Issues and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2009-01-01

    information system. Based on the findings from this study, we identify three main challenges: (1) defining an appropriate scope for pilot implementation, (2) managing the implementation process, and (3) ensuring commitment to the pilot. Finally, recommendations for future research and implications......Pilot implementation is a powerful and widely used approach in identifying design flaws and implementation issues before the full-scale deployment of new health information systems. However, pilot implementations often fail in the sense that they say little about the usability and usefulness...

  10. Moving ERP Systems to the Cloud - Data Security Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Saa, Pablo; Cueva Costales, Andrés; Moscoso-Zea, Oswaldo; Luján Mora, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This paper brings to light data security issues and concerns for organizations by moving their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems to the cloud. Cloud computing has become the new trend of how organizations conduct business and has enabled them to innovate and compete in a dynamic environment through new and innovative business models. The growing popularity and success of the cloud has led to the emergence of cloud-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) ERP systems, a new alternative appr...

  11. ISSUES AND RECENT TRENDS IN VEHICLE SAFETY COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadayuki TSUGAWA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the research on the applications of inter-vehicle communications, the issues of the deployment and technology, and the current status of inter-vehicle communications projects in Europe, the United States and Japan. The inter-vehicle communications, defined here as communications between on-board ITS computers, improve road traffic safety and efficiency by expanding the horizon of the drivers and on-board sensors. One of the earliest studies on inter-vehicle communications began in Japan in the early 1980s. The inter-vehicle communications play an essential role in automated platooning and cooperative driving systems developed since the 1990's by enabling vehicles to obtain data that would be difficult or impossible to measure with on-board sensors. During these years, interest in applications for inter-vehicle communications increased in the EU, the US and Japan, resulting in many national vehicle safety communications projects such as CarTALK2000 in the EU and VSCC in the US. The technological issues include protocol and communications media. Experiments employ various kinds of protocols and typically use infrared, microwave or millimeter wave media. The situation is ready for standardization. The deployment strategy is another issue. To be feasible, deployment should begin with multiple rather than single services that would work even at a low penetration rate of the communication equipment. In addition, non-technological, legal and institutional issues remained unsolved. Although inter-vehicle communications involve many issues, such applications should be promoted because they will lead to safer and more efficient automobile traffic.

  12. FRAGMENTATION ISSUE IN MALAYSIAN INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING SYSTEM (IBS PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD NASRUN MOHD NAWI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, Malaysian is currently driving for implementing a new or modern construction method, the Industrialised Building System (IBS, as an alternative towards enhancing construction performance. Currently, most of the IBS project developments in Malaysia are still conducted by using the traditional construction process approach. This traditional construction process has been widely criticised for its fragmented approach to project delivery and its failure to form effective teams thus created a number of issues such as reworks, time delay, rising costs, lack of communication and coordination, and wastages. This paper through literature review aims to highlight this fragmentation issue and clarify how far it affects the process of IBS implementation. Suggestions on how an integrated approach in design and construction in order to minimise the fragmentation gaps will be concluded.

  13. In Search of the Perceived Quality and Impact of Accredited South African Law Journals: Exploring the Possibility of a Ranking System. A Baseline Study: 2009 – 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The DHET Research Output Policy (2015 indicates that there has been a change in the government’s approach to research funding. Previously all research published in any accredited journal was rewarded equally. A decision has been taken, however, that a shift will be made towards rewarding better quality and higher impact peer-review research. Additional mechanisms such as biometric/bibliometric data, including citations, assessments by discipline-specific panels of experts and/or post-publication reviews may be used to determine the quality and impact of publications. The policy notes that the DHET may distinguish between "high" and "low" impact journals after proper consultation. This article highlights the need for consultation by the legal fraternity with the DHET about the implementation of these possible mechanisms in the light of the special considerations applicable to the evaluation of law journals: most journals publish mainly local legal content, there is a limited number of active legal academics, the nature of legal research is not empirical, and a premium is placed on the writing of books. The research evaluates the available data between 2009 and 2014 in an attempt to assess if it would be appropriate to introduce a legal journal ranking system in South Africa. The article discusses direct and indirect forms of quality evaluation to inform possible ranking systems. This includes the data from the ASSAf expert panel evaluation of law journals in 2014 and other bibliometric data based on whether the journal is featured in international accredited lists, the size of its print-run, author prominence, rejection-rate, usage studies, and evaluations based on citations. An additional ranking system is considered, based on the five best outputs submitted to the National Research Foundation by applicants applying for rating. The article concludes that a law journal ranking system would be inappropriate for South Africa. None of the systems

  14. Reliability Issues on the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Uythoven, J

    2004-01-01

    The Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider, presently under construction at CERN, must function with utmost reliability to protect the personnel, minimize the risk of severe damage to the machine and avoid undue impact to the environment. The dumping action must be synchronized with the particle free gap and the field of the extraction and dilution elements must be well adjusted to the beam energy. The measures taken to arrive at a reliable and safe system will be described, like the adoption of fault tolerant design principles and other safety related features as comprehensive monitoring, diagnostics and protection facilities. These issues will be discussed in the general framework of the IEC standard recommendations for safety critical systems. Some examples related to the most critical functions will be included.

  15. Moving ERP Systems to the Cloud - Data Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Saa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light data security issues and concerns for organizations by moving their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems to the cloud. Cloud computing has become the new trend of how organizations conduct business and has enabled them to innovate and compete in a dynamic environment through new and innovative business models. The growing popularity and success of the cloud has led to the emergence of cloud-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS ERP systems, a new alternative approach to traditional on-premise ERP systems. Cloud-based ERP has a myriad of benefits for organizations. However, infrastructure engineers need to address data security issues before moving their enterprise applications to the cloud. Cloud-based ERP raises specific concerns about the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in the cloud. Such concerns that affect the adoption of cloud-based ERP are based on the size of the organization. Small to medium enterprises (SMEs gain the maximum benefits from cloud-based ERP as many of the concerns around data security are not relevant to them. On the contrary, larger organizations are more cautious in moving their mission critical enterprise applications to the cloud. A hybrid solution where organizations can choose to keep their sensitive applications on-premise while leveraging the benefits of the cloud is proposed in this paper as an effective solution that is gaining momentum and popularity for large organizations.

  16. Ethical Issues In Monitoring And Based Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman O. Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and based tracking systems use a variety of technologies to record and monitor the activities of humans.  This can increase the risks to the privacy and security of individuals. The amount of information gathered about individuals is growing through the proliferation of surveillance cameras, sensors; microchips and Radio Frequency Identification RFID tags embedded in devices and products. Advances in electronic technologies allow companies and government agencies to store and process large amounts of information about individuals. The Internet provides the ultimate copier device, making this information easily available to millions. This paper highlights the ethical issues emerging with the new technologies in the monitoring and base tracking system. New regulations should be proposed to protect the individual privacy.ABSTRAK: Pemantauan dan sistem berasaskan pengesanan menggunakan pelbagai teknologi untuk merakam dan memantau aktiviti manusia. Ini boleh meningkatkan risiko dari segi privasi dan keselamatan individu. Jumlah maklumat yang dikumpulkan tentang individu berkembang melalui proliferasi pengawasan kamera, sensor; mikrocip dan tag frekuensi radio yang diletakkan di dalam peranti dan produk. Kemajuan dalam teknologi elektronik membolehkan syarikat-syarikat dan agensi-agensi kerajaan menyimpan dan memproses sejumlah besar maklumat mengenai individu. Internet menyediakan peranti salinan utama, menjadikan maklumat ini didapati dengan mudah. Kajian ini memaparkan isu-isu etika yang baru muncul dengan teknologi baru dalam pemantauan dan sistem berasaskan pengesanan. Peraturan baru perlu dicadangkan untuk melindungi privasi individu.Keywords: Privacy Implications, Tracking Systems, EthicalIssue, RFID

  17. Main Issues for a Good Value Added Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Yumi Nishiyama

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the main issues of VAT (tax rate structure, exemptions and enforcement and compliance) discussed in the Mirrlees Review (2010 and 2011). At present, especially after the Great Earthquake in Tohoku, a raise in the tax rate of Consumption Tax (the Japanese VAT) has been highlighted for the financial reasons. However, this paper argues that we should aim instead, and as well, to achieve a good VAT system from a long-term standpoint. The important factors for a good VAT sy...

  18. Practical issues in picture archiving and communication system and networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, Arjun; Singh, Jasbir; Bedi, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is a key workflow tool in the functioning of radiology departments worldwide, today, and its utilization is rapidly growing in India. The key challenges in PACS implementation are related to vendor and feature selection, integration with the existing HIS, user training, maintenance and scalability to meet increasing demands. Additionally, the networking requirements that PACS imposes on hospital networks are not insignificant. This article attempts to review these issues from the standpoint of what a prospective or new user needs to know. PMID:20351983

  19. Practical issues in picture archiving and communication system and networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanpur Arjun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS is a key workflow tool in the functioning of radiology departments worldwide, today, and its utilization is rapidly growing in India. The key challenges in PACS implementation are related to vendor and feature selection, integration with the existing HIS, user training, maintenance and scalability to meet increasing demands. Additionally, the networking requirements that PACS imposes on hospital networks are not insignificant. This article attempts to review these issues from the standpoint of what a prospective or new user needs to know.

  20. Design Issues for MEMS-Based Pedestrian Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Marinushkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design issues for MEMS-based pedestrian inertial navigation systems. By now the algorithms to estimate navigation parameters for strap-down inertial navigation systems on the basis of plural observations have been already well developed. At the same time mathematical and software processing of information in the case of pedestrian inertial navigation systems has its specificity, due to the peculiarities of their functioning and exploitation. Therefore, there is an urgent task to enhance existing fusion algorithms for use in pedestrian navigation systems. For this purpose the article analyzes the characteristics of the hardware composition and configuration of existing systems of this class. The paper shows advantages of various technical solutions. Relying on their main features it justifies a choice of the navigation system architecture and hardware composition enabling improvement of the estimation accuracy of user position as compared to the systems using only inertial sensors. The next point concerns the development of algorithms for complex processing of heterogeneous information. To increase an accuracy of the free running pedestrian inertial navigation system we propose an adaptive algorithm for joint processing of heterogeneous information based on the fusion of inertial info rmation with magnetometer measurements using EKF approach. Modeling of the algorithm was carried out using a specially developed functional prototype of pedestrian inertial navigation system, implemented as a hardware/software complex in Matlab environment. The functional prototype tests of the developed system demonstrated an improvement of the navigation parameters estimation compared to the systems based on inertial sensors only. It enables to draw a conclusion that the synthesized algorithm provides satisfactory accuracy for calculating the trajectory of motion even when using low-grade inertial MEMS sensors. The developed algorithm can be

  1. Maximum Waring ranks of monomials

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Erik; Plummer, Paul; Siegert, Jeremy; Teitler, Zach

    2013-01-01

    We show that monomials and sums of pairwise coprime monomials in four or more variables have Waring rank less than the generic rank, with a short list of exceptions. We asymptotically compare their ranks with the generic rank.

  2. A Preliminary Study for Chemical Ranking System in Terms of Soil and Groundwater Contamination by Chemical Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Jeong, Y. C.; Kim, K. E.; Lee, D.; Yoo, K.; Kim, J.; Hwang, S.

    2015-12-01

    A variety of chemicals could affect human health and ecosystems by chemical accidents such as fire, explosion, and/or spill. Chemical accidents make chemicals spread to the environment via various routes such as dispersion into ambient air, soil, and surface/ground water media. Especially, soil and groundwater contamination by chemical accidents become a secondary source to have a long term effect on human health and environment. Strength of long term effect by soil and groundwater contamination depends largely on inherent characteristics of a chemical and its fate in soil and groundwater. Therefore, in this study, we developed a framework on how to determine what kind of chemicals is more important in management scheme in terms of soil and groundwater contamination during chemical accidents. We ranked approximately fifty chemicals using this framework which takes into account an exposure into soil and groundwater, toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation of a chemical. This framework helps to prepare systematically the management plan for chemical related facilities. Furthermore, results from our study can make a policy maker have interests in highly ranked chemicals and facilities.

  3. A low-rank control variate for multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of high-dimensional uncertain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Hillary R.; Doostan, Alireza; Ketelsen, Christian; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-07-01

    Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) is a recently proposed variation of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation that achieves variance reduction by simulating the governing equations on a series of spatial (or temporal) grids with increasing resolution. Instead of directly employing the fine grid solutions, MLMC estimates the expectation of the quantity of interest from the coarsest grid solutions as well as differences between each two consecutive grid solutions. When the differences corresponding to finer grids become smaller, hence less variable, fewer MC realizations of finer grid solutions are needed to compute the difference expectations, thus leading to a reduction in the overall work. This paper presents an extension of MLMC, referred to as multilevel control variates (MLCV), where a low-rank approximation to the solution on each grid, obtained primarily based on coarser grid solutions, is used as a control variate for estimating the expectations involved in MLMC. Cost estimates as well as numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantage of this new MLCV approach over the standard MLMC when the solution of interest admits a low-rank approximation and the cost of simulating finer grids grows fast.

  4. Computing Low-Rank Approximation of a Dense Matrix on Multicore CPUs with a GPU and Its Application to Solving a Hierarchically Semiseparable Linear System of Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichitaro Yamazaki

    2015-01-01

    of their low-rank properties. To compute a low-rank approximation of a dense matrix, in this paper, we study the performance of QR factorization with column pivoting or with restricted pivoting on multicore CPUs with a GPU. We first propose several techniques to reduce the postprocessing time, which is required for restricted pivoting, on a modern CPU. We then examine the potential of using a GPU to accelerate the factorization process with both column and restricted pivoting. Our performance results on two eight-core Intel Sandy Bridge CPUs with one NVIDIA Kepler GPU demonstrate that using the GPU, the factorization time can be reduced by a factor of more than two. In addition, to study the performance of our implementations in practice, we integrate them into a recently developed software StruMF which algebraically exploits such low-rank structures for solving a general sparse linear system of equations. Our performance results for solving Poisson's equations demonstrate that the proposed techniques can significantly reduce the preconditioner construction time of StruMF on the CPUs, and the construction time can be further reduced by 10%–50% using the GPU.

  5. How to Rank Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W

    2016-01-01

    There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68-0.84 Spearman's ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows.

  6. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  7. Wearable design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Joe

    2006-09-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, visual impairment will overtake a significant portion of the US population. At the same time, more and more of our world is becoming digital. These two trends, coupled with the continuing advances in digital electronics, argue for a rethinking in the design of aids for the visually impaired. This paper discusses design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems (EVES) [R.C. Peterson, J.S. Wolffsohn, M. Rubinstein, et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136 1129 (2003)] that will facilitate their wearability and continuous use. We briefly discuss the factors affecting a person's acceptance of wearable devices. We define the concept of operational inertia which plays an important role in our design of wearable devices and systems. We then discuss how design principles based upon operational inertia can be applied to the design of EVES.

  8. Qualification and Issues with Space Flight Laser Systems and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. Barry; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2006-01-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 199O's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  9. Introduction to Focus Issue: Complex network perspectives on flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V.; Hernández-García, Emilio; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    During the last few years, complex network approaches have demonstrated their great potentials as versatile tools for exploring the structural as well as dynamical properties of dynamical systems from a variety of different fields. Among others, recent successful examples include (i) functional (correlation) network approaches to infer hidden statistical interrelationships between macroscopic regions of the human brain or the Earth's climate system, (ii) Lagrangian flow networks allowing to trace dynamically relevant fluid-flow structures in atmosphere, ocean or, more general, the phase space of complex systems, and (iii) time series networks unveiling fundamental organization principles of dynamical systems. In this spirit, complex network approaches have proven useful for data-driven learning of dynamical processes (like those acting within and between sub-components of the Earth's climate system) that are hidden to other analysis techniques. This Focus Issue presents a collection of contributions addressing the description of flows and associated transport processes from the network point of view and its relationship to other approaches which deal with fluid transport and mixing and/or use complex network techniques.

  10. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  11. World University Rankings: Take with a Large Pinch of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Soh Kay

    2011-01-01

    Equating the unequal is misleading, and this happens consistently in comparing rankings from different university ranking systems, as the NUT saga shows. This article illustrates the problem by analyzing the 2011 rankings of the top 100 universities in the AWUR, QSWUR and THEWUR ranking results. It also discusses the reasons why the rankings…

  12. A review of studies on information systems and SMEs in high ranked IS journals (2000-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Parker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies novel approaches to future small and medium enterprise (SME research from a review of articles, and then introduces the papers in this AJIS special section which evidence these approaches. More specifically, the paper makes an important contribution by reviewing 61 articles in high ranked IS journals (2000-2014 and introducing three new facets which are used to analyse research on SME adoption/use of IS (units of analysis, SME sizes and SME types not considered in previous literature review studies. These facets provide the basis for proposing various future research opportunities. The editorial then introduces the four papers in this special section covering the research theme on SMEs, and highlights the contributions they make using the three facets.

  13. Academic rankings: an approach to a Portuguese ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino, Pedro; Marques,Rui

    2009-01-01

    The academic rankings are a controversial subject in higher education. However, despite all the criticism, academic rankings are here to stay and more and more different stakeholders use rankings to obtain information about the institutions’ performance. The two most well-known rankings, The Times and the Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings have different methodologies. The Times ranking is based on peer review, whereas the Shanghai ranking has only quantitative indicators and is mainly ba...

  14. Editorial: emerging issues in sociotechnical systems thinking and workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Y Ian; Hettinger, Lawrence J; Dainoff, Marvin J; Carayon, Pascale; Leveson, Nancy G; Robertson, Michelle M; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    The burden of on-the-job accidents and fatalities and the harm of associated human suffering continue to present an important challenge for safety researchers and practitioners. While significant improvements have been achieved in recent decades, the workplace accident rate remains unacceptably high. This has spurred interest in the development of novel research approaches, with particular interest in the systemic influences of social/organisational and technological factors. In response, the Hopkinton Conference on Sociotechnical Systems and Safety was organised to assess the current state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. Over the course of several months prior to the conference, leading international experts drafted collaborative, state-of-the-art reviews covering various aspects of sociotechnical systems and safety. These papers, presented in this special issue, cover topics ranging from the identification of key concepts and definitions to sociotechnical characteristics of safe and unsafe organisations. This paper provides an overview of the conference and introduces key themes and topics. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety are intended to draw practitioners' attention to the critical influence that systemic social/organisational and technological factors exert on safety-relevant outcomes. This paper introduces major themes addressed in the Hopkinton Conference within the context of current workplace safety research and practice challenges.

  15. User and system interface issues in the purchase of imaging and information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S; Wang, J

    1996-08-01

    We introduce a set of worksheets to facilitate standardized comparisons among scheduling systems, hospital information systems, radiology information systems, and picture archiving and communication systems vendors. For each system category, we provide worksheets to evaluate the features, performance, installation requirements and costs of the included components. These worksheets will help to assure that critical user and systems interface issues are not overlooked and aid potential purchasers to make informed and objective purchasing decisions.

  16. High temperature corrosion issues in energy-related systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stringer John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The large majority of electric power that is generated world-wide involves heat engines of one kind or another. The significant exceptions are hydroelectric generation; wind; and photovoltaics. The thermal sources for the heat engines include: fossil fuels, nuclear fission, biomass, geothermal sources, and solar radiation. There has been a progressive move to higher overall cycle efficiencies for at least one hundred years, and in the case of fossil fuels this has accelerated recently in part because of concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, notably CO2. For a heat engine, the overall efficiency is closely related to the difference between the highest temperature in the cycle and the lowest temperature. In most cases, this has resulted in an increase in the high temperature, and this in turn has led to increasing demands on the materials of construction used in the high temperature end of the systems. One of the issues is the chemical degradation because of reactions between the materials of construction and the environments to which they are exposed: this is high temperature corrosion. This paper will describe the issues for a range of current heat engines.

  17. Systematic management of emerging strategic issues : organisational attention allocation and strategic issue management system performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kunnas, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating and responding to emerging strategic issues can undoubtedly be argued to be at the heart of corporate strategy making. By making timely adjustments and revisions to the corporation's strategy, top management can attempt to create a (sustainable) competitive advantage for the company. However, while academic research has attempted to provide its share of material to deepen the understanding of management of strategic issues, that understanding remains somewhat limited. From a mana...

  18. Clinical Trial Design Issues in Systemic Sclerosis: an Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jessica K; Domsic, Robyn T

    2016-06-01

    Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma, SSc) is a multisystem disease characterized by vasculopathy, autoimmunity, and fibrosis. SSc has the highest disease-related mortality rate among the rheumatologic illnesses. In the USA, there remains no FDA-approved therapy. As our understanding of SSc pathogenesis improves, targeted therapies interrupting key pathways and mediators will be studied in clinical trials. However, clinical trials in SSc are fraught with challenges. Validated clinical outcome measures do not exist for all disease manifestations. It can be difficult to discern disease activity from damage. SSc is highly heterogeneous, with multiple different phenotypes, and predicting who will have progressive disease is not currently well understood. Biomarkers are in early stages of development and do not represent surrogate outcomes at this time. Given that SSc is uncommon, studies of similar disease aspects or populations can lead to competition for patients. This review will focus on current issues in SSc clinical trial design.

  19. Architecture Design Approaches and Issues in Cross Layer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    , users, and physical medium issues, designers are in the need for new approaches. Cross Layer becomes than a handy solution for coping with such problems. In fact, it allows both tighter optimizations of the existing functionalities, and the introduction of new ones, that do not fit within......Wireless communications are a fast grown part of the telecommunication market. While new types of traffic and challenges related to the wireless medium are appearing, the methodologies for designing system architectures are substantially remaining the same. Under the increasing pressure of market...... the traditional protocol stack design methodology. However, Cross Layer also carries a risk due to possibly unexpected and undesired effects. In this chapter we want to provide architecture designers with a set of tools and recommendations synthesized from an analysis of the state of art, but enriched...

