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Sample records for rankine turbine system

  1. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  2. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  3. Performance estimation of Tesla turbine applied in small scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei; Li, Xue-song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional model of the Tesla turbine is improved and applied in ORC system. • Working fluid properties and system operating conditions impact efficiency. • The influence of turbine efficiency on ORC system performance is evaluated. • Potential of using Tesla turbine in ORC systems is estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system has been proven to be an effective method for the low grade energy utilization. In small scale applications, the Tesla turbine offers an attractive option for the organic expander if an efficient design can be achieved. The Tesla turbine is simple in structure and is easy to be manufactured. This paper improves the one-dimensional model for the Tesla turbine, which adopts a non-dimensional formulation that identifies the dimensionless parameters that dictates the performance features of the turbine. The model is used to predict the efficiency of a Tesla turbine that is applied in a small scale ORC system. The influence of the working fluid properties and the operating conditions on the turbine performance is evaluated. Thermodynamic analysis of the ORC system with different organic working fluids and under various operating conditions is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the ORC system can generate a considerable net power output. Therefore, the Tesla turbine can be regarded as a potential choice to be applied in small scale ORC systems.

  4. Investigation of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system and the radial-inflow turbine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Ren, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermodynamic analysis of an ORC system is introduced. • A radial turbine design method has been proposed based on the real gas model. • A radial turbine with R123 is designed and numerically analyzed. - Abstract: Energy and environment issue set utilizing low-grade heat noticed. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. As a critical component of ORC system, the turbine selection has an enormous influence on the system performance. This paper carries out a study on the thermodynamic analysis of ORC system and the aerodynamic design of an organic radial turbine. The system performance is evaluated with various working fluids. The aerodynamic design of the organic radial-inflow turbine is focused due to the high molecule weight and the low sound speed of the organic working fluid. An aerodynamic and profile design system is developed. A radial-inflow turbine with R123 as the working fluid is designed and the numerical analysis is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the shock wave caused by the high expansion ratio in the nozzle is well controlled. Compared with the one-dimensional design results, the performance of the radial-inflow turbine in this paper reaches the design requirements.

  5. Control system to a Rankine cycle with a Tesla turbine using arduino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Josenei G.; Guimaraes, Lamartine F.; Placco, Guilherme M.

    2013-01-01

    The thermal Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat in energy. This cycle occurs in steady state, in other words the cycle is a closed loop circuit with continuous feedback, which guarantees the reuse process one energy transformed in the various stages of the cycle. This cycle is used to drive a turbine type TESLA designed for the system. The objective of this work is to create the control and automation of this cycle using an micro-controlled system with Arduino that will hold the collection of sensors and the system will act to maintain the balance of the cycle causing it to behave continuously and with less interference from human operation for maintenance. Data will be collected and further processed, where it will display all the sensors and the situation of the actuators involved. Using Arduino system ensures the stability and reliability with a low cost of implementation

  6. Control system to a Rankine cycle with a Tesla turbine using arduino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Josenei G., E-mail: joseneigodoi@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Lamartine F.; Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (ENU/IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The thermal Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat in energy. This cycle occurs in steady state, in other words the cycle is a closed loop circuit with continuous feedback, which guarantees the reuse process one energy transformed in the various stages of the cycle. This cycle is used to drive a turbine type TESLA designed for the system. The objective of this work is to create the control and automation of this cycle using an micro-controlled system with Arduino that will hold the collection of sensors and the system will act to maintain the balance of the cycle causing it to behave continuously and with less interference from human operation for maintenance. Data will be collected and further processed, where it will display all the sensors and the situation of the actuators involved. Using Arduino system ensures the stability and reliability with a low cost of implementation.

  7. Cogenerative Performance of a Wind − Gas Turbine − Organic Rankine Cycle Integrated System for Offshore Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Michele; Branchini, Lisa; De Pascale, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Gas Turbines (GT) are widely used for power generationin offshore oil and gas facilities, due to their high reliability,compactness and dynamic response capabilities. Small heavyduty and aeroderivative units in multiple arrangements aretypically used to offer larger load flexibility......, but limitedefficiency of such machines is the main drawback. A solutionto enhance the system performance, also in Combined Heat andPower (CHP) arrangement, is the implementation of OrganicRankine Cycle (ORC) systems at the bottom of the gas turbines.Moreover, the resulting GT-ORC combined cycle could befurther...... a 10MW offshorewind farm and three gas turbines rated for 16:5MW, eachone coupled with an 4:5MW ORC module. The ORC mainparameters are observed under different wind power fluctuations.Due to the non-programmable availability of wind and powerdemand, the part-load and dynamic characteristics...

  8. Preliminary analysis of compound systems based on high temperature fuel cell, gas turbine and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D.; Muñoz de Escalona, J. M.; Monje, B.; Chacartegui, R.; Sánchez, T.

    This article presents a novel proposal for complex hybrid systems comprising high temperature fuel cells and thermal engines. In this case, the system is composed by a molten carbonate fuel cell with cascaded hot air turbine and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), a layout that is based on subsequent waste heat recovery for additional power production. The work will credit that it is possible to achieve 60% efficiency even if the fuel cell operates at atmospheric pressure. The first part of the analysis focuses on selecting the working fluid of the Organic Rankine Cycle. After a thermodynamic optimisation, toluene turns out to be the most efficient fluid in terms of cycle performance. However, it is also detected that the performance of the heat recovery vapour generator is equally important, what makes R245fa be the most interesting fluid due to its balanced thermal and HRVG efficiencies that yield the highest global bottoming cycle efficiency. When this fluid is employed in the compound system, conservative operating conditions permit achieving 60% global system efficiency, therefore accomplishing the initial objective set up in the work. A simultaneous optimisation of gas turbine (pressure ratio) and ORC (live vapour pressure) is then presented, to check if the previous results are improved or if the fluid of choice must be replaced. Eventually, even if system performance improves for some fluids, it is concluded that (i) R245fa is the most efficient fluid and (ii) the operating conditions considered in the previous analysis are still valid. The work concludes with an assessment about safety-related aspects of using hydrocarbons in the system. Flammability is studied, showing that R245fa is the most interesting fluid also in this regard due to its inert behaviour, as opposed to the other fluids under consideration all of which are highly flammable.

  9. Influence of the radial-inflow turbine efficiency prediction on the design and analysis of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei; Ren, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The efficiency prediction is based on the velocity triangle and loss models. • The efficiency selection has a big influence on the working fluid selection. • The efficiency selection has a big influence on system parameter determination. - Abstract: The radial-inflow turbine is a common choice for the power output in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system. Its efficiency is related to the working fluid property and the system operating condition. Generally, the radial-inflow turbine efficiency is assumed to be a constant value in the conventional ORC system analysis. Few studies focus on the influence of the radial-inflow turbine efficiency selection on the system design and analysis. Actually, the ORC system design and the radial-inflow turbine design are coupled with each other. Different thermal parameters of the ORC system would lead to different radial-inflow turbine design and then different turbine efficiency, and vice versa. Therefore, considering the radial-inflow turbine efficiency prediction in the ORC system design can enhance its reliability and accuracy. In this paper, a one-dimensional analysis model for the radial-inflow turbine in the ORC system is presented. The radial-inflow turbine efficiency prediction in this model is based on the velocity triangle and loss models, rather than a constant efficiency assumption. The influence of the working fluid property and the system operating condition on the turbine performance is evaluated. The thermodynamic analysis of the ORC system with a model predicted turbine efficiency and a constant turbine efficiency is conducted and the results are compared with each other. It indicates that the turbine efficiency selection has a significant influence on the working fluid selection and the system parameter determination.

  10. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; La Seta, Angelo; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    Axial-flow turbines represent a well-established technology for a wide variety of power generation systems. Compactness, flexibility, reliability and high efficiency have been key factors for the extensive use of axial turbines in conventional power plants and, in the last decades, in organic...... Rankine cycle power systems. In this two-part paper, an overall cycle model and a model of an axial turbine were combined in order to provide a comprehensive preliminary design of the organic Rankine cycle unit, taking into account both cycle and turbine optimal designs. Part A presents the preliminary...

  11. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part A: Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meroni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Axial-flow turbines represent a well-established technology for a wide variety of power generation systems. Compactness, flexibility, reliability and high efficiency have been key factors for the extensive use of axial turbines in conventional power plants and, in the last decades, in organic Rankine cycle power systems. In this two-part paper, an overall cycle model and a model of an axial turbine were combined in order to provide a comprehensive preliminary design of the organic Rankine cycle unit, taking into account both cycle and turbine optimal designs. Part A presents the preliminary turbine design model, the details of the validation and a sensitivity analysis on the main parameters, in order to minimize the number of decision variables in the subsequent turbine design optimization. Part B analyzes the application of the combined turbine and cycle designs on a selected case study, which was performed in order to show the advantages of the adopted methodology. Part A presents a one-dimensional turbine model and the results of the validation using two experimental test cases from literature. The first case is a subsonic turbine operated with air and investigated at the University of Hannover. The second case is a small, supersonic turbine operated with an organic fluid and investigated by Verneau. In the first case, the results of the turbine model are also compared to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The results of the validation suggest that the model can predict values of efficiency within ± 1.3%-points, which is in agreement with the reliability of classic turbine loss models such as the Craig and Cox correlations used in the present study. Values similar to computational fluid dynamics simulations at the midspan were obtained in the first case of validation. Discrepancy below 12 % was obtained in the estimation of the flow velocities and turbine geometry. The values are considered to be within a

  12. Energy recovery system using an organic rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    A thermodynamic system for waste heat recovery, using an organic rankine cycle is provided which employs a single organic heat transferring fluid to recover heat energy from two waste heat streams having differing waste heat temperatures. Separate high and low temperature boilers provide high and low pressure vapor streams that are routed into an integrated turbine assembly having dual turbines mounted on a common shaft. Each turbine is appropriately sized for the pressure ratio of each stream.

  13. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Seta, Angelo; Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. The design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging...... due to the peculiar physical properties of the working fluid and the gas-dynamic phenomena occurring in the machine. Unlike steam Rankine and Brayton engines, organic Rankine cycle expanders combine small enthalpy drops with large expansion ratios. These features yield turbine designs with few highly...... is the preliminary design of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator to increase the overall energy efficiency of an offshore platform. For an increase in expander pressure ratio from 10 to 35, the results indicate up to 10% point reduction in expander performance. This corresponds to a relative reduction in net...

  14. Rankine cycle system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-09-09

    A Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system uses a receiver with a maximum liquid working fluid level lower than the minimum liquid working fluid level of a sub-cooler of the waste heat recovery system. The receiver may have a position that is physically lower than the sub-cooler's position. A valve controls transfer of fluid between several of the components in the waste heat recovery system, especially from the receiver to the sub-cooler. The system may also have an associated control module.

  15. Technical and economical feasibility of the Rankine compression gas turbine (RCG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, H.; Lange, de H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Rankine compression gas turbine (RCG) is a new type of combined cycle, i.e. combined steam and gas turbine installation, that returns all shaft power on one free power turbine. The novelty of the RCG is that the steam turbine drives the compressor of the gas turbine cycle. This way, the turbine

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  17. Design of a Rankine cycle operating with a passive turbine multi fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guilhermeplacco@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, Lamartine N.F., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudo Avançados (CTA/IEAV), São José dos Campos, SP, (Brazil); Santos, Gabriela S. B., E-mail: siqueira.gsb@gmail.com [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Institute of Advanced Studies - IEAv, has been conducting a project called TERRA - 'Fast Advanced Reactors Technology', which aims to study the effects on the working of a Rankine cycle operating with a Multi Fluid Passive Turbine - TPMF. This turbine has the main characteristic operate bladeless using discs arranged in parallel along a rotating axis. After a thorough literature search, we have not found a previous operating Rankine cycle with this kind of turbine. Thus, the work presented here, began its development with few guidelines to follow. It will be presented, of a sucint way, of the design of the parts that makes up a Rankine cycle; the boundary conditions of the cycle; Data acquisition system; the development schedule; assembly of the components; some associated costs and project management. Experimental results thermal conduction through the cycle; the results of net power generated by the turbine and a comparison between thermal energy to mechanical energy in the turbine (efficiency curve). (author)

  18. Design of a Rankine cycle operating with a passive turbine multi fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Santos, Gabriela S. B.

    2017-01-01

    The Institute of Advanced Studies - IEAv, has been conducting a project called TERRA - 'Fast Advanced Reactors Technology', which aims to study the effects on the working of a Rankine cycle operating with a Multi Fluid Passive Turbine - TPMF. This turbine has the main characteristic operate bladeless using discs arranged in parallel along a rotating axis. After a thorough literature search, we have not found a previous operating Rankine cycle with this kind of turbine. Thus, the work presented here, began its development with few guidelines to follow. It will be presented, of a sucint way, of the design of the parts that makes up a Rankine cycle; the boundary conditions of the cycle; Data acquisition system; the development schedule; assembly of the components; some associated costs and project management. Experimental results thermal conduction through the cycle; the results of net power generated by the turbine and a comparison between thermal energy to mechanical energy in the turbine (efficiency curve). (author)

  19. Bottoming micro-Rankine cycles for micro-gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Costante; Iora, Paolo; Silva, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of enhancing the performances of micro-gas turbines through the addition of a bottoming organic Rankine cycle which recovers the thermal power of the exhaust gases typically available in the range of 250-300 o C. The ORC cycles are particularly suitable for the recovery of heat from sources at variable temperatures, and for the generation of medium to small electric power. With reference to a micro-gas turbine with a size of about 100 kWe, a combined configuration could increase the net electric power by about 1/3, yielding an increase of the electrical efficiency of up to 40%. A specific analysis of the characteristics of different classes of working fluids is carried out in order to define a procedure to select the most appropriate fluid, capable of satisfying both environmental (ozone depletion potential, global warming potential) and technical (flammability, toxicity, fluid critical temperature and molecular complexity) concerns. Afterwards, a thermodynamic analysis is performed to ascertain the most favourable cycle thermodynamic conditions, from the point of view of heat recovery. Furthermore, a preliminary design of the ORC turbine (number of stages, outer diameter and rotational speed) is carried out

  20. Exergoeconomic assessment and parametric study of a Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor combined with two Organic Rankine Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadkhani, F.; Shokati, N.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Yari, M.; Rosen, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    An exergoeconomic analysis is reported for a combined system with a net electrical output of 299 MW in which waste heat from a Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is utilized by two Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). A parametric study is also done to reveal the effects on the exergoeconomic performance of the combined system of such significant parameters as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, temperatures of evaporators, pinch point temperature difference in the evaporators and degree of superheat at the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) turbines inlet. Finally the combined cycle performance is optimized from the viewpoint of exergoeconomics. The results show that the precooler, the intercooler and the ORC condensers exhibit the worst exergoeconomic performance. For the overall system, the exergoeconomic factor, the capital cost rate and the exergy destruction cost rate are determined to be 37.95%, 6876 $/h and 11,242 $/h, respectively. Also, it is observed that the unit cost of electricity produced by the GT-MHR turbine increases with increasing GT-MHR turbine inlet temperature but decreases as the other above mentioned parameters increase. - Highlights: • An exergoeconomic analysis is performed for the GT-MHR/ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) combined cycle. • The effects of decision parameters on the exergoeconomic performance are studied. • The highest exergy destructions occur in the precooler, intercooler and condenser. • Superheating the working fluid at the ORC turbine inlet is not necessary. • Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic optimal conditions differ from each other

  1. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  2. Bottoming organic Rankine cycle for a small scale gas turbine: A comparison of different solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Stefano; Micheli, Diego; Reini, Mauro; Taccani, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ORC bottoming section for a commercial micro gas turbine has been studied. ► Six different organic working fluids have been considered and compared. ► The preliminary designs of both axial and radial turbines have been developed. ► Also scroll and reciprocating expanders have been analyzed for comparison. ► The best suited machine has to be selected after a detailed analysis in each case. - Abstract: Recently, several efforts have been devoted to the improvement of the thermal efficiency of small gas turbines, in order to approach the typical values of the internal combustion engines in the same range of power. One possibility is represented by a combined cycle, obtained coupling the gas turbine to a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC). This paper deals with the definition of the main features of an ORC system aimed to recover heat from a 100 kWe commercial gas turbine with internal recuperator. After the optimization of the thermodynamic cycles, involving a comparison between six working fluids, different expanders are analyzed, with the aim of detecting, if possible, the best suited machine. First, single stage turbines, in both radial and axial flow configuration, are designed specifically for each considered fluid, in particular investigating the opportunity of mounting the ORC expander directly on the high-speed shaft of the gas turbine. Then, the performances of these dynamic machines are compared with those of positive displacement expanders, such as scroll devices, obtainable from commercial HVAC compressor with minor revisions, and reciprocating ones, here newly designed

  3. Studi Eksperimen Perbandingan Pengaruh Variasi Tekanan Inlet Turbin danVariasi Pembebanan Terhadap Karakteristik Turbin Pada Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Dharma Risqiawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sistem pembangkit listrik telah berinovasi pada saat ini untuk tetap memenuhi kebutuhan akan ketersediaan listrik salah satunya dengan Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. Sistem ini terdiri dari empat komponen utama yaitu evaporator, turbin, kondensor, dan pompa.Fluida kerja dipompa ke evaporator untuk membangkitkan uap lalu digunakan menggerakkan turbin.Uap hasil ekspansi turbin dikondensasi dan dialirkan oleh pompa kembali ke evaporator.Sistem ini mampu memanfaatkan sumber energi yang memiliki temperatur dan tekanan rendah untuk membangkitkan uap fluida organik. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi kinerja turbin pada sistem ORC dengan memvariasikan tekanan masuk turbin dan pembebanan dengan menggunakan R-123 sebagai fluida kerja .Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan memvariasikan tekanan masuk turbin pada setiap variasi pembebanan generator.Pengamatan dilakukan hanya pada turbin untuk mengetahui karakteristik turbin yang digunakan saat ini.Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan R-123 sebagai fluida kerja. Dari eksperimen didapatkan temperatur masuk dan keluar turbin,kecepatan putaran turbin dalam rpm, dan enthalpy dapat diketahui. Enthalpy digunakan untuk mengitung kerja yang dihasilkan turbin, efisiensi turbin dan efisiensi sudu turbin.Pada tekanan masuk turbin 8 bar dan beban 1000 Watt data dengan nilai terbaik didapatkan.Hasil perhitungan data didapatkan kerja yang dihasilkan turbin yang terbesar adalah 5,4 KW. Hasil lain yang dapat diketahui adalah efisiensi turbin tertinggi 88%. Efisiensi sudu turbin tertinggi yang terhitung adalah 42,9%.

  4. Part-Load Performance of aWet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pierobon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable working fluid for the organic Rankine process. This step enables to parametrize the part-load model of the plant and to estimate its performance at different power outputs. The novel plant has a nominal power of 250 kW and a thermal efficiency of 43%. The major irreversibilities take place in the burner, recuperator, compressor and in the condenser. Toluene is the optimal working fluid for the organic Rankine engine. The part-load investigation indicates that the plant can operate at high efficiencies over a wide range of power outputs (50%–100%, with a peak thermal efficiency of 45% at around 80% load. While the ORC turbogenerator is responsible for the efficiency drop at low capacities, the off-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit.

  5. Organic Rankine Kilowatt Isotope Power System. Final phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    On 1 August 1975 under Department of Energy Contract EN-77-C-02-4299, Sundstrand Energy Systems commenced development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980s and beyond. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W/sub (e)/ with a minimum of system changes. The principal objectives of the Phase 1 development effort were to: conceptually design a flight system; design a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) that is prototypic of the flight system in order to prove the feasibility of the flight system design; fabricate and assemble the GDS; and performance and endurance test the GDS using electric heaters in lieu of the isotope heat source. Results of the work performed under the Phase 1 contract to 1 July 1978 are presented

  6. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part B: Application on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo La Seta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycle (ORC power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. The design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging due to the peculiar physical properties of the working fluid and the gas-dynamic phenomena occurring in the machine. Unlike steam Rankine and Brayton engines, organic Rankine cycle expanders combine small enthalpy drops with large expansion ratios. These features yield turbine designs with few highly-loaded stages in supersonic flow regimes. Part A of this two-part paper has presented the implementation and validation of the simulation tool TURAX, which provides the optimal preliminary design of single-stage axial-flow turbines. The authors have also presented a sensitivity analysis on the decision variables affecting the turbine design. Part B of this two-part paper presents the first application of a design method where the thermodynamic cycle optimization is combined with calculations of the maximum expander performance using the mean-line design tool described in part A. The high computational cost of the turbine optimization is tackled by building a model which gives the optimal preliminary design of an axial-flow turbine as a function of the cycle conditions. This allows for estimating the optimal expander performance for each operating condition of interest. The test case is the preliminary design of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator to increase the overall energy efficiency of an offshore platform. For an increase in expander pressure ratio from 10 to 35, the results indicate up to 10% point reduction in expander performance. This corresponds to a relative reduction in net power output of 8.3% compared to the case when the turbine efficiency is assumed to be 80%. This work also demonstrates that this approach can support the plant designer

  7. Exergy optimization for a novel combination of organic Rankine cycles, Stirling cycle and direct expander turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Mahdi; Khosravian, Mohammadreza

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a novel combination of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs), Stirling cycle and direct expander turbines is modeled and optimized using the genetic algorithm. The Exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function in the genetic algorithm. High efficiency is the main advantage of Stirling cycle, however, it needs nearly isothermal compressor and turbine. Therefore, an argon ORC and a R14 ORC are placed before and after the Striling cycle along with two expander turbines at the end of the line. Each component and cycle of the proposed plant in this article is verified by the previous works available in the literature and good agreement is achieved. The obtained results reveal that 27.98%, 20.86% and 12.90% of the total cold exergy are used by argon ORC, Stirling cycle and R14 ORC, respectively. Therefore, utilization of the Stirling cycle is a good idea for the LNG line cold exergy. The maximum exergy destruction occurs in the heat exchanger after the argon ORC (85.786 kJ/s per one kg/s LNG) due to the wasted cold exergy, which can be used for air conditioning systems in the plant. Finally, it would be shown that the maximum efficiency of the proposed plant is 54.25% and the maximum output power is 355.72 kW.

  8. Exergy optimization for a novel combination of organic Rankine cycles, Stirling cycle and direct expander turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Mahdi; Khosravian, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel combination of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs), Stirling cycle and direct expander turbines is modeled and optimized using the genetic algorithm. The Exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function in the genetic algorithm. High efficiency is the main advantage of Stirling cycle, however, it needs nearly isothermal compressor and turbine. Therefore, an argon ORC and a R14 ORC are placed before and after the Striling cycle along with two expander turbines at the end of the line. Each component and cycle of the proposed plant in this article is verified by the previous works available in the literature and good agreement is achieved. The obtained results reveal that 27.98%, 20.86% and 12.90% of the total cold exergy are used by argon ORC, Stirling cycle and R14 ORC, respectively. Therefore, utilization of the Stirling cycle is a good idea for the LNG line cold exergy. The maximum exergy destruction occurs in the heat exchanger after the argon ORC (85.786 kJ/s per one kg/s LNG) due to the wasted cold exergy, which can be used for air conditioning systems in the plant. Finally, it would be shown that the maximum efficiency of the proposed plant is 54.25% and the maximum output power is 355.72 kW.

  9. Thermo- economical consideration of Regenerative organic Rankine cycle coupling with the absorption chiller systems incorporated in the trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, Simin; Taghavifar, Hadi; Parvishi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new trigeneration cycle was studied from a new viewpoint of exergoeconomic and thermodynamic. • Organic Rankine and refrigeration cycles are used for recovery waste heat of cogeneration system. • Application of trigeneration cycles is advantageous in economical and thermodynamic aspects. - Abstract: In this paper, a combined cooling, heating and power cycle is proposed consisting of three sections of gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle, Regenerative organic Rankine cycle, and absorption refrigeration cycle. This trigeneration cycle is subjected to a thorough thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis. The principal goal followed in the investigation is to address the thermodynamic and exergoeconomic of a trigeneration cycle from a new prospective such that the economic and thermodynamic viability of incorporating Regenerative organic Rankine cycle, and absorption refrigeration cycle to the gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle is being investigated. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the introduced method can be studied and further examined. The results indicate that adding Regenerative organic Rankine cycle to gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle leads to 2.5% increase and the addition of absorption refrigeration cycle to the gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator/ Regenerative Organic Rankine cycle would cause 0.75% increase in the exergetic efficiency of the entire cycle. Furthermore, from total investment cost of the trigeneration cycle, only 5.5% and 0.45% results from Regenerative organic Rankine cycle and absorption refrigeration cycles, respectively.

  10. Thermodynamic and design considerations of organic Rankine cycles in combined application with a solar thermal gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.; Kusterer, K.; Sugimoto, T.; Tanimura, K.; Bohn, D.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies are considered to provide a significant contribution for the electric power production in the future. Different kinds of technologies are presently in operation or under development, e.g. parabolic troughs, central receivers, solar dish systems and Fresnel reflectors. This paper takes the focus on central receiver technologies, where the solar radiation is concentrated by a field of heliostats in a receiver on the top of a tall tower. To get this CSP technology ready for the future, the system costs have to reduce significantly. The main cost driver in such kind of CSP technologies are the huge amount of heliostats. To reduce the amount of heliostats, and so the investment costs, the efficiency of the energy conversion cycle becomes an important issue. An increase in the cycle efficiency results in a decrease of the solar heliostat field and thus, in a significant cost reduction. The paper presents the results of a thermodynamic model of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for combined cycle application together with a solar thermal gas turbine. The gas turbine cycle is modeled with an additional intercooler and recuperator and is based on a typical industrial gas turbine in the 2 MW class. The gas turbine has a two stage radial compressor and a three stage axial turbine. The compressed air is preheated within a solar receiver to 950°C before entering the combustor. A hybrid operation of the gas turbine is considered. In order to achieve a further increase of the overall efficiency, the combined operation of the gas turbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle is considered. Therefore an ORC has been set up, which is thermally connected to the gas turbine cycle at two positions. The ORC can be coupled to the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle at the intercooler and after the recuperator. Thus, waste heat from different cycle positions can be transferred to the ORC for additional production of electricity. Within this investigation

  11. Study of toluene stability for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) space-based power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Vance; Ragaller, Dana

    1988-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly, and endurance operation of a dynamic test loop, built to evaluate the thermal stability of a proposed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) working fluid, is discussed. The test fluid, toluene, was circulated through a heater, simulated turbine, regenerator, condenser and pump to duplicate an actual ORC system. The maximum nominal fluid temperature, 750 F, was at the turbine simulator inlet. Samples of noncondensible gases and liquid toluene were taken periodically during the test. The samples were analyzed to identify the degradation products formed and the quantity of these products. From these data it was possible to determine the degradation rate of the working fluid and the generation rate of noncondensible gases. A further goal of this work was to relate the degradation observed in the dynamic operating loop to degradation obtained in isothermal capsule tests. This relationship was the basis for estimating the power loop degradation in the Space Station Organic Rankine Cycle system.

  12. Development of micro-scale axial and radial turbines for low-temperature heat source driven organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Jubori, Ayad; Daabo, Ahmed; Al-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Ennil, Ali Bahr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • One and three-dimensional analysis with real gas properties are integrated. • Micro axial and radial-inflow turbines configurations are investigated. • Five organic working fluids are considered. • The maximum total isentropic efficiency of radial-inflow turbine 83.85%. • The maximum ORC thermal efficiency based on radial-inflow turbine is 10.60%. - Abstract: Most studies on the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) focused on parametric studies and selection working fluids to maximize the performance of organic Rankine cycle but without attention for turbine design features which are crucial to achieving them. The rotational speed, expansion ratio, mass flow rate and turbine size have markedly effect on turbine performance. For this purpose organic Rankine cycle modeling, mean-line design and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis were integrated for both micro axial and radial-inflow turbines with five organic fluids (R141b, R1234yf, R245fa, n-butane and n-pentane) for realistic low-temperature heat source <100 °C like solar and geothermal energy. Three-dimensional simulation is performed using ANSYS"R"1"7-CFX where three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with k-omega shear stress transport turbulence model. Both configurations of turbines are designed at wide range of mass flow rate (0.1–0.5) kg/s for each working fluid. The results showed that n-pentane has the highest performance at all design conditions where the maximum total-to-total efficiency and power output of radial-inflow turbine are 83.85% and 8.893 kW respectively. The performance of the axial turbine was 83.48% total-to-total efficiency and 8.507 kW power output. The maximum overall size of axial turbine was 64.685 mm compared with 70.97 mm for radial-inflow turbine. R245fa has the lowest overall size for all cases. The organic Rankine cycle thermal efficiency was about 10.60% with radial-inflow turbine and 10.14% with axial turbine

  13. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  14. New concepts for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casati, E.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy provision is one of the major challenges for the Human Society, and it is increasingly clear that the current production/consumption model is not sustainable. The envisaged energy system is smarter, more decentralised and integrated. Energy conversion systems based on the organic Rankine

  15. Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  16. Three dimensional optimization of small-scale axial turbine for low temperature heat source driven organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Jubori, Ayad; Al-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Bahr Ennil, A.S.; Rahbar, Kiyarash

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional optimization of axial turbine stage is presented. • Six organic fluids suitable for low-temperature heat source are considered. • Three-dimensional optimization has been done for each working fluid. • The results showed highlight the potential of optimization technique. • The performance of optimized turbine has been improved off-design conditions. - Abstract: Advances in optimization techniques can be used to enhance the performance of turbines in various applications. However, limited work has been reported on using such optimization techniques to develop small-scale turbines for organic Rankine cycles. This paper investigates the use of multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the stage geometry of a small-axial subsonic turbine. This optimization is integrated with organic Rankine cycle analysis using wide range of high density organic working fluids like R123, R134a, R141b, R152a, R245fa and isobutane suitable for low temperature heat sources <100 °C such as solar energy to achieve the best turbine design and highest organic Rankine cycle efficiency. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine in most of the reported organic Rankine cycle studies was assumed constant, while the current work allows the turbine isentropic efficiency to change (dynamic value) with both operating conditions and working fluids. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis and multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization were performed using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with k-omega shear stress transport turbulence model in ANSYS"R"1"7-CFX and design exploration for various working fluids. The optimization was carried out using eight design parameters for the turbine stage geometry optimization including stator and rotor number of blades, rotor leading edge beta angle, trailing edge beta angle, stagger angle, throat width, trailing half wedge angle and shroud tip clearance. Results showed that

  17. K-Rankine systems for piloted and cargo Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, J.C.; Rovang, R.D.; Johnson, G.A.

    1992-03-01

    Studies are performed to demonstrate the attractiveness of potassium-Rankine (K-Rankine) nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for both piloted and cargo Mars missions. The key results of the piloted mission study are that a full-up piloted mission can be accomplished with a trip time of less than 390 days with an attractive initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of 700 metric tons. This is achieved by coupling two advanced cermet fuel reactors (1550 K outlet temperature) to K-Rankine power-conversion systems to produce the 46 MWe needed to power advanced ion engines. This design approach offers an alternative to a more risky split-sprint mission where comparable trip times and IMLEO can be achieved with a nearer-term reactor (SP-100 at 1350 K outlet temperature) technology. The results of the cargo-mission study indicate that a lower-power K-Rankine system (5.5 MWe) operating at SP-100 reactor conditions would best perform a representative Mars cargo transport. A round-trip mission (480 days outbound; 600 day return) to Mars requires only 225 metric tons IMLEO and permit possible system reuse. 6 refs

  18. Technology for industrial waste heat recovery by organic Rankine cycle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, W. G.; Drake, R. L.; Prisco, C. J.

    1984-10-01

    The recovery of industrial waste heat and the conversion thereof to useful electric power by use of Rankine cycle systems is studied. Four different aspects of ORC technology were studied: possible destructive chemical reaction between an aluminum turbine wheel and R-113 working fluid under wheel-to-rotor rub conditions; possible chemical reaction between stainless steel or carbon steel and any of five different ORC working fluids under rotor-stator rub conditions; effects on electric generator properties of extended exposure to an environment of saturated R-113 vapor/fluid; and operational proof tests under laboratory conditions of two 1070 kW, ORC, R-113 hermetic turbogenerator power module systems.

  19. New concepts for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Casati, E.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy provision is one of the major challenges for the Human Society, and it is increasingly clear that the current production/consumption model is not sustainable. The envisaged energy system is smarter, more decentralised and integrated. Energy conversion systems based on the organic Rankine thermodynamic cycle (ORC) have the potential to play a major role in this framework, being one of the most proven solutions for the exploitation of external thermal sources in the power-output range fr...

  20. Experimental demonstrations of organic Rankine cycle waste heat rejection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Timothy J.; Lacey, P. Douglas

    Two phase fluid management is an important factor in the successful design of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power conversion systems for space applications. The evolution of the heat rejection system approach from a jet condenser, through a rotary jet condenser, to a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) with a surface condenser has been described in a previous paper. Some of the test programs that were used to prove the validity of the selected approach are described.

  1. Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine power cycles for a small scale solar driven reverse osmosis desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchanche, B.F.; Lambrinos, Gr.; Frangoudakis, A.; Papadakis, G.

    2010-01-01

    Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine heat engines is performed to identify the most suitable engine for driving a small scale reverse osmosis desalination system. Three modified engines derived from simple Rankine engine using regeneration (incorporation of regenerator or feedliquid heaters) are analyzed through a novel approach, called exergy-topological method based on the combination of exergy flow graphs, exergy loss graphs, and thermoeconomic graphs. For the investigations, three working fluids are considered: R134a, R245fa and R600. The incorporated devices produce different results with different fluids. Exergy destruction throughout the systems operating with R134a was quantified and illustrated using exergy diagrams. The sites with greater exergy destruction include turbine, evaporator and feedliquid heaters. The most critical components include evaporator, turbine and mixing units. A regenerative heat exchanger has positive effects only when the engine operates with dry fluids; feedliquid heaters improve the degree of thermodynamic perfection of the system but lead to loss in exergetic efficiency. Although, different modifications produce better energy conversion and less exergy destroyed, the improvements are not significant enough and subsequent modifications of the simple Rankine engine cannot be considered as economically profitable for heat source temperature below 100 °C. As illustration, a regenerator increases the system's energy efficiency by 7%, the degree of thermodynamic perfection by 3.5% while the exergetic efficiency is unchanged in comparison with the simple Rankine cycle, with R600 as working fluid. The impacts of heat source temperature and pinch point temperature difference on engine's performance are also examined. Finally, results demonstrate that energy analysis combined with the mathematical graph theory is a powerful tool in performance assessments of Rankine based power systems and permits meaningful comparison of different

  2. A Generalised Assessment of Working Fluids and Radial Turbines for Non-Recuperated Subcritical Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin T. White

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to conduct a generalised assessment of both optimal working fluids and radial turbine designs for small-scale organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems across a range of heat-source temperatures. The former has been achieved by coupling a thermodynamic model of subcritical, non-recperated cycles with the Peng–Robinson equation of state, and optimising the working-fluid and cycle parameters for heat-source temperatures ranging between 80 ° C and 360 ° C . The critical temperature of the working fluid is found to be an important parameter governing working-fluid selection. Moreover, a linear correlation between heat-source temperature and the optimal critical temperature that achieves maximum power output has been found for heat-source temperatures below 300 ° C ( T cr = 0.830 T hi + 41.27 . This correlation has been validated against cycle calculations completed for nine predefined working fluids using both the Peng–Robinson equation of state and using the REFPROP program. Ultimately, this simple correlation can be used to identify working-fluid candidates for a specific heat-source temperature. In the second half of this paper, the effect of the heat-source temperature on the optimal design of a radial-inflow turbine rotor for a 25 kW subcritical ORC system has been studied. As the heat-source temperature increases, the optimal blade-loading coefficient increases, whilst the optimal flow coefficient reduces. Furthermore, passage losses are dominant in turbines intended for low-temperature applications. However, at higher heat-source temperatures, clearance losses become more dominant owing to the reduced blade heights. This information can be used to identify the most direct route to efficiency improvements in these machines. Finally, it is observed that the transition from a conventional converging stator to a converging-diverging stator occurs at heat-source temperatures of approximately 165 ° C , whilst radially

  3. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    Nucler power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  4. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  5. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  6. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  7. The SCSTPE organic Rankine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, F. P.

    1980-01-01

    The organic Rankine cycle engine under consideration for a solar thermal system being developed is described. Design parameters, method of control, performance and cost data are provided for engine power levels up to 80 kWe; efficiency is shown as a function of turbine inlet temperature in the range of 149 C to 427 C.

  8. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  9. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Graa Andreasen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the conventional dual pressure steam Rankine cycle process and the organic Rankine cycle process for marine engine waste heat recovery. The comparison was based on a container vessel, and results are presented for a high-sulfur (3 wt % and low-sulfur (0.5 wt % fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane, toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison indicate that the net power output of the steam Rankine cycle process is higher at high engine loads, while the performance of the organic Rankine cycle units is higher at lower loads. Preliminary turbine design considerations suggest that higher turbine efficiencies can be obtained for the ORC unit turbines compared to the steam turbines. When the efficiency of the c-pentane turbine was allowed to be 10% points larger than the steam turbine efficiency, the organic Rankine cycle unit reaches higher net power outputs than the steam Rankine cycle unit at all engine loads for the low-sulfur fuel case. The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power.

  10. ALKASYS, Rankine-Cycle Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program ALKASYS is used for the creation of design concepts of multimegawatt space power systems that employ potassium Rankine power conversion cycles. 2 - Method of solution: ALKASYS calculates performance and design characteristics and mass estimates for the major subsystems composing the total power system. Design and engineering performance characteristics are determined by detailed engineering procedures rather than by empirical algorithms. Mass estimates are developed using basic design principles augmented in some cases by empirical coefficients determined from the literature. The reactor design is based on a fast spectrum, metallic-clad rod fuel element containing UN pellets. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: ALKASYS was developed primarily for the analysis of systems with electric power in the range from 1,000 to 25,000 kW(e) and full-power life from 1 to 10 years. The program should be used with caution in systems that are limited by heat flux (which might indicate need for extended surfaces on fuel elements) or criticality (which might indicate the need for other geometries or moderators)

  11. Organic Rankine kilowatt isotope power system. First annual summary report, August 1, 1975--August 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Sundstrand Energy Systems is developing a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980's. The KIPS is a plutonium oxide fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W(e) with a minimum of system changes. Research progress is reported on Phase I comprising: (1) flight system conceptual design and ground demonstration; (2) flight system design and ground qualification; and (3) flight system production, acceptance testing and delivery. The principal objectives of Phase I are to: (1) conceptually design the flight system, (2) based on the flight system concept, design and build the ground demonstration system (GDS), (3) conduct performance and endurance testing using electric heaters to simulate the radioisotope heat source, (4) identify and initiate long lead development efforts required to achieve the initial flight qualification hardware availability date of April 1981, and (5) finalize the flight concept design and prepare the program plan for the Phase II effort

  12. Similarity Theory Based Radial Turbine Performance and Loss Mechanism Comparison between R245fa and Air for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles using radial turbines as expanders are considered as one of the most efficient technologies to convert heavy-duty diesel engine waste heat into useful work. Turbine similarity design based on the existing air turbine profiles is time saving. Due to totally different thermodynamic properties between organic fluids and air, its influence on turbine performance and loss mechanisms need to be analyzed. This paper numerically simulated a radial turbine under similar conditions between R245fa and air, and compared the differences of the turbine performance and loss mechanisms. Larger specific heat ratio of air leads to air turbine operating at higher pressure ratios. As R245fa gas constant is only about one-fifth of air gas constant, reduced rotating speeds of R245fa turbine are only 0.4-fold of those of air turbine, and reduced mass flow rates are about twice of those of air turbine. When using R245fa as working fluid, the nozzle shock wave losses decrease but rotor suction surface separation vortex losses increase, and eventually leads that isentropic efficiencies of R245fa turbine in the commonly used velocity ratio range from 0.5 to 0.9 are 3%–4% lower than those of air turbine.