  20. Rank Modulation for Translocation Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Farnoud, Farzad; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2012-01-01

    We consider rank modulation codes for flash memories that allow for handling arbitrary charge drop errors. Unlike classical rank modulation codes used for correcting errors that manifest themselves as swaps of two adjacently ranked elements, the proposed \\emph{translocation rank codes} account for more general forms of errors that arise in storage systems. Translocations represent a natural extension of the notion of adjacent transpositions and as such may be analyzed using related concepts in combinatorics and rank modulation coding. Our results include tight bounds on the capacity of translocation rank codes, construction techniques for asymptotically good codes, as well as simple decoding methods for one class of structured codes. As part of our exposition, we also highlight the close connections between the new code family and permutations with short common subsequences, deletion and insertion error-correcting codes for permutations and permutation arrays.

  1. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-06-01

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  2. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...... the relevance and importance of music. The proposed method may support users with diverse needs when searching for music....

  3. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...

  4. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  5. Selected Issues on CO2 in Compression Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarlien, R.

    2004-05-15

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) has shown promising results as an alternative working fluid compared to the CFCs, HFCs and HCFCs. CO2 provides an environmental friendly alternative in a number of heat pump applications, in automobile air conditioning, and as a secondary fluid in refrigeration systems. The physical and the thermodynamic properties of CO2 differ considerably from the more conventional working fluids and offer new possibilities as well as design challenges for systems and components. On this background IEA Heat Pump Programme's Annex 27 was established. The main objective of the Annex has been to bring the CO2 heat pump technology closer to commercialization, by addressing critical issues of both basic and applied character. The scope of the work under this Annex includes compression heat pump, refrigeration and air-conditioning systems and components, with the main emphasis on heat pumps, using CO2 as working fluid. The term 'compression heat pump' covers vapor compression circuits with phase change. The term 'system' includes all the components used in a heating/cooling system from the heat pump to the inside unit, controls included. Results from 12 different research projects together with an extensive literature survey are presented. The projects are carried out as independent research projects, and the findings and the results are the sole responsibility of the authors. The following projects are presented: 1) Feasibility of transcritical CO2 systems for mobile space conditioning applications. 2) Use of CO2- and propane thermosyphons in combination with compact cooler in domestic freeze. 3) Heat transfer of carbon dioxide in an evaporator. 4) Correlating the heat transfer coefficient during in-tube cooling of turbulent supercritical CO2. 5) Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of super-critical CO2 in microchannel tubes under cooling. 6) Flow vaporization of CO2 in microchannel tubes. 7) Two-phase flow patterns during

  6. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F.A.; Chorey, C.M.; Bhasin, K.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory`s High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  7. Using centrality to rank web snippets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; Peters, C.; Jijkoun, V.; Mandl, T.; Müller, H.; Oard, D.W.; Peñas, A.; Petras, V.; Santos, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our participation in the WebCLEF 2007 task, targeted at snippet retrieval from web data. Our system ranks snippets based on a simple similarity-based centrality, inspired by the web page ranking algorithms. We experimented with retrieval units (sentences and paragraphs) and with the

  8. Information Systems Management: an Australian view of the key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies investigating the key issues in IS management serve to better understand the concerns of IS managers and help to guide IS researchers in choosing IS management problems worthy of investigation. This paper presents results from a study of the key issues facing the IS managers of Australia's largest 300 organisations which is part of a three-yearly longitudinal study. In order to gain consensus on the relative importance of the key issues, a three-round Delphi method was applied. The results reveal that IS strategic planning continues to be the paramount issue in our industry, as are many issues associated with IS strategic planning, including responsiveness of the IT infrastructure, effective use of the data resource, IS for competitive advantage, and a comprehensive information architecture. A greater emphasis on quality is also revealed in highly rated issues such as effective use of the data resource, data integrity and quality assurance, and the quality of software development

  9. Geoethical issues involved in Tsunami Warning System concepts and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is to mitigate the effect of an incoming tsunami by alerting coastal population early enough to allow people to evacuate safely from inundation zones. Though this representation might seem oversimplified, nonetheless, achieving successfully this goal requires a positive synergy of geoscience, communication, emergency management, technology, education, social sciences, politics. Geoethical issues arise always when there is an interaction between geoscience and society, and TWS is a paradigmatic case where interaction is very strong and is made critical because a) the formulation of the tsunami alert has to be made in a time as short as possible and therefore on uncertain data, and b) any evaluation error (underestimation or overestimation) can lead to serious (and sometimes catastrophic) consequences involving wide areas and a large amount of population. From the geoethical point of view three issues are critical: how to (i) combine forecasts and uncertainties reasonably and usefully, (ii) cope and possibly solve the dilemma whether it is better over-alerting or under-alerting population and (iii) deal with responsibility and liability of geoscientists, TWS operators, emergency operators and coastal population. The discussion will be based on the experience of the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Center (HL-NTWC, Greece), which operates on 24/7 basis as a special unit of the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, and acts also as Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) in the framework of the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) of the IOC/UNESCO. Since August 2012, when HL-NTWC was officially declared as operational, 14 tsunami warning messages have been disseminated to a large number of subscribers after strong submarine earthquakes occurring in Greece and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It is recognized that the alerting process

  10. Citation graph based ranking in Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    Marian, Ludmila; Rajman, Martin; Vesely, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Invenio is the web-based integrated digital library system developed at CERN. Within this framework, we present four types of ranking models based on the citation graph that complement the simple approach based on citation counts: time-dependent citation counts, a relevancy ranking which extends the PageRank model, a time-dependent ranking which combines the freshness of citations with PageRank and a ranking that takes into consideration the external citations. We present our analysis and results obtained on two main data sets: Inspire and CERN Document Server. Our main contributions are: (i) a study of the currently available ranking methods based on the citation graph; (ii) the development of new ranking methods that correct some of the identified limitations of the current methods such as treating all citations of equal importance, not taking time into account or considering the citation graph complete; (iii) a detailed study of the key parameters for these ranking methods. (The original publication is ava...

  11. University Rankings 2.0: New Frontiers in Institutional Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The number of university rankings systems in use around the world has increased dramatically over the last decade. As they have spread, they have mutated; no longer are ranking systems simply clones of the original ranking systems such as "US News" and "World Report". A number of different types of "mutation" have occurred, so that there are now…

  12. Counseling Suicidal Adolescents within Family Systems: Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta

    2009-01-01

    Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and…

  13. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  14. Ranking sources of hospital quality information for orthopedic surgery patients: consequences for the system of managed competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bes, R.E.; Berg, B. van den

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthcare quality information is crucial for the system of managed competition. Within a system of managed competition, health insurers can selectively contract care providers and are allowed to channel patients towards contracted providers. The idea is that insurers have a stronger

  15. FDA-iRISK--a comparative risk assessment system for evaluating and ranking food-hazard pairs: case studies on microbial hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhuan; Dennis, Sherri B; Hartnett, Emma; Paoli, Greg; Pouillot, Régis; Ruthman, Todd; Wilson, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    Stakeholders in the system of food safety, in particular federal agencies, need evidence-based, transparent, and rigorous approaches to estimate and compare the risk of foodborne illness from microbial and chemical hazards and the public health impact of interventions. FDA-iRISK (referred to here as iRISK), a Web-based quantitative risk assessment system, was developed to meet this need. The modeling tool enables users to assess, compare, and rank the risks posed by multiple food-hazard pairs at all stages of the food supply system, from primary production, through manufacturing and processing, to retail distribution and, ultimately, to the consumer. Using standard data entry templates, built-in mathematical functions, and Monte Carlo simulation techniques, iRISK integrates data and assumptions from seven components: the food, the hazard, the population of consumers, process models describing the introduction and fate of the hazard up to the point of consumption, consumption patterns, dose-response curves, and health effects. Beyond risk ranking, iRISK enables users to estimate and compare the impact of interventions and control measures on public health risk. iRISK provides estimates of the impact of proposed interventions in various ways, including changes in the mean risk of illness and burden of disease metrics, such as losses in disability-adjusted life years. Case studies for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella were developed to demonstrate the application of iRISK for the estimation of risks and the impact of interventions for microbial hazards. iRISK was made available to the public at http://irisk.foodrisk.org in October 2012.

  16. Complex governance system issues for transportation renewal projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Strong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public–private partnerships (PPPs is growing in the United States in response to reductions in funding combined with an aging highway transportation infrastructure. Many other countries have longer experience with PPP and a greater understanding of the issues surrounding their use. The main governance issues to be addressed in PPPs deal with risk-sharing, relationships, contracts, and legal framework, and standard processes within dedicated organizational units. These governance issues are examined in the context of a case study for the US 36 Phase II PPP in Colorado. Findings suggest that for the US Phase II project, governance issues are resolved through more relational forms than prescriptive contractual language. Colorado has established a dedicated organizational unit to facilitate the use of PPPs, but there exist no standards or best practices in the United States for procurement, concession terms, or risk-sharing.

  17. The use of interaction matrices for identification, structuring and ranking of FEPs in a repository system. Application on the far-field of a deep geological repository for spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden); Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-11-01

    The basic device in the Rock Engineering Systems approach, the interaction matrix, has been used to identify, structure and rank Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) describing barrier performance and radionuclide behaviour in the far-field of a deep geologic repository for spent fuel. The result is a first version of the Process System (PS), for the far-field of a deep repository, structured in an interaction matrix with supporting documentation. The documentation is compiled in databases, one containing matrix specific information and one containing general FEP descriptions. The study has shown that an interaction matrix is feasible to use both for the structuring of the PS and for visualisation of the PS. The developed documentation system increases the transparency of the system description and makes it possible to trace back the judgements made during the construction of the matrix. This will facilitate review work and future revisions as well as consistent treatment of different issues in the system. This study is a first step in the application of a systematic method to establish a structured description of the PS for a deep repository for spent fuel. The work could be seen as a part of the preparation for the forthcoming performance and safety analysis. The next step would be to develop the PS for the remaining parts of the repository system to the same level as has been done for the far-field system. Before the PS is evaluated for different selected system premises, a scientific review of the contents of the PS for the whole repository system would be beneficial. 5 refs.

  18. FY07 Summary of System Interface and Support Systems R&D and Technical Issues Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-09-01

    This document provides a summary of research and development activities in the System Interface and Support Systems area of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in FY 2007. Project cost and performance data obtained from the PICS system, at least up through July 2007, are presented and analyzed. Brief summaries of accomplishments and references are provided. A mapping of System Interface and Support Systems technical issues versus the work performed is updated and presented. Lastly, near-term research plans are described, and recommendatioins are provided for additional research.

  19. Enhancing collaborative filtering by user interest expansion via personalized ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Enhong; Xiong, Hui; Ding, Chris H Q; Chen, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Recommender systems suggest a few items from many possible choices to the users by understanding their past behaviors. In these systems, the user behaviors are influenced by the hidden interests of the users. Learning to leverage the information about user interests is often critical for making better recommendations. However, existing collaborative-filtering-based recommender systems are usually focused on exploiting the information about the user's interaction with the systems; the information about latent user interests is largely underexplored. To that end, inspired by the topic models, in this paper, we propose a novel collaborative-filtering-based recommender system by user interest expansion via personalized ranking, named iExpand. The goal is to build an item-oriented model-based collaborative-filtering framework. The iExpand method introduces a three-layer, user-interests-item, representation scheme, which leads to more accurate ranking recommendation results with less computation cost and helps the understanding of the interactions among users, items, and user interests. Moreover, iExpand strategically deals with many issues that exist in traditional collaborative-filtering approaches, such as the overspecialization problem and the cold-start problem. Finally, we evaluate iExpand on three benchmark data sets, and experimental results show that iExpand can lead to better ranking performance than state-of-the-art methods with a significant margin.

  20. A comparison of hierarchical cluster analysis and league table rankings as methods for analysis and presentation of district health system performance data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashobya, Christine K; Dubourg, Dominique; Ssengooba, Freddie; Speybroeck, Niko; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2016-03-01

    In 2003, the Uganda Ministry of Health introduced the district league table for district health system performance assessment. The league table presents district performance against a number of input, process and output indicators and a composite index to rank districts. This study explores the use of hierarchical cluster analysis for analysing and presenting district health systems performance data and compares this approach with the use of the league table in Uganda. Ministry of Health and district plans and reports, and published documents were used to provide information on the development and utilization of the Uganda district league table. Quantitative data were accessed from the Ministry of Health databases. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 20 and hierarchical cluster analysis, utilizing Wards' method was used. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the basis of seven clusters determined for each year from 2003 to 2010, ranging from a cluster of good through moderate-to-poor performers. The characteristics and membership of clusters varied from year to year and were determined by the identity and magnitude of performance of the individual variables. Criticisms of the league table include: perceived unfairness, as it did not take into consideration district peculiarities; and being oversummarized and not adequately informative. Clustering organizes the many data points into clusters of similar entities according to an agreed set of indicators and can provide the beginning point for identifying factors behind the observed performance of districts. Although league table ranking emphasize summation and external control, clustering has the potential to encourage a formative, learning approach. More research is required to shed more light on factors behind observed performance of the different clusters. Other countries especially low-income countries that share many similarities with Uganda can learn from these experiences. © The Author 2015

  1. Diversifying customer review rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima

    2015-06-01

    E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. OutRank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Steinhausen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Outlier detection is an important data mining task for consistency checks, fraud detection, etc. Binary decision making on whether or not an object is an outlier is not appropriate in many applications and moreover hard to parametrize. Thus, recently, methods for outlier ranking have been proposed...

  3. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  4. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  5. Outstanding Issues in the Assessment of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Deangelo, J.

    2010-12-01

    The successful implementation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology has the potential to dramatically expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been working to develop a comprehensive EGS resource assessment for the United States. However, a number of outstanding scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to ensure the accuracy and reliability of this assessment. Among these are determining those conditions under which it is possible to replicate the high average permeability (approximately 10-15 to 10-13 m2) characteristic of natural hydrothermal reservoirs, evaluating the likely heterogeneity of fracture permeability within EGS reservoirs and its influence on the geothermal recovery factor, Rg, which is defined as the ratio of produced thermal energy to the thermal energy contained in the stimulated volume comprising the reservoir, and improving estimates of temperature in the upper crust to better quantify the thermal energy available at those depths viable for EGS reservoir creation. Models for the development of fracture permeability from the shear slip along pre-existing natural fractures induced by hydraulic stimulation indicate that production from EGS reservoirs will be sensitive to the influence of effective stress and rock properties on the processes of shear fracture formation and closure. Calibration of model parameters with results from EGS field experiments and demonstration projects suggests that sufficient permeability may be difficult to attain through shear stimulation at depths greater than approximately 6 km, particularly in regions characterized by high normal stress on pre-existing faults and fractures. In addition, the expected heterogeneity of fracture permeability within EGS reservoirs may limit Rg to values on the order of 0.05 to 0.1, which is at the lower end of the observed range for producing natural geothermal reservoirs. Although

  6. Improving Ranking Using Quantum Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Melucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows that ranking information units by quantum probability differs from ranking them by classical probability provided the same data used for parameter estimation. As probability of detection (also known as recall or power) and probability of false alarm (also known as fallout or size) measure the quality of ranking, we point out and show that ranking by quantum probability yields higher probability of detection than ranking by classical probability provided a given probability of ...

  7. Sustainability issues on rice–wheat cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Bhatt

    2016-03-01

    In this review, an attempt was made to highlight different issues resulted from the practise of intensive rice–wheat cropping sequence of the region, which must be considered while framing and implementing any integrated approach/project such as conservation agriculture for improving the productions, profits and sustainability of RWCS in the region.

  8. Introduction to Special Issue: Leadership in Complex Adaptive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comfort, L.K.; Resodihardjo, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of leadership involves making judgments that lead to action at different scales of responsibility and operations. It means the capacity to engage not only individuals in solving immediate problems, but also groups and organizations as they address broader issues of collective interest,

  9. Control Issues in Single-Stage Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Mastromauro, Rosa; Liserre, Marco; Dell’Aquila, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    and low distortion and academia proposing new ideas soon become state-of-the-art. This paper aims at reviewing part of these topics (MPPT, current and voltage control) leaving to a future paper to complete the scenario. Implementation issues on Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the mandatory choice...

  10. Activity ranking of synthetic analogs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by an integrated cell membrane chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongyao; Lv, Diya; Chen, Xiaofei; Liu, Yue; Ding, Xuan; Jia, Dan; Chen, Langdong; Zhu, Zhenyu; Cao, Yan; Chai, Yifeng

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the biological activities of small molecules represents an important part of the drug discovery process. Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a well-developed biological chromatographic technique. In this study, we have developed combined SMMC-7721/CMC and HepG2/CMC with high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to establish an integrated screening platform. These systems was subsequently validated and used for evaluating the activity of quinazoline compounds, which were designed and synthesized to target vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. The inhibitory activities of these compounds towards this receptor were also tested using a classical caliper mobility shift assay. The results revealed a significant correlation between these two methods (R(2) = 0.9565 or 0.9420) for evaluating the activities of these compounds. Compared with traditional methods of evaluating the activities analogous compounds, this integrated cell membrane chromatography screening system took less time and was more cost effective, indicating that it could be used as a practical method in drug discovery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Impact of World Ranking Systems on Graduate Schools of Business: Promoting the Manipulation of Image over the Management of Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Kent V.

    2017-01-01

    This essay explores and examines how rankings and league tables have played (and continue to play) a major and consequential role in how contemporary business schools manage their affairs. It introduces and advances the proposition that rankings promote the short-term manipulation of public reputation (image) projected by business schools at the…

  12. Pulling Rank: A Plan to Help Students with College Choice in an Age of Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Lloyd

    2008-01-01

    Colleges and universities are "ranksteering"--driving under the influence of popular college rankings systems like "U.S. News and World Report's" Best Colleges. This article examines the criticisms of college rankings and describes how a group of education leaders is honing a plan to end the tyranny of the ratings game and better help students and…

  13. Fractional cointegration rank estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasak, Katarzyna; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating the parame......We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating...... to control for stochastic trend estimation effects from the first step. The critical values of the tests proposed depend only on the number of common trends under the null, p - r, and on the interval of the cointegration degrees b allowed, but not on the true cointegration degree b0. Hence, no additional...

  14. Ranking the magnitude of crop and farming system effects on soil microbial biomass and genetic structure of bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Martin; Fliessbach, Andreas; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Widmer, Franco

    2006-09-01

    Biological soil characteristics such as microbial biomass, community structures, activities, and functions may provide important information on environmental and anthropogenic influences on agricultural soils. Diagnostic tools and detailed statistical approaches need to be developed for a reliable evaluation of these parameters, in order to allow classification and quantification of the magnitude of such effects. The DOK long-term agricultural field experiment was initiated in 1978 in Switzerland for the evaluation of organic and conventional farming practices. It includes three representative Swiss farming systems with biodynamic, bio-organic and conventional fertilization and plant protection schemes along with minerally fertilized and unfertilized controls. Effects on microbial soil characteristics induced by the long-term management at two different stages in the crop rotation, i.e. winter wheat after potato or corn, were investigated by analyzing soil bacterial community structures using analysis of PCR-amplified rRNA genes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Application of farmyard manure consistently revealed the strongest influence on bacterial community structures and biomass contents. Effects of management and plant protection regimes occurred on an intermediate level, while the two stages in the crop rotation had a marginal influence that was not significant.

  15. Ranking Quality in Higher Education: Guiding or Misleading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergseth, Brita; Petocz, Peter; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    The study examines two different models of measuring, assessing and ranking quality in higher education. Do different systems of quality assessment lead to equivalent conclusions about the quality of education? This comparative study is based on the rankings of 24 Swedish higher education institutions. Two ranking actors have independently…

  16. A Fast Algorithm for Generating Permutation Distribution of Ranks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... function of the distribution of the ranks. This further gives insight into the permutation distribution of a rank statistics. The algorithm is implemented with the aid of the computer algebra system Mathematica. Key words: Combinatorics, generating function, permutation distribution, rank statistics, partitions, computer algebra.

  17. Simpson's Paradox and Confounding Factors in University Rankings: A Demonstration Using QS 2011-12 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2012-01-01

    University ranking has become ritualistic in higher education. Ranking results are taken as bona fide by rank users. Ranking systems usually use large data sets from highly heterogeneous universities of varied backgrounds. This poses the problem of Simpson's Paradox and the lurking variables causing it. Using QS 2011-2012 Ranking data, the dual…

  18. Ranking competitors using degree-neutralized random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungkyu; Ahnert, Sebastian E; Park, Juyong

    2014-01-01

    Competition is ubiquitous in many complex biological, social, and technological systems, playing an integral role in the evolutionary dynamics of the systems. It is often useful to determine the dominance hierarchy or the rankings of the components of the system that compete for survival and success based on the outcomes of the competitions between them. Here we propose a ranking method based on the random walk on the network representing the competitors as nodes and competitions as directed edges with asymmetric weights. We use the edge weights and node degrees to define the gradient on each edge that guides the random walker towards the weaker (or the stronger) node, which enables us to interpret the steady-state occupancy as the measure of the node's weakness (or strength) that is free of unwarranted degree-induced bias. We apply our method to two real-world competition networks and explore the issues of ranking stabilization and prediction accuracy, finding that our method outperforms other methods including the baseline win-loss differential method in sparse networks.

  19. Ranking competitors using degree-neutralized random walks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkyu Shin

    Full Text Available Competition is ubiquitous in many complex biological, social, and technological systems, playing an integral role in the evolutionary dynamics of the systems. It is often useful to determine the dominance hierarchy or the rankings of the components of the system that compete for survival and success based on the outcomes of the competitions between them. Here we propose a ranking method based on the random walk on the network representing the competitors as nodes and competitions as directed edges with asymmetric weights. We use the edge weights and node degrees to define the gradient on each edge that guides the random walker towards the weaker (or the stronger node, which enables us to interpret the steady-state occupancy as the measure of the node's weakness (or strength that is free of unwarranted degree-induced bias. We apply our method to two real-world competition networks and explore the issues of ranking stabilization and prediction accuracy, finding that our method outperforms other methods including the baseline win-loss differential method in sparse networks.

  20. A Review of Ranking Models in Data Envelopment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, F.; Jahanshahloo, G.R.; M. Khodabakhshi; Rostamy-Malkhlifeh, M.; Moghaddas, Z.; Vaez-Ghasemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of improving various abilities of data envelopment analysis (DEA) models, many investigations have been carried out for ranking decision-making units (DMUs). This is an important issue both in theory and practice. There exist a variety of papers which apply different ranking methods to a real data set. Here the ranking methods are divided into seven groups. As each of the existing methods can be viewed from different aspects, it is possible that somewhat these groups have an ove...

  1. Issue Evolution and the Remaking of Partisan Alignments in a European Multiparty System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    and partisan (re-)alignments. This paper applies the issue evolution perspective to a European multiparty system. I find that the evolution of issues such as immigration or crime has reshaped partisan alignments in Denmark as polarization of new issues on the elite level reshapes partisan alignments. Unlike...... two party systems, fringe parties act as catalysts of issue evolution on the elite-level which is then followed by mainstream party adaption and the mass electorate realignment. Applying and refining the issue evolution perspective to a multiparty context, this paper therefore demonstrates its...

  2. Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) Tracking Systems: Costs & Verification Issues (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-10-01

    This document provides information on REC tracking systems: how they are used in the voluntary REC market, a comparison of REC systems fees and information regarding how they treat environmental attributes.

  3. RUSSIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM AND THE ISSUES OF MODERNIZATION OF ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla L. Dyhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A serious imbalance in the development of financial relations generates the lack of integration of the financial system in General-economic system, and as a result, failure to meet its source functions mobilization and redistribution of capital for economic development. Disintegration and inconsistency of Russia's financial system have a negative impact on the modernization of the economy. Transformation of the financial system and its effectiveness is a necessary condition for the innovation economy.

  4. Issues and challenges in the design of curriculum information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacek, G; Friedman, C P

    1995-12-01

    Medical schools are increasingly using curriculum information systems to better manage their curricula, to incorporate alternative learning environments, to expand subject-specific instruction, or to adapt the curricula to the changing health care environment. A curriculum information system contains key features, selected by the system's designers, that describe the objectives, the specific content, and/or the educational activities that compose the curriculum. The underlying purpose of such a system is to document and describe the knowledge, behaviors, skills, attitudes, or activities students will be expected to develop or learn. While it might be ideal to have one system that would meet the needs of all possible users, the programming and maintenance requirements of such a single system would exceed most medical schools' resources. Thus, designers of curriculum information systems must first identify the primary intended-user group: students, faculty, or administrators. The system designed for one group will typically differ from the systems for other groups in the emphasis on and level of content detail and curriculum structure information. The general structure and purposes of curriculum information systems are expressed in three distinct system designs: a curriculum database (most helpful for administrators), a curriculum textbase (for faculty), and an electronic syllabus (for students). The authors describe these different designs, and they discuss challenges faced by system designers.

  5. Factors Associated with Photovoltaic System Costs (Topical Issues Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, J.

    2001-06-12

    A variety of factors can affect the cost of photovoltaic systems. This report analyses the relationship among such factors by using information entered into a voluntary registry of PV systems and performing regression analyses. The results showed statistically significant relationships between photovoltaic system cost and (a) grid connection, (b) installation year, (c) areas where the utility had entered into volume purchasing agreements.

  6. Deployment of Recommender Systems: Operational and Strategic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Abhijeet

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce firms are increasingly adopting recommendation systems to effectively target customers with products and services. The first essay examines the impact that improving a recommender system has on firms that deploy such systems. A market with customers heterogeneous in their search costs is considered. We find that in a monopoly, a firm…

  7. Special Issue: Systems Education for a Sustainable Planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ockie Bosch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world in which complexity characterizes all human endeavors today, such as healthcare, economic development, environmental protection, gender relationships, poverty, mental health, business management and social responsibility (just to name a few. The issues facing our world have become increasingly complex due to the fact that they are embedded in a global web of ecological, economic, social, cultural and political processes and dynamic interactions. These complex problems and challenges cannot anymore be addressed and solved in isolation and with the single dimensional mindsets and tools of the past.

  8. What Parameters Do Students Value in Business School Rankings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Pär; Richtnér, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this paper is the question: Which issues do students think are important when choosing a higher education institution, and how are they related to the factors taken into consideration in ranking institutions? The aim is to identify and rank the parameters students perceive as important when choosing their place of education.…

  9. Reliability issues of free-space communications systems and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.

    2003-04-01

    Free space optics (FSO) is a high-speed point-to-point connectivity solution traditionally used in the enterprise campus networking market for building-to-building LAN connectivity. However, more recently some wire line and wireless carriers started to deploy FSO systems in their networks. The requirements on FSO system reliability, meaing both system availability and component reliability, are far more stringent in the carrier market when compared to the requirements in the enterprise market segment. This paper tries to outline some of the aspects that are important to ensure carrier class system reliability.

  10. Association of bond, market, operational, and financial factors with multi-hospital system bond issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C E; McCue, M J; Hossack, J B

    2001-01-01

    Despite the growth of multi-hospital systems in the 1990s, their performance in the tax-exempt bond market has not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study is to compare bonds issued by multi-hospital systems to those issued by individual hospitals in terms of bond, market, operational, and financial characteristics. The study sample includes 2,078 newly issued, tax-exempt, revenue bonds between 1991 and 1997. The findings indicate that multi-hospital systems issued larger amounts of debt at a lower cost, were more likely to be insured, had higher debt service coverage and higher operating margins.

  11. Issues and achievements of the reproducibility movement in systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Most scientific discoveries rely on previous or other findings.A lack of transparency and openness led to what many consider the "reproducibility crisis" in systems biology and systems medicine. The crisis arose from missing standards and inappropriate support of standards in software tools. As a consequence, numerous results in low- and high-profile publications cannot be reproduced.

  12. An Analysis of Critical Issues in Korean Teacher Evaluation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun; Park, Ji-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Korea has used three different teacher evaluation systems since the 1960s: teacher performance rating, teacher performance-based pay and teacher evaluation for professional development. A number of studies have focused on an analysis of each evaluation system in terms of its advent, development, advantages and disadvantages, but these studies have…

  13. Multistandard Radio Systems: State of the Art and Research Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Berger, Michael Stübert; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    Integration of various wireless standards and building one consistent and compatible broadband system is a trend in wireless communication nowadays. This work focuses on multistandard networks enabling the cooperation between LTE and WiMAX systems. It presents the general vision on multistandard ...

  14. Ranking Baltic States Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using the h-index and the total number of citations, the best 10 Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian researchers from several disciplines are ranked. The list may be formed based on the h-index and the total number of citations, given in Web of Science, Scopus, Publish or Perish Program and Google Scholar database. Data for the first 10 researchers are presented. Google Scholar is the most complete. Therefore, to define a single indicator, h-index calculated by Google Scholar may be a good and simple one. The author chooses the Google Scholar database as it is the broadest one.

  15. Sync-rank: Robust Ranking, Constrained Ranking and Rank Aggregation via Eigenvector and SDP Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    eigenvector of the associated Laplacian matrix (i.e., the Fiedler vector) matches that of the variables. In other words, this approach (reminiscent of...S1), i.e., Dii = ∑n j=1Gi,j is the degree of node i in the measurement graph G. 3: Compute the Fiedler vector of S (eigenvector corresponding to the...smallest nonzero eigenvalue of LS). 4: Output the ranking induced by sorting the Fiedler vector of S, with the global ordering (increasing or decreasing

  16. Human Machine Interface and Usability Issues: Exploring a Preliminary Mission Management System Evaluation Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kardos, Monique

    2001-01-01

    ...) concept demonstrator test during June 2000. The questionnaire was designed to examine usability and interface issues relating to the design of the systems or tools, and to provide suggestions for future iterations of the system...

  17. Rankings from Fuzzy Pairwise Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.; Mohammadian, M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new method for deriving rankings from fuzzy pairwise comparisons. It is based on the observation that quantification of the uncertainty of the pairwise comparisons should be used to obtain a better crisp ranking, instead of a fuzzified version of the ranking obtained from crisp pairwise

  18. University Rankings and Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  19. A CEO View of Key Issues in Australian Information Systems Management - 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research programme on key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by their chief executive officers (CEOs as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The results reported are based on a relatively low response rate (though perhaps reasonable for the target group so should be regarded as only exploratory. The most critical issues were revealed to be a mix of technology management issues (IT infrastructure, disaster recovery, strategic management issues (BPR, competitive advantage, information architecture, people management issues (organisational learning, systems development and data management issues (effective use of the data resource, effectiveness/productivity of IS, effectiveness of software development, and their own support systems (EIS/DSS. This reflects their interest in a wide range of issues, but all with an organisation-wide focus. Non-critical issues were mostly related to the individual technologies and the place and role of IS in the organisation. While the CEOs showed some agreement with their chief information officers (CIOs on issues such as the IT infrastructure, competitive advantage, and organisational learning some distinct differences exist, particularly in relation to the quality and effectiveness of systems and processes and also how CEOs and CIOs perceive each other.

  20. The Immune Response Is Involved in Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification: Could the RANKL/RANK/OPG System Be a Marker of Plaque Instability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Montecucco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherogenesis is characterized by an intense inflammatory process, involving immune and vascular cells. These cells play a crucial role in all phases of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complication through cytokine, protease, and prothrombotic factor secretion. The accumulation of inflammatory cells and thus high amounts of soluble mediators are responsible for the evolution of some plaques to instable phenotype which may lead to rupture. One condition strongly associated with plaque rupture is calcification, a physiopathological process orchestrated by several soluble factors, including the receptor activator of nuclear factor NFκB ligand (RANKL/receptor activator of nuclear factor NFκB (RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG system. Although some studies showed some interesting correlations with acute ischemic events, at present, more evidences are needed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic value of serum sRANKL and OPG levels for clinical use. The major limitation is probably the poor specificity of these factors for cardiovascular disease. The identification of tissue-specific isoforms could increase the importance of sRANKL and OPG in predicting calcified plaque rupture and the dramatic ischemic consequences in the brain and the heart.

  1. Research Issues for Development of Hydrogen Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi

    It is generally considered that use of hydrogen in energy system is attractive because it produces no matters to cause air pollution or water pollution. Following this recognition, research to develop a car with low temperature fuel cell or hydrogen engine is extensively performed. The future energy system where hydrogen is used as the key material is shown in the figure below. To realize this system we must develop 1) the reasonable way to produce electricity or heat by using hydrogen as fuel, 2) the infrastructure to supply hydrogen to whole society, 3) energy sources and methods to produce huge amount of cheap hydrogen with minimum impact on nature, 4) together with assurance of resources to construct the system and 5) establishment of understanding about the basic behavior of hydrogen in various materials.

  2. Distributed Generation in Power Systems: An Overview and Key Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas

    2009-01-01

    The necessity for smart electrical systems having minimum technical loss and environmental impact is providing impetus to go for Distributed Generations (DGs) which may offer several other advantages such as reduced transmission and distribution system resources, increased reliability, better power...... quality, etc. However, depending on the system configuration and management, these advantages may not be true. Moreover, due to structural and managerial changes in the electricity supply industry motivated with introduction of completion, the role of small generations distributed in the low....../medium voltage network has gained importance. This paper adopts a systematic approach by focusing on the most important research areas related to the distributed generations. Various DG technologies are described and penetration of DGs in the Indian system has been discussed. This paper also highlights the key...

  3. Special Issue on Ubiquitous Media Systems: Guest Editors' Introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eusebio Scornavacca; Stefano Za; Kevin Carillo

    2016-01-01

      By gradually blurring physical, social and temporal boundaries ubiquitous media systems allow to deliver new as well as existing online products and services through a multitude of interconnected...

  4. Web document ranking via active learning and kernel principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Chen, Honghui; Shu, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Web document ranking arises in many information retrieval (IR) applications, such as the search engine, recommendation system and online advertising. A challenging issue is how to select the representative query-document pairs and informative features as well for better learning and exploring new ranking models to produce an acceptable ranking list of candidate documents of each query. In this study, we propose an active sampling (AS) plus kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) based ranking model, viz. AS-KPCA Regression, to study the document ranking for a retrieval system, i.e. how to choose the representative query-document pairs and features for learning. More precisely, we fill those documents gradually into the training set by AS such that each of which will incur the highest expected DCG loss if unselected. Then, the KPCA is performed via projecting the selected query-document pairs onto p-principal components in the feature space to complete the regression. Hence, we can cut down the computational overhead and depress the impact incurred by noise simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to perform the document ranking via dimension reductions in two dimensions, namely, the number of documents and features simultaneously. Our experiments demonstrate that the performance of our approach is better than that of the baseline methods on the public LETOR 4.0 datasets. Our approach brings an improvement against RankBoost as well as other baselines near 20% in terms of MAP metric and less improvements using P@K and NDCG@K, respectively. Moreover, our approach is particularly suitable for document ranking on the noisy dataset in practice.

  5. Performance issues in management of the Space Station Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    The onboard segment of the Space Station Information System (SSIS), called the Data Management System (DMS), will consist of a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) token-ring network. The performance of the DMS in scenarios involving two kinds of network management is analyzed. In the first scenario, how the transmission of routine management messages impacts performance of the DMS is examined. In the second scenario, techniques for ensuring low latency of real-time control messages in an emergency are examined.

  6. The Issue Of Water Resources Diversification In Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Janusz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the methodology for determining the diversification degree of water resources in Collective Water Supply Systems (CWSS. Knowing the number of water supply sub-systems and their share in the total supply of water for CWSS, it is possible to calculate the dimensionless Pielou ratio. The paper presents the calculation of the diversification rate for 26 CWSS in Poland. The presented methodology makes it possible to compare CWSS with different water requirements.

  7. Sequential rank agreement methods for comparison of ranked lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jensen, Andreas Kryger

    2015-01-01

    The comparison of alternative rankings of a set of items is a general and prominent task in applied statistics. Predictor variables are ranked according to magnitude of association with an outcome, prediction models rank subjects according to the personalized risk of an event, and genetic studies...... are illustrated using gene rankings, and using data from two Danish ovarian cancer studies where we assess the within and between agreement of different statistical classification methods.......The comparison of alternative rankings of a set of items is a general and prominent task in applied statistics. Predictor variables are ranked according to magnitude of association with an outcome, prediction models rank subjects according to the personalized risk of an event, and genetic studies...

  8. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  9. Compositionality issues in discrete, continuous and hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Arjan; Schumacher, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Models of complex dynamical systems are often built by connecting submodels of smaller parts. The key to this method is the operation of ``interconnection'' or ``composition'' which serves to define the whole in terms of its parts. In the setting of smooth differential equations the composition

  10. Design issues for a Dexter-based hypermedia system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Trigg, Randall H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses experiences and lessons learned from the design of an openhypermedia system, one that integrates applications and data not "owned" bythe hypermedia. The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model [8] was used as thebasis for the design. Though our experiences were generally positive, we...

  11. Developing district health systems in the rural Transvaal Issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Close attention needs to be given to districtlevel health management, the complementary roles of district and regional health authorities, working relationships and accountability among professional staff from different disciplines, involvement of the community in a district health authority and the district health system as an ...

  12. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  13. Psychosocial issues and care for patients with systemic sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jewett, L.R.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Delisle, V.C.; Levis, B.; Thombs, B.D.; Varga, J.; Denton, C.P.; Wigley, F.M.; Allanore, Y.; Kuwana, M.

    2016-01-01

    People living with chronic medical conditions face challenges not only with respect to their physical health but also to their emotional and social well-being. Chronic conditions, such as systemic sclerosis (SSc or scleroderma), often result in significant disruptions to activities of daily living,

  14. Thermohydraulic safety issues for liquid metal cooled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, Gunter; Stefani, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Eckert, Sven

    2016-05-15

    In this paper recent developments of various techniques for single-phase and two-phase flow measurements with relevance to liquid metal cooled systems will be presented. Further, the status of the DRESDYN platform for large-scale experiments with liquid sodium is sketched.

  15. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  16. Issues and challenges of intelligent systems and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pozna, Claudiu; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This carefully edited book contains contributions of prominent and active researchers and scholars in the broadly perceived area of intelligent systems. The book is unique both with respect to the width of coverage of tools and techniques, and to the variety of problems that could be solved by the tools and techniques presented. The editors have been able to gather a very good collection of relevant and original papers by prominent representatives of many areas, relevant both to the theory and practice of intelligent systems, artificial intelligence, computational intelligence, soft computing, and the like. The contributions have been divided into 7 parts presenting first more fundamental and theoretical contributions, and then applications in relevant areas.        

  17. Distributed Issues for Ada Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-23

    distribution of a single Ada program over a network of three Intel 80386 processors connected by an Ethernet. The results of the benchmarks were...Operator Interface (peak data rate of 500Hz) - Using current technology: 32-bit Microprocessors ( 80386 -16MHz) I - Initially a separate program was designated...controlling) CPU and which arc the Slaves. The Master is distinguished from the Slaves in that it is responsible for the distributed system Configuration

  18. Mobile Connectivity and Security Issues for Cloud Informatic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Cătălin Olteanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the importance of new software tools that can be used with mobile devices to make them more secure for the use of day to day business software. Many companies are using mobile applications to access some components to ERP’s or CRM’s remotely. Even the new come, cloud Informatic Systems are using more remote devices than ever. This is why we need to secure somehow these mobile applications.

  19. Power-Electronics Issues of Modern Electric Railway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEIMEL, A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available After de-regulation of the former state-owned railways and severe restructuring of the railway industry in the last 15 years, more innovative vehicle concepts saw the light of the day. Power electronics, already formerly being a pacemaker for progress of traction vehicles, brought forth an utmost standardization of the main drive by means of the IGBT-converter-fed induction motor drive. This is independent of the railway supply voltage system or of a diesel prime mover, for locomotives, high-speed and mass-transit trains as well as for tramways. Vehicles able to operate on all four European railway voltage systems have become feasible and are used now widely. New trends as Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors or Medium-Frequency Transformers are discussed, and a short overlook over actual field-oriented high-performance motor control systems - including a speed-sensorless variant - is given. Power electronics dominates the field of conversion of the 16.7-Hz railway supply power, typical for Central Europe, from the 50-Hz three-phase utility grid.

  20. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-10-31

    The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare.

  1. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Sutherland

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare.

  2. National health management information system: issues of funding and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinde, A D; Soriyan, H A; Makanjuola, R O

    1997-02-01

    Information Technology has made a substantial inroad into Nigerian society, particularly since the late 1980s. It is, however, already being applied in the health sector. The Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), lle-lfe, Nigeria has adopted a systematic approach to the development of a Health Information System (HIS) for a typical specialist hospital. A review of the existing HIS in OAUIHC is presented, highlighting its attributes, problems, and limitations. In addition, the options of funding HIS on a national scale are identified and discussed. Finally, strategies to ensure ongoing support of a national HIS are presented.

  3. Special issue on advancing grid-connected renewable generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    -fuel-based to renewable-based in terms of energy sources, from centralized to decentralized in terms of architectures, and from sole to miscellaneous in terms of energy varieties [1]. In this energy evolution, the power electronic technology plays an enabling role in the integration and advancements of renewables...... application-driven power converters and control techniques for grid-connected renewables have been developed and more are coming into market to further secure the renewable power generation. Stringent demands from both utility system operators and consumers have also been (and are being) imposed on grid...

  4. Security And Privacy Issues in Healthcare Monitoring Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handler, Daniel Tolboe; Hauge, Lotte; Spognardi, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Security and privacy issues are rarely taken into account in automated systems for monitoring elderly people in their home, exposing inhabitants to a number of threats they are usually not aware of. As a case study to expose the major vulnerabilities these systems are exposed to, this paper reviews...... a generic example of automated healthcare monitoring system. The security and privacy issues identified in this case study can be easily generalised and regarded as alarm bells for all the pervasive healthcare professionals....

  5. Security And Privacy Issues in Healthcare Monitoring Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handler, Daniel Tolboe; Hauge, Lotte; Spognardi, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Security and privacy issues are rarely taken into account in automated systems for monitoring elderly people in their home, exposing inhabitants to a number of threats they are usually not aware of. As a case study to expose the major vulnerabilities these systems are exposed to, this paper revie...... a generic example of automated healthcare monitoring system. The security and privacy issues identified in this case study can be easily generalised and regarded as alarm bells for all the pervasive healthcare professionals....

  6. Lunar transfer vehicle design issues with electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes parametric design studies of electric propulsion lunar transfer vehicles. In designing a lunar transfer vehicle, selecting the 'best' operating points for the design parameters allows significant reductions in the mass in low earth orbit (LEO) for the mission. These parameters include the specific impulse, the power level, and the propulsion technology. Many of the decisions regarding the operating points are controlled by the propulsion and power system technologies that are available for the spacecraft. The relationship between these technologies is discussed and analyzed here. It is found that both ion and MPD propulsion offer significant LEO mass reductions over O2/H2 for lunar transfer vehicle missions. The recommended operating points for the lunar transfer vehicle are an I(sp) of 5000 lb(f)-s/lb(m) and a 1 MW power level. For large lunar missions, krypton may be the best choice for ion propulsion.

  7. Low Rank Approximation Algorithms, Implementation, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Markovsky, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Matrix low-rank approximation is intimately related to data modelling; a problem that arises frequently in many different fields. Low Rank Approximation: Algorithms, Implementation, Applications is a comprehensive exposition of the theory, algorithms, and applications of structured low-rank approximation. Local optimization methods and effective suboptimal convex relaxations for Toeplitz, Hankel, and Sylvester structured problems are presented. A major part of the text is devoted to application of the theory. Applications described include: system and control theory: approximate realization, model reduction, output error, and errors-in-variables identification; signal processing: harmonic retrieval, sum-of-damped exponentials, finite impulse response modeling, and array processing; machine learning: multidimensional scaling and recommender system; computer vision: algebraic curve fitting and fundamental matrix estimation; bioinformatics for microarray data analysis; chemometrics for multivariate calibration; ...