  13. Part-Load Performance of a Wet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Mazzucco, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT......-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit....

  14. Prospects of the use of nanofluids as working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondejar, Maria E.; Andreasen, Jesper G.; Regidor, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The search of novel working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems is driven by the recent regulations imposing additional phase-out schedules for substances with adverse environmental characteristics. Recently, nanofluids (i.e. colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids) have been...... suggested as potential working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems due to their enhanced thermal properties, potentially giving advantages with respect to the design of the components and the cycle performance. Nevertheless, a number of challenges concerning the use of nanofluids must...... the prospects of using nanofluids as working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems. As a preliminary study, nanofluids consisting of a homogenous and stable mixture of different nanoparticles types and a selected organic fluid are simulated on a case study organic Rankine cycle unit for waste heat...

  15. Computational modelling of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for an aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Escalating fuel prices and carbon dioxide emission are causing new interest in methods to increase the thrust force of an aircraft engine with limitation of fuel consumption. One viable means is the conversion of exhaust engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy or to be used in the aircraft environmental system. A one-dimensional analysis method has been proposed for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for turbofan engine in this paper. The paper contains two main parts: validation of the numerical model and a performance prediction of turbofan engine integrated to an ORC system. The cycle is compared with industrial waste heat recovery system from Hangzhou Chinen Steam Turbine Power CO., Ltd. The results show that thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC of the turbofan engine reach lowest value at 0.91 lbm/lbf.h for 7000 lbf of thrust force. When the system installation weight is applied, the system results in a 2.0% reduction in fuel burn. Hence implementation of ORC system for waste heat recovery to an aircraft engine can bring a great potential to the aviation industry.

  16. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  17. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  18. Improving the economy-of-scale of small organic rankine cycle systems through appropriate working fluid selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Martin; Sayma, Abdulnaser I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel system model coupling turbine and ORC system performance. • Contour plots to characterise working fluid and turbine performance. • Changing working fluid can expand pump and turbine operating envelope. • Possible to improve the economy-of-scale through optimal working fluid selection. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are becoming a major research area within the field of sustainable energy systems. However, a major challenge facing the widespread implementation of small and mini-scale ORC systems is the economy-of-scale. To overcome this challenge requires single components that can be manufactured in large volumes and then implemented into a wide variety of different applications where the heat source conditions may vary. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether working fluid selection can improve the current economy-of-scale by enabling the same system components to be used in multiple ORC systems. This is done through coupling analysis and optimisation of the energy process, with a performance map for a small-scale ORC radial turbine. The performance map, obtained using CFD, is adapted to account for additional loss mechanisms not accounted for in the original CFD simulation before being non-dimensionalised using a modified similitude theory developed for subsonic ORC turbines. The updated performance map is then implemented into a thermodynamic model, enabling the construction of a single performance contour that displays the range of heat source conditions that can be accommodated by the existing turbine whilst using a particular working fluid. Constructing this performance map for a range of working fluids, this paper demonstrates that through selecting a suitable working fluid, the same turbine can efficiently utilise heat sources between 360 and 400 K, with mass flow rates ranging between 0.5 and 2.75 kg/s respectively. This corresponds to using the same turbine in ORC applications where the heat available ranges

  19. Hydrogen production using the waste heat of Benchmark pressurized Molten carbonate fuel cell system via combination of organic Rankine cycle and proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, Hossein; Akrami, Ehsan; Ranjbar, Faramarz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat of the Benchmark system recovered using an ORC. • An integrated system is proposed to produce power and hydrogen. • The effects of some decision parameters on the produced hydrogen have investigated. - Abstract: Energy and exergy analyses are carried out for hydrogen production via combination of Benchmark system and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) coupled with a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer. A parametric study is reported and effects of such organic Rankine cycle significant variables as evaporator temperature, pinch point temperature difference in the evaporator and degree of superheat at the ORC turbine inlet on the rate of produced hydrogen, sustainability index, overall exergy efficiency and organic Rankine cycle net produced power are investigated. It is observed that the rate of produced hydrogen and overall exergy efficiency of the proposed combined system take the maximum value to change in the evaporator temperature. Also, it is revealed that increasing the pinch point temperature difference in the evaporator decreases the rate of produced hydrogen and the overall exergy efficiency of the system. Furthermore, the effects on the rate of produced hydrogen and the overall exergy efficiency of the degree of superheat at the ORC turbine inlet are the same as the effect of pinch point temperature difference.

  20. Parametric design and off-design analysis of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei; Ren, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A one-dimensional analysis method for ORC system is proposed. • The system performance under both design and off-design conditions are analyzed. • The working fluid selection is based on both design and off-design performance. • The system parameter determination are based on both design and off-design performance. - Abstract: A one-dimensional analysis method has been proposed for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system in this paper. The method contains two main parts: a one-dimensional aerodynamic analysis model of the radial-inflow turbine and a performance prediction model of the heat exchanger. Based on the present method, an ORC system for the industrial waste heat recovery is designed and analyzed. The net power output of the ORC system is 534 kW, and the thermal efficiency reaches 13.5%. System performance under off-design conditions is simulated and considered. The results show that the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the cooling water have a significant influence on the system. With the increment of the heat source inlet temperature, the mass flow rate of the working fluid, the net power output and the heat utilization ratio of the ORC system increase. While, the system thermal efficiency decreases with increasing cooling water inlet temperature. In order to maintain the condensation pressure at a moderate value, the heat source inlet temperature considered in this analysis should be kept within the range of 443.15–468.15 K, while the optimal temperature range of the cooling water is between 283.15 K and 303.15 K.

  1. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  2. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  3. Experimental Study of a Low-Temperature Power Generation System in an Organic Rankine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Yongchao; Zhang, Yufeng; Deng, Na

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new power generation system under the principle of organic Rankine cycle which can generate power with a low-temperature heat source. A prototype was built to investigate the proposed system. In the prototype, an air screw compressor was converted into an expander and used...... as the engine of the power generator. The style of the preheater was a shell and tube heat exchanger, which could provide a long path for the working fluid. A flooded heat exchanger with a high heat transfer coefficient was taken as the evaporator. R134a was used as working fluid for the Rankine cycle......, the average isentropic efficiency of the screw expander was 68%, and the efficiency of power generation varies from 1.2 to 4.56%. The highest value of thermodynamical perfectness was 29.06%. It can be concluded that organic Rankine cycle could be competitive for recovering low-temperature heat source...

  4. Power generation and heating performances of integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Guo, Zhanwei; Chen, Yaping; Wu, Jiafeng; Hua, Junye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle (AWKRC) is investigated. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle is operated for cogenerating room heating-water in winter. • Kalina cycle with higher efficiency is operated for power generation in other seasons. • Power recovery efficiency accounts thermal efficiency and waste heat absorbing ratio. • Heating water with 70 °C and capacity of 55% total reclaimed heat load is cogenerated. - Abstract: An integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle (AWKRC) for power generation and heating is introduced. The Kalina cycle has large temperature difference during evaporation and small one during condensation therefore with high thermal efficiency for power generation, while the ammonia–water Rankine cycle has large temperature difference during condensation as well as evaporation, thus it can be adopted to generate heating-water as a by-product in winter. The integrated system is based on the Kalina cycle and converted to the Rankine cycle with a set of valves. The performances of the AWKRC system in different seasons with corresponding cycle loops were studied and analyzed. When the temperatures of waste heat and cooling water are 300 °C and 25 °C respectively, the thermal efficiency and power recovery efficiency of Kalina cycle are 20.9% and 17.4% respectively in the non-heating seasons, while these efficiencies of the ammonia–water Rankine cycle are 17.1% and 13.1% respectively with additional 55.3% heating recovery ratio or with comprehensive efficiency 23.7% higher than that of the Kalina cycle in heating season

  5. A review of the use of organic Rankine cycle power systems for maritime applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondejar, M. E.; Andreasen, J. G.; Pierobon, L.

    2018-01-01

    combustion, geothermal reservoirs, and waste heat from industrial processes. However, its economic feasibility has not yet been demonstrated for marine applications. This paper aims at evaluating the potential of using organic Rankine cycle systems for waste heat recovery aboard ships. The suitable vessels......Diesel engines are by far the most common means of propulsion aboard ships. It is estimated that around half of their fuel energy consumption is dissipated as low-grade heat. The organic Rankine cycle technology is a well-established solution for the energy conversion of thermal power from biomass...... in order to tackle the challenges limiting a widespread use of this technology in currently operating vessels and new-buildings. The results indicate that organic Rankine cycle units recovering heat from the exhaust gases of engines using low-sulfur fuels could yield fuel savings between 10% and 15%....

  6. Integrated turbine bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Dickenson, R.J.; Parry, W.T.; Retzlaff, K.M.

    1982-07-01

    Turbine steam-flow bypasses have been used for years in various sizes and applications. Because of differing system requirements, their use has been more predominant in Europe than in the United States. Recently, some utilities and consulting engineers have been re-evaluating their need for various types of bypass operation in fossil-fuelled power plants.

  7. Thermodynamic Optimization of a Geothermal- Based Organic Rankine Cycle System Using an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Özkaraca

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a renewable form of energy, however due to misuse, processing and management issues, it is necessary to use the resource more efficiently. To increase energy efficiency, energy systems engineers carry out careful energy control studies and offer alternative solutions. With this aim, this study was conducted to improve the performance of a real operating air-cooled organic Rankine cycle binary geothermal power plant (GPP and its components in the aspects of thermodynamic modeling, exergy analysis and optimization processes. In-depth information is obtained about the exergy (maximum work a system can make, exergy losses and destruction at the power plant and its components. Thus the performance of the power plant may be predicted with reasonable accuracy and better understanding is gained for the physical process to be used in improving the performance of the power plant. The results of the exergy analysis show that total exergy production rate and exergy efficiency of the GPP are 21 MW and 14.52%, respectively, after removing parasitic loads. The highest amount of exergy destruction occurs, respectively, in condenser 2, vaporizer HH2, condenser 1, pumps 1 and 2 as components requiring priority performance improvement. To maximize the system exergy efficiency, the artificial bee colony (ABC is applied to the model that simulates the actual GPP. Under all the optimization conditions, the maximum exergy efficiency for the GPP and its components is obtained. Two of these conditions such as Case 4 related to the turbine and Case 12 related to the condenser have the best performance. As a result, the ABC optimization method provides better quality information than exergy analysis. Based on the guidance of this study, the performance of power plants based on geothermal energy and other energy resources may be improved.

  8. Optimal design of solid oxide fuel cell, ammonia-water single effect absorption cycle and Rankine steam cycle hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Dehghani, Hossein; Ali Moosavian, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    A combined system containing solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine power plant, Rankine steam cycle and ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is introduced and analyzed. In this process, power, heat and cooling are produced. Energy and exergy analyses along with the economic factors are used to distinguish optimum operating point of the system. The developed electrochemical model of the fuel cell is validated with experimental results. Thermodynamic package and main parameters of the absorption refrigeration system are validated. The power output of the system is 500 kW. An optimization problem is defined in order to finding the optimal operating point. Decision variables are current density, temperature of the exhaust gases from the boiler, steam turbine pressure (high and medium), generator temperature and consumed cooling water. Results indicate that electrical efficiency of the combined system is 62.4% (LHV). Produced refrigeration (at -10 °C) and heat recovery are 101 kW and 22.1 kW respectively. Investment cost for the combined system (without absorption cycle) is about 2917 kW-1.

  9. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

  10. Working fluid charge oriented off-design modeling of a small scale Organic Rankine Cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liuchen; Zhu, Tong; Ma, Jiacheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycle model considering working fluid charge has been established. • Overall solution algorithm of system off-design performance is proposed. • Variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers can be observed. • Optimal working fluid charge volume for different output work has been estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle system is one of the most widely used technique for low-grade waste heat recovery. Developing of dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle models played an increasingly important part in system performance prediction. The present paper developed a working fluid charge oriented model for an small scale Organic Rankine Cycle to calculate the theoretical value of working fluid charge level for the system under rated condition. The two heat exchangers are divided into three different zones and related heat transfer correlations are employed to estimate the length variation of each zones. Steady state models have been applied to describe the performance of pump and expander. Afterwards, an overall solution algorithm based on the established model has been proposed in order to exact simulate the system’s off-design performance. Additionally, the impact of different working fluid charge volumes has also been discussed. Simulation results clearly shows the variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers, as well as the variation trend of system operating parameters under various expander output work. Furthermore, the highest thermal efficiency can be reached 6.37% under rated conditions with a working fluid charge volume of 34.6 kg.

  11. Dynamic behavior of Rankine cycle system for waste heat recovery of heavy duty diesel engines under driving cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hui; Yang, Can

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery behavior of the RCS during driving cycle was investigated. • Four operating modes were defined to describe the operating process of the RCS under driving cycle. • The operating mode switching is the crucial reason for on-road inefficiency. • The dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet ones on the adaptability to unsteady ExGE. • The effects of the vapor parameters on RCT-E and power mode percentage are opposite. - Abstract: The RCS (Rankine cycle system) used to recover the WHE (waste heat energy) from engines has been regarded as one of the most potential ways of achieving higher efficiency. However, it is of great challenge to keep the RCS still in good performance under driving cycle. This paper tries to reveal and explain its on-road inefficiency. The operating process of the RCS under driving cycle was analyzed in advance. Afterwards, four basic operating modes were defined, including startup mode, turbine turning mode, power mode and protection mode. Then, a RCS model was established and operating performances of the RCS under an actual driving cycle were discussed based on this model. The results indicate that the on-road RCS-E (Rankine cycle system efficiency) is as low as 3.63%, which is less than half of the design RCS-E (7.77%) at the rated operating point. Despite the inevitable vapor state fluctuation, it is the operating mode switching during the driving cycle that leads to the on-road inefficiency. Further investigations indicate that the expander safety temperature and its safety margin affected by the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure are the main factors determining the operating mode switching. Finally, the effects of the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure on the operating mode switching and RC (Rankine cycle) efficiencies were profoundly investigated. The study shows that the dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet

  12. Design of organic Rankine cycle power systems accounting for expander performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Seta, Angelo; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. Its design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging due...

  13. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  14. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Baral; Kyung Chun Kim

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal ef...

  15. System and method for regulating EGR cooling using a rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Morris, Dave

    2015-12-22

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and method for regulating exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling, and more particularly, to a Rankine cycle WHR system and method, including a recuperator bypass arrangement to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling for engine efficiency improvement and thermal management. This disclosure describes other unique bypass arrangements for increased flexibility in the ability to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling.

  16. Technical and economic study of Stirling and Rankine cycle bottoming systems for heavy truck diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, I.

    1987-01-01

    Bottoming cycle concepts for heavy duty transport engine applications were studied. In particular, the following tasks were performed: (1) conceptual design and cost data development for Stirling systems; (2) life-cycle cost evaluation of three bottoming systems - organic Rankine, steam Rankine, and Stirling cycles; and (3) assessment of future directions in waste heat utilization research. Variables considered for the second task were initial capital investments, fuel savings, depreciation tax benefits, salvage values, and service/maintenance costs. The study shows that none of the three bottoming systems studied are even marginally attractive. Manufacturing costs have to be reduced by at least 65%. As a new approach, an integrated Rankine/Diesel system was proposed. It utilizes one of the diesel cylinders as an expander and capitalizes on the in-cylinder heat energy. The concept eliminates the need for the power transmission device and a sophisticated control system, and reduces the size of the exhaust evaporator. Results of an economic evaluation indicate that the system has the potential to become an attractive package for end users.

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yaping; Guo, Zhanwei; Wu, Jiafeng; Zhang, Zhi; Hua, Junye

    2015-01-01

    The integrated system of AWKRC (ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle) is a novel cycle operated on KC (Kalina cycle) for power generation in non-heating seasons and on AWRC (ammonia–water Rankine cycle) for cogeneration of power and heating water in winter. The influences of inlet temperatures of both heat resource and cooling water on system efficiencies were analyzed based on the first law and the second law of thermodynamics. The calculation is based on following conditions that the heat resource temperature keeps 300 °C, the cooling water temperature for the KC or AWRC is respectively 25 °C or 15 °C; and the temperatures of heating water and backwater are respectively 90 °C and 40 °C. The results show that the evaluation indexes of the power recovery efficiency and the exergy efficiency of KC were respectively 18.2% and 41.9%, while the composite power recovery efficiency and the composite exergy efficiency of AWRC are respectively 21.1% and 43.0% accounting both power and equivalent power of cogenerated heating capacity, including 54.5% heating recovery ratio or 12.4% heating water exergy efficiency. The inventory flow diagrams of both energy and exergy gains and losses of the components operating on KC or AWRC are also demonstrated. - Highlights: • An integrated system of AWKRC (ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle) is investigated. • NH_3–H_2O Rankine cycle is operated for cogenerating power and heating-water in winter. • Heating water with 90 °C and capacity of 54% total reclaimed heat load is cogenerated. • Kalina cycle is operated for power generation in other seasons with high efficiency. • Energy and exergy analysis draw similar results in optimizing the system parameters.

  18. A review of the use of organic Rankine cycle power systems for maritime applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondejar, M. E.; Andreasen, J. G.; Pierobon, L.

    2018-01-01

    Diesel engines are by far the most common means of propulsion aboard ships. It is estimated that around half of their fuel energy consumption is dissipated as low-grade heat. The organic Rankine cycle technology is a well-established solution for the energy conversion of thermal power from biomass...... combustion, geothermal reservoirs, and waste heat from industrial processes. However, its economic feasibility has not yet been demonstrated for marine applications. This paper aims at evaluating the potential of using organic Rankine cycle systems for waste heat recovery aboard ships. The suitable vessels...... and engine heat sources are identified by estimating the total recoverable energy. Different cycle architectures, working fluids, components, and control strategies are analyzed. The economic feasibility and integration on board are also evaluated. A number of research and development areas are identified...

  19. Performance of a 250 kW Organic Rankine Cycle System for Off-Design Heat Source Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Ran Fu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An organic Rankine cycle system comprised of a preheater, evaporator, condenser, turbine, generator, and pump was used to study its off-design performance and the operational control strategy. R245fa was used as the working fluid. Under the design conditions, the net power output is 243 kW and the system thermal efficiency is 9.5%. For an off-design heat source flow rate (mW, the operating pressure was controlled to meet the condition that the R245fa reached the liquid and vapor saturation states at the outlet of the preheater and the evaporator, respectively. The analytical results demonstrated that the operating pressure increased with increasing mW; a higher mW yielded better heat transfer performance of the preheater and required a smaller evaporator heat capacity, and the net power output and system thermal efficiency increased with increasing mW. For the range of mW studied here, the net power output increased by 64.0% while the total heat transfer rate increased by only 9.2%. In summary, off-design operation of the system was examined for a heat source flow rate which varied by –39.0% to +78.0% from the designed rate, resulting in –29.2% to +16.0% and –25.3% to +12.6% variations in the net power output and system thermal efficiency, respectively.

  20. The Influence of the Heat Source Temperature on the Multivane Expander Output Power in an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kolasiński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC power systems are nowadays an option for local and domestic cogeneration of heat and electric power. Very interesting are micropower systems for heat recovery from low potential (40–90 °C waste and renewable heat sources. Designing an ORC system dedicated to heat recovery from such a source is very difficult. Most important problems are connected with the selection of a suitable expander. Volumetric machines, such as scroll and screw expanders, are adopted as turbine alternative in small-power ORC systems. However, these machines are complicated and expensive. Vane expanders on the other hand are simple and cheap. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the operation of a micro-ORC rotary vane expander under variable heat source temperature conditions. The main objective of this research was therefore a comprehensive analysis of relation between the vane expander output power and the heat source temperature. A series of experiments was performed using the micropower ORC test-stand. Results of these experiments are presented here, together with a mathematical description of multivane expanders. The analysis presented in this paper indicates that the output power of multivane expanders depend on the heat source temperature, and that multivane expanders are cheap alternatives to other expanders proposed for micropower ORC systems.

  1. Performance comparison of three trigeneration systems using organic rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Hamdullahpur, Feridun; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, energetic performance comparison of three trigeneration systems is presented. The systems considered are SOFC-trigeneration, biomass-trigeneration, and solar-trigeneration systems. This study compares the performance of the systems considered when there is only electrical power and the efficiency improvement of these systems when there is trigeneration. Different key output parameters are examined: energy efficiency, net electrical power, electrical to heating and cooling ratios, and (GHG) GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. This study shows that the SOFC-trigeneration system has the highest electrical efficiency among the three systems. Alternatively, when trigeneration is used, the efficiencies of all three systems considered increase considerably. The maximum trigeneration efficiency of the SOFC-trigeneration system is around 76% while it is around 90% for the biomass-trigeneration system. On the other hand, the maximum trigeneration efficiencies of the solar-trigeneration system is around 90% for the solar mode, 45% for storage and storage mode, and 41% for the storage mode. In addition, this study shows that the emissions of CO 2 in kg per MWh of electrical power are high for the biomass-trigeneration and SOFC-trigeneration systems. However, by considering the emissions per MWh of trigeneration, their values drop to less than one fourth. -- Highlights: → We have compared the energetic performance of three potential trigeneration systems. → These systems are SOFC, biomass, and solar-trigeneration systems. → The SOFC-trigeneration system has the highest electrical efficiency. → The trigeneration efficiencies of the biomass-trigeneration system and solar mode of the solar-trigeneration system are the highest. → The CO 2 emissions per MWh of combined cooling, heating, and power production drop significantly when trigeneration is used.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of system parameters on the performance of the Organic Rankine Cycle system for binary-cycle geothermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Chuhua

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the sensitivity of system parameters to the performance of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system quantitatively. A thermodynamic model of the ORC system for binary-cycle geothermal power plants has been developed and verified. The system parameters, such as working fluid, superheat temperature, pinch temperature difference in evaporator and condenser, evaporating temperature, the isentropic efficiencies of the cycle pump and radial inflow turbine are selected as six factors for orthogonal design. The order of factors sensitivity on performance indices of the net power output of the ORC system, the thermal efficiency, the size parameter of radial inflow turbine, the power decrease factor of the pump and the total heat transfer capacity are determined by the range obtained from the orthogonal design. At different geothermal temperatures, the ranges of the six factors corresponding to performance indices are analyzed respectively. The results show that the geothermal temperature influences the range of the factors to the net power output, SP factor of radial inflow turbine, and the total heat transfer capacity, but it has no effect for the range of the factors for the thermal efficiency and the power decrease factor of the pump. The evaporating temperature is always the primary or secondary factor that influence the thermodynamic and economic performance of the ORC system. This study would provide useful references for determining the proper design variables in the performance optimization of the ORC system at different geothermal temperatures. - Highlights: • Evaporating temperature has significant effect on performance of ORC system. • Order of system parameters' sensitivity to the performance of ORC is revealed. • Effect of system parameters on performance indices vary with geothermal temperature. • Geothermal temperature has no effect on range of six factors to the size of turbine

  3. Parametric and exergetic analysis of waste heat recovery system based on thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle utilizing R123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Zhao, Jian; Tian, Hua; Liang, Xingyu; Wei, Haiqiao

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the combined TEG-ORC (thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle) used in exhaust heat recovery of ICE (internal combustion engine) theoretically. A theoretical model is proposed to calculate the optimal parameters of the bottoming cycle based on thermodynamic theory when net output power and volumetric expansion ratio are selected as objective functions, which affect system performance and size. The effects of relative TEG flow direction, TEG scale, highest temperature, condensation temperature, evaporator pressure and efficiency of IHE (internal heat exchanger) on system performance are investigated. R123 is chosen among the fluids whose decomposition temperature exceeds 600 K to avoid fluid resolving and resulting in wet stroke when expansion process ends. The thermodynamic irreversibility that occurs in evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed at target working areas. The results indicate a significant increase of system performance when TEG and IHE are combined with ORC bottoming cycle. It is also suggested that TEG-ORC system is suitable to recovering waste heat from engines, because TEG can extend the temperature range of heat source and thereby improve the security and fuel economy of engines. -- Highlights: ► Development of a TEG-ORC system using R123 as working fluid for WHR of engines. ► Performance of the developed cycle was investigated theoretically. ► Optimization of configurations and parameters can be obtained. ► Irreversibility in the evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed. ► Optimal net power and indicated efficiency is 27 kW and 45.7%, respectively.

  4. Conceptual design and analysis of a Dish-Rankine solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, R. L.

    1980-08-01

    A Point Focusing Distributed Receiver (PFDR) solar thermal electric system which employs small Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) engines is examined with reference to its projected technical/economic performance. With mass-produced power modules (about 100,000 per year), the projected life-cycle energy cost for an optimized no-storage system is estimated at 67 mills/kWh (Levelized Busbar Energy Cost) without the need for advanced development of any of its components. At moderate production rates (about 50 MWe/yr) system energy costs are competitive with conventional power generation systems in special remote-site types of applications.

  5. Studi Numerik Dua Dimensi Labyrinth Seal Turbin Uap Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Type Straight-Through dengan Variasi Tekanan Inlet, Kecepatan Putaran Poros, Jarak Pitch, dan Tinggi Rongga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fungki Setyo Yulianto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle merupakan salah satu sistem pembangkit tenaga yang mampu memanfaatkan waste energy dengan menggunakan fluida organik yang mampu menguap pada temperatur dan tekanan rendah. Salah satu komponen utama pada sistem ORC adalah Turbin. Untuk mendapatkan efisiensi yang maksimal,  kebocoran fluida pada turbin uap harus di minimalisir. Untuk itulah di perlukan penggunaan labyrinth seal untuk mengurai kebocoran fluida R123 pada turbin uap ORC. Pada dunia Industri jenis labyrinth seal sangat banyak sekali, salah satunya adalah labyrinth seal tipe Straight-Through. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode numerik (CFD software Fluent. Penelitian ini menggunakan variasi tekanan inlet yaitu 5, 10 dan 15 bar, putaran poros 0, 1500 dan 3000 rpm, panjang pitch 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, serta tinggi rongga 3,415 mm, 3,915 mm dan 5,915 mm. Simulasi menggunakan model turbulensi k-ε RNG. Pada variasi tekanan inlet laju kebocoran paling besar terjadi pada tekanan 15 bar. Pada variasi putaran poros laju kebocoran terjadi berubah secara signifikan pada setiap variasi. Pada variasi tinggi rongga laju kebocoran paling kecil terjadi pada tinggi rongga 3,415 mm. Pada variasi panjang pitch, laju kebocoran paling kecil terjadi pada panjang pitch 10 mm.

  6. Technical Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle System Using Low-Temperature Source to Generate Electricity in Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the shipping sector has growth rapidly as followed by the increasing of world population and the demands for public transportation via sea. This issue entails the large attention on emission, energy efficiency and fuel consumption on the ship. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR is one of the solution to overcome the mentioned issue and one of the WHR method is by installing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system in ship. ORC demonstrate to recover and exploit the low temperature waste heat rejected by the ship power generation plant. The main source of heat to be utilized is obtained from container ship (7900 kW BHP, DWT 10969 mt ship jacket water cooling system and use R-134a as a refrigerant. The main equipment consists of evaporator, condenser, pump and steam turbine to generate the electricity. The main objective is to quantifying the estimation of electrical power which can be generated at typical loads of the main engine. As the final result of analysis, the ORC system is able to generate the electricity power ranged from 77,5% - 100% of main engine load producing power averagely 57,69 kW.

  7. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  8. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  9. Gas fired advanced turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecren, R. T.; White, D. J.

    The basic concept thus derived from the Ericsson cycle is an intercooled, recuperated, and reheated gas turbine. Theoretical performance analyses, however, showed that reheat at high turbine rotor inlet temperatures (TRIT) did not provide significant efficiency gains and that the 50 percent efficiency goal could be met without reheat. Based upon these findings, the engine concept adopted as a starting point for the gas-fired advanced turbine system is an intercooled, recuperated (ICR) gas turbine. It was found that, at inlet temperatures greater than 2450 F, the thermal efficiency could be maintained above 50%, provided that the turbine cooling flows could be reduced to 7% of the main air flow or lower. This dual and conflicting requirement of increased temperatures and reduced cooling will probably force the abandonment of traditional air cooled turbine parts. Thus, the use of either ceramic materials or non-air cooling fluids has to be considered for the turbine nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades. The use of ceramic components for the proposed engine system is generally preferred because of the potential growth to higher temperatures that is available with such materials.

  10. Evaluation of Rankine cycle air conditioning system hardware by computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, H. M.; Clark, D.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for simulating the performance of a variety of solar powered Rankine cycle air conditioning system components (RCACS) has been developed. The computer program models actual equipment by developing performance maps from manufacturers data and is capable of simulating off-design operation of the RCACS components. The program designed to be a subroutine of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Energy System Analysis Computer Program 'SOLRAD', is a complete package suitable for use by an occasional computer user in developing performance maps of heating, ventilation and air conditioning components.

  11. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems: Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  12. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems - Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long-time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  13. Model based control for waste heat recovery rankine cycle system in heavy duty trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Grelet, Vincent; Dufour, Pascal; Nadri, Madiha; Lemort, Vincent; Reiche, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Driven by future emissions legislations and increase in fuel prices engine, gas heat recovering has recently attracted a lot of interest. In the past few years, a high number of studies have shown the interest of energy recovery Rankine based systems for heavy duty trucks engine compounding. Recent studies have brought a significant potential for such a system in a Heavy Duty (HD) vehicle, which can lead to a decrease in fuel consumption of about 5% [Wang et al. (2011)] and reduce engine emis...

  14. A Novel Organic Rankine Cycle System with Improved Thermal Stability and Low Global Warming Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panesar Angad S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for long haul truck application. Rather than typical tail pipe heat recovery configurations, the proposed setup exploits the gaseous streams that are already a load on the engine cooling module. The system uses dual loops connected only by the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR stream. A water blend study is conducted to identify suitable mixtures for the High Temperature (HT loop, while the Low Temperature (LT loop utilises a Low Global Warming (GWP Hydrofluoroether.

  15. A synthesis/design optimization algorithm for Rankine cycle based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffolo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The algorithm presented in this work has been developed to search for the optimal topology and design parameters of a set of Rankine cycles forming an energy system that absorbs/releases heat at different temperature levels and converts part of the absorbed heat into electricity. This algorithm can deal with several applications in the field of energy engineering: e.g., steam cycles or bottoming cycles in combined/cogenerative plants, steam networks, low temperature organic Rankine cycles. The main purpose of this algorithm is to overcome the limitations of the search space introduced by the traditional mixed-integer programming techniques, which assume that possible solutions are derived from a single superstructure embedding them all. The algorithm presented in this work is a hybrid evolutionary/traditional optimization algorithm organized in two levels. A complex original codification of the topology and the intensive design parameters of the system is managed by the upper level evolutionary algorithm according to the criteria set by the HEATSEP method, which are used for the first time to automatically synthesize a “basic” system configuration from a set of elementary thermodynamic cycles. The lower SQP (sequential quadratic programming) algorithm optimizes the objective function(s) with respect to cycle mass flow rates only, taking into account the heat transfer feasibility constraint within the undefined heat transfer section. A challenging example of application is also presented to show the capabilities of the algorithm. - Highlights: • Energy systems based on Rankine cycles are used in many applications. • A hybrid algorithm is proposed to optimize the synthesis/design of such systems. • The topology of the candidate solutions is not limited by a superstructure. • Topology is managed by the genetic operators of the upper level algorithm. • The effectiveness of the algorithm is proved in a complex test case

  16. Waste Heat Recovery of a PEMFC System by Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two systems are brought forward to recover the waste heat of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC, which are named the organic Rankine cycle (ORC, and heat pump (HP combined organic Rankine cycle (HPORC. The performances of both systems are simulated on the platform of MATLAB with R123, R245fa, R134a, water, and ethanol being selected as the working fluid, respectively. The results show that, for PEMFC where operating temperature is constantly kept at 60 °C, there exists an optimum working temperature for each fluid in ORC and HPORC. In ORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with R245fa being selected as the working fluid. The corresponding thermal efficiency of the recovery system is 4.03%. In HPORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with water being selected in HP and R123 in ORC. The thermal efficiency of the recovery system increases to 4.73%. Moreover, the possibility of using ORC as the cooling system of PEMFC is also studied. The heat released from PEMFC stack is assumed to be wholly recovered by the ORC or HPORC system. The results indicate that the HPORC system is much more feasible for the cooling system of a PEMFC stack, since the heat recovery ability can be promoted due to the presence of HP.

  17. Thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, G. R.; Parekh, M. B.

    An organic Rankine cycle-solar dynamic power system (ORC-SDPS) comprises a concentrator, a radiator, a power conversion unit, and a receiver with a thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which charges and discharges energy to meet power demands during orbital insolation and eclipse periods. Attention is presently given to the criteria used in designing and evaluating an ORC-SDPS TES, as well as the automated test facility employed. It is found that a substantial data base exists for the design of an ORC-SDPS TES subsystem.

  18. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  19. Potassium Rankine cycle power conversion systems for lunar-Mars surface power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The potassium Rankine cycle has good potential for application to nuclear power systems for surface power on the moon and Mars. A substantial effort on the development of the power conversion system was carried out in the 1960's which demonstrated successful operation of components made of stainless steel at moderate temperatures. This technology could be applied in the near term to produce a 360 kW(e) power system by coupling a stainless steel power conversion system to the SP-100 reactor. Improved performance could be realized in later systems by utilizing niobium or tantalum refractory metal alloys in the reactor and power conversion system. The design characteristics and estimated mass of power systems for each of three technology levels are presented in the paper

  20. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a coupled transcritical and subcritical organic Rankine cycle system for waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xi Wu [Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhejian (China); Wang, Xiao Qiong; Li, You Rong; Wu, Chun Mei [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-07-15

    We present a novel coupled organic Rankine cycle (CORC) system driven by the low-grade waste heat, which couples a transcritical organic Rankine cycle with a subcritical organic Rankine cycle. Based on classical thermodynamic theory, a detailed performance analysis on the novel CORC system was performed. The results show that the pressure ratio of the expander is decreased in the CORC and the selection of the working fluids becomes more flexible and abundant. With the increase of the pinch point temperature difference of the internal heat exchanger, the net power output and thermal efficiency of the CORC all decrease. With the increase of the critical temperature of the working fluid, the system performance of the CORC is improved. The net power output and thermal efficiency of the CORC with isentropic working fluids are higher than those with dry working fluids.

  1. Performance characterization of a power generation unit–organic Rankine cycle system based on the efficiencies of the system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizley, Alta; Mago, Pedro J.; Tobermann, James; Warren, Harrison R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of waste heat from a power generation unit to generate electricity is explored. • An organic Rankine cycle is used to recover the waste heat. • The system may lower cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emission. • A parameter was established to show when the proposed system would provide savings. • The proposed system was evaluated in different locations in the US. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the potential of using the waste heat from a power generation unit to generate additional electricity using an organic Rankine cycle to reduce operational cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in different locations in the U.S. The power generation unit–organic Rankine cycle system is compared with a conventional system in terms of operational cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction. A parameter (R_m_i_n), which is based on system efficiencies, is established to determine when the proposed power generation unit–organic Rankine cycle system would potentially provide savings versus the conventional system in which electricity is purchased from the utility grid. The effect on the R_m_i_n parameter with variation of each system efficiency is also analyzed in this paper. Results indicated that savings in one parameter, such as primary energy consumption, did not imply savings in the other two parameters. Savings in the three parameters (operational cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions) varied widely based on location due to prices of natural gas and electricity, source-to-site conversion factors, and carbon dioxide emissions conversion factors for electricity and natural gas. Variations in each system efficiency affected R_m_i_n, but varying the power generation unit efficiency had the most dramatic effect in the overall savings potential from the proposed system.

  2. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  3. Power turbine ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  4. Analysis and assessment of a new organic Rankine based heat engine system with/without cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogerwaard, Janette; Dincer, Ibrahim; Zamfirescu, Calin

    2013-01-01

    A low-temperature heat driven heat engine is proposed as a cost-effective system for power and heat production for small scale applications. The external heat source allows flexibility in the design; the system may be coupled with various available renewable sources including biomass/biofuel/biogas combustion, geothermal heat, concentrated solar radiation, and industrial waste heat, by selecting appropriate off-the-shelf components from the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), refrigeration, and automotive industries for use in an ORC (organic Rankine cycle). A theoretical analysis and an experimental study are carried out for an ORC with R134a as the working fluid, utilizing a low-temperature heat source (T source < 150 °C), with focus on the expansion and boiling processes. The complete ORC model is comprised of models for the expander, working fluid pump, boiler, and condenser. Thermodynamic and heat transfer models are developed to calculate the local and averaged heat transfer coefficient of the working fluid throughout the boiling process, based on the geometry of the selected heat exchanger. Data collected for the experimental ORC test bench are used to validate the expander and boiler models. A case study is performed for the proposed ORC, for cogeneration of power and heat in a residential application. The results of the case study analysis for the proposed ORC system indicate a cycle efficiency of 0.05, exergy efficiency of 0.17, and energy and exergy cogeneration efficiency of 0.87, and 0.35, respectively. - Highlights: • Development and investigation of a scroll based Rankine heat engine operating with R134a. • Thermodynamic analyses of the system and its components. • Heat transfer analyses of boiler and condenser. • Dynamic analysis of expander. • Model validation through performed experiments on an ORC test bench

  5. Proposal of a combined heat and power plant hybridized with regeneration organic Rankine cycle: Energy-Exergy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, Simin; Jafarmadar, Samad; Khalilarya, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new thermodynamic cogeneration system is proposed. • Energy and exergy analysis of the considered cycle were performed. • An enhancement of 2.6% in exergy efficiency compared to that of baseline cycle. - Abstract: Among Rankine cycles (simple, reheat and regeneration), regeneration organic Rankine cycle demonstrates higher efficiencies compared to other cases. Consequently, in the present work a regeneration organic Rankine cycle has been utilized to recuperate gas turbine’s heat using heat recovery steam generator. At first, this cogeneration system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis and the obtained results were compared with that of investigated cogeneration found in literature (a cogeneration system in which a reheat organic Rankine cycle for heat recuperation of gas turbine cycle was used with the aid of heat recovery steam generator). Results indicated that the first and second thermodynamic efficiencies in present cycle utilizing regeneration cycle instead of reheat cycle has increased 2.62% and 2.6%, respectively. In addition, the effect of thermodynamic parameters such as combustion chamber’s inlet temperature, gas turbine inlet temperature, evaporator and condenser temperature on the energetic and exergetic efficiencies of gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator cycle and gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator cycle with regeneration organic Rankine cycle was surveyed. Besides, parametric analysis shows that as gas turbine and combustion chamber inlet temperatures increase, energetic and exergetic efficiencies tend to increase. Moreover, once condenser and evaporator temperature raise, a slight decrement in energetic and exergetic efficiency is expected.