  8. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  9. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  10. A review of privacy and usability issues in mobile health systems: Role of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusiime, Jane; Pinkwart, Niels

    2017-10-01

    The increased penetration of mobile devices has created opportunities in the health sector and led to emerging of mobile health systems. As much as the mobile health systems have registered tremendous progress, they have been faced with privacy and usability issues. Due to the sensitivity of health information, there is an ethical need to equip mobile health systems with adequate privacy measures. However, these systems should also be useable by the intended users. Even though many researchers are working on solutions, the issues still persist. External factors such as cultural differences have also contributed to the issues, yet they have been under researched. In this article, we conduct a systematic literature review of 22 articles, categorize and present privacy and usability issues and possible solutions. We then discuss the relevance and implications of external factors to the findings on privacy and usability. We end with recommendations to address these external factors.

  11. Issues in Developing Adaptive Learning Management Systems for Higher Education Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boticario, Jesús; Santos, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Boticario, J. & Santos, O. (2006). Issues in Developing Adaptive Learning Management Systems for Higher Education Institutions. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  12. An Analysis of the Perceptions of "U.S. News and World Report" College Ranking Systems by Enrollment Managers of American Jesuit Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Adam C.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study involves the perceptions held by enrollment managers at the American Jesuit Catholic colleges and universities of national rankings of colleges and universities and the strategic use of this information. Enrollment management emerged within colleges and universities in response to increasing competition for incoming…

  13. Discrimination Level of Students' Ratio, Number of Students per Faculty Member and Article Scores Indicators According to Place of Turkish Universities in International Ranking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Metin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine classification in which the level of accuracy in Turkish universities rankings is detected by the international assessments according to the independent variables PhD students ratio, the number of students per faculty member and the article scores. The data of research were obtained from University Ranking…

  14. The effect of coal rank on the wettability behavior of wet coal system with injection of carbon dioxide and flue gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojaikaveh, N.; Rudolph, E.S.J.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Ashrafizadeh, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) or flue gas into coal layers enhances the coal bed methane production (ECBM) and is also an option for CO2-storage. The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is a function of coal rank, ash content,

  15. Statistical methods for ranking data

    CERN Document Server

    Alvo, Mayer

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces advanced undergraduate, graduate students and practitioners to statistical methods for ranking data. An important aspect of nonparametric statistics is oriented towards the use of ranking data. Rank correlation is defined through the notion of distance functions and the notion of compatibility is introduced to deal with incomplete data. Ranking data are also modeled using a variety of modern tools such as CART, MCMC, EM algorithm and factor analysis. This book deals with statistical methods used for analyzing such data and provides a novel and unifying approach for hypotheses testing. The techniques described in the book are illustrated with examples and the statistical software is provided on the authors’ website.

  16. Small System dynamics models for big issues : Triple jump towards real-world complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2013-01-01

    System Dynamics (SD) is a method to describe, model, simulate and analyze dynamically complex issues and/or systems in terms of the processes, information, organizational boundaries and strategies. Quantitative SD modeling, simulation and analysis facilitates the (re)design of systems and design of

  17. Selected Topics on Enterprise and Automated Systems: Editorial Introduction to Issue 4 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundas Matulevičius

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays enterprise and automated systems play an important role in different business, physical, and social contexts. The fourth issue of the journal Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling Quarterly suggests five challenging studies in this area addressing stakeholder personalities, enterprise actions, business process OR-joint semantics, validation of automated plant control, and safety analysis in complex embedded systems.

  18. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  19. A Methodology for Aggregation of Multiple Criteria Rank-Ordered Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    matrix method by Shannon [217], an extension beyond Shannon by Navarrete , et al. [185], a point system by Smith [2211, a branch and bound algorithm...Science Annual, Vol. 5, New York: The Bobbs Merrill Company, 1974. 36. Shisko, R., A Survey of Solution Concepts for Majority Rule Games, Santa Monica : The...Preferences," lat. Journal of Game Theory- Vol. 4, Issue 2, 1975, p. 95. 185. Navarrete , N. Jr., Fukushima, N., and Mine, H., "A New Ranking Method

  20. Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by RNA interference targeting RANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ruofan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoclasts and osteoblasts regulate bone resorption and formation to allow bone remodeling and homeostasis. The balance between bone resorption and formation is disturbed by abnormal recruitment of osteoclasts. Osteoclast differentiation is dependent on the receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-kappa B (RANK ligand (RANKL as well as the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. The RANKL/RANK system and RANK signaling induce osteoclast formation mediated by various cytokines. The RANK/RANKL pathway has been primarily implicated in metabolic, degenerative and neoplastic bone disorders or osteolysis. The central role of RANK/RANKL interaction in osteoclastogenesis makes RANK an attractive target for potential therapies in treatment of osteolysis. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibition of RANK expression in mouse bone marrow macrophages on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Methods Three pairs of short hairpin RNAs (shRNA targeting RANK were designed and synthesized. The optimal shRNA was selected among three pairs of shRNAs by RANK expression analyzed by Western blot and Real-time PCR. We investigated suppression of osteoclastogenesis of mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs using the optimal shRNA by targeting RANK. Results Among the three shRANKs examined, shRANK-3 significantly suppressed [88.3%] the RANK expression (p Conclusions These findings suggest that retrovirus-mediated shRNA targeting RANK inhibits osteoclast differentiation and osteolysis. It may appear an attractive target for preventing osteolysis in humans with a potential clinical application.

  1. Using incomplete citation data for MEDLINE results ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovic, Jorge R; Bernstam, Elmer V

    2005-01-01

    Information overload is a significant problem for modern medicine. Searching MEDLINE for common topics often retrieves more relevant documents than users can review. Therefore, we must identify documents that are not only relevant, but also important. Our system ranks articles using citation counts and the PageRank algorithm, incorporating data from the Science Citation Index. However, citation data is usually incomplete. Therefore, we explore the relationship between the quantity of citation information available to the system and the quality of the result ranking. Specifically, we test the ability of citation count and PageRank to identify "important articles" as defined by experts from large result sets with decreasing citation information. We found that PageRank performs better than simple citation counts, but both algorithms are surprisingly robust to information loss. We conclude that even an incomplete citation database is likely to be effective for importance ranking.

  2. Balancing exploration and exploitation in learning to rank online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    As retrieval systems become more complex, learning to rank approaches are being developed to automatically tune their parameters. Using online learning to rank approaches, retrieval systems can learn directly from implicit feedback, while they are running. In such an online setting, algorithms need

  3. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  4. An Investigation of the Relationship between University Rankings and Graduate Starting Wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, David

    2014-01-01

    The rise of global university rankings has garnered much attention in recent years. Various ranking systems exist, but all are conceptually similar in that universities are evaluated and ranked on the basis of comparable indicators, with a focus on research performance. Although these rankings are widely criticised as over-simplistic and…

  5. Diffusion of scientific credits and the ranking of scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Radicchi, Filippo; Fortunato, Santo; Markines, Benjamin; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the abundance of digital data enabled the implementation of graph based ranking algorithms that provide system level analysis for ranking publications and authors. Here we take advantage of the entire Physical Review publication archive (1893-2006) to construct authors' networks where weighted edges, as measured from opportunely normalized citation counts, define a proxy for the mechanism of scientific credit transfer. On this network we define a ranking method based on a diffusion ...

  6. Beyond Zipf's Law: The Lavalette Rank Function and its Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanelli, Oscar; Yang, Yaning; Cocho, Germinal; Li, Wentian

    2016-01-01

    Although Zipf's law is widespread in natural and social data, one often encounters situations where one or both ends of the ranked data deviate from the power-law function. Previously we proposed the Beta rank function to improve the fitting of data which does not follow a perfect Zipf's law. Here we show that when the two parameters in the Beta rank function have the same value, the Lavalette rank function, the probability density function can be derived analytically. We also show both computationally and analytically that Lavalette distribution is approximately equal, though not identical, to the lognormal distribution. We illustrate the utility of Lavalette rank function in several datasets. We also address three analysis issues on the statistical testing of Lavalette fitting function, comparison between Zipf's law and lognormal distribution through Lavalette function, and comparison between lognormal distribution and Lavalette distribution.

  7. Subjective and objective image qualities: a comparison of sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo and turbo-spin-eco sequences in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine by use of a subjective ranking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, G. [Institut fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Departement Radiologie, Universitaetskliniken, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Mader, I. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Siems, Grossmann, Bayreuth (Germany); Proske, M. [Klinikum Rosenheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    1998-12-31

    We evaluated the subjective image impression of two different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences by using a subjective ranking system. This ranking system was based on 20 criteria describing several tissue characteristics such as the signal intensity of normal anatomical structures and the changes of signal intensities and shape of lesions as well as artefacts. MR of the vertebral spine was performed in 48 female and 52 male patients (mean age 44.8 years) referred consecutively for investigation of a back problem. Ninety-six pathologies were found in 82 patients. Sagittal and axial T1 weighted spin-echo before and after administration of Gadolinium (Gd-DOTA), and sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo (T2wSE) and Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences were performed by means of surface coils. Using the subjective ranking system the sagittal T2wSE and sagittal TSE were compared. Both sequences were suitable for identification of normal anatomy and pathologic changes and there was no trend for increased detection of disease by one imaging sequence over the other. We found that sagittal TSE sequences can replace sagittal T2wSE sequences in spinal MR and that artefacts at the cervical and lumbar spine are less frequent using TSE, thus confirming previous studies. In this study, our ranking system reveiled, that there are differences between the subjective judgement of image qualities and objective measurement of SNR. However, this approach may not be helpful to compare two different MR sequences as it is limited to the anatomical area investigated and is time consuming. The subjective image impression, i.e. the quality of images, may not always be represented by physical parameters such as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), radiologists should try to define influences of image quality also by subjective parameters. (orig.)

  8. Extraction of human factors issues caused by application of the advanced HSI technology and development of human factor issue management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Oh, In Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive literature survey was performed in this study to collect human performance issues related to the advanced HSI design features. The literature from not only nuclear industry but also other industries was collected and reviewed. The issues were categorized into the following advanced HSI design features: devices characteristics, levels of automation, information design and management, display management, computerized controls, alarm systems, computerized procedures, staffing and crew coordination, and operator support systems. The classified issues were described with the description framework. Then, the relationship of issues to HSI design process such as human factors analyses, human factors design, and human factors verification and validation was investigated. Finally, the issue management system of server-client environment was developed using Microsoft's Active Server Page technology and Access 97. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs.

  9. DC microgrids providing frequency regulation in electrical power system - imperfect communication issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bašić, Hrvoje; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model of multiple DC microgrids with battery energy storage systems and demand response capability, taking part in primary frequency regulation of electrical power system. Although DC microgrids can contribute to stability and efficiency of frequency regulation, these complex...... systems may cause serious stability issues due to the imperfect communication. This work presents possible scenarios of unstable primary frequency regulation in a simplified model of electrical power system with DC microgrids, which are controlled through communication network....

  10. Distribution System White Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA worked with stakeholders and developed a series of white papers on distribution system issues ranked of potentially significant public health concern (see list below) to serve as background material for EPA, expert and stakeholder discussions.

  11. [Critical research issues in nursing policy and management: a healthcare system perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Wen-Yi; Hung, Chin-Tun; Hsu, Ming-Yi

    2011-06-01

    This study explores critical research issues in nursing policy and management in Taiwan from a healthcare system perspective that considers resources, programmes and organisations, service delivery, policy and management, and economic support. Findings suggest the following: In terms of resources, priority issues include quantity planning, active surveillance, planning methodology, and estimation of work life expectancies for nursing manpower. In terms of programmes ÷ organisations and delivery, priority issues include skill mix, task shifting, nationwide nursing work surveys, and nursing manpower structure and utilization. In terms of policy/management and economic support, priority issues included minimum nursing manpower requirements by law or medical institution standards and the relationship between the social insurance payment system and development of the nursing profession. The last section of this paper makes suggestions on practical ways to improve nursing policy and management research in Taiwan.

  12. Dynamic security issues in autonomous power systems with increasing wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, I.D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2011-01-01

    Asynchronous Generator (DFAG) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) – are applied and issues regarding interaction with the power system are investigated. This paper provides conclusions about the dynamic security of non-interconnected power systems with high wind power penetration based...

  13. Intrinsic information Security: Embedding security issues in the design process of telematics systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tettero, Olaf; Tettero, O.

    This book presents a systematic approach to embed information security issues in the design process of telematics systems. The approach supports both designers and user organisations. We elaborate on the activities that designers should perform to design telematics systems in which information

  14. Some human factors issues in the development and evaluation of cockpit alerting and warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Larsen, W. E.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A set of general guidelines for evaluating a newly developed cockpit alerting and warning system in terms of human factors issues are provided. Although the discussion centers around a general methodology, it is made specifically to the issues involved in alerting systems. An overall statement of the current operational problem is presented. Human factors problems with reference to existing alerting and warning systems are described. The methodology for proceeding through system development to system test is discussed. The differences between traditional human factors laboratory evaluations and those required for evaluation of complex man-machine systems under development are emphasized. Performance evaluation in the alerting and warning subsystem using a hypothetical sample system is explained.

  15. Volatile constraints on the magma supply, dynamics and plumbing system of a top-ranking basaltic gas emitter: Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    P. Allard1,2, A. Aiuppa3,4, P. Bani5, N. Métrich1,6, A. Bertagnini6, M. Burton7, P-J. Gauthier5, F. Parello3, H. Shinohara8, G. Sawyer9, E. Bagnato3, E. Garaebiti10 1IPGP, UMR7154 CNRS, Paris France; 2INGV, Sezione di Catania, Italy; 3DiSTEM, Palermo University, Italy; 4INGV, Sezione di Palermo, Italy; 5LMV-OPGC, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 6INGV, Sezione di Pisa, Italy; 7SEAES, University of Manchester, UK; 8Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; 9Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, UK; 10GEOHAZARD, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Ambrym basaltic volcano (central Vanuatu arc) is one of the most active volcanic systems of the Southwest Pacific region, where recurrent lava lake activity sustains voluminous gas release from two main cones, Benbow and Marum, in a 12 km-wide summit caldera. In 2007-2008 we could perform the first detailed investigations of gas emissions from this very active but remote and hardly accessible intra-oceanic arc volcano, combining ground-based and airborne measurements and using both in situ and remote sensing tools. The degassing budget of major, minor, trace and radioactive volatile species reveals that Ambrym ranks amongst the three most powerful persistent emitters of magmatic volatiles at global scale [1]. Coupled with the analysis of dissolved volatiles in the feeding basalt (olivine-hosted melt inclusions), the gas emission rates imply a very high average magma supply/degassing rate of 25 m3/s - 6 times the rate at Mount Etna - from a reservoir emplaced at about 4 km depth beneath the caldera floor. The chemical composition of emitted volcanic gases is compatible with dominant closed-system ascent and degassing of the basalt, followed by open degassing at shallow depth as water exsolution becomes extensive. The modest time-averaged extrusion rate, estimated from caldera infilling over the past 2 ka, requires convective downward recycling of the denser degassed magma in conduits with diameter of order 10 m. High resolution OP

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Bratton, Rob [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Marsden, Barry [University of Manchester, UK; Srinivasan, Makuteswara [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Penfield, Scott [Technology Insights; Mitchell, Mark [PBMR (Pty) Ltd.; Windes, Will [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2008-03-01

    Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version [a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version [a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV

  17. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems` environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I&C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I&C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I&C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software.

  18. A technical survey on issues of the PSA of digital I and C system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. G.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Park, J. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K

    2000-02-01

    This report describes the review results of the safety assessment and reliability analysis techniques of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. The techniques are far from that of analog I and C systems because of the characteristics of digital systems. This report categorizes the current issues related to the safety assessment of digital I and C systems into three groups as follows: 1. The methodologies which could integrate the characteristics of hardware and that of software. 2. The methodologies which effectively represent safety improvement due to the fault-tolerant mechanisms embedded in digital I and C systems. 3. The methodologies which could effectively represent the phased-mission systems. (author)

  19. Some Practical Issues in the Application of Lean Six Sigma to Service Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Thong-Ngee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma as a quality improvement framework has gained considerable popularity in the past two decades. Its extension Lean Six Sigma has also been embraced by many organizations for improvement of quality and business competitiveness. One important factor for the popularity of Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma is their potential for improving service systems, in contrast to the conventional perceptions that only manufacturing systems can benefit from statistics-based methodologies. There are however a number of issues related to the nature of service systems that must be resolved before the full benefits of Lean Six Sigma can be realized. In this paper, these issues are discussed from a practical point of view from three angles: analytical, organizational, and personal. Awareness of the existence of such issues, if not the answers to all of them, is a pre-requisite to effective adoption of Lean Six Sigma tools.

  20. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Deshan Tang; Melissa Pilgrim; Jinan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quanti...

  1. Special Issue: New trends and applications on hybrid artificial intelligence systems

    OpenAIRE

    Corchado Rodríguez, Emilio; Graña Romay, Manuel; Woźniak, Michał

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue is an outgrowth of the HAIS'10, the 5th International Conference on Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems, which was held in San Sebastián, Spain, 23–25 June 2010. The HAIS conference series is devoted to the presentation of innovative techniques involving the hybridization of emerging and active topics in data mining and decision support systems, information fusion, evolutionary computation, visualization techniques, ensemble models, intelligent agent-based systems (compl...

  2. PageRank of integers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, K. M.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-10-01

    We up a directed network tracing links from a given integer to its divisors and analyze the properties of the Google matrix of this network. The PageRank vector of this matrix is computed numerically and it is shown that its probability is approximately inversely proportional to the PageRank index thus being similar to the Zipf law and the dependence established for the World Wide Web. The spectrum of the Google matrix of integers is characterized by a large gap and a relatively small number of nonzero eigenvalues. A simple semi-analytical expression for the PageRank of integers is derived that allows us to find this vector for matrices of billion size. This network provides a new PageRank order of integers.

  3. Review on Malaysian Rail Transit Operation and Management System: Issues and Solution in Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Salin, Aminah Mohd; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Martin, David; Samsuddin, Norshakina

    2017-08-01

    In any context, operation and management of transportation systems are key issues which may affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transportation system may help abate the negative externalities of private car use such as congestion, air and noise pollution, accident and fuel consumption, without excessively penalizing user travel times or zone accessibility. Thus, this study is conducted to appraise the Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system, which are considered important as there are many issues and solution in integration of the services that need to be tackled more conscientiously. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the most important issues on integration of services and rail transit system in Malaysian and how to solve or reduce these problems and conflicts. In this paper, it consists of the historical development of rail transit construction in Malaysia. This paper also attempts to identify the important issues related to rail transit services and integration in Malaysian rural rail operation and management system. Comparison is also conducted with other countries such as UK, France, and Japan. Finally, a critical analysis is presented in this paper by looking at the possible application for future Malaysian rail transit operation system and management, especially focusing on enhancing the quality of Malaysian rural rail transit. In conclusion, this paper is expected to successfully review and appraise the existing Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system pertaining to issues & solution in integration. It is also hoped that reformation or transformation of present service delivery quality of the rail transit operation and management will enable Malaysia to succeed in transforming Malaysian transportation system to greater heights.

  4. Ranking by Medians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Brian Martin describes a difficult committee meeting he once attended which consisted of one representative from each department. When the meeting ended it left a bitter taste for many who participated. Having learned from this experience, Martin became a chair of the committee and tried a new system that overcame many of the previous problems.…

  5. Biology of RANK, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Brendan F; Xing, Lianping

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system and its role in the regulation of bone resorption exemplifies how both serendipity and a logic-based approach can identify factors that regulate cell function. Before this discovery in the mid to late 1990s, it had long been recognized that osteoclast formation was regulated by factors expressed by osteoblast/stromal cells, but it had not been anticipated that members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands and receptors would be involved or that the factors involved would have extensive functions beyond bone remodeling. RANKL/RANK signaling regulates the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts from their precursors as well as their activation and survival in normal bone remodeling and in a variety of pathologic conditions. OPG protects the skeleton from excessive bone resorption by binding to RANKL and preventing it from binding to its receptor, RANK. Thus, RANKL/OPG ratio is an important determinant of bone mass and skeletal integrity. Genetic studies in mice indicate that RANKL/RANK signaling is also required for lymph node formation and mammary gland lactational hyperplasia, and that OPG also protects arteries from medial calcification. Thus, these tumor necrosis factor superfamily members have important functions outside bone. Although our understanding of the mechanisms whereby they regulate osteoclast formation has advanced rapidly during the past 10 years, many questions remain about their roles in health and disease. Here we review our current understanding of the role of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in bone and other tissues. PMID:17634140

  6. RANK and RANK ligand expression in primary human osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Branstetter

    2015-09-01

    Our results demonstrate RANKL expression was observed in the tumor element in 68% of human OS using IHC. However, the staining intensity was relatively low and only 37% (29/79 of samples exhibited≥10% RANKL positive tumor cells. RANK expression was not observed in OS tumor cells. In contrast, RANK expression was clearly observed in other cells within OS samples, including the myeloid osteoclast precursor compartment, osteoclasts and in giant osteoclast cells. The intensity and frequency of RANKL and RANK staining in OS samples were substantially less than that observed in GCTB samples. The observation that RANKL is expressed in OS cells themselves suggests that these tumors may mediate an osteoclastic response, and anti-RANKL therapy may potentially be protective against bone pathologies in OS. However, the absence of RANK expression in primary human OS cells suggests that any autocrine RANKL/RANK signaling in human OS tumor cells is not operative, and anti-RANKL therapy would not directly affect the tumor.

  7. Trachomatous Scar Ranking: A Novel Outcome for Trachoma Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Angela; Ryner, Alexander M; Tadesse, Zerihun; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Callahan, Kelly; Fry, Dionna M; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Lietman, Thomas M; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-06-01

    AbstractWe evaluated a new trachoma scarring ranking system with potential use in clinical research. The upper right tarsal conjunctivas of 427 individuals from Ethiopian villages with hyperendemic trachoma were photographed. An expert grader first assigned a scar grade to each photograph using the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. Then, all photographs were ranked from least (rank = 1) to most scarring (rank = 427). Photographic grading found 79 (18.5%) conjunctivae without scarring (C0), 191 (44.7%) with minimal scarring (C1), 105 (24.6%) with moderate scarring (C2), and 52 (12.2%) with severe scarring (C3). The ranking method demonstrated good internal validity, exhibiting a monotonic increase in the median rank across the levels of the 1981 WHO grading system. Intrarater repeatability was better for the ranking method (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74-0.94). Exhibiting better internal and external validity, this ranking method may be useful for evaluating the difference in scarring between groups of individuals.

  8. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  9. Dominance as adaptive stressing and ranking of males, serving to allocate reproduction by differential self-suppressed fertility: towards a fully biological understanding of social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, Steve

    2009-07-01

    Dominance is a biological concept of an asymmetric 'power' relationship between (any pair of) individuals, as a result of previous encounters with others biasing likelihood of contesting. That this requires dedicated neural structure shows that dominance is adaptive; and it is usually thought that fitness is increased through dominance (hierarchy) minimising mutually unproductive contest over resources, and/or determining access to or control over resources. But highly inconsistent data indicates that this operational definition is too wide, and given clear evidence that dominance is invariably same-sex, it would seem instead to function primarily to allocate reproduction. Dominance contest exposes individual differences in metabolic vigor especially, but also in various other, including sophisticated attributes; and by a self-organising process there is ranking of same-sex individuals in a hierarchy. But this achieves nothing in itself without an integral mechanism of corresponding individual variable self-suppression of the physiology re reproduction--and mate choice with rank as the criteria. Reproductive suppression would appear to vary along a continuum, from in some species (most 'cooperative breeders') a 100% reproductive skew with total suppression of all individuals bar the sole breeder to, in most others, a gradient down the length of the dominance hierarchy. The mechanism in most species is directly either hormonal or pheromonal, on top of an indirect consequence of the stress caused by relatively low rank. Dominance would seem to have evolved as a major instrument of the proposed 'genetic filter' function of the male, whereby in effect accumulated deleterious genetic material is 'quarantined' in the male half of the lineage from where it is purged, so as to keep this source of reproductive logjam away from females, thereby to avoid amplifying the problem of the female being necessarily the limiting factor in reproduction. The theory makes predictions

  10. Power System Technical Performance Issues related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, W.; der Sluis, L.V.; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...

  11. Introduction to Focus Issue: statistical mechanics and billiard-type dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Edson D; Beims, Marcus W; Bunimovich, Leonid A

    2012-06-01

    Dynamical systems of the billiard type are of fundamental importance for the description of numerous phenomena observed in many different fields of research, including statistical mechanics, Hamiltonian dynamics, nonlinear physics, and many others. This Focus Issue presents the recent progress in this area with contributions from the mathematical as well as physical stand point.

  12. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroglu, Baris; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content…

  13. Comparison of vocabularies, representations and ranking algorithms for gene prioritization by text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi; Van Vooren, Steven; Tranchevent, Leon-Charles; De Moor, Bart; Moreau, Yves

    2008-08-15

    Computational gene prioritization methods are useful to help identify susceptibility genes potentially being involved in genetic disease. Recently, text mining techniques have been applied to extract prior knowledge from text-based genomic information sources and this knowledge can be used to improve the prioritization process. However, the effect of various vocabularies, representations and ranking algorithms on text mining for gene prioritization is still an issue that requires systematic and comparative studies. Therefore, a benchmark study about the vocabularies, representations and ranking algorithms in gene prioritization by text mining is discussed in this article. We investigated 5 different domain vocabularies, 2 text representation schemes and 27 linear ranking algorithms for disease gene prioritization by text mining. We indexed 288 177 MEDLINE titles and abstracts with the TXTGate text pro.ling system and adapted the benchmark dataset of the Endeavour gene prioritization system that consists of 618 disease-causing genes. Textual gene pro.les were created and their performance for prioritization were evaluated and discussed in a comparative manner. The results show that inverse document frequency-based representation of gene term vectors performs better than the term-frequency inverse document-frequency representation. The eVOC and MESH domain vocabularies perform better than Gene Ontology, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man's and London Dysmorphology Database. The ranking algorithms based on 1-SVM, Standard Correlation and Ward linkage method provide the best performance. The MATLAB code of the algorithm and benchmark datasets are available by request. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. CNN-based ranking for biomedical entity normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haodi; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Hua; Wang, Baohua; Huang, Dong

    2017-10-03

    Most state-of-the-art biomedical entity normalization systems, such as rule-based systems, merely rely on morphological information of entity mentions, but rarely consider their semantic information. In this paper, we introduce a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem and benefits from semantic information of biomedical entities. The CNN-based ranking method first generates candidates using handcrafted rules, and then ranks the candidates according to their semantic information modeled by CNN as well as their morphological information. Experiments on two benchmark datasets for biomedical entity normalization show that our proposed CNN-based ranking method outperforms traditional rule-based method with state-of-the-art performance. We propose a CNN architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem. Comparison results show that semantic information is beneficial to biomedical entity normalization and can be well combined with morphological information in our CNN architecture for further improvement.

  15. Channelization Issues with Fairness Considerations for MU-MIMO Precoding Based UTRA-LTE/TDD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Wang, Yuanye; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    evaluated the resource allocation fairness issue when two well-known linear MU-MIMO precoding is used on a UTRA-LTE system. User grouping issue is dealt with when SDMA component is considered in the system. The results in this work provides an indicative analysis of the usability of different channelization......In a pre-coded Multi User Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) system, the channelization can be done either by using any of the two basic access techniques, namely Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA), or by combining them. From...... resource allocation point of view, choice of any technique will require different fairness conditions among users. In this paper, we have studied these different fairness conditions when combined with basic or joint access schemes mentioned above, while applied in a MU-MIMO based UTRA-LTE system. We have...

  16. Capacity and System Design Issues for Aeronautical Broadband Communications via Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Markus; Gomez, Daniel Ratto; Battaglia, Lorenzo

    2003-07-01

    The paper discusses various system aspects of future aeronautical services via satellite. Both, commercial aeronautical broadband satellite communications (AirCom) for passengers and air traffic management (ATM) are considered. An integrated global system design approach is presented, and key R&D issues along this path are discussed. Some focus is laid on geographic satellite coverage and constellation alternatives. A capacity dimensioning method for global aeronautical communications is developed, using a global flight database, and numerical results from computer simulations are presented.

  17. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  18. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-08-01

    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  19. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

  20. Research Survey on Various MPPT Performance Issues to Improve the Solar PV System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pakkiraiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in order to meet the increase in power demands and to reduce the global warming, renewable energy sources based system is used. Out of the various renewable energy sources, solar energy is the main alternative. But, compared to other sources, the solar panel system converts only 30–40% of solar irradiation into electrical energy. In order to get maximum output from a PV panel system, an extensive research has been underway for long time so as to access the performance of PV system and to investigate the various issues related to the use of solar PV system effectively. This paper therefore presents different types of PV panel systems, maximum power point tracking control algorithms, power electronic converters usage with control aspects, various controllers, filters to reduce harmonic content, and usage of battery system for PV system. Attempts have been made to highlight the current and future issues involved in the development of PV system with improved performance. A list of 185 research publications on this is appended for reference.

  1. ECG Sensor Verification System with Mean-Interval Algorithm for Handling Sport Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Kun Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of biometric verification, we proposed a new algorithm and personal mobile sensor card system for ECG verification. The proposed new mean-interval approach can identify the user quickly with high accuracy and consumes a small amount of flash memory in the microprocessor. The new framework of the mobile card system makes ECG verification become a feasible application to overcome the issues of a centralized database. For a fair and comprehensive evaluation, the experimental results have been tested on public MIT-BIH ECG databases and our circuit system; they confirm that the proposed scheme is able to provide excellent accuracy and low complexity. Moreover, we also proposed a multiple-state solution to handle the heat rate changes of sports problem. It should be the first to address the issue of sports in ECG verification.

  2. Security And Privacy Issues in Health Monitoring Systems: eCare@Home Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wearing, Thomas; Dragoni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Automated systems for monitoring elderly people in their home are becoming more and more common. Indeed, an increasing number of home sensor networks for healthcare can be found in the recent literature, indicating a clear research direction in smart homes for health-care. Although the huge amount...... of sensitive data these systems deal with and expose to the external world, security and privacy issues are surpris-ingly not taken into consideration. The aim of this paper is to raise some key security and privacy issues that home health monitor systems should face with. The analysis is based on a real world...... monitoring sensor network for healthcare built in the context of the eCare@Home project....

  3. Ranking species in mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2015-02-02

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm--similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity--here we propose a method which--by exploiting their nested architecture--allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.

  4. University rankings in computer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehret, Philip; Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Gipp, Bela

    2017-01-01

    This is a research-in-progress paper concerning two types of institutional rankings, the Leiden and QS World ranking, and their relationship to a list of universities’ ‘geo-based’ impact scores, and Computing Research and Education Conference (CORE) participation scores in the field of computer...... science. A ‘geo-based’ impact measure examines the geographical distribution of incoming citations to a particular university’s journal articles for a specific period of time. It takes into account both the number of citations and the geographical variability in these citations. The CORE participation...... score is calculated on the basis of the number of weighted proceedings papers that a university has contributed to either an A*, A, B, or C conference as ranked by the Computing Research and Education Association of Australasia. In addition to calculating the correlations between the distinct university...

  5. Forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases--part 1: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C; Geffner, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This article introduces the first in a two-part special issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. The five articles contained in this issue include a diversity of perspectives on approaches to extended interviews and evaluations of child sexual abuse suspicions, an exploration of the ways culture affects child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, considerations relevant to the management of a child's mental health needs while forensic process are ongoing, and the use of anatomical dolls in forensic interviews. We call for attention to several practice areas, including (a) prioritizing a child's mental health needs while minimizing disruption of forensic processes, (b) developing best practices and models of child sexual abuse assessment and evaluation when a one-session forensic interview is insufficient, (c) appropriately evaluating child sexual abuse concerns when they occur without a disclosure and/or in children with communication limitations, and (d) the integration of cultural sensitivity into interviews and evaluations.

  6. Issues associated with a total systems approach to designing dependable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    A total system approach, developed by the nuclear-reactor-safety community, is extrapolated to the design of complex, critical systems. The essential properties of these systems are described, and a generic paradigm for subsequent designs is proposed.

  7. Selected Topics on Managing Complexity and Information Systems Engineering: Editorial Introduction to Issue 8 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Forbrig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business process models greatly contribute to analyze and understand the activities of enterprises. However, it is still a challenge to cope with the complexity of systems specifications and their requirements. This issue of the journal of Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling (CSIMQ presents papers that discuss topics on managing complexity and information systems engineering. The papers are extended versions of selected papers from the workshop on Continuous Requirements Engineering held at the requirements engineering conference REFSQ 2016 in Gothenburg, the workshop on Managed Complexity held at the business informatics conference BIR 2016 in Prague, and the CAiSE 2016 Forum held in Ljubljana.

  8. Environmental Durability Issues for Solar Power Systems in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Smith, Daniela C.

    1994-01-01

    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  9. Review of legal and institutional issues in the use of decentralized solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    1980-04-01

    The legal and institutional issues involved in the use of decentralized solar energy systems are examined for the purpose of advising government planners and policymakers, the solar industry, solar researchers, and prospective solar users of present and potential impediments and incentives to solar commercialization. This information was gathered primarily through a comprehensive literature review, with supplementary data provided through interviews with representatives of organizations active in the solar field. Five major issue areas were identified in the course of this study: (1) prohibitions on the use of solar equipment, (2) regulation of the production and placement of solar systems, (3) access to sunlight, (4) financial incentives and impediments to the use of solar technologies, and (5) the public utility-solar user interface. Each can be important in its impacts on the incidence of solar usage. The major actors involved with the issues identified above represent both the private and public sectors. Important private sector participants include solar manufacturers and installers, labor unions, lending institutions, utility companies, solar users themselves, and other community property owners. In the public sector, local, state, and federal governments are all capable of acting in ways that can influence the solar commercialization effort. Implementation options are available for all levels of government seeking to take an active role in addressing the previously mentioned legal and institutional issues. The appropriate actions will vary from federal to state to local governments, but each level can be important in removing existing barriers and creating new incentives for solar use.

  10. Authenticated Blind Issuing of Symmetric Keys for Mobile Access Control System without Trusted Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile authentication can be used to verify a mobile user’s identity. Normally this is accomplished through the use of logon passwords, but this can raise the secret-key agreement problem between entities. This issue can be resolved by using a public-key cryptosystem, but mobile devices have limited computation ability and battery capacity and a PKI is needed. In this paper, we propose an efficient, non-PKI, authenticated, and blind issued symmetric key protocol for mobile access control systems. An easy-to-deploy authentication and authenticated key agreement system is designed such that empowered mobile devices can directly authorize other mobile devices to exchange keys with the server upon authentication using a non-PKI system without trusted parties. Empowered mobile users do not know the key value of the other mobile devices, preventing users from impersonating other individuals. Also, for security considerations, this system can revoke specific keys or keys issued by a specific user. The scheme is secure, efficient, and feasible and can be implemented in existing environments.

  11. Deep Impact: Unintended consequences of journal rank

    CERN Document Server

    Brembs, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Much has been said about the increasing bureaucracy in science, stifling innovation, hampering the creativity of researchers and incentivizing misconduct, even outright fraud. Many anecdotes have been recounted, observations described and conclusions drawn about the negative impact of impact assessment on scientists and science. However, few of these accounts have drawn their conclusions from data, and those that have typically relied on a few studies. In this review, we present the most recent and pertinent data on the consequences that our current scholarly communication system has had on various measures of scientific quality (such as utility/citations, methodological soundness, expert ratings and retractions). These data confirm previous suspicions: using journal rank as an assessment tool is bad scientific practice. Moreover, the data lead us to argue that any journal rank (not only the currently-favored Impact Factor) would have this negative impact. Therefore, we suggest that abandoning journals altoge...

  12. Selected Topics on Advanced Information Systems Engineering: Editorial Introduction to the Issue 5 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Grabis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5th issue of the journal on Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling (CSIMQ presents extended versions of five papers selected from the CAiSE Forum 2015. The forum was part of the 27th edition of international Conference on Advanced Information Systems engineering (CAiSE 2015, which took place in June 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. Information systems engineering draws its foundation from various interrelated disciplines including, e.g., conceptual modeling, database systems, business process management, requirements engineering, human computer interaction, and enterprise computing to address various practical challenges in development and application of information systems. The guiding subjects of CAiSE 2015 were Creativity, Ability, and Integrity. The CAiSE Forum aimed at presenting and discussing new ideas and tools related to information systems Engineering.

  13. Ranking Practice Variability in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation: So Bad, It's "Good".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen Osborn, Megan; Mattson, James; Yanuck, Justin; Anderson, Craig; Tekian, Ara; Fox, John Christian; Harris, Ilene B

    2016-11-01

    To examine the variability among medical schools in ranking systems used in medical student performance evaluations (MSPEs). The authors reviewed MSPEs from U.S. MD-granting medical schools received by the University of California, Irvine emergency medicine and internal medicine residency programs during 2012-2013 and 2014-2015. They recorded whether the school used a ranking system, the type of ranking system used, the size and description of student categories, the location of the ranking statement and category legend, and whether nonranking schools used language suggestive of rank. Of the 134 medical schools in the study sample, the majority (n = 101; 75%) provided ranks for students in the MSPE. Most of the ranking schools (n = 63; 62%) placed students into named category groups, but the number and size of groups varied. The most common descriptors used for these 63 schools' top, second, third, and lowest groups were "outstanding," "excellent," "very good," and "good," respectively, but each of these terms was used across a broad range of percentile ranks. Student ranks and school category legends were found in various locations. Many of the 33 schools that did not rank students included language suggestive of rank. There is extensive variation in ranking systems used in MSPEs. Program directors may find it difficult to use MSPEs to compare applicants, which may diminish the MSPE's value in the residency application process and negatively affect high-achieving students. A consistent approach to ranking students would benefit program directors, students, and student affairs officers.

  14. Rank distributions: Frequency vs. magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationship between two different types of ranked data, frequencies and magnitudes. We consider data that can be sorted out either way, through numbers of occurrences or size of the measures, as it is the case, say, of moon craters, earthquakes, billionaires, etc. We indicate that these two types of distributions are functional inverses of each other, and specify this link, first in terms of the assumed parent probability distribution that generates the data samples, and then in terms of an analog (deterministic) nonlinear iterated map that reproduces them. For the particular case of hyperbolic decay with rank the distributions are identical, that is, the classical Zipf plot, a pure power law. But their difference is largest when one displays logarithmic decay and its counterpart shows the inverse exponential decay, as it is the case of Benford law, or viceversa. For all intermediate decay rates generic differences appear not only between the power-law exponents for the midway rank decline but also for small and large rank. We extend the theoretical framework to include thermodynamic and statistical-mechanical concepts, such as entropies and configuration.

  15. Rankings Methodology Hurts Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Werf, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In the 1980s, when the "U.S. News & World Report" rankings of colleges were based solely on reputation, the nation's public universities were well represented at the top. However, as soon as the magazine began including its "measures of excellence," statistics intended to define quality, public universities nearly disappeared from the top. As the…

  16. Let Us Rank Journalism Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unlike law, business, and medical schools, as well as universities in general, journalism schools and journalism programs have rarely been ranked. Publishers such as "U.S. News & World Report," "Forbes," "Bloomberg Businessweek," and "Washington Monthly" do not pay them much mind. What is the best…

  17. Thermal power systems small power systems application project: Siting issues for solar thermal power plants with small community applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbeck, H. J.; Ireland, S. J.

    1979-01-01

    The siting issues associated with small, dispersed solar thermal power plants for utility/small community applications of less than 10 MWe are reported. Some specific requirements are refered to the first engineering experiment for the Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project. The background for the subsequent issue discussions is provided. The SPSA Project and the requirements for the first engineering experiment are described, and the objectives and scope for the report as a whole. A overview of solar thermal technologies and some technology options are discussed.

  18. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  19. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. The Globalization of College and University Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, accountability, and benchmarking, university rankings have achieved a kind of iconic status. The major ones--the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU, or the "Shanghai rankings"), the QS (Quacquarelli Symonds Limited) World University Rankings, and the "Times Higher Education" World…

  1. Issues and Considerations regarding Sharable Data Sets for Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Bogers, Toine; Vuorikari, Riina

    2010-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of missing standardised data sets for recommender systems in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) that can be used as benchmarks to compare different recommendation approaches. It discusses how suitable data sets could be created according to some initial suggestions...... elaboration of a representation and exchange format for sharable TEL data sets is carried out. The paper concludes with future research needs....

  2. Performance and LHC beam stability issue related to Q/Q' diagnostics and feedback systems

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, Ralph J

    2010-01-01

    The baseline tune (Q) and chromaticity (Q’) diagnostics and associated feedback systems played a crucial role during the LHC commissioning, in establishing circulating beam, the first ramps and their fill-to-fill feed-forward correction. Early on, they also allowed to identify issues such as the residual tune stability, beam spectrum interferences and beam-beam effects – all of which may impact beam lifetimes and thus need to be addressed in view of nominal LHC operation.

  3. Issues of Information and Communication for New Managerial Approaches: the Challenges of the French Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Bourret, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Faced with the crisis of the Welfare State, France insists on a new territorialization of Health management and develops tools based on ICT (Information and Communication Technologies). This crisis also concerns the methods of management and trust between all the actors. Informational and communicational issues exist at different levels of the system with the challenges of traceability and interoperability. New uses of information for new managerial approaches can be considered, using inte...

  4. Computervermittelte Kommunikation in der Stadtplanung. Unterstützung formaler Beteiligungsverfahren durch Issue Based Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Märker, O.

    1999-01-01

    Computer-Mediated Communication in Urban Planning - Supporting Formal Participation Processes with Issue Based In formation Systems A "new planning culture" is increasingly practiced in urban planning. New forms of participation initiate and further communication and discussion processes between different interest groups. This reorientation in the participation practice of urban planning also takes place in discourses of planning theory in which "communication planning" or "new planning cultu...

  5. Introduction to Focus Issue: Complex Dynamics in Networks, Multilayered Structures and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaletti, Stefano; Criado, Regino; Romance, Miguel; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2016-06-01

    In the last years, network scientists have directed their interest to the multi-layer character of real-world systems, and explicitly considered the structural and dynamical organization of graphs made of diverse layers between its constituents. Most complex systems include multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity and, in many cases, the interdependent components of systems interact through many different channels. Such a new perspective is indeed found to be the adequate representation for a wealth of features exhibited by networked systems in the real world. The contributions presented in this Focus Issue cover, from different points of view, the many achievements and still open questions in the field of multi-layer networks, such as: new frameworks and structures to represent and analyze heterogeneous complex systems, different aspects related to synchronization and centrality of complex networks, interplay between layers, and applications to logistic, biological, social, and technological fields.

  6. Time evolution of Wikipedia network ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Frahm, Klaus M.; Benczúr, András; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-12-01

    We study the time evolution of ranking and spectral properties of the Google matrix of English Wikipedia hyperlink network during years 2003-2011. The statistical properties of ranking of Wikipedia articles via PageRank and CheiRank probabilities, as well as the matrix spectrum, are shown to be stabilized for 2007-2011. A special emphasis is done on ranking of Wikipedia personalities and universities. We show that PageRank selection is dominated by politicians while 2DRank, which combines PageRank and CheiRank, gives more accent on personalities of arts. The Wikipedia PageRank of universities recovers 80% of top universities of Shanghai ranking during the considered time period.