  6. Wind turbine with lightning protection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  7. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  8. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  9. Development of Low Price Turbine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, C.K.; Kim, J.A.; Jeong, W.J.; Choi, I.K.; Woo, J.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report is final research results of ''Development of Low Price Turbine Control System''. It describes test such as turbine startup, generator synchronization, rated load operation, simulation after manufacturing turbine control system. (author). 45 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of ejector performance for an organic Rankine cycle combined power and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, Xue; Markides, Christos N.; Yang, Yong; Shen, Shengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of an ejector in an Organic Rankine Cycle and ejector refrigeration cycle (EORC) was evaluated. • The achieved entrainment ratio and COP of an EORC system is affected significantly by the evaporator conditions (such as temperature, pressure and flow rate). • An optimum distance of 6 mm nozzle position was found that ensures a maximum entrainment ratio, the best efficiency and lowest loss in the ejector. • A reduced total pressure loss between the nozzle inlet and exit leads to a lower energy loss, a higher entrainment ratio and better overall ejector performance. - Abstract: Power-generation systems based on organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) are well suited and increasingly employed in the conversion of thermal energy from low temperature heat sources to power. These systems can be driven by waste heat, for example from various industrial processes, as well as solar or geothermal energy. A useful extension of such systems involves a combined ORC and ejector-refrigeration cycle (EORC) that is capable, at low cost and complexity, of producing useful power while having a simultaneous capacity for cooling that is highly desirable in many applications. A significant thermodynamic loss in such a combined energy system takes place in the ejector due to unavoidable losses caused by irreversible mixing in this component. This paper focuses on the flow and transport processes in an ejector, in order to understand and quantify the underlying reasons for these losses, as well as their sensitivity to important design parameters and operational variables. Specifically, the study considers, beyond variations to the geometric design of the ejector, also the role of changing the external conditions across this component and how these affect its performance; this is not only important in helping develop ejector designs in the first instance, but also in evaluating how the performance may shift (in fact, deteriorate) quantitatively when the device

  11. An experimental analysis of flow boiling and pressure drop in a brazed plate heat exchanger for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desideri, Adriano; Zhang, Ji; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems for low quality waste heat recovery applications can play a major role in achieving targets of increasing industrial processes efficiency and thus reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Low capacity organic Rankine cycle systems are equipped with brazed...... and pressure drop during vaporization at typical temperatures for low quality waste heat recovery organic Rankine cycle systems are presented for the working fluids HFC-245fa and HFO-1233zd. The experiments were carried out at saturation temperatures of 100°C, 115°C and 130°C and inlet and outlet qualities...

  12. Organic Rankine-cycle power systems working fluids study. Topical report No. 1: Fluorinol 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M. L.; Demirgian, J. C.; Cole, R. L.

    1986-09-01

    The thermal stability limits and degradation rates of Fluorinol 85 as a function of maximum cycle temperatures are determined. Following the design and construction of a dynamic test loop capable of simulating the thermodynamic conditions of possible prototypical organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power systems, several test runs were completed. The Fluorinol 85 test loop was operated for about 3800 h at a temperature range of 525 to 600 F. Both liquid and noncondensable vapor (gas) samples were drawn periodically and analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry. Results indicate that Fluorinol 85 would not decompose significantly over an extended period, up to a maximum cycle temperature of 550 F. However, 506-h data at 575 F show initiation of significant degradation. The 770-h data at 600 F, using a fresh charge of Fluorinol 85, indicate an annual degradation rate of more than 17.2%. The most significant degradation product observed is hydrofluoric acid, which could cause severe corrosion in an ORC system. Removal of the hydrofluoric acid and prevention of temperature extremes are necessary for an ORC system using Fluorinol 85 as a working fluid.

  13. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  14. Experimental and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Small-Scale Solar Organic Rankine Cycle (SORC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A small-scale solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a promising renewable energy-driven power generation technology that can be used in the rural areas of developing countries. A prototype was developed and tested for its performance characteristics under a range of solar source temperatures. The solar ORC system power output was calculated based on the thermal and solar collector efficiency. The maximum solar power output was observed in April. The solar ORC unit power output ranged from 0.4 kW to 1.38 kW during the year. The highest power output was obtained when the expander inlet pressure was 13 bar and the solar source temperature was 120 °C. The area of the collector for the investigation was calculated based on the meteorological conditions of Busan City (South Korea. In the second part, economic and thermoeconomic analyses were carried out to determine the cost of energy per kWh from the solar ORC. The selling price of electricity generation was found to be $0.68/kWh and $0.39/kWh for the prototype and low cost solar ORC, respectively. The sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to find the influencing economic parameters for the change in NPV. Finally, the sustainability index was calculated to assess the sustainable development of the solar ORC system.

  15. Simulation of the parabolic trough solar energy generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ya-Ling; Mei, Dan-Hua; Tao, Wen-Quan; Yang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Huai-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A parabolic trough solar power generation system with ORC is numerically simulated. ► The effects of key parameters on collector field and system performance are studied. ► Collector heat loss increases with small absorber and glass tube interlayer pressure. ► Heat collecting efficiency increases with initial increase of absorber HTO flow rate. ► Recommended thermal storage system volumes are different in year four typical days. -- Abstract: A model for a typical parabolic trough solar thermal power generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle (PT-SEGS–ORC) was built within the transient energy simulation package TRNSYS, which is formed by integrating several submodels for the trough collector system, the single-tank thermal storage system, the auxiliary power system and the heat-electricity conversion system. With this model, the effects of several key parameters, including the interlayer pressure between the absorber tube and the glass tube (p inter ), the flow rate of high temperature oil in the absorber tube (v), solar radiation intensity (I dn ) and incidence angle (θ), on the performance of the parabolic trough collector field based on the meteorological data of Xi’an city were examined. The study shows that the heat loss of the solar collector (q loss ) increases sharply with the increase in p inter at beginning and then reaches to an approximately constant value. The variation of heat collecting efficiency (η hc ) with v is quite similar to the variation of q loss with p inter . However, I dn and θ exhibit opposite effect on η hc . In addition, it is found that the optimal volume of the thermal storage system is sensitively dependent on the solar radiation intensity. The optimal volumes are 100, 150, 50, and 0 m 3 for spring equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox and winter solstice, respectively.

  16. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal efficiency of the system was found to be 8% with an operating temperature of 120 °C. The hot water produced by the unit has a temperature of 40 °C. Economic assessment was done for 1-kW and 5-kW solar ORC water pumping systems. These systems use different types of solar collectors: a parabolic trough collector (PTC and an evacuated tube collector (ETC. The economic analysis showed that the costs of water are $2.47/m3 (highest and $1.86/m3 (lowest for the 1-kW system and a 150-m pumping head. In addition, the cost of water is reduced when the size of the system is increased and the pumping head is reduced. The minimum volumes of water pumped are 2190 m3 and 11,100 m3 yearly for 1 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The payback period is eight years with a profitability index of 1.6. The system is highly feasible and promising in the context of Nepal.

  17. Simulation of a solar assisted combined heat pump – Organic rankine cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimpf, Stefan; Span, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of an ORC to a solar thermal and ground source heat pump system. • Reverse operation of the scroll compressor in ORC mode. • Annual simulations for application in a single-family house at three locations. • By introducing the ORC the net electricity demand is reduced by 1–9%. • Over the lifetime of the system savings can cover additional investments. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal and ground source heat pump system that harnesses the excess heat of the collectors during summer by an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is simulated. For the ORC the heat pump process is reversed. In this case the scroll compressor of the heat pump runs as a scroll expander and the working fluid is condensed in the ground heat exchanger. Compared to a conventional solar thermal system the only additional investments for the combined system are a pump, valves and upgraded controls. The goal of the study is to simulate and optimize such a system. A brief overview of the applied models and the evolutionary algorithm for the optimization is given. A system with 12 m 2 of flat plate collectors installed in a single family house is simulated for the locations Ankara, Denver and Bochum. The ORC benefits add up to 20–140 kW h/a, which reduces the net electricity demand of the system by 1–9%. Overall 180–520 € are saved over a period of 20 years, which can be enough to cover the additional investments

  18. Dual-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems using genetic algorithm: a comparison between basic and recuperative cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Nasir; Ameen, Muhammad Tahir; Tariq, Muhammad Kashif; Shah, Syed Nadeem Abbas; Naveed, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Exploitation of low potential waste thermal energy for useful net power output can be done by manipulating organic Rankine cycle systems. In the current article dual-objectives (η_{th} and SIC) optimization of ORC systems [basic organic Rankine cycle (BORC) and recuperative organic Rankine cycle (RORC)] has been done using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (II). Seven organic compounds (R-123, R-1234ze, R-152a, R-21, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in basic cycle and four dry compounds (R-123, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in recuperative cycle to investigate the behaviour of two systems and compare their performance. Sensitivity analyses show that recuperation boosts the thermodynamic behaviour of systems but it also raises specific investment cost significantly. R-21, R-245ca and R-601 show attractive performance in BORC whereas R-601 and R-236ea in RORC. RORC, due to higher total investment cost and operation & maintenance costs, has longer payback periods as compared to BORC.

  19. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  20. A Flow Rate Control Approach on Off-Design Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Ran Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored effects of off-design heat source temperature (TW,in or flow rate (mW on heat transfer characteristics and performance of an organic Rankine cycle system by controlling the flow rate of working fluid R245fa (i.e., the operation flow rate of R245fa was controlled to ensure that R245fa reached saturation liquid and vapor states at the outlets of the preheater and evaporator, respectively. The results showed that the operation flow rate of R245fa increased with TW,in or mW; higher TW,in or mW yielded better heat transfer performance of the designed preheater and required higher heat capacity of the evaporator; heat transfer characteristics of preheater and evaporator differed for off-design TW,in and mW; and net power output increased with TW,in or mW. The results further indicated that the control strategy should be different for various off-design conditions. Regarding maximum net power output, the flow rate control approach is optimal when TW,in or mW exceeds the design point, but the pressure control approach is better when TW,in or mW is lower than the design point.

  1. Fuzzy Nonlinear Dynamic Evaporator Model in Supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC-based waste heat recovery (WHR system operating under a supercritical condition has a higher potential of thermal efficiency and work output than a traditional subcritical cycle. However, the operation of supercritical cycles is more challenging due to the high pressure in the system and transient behavior of waste heat sources from industrial and automotive engines that affect the performance of the system and the evaporator, which is the most crucial component of the ORC. To take the transient behavior into account, the dynamic model of the evaporator using renowned finite volume (FV technique is developed in this paper. Although the FV model can capture the transient effects accurately, the model has a limitation for real-time control applications due to its time-intensive computation. To capture the transient effects and reduce the simulation time, a novel fuzzy-based nonlinear dynamic evaporator model is also developed and presented in this paper. The results show that the fuzzy-based model was able to capture the transient effects at a data fitness of over 90%, while it has potential to complete the simulation 700 times faster than the FV model. By integrating with other subcomponent models of the system, such as pump, expander, and condenser, the predicted system output and pressure have a mean average percentage error of 3.11% and 0.001%, respectively. These results suggest that the developed fuzzy-based evaporator and the overall ORC-WHR system can be used for transient simulations and to develop control strategies for real-time applications.

  2. Research in Support of the Use of Rankine Cycle Energy Conversion Systems for Space Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Richard T., Jr.; Dhir, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    This is the report of a Scientific Working Group (SWG) formed by NASA to determine the feasibility of using a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor and Rankine energy conversion cycle for dual purpose power and propulsion in space. This is a high level technical report which is intended for use by NASA management in program planning. The SWG was composed of a team of specialists in nuclear energy and multiphase flow and heat transfer technology from academia, national laboratories, NASA and industry. The SWG has identified the key technology issues that need to be addressed and have recommended an integrated short term (approx. 2 years) and a long term (approx. 10 year) research and development (R&D) program to qualify a Rankine cycle power plant for use in space. This research is ultimately intended to give NASA and its contractors the ability to reliably predict both steady and transient multiphase flow and heat transfer phenomena at reduced gravity, so they can analyze and optimize designs and scale-up experimental data on Rankine cycle components and systems. In addition, some of these results should also be useful for the analysis and design of various multiphase life support and thermal management systems being considered by NASA.

  3. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass trigeneration system using an organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hamdullahpur, Feridun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, energy and exergy analyses of a biomass trigeneration system using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are presented. Four cases are considered for analysis: electrical-power, cooling-cogeneration, heating-cogeneration and trigeneration cases. The results obtained reveal that the best performance of the trigeneration system considered can be obtained with the lowest ORC evaporator pinch temperature considered, T pp = 20 K, and the lowest ORC minimum temperature, T 9 = 345 K. In addition, this study reveals that there is a significant improvement when trigeneration is used as compared to only electrical power production. This study demonstrates that the fuel utilization efficiency increases, in average, from 12% for electrical power to 88% for trigeneration. Moreover, the maximum exergy efficiency of the ORC is 13% and, when trigeneration is used, it increases to 28%. Furthermore, this study reveals that the electrical to cooling ratio can be controlled through changing the ORC evaporator pinch point temperature and/or the pump inlet temperature. In addition, the study reveals that the biomass burner and the ORC evaporator are the main two sources of exergy destruction. The biomass burner contributes to 55% of the total destructed exergy whereas the ORC evaporator contributes to 38% of the total destructed exergy. -- Highlights: ► The best performance can be obtained with the lowest ORC evaporator pinch temperature and the lowest ORC minimum temperature. ► There is, on average, 75 % gain in energy efficiency for trigeneration compared to electrical system. ► There is, on average, 17% gain in exergy efficiency when trigeneration is used as compared to electrical system. ► The electrical to cooling ratio is sensitive to the variation of the pinch point temperature and pump inlet temperature. ► The two main sources of the exergy destruction are the biomass burner with 55% and the ORC evaporator with 38%.

  4. Parametric analysis of a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is designed for engine waste heat recovery. • The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger. • The influence of the HT loop condensation parameters on the LT loop is evaluated. • Pinch point locations determine the thermal parameters of the LT loop. - Abstract: This paper presents a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system consisting of a high temperature (HT) loop and a low temperature (LT) loop for engine waste heat recovery. The HT loop recovers the waste heat of the engine exhaust gas, and the LT loop recovers that of the jacket cooling water in addition to the residual heat of the HT loop. The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger, which means that the condenser of the HT loop is the evaporator of the LT loop as well. Cyclohexane, benzene and toluene are selected as the working fluids of the HT loop. Different condensation temperatures of the HT loop are set to maintain the condensation pressure slightly higher than the atmosphere pressure. R123, R236fa and R245fa are chosen for the LT loop. Parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the influence of the HT loop condensation temperature and the residual heat load on the LT loop. The simulation results reveal that under different condensation conditions of the HT loop, the pinch point of the LT loop appears at different locations, resulting in different evaporation temperatures and other thermal parameters. With cyclohexane for the HT loop and R245fa for the LT loop, the maximum net power output of the dual loop ORC system reaches 111.2 kW. Since the original power output of the engine is 996 kW, the additional power generated by the dual loop ORC system can increase the engine power by 11.2%.

  5. Cost Engineering Techniques and Their Applicability for Cost Estimation of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Lemmens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems is acknowledged by both considerable research and development efforts and an increasing number of applications. Most research aims at improving ORC systems through technical performance optimization of various cycle architectures and working fluids. The assessment and optimization of technical feasibility is at the core of ORC development. Nonetheless, economic feasibility is often decisive when it comes down to considering practical instalments, and therefore an increasing number of publications include an estimate of the costs of the designed ORC system. Various methods are used to estimate ORC costs but the resulting values are rarely discussed with respect to accuracy and validity. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the methods used to estimate these costs and open the discussion about the interpretation of these results. A review of cost engineering practices shows there has been a long tradition of industrial cost estimation. Several techniques have been developed, but the expected accuracy range of the best techniques used in research varies between 10% and 30%. The quality of the estimates could be improved by establishing up-to-date correlations for the ORC industry in particular. Secondly, the rapidly growing ORC cost literature is briefly reviewed. A graph summarizing the estimated ORC investment costs displays a pattern of decreasing costs for increasing power output. Knowledge on the actual costs of real ORC modules and projects remains scarce. Finally, the investment costs of a known heat recovery ORC system are discussed and the methodologies and accuracies of several approaches are demonstrated using this case as benchmark. The best results are obtained with factorial estimation techniques such as the module costing technique, but the accuracies may diverge by up to +30%. Development of correlations and multiplication factors for ORC technology in particular is

  6. Magnus air turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  7. Water turbine system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  8. A novel cascade organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for waste heat recovery of truck diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A confluent cascade expansion ORC (CCE-ORC) system is proposed. • Cyclopentane is considered as the most suitable fluid for this system. • The CCE-ORC system performance under full operating conditions is analyzed. • The BSFC of diesel engine can be reduced by 9.2% with the CCE-ORC system. • Performance comparison of CCE-ORC and dual-loop ORC is conducted. - Abstract: Waste heat recovery (WHR) of engines has attracted increasingly more concerns recently, as it can improve engine thermal efficiency and help truck manufacturers meet the restrictions of CO_2 emission. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has been considered as the most potential technology of WHR. To take full advantage of waste heat energy, the waste heat in both exhaust gases and the coolant need to be recovered; however, conventional multi-source ORC systems are too complex for vehicle applications. This paper proposed a confluent cascade expansion ORC (CCE-ORC) system for engine waste heat recovery, which has simpler architecture, a smaller volume and higher efficiency compared with conventional dual-loop ORC systems. Cyclopentane is analyzed to be regarded as the most suitable working fluid for this novel system. A thermodynamic simulation method is established for this system, and off-design performance of main components and the working fluid side pressure drop in the condenser have been taken into consideration. System performance simulations under full engine operating conditions are conducted for the application of this system on a heavy-duty truck diesel engine. Results show that the engine peak thermal efficiency can be improved from 45.3% to 49.5% where the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreases from 185.6 g/(kW h) to 169.9 g/(kW h). The average BSFC in the frequently operating region can decrease by 9.2% from 187.9 g/(kW h) to 172.2 g/(kW h). Compared with the conventional dual-loop ORC system, the CCE-ORC system can generate 8% more net power, while the

  9. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  10. Electrohydraulic system to control NPP turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.; Rozhanskij, V.E.; Rokhlenko, V.Yu.; Gapunin, A.Ya.; Zhornitskaya, T.Ya.; Rasskazov, I.Eh.; Butsenko, V.N.; Brajnin, L.S.; Makarenko, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Operation regimes of electrohydraulic regulation system (EHRS) of NPP turbines, designed to control the turbine in start-up and working conditions, have been decribed. In start-up regimes EHRS ensures the testing of control valves of the turbine, the turn of the turbine from zero to the nominal rotation frequency (automatic, semiautomatic and manual regulation), turbine acceleration to test safety automatic systems, gradual change in rotation frequency during generator synchronization with circuit. Under working conditions EHRS ensures the maintenance of frequency, power and vapour pressure before the turbine. A block diagram of EHRS is presented. Sensors and electronic part of EHRS are supplied with triple reservation, which ensures a high relaibility of the system

  11. Turbine and its turbine control system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongwei; Zhu Jinping

    1996-01-01

    The simulation for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit turbine and turbine control system is briefly introduced. The simulation system includes lube oil system, jacking oil pump system, turning gear system, turbine supervisor system and turbine control system. It not only correctly simulates the process of turbine normal start up, operation, and shut down, but also the response of turbine under the malfunction conditions

  12. A hybrid solar photovoltaic-wind turbine-Rankine cycle for electricity generation in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy demand model by designing a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power generation system of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a promising substitute for the expensive battery banks. The study models the future energy demand of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus based on the IPCC emissions scenario A1B and A2 by designing a new hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system that satisfies the current and future requirements of firm capacity during peak periods. The study suggests an improvement in a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system performance by predicting reliable outputs that can integrate renewable energy technologies to conventional power generation. The energy consumption prediction model emphasizes the energy requirement that has a growing demand from 300 to 400 GWh in scenario A1B and 150–450 GWh in scenario A2 from 2010 to 2050. The proposed design can meet 400 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A1B and 450 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A2. The percentage contribution of solar, wind and thermal energy for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 are presented along with CO2 emissions and water consumption for each of the years.

  13. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  14. Modelling of an air-cooled two-stage Rankine cycle for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This work considers a two stage Rankine cycle architecture slightly different from a standard Rankine cycle for electricity generation. Instead of expanding the steam to extremely low pressure, the vapor leaves the turbine at a higher pressure then having a much smaller specific volume. It is thus possible to greatly reduce the size of the steam turbine. The remaining energy is recovered by a bottoming cycle using a working fluid which has a much higher density than the water steam. Thus, the turbines and heat exchangers are more compact; the turbine exhaust velocity loss is lower. This configuration enables to largely reduce the global size of the steam water turbine and facilitate the use of a dry cooling system. The main advantage of such an air cooled two stage Rankine cycle is the possibility to choose the installation site of a large or medium power plant without the need of a large and constantly available water source; in addition, as compared to water cooled cycles, the risk regarding future operations is reduced (climate conditions may affect water availability or temperature, and imply changes in the water supply regulatory rules). The concept has been investigated by EDF R and D. A 22 MW prototype was developed in the 1970's using ammonia as the working fluid of the bottoming cycle for its high density and high latent heat. However, this fluid is toxic. In order to search more suitable working fluids for the two stage Rankine cycle application and to identify the optimal cycle configuration, we have established a working fluid selection methodology. Some potential candidates have been identified. We have evaluated the performances of the two stage Rankine cycles operating with different working fluids in both design and off design conditions. For the most acceptable working fluids, components of the cycle have been sized. The power plant concept can then be evaluated on a life cycle cost basis. (author)

  15. Exergy and economic analysis of organic rankine cycle hybrid system utilizing biogas and solar energy in rural area of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Zheng, Siyu; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    circuits. The cogeneration supplied the power to the air-condition in summer condition and hot water, which is heated in the condenser, in winter condition. The system performance under the subcritical pressures has been assessed according to the energy-exergy and economic analysis with the organic working......℃. The exergy efficiency of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system increases from 35.2% to 38.2%. Moreover, an economic analysis of the system is carried out. The results demonstrate that the profits generated from the reduction of biogas fuel and electricity consumption can lead to a significant saving, resulting...

  16. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  17. Constrained multi-objective optimization of radial expanders in organic Rankine cycles by firefly algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadormanesh, Nikrouz; Rahat, Shayan; Yarali, Milad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization for radial expander in Organic Rankine Cycles is implemented. • By using firefly algorithm, Pareto front based on the size of turbine and thermal efficiency is produced. • Tension and vibration constrains have a significant effect on optimum design points. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycles are viable energy conversion systems in sustainable energy systems due to their compatibility with low-temperature heat sources. In the present study, one dimensional model of radial expanders in conjunction with a thermodynamic model of organic Rankine cycles is prepared. After verification, by defining thermal efficiency of the cycle and size parameter of a radial turbine as the objective functions, a multi-objective optimization was conducted regarding tension and vibration constraints for 4 different organic working fluids (R22, R245fa, R236fa and N-Pentane). In addition to mass flow rate, evaporator temperature, maximum pressure of cycle and turbo-machinery design parameters are selected as the decision variables. Regarding Pareto fronts, by a little increase in size of radial expanders, it is feasible to reach high efficiency. Moreover, by assessing the distribution of decision variables, the variables that play a major role in trending between the objective functions are found. Effects of mechanical and vibration constrains on optimum decision variables are investigated. The results of optimization can be considered as an initial values for design of radial turbines for Organic Rankine Cycles.

  18. Optimization of Biomass-Fuelled Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP Systems Integrated with Subcritical or Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maraver

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs, coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling demands in the tertiary sector. The thermodynamic approach was complemented, to avoid its possible limitations, by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the pump of the ORC. The working fluids considered are: n-pentane, n-heptane, octamethyltrisiloxane, toluene and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane. In addition, the energy and environmental performance of the different optimal CCHP plants was investigated. The optimal plant from the energy and environmental point of view is the one integrated by a toluene recuperative ORC, although it is limited to a development with a turbine type expander. Also, the trigeneration plant could be developed in an energy and environmental efficient way with an n-pentane recuperative ORC and a volumetric type expander.

  19. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  20. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  1. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  2. Mobile measurement system for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemoes Moeller, T.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this project `Udviklingsafproevning af smaa moellevinger` has been to develop a mobile measurement system for wind turbines. The following report describes the measurement system. The project has been financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. (au)

  3. On System Identification of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, B.J.

    Recently several methods have been proposed for the system identification of wind turbines which can be considered as a linear time-varying system due to the operating conditions. For the identification of linear wind turbine models, either black-box or grey-box identification can be used....... The operational model analysis (OMA) methodology can provide accurate estimates of the natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the systems as long as the measurements have a low noise to signal ratio. However, in order to take information about the wind turbine into account a grey...

  4. Diagnosis of wind turbine rotor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2016-01-01

    is based on available standard sensors on wind turbines. The method can be used both on-line as well as off-line. Faults or changes in the rotor system will result in asymmetries, which can be monitored and diagnosed. This can be done by using the multi-blade coordinate transformation. Changes in the rotor......This paper describes a model free method for monitoring and fault diagnosis of the elements in a rotor system for a wind turbine. The diagnosis as well as the monitoring is done without using any model of the wind turbine and the applied controller or a description of the wind profile. The method...

  5. Proceedings: Small Wind Turbine Systems, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Small wind turbine technology is discussed. Systems development, test programs, utility interface issues, safety and reliability programs, applications, and marketing are discussed. For individual titles, see N83-23723 through N83-23741.

  6. Experimental investigation on a small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system driven by the low temperature heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, P.; Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.; Jiang, L.; Zhou, Z.S.

    2015-01-01

    A small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system with different scroll expanders modified from compressors of the automobile air-conditioner is established, and the refrigerant R245fa is chosen as the working fluid. Different hot water temperatures of 80, 85, 90 and 95 °C are employed to drive the pumpless ORC system. Experimental results show that a maximum shaft power of 361.0 W is obtained under the hot water temperature of 95 °C, whereas the average shaft power is 155.8 W. The maximum energy efficiency of 2.3% and the maximum exergy efficiency of 12.8% are obtained at the hot water temperature of 90 °C. Meanwhile a test rig for investigating the mechanical loss of the scroll expander is established. The torque caused by the internal mechanical friction of the expander is about 0.4 N m. Additionally, another scroll expander with a displacement of 86 ml/r is also employed to investigate how scroll expander displacement influences the performance of the pumpless ORC system. Finally, the performance of the pumpless ORC system is compared with that of the conventional ORC system, and experimental results show that the small pumpless ORC system has more advantages for the low-grade heat recovery. - Highlights: • A small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system is established, and different scroll expanders are tested. • The maximum energy and exergy efficiency are 2.3% and 12.8% respectively. • A maximum shaft power of 361.0 W is obtained under the heat source temperature of 95 °C. • The small pumpless ORC system has characteristics of the high efficiency.

  7. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D [Vernon, CT; Biederman, Bruce P [West Hartford, CT; Brasz, Joost J [Fayetteville, NY

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  8. Performance Evaluation of HP/ORC (Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle) System with Optimal Control of Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    In energy systems with high share of renewable energy sources, like wind and solar power, it is paramount to deal with their intrinsic variability. The interaction between electric and thermal energy (heating and cooling) demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could...... come to contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables.This paper describes an innovative concept that consists of the addition of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) to a combined solar system coupled to a ground-source heat pump (HP) in a single-family building. The ORC enables the use of solar...... energy in periods of no thermal energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical power. A dynamic model based on empirical data of this system is used to determine the annual performance. Furthermore, this work assesses the benefits of different control strategies that address...

  9. AGT101 automotive gas turbine system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The AGT101 automotive gas turbine system consisting of a 74.6 kw regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine, is presented. The development and testing of the system is reviewed, and results for aerothermodynamic components indicate that compressor and turbine performance levels are within one percent of projected levels. Ceramic turbine rotor development is encouraging with successful cold spin testing of simulated rotors to speeds over 12,043 rad/sec. Spin test results demonstrate that ceramic materials having the required strength levels can be fabricated by net shape techniques to the thick hub cross section, which verifies the feasibility of the single-stage radial rotor in single-shaft engines.

  10. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  11. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System with Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, C.; Dumont, O.; Nielsen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical...... power.This paper combines a dynamic model based on empirical data of the HP/ORC system with lessons learned from 140 heat pump installations operating in real-life conditions in a cold climate. These installations were monitored for a period up to 5 years.Based on the aforementioned model and real......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...

  12. 10-75-kWe-reactor-powered organic Rankine-cycle electric power systems (ORCEPS) study. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-30

    This 10-75 kW(e) Reactor-ORCEPS study was concerned with the evaluation of several organic Rankine cycle energy conversion systems which utilized a /sup 235/U-ZrH reactor as a heat source. A liquid metal (NaK) loop employing a thermoelectric converter-powered EM pump was used to transfer the reactor energy to the organic working fluid. At moderate peak cycle temperatures (750/sup 0/F), power conversion unit cycle efficiencies of up to 25% and overall efficiencies of 20% can be obtained. The required operating life of seven years should be readily achievable. The CP-25 (toluene) working fluid cycle was found to provide the highest performance levels at the lowest system weights. Specific weights varies from 100 to 50 lb/kW(e) over the power level range 10 to 75 kW(e). (DLC)

  13. Control system for NPP powerfull turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, V.D.; Rozhanskij, V.E.; Rokhlenko, V.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for NPP 1000 MW turbines safety is described. The turbine safety system has a hydraulic drive to actuate in case of increasipg of rotational speed of a turbine rotor and an electrohydraulic drce to operate in case of pressure reduction in the lubrication system, axial displacement deviation, etc. The system is highly reliable due to application of a safety system without slide valves and long-term operation of hydraulic controls in guarding conditions; the system epsures multifunctional control with high accuracy and speed due to application of the intricate electronic part, high speed of response with a limited use of high pressure oil due to application of two-pressure pumps, pneumohydraulic accumulators and oil discharge valves. Steady-state serviceability of the system is maintained by devices for valve cooling dawn. A shockless change from electrohydraulic to hydraulic control channels is provided

  14. Overview of Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, H. A.; Bajura, R. A.

    The US Department of Energy initiated a program to develop advanced gas turbine systems to serve both central power and industrial power generation markets. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will lead to commercial offerings by the private sector by 2002. ATS will be developed to fire natural gas but will be adaptable to coal and biomass firing. The systems will be: highly efficient (15 percent improvement over today's best systems); environmentally superior (10 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides over today's best systems); and cost competitive (10 percent reduction in cost of electricity). The ATS Program has five elements. Innovative cycle development will lead to the demonstration of systems with advanced gas turbine cycles using current gas turbine technology. High temperature development will lead to the increased firing temperatures needed to achieve ATS Program efficiency goals. Ceramic component development/demonstration will expand the current DOE/CE program to demonstrate industrial-scale turbines with ceramic components. Technology base will support the overall program by conducting research and development (R&D) on generic technology issues. Coal application studies will adapt technology developed in the ATS program to coal-fired systems being developed in other DOE programs.

  15. Improving the efficiency of heat supply systems on the basis of plants operating on organic Rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomin, I. N.; Daminov, A. Z.; Sadykov, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    Results of experimental and analytical studies of the plant main element - plant turbomachine (turbo-expander) operating on organic Rankine cycle were obtained for facilities of the heat supply systems of small-scale power generation. At simultaneous mathematical modeling and experimental studies it was found that the best working medium to be used in the turbomachines of these plants is Freon R245fa which has the most suitable calorimetric properties to be used in the cycle. The mathematical model of gas flow in the turbomachine was developed. The main engineering dependencies to calculate the optimal design parameters of the turbomachine were obtained. The engineering problems of providing the minimum axial size of the turbomachine impeller were solved and the main design elements were unified.

  16. Analysis and performance assessment of a multigenerational system powered by Organic Rankine Cycle for a net zero energy house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassoun, Anwar; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building and assesses such a system for an application to a net zero energy house in Lebanon. Solar energy is the prime source for the integrated system to achieve multigeneration to supply electricity, fresh and hot water, seasonal heating and cooling. The study starts by optimizing the power system with and without grid connection. Then, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy, and a parametric study to assess the sensitivity and improvements of the overall system are conducted. Furthermore, exergoeconomic analysis and a follow-up optimization study for optimizing the total system cost to the overall system efficiency using genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal design or a set of optimal designs (Pareto Front), are carried out. The present results show that the optimum solar energy system for a total connected load to the house of 90 kWh/day using a combination of ORC, batteries, convertor has a total net present cost of US $52,505.00 (based on the prices in 2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 1. Moreover, the optimization for the same connected load with ORC, batteries and converter configuration with grid connection results in a total net present cost of $50,868.00 (2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 0.992 with 169 kg/yr of CO 2 emissions. In addition, exergoeconomic analysis of the overall system yields a cost of $117,700.00 (2013), and the multi-objective optimization provides the overall exergetic efficiency by 14% at a total system cost increase of $10,500.00 (2013). - Highlights: • To develop a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building. • To perform a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy approaches. • To apply an exergoeconomic model for exergy-based cost accounting. • To undertake

  17. Real-Time Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems by Extremum-Seeking Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Hernandez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal operation of a stationary sub-critical 11 kW el organic Rankine cycle (ORC unit for waste heat recovery (WHR applications is investigated, both in terms of energy production and safety conditions. Simulation results of a validated dynamic model of the ORC power unit are used to derive a correlation for the evaporating temperature, which maximizes the power generation for a range of operating conditions. This idea is further extended using a perturbation-based extremum seeking (ES algorithm to identify online the optimal evaporating temperature. Regarding safety conditions, we propose the use of the extended prediction self-adaptive control (EPSAC approach to constrained model predictive control (MPC. Since it uses input/output models for prediction, it avoids the need for state estimators, making it a suitable tool for industrial applications. The performance of the proposed control strategy is compared to PID-like schemes. Results show that EPSAC-MPC is a more effective control strategy, as it allows a safer and more efficient operation of the ORC unit, as it can handle constraints in a natural way, operating close to the boundary conditions where power generation is maximized.

  18. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  19. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    %) fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane), toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison....... The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power....

  20. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system for marine diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Song, Yin; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and imposition of carbon dioxide emission limits are creating renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of marine diesel engines. One viable means to achieve such improved thermal efficiency is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. This paper examines waste heat recovery of a marine diesel engine using ORC technology. Two separated ORC apparatuses for the waste heat from both the jacket cooling water and the engine exhaust gas are designed as the traditional recovery system. The maximum net power output is chosen as the evaluation criterion to select the suitable working fluid and define the optimal system parameters. To simplify the waste heat recovery, an optimized system using the jacket cooling water as the preheating medium and the engine exhaust gas for evaporation is presented. The influence of preheating temperature on the system performance is evaluated to define the optimal operating condition. Economic and off-design analysis of the optimized system is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the optimized system is technically feasible and economically attractive. - Highlights: • ORC is used to recover waste heat from both exhaust gas and jacket cooling water. • Comparative study is conducted for different ORC systems. • Thermal performance, system structure and economic feasibility are considered. • Optimal preheating temperature of the system is selected

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations......A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... achieved by simple and double stage organic Rankine cycle plants and around the same efficiency of a combined gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and micro gas turbine plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2003-10-01

    Rolls-Royce Corporation has completed a cooperative agreement under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FC21-96MC33066 in support of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program to stimulate industrial power generation markets. This DOE contract was performed during the period of October 1995 to December 2002. This final technical report, which is a program deliverable, describes all associated results obtained during Phases 3A and 3B of the contract. Rolls-Royce Corporation (formerly Allison Engine Company) initially focused on the design and development of a 10-megawatt (MW) high-efficiency industrial gas turbine engine/package concept (termed the 701-K) to meet the specific goals of the ATS program, which included single digit NOx emissions, increased plant efficiency, fuel flexibility, and reduced cost of power (i.e., $/kW). While a detailed design effort and associated component development were successfully accomplished for the 701-K engine, capable of achieving the stated ATS program goals, in 1999 Rolls-Royce changed its focus to developing advanced component technologies for product insertion that would modernize the current fleet of 501-K and 601-K industrial gas turbines. This effort would also help to establish commercial venues for suppliers and designers and assist in involving future advanced technologies in the field of gas turbine engine development. This strategy change was partly driven by the market requirements that suggested a low demand for a 10-MW aeroderivative industrial gas turbine, a change in corporate strategy for aeroderivative gas turbine engine development initiatives, and a consensus that a better return on investment (ROI) could be achieved under the ATS contract by focusing on product improvements and technology insertion for the existing Rolls-Royce small engine industrial gas turbine fleet.

  3. Impact of organic Rankine cycle system installation on light duty vehicle considering both positive and negative aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Yang, Youngmin; Park, Byung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Positive and negative effects of waste heat recovery unit on vehicle were studied. • Organic Rankine cycle based power system for waste heat recovery. • Relationship of ORC unit weight and power was developed. • Impact of added weight, Part load operation and back pressure are presented. • Power enhancement of 5.82% of engine when positive & negative effects considered. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system. Both the positive and negative effects of ORC system installation on a light duty vehicle were evaluated. Engine exhaust data for a light duty vehicle was used to design an ORC based system. Optimum cycle design suggests that ORC system installation is feasible. Results presented that for the vehicle operation at 100 km/h, engine power can be enhanced by 10.88% which is 5.92 kW of additional power and at the lower speed of 23.5 km/h, the engine power enhancement was 2.34%. ORC component weight data from manufacturers were used to estimate the weight of the designed system. The performance decline due to added weight is calculated. Effects of added back pressure and performance decline due to the part-load operation of ORC unit were also calculated and an overall effect of waste heat recovery system was evaluated. The results then suggested that maximum power enhancement is 5.82% at the vehicle speed of 100 km/h instead of previously mentioned 10.88% can be achieved if negative effects are also considered. Furthermore, it was concluded that at speeds lower than 48 km/h the waste heat recovery system was not beneficial at all and low-speed operation was in fact not preferable as it results in additional power demand from the engine by 6.39% at 23.5 km/h. The vehicles for city driving cycles are not recommended for ORC installation. Another finding revealed that if exhaust heat recovery heat exchanger is designed for maximum heat recovery, at part load operation, the

  4. Economic research of the transcritical Rankine cycle systems to recover waste heat from the marine medium-speed diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the economic performance of a transcritical Rankine cycle (TRC) system for recovering waste heat from the exhaust gas of a marine medium-speed diesel engine. The variation of net power output, total cost of equipments and exergy destruction are investigated for the TRC system. Furthermore, to evaluate the economic performance of energy utilization, a parameter, net power output index, which is the ratio of net power output to the total cost, is introduced of the TRC system using R125, R143a, R218 and R1234yf as working fluids. The results show that R1234yf performs the highest economic performance, followed by R143a, R125 and R218 of the TRC system. It reveals that R1234yf not only has the smallest high and low pressures of the TRC system for reducing the purchased cost of equipments, but also promotes a larger pressure ratio of the expander for generating power output among these working fluids. The comparisons of optimal pressure ratios obtained from thermodynamic and economic optimizations for these working fluids in the TRC system are also reported. In addition, an evaluation method using thermal efficiency and operating pressure ratio as parameters is proposed to assess the suitability of the working fluids of TRC system in economic analysis for waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine.

  5. Trends in Wind Turbine Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polinder, Henk; Ferreira, Jan Abraham; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the trends in wind turbine generator systems. After discussing some important requirements and basic relations, it describes the currently used systems: the constant speed system with squirrel-cage induction generator, and the three variable speed systems with doubly fed...... induction generator (DFIG), with gearbox and fully rated converter, and direct drive (DD). Then, possible future generator systems are reviewed. Hydraulic transmissions are significantly lighter than gearboxes and enable continuously variable transmission, but their efficiency is lower. A brushless DFIG...