  7. Topical issues of functioning a region as a social-economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Andreyevich Timofeyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the topical issues of forming a region as a socialeconomic system. Methods systematic approach based on general scientific methods of empirical and theoretical research such as observation and comparison analysis and synthesis induction and deduction as well as comparativehistorical method statistical methods macroeconomic analysis. Results the major issues of applying a systematic approach to the analysis of the region as a socioeconomic system were explored and analyzed. The authors proved the most important features of the system considered different points of view on the content of the region as a system category analyzed the basic paradigm of the region functioning identified specific properties inherent to the region as a system conducted analysis of the modern Russian and foreign literature which showed that at present there is no consensus about the structural content of the region as an economic system at mesolevel suggested the authorsrsquo definition of the region category conclusions were made about the applicability of systematic approach to analyzing a region as a socioeconomic system. Scientific novelty the trends and problems of the region formation as an economic system were specifiedin the form of components of a single social and economic system the conceptual scheme for the region development as a socioeconomic system at mesolevel was proposed the author39s definition of the regionwas given. The suggested conceptual framework focuses on regional subsystems each of which is characterized by resources capacity the effective use of which is intended to ensure the sustainable and competitive territory development while increasing the quality of life of the population under federalism and globalization. Practical significance conclusions and suggestions can be used by public authorities in the strategic policy development for the effective management of the Russian regions. nbsp

  8. The processes of transformation of the education system and science in Asia in the estimates of international organizations and transnational ranking agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Valer'evna Koldunova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a historiographical review of assessments of higher education and science development in Asia, which has now become the key economic region of the world. It is a common knowledge that education, science and innovations represent a driving force of economic development and indispensable for building a knowledge-based economy. The analysis presented in this article adds to a better understanding of knowledge-based economy development in Greater Eastern Asia. The article presents the research literature and science metrics analysis on science and education development in Asia dividing it into four clusters. International organizations (e.g., the UN and OECD and transnational ranking agencies (like QS judging by the quantitative indicators point out that Greater Eastern Asia (Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and India has become one of the world leaders in terms of higher education development and innovations. In high technologies, the region is second only to the USA and is constantly bridging this gap. Greater Middle East (the Middle East and Central Asia looks differently in this respect. Arab countries’ opportunities to build knowledge-based economy are very limited as well as those of Central Asia. In terms of quality of science and education Greater Eastern Asia (with the exception of the most advanced countries of the region is still lagging behind the West and in terms of fundamental science this gap looks very serious. However, there are efforts in place to make the rise of science and education in Asia more quality-oriented, for instance focusing more on strengthening engineering and hard science in the Asian universities.

  9. Issues, Reviewed from Standpoint of Industries, in JABEE Accreditation System Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiaki

    A goal of the JABEE accreditation system is to ensure that engineering education at higher education institutes in Japan develops students who are knowledgeable in engineering, capable of applying engineering knowledge, and able to implement practical engineering solution in society after graduation. Unfortunately, the industrial world has not yet sufficiently recognized the important role of JABEE in achieving this goal. The interest and participation of industry in engineering education is absolutely needed to ensure the development of the ability to apply engineering in society. This article states the issues, reviewed from the standpoint of industries, in the current situation of JABEE accreditation system activities.

  10. Knowledge extraction from evolving spiking neural networks with rank order population coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltic, Snjezana; Kasabov, Nikola

    2010-12-01

    This paper demonstrates how knowledge can be extracted from evolving spiking neural networks with rank order population coding. Knowledge discovery is a very important feature of intelligent systems. Yet, a disproportionally small amount of research is centered on the issue of knowledge extraction from spiking neural networks which are considered to be the third generation of artificial neural networks. The lack of knowledge representation compatibility is becoming a major detriment to end users of these networks. We show that a high-level knowledge can be obtained from evolving spiking neural networks. More specifically, we propose a method for fuzzy rule extraction from an evolving spiking network with rank order population coding. The proposed method was used for knowledge discovery on two benchmark taste recognition problems where the knowledge learnt by an evolving spiking neural network was extracted in the form of zero-order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy IF-THEN rules.

  11. Stable Imaging and Accuracy Issues of Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable imaging of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photogrammetry system is an important issue that affects the data processing and application of the system. Compared with traditional aerial images, the large rotation of roll, pitch, and yaw angles of UAV images decrease image quality and result in image deformation, thereby affecting the ground resolution, overlaps, and the consistency of the stereo models. These factors also cause difficulties in automatic tie point matching, image orientation, and accuracy of aerial triangulation (AT. The issues of large-angle photography of UAV photogrammetry system are discussed and analyzed quantitatively in this paper, and a simple and lightweight three-axis stabilization platform that works with a low-precision integrated inertial navigation system and a three-axis mechanical platform is used to reduce this problem. An experiment was carried out with an airship as the flight platform. Another experimental dataset, which was acquired by the same flight platform without a stabilization platform, was utilized for a comparative test. Experimental results show that the system can effectively isolate the swing of the flying platform. To ensure objective and reliable results, another group of experimental datasets, which were acquired using a fixed-wing UAV platform, was also analyzed. Statistical results of the experimental datasets confirm that stable imaging of a UAV platform can help improve the quality of aerial photography imagery and the accuracy of AT, and potentially improve the application of images acquired by a UAV.

  12. Representation Issues in Systemic Functional Grammar and Systemic Grammar and Functional Unification Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    explicit representation of it had not been solved. Henrici worked with an explicit version of systemic representation. Comparing embedding recursion...recursion through rankshift) with linear recursion (iteration), he notes that the latter is "rather more troublesome" ( Henrici (1966)). One problem is that...J. R. 1983. Readings in Systemic Linguistics. Batsford. 20. Henrici , A. 1966. Some notes on the systemic generation of a paradigm of the English

  13. A Review of Ranking Models in Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hosseinzadeh Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of improving various abilities of data envelopment analysis (DEA models, many investigations have been carried out for ranking decision-making units (DMUs. This is an important issue both in theory and practice. There exist a variety of papers which apply different ranking methods to a real data set. Here the ranking methods are divided into seven groups. As each of the existing methods can be viewed from different aspects, it is possible that somewhat these groups have an overlapping with the others. The first group conducts the evaluation by a cross-efficiency matrix where the units are self- and peer-evaluated. In the second one, the ranking units are based on the optimal weights obtained from multiplier model of DEA technique. In the third group, super-efficiency methods are dealt with which are based on the idea of excluding the unit under evaluation and analyzing the changes of frontier. The fourth group involves methods based on benchmarking, which adopts the idea of being a useful target for the inefficient units. The fourth group uses the multivariate statistical techniques, usually applied after conducting the DEA classification. The fifth research area ranks inefficient units through proportional measures of inefficiency. The sixth approach involves multiple-criteria decision methodologies with the DEA technique. In the last group, some different methods of ranking units are mentioned.

  14. Integrated systems for NGS data management and analysis: open issues and available solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio eBianchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have deeply changed our understanding of cellular processes by delivering an astonishing amount of data at affordable prices; nowadays, many biology laboratories have already accumulated a large number of sequenced samples. However, managing and analyzing these data poses new challenges, which may easily be underestimated by research groups devoid of IT and quantitative skills. In this perspective, we identify five issues that should be carefully addressed by research groups approaching NGS technologies. In particular, the five key issues to be considered concern: 1 adopting a laboratory management system (LIMS and safeguard the resulting raw data structure in downstream analyses; 2 monitoring the flow of the data and standardizing input and output directories and file names, even when multiple analysis protocols are used on the same data; 3 ensuring complete traceability of the analysis performed; 4 enabling non-experienced users to run analyses through a graphical user interface (GUI acting as a front-end for the pipelines; 5 relying on standard metadata to annotate the datasets, and when possible using controlled vocabularies, ideally derived from biomedical ontologies. Finally, we discuss the currently available tools in the light of these issues, and we introduce HTS-flow, a new workflow management system (WMS conceived to address the concerns we raised. HTS-flow is able to retrieve information from a LIMS database, manages data analyses through a simple GUI, outputs data in standard locations and allows the complete traceability of datasets, accompanying metadata and analysis scripts.

  15. Condensing biomedical journal texts through paragraph ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Liu, Heng-Hui; Huang, Yi-Ting

    2011-04-15

    The growing availability of full-text scientific articles raises the important issue of how to most efficiently digest full-text content. Although article titles and abstracts provide accurate and concise information on an article's contents, their brevity inevitably entails the loss of detail. Full-text articles provide those details, but require more time to read. The primary goal of this study is to combine the advantages of concise abstracts and detail-rich full-texts to ease the burden of reading. We retrieved abstract-related paragraphs from full-text articles through shared keywords between the abstract and paragraphs from the main text. Significant paragraphs were then recommended by applying a proposed paragraph ranking approach. Finally, the user was provided with a condensed text consisting of these significant paragraphs, allowing the user to save time from perusing the whole article. We compared the performance of the proposed approach with a keyword counting approach and a PageRank-like approach. Evaluation was conducted in two aspects: the importance of each retrieved paragraph and the information coverage of a set of retrieved paragraphs. In both evaluations, the proposed approach outperformed the other approaches. jchiang@mail.ncku.edu.tw.

  16. Key issues in the management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: latest developments and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Natasha; D’Cruz, David

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a chronic multisystem disease with significant associated morbidity and mortality. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE has led to the development of biologic agents, primarily targeting B cells and others inhibiting costimulatory molecules, type I interferons and cytokines such as interleukin-6. Several of these agents have been studied in clinical trials; some have shown promise while others have yielded disappointing results. Economic and regulatory issues continue to hamper the availability of such therapies for SLE patients. With increasing recognition that recurrent flares of disease activity lead to long-term damage accrual, one of the most important recent developments in patient management has been the concept of treat-to-target in SLE while minimizing patient exposure to excessive corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive therapy. This article reviews these key issues in SLE management, outlining recent developments and clinical implications for patients. PMID:26622325

  17. U.S. Food System Working Conditions as an Issue of Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Smith, Katherine C; Pollack, Keshia M; Neff, Roni A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-02-01

    Food workers' health and hygiene are common pathways to foodborne disease outbreaks. Improving food system jobs is important to food safety because working conditions impact workers' health, hygiene, and safe food handling. Stakeholders from key industries have advanced working conditions as an issue of public safety in the United States. Yet, for the food industry, stakeholder engagement with this topic is seemingly limited. To understand this lack of action, we interviewed key informants from organizations recognized for their agenda-setting role on food-worker issues. Findings suggest that participants recognize the work standards/food safety connection, yet perceived barriers limit adoption of a food safety frame, including more pressing priorities (e.g., occupational safety); poor fit with organizational strategies and mission; and questionable utility, including potential negative consequences. Using these findings, we consider how public health advocates may connect food working conditions to food and public safety and elevate it to the public policy agenda.

  18. Why more is different philosophical issues in condensed matter physics and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The physics of condensed matter, in contrast to quantum physics or cosmology, is not traditionally associated with deep philosophical questions. However, as science - largely thanks to more powerful computers - becomes capable of analysing and modelling ever more complex many-body systems, basic questions of philosophical relevance arise. Questions about the emergence of structure, the nature of cooperative behaviour, the implications of the second law,  the quantum-classical transition and many other issues. This book is a collection of essays by leading physicists and philosophers. Each investigates one or more of these issues, making use of examples from modern condensed matter research.  Physicists and philosophers alike will find surprising and stimulating ideas in these pages.

  19. Selected Topics on Complex Systems Informatics: Editorial Introduction to Issue 12 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Sandkuhl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modeling is an important contribution to dealing with complexity in development and engineering processes. A model is a generalized representation of a piece of reality, with only those real‐world properties included which are relevant to the purpose of modelling. Models don’t remove the complexity of the real world but help to understand it and to design and develop solutions. All articles in this issue are in some respect concerned with models or modelling.The articles in this issue also reflect recent trends in industry and society, such as digitization and industry 4.0, and show that these trends will not necessarily reduce complexity in systems but rather require the combination of proven approaches, such as modelling, and new methods for managing this complexity.

  20. Validating rankings in soccer championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibal Parracho Sant'Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The final ranking of a championship is determined by quality attributes combined with other factors which should be filtered out of any decision on relegation or draft for upper level tournaments. Factors like referees' mistakes and difficulty of certain matches due to its accidental importance to the opponents should have their influence reduced. This work tests approaches to combine classification rules considering the imprecision of the number of points as a measure of quality and of the variables that provide reliable explanation for it. Two home-advantage variables are tested and shown to be apt to enter as explanatory variables. Independence between the criteria is checked against the hypothesis of maximal correlation. The importance of factors and of composition rules is evaluated on the basis of correlation between rank vectors, number of classes and number of clubs in tail classes. Data from five years of the Brazilian Soccer Championship are analyzed.

  1. Selected Topics on Business Information Systems: Editorial Introduction to Issue 11 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Sandkuhl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT plays an important role in enterprises, public authorities, inter-organizational networks, company clusters and other kinds of distributed organizations. Business, value creation and supporting activities in organizations are dependent on complex, distributed software and service systems operating in dynamic and often changing environments. In order to produce and supply products and services efficiently, organizations must be able to effectively exchange information between internal stakeholder groups and with external collaborators and customers. A high level of agility and interoperability is required when it comes to meeting the changing requirements from market or technical environments. The demand for interoperability exists at technological, business process and knowledge levels. Methods, theories and tools that ease change and adaptation of business processes, organizations and their supporting IT-systems are needed.The content of this issue presents novel research results in business information systems. Most of the articles in the issue originate from the 15th International Conference on Perspectives in Business Informatics Research (BIR 2016 in Prague (Czech Republic and the 9th International Workshop on Information Logistics and Applications of Semantic Technologies (ILOG, which was co-located with BIR 2016.The five accepted articles address different technical and methodic aspects of business information systems and various their application fields.

  2. Power System Technical Performance Issues related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, W.; der Sluis, L.V.; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...... for assessing the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with large share of AC cable lines. This paper besides providing a background for formulation of WG C4.502 and its overall aim, describes the tasks that were accomplished before the interim report was submitted to Study Committee C4 System Technical...... Performance in August 2010. The work in the WG is ongoing and final report will be ready according to the time schedule in 2012. The focus of this paper is in particular to show all issues related to system technical performance with assigned weights in terms of their importance and/or uniqueness for cable...

  3. Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, on behalf of Cigre WG C4.502, W.; Sluis, L. V. der; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...... for assessing the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with large share of AC cable lines. This paper besides providing a background for formulation of WG C4.502 and its overall aim, describes the tasks that were accomplished before the interim report was submitted to Study Committee C4 System Technical...... Performance in August 2010. The work in the WG is ongoing and final report will be ready according to the time schedule in 2012. The focus of this paper is in particular to show all issues related to system technical performance with assigned weights in terms of their importance and/or uniqueness for cable...

  4. Ranking the dermatology programs based on measurements of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jashin J; Ramirez, Claudia C; Alonso, Carol A; Berman, Brian; Tyring, Stephen K

    2007-07-13

    The only dermatology rankings in the past were based on National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding and journal citations. To determine the highest ranking academic dermatology programs based on 5 outcome measures and on an overall ranking scale. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to rank the dermatology programs on 4 of the following outcome measures of academic achievement and with an overall ranking. We collected extensive 2001 to 2004 data ranging from total publications to grant funding on 107 U.S. dermatology programs and their full-time faculty. Data from part-time and volunteer faculty were not used. Publications in 2001 to 2004; NIH funding in 2004; Dermatology Foundation grants in 2001 to 2004; faculty lectures in 2004 delivered at national conferences; number of full-time faculty members who were on the editorial boards of the top 3 U.S. dermatology journals and the top 4 subspecialty journals We used the 5 outcome measures to tabulate the highest ranking programs in each category. Using a weighted ranking system, we also tabulated the overall top 30 dermatology programs based on these 5 outcome measures. We were not able to determine the total amount of NIH funding in dollars of the dermatology divisions. The impact factors of the journal in which these publications appeared was not factored into our calculations. Since faculty members may collaborate on the same publication, some publications may have been double-counted. In descending order, the 5 highest ranked academic programs are the University of Pennsylvania; University of California, San Francisco; Yale-New Haven Medical Center; New York University; and University of Michigan. This ranking system may allow residents and faculty to improve the academic achievements at their respective programs.

  5. Structural Design of Dual-Mode Ramjets and Associated System Issues (Conception structurale des statoreacteurs mixtes et defis systeme associes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    presented to the lecturers, can be found in the references. RÉSUMÉ Le stage RTO-AVT-VKI “HIGH SPEED PROPULSION: ENGINE DESIGN – INTEGRATION AND...Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT The RTO-AVT-VKI course HIGH SPEED PROPULSION...Ramjets and Associated System Issues 14 - 2 RTO-EN-AVT-185 Acronyms CMC Ceramic matrix composite DCT Double Col Thermique DMR Dual-Mode

  6. Anchoring Effects in World University Rankings: Exploring Biases in Reputation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Bastedo, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite ongoing debates about their uses and validity, university rankings are a popular means to compare institutions within a country and around the world. Anchoring theory suggests that these rankings may influence assessments of institutional reputation, and this effect may be particularly strong when a new rankings system is introduced. We…

  7. Introduction: towards a new ranking approach in higher education and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.; Ziegele, Frank; van Vught, Franciscus A.; Ziegele, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter introduces the subject of league tables and rankings and questions the conceptual framework underpinning what are seen as the most credible and prestigious ranking systems in higher education. The authors present their arguments for defining and ranking excellence in higher education

  8. Minkowski metrics in creating universal ranking algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ameljańczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a general procedure for creating the rankings of a set of objects, while the relation of preference based on any ranking function. The analysis was possible to use the ranking functions began by showing the fundamental drawbacks of commonly used functions in the form of a weighted sum. As a special case of the ranking procedure in the space of a relation, the procedure based on the notion of an ideal element and generalized Minkowski distance from the element was proposed. This procedure, presented as universal ranking algorithm, eliminates most of the disadvantages of ranking functions in the form of a weighted sum.[b]Keywords[/b]: ranking functions, preference relation, ranking clusters, categories, ideal point, universal ranking algorithm

  9. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  10. Functional Multiplex PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-10-01

    Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.

  11. An Adaptive Reordered Method for Computing PageRank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Bu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive reordered method to deal with the PageRank problem. It has been shown that one can reorder the hyperlink matrix of PageRank problem to calculate a reduced system and get the full PageRank vector through forward substitutions. This method can provide a speedup for calculating the PageRank vector. We observe that in the existing reordered method, the cost of the recursively reordering procedure could offset the computational reduction brought by minimizing the dimension of linear system. With this observation, we introduce an adaptive reordered method to accelerate the total calculation, in which we terminate the reordering procedure appropriately instead of reordering to the end. Numerical experiments show the effectiveness of this adaptive reordered method.

  12. Ranking online quality and reputation via the user activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Lei; Cheng, Can; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    How to design an accurate algorithm for ranking the object quality and user reputation is of importance for online rating systems. In this paper we present an improved iterative algorithm for online ranking object quality and user reputation in terms of the user degree (IRUA), where the user's reputation is measured by his/her rating vector, the corresponding objects' quality vector and the user degree. The experimental results for the empirical networks show that the AUC values of the IRUA algorithm can reach 0.9065 and 0.8705 in Movielens and Netflix data sets, respectively, which is better than the results generated by the traditional iterative ranking methods. Meanwhile, the results for the synthetic networks indicate that user degree should be considered in real rating systems due to users' rating behaviors. Moreover, we find that enhancing or reducing the influences of the large-degree users could produce more accurate reputation ranking lists.

  13. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  14. Image Retrieval and Re-Ranking Techniques - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mayuri D. Joshi; Revati M. Deshmukh; Kalashree N.Hemke; Ashwini Bhake; Rakhi Wajgi

    2014-01-01

    There is a huge amount of research work focusing on the searching, retrieval and re-ranking of images in the image database. The diverse and scattered work in this domain needs to be collected and organized for easy and quick reference. Relating to the above context, this paper gives a brief overview of various image retrieval and re-ranking techniques. Starting with the introduction to existing system the paper proceeds through the core architecture of image harvesti...

  15. LET THE STUDENTS DECIDE: A PERSONALISED RANKING OF TURKISH UNIVERSITIES

    OpenAIRE

    MUTLUTÜRK, Meltem Emine

    2016-01-01

    Choosing a university from a vast range of choices is a major decision in every student’s life. There are various amounts of university ranking systems that mostly use academic indicators such as number of citations, number of publications and doctorate students in their ranking model, but other indicators such as socio-cultural and physical structure of the university also factor into their decision, especially when choosing between universities of the same league. In this paper, the multi-c...

  16. Cloud Based Educational Systems 
And Its Challenges And Opportunities And Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prantosh Kr. PAUL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing (CC is actually is a set of hardware, software, networks, storage, services an interface combines to deliver aspects of computing as a service. Cloud Computing (CC actually uses the central remote servers to maintain data and applications. Practically Cloud Computing (CC is extension of Grid computing with independency and smarter tools and technological gradients. Healthy Cloud Computing helps in sharing of software, hardware, application and other packages with the help of internet tools and wireless media. Cloud Computing, has benefits in several field and applications domain such as Agriculture, Business and Commerce, Health Care, Hospitality and Tourism, Education and Training sector and so on. In Education Systems, it may be applicable in general regular education and other education systems including general and vocational training. This paper is talks about opportunities that provide Cloud Computing (CC; however the intention would be challenges and issues in relation to Education, Education Systems and Training programme.

  17. Implementation of Electronic Workflow Systems in Higher Education Institutions: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K. S.

    To different extents, electronic workflow systems have been widely used in higher education institutions for administering the daily and routine operations. Whilst workflow automation is advocated for streamlining business processes, there are technical limitations as well as management constraints, especially on process review and re-engineering. During the process review, a big challenge is to make sure that the system would not only meet the business requirements but also improve the process flow. It is important for one to retain the legacy stature while coping with the changes in workflow, but taking into consideration of the needs to accommodate managerial constraints. This paper investigates the issues and challenges in implementing electronic workflow systems in higher education institutions. Different approaches to the process review, workflow design and re-design are discussed.

  18. Knowledge based systems: A preliminary survey of selected issues and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    It is only recently that research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is accomplishing practical results. Most of these results can be attributed to the design and use of expert systems (or Knowledge-Based Systems, KBS) - problem-solving computer programs that can reach a level of performance comparable to that of a human expert in some specialized problem domain. But many computer systems designed to see images, hear sounds, and recognize speech are still in a fairly early stage of development. In this report, a preliminary survey of recent work in the KBS is reported, explaining KBS concepts and issues and techniques used to construct them. Application considerations to construct the KBS and potential KBS research areas are identified. A case study (MYCIN) of a KBS is also provided.

  19. Comparative assessment of environmental welfare issues associated with the satellite power system (SPS) and alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, E.P.; Senew, M.J.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1980-04-01

    Environmental deterioration can affect an individual's health, safety, and welfare (examples of welfare effects include reduced crop yield, loss of property, and interference with other activities). This study identifies sources of environmental deterioration and associated welfare effects from two mature electric power generation systems (combustion of coal and light water nuclear reactors) and compares these with those expected from a conceptual satellite power system. Each activity within the energy pathway for each power system is examined to determine the potential welfare effects it imposes on a community. The severities of these effects are compared. On the basis of this comparison and the state of knowledge concerning specific environmental impacts and welfare effects, key environmental issues are identified for subsequent, in-depth analyses.

  20. Process systems engineering issues and applications towards reducing carbon dioxide emissions through conversion technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews issues and applications for design of sustainable carbon dioxide conversion processes, specifically through chemical conversion, and the integration of the conversion processes with other systems from a process systems engineering (PSE) view-point. Systematic and computer......-aided methods and tools for reaction network generation, processing route generation, process design/optimization, and sustainability analysis are reviewed with respect to carbon dioxide conversion. Also, the relevant gaps and opportunities are highlighted. In addition, the integration of carbon dioxide...... conversion processes with other systems including coexisting infrastructure and carbon dioxide sources is described.Then, the importance of PSE based studies for such application is discussed. Finally, some perspectives on the status and future directions of carbon dioxide conversion technology...

  1. Ethical and regulatory issues of pragmatic cluster randomized trials in contemporary health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique L; Califf, Robert M; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Cluster randomized trials randomly assign groups of individuals to examine research questions or test interventions and measure their effects on individuals. Recent emphasis on quality improvement, comparative effectiveness, and learning health systems has prompted expanded use of pragmatic cluster randomized trials in routine health-care settings, which in turn poses practical and ethical challenges that current oversight frameworks may not adequately address. The 2012 Ottawa Statement provides a basis for considering many issues related to pragmatic cluster randomized trials but challenges remain, including some arising from the current US research and health-care regulations. In order to examine the ethical, regulatory, and practical questions facing pragmatic cluster randomized trials in health-care settings, the National Institutes of Health Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory convened a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, in July 2013. Attendees included experts in clinical trials, patient advocacy, research ethics, and research regulations from academia, industry, the National Institutes of Health Collaboratory, and other federal agencies. Workshop participants identified substantial barriers to implementing these types of cluster randomized trials, including issues related to research design, gatekeepers and governance in health systems, consent, institutional review boards, data monitoring, privacy, and special populations. We describe these barriers and suggest means for understanding and overcoming them to facilitate pragmatic cluster randomized trials in health-care settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. A Survey of Control Issues in PMSG-Based Small Wind-Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Natalia Angela; Liserre, Marco; Mastromauro, Rosa Anna

    2013-01-01

    In the field of wind energy generation particular interest has been focused in recent years on distributed generation through small wind-turbines (power unit 200 kW) because of their limited size and lower environmental impact. The field of small generation was dominated by the use of asynchronous....../position estimation, pitch control, braking chopper control, dc/dc converter control, and grid converter control. Specific issues for small wind-turbines arise in the wind energy extraction optimization and limitation and in the innovative concept of “universal” wind-turbine operation, that leads these system...

  3. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angela Prialé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed companies address the human dimensions of sustainability, although not all dimensions are considered equally or similar depth.

  4. Issues and recommendations associated with distributed computation and data management systems for the space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The primary purpose of the report is to explore management approaches and technology developments for computation and data management systems designed to meet future needs in the space sciences.The report builds on work presented in previous reports on solar-terrestrial and planetary reports, broadening the outlook to all of the space sciences, and considering policy issues aspects related to coordiantion between data centers, missions, and ongoing research activities, because it is perceived that the rapid growth of data and the wide geographic distribution of relevant facilities will present especially troublesome problems for data archiving, distribution, and analysis.

  5. Electromagnetic Interference Issues in Power Electronics and Power Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zare, Firuz

    2011-01-01

    This E-Book focuses on conducted and radiated emission noise generated by different power converters such as Switch Mode power Supplies and DC-AC Inverters. EMI filter design and different approaches to predict common mode and differential mode noise are illustrated in detail. Common mode and surge voltage issues in AC machines have also been addressed and discussed in this E-book. The E-book is intended for helping engineers and students to analyze EMI problems in electrical and electronic systems.

  6. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  7. Ranking Accounting Authors and Departments in Accounting Education: Different Methodologies--Significantly Different Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A.; Zamojcin, Kimberly A.; Delande, Taylor L.

    2016-01-01

    This research tests whether Holderness Jr., D. K., Myers, N., Summers, S. L., & Wood, D. A. [(2014). "Accounting education research: Ranking institutions and individual scholars." "Issues in Accounting Education," 29(1), 87-115] accounting-education rankings are sensitive to a change in the set of journals used. It provides…

  8. The effectiveness of the motion picture association of America's rating system in screening explicit violence and sex in top-ranked movies from 1950 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G; Jamieson, Patrick E; Romer, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Youth exposure to explicit film violence and sex is linked to adverse health outcomes and is a serious public health concern. The Motion Picture Association of America's (MPAA's) rating system's effectiveness in reducing youth exposure to harmful content has been questioned. To determine the MPAA's rating system's effectiveness in screening explicit violence and sex since the system's initiation (1968) and the introduction of the PG-13 category (1984). Also, to examine evidence of less restrictive ratings over time ("ratings creep"). Top-grossing movies from 1950 to 2006 (N = 855) were coded for explicitness of violent and sexual content. Trends in rating assignments and in the content of different rating categories since 1968 were assessed. The explicitness of violent and sexual content significantly increased following the rating system's initiation. The system did not differentiate violent content as well as sexual content, and ratings creep was only evident for violent films. Explicit violence in R-rated films increased, while films that would previously have been rated R were increasingly assigned to PG-13. This pattern was not evident for sex; only R-rated films exhibited higher levels of explicit sex compared to preratings period. While relatively effective for screening explicit sex, the rating system has allowed increasingly violent content into PG-13 films, thereby increasing youth access to more harmful content. Assignment of films in the current rating system should be more sensitive to the link between violent media exposure and youth violence. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Podium: Ranking Data Using Mixed-Initiative Visual Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emily; Das, Subhajit; Chawla, Ravish; Kalidindi, Bharath; Brown, Eli T; Endert, Alex

    2017-08-29

    People often rank and order data points as a vital part of making decisions. Multi-attribute ranking systems are a common tool used to make these data-driven decisions. Such systems often take the form of a table-based visualization in which users assign weights to the attributes representing the quantifiable importance of each attribute to a decision, which the system then uses to compute a ranking of the data. However, these systems assume that users are able to quantify their conceptual understanding of how important particular attributes are to a decision. This is not always easy or even possible for users to do. Rather, people often have a more holistic understanding of the data. They form opinions that data point A is better than data point B but do not necessarily know which attributes are important. To address these challenges, we present a visual analytic application to help people rank multi-variate data points. We developed a prototype system, Podium, that allows users to drag rows in the table to rank order data points based on their perception of the relative value of the data. Podium then infers a weighting model using Ranking SVM that satisfies the user's data preferences as closely as possible. Whereas past systems help users understand the relationships between data points based on changes to attribute weights, our approach helps users to understand the attributes that might inform their understanding of the data. We present two usage scenarios to describe some of the potential uses of our proposed technique: (1) understanding which attributes contribute to a user's subjective preferences for data, and (2) deconstructing attributes of importance for existing rankings.Our proposed approach makes powerful machine learning techniques more usable to those who may not have expertise in these areas.

  10. Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-07-19

    Pagerank, a network-based diffusion algorithm, has emerged as the leading method to rank web content, ecological species and even scientists. Despite its wide use, it remains unknown how the structure of the network on which it operates affects its performance. Here we show that for random networks the ranking provided by pagerank is sensitive to perturbations in the network topology, making it unreliable for incomplete or noisy systems. In contrast, in scale-free networks we predict analytically the emergence of super-stable nodes whose ranking is exceptionally stable to perturbations. We calculate the dependence of the number of super-stable nodes on network characteristics and demonstrate their presence in real networks, in agreement with the analytical predictions. These results not only deepen our understanding of the interplay between network topology and dynamical processes but also have implications in all areas where ranking has a role, from science to marketing.

  11. The Development of Assistive Systems to Support Older People: Issues that Affect Success in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean D. Hallewell Haslwanter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to an aging population in Europe, the development of Ambient Assisted Living technologies (AAL is increasingly the target of research financing. These technologies promise to enable older people to remain in their own homes longer, something many people report wanting and which may also reduce the costs of care. To date however there are few systems on the market. Other studies have tried to understand this by looking at user acceptance. However, by looking only at the user acceptance, we may miss important aspects to explain why systems went wrong in the first place, since decisions made during the development may affect the success later. To address this, we report on a study in which we applied qualitative methods, including workshops and an interactive poster, to consult with people who have experience in the development of these technologies. We present the common issues reported across various AAL development projects done in Europe that the participants thought were important to the success or failure of projects. We also describe some ideas from participants for addressing some of these problems. The results demonstrate the importance of issues related to financing with grants for projects but also the need for improved user-centered practice.

  12. Publication Anxiety, Quality, and Journal Rankings: Researcher Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Coulthard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Journal ranking systems are increasingly used to measure research performance of academics and universities. A growing number of academic commentators have voiced concerns of possible undesirable outcomes such as increased publication anxiety and an increase in safe and conforming research, but there have been few empirical studies on the possible effects. To address this gap, we surveyed Information Systems (IS academics who published in one of three key IS conferences in 2013, to gather their views of the effects of journal ranking systems. Overall, we found that the concerns in the literature were strongly reflected in the views of those surveyed. Academics believe the system has greatly increased their publication anxiety. While most believed that the quality of published research had improved, researchers believe the ranking systems inhibit innovative, risky research, and encourages safe, conforming, mainstream research.

  13. DC wiring system grounding and ground fault protection issues for central station photovoltaic power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simburger, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The DC wiring system for a photovoltaic power plant presents a number of unique challenges to be overcome by the plant designers. There are a number of different configurations that the grounding of the DC wiring system can take, and the choice will affect the number and type of protective devices required to ensure safety of personnel and protection of equipment. The major grounding and fault protection considerations that must be taken into account when selecting the basic overall circuit configuration are summarized. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of each type of circuit grounding (resistance or solid) along with the personnel safety and equipment protection issues for each of these grounding methods are presented.

  14. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  15. Measuring health system strengthening: application of the balanced scorecard approach to rank the baseline performance of three rural districts in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroad Mutale

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. METHODOLOGY: The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. RESULTS: Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58% and highest in Luangwa district (77%. Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively. Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff -0.40, p = 0.02. Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04 and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service

  16. Measuring health system strengthening: application of the balanced scorecard approach to rank the baseline performance of three rural districts in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Godfrey-Fausset, Peter; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Chintu, Namwinga; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff -0.40, p = 0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03). The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery performing poorly in all study districts. This tool could

  17. Liquid lithium loop system to solve challenging technology issues for fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, M.; Majeski, R.; Jaworski, M. A.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Gray, T. K.; Maingi, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Christenson, M.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    Steady-state fusion power plant designs present major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both in steady-state and during transients. In addition to these concerns, there are the unresolved technology issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety issues. It has been suggested that radiation-based liquid lithium (LL) divertor concepts with a modest lithium-loop could provide a possible solution for these outstanding fusion reactor technology issues, while potentially improving reactor plasma performance. The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid lithium divertor concept and its variant, the active liquid lithium divertor concept, taking advantage of the enhanced or non-coronal Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. To maintain the LL purity in a 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant, a closed LL loop system with a modest circulating capacity of ~1 l s-1 is envisioned. We examined two key technology issues: (1) dust or solid particle removal and (2) real time recovery of tritium from LL while keeping the tritium inventory level to an acceptable level. By running the LL-loop continuously, it can carry the dust particles and impurities generated in the vacuum vessel to the outside where the dust/impurities can be removed by relatively simple dust filter, cold trap and/or centrifugal separation systems. With ~1 l s-1 LL flow, even a small 0.1% dust content by weight (or 0.5 g s-1) suggests that the LL-loop could carry away nearly 16 tons of dust per year. In a 1 GW-electric (or ~3 GW fusion power) fusion power plant, about 0.5 g s-1 of tritium is needed to maintain the fusion fuel cycle

  18. A Systematic Review of User Interface Issues Related to PDA-based Decision Support Systems in Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nam-Ju; Starren, Justin; Bakken, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores user interface issues in the design and implementation of a personal digital assistant-based decision support system (PDA-DSS) in health care. An automated literature search found 15 studies addressing the main PDA user interface issues, which can be categorized as display, security, memory, Web browser, and communication.

  19. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  20. Ranking of Higher Education Institutions: Ideology and Methodology of Development (Russian Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Trotsuk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article comprises the second part of the analytical review of ideology, methodology and actual practice of higher education institutions ranking development (the first part revealing the international experience was published in the second issue of the journal in 2008. The author examines the current circumstances of higher education institutions ranking and particular education programmes in Russia. Inparticular, the main approaches to ranking elaboration primarily associated with the authors’ and clients’ «status» and the appropriate goals of higher education institutions ranking are revealed in the paper.

  1. Registered Dietitian Nutritionists' Perspectives on Integrating Food and Water System Issues into Professional Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Earthman, Carrie; Robien, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable agriculture encompasses economic, environmental, and social aspects of the food system. Members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) play an important role in promoting sustainable agriculture because they work in areas where they can influence the food purchasing decisions of foodservice operations and the public. To investigate behavior of registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) toward incorporating sustainable agriculture principles into professional practice using the Theory of Planned Behavior. This cross-sectional study surveyed RDNs nationwide about their perspectives on incorporating sustainable agriculture issues into practice. The survey questions were based on a survey originally administered to Minnesota RDNs during 2002. The sample (N=626) was drawn from a randomly selected, national sample of Academy members. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t tests, Pearson correlations, and stepwise regression. The sample was mostly white, female, and the average age was 45.4±12.2 years. Almost half of Academy RDNs (47%) reported incorporating environmental issues into their practice. All four Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitude, perceived behavior control, and subjective norm) were predictive of behavior to include sustainable agriculture issues into practice. Barriers to incorporating this topic into practice included lack of knowledge, ability, time, and employer support. This study found that most of the RDN respondents had heard of sustainable agriculture and nearly half reported including this topic in their professional practice. To integrate this topic into practice more consistently, RDNs need more knowledge, time, and employer support. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrology of and Current Monitoring Issues for the Chicago Area Waterway System, Northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Johnson, Kevin K.

    2015-10-28

    The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) consists of a combination of natural and manmade channels that form an interconnected navigable waterway of approximately 90-plus miles in the metropolitan Chicago area of northeastern Illinois. The CAWS serves the area as the primary drainage feature, a waterway transportation corridor, and recreational waterbody. The CAWS was constructed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). Completion of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (initial portion of the CAWS) in 1900 breached a low drainage divide and resulted in a diversion of water from the Lake Michigan Basin. A U.S. Supreme Court decree (Consent Decree 388 U.S. 426 [1967] Modified 449 U.S. 48 [1980]) limits the annual diversion from Lake Michigan. While the State of Illinois is responsible for the diversion, the MWRDGC regulates and maintains water level and water quality within the CAWS by using several waterway control structures. The operation and control of water levels in the CAWS results in a very complex hydraulic setting characterized by highly unsteady flows. The complexity leads to unique gaging requirements and monitoring issues. This report provides a general discussion of the complex hydraulic setting within the CAWS and quantifies this information with examples of data collected at a range of flow conditions from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations and other locations within the CAWS. Monitoring to address longstanding issues of waterway operation, as well as current (2014) emerging issues such as wastewater disinfection and the threat from aquatic invasive species, is included in the discussion.

  3. Advances and issues from the simulation of planetary magnetospheres with recent supercomputer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, K.; Walker, R. J.; Kimura, T.; Tsuchiya, F.; Murakami, G.; Kita, H.; Tao, C.; Murata, K. T.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary magnetospheres are very large, while phenomena within them occur on meso- and micro-scales. These scales range from 10s of planetary radii to kilometers. To understand dynamics in these multi-scale systems, numerical simulations have been performed by using the supercomputer systems. We have studied the magnetospheres of Earth, Jupiter and Saturn by using 3-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations for a long time, however, we have not obtained the phenomena near the limits of the MHD approximation. In particular, we have not studied meso-scale phenomena that can be addressed by using MHD.Recently we performed our MHD simulation of Earth's magnetosphere by using the K-computer which is the first 10PFlops supercomputer and obtained multi-scale flow vorticity for the both northward and southward IMF. Furthermore, we have access to supercomputer systems which have Xeon, SPARC64, and vector-type CPUs and can compare simulation results between the different systems. Finally, we have compared the results of our parameter survey of the magnetosphere with observations from the HISAKI spacecraft.We have encountered a number of difficulties effectively using the latest supercomputer systems. First the size of simulation output increases greatly. Now a simulation group produces over 1PB of output. Storage and analysis of this much data is difficult. The traditional way to analyze simulation results is to move the results to the investigator's home computer. This takes over three months using an end-to-end 10Gbps network. In reality, there are problems at some nodes such as firewalls that can increase the transfer time to over one year. Another issue is post-processing. It is hard to treat a few TB of simulation output due to the memory limitations of a post-processing computer. To overcome these issues, we have developed and introduced the parallel network storage, the highly efficient network protocol and the CUI based visualization tools.In this study, we

  4. Enhancing Invenio Digital Library With An External Relevance Ranking Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Glauner, Patrick Oliver

    Invenio is a comprehensive web-based free digital library software suite originally developed at CERN. In order to improve its information retrieval and word similarity ranking capabilities, the goal of this thesis is to enhance Invenio by bridging it with modern external information retrieval systems. In the first part a comparison of various information retrieval systems such as Solr and Xapian is made. In the second part a system-independent bridge for word similarity ranking is designed and implemented. Subsequently, Solr and Xapian are integrated in Invenio via adapters to the bridge. In the third part scalability tests are performed. Finally, a future outlook is briefly discussed.

  5. A Comparison of Three Major Academic Rankings for World Universities: From a Research Evaluation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces three current major university ranking systems. The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities by Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT Ranking emphasizes both the quality and quantity of research and current research performance. The Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tung University (ARWU focuses on outstanding performance of universities with indicators such as Nobel Prize winners. The QS World University Ranking (2004-2009 by Times Higher Education (THE-QS emphasizes on peer review with high weighting in evaluation. This paper compares the 2009 ranking results from the three ranking systems. Differences exist in the top 20 universities in three ranking systems except the Harvard University, which scored top one in all of the three rankings. Comparisons also revealed that the THE-QS favored UK universities. Further, obvious differences can be observed between THE-QS and the other two rankings when ranking results of some European countries (Germany, UK, Netherlands, & Switzerland and Chinese speaking regions were compared.

  6. Semiotic systems with duality of patterning and the issue of cultural replicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, Gerhard; Patin, Cédric

    2017-11-14

    Two major works in recent evolutionary biology have in different ways touched upon the issue of cultural replicators in language, namely Dawkins' Selfish Gene and Maynard Smith and Szathmáry's Major Transitions in Evolution. In the latter, the emergence of language is referred to as the last major transition in evolution (for the time being), a claim we argue to be derived from a crucial property of language, called Duality of Patterning. Prima facie, this property makes natural language look like a structural equivalent to DNA, and its peer in terms of expressive power. We will argue that, if one takes seriously Maynard Smith and Szathmáry's outlook and examines what has been proposed as linguistic replicators, amongst others phonemes and words, the analogy meme-gene becomes problematic. A key issue is the fact that genes and memes are assumed to carry and transmit information, while what has been described as the best candidate for replicatorhood in language, i.e. the phoneme, does by definition not carry meaning. We will argue that semiotic systems with Duality of Pattering (like natural languages) force us to reconsider either the analogy between replicators in the biological and the cultural domain, or what it is to be a replicator in linguistics.

  7. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA.Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  8. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA. Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  9. Geo-engineering, Governance, and Social-Ecological Systems: Critical Issues and Joint Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Galaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the possibilities to engineer the Earth's climate has changed drastically in the last years. Suggestions of large-scale technological interventions to combat climate change that a decade ago would have been discarded as science fiction are slowly moving into the center of international climate change discussions, research, and politics. In this article, I elaborate three joint key challenges to geo-engineering research from a resilience perspective, with a special emphasis on governance issues. First, I discuss the need to understand geo-engineering proposals from a "planetary boundaries" perspective. Second, I elaborate why the notion of Earth stewardship and geo-engineering are not necessarily in conflict, but instead could be viewed as complementary approaches. Last, I discuss the critical need to explore an institutional setting that is strong enough to weed out geo-engineering proposals that carry considerable ecological risk, but still allow for novelty, fail-safe experimentation, and continuous learning. These issues are critical for our understanding of how to effectively govern global environmental risks, complex systems, and emerging technologies in the Anthropocene.

  10. Research on B Cell Algorithm for Learning to Rank Method Based on Parallel Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Tian

    Full Text Available For the purposes of information retrieval, users must find highly relevant documents from within a system (and often a quite large one comprised of many individual documents based on input query. Ranking the documents according to their relevance within the system to meet user needs is a challenging endeavor, and a hot research topic-there already exist several rank-learning methods based on machine learning techniques which can generate ranking functions automatically. This paper proposes a parallel B cell algorithm, RankBCA, for rank learning which utilizes a clonal selection mechanism based on biological immunity. The novel algorithm is compared with traditional rank-learning algorithms through experimentation and shown to outperform the others in respect to accuracy, learning time, and convergence rate; taken together, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm indeed effectively and rapidly identifies optimal ranking functions.