  6. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  7. A Multi-Approach Evaluation System (MA-ES) of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) used in waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Yu, Guopeng; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The MA-ES provides comprehensive valuations on ORC used for waste heat utilization. • The MA-ES covers energetic, exergetic and economic evaluations of typical ORCs. • The MA-ES is a general assessing method without restriction to specific ORC condition. • Two ORC cases of ICE waste-heat-recovery are exemplified applying the MA-ES. - Abstract: A Multi-Approach Evaluation System (MA-ES) is established in this paper providing comprehensive evaluations on Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) used for waste heat utilization. The MA-ES covers three main aspects of typical ORC performance: basic evaluations of energy distribution and system efficiency based on the 1st law of thermodynamics; evaluations of exergy distribution and exergy efficiency based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics; economic evaluations based on calculations of equipment capacity, investment and cost recovery. The MA-ES is reasonably organized aiming at providing a general method of ORC performance assessment, without restrictions to system configurations, operation modes, applications, working fluid types, equipment conditions, process parameters and so on. Two ORC cases of internal combustion engines’ (ICEs) waste-heat-recovery are exemplified to illustrate the applications of the evaluation system. The results clearly revealed the performance comparisons among ORC configurations and working fluids referred. The comparisons will provide credible guidance for ORC design, equipment selection and system construction

  8. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  9. Thermodynamic and economic performances optimization of an organic Rankine cycle system utilizing exhaust gas of a large marine diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new parameter is proposed for optimizing economic performance of the ORC system. • Maximal thermodynamic and economic performances of an ORC system are presented. • The corresponding operating pressures in turbine of optimum thermodynamic and economic performances are investigated. • An optimal effectiveness of pre-heater is obtained for the ORC system. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the thermodynamic and economic performances optimization for an ORC system recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from a large marine diesel engine of the merchant ship. Parameters of net power output index and thermal efficiency are used to represent the economic and thermodynamic performances, respectively. The maximum net power output index and thermal efficiency are obtained and the corresponding turbine inlet pressure, turbine outlet pressure, and effectiveness of pre-heater of the ORC system are also evaluated using R1234ze, R245fa, R600, and R600a. Furthermore, the analyses of the effects of turbine inlet temperature and cooling water temperature on the optimal economic and thermodynamic performances of the ORC system are carried out. The results show that R245fa performs the most satisfactorily followed by R600, R600a, and R1234ze under optimal economic performance. However, in the optimal thermodynamic performance evaluations, R1234ze has the largest thermal efficiency followed by R600a, R245fa, and R600. The payback periods will decrease from 0.5 year for R245fa to 0.65 year for R1234ze respectively as the system is equipped with a pre-heater. In addition, compared with conventional diesel oil feeding, the proposed ORC system can reduce 76% CO 2 emission per kilowatt-hour

  10. Chapter 10 - Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  11. Chapter 10: Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  12. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  13. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  14. Maintenance and adjustment of control systems of central heating turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyuk, V.A.; Balashov, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of operation and design of systems of automatic control of steam turbines with controlled heating stem extraction are described. Specific features of maintenance and adjustment of the most common domestic turbines are considered. Recommendations on testing state of turbine control systems and improving reliability of their operation are given. 22 refs., 51 refs

  15. Problems of steam turbine diagnostics and the 'Simens' diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserner, V.; Andrea, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostics system, allowing one to detect changes in the state on single turbine elements at an early stage is described. Besides this system allows one to utilize the turbine plant optimally and efficiency from the viewpoint of the equipment durability. Specially oriented monitoring of the turbine plant and equipment element state saves resources necessary to keep up the working order of the equipment

  16. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  17. Modeling of wind turbines for power system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petru, T.

    2001-05-01

    When wind turbines are installed into the electric grid, the power quality is affected. Today, strict installation recommendations often prevail due to a lack of knowledge on this subject. Consequently, it is important to predict the impact of wind turbines on the electric grid before the turbines are installed. The thesis describes relevant power quality issues, discusses different configurations of wind turbines with respect to power quality and draw requirements regarding wind turbine modeling. A model of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbine system is introduced and its power quality impact on the electric grid is evaluated. The model is verified with field measurements.

  18. Thermal and economic analyses of a compact waste heat recovering system for the marine diesel engine using transcritical Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the CWHRS for a marine diesel engine. - Highlights: • The economic optimization of a CWHRS of a marine engine is investigated. • The environmental protection refrigerant, R1234yf is used as the working fluid of the TRC system. • The optimal analysis and comparison of three models for waste heat recovering have been carried out. • The optimization of payback periods, CO_2 emission reducing and diesel oil saving are reported. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the economic performance of a novel compact waste heat recovering system for the marine diesel engine. The transcritical Rankine cycle is employed to convert the waste heat resources to useful work with R1234yf. To evaluate the utilizing efficiency and economic performance of waste heat resources, which are exhaust gas, cylinder cooling water and scavenge air cooling water, three operating models of the system are investigated and compared. The levelized energy cost, which represents the total cost per kilo-watt power, is employed to evaluate the economic performance of the system. The economic optimization and its corresponding optimal parameters of each operating model in the compact waste heat recovering system are obtained theoretically. The results show that the minimal levelized energy cost of the proposed system operated in Model I is the lowest of the three models, and then are Model II and Model III, which are 2.96% and 9.36% lower for, respectively. Similarly, the CO_2 emission reduction is the highest for Model I of the three models, and 21.6% and 30.1% lower are obtained for Model II and Model III, respectively. The compact waste heat recovering system operated in Model I has superiority on the payback periods and heavy diesel oil saving over the others. Finally, the correlations using specific work of working fluid and condensation temperature as parameters are proposed to assess the optimal conditions in economic performance

  19. Off-design dynamic model of a real Organic Rankine Cycle system fuelled by exhaust gases from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzi, N.; Rech, S.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2015-01-01

    ORCs (Organic Rankine Cycles) represent an effective option to exploit low grade heat fluxes, the characteristics of which not only affect design, but also performance and stability during operation. This paper presents a detailed design and off-design dynamic model of a superheated regenerative ORC system using the exhaust gases of an industrial process. The point of view is that of a designer who has to predict the system behavior both at steady-state and transient operation to get a reliable and efficient operation. Real physical and operating characteristics of all components are considered, with particular attention to the geometries of shell-and-tube commercial heat exchangers to properly simulate mass and thermal inertias. A suitable control system is chosen to govern the off-design operation taking into account all real operating constraints. Results show a slight decrease in gross system efficiency (less than 1% point) either varying the oil mass flow rate (in the range 80–110%) at constant temperature of the cold sink or this temperature (of 10 °C) at constant oil mass flow rate. Simulation of the transient behavior demonstrates the effectiveness of the control system on ORC stability under variation of the hot source mass flow rate and cold sink temperature. - Highlights: • A detailed off-design dynamic model of a regenerative ORC system is presented. • The model includes real geometries of commercial shell-and-tube heat exchangers. • High efficiency of the ORC system is obtained at partial load in the range 80–110%. • Variations of the evaporator volume does not significantly affect system stability.

  20. Effect of working fluids on the performance of a novel direct vapor generation solar organic Rankine cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Alvi, Jahan Zeb; Pei, Gang; Ji, Jie; Li, Pengcheng; Fu, Huide

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel, flexible direct vapor generation solar ORC is proposed. • Technical feasibility of the system is discussed. • Fluid effect on collector efficiency is explored. • The system is more efficient than solar ORC with HTF. - Abstract: A novel solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with direct vapor generation (DVG) is proposed. A heat storage unit is embedded in the ORC to guarantee the stability of power generation. Compared with conventional solar ORCs, the proposed system avoids the secondary heat transfer intermediate and shows good reaction to the fluctuation of solar radiation. The technical feasibility of the system is discussed. Performance is analyzed by using 17 dry and isentropic working fluids. Fluid effects on the efficiencies of ORC, collectors and the whole system are studied. The results indicate that the collector efficiency generally decreases while the ORC and system efficiencies increase with the increment in fluid critical temperature. At evaporation temperature of 120 °C and solar radiation of 800 Wm −2 , the ORC, collector and overall thermal efficiencies of R236fa are 10.59, 56.14 and 5.08% while their values for Benzene are 12.5, 52.58 and 6.57% respectively. The difference between collector efficiencies using R236fa and Benzene gets larger at lower solar radiation. The heat collection is strongly correlated with latent and sensible heat of the working fluid. Among the fluids, R123 exhibits the highest overall performance and seems to be suitable for the proposed system in the short term.

  1. Power Optimization of Organic Rankine-cycle System with Low-Temperature Heat Source Using HFC-134a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Young Jin; Kim, Min Sung; Chang, Ki Chang; Lee, Young Soo; Ra, Ho Sang [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, an organic Rankine-cycle system using HFC-134a, which is a power cycle corresponding to a low temperature heat source, such as that for geothermal power generation, was investigated from the view point of power optimization. In contrast to conventional approaches, the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the working fluid within the heat exchangers were taken into account by using a discretized heat exchanger model. The inlet flow rates and temperatures of both the heat source and the heat sink were fixed. The total heat transfer area was fixed, whereas the heat-exchanger areas of the evaporator and the condenser were allocated to maximize the power output. The power was optimized on the basis of three design parameters. The optimal combination of parameters that can maximize power output was determined on the basis of the results of the study. The results also indicate that the evaporation process has to be optimized to increase the power output.

  2. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  3. Comparison of Cooling System Designs for an Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using an Organic Rankine Cycle on a Heavy Duty Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stanzel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex simulation model of a heavy duty truck, including an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC based waste heat recovery system and a vehicle cooling system, was applied to determine the system fuel economy potential in a typical drive cycle. Measures to increase the system performance were investigated and a comparison between two different cooling system designs was derived. The base design, which was realized on a Mercedes-Benz Actros vehicle revealed a fuel efficiency benefit of 2.6%, while a more complicated design would generate 3.1%. Furthermore, fully transient simulation results were performed and are compared to steady state simulation results. It is shown that steady state simulation can produce comparable results if averaged road data are used as boundary conditions.

  4. Dynamic Response of a 50 kW Organic Rankine Cycle System in Association with Evaporators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ren Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influences of various evaporators on the system responses of a 50 kW ORC system using R-245fa are investigated in this study. First the effect of the supplied hot water flowrate into the evaporator is examined and the exit superheat on the system performance between plate and shell-and-tube evaporator is also reported. Test results show that the effect of hot water flowrate on the evaporator imposes a negligible effect on the transient response of the ORC system. These results prevail even for a 3.5-fold increase of the hot water flowrate and the system shows barely any change subject to this drastic hot water flowrate change. The effect of exit superheat on the ORC system depends on the type of the evaporator. For the plate evaporator, an exit superheat less than 10 °C may cause ORC system instability due to considerable liquid entrainment. To maintain a stable operation, the corresponding Jakob number of the plate heat evaporator must be above 0.07. On the other hand, by employing a shell and tube heat evaporator connected to the ORC system, no unstable oscillation of the ORC system is observed for exit superheats ranging from 0 to 17 °C.

  5. Integrated analysis of wind turbines - The impact of power systems on wind turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio

    Megawatt-size wind turbines nowadays operate in very complex environmental conditions, and increasingly demanding power system requirements. Pursuing a cost-effective and reliable wind turbine design is a multidisciplinary task. However nowadays, wind turbine design and research areas...... conditions that stem from disturbances in the power system. An integrated simulation environment, wind turbine models, and power system models are developed in order to take an integral perspective that considers the most important aeroelastic, structural, electrical, and control dynamics. Applications...... of the integrated simulation environment are presented. The analysis of an asynchronous machine, and numerical simulations of a fixedspeed wind turbine in the integrated simulation environment, demonstrate the effects on structural loads of including the generator rotor fluxes dynamics in aeroelastic studies. Power...

  6. Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

    2013-05-14

    The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

  7. Economic performances optimization of the transcritical Rankine cycle systems in geothermal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal economic performance of the TRC system are investigated. • In economic evaluations, R125 performs the most satisfactorily, followed by R41 and CO 2 . • The TRC system with CO 2 has the largest averaged temperature difference. • Economic optimized pressures are always lower than thermodynamic optimized operating pressures. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the economic optimization of a TRC system for the application of geothermal energy. An economic parameter of net power output index, which is the ratio of net power output to the total cost, is applied to optimize the TRC system using CO 2 , R41 and R125 as working fluids. The maximum net power output index and the corresponding optimal operating pressures are obtained and evaluated for the TRC system. Furthermore, the analyses of the corresponding averaged temperature differences in the heat exchangers on the optimal economic performances of the TRC system are carried out. The effects of geothermal temperatures on the thermodynamic and economic optimizations are also revealed. In both optimal economic and thermodynamic evaluations, R125 performs the most satisfactorily, followed by R41 and CO 2 in the TRC system. In addition, the TRC system operated with CO 2 has the largest averaged temperature difference in the heat exchangers and thus has potential in future application for lower-temperature heat resources. The highest working pressures obtained from economic optimization are always lower than those from thermodynamic optimization for CO 2 , R41, and R125 in the TRC system

  8. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 8. Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbines (evaluation of the optimum system); Suiso riyo kokusai energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu (saiteki system no hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Based on the proposed cycle of each contractor, conceptual design of 500 MW class hydrogen combustion turbine power generation plant has been completed through its economic examination. The optimum system has been evaluated on the basis of the conceptual design. For the conceptual design of power generation plant, the gross power generation efficiencies based on HHV of topping regenerating cycle and new Rankine cycle proved to be 61.8% and 61.7%, respectively, which exceed the target efficiency 60%. Economic consideration proved that the construction cost of each cycle will be as the same as that of the current combined cycle power generation plant. The development problem, development step and development cost have become clear. Examination on the reliability proved that the operation reliability of each cycle will be as the same as that of the current combined cycle power generation plant. Examination on the plant layout proved that the conservation of space for each system will be smaller than that of current combined cycle power generation plant. Environmental examination confirmed that each system is very clean power generation system. For the evaluation proposed by each company, the total points of each system became in the order, topping regeneration cycle, new Rankine cycle, and Rankine cycle with reheat and recuperation. 112 figs., 44 tabs.

  9. Modeling and analysis of the disk MHD generator component of a gas core reactor/MHD Rankine cycle space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.E.; Dugan, E.T.; Lear, W.E. Jr.; Appelbaum, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    A gas core nuclear reactor (GCR)/disk magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator direct closed Rankine space power system concept is described. The GCR/disk MHD generator marriage facilitates efficient high electric power density system performance at relatively high operating temperatures. The system concept promises high specific power levels, on the order of 1 kW e /kg. An overview of the disk MHD generator component magnetofluiddynamic and plasma physics theoretical modeling is provided. Results from a parametric design analysis of the disk MHD generator are presented and discussed

  10. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  11. Energy, Exergy and Performance Analysis of Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle Systems for Electrical Power Generation Applicable in Rural Areas of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concept of installing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle system for the generation of electricity in remote areas of developing countries. The Organic Rankine Cycle Systems (ORC system uses a commercial magnetically-coupled scroll expander, plate type heat exchangers and plunger type working fluid feed pump. The heat source for the ORC system can be solar energy. A series of laboratory tests were conducted to confirm the cycle efficiency and expander power output of the system. Using the actual system data, the exergy destruction on the system components and exergy efficiency were assessed. Furthermore, the results of the variations of system energy and exergy efficiencies with different operating parameters, such as the evaporating and condensing pressures, degree of superheating, dead state temperature, expander inlet temperature and pressure ratio were illustrated. The system exhibited acceptable operational characteristics with good performance under a wide range of conditions. A heat source temperature of 121 °C is expected to deliver a power output of approximately 1.4 kW. In addition, the system cost analysis and financing mechanisms for the installation of the ORC system were discussed.

  12. Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

  13. Techno-economic evaluation of a solar assisted combined heat pump – Organic Rankine Cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimpf, Stefan; Span, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of an ORC to a solar thermal and ground source heat pump system. • Additional investments comprise only 400 € for a single-family house unit. • Recharging the ground during ORC has negligible impact on the COP of the HP. • Economics studied for application in Bochum, Denver and Ankara; only small benefits. • Use of isobutane instead of R134a would increase the profit of the ORC system. - Abstract: The economic feasibility of the addition of an ORC to a combined solar system coupled to a ground-source heat pump is discussed. The ORC prevents the stagnation of the solar loop and reverses the heat pump cycle. The working fluid is evaporated in the condenser of the heat pump, expanded in the scroll compressor, which becomes a scroll expander, and condensed in the brine heat exchanger. The only additional investments for the ORC system comprise a pump, valves and upgraded controls and are estimated to be 400 € for a single-family-house unit. Flat-plate collectors are the preferred collector type as the higher collector efficiency of evacuated tube collectors does not outweigh the higher costs. The thermal recharging of the ground during ORC has a negligible impact on the COP of the heat pump. However, the recharging leads to less deep boreholes compared to a conventional system. Because of the low investments for the ORC, even small reductions in borehole depth make a significant contribution to the economic feasibility of the system. The addition of the ORC overall generates a small profit of 155 € at Ankara and 74 € at Denver for a rocky soil and a thermally enhanced grout. On the contrary, the conventional solar combisystem coupled to a ground source heat pump was found to be economically unreasonable at all locations. The working fluid isobutane is interesting for future applications because of the lower global warming potential and the smaller saturation pressures compared to R134a. The latter allow for the installation of a

  14. Backup Mechanical Brake System of the Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, E. A.; Solomin, E. V.; Gandzha, S. A.; Kirpichnikova, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    Paper clarifies the necessity of the emergency mechanical brake systems usage for wind turbines. We made a deep analysis of the wind turbine braking methods available on the market, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The electromechanical braking appeared the most technically reasonable and economically attractive. We described the developed combined electromechanical brake system for vertical axis wind turbine driven from electric drive with variable torque enough to brake over the turbine even on the storm wind speed up to 45 m/s. The progress was made due to the development of specific kinematic brake system diagram and intelligent control system managed by special operation algorithm.

  15. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  16. Energy analysis of Organic Rankine Cycles for biomass applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing the performances of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs adopted for the exploitation of the biomass resulting from the pruning residues in a 3000 hectares district in Southern Italy. A parametric energy analysis has been carried out to define the influence of the main plant operating conditions. To this purpose, both subcritical and transcritical power plants have been examined and saturated and superheated conditions at the turbine inlet have been imposed. Moreover, the effect of the working fluid, condensation temperature, and internal regeneration on system performances has been investigated. The results show that ORC plants represent an interesting and sustainable solution for decentralised and small-scale power production. Furthermore, the analysis highlights the significant impact of the maximum temperature and the noticeable effect of internal regeneration on the performances of the biomass power plants.

  17. Performance Analysis of an Evaporator for a Diesel Engine–Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Combined System and Influence of Pressure Drop on the Diesel Engine Operating Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Bei; Hongguang Zhang; Fubin Yang; Songsong Song; Enhua Wang; Hao Liu; Ying Chang; Hongjin Wang; Kai Yang

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to analyze the performance of an evaporator for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system and discuss the influence of the evaporator on the operating characteristics of diesel engine. A simulation model of fin-and-tube evaporator of the ORC system is established by using Fluent software. Then, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the exhaust at the evaporator shell side are obtained, and then the performance of the fin-and-tube evaporator of the ORC...

  18. Potential reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from the use of electric energy storage on a power generation unit/organic Rankine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mago, Pedro J.; Luck, Rogelio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A power generation organic Rankine cycle with electric energy storage is evaluated. • The potential carbon dioxide emissions reduction of the system is evaluated. • The system performance is evaluated for a building in different climate zones. • The system emissions and cost are compared with those of conventional systems. • Use of carbon emissions cap and trade programs on the system is evaluated. - Abstract: This paper evaluates the potential carbon dioxide emissions reduction from the implementation of electric energy storage to a combined power generation unit and an organic Rankine cycle relative to a conventional system that uses utility gas for heating and utility electricity for electricity needs. Results indicate that carbon dioxide emission reductions from the operation of the proposed system are directly correlated to the ratio of the carbon dioxide emission conversion factor for electricity to that of the fuel. The location where the system is installed also has a strong influence on the potential of the proposed system to save carbon dioxide emissions. Finally, it is shown that by using carbon emissions cap and trade programs, it is possible to establish a frame of reference to compare/exchange operational cost gains with carbon dioxide emission reductions/gains.

  19. System for damping vibrations in a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-11-24

    A system for damping vibrations in a turbine includes a first rotating blade having a first ceramic airfoil, a first ceramic platform connected to the first ceramic airfoil, and a first root connected to the first ceramic platform. A second rotating blade adjacent to the first rotating blade includes a second ceramic airfoil, a second ceramic platform connected to the second ceramic airfoil, and a second root connected to the second ceramic platform. A non-metallic platform damper has a first position in simultaneous contact with the first and second ceramic platforms.

  20. Design of Radial Turbo-Expanders for Small Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, M.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of radial turbo-expanders for ORC systems. Firstly, the rotor blades were design and the geometry and the perfromance were calculated using several working fluid such as R134a, R143a, R245fa, n-Pentane, and R123. Then, a numerical study was carried out in the fluid flow area with R134a and R123 as the working fluid. Analyses were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) ANSYS CFX on two real gas models, with the k-epsilon and SST (shear stress transport) turbulence models. The results analysis shows the distribution of Mach number, pressure, velocity and temperature along the rotor blade of the radial turbo-expanders and estimation of performance at various operating conditions. CFD analysis show that if the flow area divided into 250,000 grid mesh, and using real gas model SST at steady state condition, 0.4 kg/s of mass flow rate, 15,000 rpm rotor speed, 5 bar inlet pressure, and 373K inlet temperature, the turbo expander produces 6.7 kW, and 5.5 kW of power when using R134a and R123 respectively.

  1. Effect of variable heat input on the heat transfer characteristics in an Organic Rankine Cycle system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboaltabooq Mahdi Hatf Kadhum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the heat transfer characteristics of an ORC evaporator applied on a diesel engine using measured data from experimental work such as flue gas mass flow rate and flue gas temperature. A mathematical model was developed with regard to the preheater, boiler and the superheater zones of a counter flow evaporator. Each of these zones has been subdivided into a number of cells. The hot source of the ORC cycle was modeled. The study involves the variable heat input's dependence on the ORC system's heat transfer characteristics, with especial emphasis on the evaporator. The results show that the refrigerant's heat transfer coefficient has a higher value for a 100% load from the diesel engine, and decreases with the load decrease. Also, on the exhaust gas side, the heat transfer coefficient decreases with the decrease of the load. The refrigerant's heat transfer coefficient increased normally with the evaporator's tube length in the preheater zone, and then increases rapidly in the boiler zone, followed by a decrease in the superheater zone. The exhaust gases’ heat transfer coefficient increased with the evaporator’ tube length in all zones. The results were compared with result by other authors and were found to be in agreement.

  2. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul

    , connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control......This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built...

  3. A deflection monitoring system for a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...

  4. Low-power heat pump systems combining two organic Rankine cycles; Applications de pompe a chaleur. A l'exemple des systemes ORC-ORC de petite puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demierre, J.

    2009-07-01

    In this basic article that includes many diagrams and equations illustrating a research project conducted at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland the author describes the first part of his thesis. A new concept of thermally driven heat pump (TDHP) is presented, which could be a real alternative to today's heating systems in buildings that are mainly based on less efficient fuel-fired boilers. Nowadays, the heat pump market is dominated by two kinds of systems: the electrically driven vapor compression heat pumps, which are the most widely used in residential heating applications, and the thermally driven heat pumps that are usually based on a sorption process. In this research project, the investigated TDHP - designated by ORC-ORC - is based on the coupling of a vapor compression heat pump cycle and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The studied concept uses a single stage centrifugal compressor directly coupled to a single stage radial inflow turbine. The shaft is rotating on gas bearings, which allows the system to be oil-free. Like most of the other TDHP's, this system has the advantage to work with a variety of fuels or heat sources like wood pellets, natural gas, solar heat, geothermal heat or waste heat. The concept studied in this work is a gas fired system for space heating and domestic hot water production in small residential buildings (power range: 20 kW). A systematic approach has been used to theoretically evaluate, in terms of energy efficiency, the potential of ORC-ORC systems. The method is based on the optimization which allows identifying the best configurations at each design step with respect to the designer choices. This approach is divided into three steps. In the first step, a model of the complete system has been developed based on a process integration approach. This step allows to quickly determine whether the system is potentially attractive or not, for given conditions, before going deeper into

  5. System Reliability for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    E). In consequence, a rational treatment of uncertainties is done in order to assess the reliability of critical details in OWTs. Limit state equations are formulated for fatigue critical details which are not influenced by wake effects generated in offshore wind farms. Furthermore, typical bi-linear S-N curves...... are considered for reliability verification according to international design standards of OWTs. System effects become important for each substructure with many potential fatigue hot spots. Therefore, in this paper a framework for system effects is presented. This information can be e.g. no detection of cracks...... in inspections or measurements from condition monitoring systems. Finally, an example is established to illustrate the practical application of this framework for jacket type wind turbine substructure considering system effects....

  6. HD Diesel engine equipped with a bottoming Rankine cycle as a waste heat recovery system. Part 1: Study and analysis of the waste heat energy

    OpenAIRE

    Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; Novella Rosa, Ricardo; García Martínez, Antonio; Sánchez Serrano, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the study of different bottoming Rankine cycles with water-steam and/or ORC configurations in classical and innovative setups such as a waste heat recovery system in a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) Engine. This work has been divided in two parts. This first part describes the model of the studied HDD engine and the available waste energy sources in this HDD Engine. The waste energy sources are studied from the standpoint of energy analysis to determine which are the most approp...

  7. System control model of a turbine for a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas O, Y.; Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R.; Delfin L, A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work is presented a design of a control system of a turbine for a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model seeks to implement later on at thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The model is developed for control and protection of turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control could be employed for one or several turbines in series. The quality of present designs of control pattern of turbine it is that it considers the parameters more important in the operation of a turbine besides that is has incorporated at control the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a model more detailed. The development of control model of a turbine will be good in short and medium term to realize analysis about the operation of turbine with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction specific steps of turbine to feed other equipment s, besides analyzing the separate effect and integrated effect. (Author)

  8. A system to control low pressure turbine temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An improved system to control low pressure turbine cycle steam and metal temperatures by governing the heat transfer operation in a moisture separator-reheater is described. The use of the present invention in a pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor steam turbine system is demonstrated. (UK)

  9. Process integration of organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Nishith B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2009-01-01

    An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) uses an organic fluid as a working medium within a Rankine cycle power plant. ORC offers advantages over conventional Rankine cycle with water as the working medium, as ORC generates shaft-work from low to medium temperature heat sources with higher thermodynamic efficiency. The dry and the isentropic fluids are most preferred working fluid for the ORC. The basic ORC can be modified by incorporating both regeneration and turbine bleeding to improve its thermal efficiency. In this paper, 16 different organic fluids have been analyzed as a working medium for the basic as well as modified ORCs. A methodology is also proposed for appropriate integration and optimization of an ORC as a cogeneration process with the background process to generate shaft-work. It has been illustrated that the choice of cycle configuration for appropriate integration with the background process depends on the heat rejection profile of the background process (i.e., the shape of the below pinch portion of the process grand composite curve). The benefits of integrating ORC with the background process and the applicability of the proposed methodology have been demonstrated through illustrative examples.

  10. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  11. Preliminary Design of Compact Condenser in an Organic Rankine Cycle System for the Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a thermodynamic cycle for the production of electrical power in the 2–5 kW range, suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles. The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system, which is able to produce sufficient power to sustain the air conditioning system or other auxiliaries. The working fluids R134a and R245fa have been used in the ORC system, and the systems are simulated by CAMEL-ProTM software. The cycles are generated starting from the same heat source: the exhaust gas of a typical 2.0 L Diesel engine (or from a small size turbine engine. The design of the condenser has been performed to obtain a very compact component, evaluating the heat exchanger tube and fins type design. Through empirical formulas, the area of heat exchange, the heat required to exchange and the pressure drop in the element have been calculated. A commercial software package is used to build the model of the condenser, then a thermal and mechanical analysis and a CFD analysis are realized to estimate the heat exchange. Finally the evaluations, the possible future studies and possible improvements of the system are shown.

  12. Integrated working fluid-thermodynamic cycle design of organic Rankine cycle power systems for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    recovery. Inthis paper, an organic Rankine cycle process and its pure working fluid are designed simultaneously forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine. This approach can overcome designissues caused by the high sensitivity between the fluid and cycle design variables......Today, some established working fluids are being phased out due to new international regulations on theuse of environmentally harmful substances. With an ever-increasing cost to resources, industry wants toconverge on improved sustainability through resource recovery, and in particular waste heat...

  13. The HTScroll project - Innovative cogeneration system with a high-temperature turbine; Projet HTScroll. Nouveau systeme de cogeneration a turbine spirale haute temperature - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, M.; Cretegny, D.; Maquet, J. [ENEFTECH Innovation SA, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Laboratoire d' Energetique Industrielle LENI, EPFL Science Park PSE, Lausanne (Switzerland); Favrat, D. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) proposes an alternative for micro-cogeneration based on a scroll expander to produce electricity from relatively low-temperature heat sources (less than 250 {sup o}C), thus allowing the use of renewable energy resources such as biomass, solar thermal and geothermal energy. The authors note that such a system could produce cost-effective 'green' electricity as well as heat (near 60 {sup o}C) for space heating and domestic hot-water preparation. The design and validation of a new concept for a double-stage scroll expander ('HT-Scroll') operating at high and low pressures and high temperatures is discussed. Design, modelling and construction of a 5 kW unit have been carried out. The organic fluid Rankine Cycle concept is described, the modelling of the turbine, its construction and tests carried out are discussed. Problems encountered and future work are noted.

  14. The Benefit of Variable-Speed Turbine Operation for Low Temperature Thermal Energy Power Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Brasz, Joost J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes, given the large variation in turbine discharge pressure with changing ambient temperatures, whether variable-speed radial-inflow turbine operation has a similar benefit for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power recovery systems as variable-speed centrifugal compression has for chiller applications. The benefit of variable-speed centrifugal compression over fixed-speed operation is a reduction in annual electricity consumption of almost 40 %. Air-conditioning systems are by ne...

  15. Increasing thermal efficiency of Rankine cycles by using refrigeration cycles: A theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr, Joachim-André Raymond; Mathieu-Potvin, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new stratagem is proposed to improve thermal efficiency of Rankine cycles. • Three new configurations are optimized by means of numerical simulations. • The Rankine-1SCR design is advantageous for 1338 different fluid combinations. • The Rankine-2SCR design is advantageous for 772 different fluid combinations. • The Rankine-3SCR design is advantageous for 768 different fluid combinations. - Abstract: In this paper, three different modifications of the basic Rankine thermodynamic cycle are proposed. The objective is to increase the thermal efficiency of power systems based on Rankine cycles. The three new systems are named “Rankine-1SCR”, “Rankine-2SCR”, and “Rankine-3SCR” cycles, and they consist of linking a refrigeration cycle to the basic Rankine cycle. The idea is to use the refrigeration cycle to create a low temperature heat sink for the Rankine cycle. These three new power plant configurations are modeled and optimized with numerical tools, and then they are compared with the basic Rankine cycle. The objective function is the thermal efficiency of the systems (i.e., net power output (kW) divided by heat rate (kW) entering the system), and the design variables are the operating temperatures within the systems. Among the 84 × 84 (i.e., 7056) possible combinations of working and cooling fluids investigated in this paper, it is shown that: (i) the Rankine-1SCR system is advantageous for 1338 different fluid combinations, (ii) the Rankine-2SCR system is advantageous for 772 different fluid combinations, and (iii) the Rankine-3SCR system is advantageous for 768 different fluid combinations.

  16. Maintenance management of gas turbine power plant systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the abundant availability of gas and the significant installed capacity of the electricity from Gas Turbine Power Systems; effective maintenance of Gas Turbine Power Plants in Nigeria could be the panacea for achieving regular power generation and supply. The study identified environmental impact on the machines, ...

  17. Advanced condition monitoring program for turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    It is important for utilities to achieve a stable operation in nuclear power plants. To achieve it, plant anomalies that affect a stable operation must be found out and eliminated. Therefore, the advanced condition monitoring program was developed. In this program, a sophisticated heat balance model based on the actual plant data is adopted to identify plant anomalies at an incipient stage and the symptoms of plant anomalies are found by heat balance changes from the model calculation. The model calculation results have shown precise prediction for actual plant parameters. Moreover, this program has the diagnostic engine that helps operators derive the cause of plant anomalies. By using this monitoring program, the component reliability in the turbine system can be periodically monitored and assessed, and as a result the stable operation of nuclear power plants can be achieved. (author)

  18. Dynamic Model of Kaplan Turbine Regulating System Suitable for Power System Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Li; Liu, Dichen; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Tian; Wang, Haoyu

    2015-01-01

    Accurate modeling of Kaplan turbine regulating system is of great significance for grid security and stability analysis. In this paper, Kaplan turbine regulating system model is divided into the governor system model, the blade control system model, and the turbine and water diversion system model. The Kaplan turbine has its particularity, and the on-cam relationship between the wicket gate opening and the runner blade angle under a certain water head on the whole range was obtained by high-o...

  19. Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    United Technologies Research Center, Pratt Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

  20. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone's lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector

  1. Study of toluene rotary fluid management device and shear flow condenser performance for a space-based organic Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Vance; Ragaller, Dana

    1988-01-01

    Management of two-phase fluid and control of the heat transfer process in microgravity is a technical challenge that must be addressed for an orbital Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application. A test program was performed in 1-g that satisfactorily demonstrated the two-phase management capability of the rotating fluid management device (RFMD) and shear-flow condenser. Operational tests of the RFMD and shear flow condenser in adverse gravity orientations, confirmed that the centrifugal forces in the RFMD and the shear forces in the condenser were capable of overcoming gravity forces. In a microgravity environment, these same forces would not have to compete against gravity and would therefore be dominant. The specific test program covered the required operating range of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Rankine Cycle power system. Review of the test data verified that: fluid was pumped from the RFMD in all attitudes; subcooled states in the condenser were achieved; condensate was pushed uphill against gravity; and noncondensible gases were swept through the condenser.

  2. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  3. Experimental investigations on a cascaded steam-/organic-Rankine-cycle (RC/ORC) system for waste heat recovery (WHR) from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guopeng; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Huo, Yongzhan; Zhu, Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel cascaded RC/ORC system was constructed for WHR of a heavy-duty diesel engine. • The RC/ORC system was experimentally investigated under engine operating conditions. • Good system stability and satisfying thermal states of working fluids were observed. • The power increment can reach up to 5.6% by equipping the novel cascaded RC/ORC system. - Abstract: A novel cascaded RC/ORC system that comprises a steam Rankine cycle as the high-temperature loop (H-RC) and an organic Rankine cycle as the low-temperature loop (L-ORC) was constructed and experimentally investigated to recover waste heat from exhaust gas of a heavy-duty diesel engine (DE). By monitoring key parameters of the RC/ORC system against time, good system stability and satisfying thermal states of working fluids were observed. Impacts that the engine operations have on this proposed waste-heat-recovery (WHR) system were studied, indicating that waste heat recovered from the gas increases gradually and greatly as the engine load increases, yet decreases slightly as the speed grows. At full loads at speeds lower than 2050 rpm, up to 101.5 kW of waste heat can be abstracted from the gas source, showing a promising heat transfer potential. Besides, observations of key exergy states as well as estimations and comparisons of potential output power were carried out stepwise. Results indicated that up to 12.7 kW of output power could be obtained by the novel RC/ORC system under practical estimations. Comparing to the basic diesel engine, the power increment reaches up to 5.6% by equipping the cascaded RC/ORC system.

  4. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  5. Numerical Analysis of Impulse Turbine for Isolated Pilot OWC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillating water column (OWC is the most widely used wave energy converting technology in the world. The impulse turbine is recently been employed as the radial turbine in OWC facilities to convert bidirectional mechanical air power into electricity power. 3D numerical model for the impulse turbine is established in this paper to investigate its operating performance of the designed impulse turbine for the pilot OWC system which is under the construction on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The proper mesh style, turbulence model, and numerical solutions are employed to study the velocity and air pressure distribution especially around the rotor blade. The operating coefficients obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with corresponding experimental data, which demonstrates that the 3D numerical model proposed here can be applied to the research of impulse turbines for OWC system. Effects of tip clearances on flow field distribution characteristics and operating performances are also studied.

  6. Instrumentation and control of turbine, generator and associated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogtland, U.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give some information on Instrumentation and Control (I and C) for turbine-generators, in this case for nuclear application. The I and C scope of supply for such a turbine-generator can be divided as follows: - Closed-loop controls - Turbine stress control systems - Supervisory instrumentation - Protection systems - Open-loop controls. The main systems used for nuclear application are presented by means of examples taken from these a.m. categories. (orig./RW)

  7. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  8. Analysis of a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphornratana, Satha; Sriveerakul, Thanarath

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a heat-powered refrigeration cycle, a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle. This refrigeration cycle combines an Organic Rankine Cycle and a vapour-compression cycle. The cycle can be powered by low grade thermal energy as low as 60 deg. C and can produce cooling temperature as low as -10 deg. C. In the analysis, two combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycles were investigated: the system with R22 and the system with R134a. Calculated COP values between 0.1 and 0.6 of both the systems were found.

  9. Performance Evaluation of a HP/ORC (Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle) System with Optimal Control of Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Nielsen, Mads P.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In energy systems with high share of renewable energy sources, like wind and solar power, it is paramount to deal with their intrinsic variability. The interaction between electric and thermal energy (heating and cooling) demands representa potential area for balancing supply and demand that could...... come to contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables.This paper describes an innovative concept that consists of the addition of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) toa combined solar system coupled to a ground-source heat pump (HP) in a single-family building. The ORC enables the use of solar...... energy in periods of no thermal energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electricalpower. A dynamic model based on empirical data of this system is used to determine the annual performance. Furthermore, this work assesses the benefits of different control strategies that address...

  10. Fluid-dynamic design and characterization of a mini-ORC turbine for laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pini, M.; de Servi, C.M.; Burigana, M.; Bahamonde Noriega, Juan S.; Rubino, A.; Vitale, S.; Colonna di Paliano, Piero; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.; Astolfi, M.

    2017-01-01

    High temperature Organic Rankine Cycles power systems of low power capacity, i.e. 3-50 kWe, are receiving recognition for distributed and mobile energy generation applications. For this type of power plants, it is customary to adopt a radial-turbine as prime mover, essentially for

  11. Strengthening power generation efficiency utilizing liquefied natural gas cold energy by a novel two-stage condensation Rankine cycle (TCRC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Junjiang; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Ruixiang; Zhang, Ning; He, Gaohong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage condensation Rankine cycle (TCRC) system is proposed. • Net power output and thermal efficiency increases by 45.27% and 42.91%. • The effects of the condensation temperatures are analyzed. • 14 working fluids (such as propane, butane etc.) are compared. - Abstract: For the low efficiency of the traditional power generation system with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy utilization, by improving the heat transfer characteristic between the working fluid and LNG, this paper has proposed a two-stage condensation Rankine cycle (TCRC) system. Using propane as working fluid, compared with the combined cycle in the conventional LNG cold energy power generation method, the net power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the TCRC system are respectively increased by 45.27%, 42.91% and 52.31%. Meanwhile, the effects of the first-stage and second-stage condensation temperature and LNG vaporization pressure on the performance and cost index of the TCRC system (net power output, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency and UA) are analyzed. Finally, using the net power output as the objective function, with 14 organic fluids (such as propane, butane etc.) as working fluids, the first-stage and second-stage condensation temperature at different LNG vaporization pressures are optimized. The results show that there exists a first-stage and second-stage condensation temperature making the performance of the TCRC system optimal. When LNG vaporization pressure is supercritical pressure, R116 has the best economy among all the investigated working fluids, and while R150 and R23 are better when the vaporization pressure of LNG is subcritical.