  11. The Publication Ranking Score for pediatric urology: quantifying thought leadership within the subspecialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jessica C; Madden-Fuentes, Ramiro J; Nelson, Caleb P; Kokorowski, Paul J; Wiener, John S; Ross, Sherry S; Kutikov, Alexander; Routh, Jonathan C

    2013-12-01

    Clinical care parameters are frequently assessed by national ranking systems. However, these rankings do little to comment on institutions' academic contributions. The Publication Ranking Score (PRS) was developed to allow for objective comparisons of scientific thought-leadership at various pediatric urology institutions. Faculty lists were compiled for each of the US News & World Report (USNWR) top-50 pediatric urology hospitals. A list of all faculty publications (2006-2011) was then compiled, after adjusting for journal impact factor, and summed to derive a Publication Ranking Score (PRS). PRS rankings were then compared to the USNWR pediatric urology top-50 hospital list. A total of 1811 publications were indexed. PRS rankings resulted in a mean change in rank of 12 positions, compared to USNWR ranks. Of the top-10 USNWR hospitals, only 4 were ranked in the top-10 by the PRS. There was little correlation between the USNWR and PRS ranks for either top-10 (r = 0.42, p = 0.23) or top-50 (r = 0.48, p = 0.0004) hospitals. PRS institutional ranking differs significantly from the USNWR top-50 hospital list in pediatric urology. While not a replacement, we believe the PRS to be a useful adjunct to the USNWR rankings of pediatric urology hospitals. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MCSDSS: A Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Merging Geoscience Information with Natural User Interfaces, Preference Ranking, and Interactive Data Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.; Gentle, J.

    2015-12-01

    The multi-criteria decision support system (MCSDSS) is a newly completed application for touch-enabled group decision support that uses D3 data visualization tools, a geojson conversion utility that we developed, and Paralelex to create an interactive tool. The MCSDSS is a prototype system intended to demonstrate the potential capabilities of a single page application (SPA) running atop a web and cloud based architecture utilizing open source technologies. The application is implemented on current web standards while supporting human interface design that targets both traditional mouse/keyboard interactions and modern touch/gesture enabled interactions. The technology stack for MCSDSS was selected with the goal of creating a robust and dynamic modular codebase that can be adjusted to fit many use cases and scale to support usage loads that range between simple data display to complex scientific simulation-based modelling and analytics. The application integrates current frameworks for highly performant agile development with unit testing, statistical analysis, data visualization, mapping technologies, geographic data manipulation, and cloud infrastructure while retaining support for traditional HTML5/CSS3 web standards. The software lifecylcle for MCSDSS has following best practices to develop, share, and document the codebase and application. Code is documented and shared via an online repository with the option for programmers to see, contribute, or fork the codebase. Example data files and tutorial documentation have been shared with clear descriptions and data object identifiers. And the metadata about the application has been incorporated into an OntoSoft entry to ensure that MCSDSS is searchable and clearly described. MCSDSS is a flexible platform that allows for data fusion and inclusion of large datasets in an interactive front-end application capable of connecting with other science-based applications and advanced computing resources. In addition, MCSDSS

  13. Getting patent policy right: an introduction to a special issue on the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    An editorial on the Special Issue: Dealing with the major questions confronting the basics of the European patent system; plus a look at the possible solutions; includes an overview of the article contributions.......An editorial on the Special Issue: Dealing with the major questions confronting the basics of the European patent system; plus a look at the possible solutions; includes an overview of the article contributions....

  14. Forty research issues for the redesign of animal production systems in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, B; González-García, E; Thomas, M; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Ducrot, C; Dourmad, J Y; Tichit, M

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology offers a scientific and operational framework for redesigning animal production systems (APS) so that they better cope with the coming challenges. Grounded in the stimulation and valorization of natural processes to reduce inputs and pollutions in agroecosystems, it opens a challenging research agenda for the animal science community. In this paper, we identify key research issues that define this agenda. We first stress the need to assess animal robustness by measurable traits, to analyze trade-offs between production and adaptation traits at within-breed and between-breed level, and to better understand how group selection, epigenetics and animal learning shape performance. Second, we propose research on the nutritive value of alternative feed resources, including the environmental impacts of producing these resources and their associated non-provisioning services. Third, we look at how the design of APS based on agroecological principles valorizes interactions between system components and promotes biological diversity at multiple scales to increase system resilience. Addressing such challenges requires a collection of theories and models (concept-knowledge theory, viability theory, companion modeling, etc.). Acknowledging the ecology of contexts and analyzing the rationales behind traditional small-scale systems will increase our understanding of mechanisms contributing to the success or failure of agroecological practices and systems. Fourth, the large-scale development of agroecological products will require analysis of resistance to change among farmers and other actors in the food chain. Certifications and market-based incentives could be an important lever for the expansion of agroecological alternatives in APS. Finally, we question the suitability of current agriculture extension services and public funding mechanisms for scaling-up agroecological practices and systems.

  15. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  16. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on new developments in strongly coupled Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2008-10-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to the subject of the `International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS)', 29 July-2 August 2008, Camerino, Italy (http://sccs2008.df.unicam.it/). Participants of that meeting, as well as other scientists working in the field, are invited to submit a research paper to this issue. Editorial policy The Editorial Board has invited David Neilson (University of Camerino and NEST, Pisa) and Gaetano Senatore (University of Trieste and Democritos INFM-CNR) to serve as Guest Editors for the special issue. Their criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: •The subject of the paper should relate to the subject of the conference (see list of session topics on the conference website: http://sccs2008.df.unicam.it/?q=node/14). •Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedures and standards of the journal. •Conference papers may be based on already published work but should either (i) contain significant additional new results and/or insights or (ii) give a survey of the present state of the art, a critical assessment of the present understanding of a topic, and a discussion of open problems. Each registered participant can submit no more than one paper. •Papers submitted by non-participants should be original and contain substantial new results. Guidelines for preparation of contributions • The deadline for contributed papers is 15 October 2008. •The journal page limits for papers are as follows: keynote papers (13 pages); invited papers (10 pages); contributed papers (8 pages); poster papers (4 pages). Each registered participant can submit no more than one paper. Papers from non-participants will have a page limit of 10 pages. For papers exceeding these limits the Guest Editors reserve the right to request a reduction in length. Further advice on document preparation can be found at www

  17. Funneling Child Welfare Consumers into and through the Mental Health System: Assessment, Referral, and Quality Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoravicius, Nicole; McMillen, J. Curtis; Rowe, Jill E.; Kagotho, Njeri; Ware, Norma C.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how consumers of child welfare services reach nonpsychiatric mental health providers and the perceived quality of these services. It relies on iterative interviews with individuals and groups, as well as on court observations from one metropolitan area. Results suggest that, consistent with theories of street-level bureaucracy, efficiency issues drive mental health service use, as clients are routinely subjected to psychological evaluations and funneled into mental health services as a matter of course. Referral practices are shaped by child welfare professionals' routines, discretion, and desire to meet such system objectives as providing short turnaround times for reports. The results suggest that, despite stakeholders' best intentions, maltreated children are not benefiting from thoughtful processes geared to screen for, assess, and provide targeted treatment for unmet mental health needs. PMID:22740722

  18. Telecommunications issues of intelligent database management for ground processing systems in the EOS era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    Future NASA earth science missions, including the Earth Observing System (EOS), will be generating vast amounts of data that must be processed and stored at various locations around the world. Here we present a stepwise-refinement of the intelligent database management (IDM) of the distributed active archive center (DAAC - one of seven regionally-located EOSDIS archive sites) architecture, to showcase the telecommunications issues involved. We develop this architecture into a general overall design. We show that the current evolution of protocols is sufficient to support IDM at Gbps rates over large distances. We also show that network design can accommodate a flexible data ingestion storage pipeline and a user extraction and visualization engine, without interference between the two.

  19. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    -domain-experts for an article, we conclude that BioFigRank represents an artificial intelligence system that offers expert-level intelligence to help biomedical researchers to navigate increasingly proliferated big data efficiently.

  20. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Liu

    out-domain-experts for an article, we conclude that BioFigRank represents an artificial intelligence system that offers expert-level intelligence to help biomedical researchers to navigate increasingly proliferated big data efficiently.

  1. An insight into the importance of national university rankings in an international context: The case of the I-UGR Rankings of Spanish universities

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson-García, Nicolás; Torres-Salinas, Daniel; López-Cózar, Emilio Delgado; Herrera, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The great importance international rankings have achieved in the research policy arena warns against many threats consequence of the flaws and shortcomings these tools present. One of them has to do with the inability to accurately represent national university systems as their original purpose is only to rank world-class universities. Another one has to do with the lack of representativeness of universities' disciplinary profiles as they usually provide a unique table. Although some rankings...

  2. The Ranking of the Institutions of Higher Education in Bulgaria: Status, Problems and Prospects [In Bulgarian

    OpenAIRE

    P. Boyadjieva

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the main results from the first ranking system of Bulgarian higher education institutions. It adopts two perspectives: 1) from the point of view of higher education – What are the basic achievements, problems and perspectives of Bulgarian higher education as seen through the prism of the ranking system? 2) from the point of view of the ranking system – What are the strengths and weaknesses of the ranking systems and how it can be further developed and improved? The paper a...

  3. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroğlu, Barış; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content knowledge, risk perceptions, moral beliefs, and religious beliefs) and their teaching efficacy beliefs about this topic constitute a belief system, and these beliefs are interrelated due to core educational beliefs. We used an exploratory mixed design to test this model. We developed and administered specific questionnaires to probe the belief system model. The sample for the quantitative part of this study included 441 preservice science teachers from eight universities. We randomly selected eight participants in this group for follow-up interviews. The results showed that preservice science teachers held moderately high teaching efficacy beliefs. Learning and teaching experiences, communication skills, vicarious experiences, emotional states, and interest in the topic were sources of this efficacy. In addition, content knowledge and risk perceptions were predictors of teaching efficacy. We believe that epistemologies based on traditional teaching and the values attached to science teaching are the core beliefs that affect the relationship between predictor variables and teaching efficacy.

  4. Ranking Canadian oil and gas projects using TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jafar Sadjadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns for investment in oil and gas projects is to have a comprehensive understanding on different issues associated with this industry. The industry is mainly influ-enced by the price of oil and gas and in some events, many production units have been forced to shut down solely because of low price of oil and gas. Environmental issues are other important factors, which may put pressure on Canada’s political affairs since the country has strong com-mitment to reduce green gas effect. In this paper, we introduce a multi-criteria decision making method, which helps us rank different projects in terms of investment. The proposed study con-siders different investment factors including net present value, rate of return, benefit-cost analy-sis and payback period along with the intensity of green gas effects for ranking the present oil and gas projects in Canada.

  5. Issues in Indonesia's tsunami disaster management system revealed after the 2004 Sumatra event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, M.; Koyama, A.; Sun, H.; Kang, I.; Arakawa, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Nagata, M.; Nakanishi, R.; Nakano, M.; Noguchi, S.

    2014-12-01

    During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Indonesia had the largest number of casualties around 170,000. International society has supported tsunami early warning system, disaster management and disaster education for Indonesia. The past ten years saw several tsunamis in Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Construction of tsunami early warning system was not in time the 2006 Pangandaran tsunami in Jawa Island. On the other hand, tsunami science has been developed for this decade. Tsunami early warning system has been developed by deep ocean pressure gauges (DART system), coastal tide gauges, GPS buoys and so on. Tsunami folklore has been collected and used education and connected with tsunami deposit. However, the tsunami early warning system and other science application were not widely used at once in Indonesia. GPS buoys were stolen by fishery people. One tsunami evacuation building are not used for evacuation by local people in Aceh Sumatra Island in 2012 though locations of the buildings were selected by scientific numerical simulation. Big panic and trafic accidents occurred by M8.6 earthquake in Aceh in April 2012 and reveal lack of disaster management planning in urban planning during reconstruction (Fig.1: Trafic jam in Banda Aceh, source MSN news photo). In addition to this, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami reveal fragilities tsunami preparedness. How should we decide to use the tsunami science? We research field situation in Aceh the after 10 years past from the 2004 Sumatra event. This presentation discusses issues of the gap between tsunami science and operations through field research in Aceh now.

  6. A Quantitative and Systematic Methodology to Investigate Energy Consumption Issues in Multimodal Intercity Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Du

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy issues in transportation systems have garnered increasing attention recently. This study proposes a systematic methodology for policy-makers to minimize energy consumption in multimodal intercity transportation systems considering suppliers’ operational constraints and travelers’ mobility requirements. A bi-level optimization model is developed for this purpose and considers the air, rail, private auto, and transit modes. The upper-level model is a mixed integer nonlinear program aiming to minimize energy consumption subject to transportation suppliers’ operational constraints and traffic demand distribution to paths resulting from the lower-level model. The lower-level model is a linear program seeking to maximize the trip utilities of travelers. The interactions between the multimodal transportation suppliers and intercity traffic demand are considered under the goal of minimizing system energy consumption. The proposed bi-level mixed integer model is relaxed and transformed into a mathematical program with complementarity constraints, and solved using a customized branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical experiments, conducted using multimodal travel options between Lafayette, Indiana and Washington, D.C. reiterate that shifting traffic demand from private cars to the transit and rail modes significantly reduce energy consumption. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides tools to quantitatively analyze system energy consumption and traffic demand distribution among transportation modes under specific policy instruments. The results illustrate the need to systematically incorporate the interactions among traveler preferences, network structure, and supplier operational schemes to provide policy-makers insights for developing traffic demand shift mechanisms to minimize system energy consumption. Hence, the proposed methodology provide policy-makers the capability to analyze energy consumption in the transportation sector by a

  7. Securing the Value of the Federal Columbia River Power System, Keeping Current, June 1998, Issue 98.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-06-01

    This report focuses on issues which will enhance the value of the Columbia River for the future. Many important decisions must be made about the Bonneville Power Administration in the coming months. These issues include the following: cost management; future fish and wildlife funding; power markets, revenues and subscription; transmission issues; and risk management.

  8. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signalization Implication in Periodontitis: New Evidence from a RANK Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Sojod

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases.

  9. The diagnostic status of first-rank symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Arnfred, Sidse Marie; Handest, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision(ICD-10) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Third and Fourth Edition(DSM-III-IV), the presence of one of Schneider "first-rank symptoms" (FRS) is symptomatically sufficient for the schizophrenia...... diagnosis. Yet, it has been claimed that FRS may also be found in the nonschizophrenic conditions, and therefore, they are not specific or diagnostic for schizophrenia. This review was made to clarify the issue of diagnostic specificity....

  10. Ranking Performance Measures in Multi-Task Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Sabac, Florin; Tian, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for ranking performance evaluation systems in multi-task agency models (using both optimal and linear contracts) in terms of a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) condition on the likelihood ratios. The SSD condition can be replaced by a variance-covariance mat......We derive sufficient conditions for ranking performance evaluation systems in multi-task agency models (using both optimal and linear contracts) in terms of a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) condition on the likelihood ratios. The SSD condition can be replaced by a variance...

  11. Effective Connectivity Modeling for fMRI: Six Issues and Possible Solutions Using Linear Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Fitzgerald Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of directionally specific or causal interactions between regions in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data has proliferated. Here we identify six issues with existing effective connectivity methods that need addressed. The issues are discussed within the framework of Linear Dynamic Systems for fMRI (LDSf. The first concerns the use of deterministic models to identify inter-regional effective connectivity. We show that deterministic dynamics are incapable of identifying the trial-to-trial variability typically investigated as the marker of connectivity while stochastic models can capture this variability. The second concerns the simplistic (constant connectivity modeled by most methods. Connectivity parameters of the LDSf model can vary at the same timescale as the input data. Further, extending LDSf to mixtures of multiple models provides more robust connectivity variation. The third concerns the correct identification of the network itself including the number and anatomical origin of the network nodes. Augmentation of the LDSf state space can identify additional nodes of a network. The fourth concerns the locus of the signal used as a node in a network. A novel extension LDSf incorporating sparse canonical correlations can select most relevant voxels from an anatomically defined region based on connectivity. The fifth concerns connection interpretation. Individual parameter differences have received most attention. We present alternative network descriptors of connectivity changes which consider the whole network. The sixth concerns the temporal resolution of fMRI data relative to the timescale of the inter-regional interactions in the brain. LDSf includes an instantaneous connection term to capture connectivity occurring at timescales faster than the data resolution. The LDS framework can also be extended to statistically combine fMRI and EEG data. The LDSf framework is a promising foundation for effective connectivity

  12. Development of geopolitically relevant ranking criteria for geoengineering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    2016-11-01

    A decade has passed since Paul Crutzen published his editorial essay on the potential for stratospheric geoengineering to cool the climate in the Anthropocene. He synthesized the effects of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption on the planet's radiative budget and used this large-scale event to broaden and deepen the debate on the challenges and opportunities of large-scale geoengineering. Pinatubo had pronounced effects, both in the short and longer term (months to years), on the ocean, land, and the atmosphere. This rich set of data on how a large-scale natural event influences many regional and global facets of the Earth System provides a comprehensive viewpoint to assess the wider ramifications of geoengineering. Here, I use the Pinatubo archives to develop a range of geopolitically relevant ranking criteria for a suite of different geoengineering approaches. The criteria focus on the spatial scales needed for geoengineering and whether large-scale dispersal is a necessary requirement for a technique to deliver significant cooling or carbon dioxide reductions. These categories in turn inform whether geoengineering approaches are amenable to participation (the "democracy of geoengineering") and whether they will lead to transboundary issues that could precipitate geopolitical conflicts. The criteria provide the requisite detail to demarcate different geoengineering approaches in the context of geopolitics. Hence, they offer another tool that can be used in the development of a more holistic approach to the debate on geoengineering.

  13. Research on B Cell Algorithm for Learning to Rank Method Based on Parallel Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Yuling; Zhang, Hongxian

    2016-01-01

    For the purposes of information retrieval, users must find highly relevant documents from within a system (and often a quite large one comprised of many individual documents) based on input query. Ranking the documents according to their relevance within the system to meet user needs is a challenging endeavor, and a hot research topic?there already exist several rank-learning methods based on machine learning techniques which can generate ranking functions automatically. This paper proposes a...

  14. Improve the ranking algorithm of the GEO Discovery and Access Broker through resource accessibility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M.; Sorichetta, A.; Roglia, E.; Quaglia, A.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is the achievement of societal benefits through voluntary contribution and sharing of resources to better understand the relationships between the society and the environment where we live. To address complex issues in the field of geosciences a combined effort from many disciplines, ranging from physical to social sciences and including humanities, is required. The introduction of the Discovery and Access Broker (DAB) in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) allowed to lower significantly the entry barriers for data users and producers, and thus to increase the order of magnitude of discoverable resources in the GCI, from hundreds of thousands to millions. This is a major step forward but from discovery to access, the road is still long! Either missing accessibility information in the metadata or broken links represent the major issue that prevents the real exploitation of the GCI resources. This is a remarkable problem for users attempting to exploit services and datasets obtained through a DAB query. This issue can be minimized providing the user with a ranked list of results that takes into account the real availability and accessibility of resources. We present in this work a methodology that overcomes the problem described above by improving the ranking algorithm, which is currently applied to the result set of a query to the DAB. The proposed methodology is based on the following steps: 1) Verify if information related to the accessibility of resources is described in the metadata provided by GEOSS contributors; 2) If accessibility information is provided, identify the type of resources (e.g. services, datasets) and produce modified and standardized accessibility information in a consistent manner; 3) Use standardized information to test accessibility and availability of resources using a probing approach; 4) Use the results returned in the ranking algorithm to assign the correct weight to

  15. Ranking national research systems by citation indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksnes, Dag W.; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Gunnarsson, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of two different methodologies for calculating national citation indicators: whole counts and fractionalised counts. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect on relative citation indicators when citations to documents are fractionalised among the...

  16. Ranking Visualizations of Correlation Using Weber's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lane; Yang, Fumeng; Franconeri, Steven; Chang, Remco

    2014-12-01

    Despite years of research yielding systems and guidelines to aid visualization design, practitioners still face the challenge of identifying the best visualization for a given dataset and task. One promising approach to circumvent this problem is to leverage perceptual laws to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of a visualization design. Following previously established methodologies, we conduct a large scale (n=1687) crowdsourced experiment to investigate whether the perception of correlation in nine commonly used visualizations can be modeled using Weber's law. The results of this experiment contribute to our understanding of information visualization by establishing that: (1) for all tested visualizations, the precision of correlation judgment could be modeled by Weber's law, (2) correlation judgment precision showed striking variation between negatively and positively correlated data, and (3) Weber models provide a concise means to quantify, compare, and rank the perceptual precision afforded by a visualization.

  17. A universal rank-size law

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    A mere hyperbolic law, like the Zipf's law power function, is often inadequate to describe rank-size relationships. An alternative theoretical distribution is proposed based on theoretical physics arguments starting from the Yule-Simon distribution. A modeling is proposed leading to a universal form. A theoretical suggestion for the "best (or optimal) distribution", is provided through an entropy argument. The ranking of areas through the number of cities in various countries and some sport competition ranking serves for the present illustrations.

  18. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  19. Ranking documents with a thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, R; Bicknell, E

    1989-09-01

    This article reports on exploratory experiments in evaluating and improving a thesaurus through studying its effect on retrieval. A formula called DISTANCE was developed to measure the conceptual distance between queries and documents encoded as sets of thesaurus terms. DISTANCE references MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and assesses the degree of match between a MeSH-encoded query and document. The performance of DISTANCE on MeSH is compared to the performance of people in the assessment of conceptual distance between queries and documents, and is found to simulate with surprising accuracy the human performance. The power of the computer simulation stems both from the tendency of people to rely heavily on broader-than (BT) relations in making decisions about conceptual distance and from the thousands of accurate BT relations in MeSH. One source for discrepancy between the algorithms' measurement of closeness between query and document and people's measurement of closeness between query and document is occasional inconsistency in the BT relations. Our experiments with adding non-BT relations to MeSH showed how these non-BT non-BT relations to MeSH showed how these non-BT relations could improve document ranking, if DISTANCE were also appropriately revised to treat these relations differently from BT relations.

  20. Introduction to Focus Issue: Intrinsic and Designed Computation: Information Processing in Dynamical Systems-Beyond the Digital Hegemony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, James P.; Ditto, William L.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2010-09-01

    How dynamical systems store and process information is a fundamental question that touches a remarkably wide set of contemporary issues: from the breakdown of Moore's scaling laws—that predicted the inexorable improvement in digital circuitry—to basic philosophical problems of pattern in the natural world. It is a question that also returns one to the earliest days of the foundations of dynamical systems theory, probability theory, mathematical logic, communication theory, and theoretical computer science. We introduce the broad and rather eclectic set of articles in this Focus Issue that highlights a range of current challenges in computing and dynamical systems.