  12. Digital electro-hydraulic control system for nuclear turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yutaka; Tone, Youichi; Ozono, Jiro

    1985-01-01

    The unit capacity of steam turbines for nuclear power generation is very large, accordingly their unexpected stop disturbs power system, and the lowering of their capacity ratio exerts large influence on power generation cost. Therefore, very high reliability is required for turbine EHC controllers which directly control the turbines for nuclear power generation. In order to meet such requirement, Toshiba Corp. has developed high reliability type analog tripled turbine EHC controllers, and delivered them to No. 3 plant in the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station and No. 1 plant in the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. At present, the trial operation is under way. The development of digital EHC controllers was begun in 1976, and through the digital EHC for a test turbine and that for a small turbine, the digital EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation were developed. In this paper, the function, constitution, features and maintenance of the digital tripled EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation, the application of new technology to them, and the confirmation of the control function by simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. The development of control systems for high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, M.

    1983-01-01

    The functional and technological aspects of developments in the field of control systems for steam turbines over the last twenty years are analyzed. These developments have now culminated in very sophisticated systems which closely link electronics to high pressure hydraulic technology. A detailed description of these systeme high-lighting the high technical level of the control methods and the flexibility and reliability in service of turbines controlled in this way is given [fr

  14. Utilisation of diesel engine waste heat by Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kölsch, Benedikt; Radulovic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three different organic liquids were investigated as potential working fluids in an Organic Rankine Cycle. Performance of Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm SES36 was modelled in an ORC powered by a diesel engine waste heat. The ORC model consists of a preheater, evaporator, superheater, turbine, pump and two condensers. With variable maximum cycle temperatures and high cycle pressures, the thermal efficiency, net power output and overall heat transfer area have been evaluated. Methanol was found to have the best thermal performance, but also required the largest heat transfer area. While Toluene achieved lower thermal efficiency, it showed great work potential at high pressures and relatively low temperatures. Our model identified the risks associated with employing these fluids in an ORC: methanol condensing during the expansion and toluene not sufficiently superheated at the turbine inlet, which can compromise the cycle operation. The best compromise between the size of heat exchanger and thermodynamic performance was found for Methanol ORC at intermediate temperatures and high pressures. Flammability and toxicity, however, remain the obstacles for safe implementation of both fluids in ORC systems. - Highlights: • ORC powered by diesel-engine waste heat was developed. • Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm were considered as working fluids. • Methanol was selected due to the best overall thermal performance. • Optimal cycle operating parameters and heat exchanger area were evaluated

  15. High-Efficiency Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Organic Binary Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costante Mario Invernizzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Small-CHP (Combined Heat and Power systems are generally considered a valuable technological option to the conventional boilers, in a technology developed context. If small-CHP systems are associated with the use of renewable energies (biomass, for example they could play an important role in distributed generation even in developing countries or, in any case, where there are no extensive electricity networks. Traditionally the considered heat engines for micro- or mini-CHP are: the gas engine, the gas turbine (with internal combustion, the steam engine, engine working according to the Stirling and to the Rankine cycles, the last with organic fluids. In principle, also fuel cells could be used. In this paper, we focus on small size Rankine cycles (10–15 k W with organic working fluids. The assumed heat source is hot combustion gases at high temperature (900–950 ∘ C and we assume to use only single stages axial turbines. The need to work at high temperatures, limits the choice of the right organic working fluids. The calculation results show the limitation in the performances of simple cycles and suggest the opportunity to resort to complex (binary cycle configurations to achieve high net conversion efficiencies (15–16%.

  16. Rule - based Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xiao-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the trend of increasing installed capacity of wind power, the intelligent fault diagnosis of wind turbine is of great significance to the safe and efficient operation of wind farms. Based on the knowledge of fault diagnosis of wind turbines, this paper builds expert system diagnostic knowledge base by using confidence production rules and expert system self-learning method. In Visual Studio 2013 platform, C # language is selected and ADO.NET technology is used to access the database. Development of Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine. The purpose of this paper is to realize on-line diagnosis of wind turbine fault through human-computer interaction, and to improve the diagnostic capability of the system through the continuous improvement of the knowledge base.

  17. Sodium fast reactors energy conversion systems. Na-CO2 interaction. Comparison with Na-water interaction of conventional water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latge, Christian; Simon, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The Sodium Fast Reactor is a very promising candidate for the development of Fast Neutron Reactors. It is well known owing to its wide development since the 1950's, throughout all countries involved in the development of nuclear power plants. The development of Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors is possible due to its very attractive sodium, nuclear, physical and even some of its chemical properties. Nevertheless, the operational feedback has shown that the concept has several drawbacks: difficulties for In-Service Inspection and Repair operations due to the sodium opacity and possible detrimental effects of its reactivity with air and water when the heat conversion is performed with a conventional Rankine cycle. Moreover, the various design projects have shown some difficulties in enhancing its competitiveness with regards to existing NPPs without any new innovative options, i.e. the possibility of suppressing the intermediate circuits and/or the development of an optimized energy conversion system. The Supercritical CO 2 Brayton Cycle option for the energy conversion has been widely suggested because of its high thermodynamic efficiency (over 40%), its potential compactness of the Balance Of Plant equipment due to the small-sized turbo machinery system, and for its applicability to both Direct or Indirect Cycle (Na, PbBi, He) assuming the hypothesis that the Supercritical CO 2 -Na interaction has less serious potential consequences than sodium-water consequences in the conventional Rankine cycle. Within the framework of the SMFR (Small Modular Fast Reactor) project, developed jointly by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-USA), the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA, formerly Japan Nuclear Cycle development), this option has been selected and investigated. This paper deals with the study of the interaction between Na and CO 2 , based on a literature review: the result of this study will allow the definition of R and D

  18. Performance analyses of geothermal organic Rankine cycles with selected hydrocarbon working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Duan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    ORC (organic Rankine cycles) are promising systems for conversion of low temperature geothermal energy to electricity. The thermodynamic performance of the ORC with a wet cooling system is analyzed here using hydrocarbon working fluids driven by geothermal water from 100 °C to 150 °C and reinjection temperatures not less than 70 °C. The hydrocarbon working fluids are butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), pentane (R601), isopentane (R601a) and hexane. For each fluid, the ORC net power output first increases and then decreases with increasing turbine inlet temperature. The turbine inlet parameters are then optimized for the maximum power output. The ORC net power output increases as the condensation temperature decreases but the circulating pump power consumption increases especially for lower condensation temperatures at higher cooling water flow rates. The optimal condensation temperatures for the maximum plant power output are 29.45–29.75 °C for a cooling water inlet temperature of 20 °C and a pinch point temperature difference of 5 °C in the condenser. The maximum power is produced by an ORC using R600a at geothermal water inlet temperatures higher than 120 °C, followed by R245fa and R600 for reinjection temperatures not less than 70 °C. R600a also has the highest plant exergetic efficiency with the lowest turbine size factor. - Highlights: • ORC (organic Rankine cycles) using geothermal water from 100 to 150 °C and reinjection temperatures not less than 70 °C are analyzed. • Condensation temperatures optimized to maximize the plant power output. • An IHE (internal heat exchanger) gives higher plant power at low geothermal water temperatures and high reinjection temperatures. • ORC performance optimized considering the condensation and reinjection temperature. • R600a gives the best performance at the optimal turbine operating parameters

  19. Evaluation of turbine systems for compressed air energy storage plants. Final report for FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsounes, G.T.

    1976-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage plants for electric utility peak-shaving applications comprise four subsystems: a turbine system, compressor system, an underground air storage reservoir, and a motor/generator. Proposed plant designs use turbines that are derived from available gas and steam turbines with proven reliability. The study examines proposed turbine systems and presents an evaluation of possible systems that may reduce capital cost and/or improve performance. Six new turbine systems are identified for further economic evaluation.

  20. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-05

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as

  1. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  2. Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    networks and more and more wind power stations, acting as power plants, are connected directly to the transmission networks. As the grid penetration and power level of the wind turbines increase steadily, the wind power starts to have significant impacts to the power grid system. Therefore, more advanced...... generators, power electronic systems, and control solutions have to be introduced to improve the characteristics of the wind power plant and make it more suitable to be integrated into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are also some emerging technology challenges, which need to be further clarified......Wind power is still the most promising renewable energy in the year of 2013. The wind turbine system (WTS) started with a few tens of kilowatt power in the 1980s. Now, multimegawatt wind turbines are widely installed even up to 6-8 MW. There is a widespread use of wind turbines in the distribution...

  3. Vortex system studies on small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomerie, Bjoern; Dahlberg, Jan-Aake [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Aeronautics, FFA

    2003-10-01

    The wind tunnel experiment reported included a small wind turbine setup and smoke to visualize the trailing tip vortices for different wind turbine configurations. Several combinations of tunnel wind speeds and tip speed ratios generated a database where the end result functions were radius and pitch, of the tip vortex spirals, versus the downstream coordinate. The Reynolds number in the experiment was very low compared to that of full size turbines. The results should therefore be seen as valid only for low Reynolds numbers. The models were 18 and 25 cm diameter turbines. This is thought to be complementary to the information obtained in similar wind tunnel investigations for much larger models. The database is meant to be a fundamental tool for the construction of practical aerodynamic induction methods. Such methods typically employ the Biot-Savart law has been shown to lead to a flow field, which deviates considerably from that of reality. E.g. concentration into tip vortices does not happen when the flow is simulated with Biot-Savart law only. Thus, a combination of the induction method and its modification, based on investigations such as the one reported, is foreseen to replace the widely used Blade Element Momentum method for wind turbine loads and performance prediction.

  4. System Identification of Wind Turbines for Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena

    Structural health monitoring is a multi-disciplinary engineering field that should allow the actual wind turbine maintenance programmes to evolve to the next level, hence increasing safety and reliability and decreasing turbines downtime. The main idea is to have a sensing system on the structure...... cases are considered, two practical problems from the wind industry are studied, i.e. monitoring of the gearbox shaft torque and the tower root bending moments. The second part of the thesis is focused on the influence of friction on the health of the wind turbine and on the nonlinear identification...... that monitors the system responses and notifies the operator when damages or degradations have been detected. However, some of the response signals that contain important information about the health of the wind turbine components cannot be directly measured, or measuring them is highly complex and costly...

  5. Ammonia-water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Hanliang; Ma Changwen; Wu Shaorong

    1997-01-01

    On characteristics of heating source and cooling source in nuclear heating reactor cooperation, the authors advance a new kind of power cycle in which a multicomponent mixture as the work fluid, ammonia-water Rankine cycle, describe its running principle, and compare it with steam Rankine cycle in the same situation. The result is that: the new kind of power cycle, ammonia-water Rankine cycle has higher electricity efficiency; it suits for the situation of heating source and cooling source which offered by nuclear heating reactor cooperation. For low temperature heating source, it maybe has a widely application

  6. Integration Research on Gas Turbine and Tunnel Kiln Combined System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hefei; Ma, Liangdong; Liu, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    Through the integrated modeling of gas turbine and tunnel kiln combined system, a thermodynamic calculation method of combined system is put forward, and the combined system operation parameters are obtained. By this method, the optimization of the combined system is analyzed and the optimal configuration of the gas turbine is calculated. At the same time, the thermal efficiency of the combined system is analyzed, and the heat distribution and thermal efficiency of the system before and after the improvement are explained. Taking the 1500 kg/h ceramic production as an example, pointed out that if the tunnel kiln has a gas turbine with a power of 342 kw. The amount of electricity of the combined system that produced per unit volume of the fuel which consumes more than it used to will be 7.19 kwh, the system thermal efficiency will reach 57.49%, which higher than the individual gas turbine’s cycle thermal efficiency 20% at least.

  7. Analyzing the optimization of an organic Rankine cycle system for recovering waste heat from a large marine engine containing a cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Employing the thermodynamic analysis and a heat-transfer method, an ORC optimization is presented. • An optimal objective parameter evaluation of six working fluids is presented. • Refrigerants with superior thermodynamic properties do not necessary have excellent performance. • Cylinder jacket water temperature strongly affects optimal evaporation temperature. - Abstract: In this study, six working fluids with zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential are used in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system to recover waste heat from cylinder jacket water of large marine diesel engines. Thermodynamic analysis and a finite-temperature-difference heat-transfer method are developed to evaluate the thermal efficiency, total heat-exchanger area, objective parameter, and exergy destruction of the ORC system. The optimal evaporation and condensation temperatures for achieving the maximal objective parameter, the ratio of net power output to the total heat-transfer area of heat exchangers, of an ORC system are investigated. The results show that, among the working fluids, R600a performs the best in the optimal objective parameter evaluation followed by R1234ze, R1234yf, R245fa, R245ca, and R1233zd at evaporation temperatures ranging from 58 °C to 68 °C and condensation temperatures ranging from 35 °C to 45 °C. The optimal operating temperatures and corresponding thermal efficiency and exergy destruction are proposed. Furthermore, the influences of inlet temperatures on cylinder jacket water and cooling water in the ORC are presented for recovering waste heat. The results of this work were verified with theoretical solutions and experimental results in the literature and it was revealed that they were consistent with them

  8. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  9. Method and system to facilitate sealing in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Victor John; Foster, Gregory Thomas; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar

    2017-09-12

    A method and system for sealing between components within a gas turbine is provided. A first recess defined in a first component receives a seal member. A second recess defined in a second component adjacent the first component also receives the seal member. The first and second recesses are located proximate a hot gas path defined through the gas turbine, and define circumferential paths about the turbine axis. The seal member includes a sealing face that extends in a direction substantially parallel to the turbine axis. The seal member also includes a plurality of seal layers, wherein at least one of the seal layers includes at least one stress relief region for facilitating flexing of the first seal member.

  10. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  11. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. ...

  12. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren

    energy and an increase in the loading of the wind turbine structure and components. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that there are advantages of basing a yaw system on hydraulic components instead of normal electrical components. This is done through a state of the art analysis followed...... in the wind turbine yaw system along with minor reductions in the blades and main shaft. Optimization of the damping and stiffness of the hydraulic soft yaw system have been conducted and an optimum found for load reduction. Linear control algorithms for control of damping pressure peaks have been developed...... the full turbine code in FAST, and the mathematical model of the hydraulic yaw system in Matlab/Simulink and Amesim is developed in order to analyze a full scale model of the hydraulic yaw system in combination with the implemented friction model for the yaw system. These results are also promising...

  13. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM SUMMARY AND DIRECTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz

    2004-07-01

    The South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), administratively housed at Clemson University, has participated in the advancement of combustion turbine technology for over a decade. The University Turbine Systems Research Program, previously referred to as the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program, has been administered by SCIES for the U.S. DOE during the 1992-2003 timeframe. The structure of the program is based on a concept presented to the DOE by Clemson University. Under the supervision of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UTSR consortium brings together the engineering departments at leading U.S. universities and U.S. combustion turbine developers to provide a solid base of knowledge for the future generations of land-based gas turbines. In the UTSR program, an Industrial Review Board (IRB) (Appendix C) of gas turbine companies and related organizations defines needed gas turbine research. SCIES prepares yearly requests for university proposals to address the research needs identified by the IRB organizations. IRB technical representatives evaluate the university proposals and review progress reports from the awarded university projects. To accelerate technology transfer technical workshops are held to provide opportunities for university, industry and government officials to share comments and improve quality and relevancy of the research. To provide educational growth at the Universities, in addition to sponsored research, the UTSR provides faculty and student fellowships. The basis for all activities--research, technology transfer, and education--is the DOE Turbine Program Plan and identification, through UTSR consortium group processes, technology needed to meet Program Goals that can be appropriately researched at Performing Member Universities.

  14. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of

  15. Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE, and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system for multi-strand waste heat sources in petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Li, Yan; Gu, Chun-wei; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade waste heat source accounts for a large part of the total industrial waste heat, which cannot be efficiently recovered. The ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system has been proved to be a promising solution for the utilization of low-grade heat sources. It is evident that there might be several waste heat sources distributing in different temperature levels in one industry unit, and the entire recovery system will be extremely large and complex if the different heat sources are utilized one by one through several independent ORC subsystems. This paper aims to design and optimize a comprehensive ORC system to recover multi-strand waste heat sources in Shijiazhuang Refining and Chemical Company in China, involving defining suitable working fluids and operating parameters. Thermal performance is a first priority criterion for the system, and system simplicity, technological feasibility and economic factors are considered during optimization. Four schemes of the recovery system are presented in continuous optimization progress. By comparison, the scheme of dual integrated subsystems with R141B as a working fluid is optimal. Further analysis is implemented from the view of economic factors and off-design conditions. The analytical method and optimization progress presented can be widely applied in similar multi-strand waste heat sources recovery. - Highlights: • This paper focuses on the recovery of multi-strand waste heat sources. • ORC technology is used as a promising solution for the recovery. • Thermal performance, system simplicity and economic factors are considered

  17. The system design and performance test of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyantoro, Bambang Arip; Suphandani, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a tool that is being developed to generate energy from wind. One cause is still little use of wind energy is the design of wind turbines that are less precise. Therefore in this study will be developed the system design of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine and tested performance with experimental methods. The design of hybrid turbine based on a straight bladed Darrieus turbine along with a double step Savonius turbine. The method used to design wind turbines is by studying literature, analyzing the critical parts of a wind turbine and the structure of the optimal design. Wind turbine prototype of the optimal design characteristic tests in the wind tunnel experimentally by varying the speed of the wind. From the experimental results show that the greater the wind speed, the greater the wind turbine rotation and torque is raised. The hybrid vertical axis wind turbine has much better self-starting and better conversion efficiency.

  18. Fault Detection and Isolation for Wind Turbine Electric Pitch System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and isolation scheme applied on electric pitch system of wind turbines. Pitch system is one of the most critical components due to its effect on the operational safety and the dynamics of wind turbines. Faults in this system should be precisely...... detected to prevent failures and decrease downtime. To detect faults of electric pitch actuators and sensors, an extended kalman filter (EKF) based multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) designed to estimate the states of the system. The proposed method is demonstrated in case studies. The simulation...

  19. Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Soumitr

    2011-12-01

    The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account

  20. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  1. Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-09-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.

  2. Analysis of gas turbine systems for sustainable energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie

    2000-02-01

    Increased energy demands and fear of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases call for development of new efficient power generation systems with low or no carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, two different gas turbine power generation systems, which are designed with these issues in mind, are theoretically investigated and analyzed. In the first gas turbine system, the fuel is combusted using a metal oxide as an oxidant instead of oxygen in the air. This process is known as Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). CLC is claimed to decrease combustion exergy destruction and increase the power generation efficiency. Another advantage is the possibility to separate CO{sub 2} without a costly and energy demanding gas separation process. The system analysis presented includes computer-based simulations of CLC gas turbine systems with different metal oxides as oxygen carriers and different fuels. An exergy analysis comparing the exergy destruction of the gas turbine system with CLC and conventional combustion is also presented. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase the power generation efficiency of a simple gas turbine system by introducing CLC. A combined gas/steam turbine cycle system with CLC is, however, estimated to reach a similar efficiency as the conventional combined cycle system. If the benefit of easy and energy-efficient CO{sub 2} separation is accounted for, a CLC combined cycle system has a potential to be favorable compared to a combined cycle system with CO{sub 2} separation. In the second investigation, a solid, CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass fuel is used in a small-scale externally fired gas turbine system for cogeneration of power and district heating. Both open and closed gas turbines with different working fluids are simulated and analyzed regarding thermodynamic performance, equipment size, and economics. The results show that it is possible to reach high power generation efficiency and total (power

  3. Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal...... fatigue design of OWTs is discussed and results for reliability assessment of typical fatigue critical design of offshore steel support structures are presented....

  4. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Southwest Windpower H40 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Link, H.; Meadors, M.; Bianchi, J.

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this test was to evaluate the safety and function characteristics of the Whisper H40 wind turbine. The general requirements of wind turbine safety and function tests are defined in the IEC standard WT01. The testing was conducted in accordance with the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) Quality Assurance System, including the NWTC Certification Team Certification Quality Manual and the NWTC Certification Team General Quality Manual for the Testing of Wind Turbines, as well as subordinate documents. This safety and function test was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Field Verification Program for small wind turbines.

  5. Preliminary design and off-design performance analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle for geothermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dongshuai; Li, Saili; Zheng, Ya; Wang, Jiangfeng; Dai, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for preliminary design and performance prediction is established. • Preliminary data of radial inflow turbine and plate heat exchanger are obtained. • Off-design performance curves of critical components are researched. • Performance maps in sliding pressure operation are illustrated. - Abstract: Geothermal fluid of 90 °C and 10 kg/s can be exploited together with oil in Huabei Oilfield of China. Organic Rankine Cycle is regarded as a reasonable method to utilize these geothermal sources. This study conducts a detailed design and off-design performance analysis based on the preliminary design of turbines and heat exchangers. The radial inflow turbine and plate heat exchanger are selected in this paper. Sliding pressure operation is applied in the simulation and three parameters are considered: geothermal fluid mass flow rate, geothermal fluid temperature and condensing pressure. The results indicate that in all considered conditions the designed radial inflow turbine has smooth off-design performance and no choke or supersonic flow are found at the nozzle and rotor exit. The lager geothermal fluid mass flow rate, the higher geothermal fluid temperature and the lower condensing pressure contribute to the increase of cycle efficiency and net power. Performance maps are illustrated to make system meet different load requirements especially when the geothermal fluid temperature and condensing pressure deviate from the design condition. This model can be used to provide basic data for future detailed design, and predict off-design performance in the initial design phase

  6. Organic Rankine Cycle for Residual Heat to Power Conversion in Natural Gas Compressor Station. Part I: Modelling and Optimisation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    Basic organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and two variants of regenerative ORC have been considered for the recovery of exhaust heat from natural gas compressor station. The modelling framework for ORC systems has been presented and the optimisation of the systems was carried out with turbine power output as the variable to be maximized. The determination of ORC system design parameters was accomplished by means of the genetic algorithm. The study was aimed at estimating the thermodynamic potential of different ORC configurations with several working fluids employed. The first part of this paper describes the ORC equipment models which are employed to build a NLP formulation to tackle design problems representative for waste energy recovery on gas turbines driving natural gas pipeline compressors.

  7. Stability improvement of induction generator-based wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hu, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The stability improvement of induction-generator-based wind turbine systems under power system fault conditions has been studied. Two types of generators are considered, namely rotor short-circuited induction generators and dynamic slip-controlled wound rotor induction generators. The factors...... affecting the stability are analysed. The characteristics of the induction-generator-based wind turbines are described, and possible methods of improving stability of the wind generators are discussed. The system modelling is presented, and then the discussed methods of improving stability are investigated...

  8. Dynamic Model of Kaplan Turbine Regulating System Suitable for Power System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of Kaplan turbine regulating system is of great significance for grid security and stability analysis. In this paper, Kaplan turbine regulating system model is divided into the governor system model, the blade control system model, and the turbine and water diversion system model. The Kaplan turbine has its particularity, and the on-cam relationship between the wicket gate opening and the runner blade angle under a certain water head on the whole range was obtained by high-order curve fitting method. Progressively the linearized Kaplan turbine model, improved ideal Kaplan turbine model, and nonlinear Kaplan turbine model were developed. The nonlinear Kaplan turbine model considered the correction function of the blade angle on the turbine power, thereby improving the model simulation accuracy. The model parameters were calculated or obtained by the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. For the blade control system model, the default blade servomotor time constant given by value of one simplified the modeling and experimental work. Further studies combined with measured test data verified the established model accuracy and laid a foundation for further research into the influence of Kaplan turbine connecting to the grid.

  9. Effects of Degree of Superheat on the Running Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Waste Heat Recovery System for Diesel Engines under Various Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the variation law of engine exhaust energy under various operating conditions to improve the thermal efficiency and fuel economy of diesel engines. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system with internal heat exchanger (IHE was designed to recover waste heat from the diesel engine exhaust. The zeotropic mixture R416A was used as the working fluid for the ORC. Three evaluation indexes were presented as follows: waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR, and output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF. In terms of various operating conditions of the diesel engine, this study investigated the variation tendencies of the running performances of the ORC waste heat recovery system and the effects of the degree of superheat on the running performance of the ORC waste heat recovery system through theoretical calculations. The research findings showed that the net power output, WHRE, and ETEIR of the ORC waste heat recovery system reach their maxima when the degree of superheat is 40 K, engine speed is 2200 r/min, and engine torque is 1200 N·m. OEDWF gradually increases with the increase in the degree of superheat, which indicates that the required mass flow rate of R416A decreases for a certain net power output, thereby significantly decreasing the risk of environmental pollution.

  10. Thermo-Economic and Heat Transfer Optimization of Working-Fluid Mixtures in a Low-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeniyi A. Oyewunmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we consider the employment of working-fluid mixtures in organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems with respect to thermodynamic and heat-transfer performance, component sizing and capital costs. The selected working-fluid mixtures promise reduced exergy losses due to their non-isothermal phase-change behaviour, and thus improved cycle efficiencies and power outputs over their respective pure-fluid components. A multi-objective cost-power optimization of a specific low-temperature ORC system (operating with geothermal water at 98 °C reveals that the use of working-fluid-mixtures does indeed show a thermodynamic improvement over the pure-fluids. At the same time, heat transfer and cost analyses, however, suggest that it also requires larger evaporators, condensers and expanders; thus, the resulting ORC systems are also associated with higher costs. In particular, 50% n-pentane + 50% n-hexane and 60% R-245fa + 40% R-227ea mixtures lead to the thermodynamically optimal cycles, whereas pure n-pentane and pure R-245fa have lower plant costs, both estimated as having ∼14% lower costs per unit power output compared to the thermodynamically optimal mixtures. These conclusions highlight the importance of using system cost minimization as a design objective for ORC plants.

  11. Performance analysis of waste heat recovery with a dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for diesel engine under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Dong, Xiaorui; Zhang, Hongguang; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Enhua; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Guangyao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual loop ORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a diesel engine. • R245fa is used as working fluid for the dual loop ORC system. • Waste heat characteristic under engine various operating conditions is analyzed. • Performance of the combined system under various operating conditions is studied. • The waste heat from coolant and intake air has considerable potential for recovery. - Abstract: To take full advantage of the waste heat from a diesel engine, a set of dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system is designed to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and released heat from turbocharged air in the intercooler of a six-cylinder diesel engine. The dual loop ORC system consists of a high temperature loop ORC system and a low temperature loop ORC system. R245fa is selected as the working fluid for both loops. Through the engine test, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the performance of the dual loop ORC system for waste heat recovery is discussed based on the analysis of its waste heat characteristics under engine various operating conditions. Subsequently, the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system is presented, and the effective thermal efficiency and the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) are chosen to evaluate the operating performances of the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system. The results show that, the maximum waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE) of the dual loop ORC system can reach 5.4% under engine various operating conditions. At the engine rated condition, the dual loop ORC system achieves the largest net power output at 27.85 kW. Compared with the diesel engine, the thermal efficiency of the combined system can be increased by 13%. When the diesel engine is operating at the high load region, the BSFC can be reduced by a maximum 4%

  12. Fixed-Time Stability of the Hydraulic Turbine Governing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoyuan Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of fixed-time stability of hydraulic turbine governing system with the elastic water hammer nonlinear model. To control and improve the quality of hydraulic turbine governing system, a new fixed-time control strategy is proposed, which can stabilize the water turbine governing system within a fixed time. Compared with the finite-time control strategy where the convergence rate depends on the initial state, the settling time of the fixed-time control scheme can be adjusted to the required value regardless of the initial conditions. Finally, we numerically show that the fixed-time control is more effective than and superior to the finite-time control.

  13. Investigations on an advanced power system based on a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and an organic Rankine cycle for heating and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Jannelli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Energy systems based on fuel cells technology can have a strategic role in the range of small-size power generation for the sustainable energy development. In order to enhance their performance, it is possible to recover the “waste heat” from the fuel cells, for producing or thermal power (cogeneration systems) or further electric power by means of a bottoming power cycle (combined systems). In this work an advanced system based on the integration between a HT-PEMFC (high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) power unit and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) plant, has been proposed and analysed as suitable energy power plant for supplying electric and thermal energies to a stand-alone residential utility. The system can operate both as cogeneration system, in which the electric and thermal loads are satisfied by the HT-PEMFC power unit and as electric generation system, in which the low temperature heat recovered from the fuel cells is used as energy source in the ORC plant for increasing the electric power production. A numerical model, able to characterize the behavior and to predict the performance of the HT-PEMFC/ORC system under different working conditions, has been developed by using the AspenPlus™ code. - Highlights: • The advanced plant can operate both as CHP system and as electric generation system. • The performance prediction of the integrated system is carried out by numerical modeling. • ORC thermodynamic optimization is carried out by a sensitivity analysis. • Thermal coupling between the HT-PEMC system and the ORC plant is analyzed. • Results are very promising in the field of the distributed generation

  14. Limerick BWR turbine control and protection system upgrade success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.K.; Pietryka, T.S.; Federico, P.A.; Williams, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Westinghouse and Exelon have successfully implemented a digital electro-hydraulic control (DEHC) at Limerick BWR Unit 1 Station to perform the turbine control, protection and reactor pressure functions. The DEHC replaces analog controls and addressed system performance, obsolescence and reliability. This was a first-of-a-kind application for control and protection of the main turbine and BWR pressure control for the distributed control system utilized. The demolition of analog equipment, main control room and front standard modifications, and acceptance testing were completed on schedule during the normal 2014 outage. Key aspects of the project that facilitated this success will be discussed and presented. (author)

  15. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  16. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  17. Limerick BWR turbine control and protection system upgrade success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, C.K.; Pietryka, T.S.; Federico, P.A., E-mail: tangck@westinghouse.com, E-mail: pietryt@westinghouse, E-mail: federipa@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Williams, J.C., E-mail: Jonathan.Williams@exeloncorp.com [Exelon Nuclear, Warrenville, IL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Westinghouse and Exelon have successfully implemented a digital electro-hydraulic control (DEHC) at Limerick BWR Unit 1 Station to perform the turbine control, protection and reactor pressure functions. The DEHC replaces analog controls and addressed system performance, obsolescence and reliability. This was a first-of-a-kind application for control and protection of the main turbine and BWR pressure control for the distributed control system utilized. The demolition of analog equipment, main control room and front standard modifications, and acceptance testing were completed on schedule during the normal 2014 outage. Key aspects of the project that facilitated this success will be discussed and presented. (author)

  18. A Semi-active Control System for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, N.; Georgakis, Christos T.; Trinchillo, F.

    2014-01-01

    A semi-active (SA) control system based on the use of smart magnetorheological (MR) dampers to control the structural response of a wind turbine is proposed herein. The innovative approach is based on the implementation and use of a variable-properties base restraint. This is able to modify in real......, and a control algorithm that instantaneously commands the latter during the motion, making them to modulate the reactive force as needed to achieve the performance goals. The design and operation of such a system are shown with reference to a case study consisting of an almost 100 m tall wind turbine, realized...

  19. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  20. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-01-01

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions

  1. Adaptive Controller for Drive System PMSG in Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanambal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG wind turbine and direct power control for grid side inverter for transformer less integration of wind energy. PMSG wind turbine with two back to back voltage source converters are considered more efficient, used to make real and reactive power control. The optimal control strategy has introduced for integrated control of PMSG Maximum Power Extraction, DC link voltage control and grid voltage support controls. Simulation model using MATLAB Simulink has developed to investigate the performance of proposed control techniques for PMSG wind turbine steady and variable wind conditions. This paper shows that the direct driven grid connected PMSG system has excellent performances and confirms the feasibility of the proposed techniques. While the wind turbine market continues to be dominated by conventional gear-driven wind turbine systems, the direct drive is attracting attention. PM machines are more attractive and superior with higher efficiency and energy yield, higher reliability, and power-to-weight ratio compared with electricity-excited machines.

  2. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find defects in the wind turbine blade and reduce the cost of inspection. A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating an Sb–Be source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. The simulated system has a wide range of radiography parameters.

  3. Simulation of a heavy-duty diesel engine with electrical turbocompounding system using operating charts for turbocharger components and power turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanos, C.O.; Hountalas, D.T.; Zannis, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A diesel model was developed using charts for turbocharger and power turbine. • The maximum value of bsfc improvement is 4.1% at 100% engine load. • The generated electric power ranges from 23 kW to 62 kW. • Turbocharger turbine efficiency decreases slightly with the power turbine speed. • Turbocompounding increases the average pressure value in the exhaust manifold. - Abstract: In diesel engines, approximately 30–40% of the energy supplied by the fuel is rejected to the ambience through exhaust gases. Therefore, there is a potentiality for further considerable increase of diesel engine efficiency with the utilization of exhaust gas heat and its conversion to mechanical or electrical energy. In the present study, the operational behavior of a heavy-duty (HD) diesel truck engine equipped with an electric turbocompounding system is examined on a theoretical basis. The electrical turbocompounding configuration comprised of a power turbine coupled to an electric generator, which is installed downstream to the turbocharger (T/C) turbine. A diesel engine simulation model has been developed using operating charts for both turbocharger and power turbine. A method for introducing the operating charts into the engine model is described thoroughly. A parametric analysis is conducted with the developed simulation tool, where the varying parameter is the rotational speed of power turbine shaft. In this study, the interaction between the power turbine and the turbocharged diesel engine is examined in detail. The effect of power turbine speed on T/C components efficiencies, power turbine efficiency, exhaust pressure and temperature, engine boost pressure and air to fuel ratio is evaluated. In addition, theoretical results for the potential impact of electrical turbocompounding on the generated electric power, net engine power and relative improvement of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) are provided. The critical evaluation of the theoretical

  4. Ideal Point Design and Operation of CO2-Based Transcritical Rankine Cycle (CTRC System Based on High Utilization of Engine’s Waste Heats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted a study specially to systematically analyze combined recovery of exhaust gas and engine coolant and related influence mechanism, including a detailed theoretical study and an assistant experimental study. In this research, CO2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC was used for fully combining the wastes heats. The main objective of theoretical research was to search an ‘ideal point’ of the recovery system and related influence mechanism, which was defined as operating condition of complete recovery of two waste heats. The theoretical methodology of this study could also provide a design reference for effective combined recovery of two or multiple waste heats in other fields. Based on a kW-class preheated CTRC prototype that was designed by the ‘ideal point’ method, an experimental study was conducted to verify combined utilization degree of two engine waste heats by the CTRC system. The operating results showed that the prototype can gain 44.4–49.8 kW and 22.7–26.7 kW heat absorption from exhaust gas and engine coolant, respectively. To direct practical operation, an experimental optimization work on the operating process was conducted for complete recovery of engine coolant exactly, which avoided deficient or excessive recovery.

  5. Rated power factor and excitation system of large turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Takashi; Banjou, Minoru.

    1979-01-01

    As for the rated power factor of turbine generators for thermal power stations, 90% has been adopted since around 1960. On the other hand, power transmission system has entered 500 kV age, and 1,000 kV transmission is expected in the near future. As for the supply of reactive power from thermal and nuclear turbine generators, the necessity of supplying leading reactive power has rather increased. Now, the operating power factor of thermal and nuclear generators becomes 96 to 100% actually. As for the excess stability of turbine generators owing to the strengthening of transmission system and the adoption of super-high voltage, the demand of strict conditions can be dealt with by the adoption of super-fast response excitation system of thyristor shunt winding self exciting type. The adoption of the turbine generators with 90 to 95% power factor and the adoption of the thyristor shunt winding self exciting system were examined and evaluated. The rated power factor of generators, excitation system and economy of adopting these systems are explained. When the power factor of generators is increased from 0.9 to 0.95, about 6% of saving can be obtained in the installation cost. When the thyristor shunt winding self excitation is adopted, it is about 10% more economical than AC excitation. (Kako, I.)

  6. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Combined Valve Hydrodynamic Characteristics for Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, P. K.; Shamim, J. A.; Gairola, A.; Arif, M.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Flow characteristic curves are plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate. The flow characteristic curves are utilized to accurately test the performance of the control valve of turbine system to ensure the highest controllability and reliability of the power conversion system of large and small power plants. Turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in power conversion system. The electrical energy output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate (steam or gas) to the turbine through valves and nozzles. The turbine comprises fast acting governing control valves and stop valves acting against the seat in the flow passage in the closed position. The turbine control valve regulates the mass flow rate entering the first nozzle of a turbine. The main function of stop valve is to close the fluid inlet rapidly in response to a fast close signal to swiftly cut off the flow through the valve inlet. Both these valves contribute attractively to improvement of the power system transient stability as well. To improve the efficiency of power conversion system many investigation have been done by researcher by focusing on the cycle layout or working fluid or by improving the flow path of the working fluid. The main focus is to find out the best option for combined cycle power plant by analyzing four different cycle configuration. Next research phase focused on different way to enhance the cycle efficiency. As the electrical power output from the generator is proportional to the mass flow rate to the turbine through the valve, it should preferably operate linearly. In reality, however, the valve has the various flow characteristics pursuant to the stem lift. Thus, the flow characteristic and control performance are needed to be designed

  8. Numerical Analysis of Combined Valve Hydrodynamic Characteristics for Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, P. K.; Shamim, J. A.; Gairola, A.; Arif, M.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2014-01-01

    Flow characteristic curves are plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate. The flow characteristic curves are utilized to accurately test the performance of the control valve of turbine system to ensure the highest controllability and reliability of the power conversion system of large and small power plants. Turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in power conversion system. The electrical energy output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate (steam or gas) to the turbine through valves and nozzles. The turbine comprises fast acting governing control valves and stop valves acting against the seat in the flow passage in the closed position. The turbine control valve regulates the mass flow rate entering the first nozzle of a turbine. The main function of stop valve is to close the fluid inlet rapidly in response to a fast close signal to swiftly cut off the flow through the valve inlet. Both these valves contribute attractively to improvement of the power system transient stability as well. To improve the efficiency of power conversion system many investigation have been done by researcher by focusing on the cycle layout or working fluid or by improving the flow path of the working fluid. The main focus is to find out the best option for combined cycle power plant by analyzing four different cycle configuration. Next research phase focused on different way to enhance the cycle efficiency. As the electrical power output from the generator is proportional to the mass flow rate to the turbine through the valve, it should preferably operate linearly. In reality, however, the valve has the various flow characteristics pursuant to the stem lift. Thus, the flow characteristic and control performance are needed to be designed

  9. Preliminary Development of a Free Piston Expander–Linear Generator for Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Waste Heat Recovery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaosheng Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel free piston expander-linear generator (FPE-LG integrated unit was proposed to recover waste heat efficiently from vehicle engine. This integrated unit can be used in a small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system and can directly convert the thermodynamic energy of working fluid into electric energy. The conceptual design of the free piston expander (FPE was introduced and discussed. A cam plate and the corresponding valve train were used to control the inlet and outlet valve timing of the FPE. The working principle of the FPE-LG was proven to be feasible using an air test rig. The indicated efficiency of the FPE was obtained from the p–V indicator diagram. The dynamic characteristics of the in-cylinder flow field during the intake and exhaust processes of the FPE were analyzed based on Fluent software and 3D numerical simulation models using a computation fluid dynamics method. Results show that the indicated efficiency of the FPE can reach 66.2% and the maximal electric power output of the FPE-LG can reach 22.7 W when the working frequency is 3 Hz and intake pressure is 0.2 MPa. Two large-scale vortices are formed during the intake process because of the non-uniform distribution of velocity and pressure. The vortex flow will convert pressure energy and kinetic energy into thermodynamic energy for the working fluid, which weakens the power capacity of the working fluid.

  10. Geometry Analysis and Effect of Turbulence Model on the Radial Rotor Turbo-Expander Design for Small Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Arifin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is one of the most promising technology for small electric power generations. The geometry analysis and the effect of turbulence model on the radial turbo-expanders design for small ORC power generation systems were discussed in this paper. The rotor blades and performance were calculated using several working fluids such as R134a, R143a, R245fa, n-Pentane, and R123. Subsequently, a numerical study was carried out in the fluid flow area with R134a and R123 as the working fluids. Analyses were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD ANSYS Multiphysics on two real gas models, with the k-epsilon and SST (shear stress transport turbulence models. The result shows the distribution of Mach number, pressure, velocity and temperature along the rotor blade of the radial turbo-expanders and estimation of performance at various operating conditions. The operating conditions are as follow: 250,000 grid mesh flow area, real gas model SST at steady state condition, 0.4 kg/s of mass flow rate, 15,000 rpm rotor speed, 5 bar inlet pressure, and 373K inlet temperature. By using those conditions, CFD analysis shows that the turbo-expander able to produce 6.7 kW and 5.5 kW of power when using R134a and R123, respectively.

  11. Low-Concentration Solar-Power Systems Based on Organic Rankine Cycles for Distributed-Scale Applications: Overview and Further Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markides, Christos N., E-mail: c.markides@imperial.ac.uk [Clean Energy Processes (CEP) Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-10

    This paper is concerned with the emergence and development of low-to-medium-grade thermal-energy-conversion systems for distributed power generation based on thermodynamic vapor-phase heat-engine cycles undergone by organic working fluids, namely organic Rankine cycles (ORCs). ORC power systems are, to some extent, a relatively established and mature technology that is well-suited to converting low/medium-grade heat (at temperatures up to ~300–400°C) to useful work, at an output power scale from a few kilowatts to 10s of megawatts. Thermal efficiencies in excess of 25% are achievable at higher temperatures and larger scales, and efforts are currently in progress to improve the overall economic viability and thus uptake of ORC power systems, by focusing on advanced architectures, working-fluid selection, heat exchangers and expansion machines. Solar-power systems based on ORC technology have a significant potential to be used for distributed power generation, by converting thermal energy from simple and low-cost non-concentrated or low-concentration collectors to mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical energy. Current fields of use include mainly geothermal and biomass/biogas, as well as the recovery and conversion of waste heat, leading to improved energy efficiency, primary energy (i.e., fuel) use and emission minimization, yet the technology is highly transferable to solar-power generation as an affordable alternative to small-to-medium-scale photovoltaic systems. Solar-ORC systems offer naturally the advantages of providing a simultaneous thermal-energy output for hot water provision and/or space heating, and the particularly interesting possibility of relatively straightforward onsite (thermal) energy storage. Key performance characteristics are presented, and important heat transfer effects that act to limit performance are identified as noteworthy directions of future research for the further development of this technology.

  12. Low-Concentration Solar-Power Systems based on Organic Rankine Cycles for Distributed-Scale Applications:Overview and Further Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos N. Markides

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the emergence and development of low- to medium-grade thermal-energy conversion systems for distributed power generation based on thermodynamic vapour-phase heat-engine cycles undergone by organic working-fluids, namely organic Rankine cycles (ORCs. ORC power systems are, to some extent, a relatively established and mature technology that is well-suited to converting low-/medium-grade heat (at temperatures up to ~ 300 – 400 °C to useful work, at an output power scale from a few kW to 10s of MW. Thermal efficiencies in excess of 25% are achievable at higher temperatures and larger scales, and efforts are currently in progress to improve the overall economic viability, and thus uptake, of ORC power systems by focusing on advanced architectures, working-fluid selection, heat exchangers and expansion machines. Solar-power systems based on ORC technology have a significant potential to be used for distributed power generation, by converting thermal energy from simple and low-cost non-concentrated or low-concentration collectors to mechanical, hydraulic or electrical energy. Current fields of use include mainly geothermal and biomass/biogas, as well as the recovery and conversion of waste heat, leading to improved energy efficiency, primary energy (i.e. fuel use and emission minimization, yet the technology is highly transferable to solar power generation as an affordable alternative to small- to medium-scale photovoltaic (PV systems. Solar-ORC systems offer naturally the advantages of providing a simultaneous thermal-energy output for hot water provision and/or space heating, and the particularly interesting possibility of relatively straightforward on-site (thermal energy storage. Key performance characteristics are presented, and important heat transfer effects that act to limit performance are identified as noteworthy directions of future research for the further development of this technology.

  13. Analysis of ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems with pure hydrocarbons and mixtures of hydrocarbon and retardant for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for the recovery of engine waste heat. Systems with hydrocarbons as the working fluids exhibit good thermal performance. However, the flammability of hydrocarbons limits their practical applications because of safety concerns. This paper examines the potential of using mixtures of a hydrocarbon and a retardant in an ORC system for engine waste heat recovery. Refrigerants R141b and R11 are selected as the retardants and blended with the hydrocarbons to form zeotropic mixtures. The flammability is suppressed, and in addition, zeotropic mixtures provide better temperature matches with the heat source and sink, which reduces the exergy loss within the heat exchange processes, thereby increasing the cycle efficiency. Energetic and exergetic analysis of ORC systems with pure hydrocarbons and with mixtures of a hydrocarbon and a retardant are conducted and compared. The net power output and the second law efficiency are chosen as the evaluation criteria to select the suitable working fluid compositions and to define the optimal set of thermodynamic parameters. The simulation results reveal that the ORC system with cyclohexane/R141b (0.5/0.5) is optimal for this engine waste heat recovery case, thereby increasing the net power output of the system by 13.3% compared to pure cyclohexane. - Highlights: • ORC with zeotropic mixtures for engine waste heat recovery is discussed. • Energetic and exergetic analysis of ORC system are conducted. • Optimal mixture working fluid composition is identified. • Greater utilization of jacket water and lower irreversible loss are important.

  14. Low-Concentration Solar-Power Systems Based on Organic Rankine Cycles for Distributed-Scale Applications: Overview and Further Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markides, Christos N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the emergence and development of low-to-medium-grade thermal-energy-conversion systems for distributed power generation based on thermodynamic vapor-phase heat-engine cycles undergone by organic working fluids, namely organic Rankine cycles (ORCs). ORC power systems are, to some extent, a relatively established and mature technology that is well-suited to converting low/medium-grade heat (at temperatures up to ~300–400°C) to useful work, at an output power scale from a few kilowatts to 10s of megawatts. Thermal efficiencies in excess of 25% are achievable at higher temperatures and larger scales, and efforts are currently in progress to improve the overall economic viability and thus uptake of ORC power systems, by focusing on advanced architectures, working-fluid selection, heat exchangers and expansion machines. Solar-power systems based on ORC technology have a significant potential to be used for distributed power generation, by converting thermal energy from simple and low-cost non-concentrated or low-concentration collectors to mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical energy. Current fields of use include mainly geothermal and biomass/biogas, as well as the recovery and conversion of waste heat, leading to improved energy efficiency, primary energy (i.e., fuel) use and emission minimization, yet the technology is highly transferable to solar-power generation as an affordable alternative to small-to-medium-scale photovoltaic systems. Solar-ORC systems offer naturally the advantages of providing a simultaneous thermal-energy output for hot water provision and/or space heating, and the particularly interesting possibility of relatively straightforward onsite (thermal) energy storage. Key performance characteristics are presented, and important heat transfer effects that act to limit performance are identified as noteworthy directions of future research for the further development of this technology.

  15. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.; Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, P.

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. The report...

  16. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. Some criteria and tools for evaluating and improving the critical performances of the wind power converters have been proposed and established. The book addresses some emerging problems...

  17. A-10/TF34 Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The hardware and software development of the A-10/TF34 turbine engine monitoring system (TEMS) is described. The operation and interfaces of the A-10/TF34 TEMS hardware are discussed with particular emphasis on function, capabilities, and limitations. The TEMS data types are defined and the various data acquisition modes are explained. Potential data products are also discussed.

  18. Development turbine blade for ultramicro hydro power generation by 3D printer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, T.; Itoh, H.; Sugiura, K.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed micro generation system for effective use of unutilized energy and the spread of a self-controlled dispersion energy supply system. The turbine blade was designed for achieving high performance by special shape. The turbine type was called quasi-Peace turbine type. Turbine with a diameter of 30cm is made of metal, it was created by the 5-axis milling machine. The experimental apparatus was fabricated by the 3D printer. An experiment was carried out in the scale down model. The specific speed of this turbine was much lower than that of existing turbines.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell cycle with a rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) on the top of a steam turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas (NG). A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel while a pre-reformer breaks down the heavier hydro-carbons. The pre-treated fuel enters then into the anode side of the SOFC. The remaining fuels after the SOFC stacks enter a burner for further burning. The off-gases are then used to produce steam for a Rankine cycle in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Different system setups are suggested. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional combined cycles (CC). Both adiabatic steam reformer (ASR) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) fuel pre-reformer reactors are considered in this investigation.

  20. Development of a computer code for a regenerative Rankine cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Seong O; Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Jin Hwan

    2005-01-01

    A regenerative Rankine cycle can increase the thermal efficiency of a steam system without increasing the steam pressure and temperature. The regenerative process involves heating the feedwater on its return trip to the steam generator by extracting steam at various stages of the turbine and transferring the energy to the feedwater via a feedwater heater. Some real plants use more than five feedwater heaters to enhance the cycle efficiency. However, the optimum number of feedwater heaters required is determined by balancing the efficiency improvement against the capital investment for a given cycle. In the present study, the computer code, TAOPCS, for the thermodynamic analysis of a regenerative steam cycle was developed to optimally design and accurately analyze the behavior of the power conversion system of Korea Advance Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER). In order to understand the functions and the characteristics of the code, the main features of the TAPCS were described and the example results are presented in this paper

  1. The SCSE Organic Rankine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, F. P.

    1981-05-01

    The engine is the heart of a Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS) located at the focal point of a sun-tracking parabolic dish concentrator. The ORC engine employs a single-stage axial-flow turbine driving a high speed alternator to produce up to 25 kW electrical output at the focus of each dish. The organic working fluid is toluene, circulating in a closed-loop system at temperatures up to 400 C (750 F). Design parameters, system description, predicted performance and program status are described.

  2. Genetic optimization of steam multi-turbines system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Optimization analysis of partially loaded cogeneration, multiple-stages steam turbines system was numerically investigated by using own-developed code (C++). The system can be controlled by following variables: fresh steam temperature, pressure, and flow rates through all stages in steam turbines. Five various strategies, four thermodynamics and one economical, which quantify system operation, were defined and discussed as an optimization functions. Mathematical model of steam turbines calculates steam properties according to the formulation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Genetic algorithm GENOCOP was implemented as a solving engine for non–linear problem with handling constrains. Using formulated methodology, example solution for partially loaded system, composed of five steam turbines (30 input variables) with different characteristics, was obtained for five strategies. The genetic algorithm found multiple solutions (various input parameters sets) giving similar overall results. In real application it allows for appropriate scheduling of machine operation that would affect equable time load of every system compounds. Also based on these results three strategies where chosen as the most complex: the first thermodynamic law energy and exergy efficiency maximization and total equivalent energy minimization. These strategies can be successfully used in optimization of real cogeneration applications. - Highlights: • Genetic optimization model for a set of five various steam turbines was presented. • Four various thermodynamic optimization strategies were proposed and discussed. • Operational parameters (steam pressure, temperature, flow) influence was examined. • Genetic algorithm generated optimal solutions giving the best estimators values. • It has been found that similar energy effect can be obtained for various inputs

  3. Proposed Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity Studies Using Helicopter Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladkany, Samaan G.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced systems for the analysis of rotary wing aeroelastic structures (helicopters) are being developed at NASA Ames by the Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch, ARA. The research has recently been extended to the study of wind turbines, used for electric power generation Wind turbines play an important role in Europe, Japan & many other countries because they are non polluting & use a renewable source of energy. European countries such as Holland, Norway & France have been the world leaders in the design & manufacture of wind turbines due to their historical experience of several centuries, in building complex wind mill structures, which were used in water pumping, grain grinding & for lumbering. Fossil fuel cost in Japan & in Europe is two to three times higher than in the USA due to very high import taxes. High fuel cost combined with substantial governmental subsidies, allow wind generated power to be competitive with the more traditional sources of power generation. In the USA, the use of wind energy has been limited mainly because power production from wind is twice as expensive as from other traditional sources. Studies conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) indicate that the main cost in the production of wind turbines is due to the materials & the labor intensive processes used in the construction of turbine structures. Thus, for the US to assume world leadership in wind power generation, new lightweight & consequently very flexible wind turbines, that could be economically mass produced, would have to be developed [4,5]. This effort, if successful, would result in great benefit to the US & the developing nations that suffer from overpopulation & a very high cost of energy.

  4. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  5. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  6. Dynamic Systems Analysis for Turbine Based Aero Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The aircraft engine design process seeks to optimize the overall system-level performance, weight, and cost for a given concept. Steady-state simulations and data are used to identify trade-offs that should be balanced to optimize the system in a process known as systems analysis. These systems analysis simulations and data may not adequately capture the true performance trade-offs that exist during transient operation. Dynamic systems analysis provides the capability for assessing the dynamic tradeoffs at an earlier stage of the engine design process. The dynamic systems analysis concept, developed tools, and potential benefit are presented in this paper. To provide this capability, the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) was developed to provide the user with an estimate of the closed-loop performance (response time) and operability (high pressure compressor surge margin) for a given engine design and set of control design requirements. TTECTrA along with engine deterioration information, can be used to develop a more generic relationship between performance and operability that can impact the engine design constraints and potentially lead to a more efficient engine.

  7. Advanced tools for modeling, design and optimization of wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.

    2005-01-01

    As wind turbine technology and control has advanced over the last decade, this has led to a high penetration of wind turbines into the power system. Whether it be for a large wind turbine or an offshore wind farm with hundreds of MW power capacity, the electrical system has become more and more i...

  8. 77 FR 32497 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Generating Sets) Fort Smith... special-purpose subzone at the wind turbine nacelle and generating set manufacturing facility of... related to the manufacturing of wind turbine nacelles and generating sets at the Mitsubishi Power Systems...

  9. Parametric optimization and comparative study of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low grade waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Yiping; Wang Jiangfeng; Gao Lin

    2009-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycles for low grade waste heat recovery are described with different working fluids. The effects of the thermodynamic parameters on the ORC performance are examined, and the thermodynamic parameters of the ORC for each working fluid are optimized with exergy efficiency as an objective function by means of the genetic algorithm. The optimum performance of cycles with different working fluids was compared and analyzed under the same waste heat condition. The results show that the cycles with organic working fluids are much better than the cycle with water in converting low grade waste heat to useful work. The cycle with R236EA has the highest exergy efficiency, and adding an internal heat exchanger into the ORC system could not improve the performance under the given waste heat condition. In addition, for the working fluids with non-positive saturation vapor curve slope, the cycle has the best performance property with saturated vapor at the turbine inlet

  10. Performance analysis a of solar driven organic Rankine cycle using multi-component working fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, E.; Andreasen, J. G.; Modi, A.

    2015-01-01

    suitable control strategy and both the overall annual production and the average solar to electrical efficiency are estimated with an annual simulation. The results suggest that the introduction of binary working fluids enables to increase the solar system performance both in design and part-load operation....... cycle. The purpose of this paper is to optimize a low temperature organic Rankine cycle tailored for solar applications. The objective of the optimization is the maximization of the solar to electrical efficiency and the optimization parameters are the working fluid and the turbine inlet temperature...... and pressure. Both pure fluids and binary mixtures are considered as possible working fluids and thus one of the primary aims of the study is to evaluate whether the use of multi-component working fluids might lead to increased solar to electrical efficiencies. The considered configuration includes a solar...

  11. Wind or water turbine power augmentation using the system of guiding surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashurin, V P; Ktitorov, L V; Lazareva, A S; Pletenev, F A; Budnikov, I N; Hatunkin, V Yu; Klevtsov, V A; Meshkov, E E; Novikova, I A; Yanbaev, G M

    2016-01-01

    As fluid flows through a conventional wind or hydro turbine, it slows from losing energy to extraction from a turbine and spreads out to a wider area. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power more effectively, it was suggested to place the turbine inside a system of specially designed airfoils (‘a flow booster’). One part of the booster (‘a nozzle’) improves the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades. The other part of the accelerating system (‘a diffuser’) creates a field of low pressure behind the turbine which helps to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration. The flow booster accumulates the kinetic energy of the flow (e.g. river flow or wind) in a small volume where the smaller turbine can be installed. Another possible application of the booster could be the improvement of wind turbine efficiency during low wind period. The present paper also discusses the possibility of kinetic energy accumulation by the use of several accelerating systems of different sizes—the smaller one can be installed inside the bigger one. It helps to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine blades. We call this method the kinetic energy cumulation. Lab and field experiments and CFD simulations of shrouded turbine demonstrate significant increase in velocity in comparison of those for conventional (bare) turbines. (paper)

  12. Preliminary design of seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination systems driven by low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycles (ORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the coupling between the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination units has been carried out. Four substances have been considered as working fluids of the solar cycle (butane, isopentane, R245fa and R245ca). With these four fluids the volumetric flow of fresh water produced per unit of aperture area of stationary solar collector has been calculated. The former has been made with the optimized direct vapour generation (DVG) configuration and heat transfer fluid (HTF) configuration of the solar ORC. In the first one (DVG), working fluid of the ORC is directly heated inside the absorber of the solar collector. In the second one (HTF), a fluid different than the working fluid of the ORC (water in this paper) is heated without phase change inside the absorber of the solar collector. Once this fluid has been heated it is carried towards a heat exchanger where it is cooled. Thermal energy delivered in this cooling process is transferred to the working fluid of the ORC. Influence of condensation temperature of the ORC and regeneration's process effectiveness over productivity of the system has also been analysed. Finally, parameters of several preliminary designs of the low-temperature solar thermal driven RO desalination are supplied. R245fa is chosen as working fluid of the ORC in these preliminary designs. The information of the proposed preliminary designs can also be used, i.e., for the assessment of the use of thermal energy rejected by the solar cycle. Overall analysis of the efficiency of the solar thermal driven RO desalination technology is given with the results presented in this paper and the results obtained with the medium temperature solar thermal RO desalination system presented by the authors in previous papers. This work has been carried out within the framework of the OSMOSOL and POWERSOL projects.

  13. Preliminary design of seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination systems driven by low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycles (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M. [Dpto. Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Civil e Industrial, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n. 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad de Sevilla Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, the coupling between the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination units has been carried out. Four substances have been considered as working fluids of the solar cycle (butane, isopentane, R245fa and R245ca). With these four fluids the volumetric flow of fresh water produced per unit of aperture area of stationary solar collector has been calculated. The former has been made with the optimized direct vapour generation (DVG) configuration and heat transfer fluid (HTF) configuration of the solar ORC. In the first one (DVG), working fluid of the ORC is directly heated inside the absorber of the solar collector. In the second one (HTF), a fluid different than the working fluid of the ORC (water in this paper) is heated without phase change inside the absorber of the solar collector. Once this fluid has been heated it is carried towards a heat exchanger where it is cooled. Thermal energy delivered in this cooling process is transferred to the working fluid of the ORC. Influence of condensation temperature of the ORC and regeneration's process effectiveness over productivity of the system has also been analysed. Finally, parameters of several preliminary designs of the low-temperature solar thermal driven RO desalination are supplied. R245fa is chosen as working fluid of the ORC in these preliminary designs. The information of the proposed preliminary designs can also be used, i.e., for the assessment of the use of thermal energy rejected by the solar cycle. Overall analysis of the efficiency of the solar thermal driven RO desalination technology is given with the results presented in this paper and the results obtained with the medium temperature solar thermal RO desalination system presented by the authors in previous papers. This work has been carried out within the framework of the OSMOSOL and POWERSOL projects. (author)

  14. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Using Double-Stage Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Ikegami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC using non-azeotropic mixtures such as ammonia/water as working fluid and the multistage cycle has been investigated in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the cycle because of small ocean temperature differences. The performance and effectiveness of the multistage cycle are barely understood. In addition, previous evaluation methods of heat exchange process cannot clearly indicate the influence of the thermophysical characteristics of the working fluid on the power output. Consequently, this study investigated the influence of reduction of the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process on the system performance in double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid. Single Rankine, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles were analyzed to ascertain the system characteristics. The simple evaluation method of the temperature difference between the working fluid and the seawater is applied to this analysis. From the results of the parametric performance analysis it can be considered that double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid can reduce the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process as with the Kalina cycle using an ammonia/water mixture. Considering the maximum power efficiency obtained in the study, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles can improve the power output by reducing the irreversible losses in the cycle.

  16. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  17. The condition monitoring system of turbine system components for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigetoshi

    2013-01-01

    The thermal and nuclear power plants have been imposed a stable supply of electricity. To certainly achieve this, we built the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. If there are some performance changes on the turbine system components of their power plants, the heat and mass balance of the turbine system will change. This system has ability to detect the abnormal signs of their components by finding the changes of the heat and mass balance. Moreover we note that this system is built for steam turbine cycle operating with saturated steam conditions. (author)

  18. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS(ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2001-06-01

    The following paper provides an overview of GE's H System{trademark} technology, and specifically, the design, development, and test activities associated with the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program. There was intensive effort expended in bringing this revolutionary advanced technology program to commercial reality. In addition to describing the magnitude of performance improvement possible through use of H System{trademark} technology, this paper discusses the technological milestones during the development of the first 9H (50Hz) and 7H (60 Hz) gas turbines. To illustrate the methodical product development strategy used by GE, this paper discusses several technologies that were essential to the introduction of the H System{trademark}. Also included are analyses of the series of comprehensive tests of materials, components and subsystems that necessarily preceded full scale field testing of the H System{trademark}. This paper validates one of the basic premises with which GE started the H System{trademark} development program: exhaustive and elaborate testing programs minimized risk at every step of this process, and increase the probability of success when the H System{trademark} is introduced into commercial service. In 1995, GE, the world leader in gas turbine technology for over half a century, in conjunction with the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's ATS program, introduced its new generation of gas turbines. This H System{trademark} technology is the first gas turbine ever to achieve the milestone of 60% fuel efficiency. Because fuel represents the largest individual expense of running a power plant, an efficiency increase of even a single percentage point can substantially reduce operating costs over the life of a typical gas-fired, combined-cycle plant in the 400 to 500 megawatt range. The H System{trademark} is not simply a state-of-the-art gas turbine. It is an advanced, integrated, combined-cycle system in which every

  19. Design of a wind turbine pitch angle controller for power system stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens; Islam, S.M.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    The design of a PID pitch angle controller for a fixed speed active-stall wind turbine, using the root locus method is described in this paper. The purpose of this controller is to enable an active-stall wind turbine to perform power system stabilisation. For the purpose of controller design......, the transfer function of the wind turbine is derived from the wind turbine's step response. The performance of this controller is tested by simulation, where the wind turbine model with its pitch angle controller is connected to a power system model. The power system model employed here is a realistic model...... of the North European power system. A short circuit fault on a busbar close to the wind turbine generator is simulated, and the dynamic responses of the system with and without the power system stabilisation of the wind turbines are presented. Simulations show that in most operating points the pitch controller...

  20. Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis of a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system for CNG engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Zhang, Hongguang; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Enhua; Meng, Fanxiao; Liu, Hongda; Wang, Jingfu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system is adopted to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and intercooler heat rejection of a six-cylinder CNG (compressed natural gas) engine. The thermodynamic, heat transfer, and optimization models for the dual loop ORC system are established. On the basis of the waste heat characteristics of the CNG engine over the whole operating range, a GA (genetic algorithm) is used to solve the Pareto solution for the thermodynamic and heat transfer performances to maximize net power output and minimize heat transfer area. Combined with optimization results, the optimal parameter regions of the dual loop ORC system are determined under various operating conditions. Then, the variation in the heat transfer area with the operating conditions of the CNG engine is analyzed. The results show that the optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT (high temperature) cycle are mainly influenced by the operating conditions of the CNG engine. The optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT cycle over the whole operating range are within 2.5–2.9 MPa and 0.43–12.35 K, respectively. The optimal condensation temperature of the HT cycle, evaporation and condensation temperatures of the LT (low temperature) cycle, and exhaust temperature at the outlet of evaporator 1 are kept nearly constant under various operating conditions of the CNG engine. The thermal efficiency of the dual loop ORC system is within the range of 8.79%–10.17%. The dual loop ORC system achieves the maximum net power output of 23.62 kW under the engine rated condition. In addition, the operating conditions of the CNG engine and the operating parameters of the dual loop ORC system significantly influence the heat transfer areas for each heat exchanger. - Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is adopted to recover the waste heat of a CNG engine. • Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis are

  1. State of the art-hydraulic yaw systems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the yawing systems of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT’s). HAWT’s represents close to all of the commercial large wind turbines sold today and must be considered state-of-the art within wind turbine technology. Two choices exists when considering components for the active ...

  2. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH-HIGH EFFICIENCY ENGINES AND TURBINES (UTSR-HEET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz; William H. Day

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the U S Department of Energy established a cooperative agreement for a program now designated as the University Turbine Systems (UTSR) Program. As stated in the cooperative agreement, the objective of the program is to support and facilitate development of advanced energy systems incorporating turbines through a university research environment. This document is the first annual, technical progress report for the UTSR Program. The Executive Summary describes activities for the year of the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), which administers the UTSR Program. Included are descriptions of: Outline of program administrative activities; Award of the first 10 university research projects resulting from a year 2001 RFP; Year 2002 solicitation and proposal selection for awards in 2003; Three UTSR Workshops in Combustion, Aero/Heat Transfer, and Materials; SCIES participation in workshops and meetings to provide input on technical direction for the DOE HEET Program; Eight Industrial Internships awarded to higher level university students; Increased membership of Performing Member Universities to 105 institutions in 40 states; Summary of outreach activities; and a Summary table describing the ten newly awarded UTSR research projects. Attachment A gives more detail on SCIES activities by providing the monthly exceptions reports sent to the DOE during the year. Attachment B provides additional information on outreach activities for 2002. The remainder of this report describes in detail the technical approach, results, and conclusions to date for the UTSR university projects.

  3. Performance Analysis of an Evaporator for a Diesel Engine–Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Combined System and Influence of Pressure Drop on the Diesel Engine Operating Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to analyze the performance of an evaporator for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC system and discuss the influence of the evaporator on the operating characteristics of diesel engine. A simulation model of fin-and-tube evaporator of the ORC system is established by using Fluent software. Then, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the exhaust at the evaporator shell side are obtained, and then the performance of the fin-and-tube evaporator of the ORC system is analyzed based on the field synergy principle. The field synergy angle (β is the intersection angle between the velocity vector and the temperature gradient. When the absolute values of velocity and temperature gradient are constant and β < 90°, heat transfer enhancement can be achieved with the decrease of the β. When the absolute values of velocity and temperature gradient are constant and β >90°, heat transfer enhancement can be achieved with the increase of the β. Subsequently, the influence of the evaporator of the ORC system on diesel engine performance is studied. A simulation model of the diesel engine is built by using GT–Power software under various operating conditions, and the variation tendency of engine power, torque, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC are obtained. The variation tendency of the power output and BSFC of diesel engine–ORC combined system are obtained when the evaporation pressure ranges from 1.0 MPa to 3.5 MPa. Results show that the field synergy effect for the areas among the tube bundles of the evaporator main body and the field synergy effect for the areas among the fins on the windward side are satisfactory. However, the field synergy effect in the areas among the fins on the leeward side is weak. As a result of the pressure drop caused by the evaporator of the ORC system, the diesel engine power and torque decreases slightly, whereas the BSFC increases slightly with the increase of exhaust back

  4. Reactor trip on turbine trip inhibit control system for nuclear power generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.M.; Musick, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    A reactor trip on turbine trip inhibit control system for a nuclear power generating system which utilizes steam bypass valves is described. The control system inhibits a normally automatic reactor trip on turbine trip when the bypass valves have the capability of bypassing enough steam to prevent reactor trip limits from being reached and/or to prevent opening of the secondary safety pressure valves. The control system generates a bypass valve capability signal which is continuously compared with the reactor power. If the capability is greater than the reactor power, then an inhibit signal is generated which prevents a turbine trip signal from tripping the nuclear reactor. 10 claims, 4 figures

  5. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems annual program review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Goals of the 8-year program are to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. During this Nov. 9-11, 1994, meeting, presentations on energy policy issues were delivered by representatives of regulatory, industry, and research institutions; program overviews and technical reviews were given by contractors; and ongoing and proposed future projects sponsored by university and industry were presented and displayed at the poster session. Panel discussions on distributed power and Advanced Gas Systems Research education provided a forum for interactive dialog and exchange of ideas. Exhibitors included US DOE, Solar Turbines, Westinghouse, Allison Engine Co., and GE.

  6. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....

  7. Parametric optimization and range analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle for binary-cycle geothermal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xing; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chuhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal level constitution of parameters for ORC system was obtained. • Order of system parameters’ sensitivity to the performance of ORC was revealed. • Evaporating temperature had significant effect on performance of ORC system. • Superheater had little effect on performance of ORC system. - Abstract: In this study, a thermodynamic model of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system combined with orthogonal design is proposed. The comprehensive scoring method was adopted to obtain a comprehensive index to evaluate both of the thermodynamic performance and economic performance. The optimal level constitution of system parameters which improves the thermodynamic and economic performance of ORC system is provided by analyzing the result of orthogonal design. The range analysis based on orthogonal design is adopted to determine the sensitivity of system parameters to the net power output of ORC system, thermal efficiency, the SP factor of radial inflow turbine, the power decrease factor of the pump and the total heat transfer capacity. The results show that the optimal level constitution of system parameters is determined as the working fluid of R245fa, the super heating temperature of 10 °C, the pinch temperature difference in evaporator and condenser of 5 °C, the evaporating temperature of 65 °C, the isentropic efficiency for the pump of 0.75 and the isentropic efficiency of radial inflow turbine of 0.85. The order of system parameters’ sensitivity to the comprehensive index of orthogonal design is evaporating temperature > isentropic efficiency of radial inflow turbine > the working fluid > the pinch temperature difference of the evaporator and the condenser > isentropic efficiency of cycle pump > the super heating temperature. This study provides useful references for selecting main controlled parameters in the optimal design of ORC system

  8. Risk-based and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, K.; Nagai, S.; Akikuni, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Furuya, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takagi, K.; Kawabata, T.

    2003-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants. (orig.)

  9. Risk-based inspection and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, Kazunari; Nagai, Satoshi; Akikuni, Yasunari; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Furuya, Kenichiro; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Takagi, Kentaro; Kawabata, Taro

    2004-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants

  10. Advance monitoring of turbine generators and auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemers, D.

    2005-01-01

    The STUDIS turbine generator diagnosing system has been designed for diagnosing and early fault detection as a prerequisite for status-dependent preventive maintenance. Based on the data collected in the monitoring part, which are gathered continously, checked extensively and compressed any deviations from normal behavior as well as potential defects are detected and reported in an expert system. In addition, STUDIS can also be used as a mobile system for problem analysis. STUDIS is not meant to replace experts, but is able to relieve them of routine evaluations of defects whose causes and effects as well as symptoms are known, and to make their work more effective. The advanced operating architecture allows unkilled users to detect familiar faults and defects quickly and respond promptly. Experts will find an extensive toolbox above all for complex analyses of malfunctions. The point of departure for operating staff and experts alike is the so-called ''magic eye'', a highly condensed survey of relevant measurement and assessment parameters of the entire turbine generator relative to tolerance bands determined as a function of the operating point. The power of Studies in elucidating faults and defects is explained by a practical case of a blade defect in a gas turbine. (orig.)

  11. The Energy Conversion Analysis of HTR Gas Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utaja

    2000-01-01

    The energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by hand calculation is tedious work and need much time. This difficulty comes from the repeated thermodynamic process calculation, both on compression or expansion of the cycle. To make the analysis faster and wider variable analyzed, HTR-1 programme is used. In this paper, the energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 will be described. The result is displayed as efficiency curve and block diagram with the input and output temperature of the component. This HTR-1 programme is developed by Basic language programming and be compiled by Visual Basic 5.0 . By this HTR-1 programme, the efficiency, specific power and effective compression of the amount of gas can be recognized fast. For example, for CO 2 gas between 40 o C and 700 o C, the compression on maximum efficiency is 4.6 and the energy specific is 18.9 kcal/kg, while the temperature changing on input and output of the component can be traced on monitor. This process take less than one second, while the manual calculation take more than one hour. It can be concluded, that the energy conversion analysis of the HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 can be done faster and more variable analyzed. (author)

  12. IMIS: Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The report describes a feasibility study on the Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore wind turbines. The aspects covered are (1) Background and why the study is required; (2) Aims and objectives of the project; (3) Summary of methods adopted; (4) Design criteria according to the area for deployment; (5) Conclusions and recommendations. The ultimate goal will be to install and secure the wind turbine in position using an integrated approach to avoid using lifting vessels. To date, an initial feasibility study has been carried out where four different concepts were considered. The next phase of the project will be to address a number of possible risks and constraints before the chosen concept can be demonstrated to be viable. The work is being carried out by Setech Ltd, Armstrong Technology Associates Ltd and Smith Rea Energy Ltd for the DTI.

  13. Modelling and control of variable speed wind turbines for power system studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2010-01-01

    and implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Important issues like the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of these wind turbine concepts are addressed. The paper reveals that advanced control of variable speed wind turbines can improve power system stability. Finally......, it will be shown in the paper that wind parks consisting of variable speed wind turbines can help nearby connected fixed speed wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......Modern wind turbines are predominantly variable speed wind turbines with power electronic interface. Emphasis in this paper is therefore on the modelling and control issues of these wind turbine concepts and especially on their impact on the power system. The models and control are developed...

  14. Performance comparison and parametric optimization of subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and transcritical power cycle system for low-temperature geothermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shengjun, Zhang; Huaixin, Wang; Tao, Guo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We conduct the thermodynamic and economic performance comparison of the fluids in both subcritical ORC and transcritical power cycle. → We perform parameter optimization based on five indicators. → The optimum operation parameters and working fluids are not the same for different indicators. → The LEC value is used as the determining factor for fluids screening. → The transcritical power cycle with R125 as the working fluid was a cost-effective approach. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising technology for converting the low-grade energy to electricity. This paper presents an investigation on the parameter optimization and performance comparison of the fluids in subcritical ORC and transcritical power cycle in low-temperature (i.e. 80-100 o C) binary geothermal power system. The optimization procedure was conducted with a simulation program written in Matlab using five indicators: thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, recovery efficiency, heat exchanger area per unit power output (APR) and the levelized energy cost (LEC). With the given heat source and heat sink conditions, performances of the working fluids were evaluated and compared under their optimized internal operation parameters. The optimum cycle design and the corresponding operation parameters were provided simultaneously. The results indicate that the choice of working fluid varies the objective function and the value of the optimized operation parameters are not all the same for different indicators. R123 in subcritical ORC system yields the highest thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of 11.1% and 54.1%, respectively. Although the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of R125 in transcritical cycle is 46.4% and 20% lower than that of R123 in subcritical ORC, it provides 20.7% larger recovery efficiency. And the LEC value is relatively low. Moreover, 22032L petroleum is saved and 74,019 kg CO 2 is reduced per year when the LEC value is used as

  15. System reliability effects in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    from reliability point of view. The present paper discusses the specifics of system reliability behavior of laminated composite sandwich panels, and solves an example system reliability problem for a glass fiber-reinforced composite sandwich structure subjected to in-plane compression.......Laminated composite sandwich panels have a layered structure, where individual layers have randomly varying stiffness and strength properties. The presence of multiple failure modes and load redistribution following partial failures are the reason for laminated composites to exhibit system behavior...

  16. Matching of wind turbine type and system scale to wind conditions; Chiten no fukyo ni taisuru furyoku turbine no keitai to sytem taikaku no seigosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Hashizume, T.

    2000-09-25

    The matching of the wind turbine type and system scale of the stand-alone wind turbine generator system to wind conditions is investigated using our dynamic simulation model. This paper examines three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine, the Darrieus turbine proper and the up-wind Propeller turbine. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient. As a computed result of the net extracting energy under fluctuations of wind speed and direction, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for other wind turbines, large-scale systems do not always have advantages over small-scale systems as the effect of the dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine under wind direction fluctuations is much reduced when compared with that of the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, it is concluded that the appropriate wind turbine type and system scale exist for each wind condition. (author)

  17. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  18. Hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine cycle for seawater desalination by reverse osmosis in a hydrocarbon production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloy, Valérie; Rodgers, Peter; Qiu, Linyue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seawater reverse osmosis driven by hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine power cycle. • High ambient air and seawater temperatures, and high seawater salinity. • Energy–exergy analysis of power and desalination systems for six organic fluids. • Economic viability of waste heat recovery in subsidized utility pricing context. - Abstract: Despite water scarcity, the use of industrial waste heat for seawater desalination has been limited in the Middle East to date. This study evaluates the technical and economic feasibility of integrating on-site gas turbine power generation and reverse osmosis equipment for the production of both electricity and fresh water in a coastal hydrocarbon production facility. Gas turbine exhaust gas waste heat is recovered using an intermediate heat transfer fluid and fed to an organic Rankine cycle evaporator, to generate mechanical power to drive the reverse osmosis high pressure pump. Six candidate organic working fluids are evaluated, namely toluene, benzene, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, n-pentane and R245fa. Thermodynamic and desalination performance are assessed in the harsh climatic and salinity conditions of the Arabian Gulf. The performance metrics considered incorporate electric power and permeate production, thermal and exergy efficiency, specific energy consumption, system size, and permeate quality. Using toluene in the bottoming power cycle, a gain in power generation efficiency of approximately 12% is achieved relative to the existing gas turbine cycle, with an annual average of 2260 m"3/h of fresh water produced. Depending upon the projected evolution of local water prices, the investment becomes profitable after two to four years, with an end-of-life net present value of 220–380 million USD, and internal rate of return of 26–48%.

  19. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  20. Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Turbo Expander for Small Rated Power Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system, which operates with organic fluids, is one of the leading technologies for “waste energy recovery”. It works as a conventional Rankine Cycle but, as mentioned, instead of steam/water, an organic fluid is used. This change allows it to convert low temperature heat into electric energy where required. Large numbers of studies have been carried out to identify the most suitable fluids, system parameters and the various configurations. In the present market, most ORC systems are designed and manufactured for the recovery of thermal energy from various sources operating at “large power rating” (exhaust gas turbines, internal combustion engines, geothermal sources, large melting furnaces, biomass, solar, etc.; from which it is possible to produce a large amount of electric energy (30 kW ÷ 300 kW. Such applications for small nominal power sources, as well as the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (car sedan or town, ships, etc. or small heat exchangers, are very limited. The few systems that have been designed and built for small scale applications, have, on the other hand, different types of expander (screw, scroll, etc.. These devices are not adapted for placement in small and restricted places like the interior of a conventional car. The aim of this work is to perform the preliminary design of a turbo-expander that meets diverse system requirements such as low pressure, small size and low mass flow rates. The expander must be adaptable to a small ORC system utilizing gas of a diesel engine or small gas turbine as thermal source to produce 2–10 kW of electricity. The temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases, in this case study (400–600 °C and a pressure of 2 bar, imposes a limit on the use of an organic fluid and on the net power that can be produced. In addition to water, fluids such as CO2, R134a and R245fa have been considered. Once the operating fluids has been chosen

  1. Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

  2. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abdullatif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  3. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Abdullatif; Alaktiwi, Abdulsalam; Talbi, Mosbah

    2017-11-01

    High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR) fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR) cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  4. Design and Experimental Validation of Hydraulic Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    market. A hydraulic yaw system is such a new technology, and so a mathematical model of the full scale system and test rig system is derived and compared to measurements from the system. This is done in order to have a validated model, which wind turbine manufacturers may use for test in their simulation......To comply with the increasing demands for life time and reliability of wind turbines as these grow in size, new measures needs to be taken in the design of wind turbines and components hereof. One critical point is the initial testing of the components and systems before they are implemented...... in an actual turbine. Full scale hardware testing is both extremely expensive and time consuming, and so the wind turbine industry moves more towards simulations when testing. In order to meet these demands it is necessary with valid models of systems in order to introduce new technologies to the wind turbine...

  5. Research on simulation of supercritical steam turbine system in large thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the stability and safety of supercritical steam turbine system operation in large thermal power station, the body of the steam turbine is modeled in this paper. And in accordance with the hierarchical modeling idea, the steam turbine body model, condensing system model, deaeration system model and regenerative system model are combined to build a simulation model of steam turbine system according to the connection relationship of each subsystem of steam turbine. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by design and operation data of the 600MW supercritical unit. The results show that the maximum simulation error of the model is 2.15%, which meets the requirements of the engineering. This research provides a platform for the research on the variable operating conditions of the turbine system, and lays a foundation for the construction of the whole plant model of the thermal power plant.

  6. Design and simulation of a prototype of a small-scale solar CHP system based on evacuated flat-plate solar collectors and Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Vicidomini, Maria; Scarpellino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel small scale solar power plant was designed and simulated. • The system is based on evacuated solar thermal collectors and an ORC system. • An average electric efficiency of 10% was found for the ORC. • The efficiency of solar collectors was found to be high in summer (>50%). • Pay-back periods lower than 5 years were estimated, in case of public funding. - Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic simulation model of a novel prototype of a 6 kW e solar power plant. The system is based on the coupling of innovative solar thermal collectors with a small Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), simultaneously producing electric energy and low temperature heat. The novelty of the proposed system lies in the solar collector field, which is based on stationary evacuated flat-plate solar thermal collectors capable to achieve the operating temperatures typical of the concentrating solar thermal collectors. The solar field consists of about 73.5 m 2 of flat-plate evacuated solar collectors, heating a diathermic oil up to a maximum temperature of 230 °C. A diathermic oil storage tank is employed in order to mitigate the fluctuations due to the variability of solar energy availability. The hot diathermic oil exiting from the tank passes through an auxiliary gas-fired burner which provides eventual additional thermal energy. The inlet temperature of the diathermic oil entering the ORC system varies as a function of the availability of solar energy, also determining an oscillating response of the ORC. The ORC was simulated in Engineering Equation Solver (EES), using zero-dimensional energy and mass balances. The ORC model was subsequently implemented in a more general TRNSYS model, including all the remaining components of the system. The model was used to evaluate the energy and economic performance of the solar CHP system under analysis, in different climatic conditions. The results show that the efficiency of the ORC does not significantly vary during the

  7. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eek, Jarle

    2009-12-15

    A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

  8. The impact of component performance on the overall cycle performance of small-scale low temperature organic Rankine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M.; Sayma, A. I.

    2015-08-01

    Low temperature organic Rankine cycles offer a promising technology for the generation of power from low temperature heat sources. Small-scale systems (∼10kW) are of significant interest, however there is a current lack of commercially viable expanders. For a potential expander to be economically viable for small-scale applications it is reasonable to assume that the same expander must have the ability to be implemented within a number of different ORC applications. It is therefore important to design and optimise the cycle considering the component performance, most notably the expander, both at different thermodynamic conditions, and using alternative organic fluids. This paper demonstrates a novel modelling methodology that combines a previously generated turbine performance map with cycle analysis to establish at what heat source conditions optimal system performance can be achieved using an existing turbine design. The results obtained show that the same turbine can be effectively utilised within a number of different ORC applications by changing the working fluid. By selecting suitable working fluids, this turbine can be used to convert pressurised hot water at temperatures between 360K and 400K, and mass flow rates between 0.45kg/s and 2.7kg/s, into useful power with outputs between 1.5kW and 27kW. This is a significant result since it allows the same turbine to be implemented into a variety of applications, improving the economy of scale. This work has also confirmed the suitability of the candidate turbine for a range of low temperature ORC applications.

  9. Kongiganak Wind Turbine Replacement and System Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonstra, Patrick [Intelligent Energy Systems, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Native Village of Kongiganak, Alaska was awarded a grant to upgrade the braking systems on five wind turbines and upgrade the monitoring and data collection unit to insure that enough energy is available to power the utility. The project manager for this award is Intelligent Energy Systems, LLC located in Anchorage, Alaska. In addition to accomplishing these upgrades, it was the intent for a local wind tech crew to be trained in Kongiganak so that routine maintenance and future repairs will be made by local workers.

  10. System Reduction in Nonlinear Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Rubak, Rune

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the system reduction in nonlinear multibody dynamics of wind turbines is investigated for various updating schemes of the moving frame of reference. In one case, the moving frame of reference is updated to a stiff body, relative to which the elastic deformations are fixed at one end....... In the other case, the stiff body motion is defined as the chord line connecting the end points of the beam, and the elastic deformations are simply supported at the end points. The system reduction is performed by discretizing the spatial motion into a set of rigid body modes and linear elastic eigenmodes...

  11. Organic Rankine Cycle with Solar Heat Storage in Paraffin Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LUCA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an electricity generation system based on an Organic Rankine Cycle and proposed storing the amount of the heat produced by the solar panels using large volume of paraffin wax. The proposed working fluid is R-134a refrigerant. The cycle operates at very low temperatures. A efficiency of 6,55% was obtained.

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  13. The effects of solarization on the performance of a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Christiaan; van der Spuy, Johan; von Backström, Theodor

    2016-05-01

    Various hybrid solar gas turbine configurations exist. The Stellenbosch University Solar Power Thermodynamic (SUNSPOT) cycle consists of a heliostat field, solar receiver, primary Brayton gas turbine cycle, thermal storage and secondary Rankine steam cycle. This study investigates the effect of the solarization of a gas turbine on its performance and details the integration of a gas turbine into a solar power plant. A Rover 1S60 gas turbine was modelled in Flownex, a thermal-fluid system simulation and design code, and validated against a one-dimensional thermodynamic model at design input conditions. The performance map of a newly designed centrifugal compressor was created and implemented in Flownex. The effect of the improved compressor on the performance of the gas turbine was evident. The gas turbine cycle was expanded to incorporate different components of a CSP plant, such as a solar receiver and heliostat field. The solarized gas turbine model simulates the gas turbine performance when subjected to a typical variation in solar resource. Site conditions at the Helio100 solar field were investigated and the possibility of integrating a gas turbine within this system evaluated. Heat addition due to solar irradiation resulted in a decreased fuel consumption rate. The influence of the additional pressure drop over the solar receiver was evident as it leads to decreased net power output. The new compressor increased the overall performance of the gas turbine and compensated for pressure losses incurred by the addition of solar components. The simulated integration of the solarized gas turbine at Helio100 showed potential, although the solar irradiation is too little to run the gas turbine on solar heat alone. The simulation evaluates the feasibility of solarizing a gas turbine and predicts plant performance for such a turbine cycle.

  14. Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system for the olive oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, D.; Jurado, F.; Mena, B. de; Schories, G.

    2011-01-01

    The olive oil industry generates during the extraction process several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings, exhausted pomace and olive pits. These renewable wastes could be used for power and heat applications. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of two small-scale CHP systems: a gasification- gas turbine system and an EFGT (externally fired gas turbine system). For this reason, several parameters have been calculated: generated heat and power, electric and overall efficiencies, biomass consumption, exergy efficiency, optimum pressure ratio, etc. These systems provide 30 kW e and about 60kW th . Simulation results show that the electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in EFGT system (19.1% and 59.3%, respectively) are significantly higher than those obtained in the gasification plant (12.3% and 45.4%). The proposed CHP systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. -- Highlights: ► Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system. ► Olive oil industry generates several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings. ► Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. ► Systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. ► Simulation results show electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in the systems.

  15. Multi-approach evaluations of a cascade-Organic Rankine Cycle (C-ORC) system driven by diesel engine waste heat: Part B-techno-economic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guopeng; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel C-ORC system was proposed for recovering waste heat from a diesel engine. • Techno-economic evaluations were conducted to explore C-ORC’s practical benefits. • Toluene and R143a show the best economic performance for two ORC loops in C-ORC. • The best electricity production cost is 0.27 Dollar/kW h under engine conditions. - Abstract: A novel transcritical cascade-Organic Rankine Cycle (C-ORC) system was proposed for recovering multi-grade waste heat from a typical heavy-duty diesel engine. The C-ORC comprises a high temperature ORC loop (HT-Loop) and a low temperature ORC loop (LT-Loop) for recovering waste heat from engine exhaust gas (EG), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), jacket water (JW) and charge air (CA) in a cascaded pattern. The basic thermodynamic evaluation on energy and exergy aspects were covered in the companion piece-‘Part A-thermodynamic evaluations’, indicating that the proposed C-ORC possesses great heat-recovery capacities and efficiency-promotion potentials. The techno-economic evaluations in Part B of this paper will further explore the performance of the C-ORC system based on costs and benefits in order to reveal its practical benefits. Four techno-economic indexes are mainly focused on: component-to-system cost ratio (CSCR), electricity production cost (EPC), depreciated payback period (DPP) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR). Under rated engine conditions, working fluids were initially compared to find the most economical fluids for the HT-Loop and the LT-Loop respectively. Results indicated that toluene and R143a still make the perfect match for the C-ORC with the lowest EPC (0.27 Dollar/kW h), DPP (7.8 years) and the highest SIR (1.6). As to component-to-system cost ratio (CSCR), the cost of expanders and heat exchangers together account for more than 3/4 of the total system cost, and the expander of the LT-Loop is the most costly single component. The C-ORC’s techno-economic performance was

  16. Semi-Immersive Virtual Turbine Engine Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Mustufa H.; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman M.; Ahmad, Ali; Darmoul, Saber; Ameen, Wadea

    2018-05-01

    The design and verification of assembly operations is essential for planning product production operations. Recently, virtual prototyping has witnessed tremendous progress, and has reached a stage where current environments enable rich and multi-modal interaction between designers and models through stereoscopic visuals, surround sound, and haptic feedback. The benefits of building and using Virtual Reality (VR) models in assembly process verification are discussed in this paper. In this paper, we present the virtual assembly (VA) of an aircraft turbine engine. The assembly parts and sequences are explained using a virtual reality design system. The system enables stereoscopic visuals, surround sounds, and ample and intuitive interaction with developed models. A special software architecture is suggested to describe the assembly parts and assembly sequence in VR. A collision detection mechanism is employed that provides visual feedback to check the interference between components. The system is tested for virtual prototype and assembly sequencing of a turbine engine. We show that the developed system is comprehensive in terms of VR feedback mechanisms, which include visual, auditory, tactile, as well as force feedback. The system is shown to be effective and efficient for validating the design of assembly, part design, and operations planning.

  17. Performance analysis of a combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression cycle for power and refrigeration cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of cogeneration of power and refrigeration activated by low-grade sensible energy is presented in this work. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for power production and a vapor compression cycle (VCC) for refrigeration using the same working fluid are linked in the analysis, including the limiting case of cold production without net electricity production. We investigate the effects of key parameters on system performance such as net power production, refrigeration, and thermal and exergy efficiencies. Characteristic indexes proportional to the cost of heat exchangers or of turbines, such as total number of transfer units (NTU tot ), size parameter (SP) and isentropic volumetric flow ratio (VFR) are also examined. Three important system parameters are selected, namely turbine inlet temperature, turbine inlet pressure, and the flow division ratio. The analysis is conducted for several different working fluids. For a few special cases, isobutane is used for a sensitivity analysis due to its relatively high efficiencies. Our results show that the system has the potential to effectively use low grade thermal sources. System performance depends both on the adopted parameters and working fluid. - Highlights: • Waste heat utilization can reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. • The ORC/VCC cycle can deliver power and/or refrigeration using waste heat. • Efficiencies and size parameters are used for cycle evaluation. • The cycle performance is studied for eight suitable refrigerants. Isobutane is used for a sensitivity analysis. • The work shows that the isobutene cycle is quite promising.

  18. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2004-01-01

    . This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The reportprovides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level......-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). Theinitialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1...... of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations....

  19. Theoretical research on working fluid selection for a high-temperature regenerative transcritical dual-loop engine organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hua; Liu, Lina; Shu, Gequn; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Among all examined working fluids, toluene possesses the maximum W net , highest η e and η ec . • The increase of T 3 worsens system performance, decreasing W net , η e and η ec . • Condenser C LT and turbine T LT possesses the least system irreversibility. • Turbines and exhaust evaporators are optimization components. - Abstract: In this paper, a regenerative transcritical dual-loop organic Rankine cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat of the exhaust, engine coolant and all the residual heat of the HT loop. Double regenerators are adopted in this system. Transcritical cycles are used in both loops. Hexamethyldisiloxane (MM), octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane (D 4 ), octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM), cyclohexane, toluene and n-decane are chosen as the candidate working fluids of the HT loop and R143a is chosen as the working fluid of the LT loop. Influences of inlet temperature of turbine T HT (T 3 ) on mass flow rates (m f,HT and m f,LT ), net output power (W net ), energy conversion efficiency (η ec ), volumetric expansion ratio (VER), ratio of power consumed to power output (COR) and component irreversibility are analyzed and performance comparison of these working fluids is also evaluated. Results show that toluene possesses the maximum W net (42.46 kW), highest η e (51.92%) and η ec (12.77%). The increase of T 3 worsens system performance, decreasing W net , η e and η ec . Condenser C LT and turbine T LT possess the least system irreversibility. In addition, turbines and exhaust evaporators are optimized components

  20. Low Leakage Turbine Shaft Seals for Advanced Combined Cycle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Study of Shaft Face Seal With Self-Acting Lift Augmentation", N71- 11579, Nov. 1970 29p. Povinelli , V.P. and McKibbin, A. H., "Development of...34, N73-24086, May 1973, 28p. Povinelli , V. P. and McKibbin, A. H., "Development of Mainshaft Seals for Advanced Air Breathing Propulsion Systems... Povinelli , V. P., "Current Seal Designs and Future Requirements for Turbine Engine Seals and Bearings", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 12, No. 4, April 1975

  1. Basic Principles for Elaboration of Technical Requirements to Control and Protective TRB Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Panteley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and provides methodology for calculation of maximum over speeding value of a turbine rotor in the case when we face the failure of all its protective systems. It is presented a derivation of main equations required for making the calculation and the paper also cites results of their practical application at an industrial TRB (Turbine of the Republic of Belarus turbine while constructing its protective control systems.

  2. Stability improvement of wind turbine penetrated using power system stabilizer (PSS) on South Sulawesi transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Agus; Gunadin, Indar Chaerah; Said, Sri Mawar; Suyuti, Ansar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the stability of interconnection of South Sulawesi system caused by penetration new wind turbine in Sidrap area on bus 2 and in Jeniponto area on bus 34. The method used in this research was via software Power System analysis Toolbox (PSAT) under MATLAB. In this research, there are two problems that are evaluated, the stability of the system before and after penetration wind turbine into the system South Sulawesi system. From the simulation result shows that penetration of wind turbine on bus 2 Sidrap, bus 37 Jeniponto give effect oscillation on the system. The oscillation was damped by installation of Power System Stabilizer (PSS) on bus 29 area Sungguminasa, that South Sulawesi system stable according to normal condition.

  3. Multi-approach evaluations of a cascade-Organic Rankine Cycle (C-ORC) system driven by diesel engine waste heat: Part A – Thermodynamic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Yu, Guopeng; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu; Huang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel C-ORC system was proposed for recovering waste heat from a diesel engine. • Thermodynamic evaluations were conducted to explore C-ORC’s practical benefits. • C-ORC has significant heat-recovery capacities and efficiency-promotion potential. • Up to 16.0% of engine efficiency can be improved combining with C-ORC. - Abstract: A novel transcritical cascade-Organic Rankine Cycle (C-ORC) system was proposed to recover multi-grade waste heat from a typical heavy-duty diesel engine. The C-ORC comprises of a high-temperature ORC loop (HT-Loop) and a low temperature ORC loop (LT-Loop) to recover waste heat from an engine’s exhaust gas (EG), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), jacket water (JW) and charge air (CA) in a cascaded pattern. In order to reveal the full performance of the C-ORC system, with due consideration to diesel’s complex practical running conditions, multi-approach evaluations were conducted containing two parts: Part A – thermodynamic evaluations of the energy and exergy aspects and Part B – techno-economic evaluations on costs and benefits aspects. This paper shows the Part A – evaluations of the C-ORC, focusing on indexes including recovered waste heat, net power output, thermal efficiencies and exergy efficiencies. First of all, distributions of the engine’s multi-grade waste heat were studied to reveal the characteristics and utilization potential of waste energy. The comparison and screening of working fluids were carried out next to find the best fluids for the HT-Loop and LT-Loop respectively based on the rated engine condition. Toluene, decane, cyclohexane and D4 were four proper alternatives for the HT-Loop while R143a, R125, R218 and R41 were four proper alternatives for the LT-Loop. Comparisons indicated that toluene and R143a made the perfect match for the C-ORC with the highest net power output (33.9 kW), thermal efficiency (9.9%) and exergy efficiency (39.1%). The rankings of the two groups of

  4. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

    2010-11-01

    This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

  5. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    , connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control......This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built...

  6. A Novel Degradation Identification Method for Wind Turbine Pitch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Dong

    2018-04-01

    It’s difficult for traditional threshold value method to identify degradation of operating equipment accurately. An novel degradation evaluation method suitable for wind turbine condition maintenance strategy implementation was proposed in this paper. Based on the analysis of typical variable-speed pitch-to-feather control principle and monitoring parameters for pitch system, a multi input multi output (MIMO) regression model was applied to pitch system, where wind speed, power generation regarding as input parameters, wheel rotation speed, pitch angle and motor driving currency for three blades as output parameters. Then, the difference between the on-line measurement and the calculated value from the MIMO regression model applying least square support vector machines (LSSVM) method was defined as the Observed Vector of the system. The Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was applied to fitting the distribution of the multi dimension Observed Vectors. Applying the model established, the Degradation Index was calculated using the SCADA data of a wind turbine damaged its pitch bearing retainer and rolling body, which illustrated the feasibility of the provided method.

  7. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted horn DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include fill speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  8. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-15

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  9. Development and industrial tests of the first LNG hydraulic turbine system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic hydraulic turbine can be used to replace the conventional J–T valve for LNG or mixed refrigerant throttling and depressurization in a natural gas liquefaction plant. This advanced technology is not only to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction plant, but to usher a new trend in the development of global liquefaction technologies. China has over 136 liquefaction plants, but the cryogenic hydraulic turbines have not been deployed in industrial utilization. In addition, these turbines cannot be manufactured domestically. In this circumstance, through working on the key technologies for LNG hydraulic turbine process & control system development, hydraulic model optimization design, structure design and manufacturing, the first domestic cryogenic hydraulic turbine with a flow rate of 40 m3/h was developed to recover the pressure energy from the LNG of cold box. The turbine was installed in the CNOOC Zhuhai Natural Gas Liquefaction Plant for industrial tests under multiple working conditions, including start-stop, variable flow rates and variable rotation speeds. Test results show that the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine has satisfactory mechanical and operational performances at low temperatures as specified in design. In addition, the process & control system and frequency-conversion power-generation system of the turbine system are designed properly to automatically and smoothly replace the existing LNG J–T valve. As a result, the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine system can improve LNG production by an average of 2% and generate power of 8.3 kW.

  10. Energy and exergy analysis of an organic Rankine for power generation from waste heat recovery in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaşka, Önder

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of a waste heat driven Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). • Irreversibility determination of subcomponents in ORC. • Using pinch point analysis in the evaporator of ORC. • Calculating energy and exergy efficiency for two different actual cases. • Optimum net power output for ORC. - Abstract: Energy, in conjunction with exergy, analysis of a waste heat driven Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is performed. Using actual plant data, performance of the cycle and pinpoint sites of primary exergy destruction are assessed. Furthermore, variations of energy and exergy efficiencies of the system with evaporator/condenser pressures, superheating and subcooling are illustrated. It is observed from the analysis that, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the system are 10.2%; 48.5% and 8.8%; 42.2%, respectively, for two different actual cases. Exergy destruction of subcomponents is also quantified. The components with greater exergy destructions to lower one can be listed as evaporator, turbine, condenser and pump. Evaporation pressure has significant effect on both energy and exergy efficiencies. Pinch-point analysis is, also performed to determine effects of heat exchange process, in the evaporator, on the net power production

  11. Modernization of turbine control system and reactor control system in Almaraz 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, C.; Diez, J.; Carrasco, J. A.; Lopez, L.

    2005-01-01

    The replacement of the Turbine Control System and Reactor Control System are part of the Almaraz modernization program for the Instrumentation and Control. For these upgrades Almaraz has selected the Ovation Platform that provides open architecture and easy expansion to other systems, these platforms is highly used in many nuclear and thermal plants around the world. One of the main objective for this project were to minimize the impact on the installation and operation of the plant, for that reason the project is implemented in two phases, Turbine Control upgrade and Reactor Control upgrade. Another important objective was to increase the reliability of the control system making them fully fault tolerant to single failures. The turbine Control System has been installed in Units 1 and 2 while the Reactor Control System will be installed in 2006 and 2007 outages. (Author)

  12. Cooling system with compressor bleed and ambient air for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Marra, John J.

    2017-11-21

    A cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine blade cooling fluid supply and from an ambient air source to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The cooling system may include a compressor bleed conduit extending from a compressor to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply that provides cooling fluid to at least one turbine blade. The compressor bleed conduit may include an upstream section and a downstream section whereby the upstream section exhausts compressed bleed air through an outlet into the downstream section through which ambient air passes. The outlet of the upstream section may be generally aligned with a flow of ambient air flowing in the downstream section. As such, the compressed air increases the flow of ambient air to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply.

  13. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  14. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  15. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  16. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  17. Thermo-economic analysis and selection of working fluid for solar organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Nishith B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Concentrating solar power plant with organic Rankine cycle. • Thermo-economic analysis of solar organic Rankine cycle. • Performance evaluation for different working fluids. • Comparison diagram to select appropriate working fluid. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), powered by line-focusing concentrating solar collectors (parabolic trough collector and linear Fresnel reflector), is a promising option for modular scale. ORC based power block, with dry working fluids, offers higher design and part-load efficiencies compared to steam Rankine cycle (SRC) in small-medium scale, with temperature sources up to 400 °C. However, the cost of ORC power block is higher compared to the SRC power block. Similarly, parabolic trough collector (PTC) system has higher optical efficiency and higher cost compared to linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) system. The thermodynamic efficiencies and power block costs also vary with working fluids of the Rankine cycle. In this paper, thermo-economic comparisons of organic Rankine and steam Rankine cycles powered by line-focusing concentrating solar collectors are reported. A simple selection methodology, based on thermo-economic analysis, and a comparison diagram for working fluids of power generating cycles are also proposed. Concentrating solar power plants with any collector technology and any power generating cycle can be compared using the proposed methodology.

  18. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  19. A thermodynamic study of waste heat recovery from GT-MHR using organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, Mortaza; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the utilization of waste heat from a gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) using different arrangements of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power production. The considered organic Rankine cycles were: simple organic Rankine cycle (SORC), ORC with internal heat exchanger (HORC) and regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC). The performances of the combined cycles were studied from the point of view of first and second-laws of thermodynamics. Individual models were developed for each component and the effects of some important parameters such as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and evaporator and environment temperatures on the efficiencies and on the exergy destruction rate were studied. Finally the combined cycles were optimized thermodynamically using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. Based on the identical operating conditions for the GT-MHR cycle, a comparison between the three combined cycles and a simple GT-MHR cycle is also were made. This comparison was also carried out from the point of view of economics. The GT-MHR/SORC combined cycle proved to be the best among all the cycles from the point of view of both thermodynamics and economics. The efficiency of this cycle was about 10% higher than that of GT-MHR alone. (orig.)

  20. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  1. Design and experimental investigation of a 1 kW organic Rankine cycle system using R245fa as working fluid for low-grade waste heat recovery from steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Usman; Imran, Muhammad; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Byung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1 kW organic Rankine cycle test rig for waste heat recovery was investigated for net electric power output. • Low grade steam (1–3 bar) was used directly in evaporator as heat source. • Effect of superheating of working fluid on system performance was studied. • The maximum electric power output and thermal efficiency is 1016 W and 5.75% respectively. - Abstract: This work presents an experimental investigation of a small scale (1 kW range) organic Rankine cycle system for net electrical power output ability, using low-grade waste heat from steam. The system was designed for waste steam in the range of 1–3 bar. After the organic Rankine cycle system was designed and thermodynamic simulation was performed, equipment selection and construction of test rig was carried out. R245fa was used as working fluid, a scroll type expansion directly coupled with electrical generator produced a maximum electrical power output of 1.016 kW with 0.838 kW of net electrical power output. The thermal efficiency of the system was 5.64%, net efficiency was 4.66% and expander isentropic efficiency was 58.3% at maximum power output operation point. Maximum thermal efficiency was 5.75% and maximum expander isentropic efficiency obtained was 77.74% during the experiment. Effect of superheating of working fluid at expander inlet was also investigated which show that an increase in the degree of superheating by 1 °C reduces thermal efficiency of system by 0.021% for current system. The results indicated that the measured electric power output and enthalpy determined power output (after accounting for isentropic efficiency) differed by 40%. Similarly, the screw pump converted 42.25% of electric power to the enthalpy determined pumping power delivered to the working fluid. Both expander and screw pump were losing power in electric and mechanical losses (generator/motor) presenting a need of further development of these components for better efficiency. Heat loss in

  2. Internship on wind turbine control (basics) at industrial systems and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, van M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Where to begin when designing a wind turbine system? This question is answered in this report this report contains a brief description of how to model a wind turbine control system from the start. The model described here is based on a non-linear model from a paper. This report starts with some

  3. Preliminary conceptual design of the secondary sodium circuit-eliminated JSFR (Japan Sodium Fast Reactor) adopting a supercritical CO2 turbine system (2). Turbine system and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kotake, Shoji

    2014-09-01

    Research and development of the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) cycle turbine system is underway in various countries for further improvement of the safety and economy of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The Component Design and Balance-Of-Plant (CD and BOP) of the Generation IV International Nuclear Forum (Gen-IV) has addressed this study, and their analytical and experimental results have been discussed between the relevant countries. JAEA, who is a member of the CD and BOP, has performed a design study of an S-CO 2 gas turbine system applied to the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR). In this study, the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system was directly connected to the primary sodium system of the JSFR to eliminate the secondary sodium circuit, aiming for further economical improvement. This is because there is no risk of sodium-water reaction in the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system of SFRs. This report describes the system configuration, heat/mass balance, and main components of the S-CO 2 turbine system, based on the JSFR specifications. The layout of components and piping in the reactor and turbine buildings were examined and the dimensions of the buildings were estimated. The study has revealed that the reactor and turbine buildings could be reduced by 7% and 40%, respectively, in comparison with those in the existing JSFR design with the secondary sodium circuit employing the steam turbine. The cycle thermal was also calculated as 41.9-42.3%, which is nearly the same as that of the JSFR with the water/steam system. (author)

  4. Design and construction of a simple blade pitch measurement system for small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, Jonathan [Research Institute of Sustainable Energy, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    For small wind turbines to be reliable they must have in place good mechanisms to protect themselves against very high winds or sudden removal of load. One common protection method in small wind turbines is that of blade feathering. It is important that the blade feathering mechanism of a small wind turbine is tested before the turbine is installed in the field. This paper presents a simple system for monitoring the blade feathering of a turbine with an overall component cost that small wind turbine manufacturers can afford. The Blade Pitch Measurement System (BPMS) has been designed and constructed by the Research Institute of Sustainable Energy (RISE) and aids small wind turbine manufacturers in testing and optimising the settings of the blade feathering mechanisms on their machines. The results show that the BPMS was successful in recording the behaviour of the blade feathering mechanism in field trials with a 20 kW and a 30 kW wind turbine. The BPMS displays significant potential as an effective, inexpensive system for small wind turbine manufacturers to ensure the reliability of their pitch regulating over-speed protection mechanisms. (author)

  5. System Reduction in Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A system reduction scheme is devised related to a multibody formulation from which the dynamic response of a wind turbine is determined. In this formulation each substructure is described in its own frame of reference, which is moving freely in the vicinity of the moving substructure....... The Ritz bases spanning the reduced system comprises of rigid body modes and some dynamic low-frequency elastic eigenmodes compatible to the kinematic constraints of the related substructure. The high-frequency elastic modes are presumed to cause merely quasi-static displacements, and thus are included...... in the expansion via a quasi-static correction. The results show that by using the derived reduction scheme it is only necessary with 2 dynamical modes for the blade substructure when the remaining modes are treated as quasi-static. Moreover, it is shown that it has little to none effect if the gyroscopic...

  6. Advanced Control of Photovoltaic and Wind Turbines Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Much more efforts have been made on the integration of renewable energies into the grid in order to meet the imperative demand of a clean and reliable electricity generation. In this case, the grid stability and robustness may be violated due to the intermittency and interaction of the solar...... and wind renewables. Thus, in this chapter, advanced control strategies, which can enable the power conversion efficiently and reliably, for both photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines power systems are addressed in order to enhance the integration of those technologies. Related grid demands have been...... presented firstly, where much more attention has been paid on specific requirements, like Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) and reactive power injection capability. To perform the functions of those systems, advanced control strategies are presented with much more emphasis on the LVRT operation with reactive...

  7. Study on Unified Chaotic System-Based Wind Turbine Blade Fault Diagnostic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ying-Che; Hsieh, Chin-Tsung; Yau, Her-Terng; Li, Yu-Chung

    At present, vibration signals are processed and analyzed mostly in the frequency domain. The spectrum clearly shows the signal structure and the specific characteristic frequency band is analyzed, but the number of calculations required is huge, resulting in delays. Therefore, this study uses the characteristics of a nonlinear system to load the complete vibration signal to the unified chaotic system, applying the dynamic error to analyze the wind turbine vibration signal, and adopting extenics theory for artificial intelligent fault diagnosis of the analysis signal. Hence, a fault diagnostor has been developed for wind turbine rotating blades. This study simulates three wind turbine blade states, namely stress rupture, screw loosening and blade loss, and validates the methods. The experimental results prove that the unified chaotic system used in this paper has a significant effect on vibration signal analysis. Thus, the operating conditions of wind turbines can be quickly known from this fault diagnostic system, and the maintenance schedule can be arranged before the faults worsen, making the management and implementation of wind turbines smoother, so as to reduce many unnecessary costs.

  8. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer conflation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. The objective of this task is to design 7H and 9H compressor rotor and stator structures with the goal of achieving high efficiency at lower cost and greater durability by applying proven GE Power Systems (GEPS) heavy-duty use design practices. The designs will be based on the GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) CF6-80C2 compressor. Transient and steady-state thermo-mechanical stress analyses will be run to ensure compliance with GEPS life standards. Drawings will be prepared for forgings, castings, machining, and instrumentation for full speed, no load (FSNL) tests of the first unit on both 9H and 7H applications.

  9. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C.; Jauch, C.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2003-12-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1. Active stall wind turbine with induction generator 2. Variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations. (au)

  10. Design of a wind turbine-generator system considering the conformability to wind velocity fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Hashizume, Takumi; Outa, Eisuke

    1999-07-01

    The conformability of the rated power output of the wind turbine-generator system and of the wind turbine type to wind velocity fluctuations are investigated with a simulation model. The authors examine three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid, the Darrieus proper and the Propeller. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient points. As a computed result of the net extracting power, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind velocity fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for the other turbines, large-scale systems do not always have an advantage over small-scale systems as the effect of its dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine, under wind direction fluctuation, is much reduced when compared with the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, the authors conclude that the appropriate rated power output of the system exists with relation to the wind turbine type for each wind condition.

  11. Thermodynamic modeling and evaluation of high efficiency heat pipe integrated biomass Gasifier–Solid Oxide Fuel Cells–Gas Turbine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanam, S.; Schilt, C.; Turker, B.; Woudstra, T.; Aravind, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the thermodynamic modeling of biomass Gasifier–SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell)–GT (Gas Turbine) systems on a small scale (100 kW_e). Evaluation of an existing biomass Gasifier–SOFC–GT system shows highest exergy losses in the gasifier, gas turbine and as waste heat. In order to reduce the exergy losses and increase the system's efficiency, improvements are suggested and the effects are analyzed. Changing the gasifying agent for air to anode gas gave the largest increase in the electrical efficiency. However, heat is required for an allothermal gasification to take place. A new and simple strategy for heat pipe integration is proposed, with heat pipes placed in between stacks in series, rather than the widely considered approach of integrating the heat pipes within the SOFC stacks. The developed system based on a Gasifier–SOFC–GT combination improved with heat pipes and anode gas recirculation, increases the electrical efficiency from approximately 55%–72%, mainly due to reduced exergy losses in the gasifier. Analysis of the improved system shows that operating the system at possibly higher operating pressures, yield higher efficiencies within the range of the operating pressures studied. Further the system was scaled up with an additional bottoming cycle achieved electrical efficiency of 73.61%. - Highlights: • A new and simple strategy for heat pipe integration between SOFC and Gasifier is proposed. • Anode exhaust gas is used as a gasifying agent. • The new proposed Gasifier–SOFC–GT system achieves electrical efficiency of 72%. • Addition of steam rankine bottoming cycle to proposed system increases electrical efficiency to 73.61%.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of an organic rankine cycle using a tubular solar cavity receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loni, R.; Kasaeian, A.B.; Mahian, O.; Sahin, A.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle has been analyzed. • R113, R601, R11, R141b, Ethanol and Methanol were used as the working fluid. • A parabolic dish concentrator with a square prismatic cavity receiver was used. • Thermal efficiency, second law efficiency, and net power output were analyzed. - Abstract: In this study, a non-regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been thermodynamically analyzed under superheated conditions, constant evaporator pressure of 2.5 MPa, and condenser temperature of 300 K. R113, R601, R11, R141b, Ethanol and Methanol were employed as the working fluid. A parabolic dish concentrator with a square prismatic tubular cavity receiver was used as the heat source of the ORC system. The effects of the tube diameter, the cavity depth, and the solar irradiation on the thermodynamic performance of the selected working fluid were investigated. Some thermodynamic parameters were analyzed in this study. These thermodynamic parameters included the thermal efficiency, second law efficiency, total irreversibility, availability ratio, mass flow rate, and net power output. The results showed that, among the selected working fluids, methanol had the highest thermal efficiency, net power output, second law efficiency, and availability ratio in the range of turbine inlet temperature (TIT) considered. On the other hand, methanol had the smallest total irreversibility in the same range of TIT. The results showed also that mass flow rate and consequently the net power output increased for higher solar irradiation, smaller tube diameter, and for the case of cubical cavity receiver (i.e. cavity depth h equal to the receiver aperture side length a).

  13. Hybrid high solar share gas turbine systems with innovative gas turbine cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Puppe, Michael; Giuliano, Stefano; Buck, Reiner; Krüger, Michael; Lammel, Oliver; Boje, Sven; Saidi, Karim; Gampe, Uwe; Felsmann, Christian; Freimark, Manfred; Langnickel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In this paper results from an ongoing research project (HYGATE) are presented, which is performed to reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and to increase the CO2 reduction potential of the solar-hybrid gas turbine plant concept (SHGT). Key improvements are the integration of thermal energy storage and the reduction of the operating temperature of the gas turbine to 950°C. As a result the solar receiver can provide the necessary temperature for solar-only operation of the plant at d...

  14. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown in Figure 1-1. Information specifically related to 9H production is presented for continuity in H program reporting, but lies outside the ATS program. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q98 through 3Q99. The most significant accomplishments are listed.

  15. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Iov, F.; Soerensen, Poul.; Cutululis, N.; Jauch, C.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2007-08-15

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risoe-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database built-op and developed during several national research projects, carried out at Risoe DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy and Aalborg University, in the period 2001-2007. The overall objective of these projects was to create a wind turbine model database able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. The main attention in the report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of the following wind turbine concepts: (1) Fixed speed active stall wind turbine concept (2) Variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine concept (3) Variable speed multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine concept These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine

  16. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  17. Acceptance test guideline for steam turbine control systems. Anahmerichtlinie fuer Regel- und Steuereinrichtungen von Dampfturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The acceptances to be obtained during the first operational run, refer to measures proving the functional integrity of the turbine control system and assuring the compliance with the maximum allowable overspeed in case of lead changes or perturbations. The Guideline concerns essentially speed, power, and pressure controllers coupled to generators. It may be appropriately extended to steam turbines serving other purposes.

  18. Understanding IEC standard wind turbine models using SimPowerSystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and exemplifies the IEC 61400-27 generic wind turbine models through an interactive multimedia learning environment - Matlab SimPowerSystems. The article aims help engineers with different backgrounds to get a better understanding of wind turbine dynamics and control...

  19. Analytical modeling of wet compression of gas turbine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Ko, Hyung-Jong; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative gas turbine cycles (EvGT) are of importance to the power generation industry because of the potential of enhanced cycle efficiencies with moderate incremental cost. Humidification of the working fluid to result in evaporative cooling during compression is a key operation in these cycles. Previous simulations of this operation were carried out via numerical integration. The present work is aimed at modeling the wet-compression process with approximate analytical solutions instead. A thermodynamic analysis of the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes that occur during evaporation is presented. The transient behavior of important variables in wet compression such as droplet diameter, droplet mass, gas and droplet temperature, and evaporation rate is investigated. The effects of system parameters on variables such as droplet evaporation time, compressor outlet temperature and input work are also considered. Results from this work exhibit good agreement with those of previous numerical work.

  20. Exergy analysis of biomass organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Sunoto

    2018-02-01

    The study examines proposed small biomass-fed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant through exergy analysis. The system consists of combustion burner unit to utilize biomass as fuel, and organic Rankine cycle unit to produce power from the expander. The heat from combustion burner was transfered by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator part. The effects of adding recuperator into exergy destruction were investigated. Furthermore, the results of the variations of system configurations with different operating parameters, such as the evaporating pressures, ambient temperatures, and expander pressures were analyzed. It was found that the largest exergy destruction occurs during processes are at combustion part, followed by evaporator, condenser, expander, and pump. The ORC system equipped with a recuperator unit exhibited good operational characteristics under wide range conditions compared to the one without recuperator.

  1. Exergetic Analysis of an Integrated Tri-Generation Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratha Z. Mathkor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output of the system that comprised a parabolic trough collector (PTC, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC, single-effect desalination (SED, and single effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (ACH was electrical power, distilled water, and refrigerant load. The electrical power was produced by the ORC which used cyclopentane as working fluid and Therminol VP-1 was specified as the heat transfer oil (HTO in the collectors with thermal storage. The absorption chiller and the desalination unit were utilize the waste heat exiting from the steam turbine in the ORC to provide the necessary cooling energy and drinking water respectively. The modelling, which includes an exergetic analysis, focuses on the performance of the solar tri-generation system. The simulation results of the tri-generation system and its subsystems were produced using IPSEpro software and were validated against experimental data which showed good agreement. The tri-generation system was able to produce about 194 Ton of refrigeration, and 234 t/day distilled water.

  2. Exergoeconomic comparison of TLC (trilateral Rankine cycle), ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycle using a low grade heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Mehr, A.S.; Zare, V.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Rosen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the TLC (trilateral power cycle) has attracted significant interest as it provides better matching between the temperature profiles in the evaporator compared to conventional power cycles. This article investigates the performance of this cycle and compares it with those for the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and the Kalina cycle, from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and thermoeconomics. A low-grade heat source with a temperature of 120 °C is considered for all the three systems. Parametric studies are performed for the systems for several working fluids in the ORC and TLC. The systems are then optimized for either maximum net output power or minimum product cost, using the EES (engineering equation solver) software. The results for the TLC indicate that an increase in the expander inlet temperature leads to an increase in net output power and a decrease in product cost for this power plant, whereas this is not the case for the ORC system. It is found that, although the TLC can achieve a higher net output power compared with the ORC and Kalina (KCS11 (Kalina cycle system 11)) systems, its product cost is greatly affected by the expander isentropic efficiency. It is also revealed that using n-butane as the working fluid can result in the lowest product cost in the ORC and the TLC. In addition, it is observed that, for both the ORC and Kalina systems, the optimum operating condition for maximum net output power differs from that for minimum product cost. - Highlights: • Exergoeconomic analysis of trilateral Rankine cycle is performed. • The system performance is compared with Organic Rankine and Kalina cycles. • Net power from trilateral Rankine cycle is higher than the other power systems. • Superiority of trilateral cycle depends on its expander isentropic efficiency

  3. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knodle, M.S.; Novaresi, M.A. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Titan Gas Turbine Systems Division

    2009-07-01

    Development of the Titan 250 industrial gas turbine system began in 2005 in response to demands from the petroleum industry and electricity producers for higher performance industrial gas turbine products in the 15-30 MW (25,000-45,000 hp) power range. The Titan 250 is Solar Turbine's most powerful package and its evolutionary hybrid-type design approach was based on shared aerodynamic, thermal, mechanical, and combustion technologies borrowed from the Taurus 65TM, Titan 130TM, and Mercury 50TM gas turbine systems. It produces 50 per cent more power than the Titan 130, while providing 40 per cent shaft efficiency with significantly fewer emissions. Thorough combustion system testing, use of proven materials, and hot section cooling provided a solid design basis. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial-flow compressor, a dry low emissions combustor for low NOx and CO output, a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 1204 degrees C, and a three-stage, all-shrouded blade power turbine for maximum efficiency. The design also minimizes maintenance intervals to increase equipment availability. The gas turbine and gas compressor have been tested in component, subsystem, and full-scale development, and will be starting field operation in late 2009 to verify performance and mechanical integrity under all operating conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 26 figs.

  4. Design, analysis and control of hydraulic soft yaw system for 5MW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    by active control of a hydraulic yaw system. The control is based on a non-linear and linear model derived based on a concept yaw system for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The control strategies show a reduction in pressure pulsations under load and it is concluded that the strategie including high......As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and wereby dampen the loads to the system. This paper presents work done on dampening of these loads...

  5. Evaluation of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle using dry organic working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to evaluate the performance of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The system was evaluated in Jackson, MS, using five dry organic working fluids, R218, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, and RC318. The purpose of this study is to investigate how hourly temperature change affects the electricity production and exergy destruction rates of the solar ORC, and to determine the effect of the working fluid on the proposed system. The system was also evaluated in Tucson, AZ, to investigate the effect of average hourly outdoor temperatures on its performance. The potential of the system to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is also investigated. A parametric analysis to determine how temperature and pressure of the organic working fluid, the solar collector area, and the turbine efficiency affect the electricity production is performed. Results show that the ORC produces the most electricity during the middle of the day, when the temperatures are the highest and when the solar collectors have the highest efficiency. Also, R-236ea is the working fluid that shows the best performance of the evaluated fluids. An economic analysis was performed to determine the capital cost available for the proposed system.

  6. Design of a wind turbine pitch angle controller for power system stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Islam, Syed M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Bak Jensen, Birgitte [Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 101, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    The design of a PID pitch angle controller for a fixed speed active-stall wind turbine, using the root locus method is described in this paper. The purpose of this controller is to enable an active-stall wind turbine to perform power system stabilisation. For the purpose of controller design, the transfer function of the wind turbine is derived from the wind turbine's step response. The performance of this controller is tested by simulation, where the wind turbine model with its pitch angle controller is connected to a power system model. The power system model employed here is a realistic model of the North European power system. A short circuit fault on a busbar close to the wind turbine generator is simulated, and the dynamic responses of the system with and without the power system stabilisation of the wind turbines are presented. Simulations show that in most operating points the pitch controller can effectively contribute to power system stabilisation. (author)

  7. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  8. Fault Diagnosis System of Wind Turbine Generator Based on Petri Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han

    Petri net is an important tool for discrete event dynamic systems modeling and analysis. And it has great ability to handle concurrent phenomena and non-deterministic phenomena. Currently Petri nets used in wind turbine fault diagnosis have not participated in the actual system. This article will combine the existing fuzzy Petri net algorithms; build wind turbine control system simulation based on Siemens S7-1200 PLC, while making matlab gui interface for migration of the system to different platforms.

  9. Fibradapt trademark: Adaptive Wind Turbine Control System; Fibradapt trademark: Adaptive Wind Turbine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, J.-Th. [Wind Force Engineering and Consulting GmbH, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The technology of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is compared with conventional strain gauge technologies in practical operation in a wind power system. Load cycles in the rotor blade were measured during plant life, and the data were used in plant control. The system is a tool in technical project management and financial management of a wind park. (orig.)

  10. Pb-H2O Thermogravimetric Plants. The Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arosio, S.; Carlevaro, R.

    2000-01-01

    An economic evaluation concerning Pb-H 2 O thermogravimetric systems with an electric power in the range 200-1.000 kW has been done. Moreover, plant and running costs for a thermogravimetric and a Rankine cycle, 1 MW power, have been compared. Basically due to the lead charge, the plant cost of the former is higher: nevertheless such amount can be recuperated in less than three years, being higher the running cost of the latter [it

  11. Engine Load Effects on the Energy and Exergy Performance of a Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC has been proved a promising technique to exploit waste heat from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs. Waste heat recovery systems have usually been designed based on engine rated working conditions, while engines often operate under part load conditions. Hence, it is quite important to analyze the off-design performance of ORC systems under different engine loads. This paper presents an off-design Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle (MC/ORC system model by interconnecting the component models, which allows the prediction of system off-design behavior. The sliding pressure control method is applied to balance the variation of system parameters and evaporating pressure is chosen as the operational variable. The effect of operational variable and engine load on system performance is analyzed from the aspects of energy and exergy. The results show that with the drop of engine load, the MC/ORC system can always effectively recover waste heat, whereas the maximum net power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency decrease linearly. Considering the contributions of components to total exergy destruction, the proportions of the gas-oil exchanger and turbine increase, while the proportions of the evaporator and condenser decrease with the drop of engine load.

  12. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  13. Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2009-01-01

    Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System. From the viewpoint of energy system and environment, the concept for nuclear reactors of the generation IV have good potential for electricity and heat generation devices in producing hydrogen. These gas cooled nuclear reactors employ turbine cycle in transferring the heat. To analyses that coolant system, it is proposed a model of compressor and turbine system with power 3 kW. The used working fluid was hydrogen that be burnt with air within combustion chamber, then be expanded through a turbine for getting shaft work that will be used in driving compressor and generator. This study is aimed to determine the optimum testing conditions of gas turbine system. The used method is by applying the balance equations of energy, mass, and momentum. Gas turbine and compressor were placed at the single shaft, in which it was about 55 percent of power output for running the compressor. Under the testing condition for the speed of 20305 rpm, it was obtained thermal efficiency of the turbine cycle approximate 18 % (equal to the Carnot efficiency ratio 65 %), so that it is properly developed for the development of nuclear power installation in supporting the electricity energy demand and it will be very promising for the future facility. (author)

  14. A progress report on DOE's advanced hydropower turbine systems program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, M.J.; Cada, G.F.; Rinehart, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Recent hydropower research within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has focused on the development of new turbine designs that can produce hydroelectricity without such adverse environmental affects as fish entrainment/impingement or degradation of water quality. In partnership with the hydropower industry, DOE's advanced turbine program issued a Request for Proposals for conceptual designs in October 1994. Two contracts were awarded for this initial program phase, work on which will be complete this year. A technical advisory committee with representatives from industry, regulatory agencies, and natural resource agencies was also formed to guide the DOE turbine research. The lack of quantitative biological performance criteria was identified by the committee as a critical knowledge gap. To fill this need, a new literature review was completed on the mechanisms of fish mortality during turbine passage (e.g., scrape/strike, shear, press change, etc.), ways that fish behavior affects their location and orientation in turbines, and how these turbine passage stresses can be measured. Thus year, new Laboratory tests will be conducted on fish response to shear, the least-well understood mechanism of stress. Additional testing of conceptual turbine designs depends on the level of federal funding for this program

  15. LQR Feedback Control Development for Wind Turbines Featuring a Digital Fluid Power Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    with a DFP motor, which has been combined with the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine model. A classical variable speed control strategy for wind speeds below rated is proposed for the turbine, where the pump displacement is fixed and the digital motor displacement is varied for pressure control. The digital...... for such digital systems are complicated by its non-smooth behavior. In this paper a control design approach for a digital displacement machine® is proposed and a performance analysis of a wind turbine using a DFP transmission is presented. The performance evaluation is based on a dynamic model of the transmission...... invariant model. Using full-field flow wind profiles as input, the design approach and control performance is verified by simulation in the dynamic model of the wind turbine featuring the DFP transmission. Additionally, the performance is compared to that of the conventional NREL reference turbine...

  16. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  17. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  18. Turbines, generators and associated plant incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Littler, DJ

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of new 500 MW and 660 MW turbine generator plant in nuclear, coal- and oil-fired power stations has been partly responsible for the increase in generating capacity of the CEGB over the last 30 years. This volume provides a detailed account of experience gained in the development, design, manufacture, operation and testing of large turbine-generators in the last 20 years. With the advance in analytical and computational techniques, the application of this experience to future design and operation of large turbine-generator plant will be of great value to engineers in the indust

  19. Organic Rankine Cycles. Old wine in new bottles; Organic Rankine Cycles. Oude wijn in nieuwe zakken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, T.L.B. [Cumae, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    An overview is given of the renewed interest for the Organic Rankine Cycle technology and new developments with regard to this power generating technology. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de hernieuwde belangstelling voor de Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technologie en nieuwe ontwikkeling m.b.t. deze vorm van elektriciteitopwekking.

  20. Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    United Technologies Research Center, Pratt & Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt & Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R&D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

  1. An expert system for diagnostics and estimation of steam turbine components condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes an expert system of probability type for diagnostics and state estimation of steam turbine technological subsystems components. The expert system is based on Bayes’ theorem and permits to troubleshoot the equipment components, using expert experience, when there is a lack of baseline information on the indicators of turbine operation. Within a unified approach the expert system solves the problems of diagnosing the flow steam path of the turbine, bearings, thermal expansion system, regulatory system, condensing unit, the systems of regenerative feed-water and hot water heating. The knowledge base of the expert system for turbine unit rotors and bearings contains a description of 34 defects and of 104 related diagnostic features that cause a change in its vibration state. The knowledge base for the condensing unit contains 12 hypotheses and 15 evidence (indications); the procedures are also designated for 20 state parameters estimation. Similar knowledge base containing the diagnostic features and faults hypotheses are formulated for other technological subsystems of turbine unit. With the necessary initial information available a number of problems can be solved within the expert system for various technological subsystems of steam turbine unit: for steam flow path it is the correlation and regression analysis of multifactor relationship between the vibration parameters variations and the regime parameters; for system of thermal expansions it is the evaluation of force acting on the longitudinal keys depending on the temperature state of the turbine cylinder; for condensing unit it is the evaluation of separate effect of the heat exchange surface contamination and of the presence of air in condenser steam space on condenser thermal efficiency performance, as well as the evaluation of term for condenser cleaning and for tube system replacement and so forth. With a lack of initial information the expert system enables to formulate a diagnosis

  2. Predictive control of a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous generator in a wind turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messadi, Manal; Mellit, Adel; Kemih, Karim; Ghanes, Malek

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how to address the chaos problem in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in a wind turbine system. Predictive control approach is proposed to suppress chaotic behavior and make operating stable; the advantage of this method is that it can only be applied to one state of the wind turbine system. The use of the genetic algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values of the wind turbine leads to maximization of the power generation. Moreover, some simulation results are included to visualize the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. (paper)

  3. Predictive control of a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous generator in a wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manal, Messadi; Adel, Mellit; Karim, Kemih; Malek, Ghanes

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how to address the chaos problem in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in a wind turbine system. Predictive control approach is proposed to suppress chaotic behavior and make operating stable; the advantage of this method is that it can only be applied to one state of the wind turbine system. The use of the genetic algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values of the wind turbine leads to maximization of the power generation. Moreover, some simulation results are included to visualize the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Project supported by the CMEP-TASSILI Project (Grant No. 14MDU920).

  4. A Survey of Control Issues in PMSG-Based Small Wind-Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Natalia Angela; Liserre, Marco; Mastromauro, Rosa Anna

    2013-01-01

    /position estimation, pitch control, braking chopper control, dc/dc converter control, and grid converter control. Specific issues for small wind-turbines arise in the wind energy extraction optimization and limitation and in the innovative concept of “universal” wind-turbine operation, that leads these system...... generators directly connected to the grid, while recently permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) with power converter, either partially or fully controlled, became popular. This paper reviews the control issues related to these small wind-turbine systems: generator torque control, speed...

  5. Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

  6. An improved CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) used for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Shi, Lingfeng; Tian, Hua; Li, Xiaoya; Huang, Guangdai; Chang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an improved CTRC system (PR-CTRC) for engine waste heat recovery. • The PR-CTRC achieves a significant increase in thermodynamic performance. • The PR-CTRC possesses a strong coupling capability for high and low grade waste heat. • The PR-CTRC uses smaller turbine design parameters than ORC systems. • Total cooling load analysis of combined engine and recovery system was conducted. - Abstract: CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) is a promising technology for the waste heat recovery of an engine considering its safety and environment friendly characteristics, which also matchs the high temperature of the exhaust gas and satisfies the miniaturization demand of recovery systems. But the traditional CTRC system with a basic configuration (B-CTRC) has a poor thermodynamic performance. This paper introduces an improved CTRC system containing both a preheater and regenerator (PR-CTRC), for recovering waste heat in exhaust gas and engine coolant of an engine, and compares its performance with that of the B-CTRC system and also with that of the traditional excellent Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems using R123 as a working fluid. The utilization rate of waste heat, total cooling load, net power output, thermal efficiency, exergy loss, exergy efficiency and component size have been investigated. Results show that, the net power output of the PR-CTRC could reach up to 9.0 kW for a 43.8 kW engine, which increases by 150% compared with that of the B-CTRC (3.6 kW). The PR-CTRC also improves the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the B-CTRC, with increases of 184% and 227%, respectively. Compared with the ORC system, the PR-CTRC shows the significant advantage of highly recycling the exhaust gas and engine coolant simultaneously due to the special property of supercritical CO_2’s specific heat capacity. The supercritical property of CO_2 also generates a better heat transfer and flowing performances. Meanwhile, the PR

  7. Analysis of a novel solar energy-powered Rankine cycle for combined power and heat generation using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.R.; Yamaguchi, H.; Uneno, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 630-0321 (Japan); Fujima, K. [Mayekawa MFG Co., Ltd., 2000 Tatsuzawa Moriya-city, Ibaraki-Pref. 302-0118 (Japan); Enomoto, M. [Showa Denko K. K., 1-480, Inuzuka, Oyama-city, Tochigi 323-8679 (Japan); Sawada, N. [Showa Tansan Co., Ltd., 7-1, Ogimachi, Kawasaki-Ku, Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa 210-0867 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    Theoretical analysis of a solar energy-powered Rankine thermodynamic cycle utilizing an innovative new concept, which uses supercritical carbon dioxide as a working fluid, is presented. In this system, a truly 'natural' working fluid, carbon dioxide, is utilized to generate firstly electricity power and secondly high-grade heat power and low-grade heat power. The uniqueness of the system is in the way in which both solar energy and carbon dioxide, available in abundant quantities in all parts of the world, are simultaneously used to build up a thermodynamic cycle and has the potential to reduce energy shortage and greatly reduce carbon dioxide emissions and global warming, offering environmental and personal safety simultaneously. The system consists of an evacuated solar collector system, a power-generating turbine, a high-grade heat recovery system, a low-grade heat recovery system and a feed pump. The performances of this CO{sub 2}-based Rankine cycle were theoretically investigated and the effects of various design conditions, namely, solar radiation, solar collector area and CO{sub 2} flow rate, were studied. Numerical simulations show that the proposed system may have electricity power efficiency and heat power efficiency as high as 11.4% and 36.2%, respectively. It is also found that the cycle performances strongly depend on climate conditions. Also the electricity power and heat power outputs increase with the collector area and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The estimated COP{sub power} and COP{sub heat} increase with the CO{sub 2} flow rate, but decrease with the collector area. The CO{sub 2}-based cycle can be optimized to provide maximum power, maximum heat recovery or a combination of both. The results suggest the potential of this new concept for applications to electricity power and heat power generation. (author)

  8. Self Adaptive Air Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion Using Shutter Valve and OWC Heoght Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bella, Francis A

    2014-09-29

    An oscillating water column (OWC) is one of the most technically viable options for converting wave energy into useful electric power. The OWC system uses the wave energy to “push or pull” air through a high-speed turbine, as illustrated in Figure 1. The turbine is typically a bi-directional turbine, such as a Wells turbine or an advanced Dennis-Auld turbine, as developed by Oceanlinx Ltd. (Oceanlinx), a major developer of OWC systems and a major collaborator with Concepts NREC (CN) in Phase II of this STTR effort. Prior to awarding the STTR to CN, work was underway by CN and Oceanlinx to produce a mechanical linkage mechanism that can be cost-effectively manufactured, and can articulate turbine blades to improve wave energy capture. The articulation is controlled by monitoring the chamber pressure. Funding has been made available from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to CN (DOE DE-FG-08GO18171) to co-share the development of a blade articulation mechanism for the purpose of increasing energy recovery. However, articulating the blades is only one of the many effective design improvements that can be made to the composite subsystems that constitute the turbine generator system.

  9. Operating experience feedback report -- turbine-generator overspeed protection systems: Commercial power reactors. Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornstein, H.L.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) review of operating experience of main turbine-generator overspeed and overspeed protection systems. It includes an indepth examination of the turbine overspeed event which occurred on November 9, 1991, at the Salem Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. It also provides information concerning actions taken by other utilities and the turbine manufacturers as a result of the Salem overspeed event. AEOD's study reviewed operating procedures and plant practices. It noted differences between turbine manufacturer designs and recommendations for operations, maintenance, and testing, and also identified significant variations in the manner that individual plants maintain and test their turbine overspeed protection systems. AEOD's study provides insight into the shortcomings in the design, operation, maintenance, testing, and human factors associated with turbine overspeed protection systems. Operating experience indicates that the frequency of turbine overspeed events is higher than previously thought and that the bases for demonstrating compliance with NRC's General Design Criterion (GDC) 4, Environmental and dynamic effects design bases, may be nonconservative with respect to the assumed frequency

  10. Performance of a 3 kW wind turbine generator with variable pitch control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Baku M.; Ameku, Kazumasa; Roy, Jitendro Nath

    2009-01-01

    A prototype 3 kW horizontal upwind type wind turbine generator of 4 m in diameter has been designed and examined under real wind conditions. The machine was designed based on the concept that even small wind turbines should have a variable pitch control system just as large wind turbines, especially in Japan where typhoons occur at least once a year. A characteristic of the machine is the use of a worm and gear system with a stepping motor installed in the center of the hub, and the rotational main shaft. The machine is constructed with no mechanical breaking system so as to avoid damage from strong winds. In a storm, the wind turbine is slowed down by adjusting the pitch angle and the maximum electrical load. Usually the machine is controlled at several stages depending on the rotational speed of the blades. Two control methods have been applied: the variable pitch angle, and regulation of the generator field current. The characteristics of the generator under each rotational speed and field current are first investigated in the laboratory. This paper describes the performances of the wind turbine in terms of the functions of wind turbine rotational speed, generated outputs, and its stability for wind speed changes. The expected performances of the machine have been confirmed under real wind conditions and compared with numerical simulation results. The wind turbine showed a power coefficient of 0.257 under the average wind speed of 7.3 m/s.

  11. Adaptive Controller for Drive System PMSG in Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanambal; G.Balaji; M.Abinaya

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) wind turbine and direct power control for grid side inverter for transformer less integration of wind energy. PMSG wind turbine with two back to back voltage source converters are considered more efficient, used to make real and reactive power control. The optimal control strategy has introduced for integrated control of PMSG Maximum Power Extraction, DC li...

  12. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower''s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable

  13. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  14. A Closed-Form Technique for the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Wind Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dueñas-Osorio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a closed-form method to evaluate wind turbine system reliability and associated failure consequences. Monte Carlo simulation, a widely used approach for system reliability assessment, usually requires large numbers of computational experiments, while existing analytical methods are limited to simple system event configurations with a focus on average values of reliability metrics. By analyzing a wind turbine system and its components in a combinatorial yet computationally efficient form, the proposed approach provides an entire probability distribution of system failure that contains all possible configurations of component failure and survival events. The approach is also capable of handling unique component attributes such as downtime and repair cost needed for risk estimations, and enables sensitivity analysis for quantifying the criticality of individual components to wind turbine system reliability. Applications of the technique are illustrated by assessing the reliability of a 12-subassembly turbine system. In addition, component downtimes and repair costs of components are embedded in the formulation to compute expected annual wind turbine unavailability and repair cost probabilities, and component importance metrics useful for maintenance planning and research prioritization. Furthermore, this paper introduces a recursive solution to closed-form method and applies this to a 45-component turbine system. The proposed approach proves to be computationally efficient and yields vital reliability information that could be readily used by wind farm stakeholders for decision making and risk management.

  15. Effects of turbine's selection on hydraulic transients in the long pressurized water conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J X; Hu, M; Cai, F L; Huang, X T

    2014-01-01

    For a hydropower station with longer water conveyance system, an optimum turbine's selection will be beneficial to its reliable and stable operation. Different optional turbines will result in possible differences of the hydraulic characteristics in the hydromechanical system, and have different effects on the hydraulic transients' analysis and control. Therefore, the premise for turbine's selection is to fully understand the properties of the optional turbines and their effects on the hydraulic transients. After a brief introduction of the simulation models for hydraulic transients' computation and stability analysis, the effects of hydraulic turbine's characteristics at different operating points on the hydro-mechanical system's free vibration analysis were theoretically investigated with the hydraulic impedance analysis of the hydraulic turbine. For a hydropower station with long water conveyance system, based on the detailed hydraulic transients' computation respectively for two different optional turbines, the effects of the turbine's selection on hydraulic transients were analyzed. Furthermore, considering different operating conditions for each turbine and the similar operating conditions for these two turbines, free vibration analysis was comprehensively carried out to reveal the effects of turbine's impedance on system's vibration characteristics. The results indicate that, respectively with two different turbines, most of the controlling parameters under the worst cases have marginal difference, and few shows obvious differences; the turbine's impedances under different operating conditions have less effect on the natural angular frequencies; different turbine's characteristics and different operating points have obvious effects on system's vibration stability; for the similar operating conditions of these two turbines, system's vibration characteristics are basically consistent with

  16. A comparative analysis of rankine and absorption power cycles from exergoeconomic viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokati, Naser; Ranjbar, Faramarz; Yari, Mortaza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Rankine and absorption power cycles are compared from exergoeconomic viewpoint. • The LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the highest unit cost of electricity produced by turbine. • The LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the lowest exergy destruction cost rate. • In LiBr–H 2 O cycle, the generator has the maximum value regarding (C-dot) D,k +(C-dot) L,k +(Z-dot) k . - Abstract: In this paper LiBr–H 2 O and NH 3 –H 2 O absorption power cycles and Rankine cycle which produce 1 MW electrical power in same conditions of heat sources are compared from exergoeconomic point of view. Exergoeconomic analysis is performed using the specific exergy costing (SPECO) method. The results show that among these cycles, although the LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the highest first law efficiency, but unit cost of electricity produced by turbine for LiBr–H 2 O cycle is more than that for Rankine cycle. This value is lowest for the NH 3 –H 2 O cycle. Moreover, the NH 3 –H 2 O cycle has the highest and the LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the lowest exergy destruction cost rate. The generator, the absorber and the boiler in all considered cycles have the maximum value of sum of cost rate associated with capital investment, operating and maintenance, exergy destruction and exergy losses. Therefore, these components should be taken into consideration from exergoeconomic viewpoint. In parametric study, it is observed that in the constant generator temperature, as the generator pressure increases, unit cost of power produced by turbine for LiBr–H 2 O and Rankine cycles decreases. This value for Rankine cycle is lower than for LiBr–H 2 O cycle whereas Rankine cycle efficiency is less than the efficiency of LiBr–H 2 O cycle. Also, in LiBr–H 2 O cycle, at constant temperature of the generator, the value of exergy destruction cost rate is minimized and exergoeconomic factor is maximized at particular values of generator pressure and the more absorber pressure results the minimum value of

  17. Active vibration-based SHM system: demonstration on an operating Vestas V27 wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    2016-01-01

    with the system and a 3.5 month monitoring campaign was conducted while the turbine was operating normally. During the campaign, a defect – a trailing edge opening – was artificially introduced into the blade and its size was gradually increased from the original 15 cm to 45 cm. Using an unsupervised learning......This study presents a system that is able to detect defects like cracks, leading/trailing edge opening or delamination of at least 15 cm size, remotely, without stopping the wind turbine. The system is vibration-based: mechanical energy is artificially introduced by means of an electromechanical......-to-noise ratio. At the same time, the corresponding wavelength is short enough to deliver required damage detection resolution and long enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length. The paper demonstrates the system on a 225 kW Vesta s V27 wind turbine. One blade of the wind turbine was equipped...

  18. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  19. Novel Modified Elman Neural Network Control for PMSG System Based on Wind Turbine Emulator

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chih-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The novel modified Elman neural network (NN) controlled permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) system, which is directly driven by a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based on wind turbine emulator, is proposed to control output of rectifier (AC/DC power converter) and inverter (DC/AC power converter) in this study. First, a closed loop PMSM drive control based on wind turbine emulator is designed to generate power for the PMSG system according to different wind speeds. Then, t...

  20. Simulation of Small Wind Turbine Generation System Using Ring Winding Slotless PMSG by FEM

    OpenAIRE

    徳永, 翔平; 袈裟丸, 勝己; Tokunaga, Shohei; Kesamaru, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel small wind turbine generation system with ring winding slotless PMSG. To reduce cogging torque, ring winding PM generator is used for a wind turbine generator. Using finite element analysis, the characteristics of slotless PMSGs are elucidated and the dynamic performance of the proposed system with MPPT control is represented. In this paper, the constant wind test and the quasi-natural wind test are conducted. The results of these tests indicate the proposed syste...

  1. Application of a power recovery system to gas turbine exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudat, N.P.; James, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a power recovery system to recover waste heat from the exhaust gases of gas turbines and convert this energy into shaft horsepower. Also discussed are power cycles, selection of power fluid, equipment selection, and application of the power recovery system to various gas turbines. Several charts and tables are included: process flow diagram, cycle efficiencies, curve for estimating recoverable horsepower

  2. Real-time monitoring, prognosis, and resilient control for wind turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiwei; Sheng, Shuangwen

    2018-02-01

    This special issue aims to provide a platform for academic and industrial communities to report recent results and emerging research in real-time monitoring, fault diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control and design of wind turbine systems. After a strict peer-review process, 20 papers were selected, which represent the most recent progress of the real-time monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control methods/techniques in wind turbine systems.

  3. Knowledge-based system for detailed blade design of turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sanjay; Lamson, Scott

    1994-03-01

    A design optimization methodology that couples optimization techniques to CFD analysis for design of airfoils is presented. This technique optimizes 2D airfoil sections of a blade by minimizing the deviation of the actual Mach number distribution on the blade surface from a smooth fit of the distribution. The airfoil is not reverse engineered by specification of a precise distribution of the desired Mach number plot, only general desired characteristics of the distribution are specified for the design. Since the Mach number distribution is very complex, and cannot be conveniently represented by a single polynomial, it is partitioned into segments, each of which is characterized by a different order polynomial. The sum of the deviation of all the segments is minimized during optimization. To make intelligent changes to the airfoil geometry, it needs to be associated with features observed in the Mach number distribution. Associating the geometry parameters with independent features of the distribution is a fairly complex task. Also, for different optimization techniques to work efficiently the airfoil geometry needs to be parameterized into independent parameters, with enough degrees of freedom for adequate geometry manipulation. A high-pressure, low reaction steam turbine blade section was optimized using this methodology. The Mach number distribution was partitioned into pressure and suction surfaces and the suction surface distribution was further subdivided into leading edge, mid section and trailing edge sections. Two different airfoil representation schemes were used for defining the design variables of the optimization problem. The optimization was performed by using a combination of heuristic search and numerical optimization. The optimization results for the two schemes are discussed in the paper. The results are also compared to a manual design improvement study conducted independently by an experienced airfoil designer. The turbine blade optimization

  4. Electromagnetic Calculation of Combined Earthing System with Ring Earth Electrode and Vertical Rods for Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiaki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ueda, Toshiaki

    With the worldwide spread of wind turbine installations, various problems such as landscape issues, bird strikes and grid connections have arisen. Protection of wind turbines from lightning is cited as one of the main problems. Wind turbines are often struck by lightning because of their open-air locations, such as in mountainous areas, and their special configuration and very-high construction. Especially, low-voltage and control circuits can fail or suffer burnout while blades can incur serious damage if struck by lightning. Wind turbine failures caused by lightning strikes account for approximately 25% of all failures. The problem is regarded as a global one that needs immediate resolution. It is important to understand the impedance characteristics of wind turbine earthing systems from the viewpoint of lightning protection. A report from IEC TR61400-24 recommends a “ring earth electrode”. This was originally defined in IEC 61024 (currently revised and re-numbered as IEC 62305), where such an electrode is recommended to reduce touch and step voltages in households and buildings. IEC TR61400-24 also recommended additional electrodes of vertical or horizontal rods. However, these concepts have not been fully discussed from the viewpoint of its application to wind turbines. To confirm the effect of a combination of a ring earth electrode and additional vertical rods for protection of a wind turbine, this report uses the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to present an electromagnetic transient analysis on such a wind turbine earthing system. The results show that an optimal combination can be arranged from viewpoints of lightning protection and construction cost. Thus, this report discusses how to establish a quantitative design methodology of the wind turbine earthing system to provide effective lightning protection.

  5. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications

  6. Flow visualization system for wind turbines without blades applied to micro reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.S.B.; Guimarães, L.N.F.; Placco, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Flow visualization systems is a tool used in science and industry for characterization of projects that operate with drainage. This work presents the design and construction of a flow visualization system for passive turbines used in advanced fast micro reactors. In the system were generated images where it is possible to see the supersonic and transonic flow through the turbine disks. A test bench was assembled to generate images of the interior of the turbine where the flow is supersonic, allowing the study of the behavior of the boundary layer between disks. It is necessary to characterize the boundary layer of this type of turbine because its operation occurs in the transfer of kinetic energy between the fluid and the disks. The images generated, as well as their analyzes are presented as a result of this work

  7. Study on the application of energy storage system in offshore wind turbine with hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yajun; Mu, Anle; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydraulic offshore wind turbine is capable of outputting near constant power. • Open loop hydraulic transmission uses seawater as the working fluid. • Linear control strategy distributes total flow according to demand and supply. • Constant pressure hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Simulations show the dynamic performance of the hybrid system. - Abstract: A novel offshore wind turbine comprising fluid power transmission and energy storage system is proposed. In this wind turbine, the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced by an open-loop hydraulic system, in which seawater is sucked through a variable displacement pump in nacelle connected directly with the rotor and utilized to drive a Pelton turbine installed on the floating platform. Aiming to smooth and stabilize the output power, an energy storage system with the capability of flexible charging and discharging is applied. The related mathematical model is developed, which contains some sub-models that are categorized as the wind turbine rotor, hydraulic pump, transmission pipeline, proportional valve, accumulator and hydraulic turbine. A linear control strategy is adopted to distribute the flow out of the proportional valve through comparing the demand power with captured wind energy by hydraulic pump. Ultimately, two time domain simulations demonstrate the operation of the hybrid system when the hydraulic accumulator is utilized and show how this system can be used for load leveling and stabilizing the output power.

  8. Multi-objective optimization of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low grade waste heat recovery using evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangfeng; Yan, Zhequan; Wang, Man; Li, Maoqing; Dai, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization of an ORC is conducted to obtain optimum performance. • NSGA-II is employed to solve this multi-objective optimization problem. • The effects of parameters on the exergy efficiency and capital cost are examined. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can effectively recover low grade waste heat due to its excellent thermodynamic performance. Based on the examinations of the effects of key thermodynamic parameters on the exergy efficiency and overall capital cost, multi-objective optimization of the ORC with R134a as working fluid is conducted to achieve the system optimization design from both thermodynamic and economic aspects using Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The exergy efficiency and overall capital cost are selected as two objective functions to maximize the exergy efficiency and minimize the overall capital cost under the given waste heat conditions. Turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, pinch temperature difference, approach temperature difference and condenser temperature difference are selected as the decision variables owing to their significant effects on the exergy efficiency and overall capital cost. A Pareto frontier obtained shows that an increase in the exergy efficiency can increase the overall capital cost of the ORC system. The optimum design solution with their corresponding decision variables is selected from the Pareto frontier. The optimum exergy efficiency and overall capital cost are 13.98% and 129.28 × 10 4 USD, respectively, under the given waste heat conditions

  9. 10- to 30-kWe space power system using the uranium-zirconium hydride reactor and organic Rankine power conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Bost, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The UZrH reactor-ORC power system has been reviewed to determine its feasibility issues and characterize the system size, mass, and efficiency in the 10- to 30-kWe power range. The major component technologies required for this concept were reviewed to determine their technology status rating for early deployment of the system on near-term missions. Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) technology is directly applicable to the UZrH reactor-ORC concept in the areas of power system reliability and survivability. The UZrH reactor-ORC concept provides a truly state-of-the-art system for use in future military and civilian space power programs. 9 references

  10. Thermodynamic assessment of a wind turbine based combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, M.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Combined cycles use the exhaust gases released from a Gas Turbine (GT). Approximately 30–40% of the turbine shaft work is typically used to drive the Compressor. The present study analyzes a system that couples a Wind Turbine (WT) with a combined cycle. It demonstrates how a WT can be used to supply power to the Compressor in the GT cycle and pump fluid through a reheat Rankine cycle, in order to increase the overall power output. Three different configurations are discussed, namely high penetration, low penetration and wind power addition. In the case of a low electricity demand and high penetration configuration, extra wind power is used to compress air which can then be used in the low penetration configuration. During a high load demand, all the wind power is used to drive the pump and compressor and if required additional compressed air is supplied by a storage unit. The analysis shows that increasing the combustion temperature reduces the critical velocity and mass flow rate. Increases in wind speed reduce both energy and exergy efficiency of the overall system. -- Highlights: ► This study analyzes a system that couples a wind turbine with a combined power generation cycle. ► Surplus wind power is used to compress air, which is then stored and used at a later time. ► Increasing the pressure ratio will reduce the work ratio between the Rankine and Brayton cycles. ► A higher combustion temperature will increase the net work output, as well as the system energy and exergy efficiencies.

  11. Energetic and exergetic investigation of an organic Rankine cycle at different heat source temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Pei, Gang; Li, Yunzhu; Wang, Dongyue; Ji, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The energetic and exergetic performance of an updated ORC (organic Rankine cycle) is investigated. The thermal efficiencies of the ORC at different heat source temperatures of about 100, 90, 80, and 70 °C are explored. The thermodynamic irreversibility that takes place in the evaporator, condenser, turbine, pump, and separator is revealed. The ORC feasibility for low-temperature applications is demonstrated. With a hot side temperature of around 80 °C, a thermal efficiency of 7.4% and a turbine isentropic efficiency of 0.68 can be achieved. The present research further indicates that exergy destruction caused by heat transfer through an appreciable temperature difference in the evaporator is the largest in the energy conversion process, followed by that in the condenser. The exergy destroyed in the heat exchangers amounts to 74% of the overall exergy loss. The total system exergy efficiency is approximately 40%; thus, ways to improve exergy efficiency are required. HCFC-123, a dry fluid, is experimentally confirmed to be highly superheated after expansion in this study. A regenerator should be used to preheat HCFC-123 prior to entering the evaporator. Meanwhile the heat-transfer configuration with two oil cycles can be a good solution to overcome the thermodynamic disadvantage of a one-stage evaporator. -- Highlights: ► An updated ORC system is introduced. ► The ORC feasibility for low-temperature applications is experimentally demonstrated. ► Thermodynamic irreversibility in ORC components is revealed. ► Suggestions are given to reduce the exergy destruction.

  12. Optimised and balanced structural and system reliability of offshore wind turbines. An account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarp-Johansen, N.J.; Kozine, I. (Risoe National Lab., DTU, Roskilde, (DK)); Rademarkers, L. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (NL)); Dalsgaard Soerensen, J. (Aalborg Univ. (DK)) Ronold, K. (Det Norske Veritas (DK))

    2005-04-15

    This report gives the results of the research project 'Optimised and Uniform Safety and Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbines (an account)'. The main subject of the project has been the account of the state-of-the art of knowledge about, and/or attempts to, harmonisation of the structural reliability of wind turbines, on the one hand, and the reliability of the wind turbine's control/safety system, on the other hand. Within the project some research pointing ahead has also been conducted. (au)

  13. Reliability Based Design of Fluid Power Pitch Systems for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2017-01-01

    Priority Number. The Failure Mode and Effect Criticality Analysis is based on past research concerning failure analysis of wind turbine drive trains. Guidelines are given to select the severity, occurrence and detection score that make up the risk priority number. The usability of the method is shown...... in a case study of a fluid power pitch system applied to wind turbines. The results show a good agreement to recent field failure data for offshore turbines where the dominating failure modes are related to valves, accumulators and leakage. The results are further used for making design improvements...

  14. MHD/gas turbine systems designed for low cooling water requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annen, K.D.; Eustis, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consist of a coal-fired MHD plant with an air turbine bottoming plant and require no cooling water. In addition to the base case systems, systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems require a small amount of cooling water. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine systems have very good thermal and economic performances. The base case I MHD/gas turbine system (782 MW /SUB e/ ) requires no cooling water, has a heat rate which is 13% higher, and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher than a comparable MHD/steam system (878 MW /SUB e/ ) having a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW. The case I vapor cycle bottomed systems have thermal and economic performances which approach and even exceed those of the MHD/steam system, while having substantially lower cooling water requirements. Performances of a second-generation MHD/gas turbine system and an oxygen-enriched, early commercial system are also evaluated. An analysis of nitric oxide emissions shows compliance with emission standards

  15. Comparison of Standard Wind Turbine Models with Vendor Models for Power System Stability Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gomez Lazaro, E.; Jimenez-Buendia, F.; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission Standard 61400-27-1 was published in February 2015. This standard deals with the development of generic terms and parameters to specify the electrical characteristics of wind turbines. Generic models of very complex technological systems, such as wind turbines, are thus defined based on the four common configurations available in the market. Due to its recent publication, the comparison of the response of generic models with specific vendor models plays a key role in ensuring the widespread use of this standard. This paper compares the response of a specific Gamesa dynamic wind turbine model to the corresponding generic IEC Type III wind turbine model response when the wind turbine is subjected to a three-phase voltage dip. This Type III model represents the doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine, which is not only one of the most commonly sold and installed technologies in the current market but also a complex variable-speed operation implementation. In fact, active and reactive power transients are observed due to the voltage reduction. Special attention is given to the reactive power injection provided by the wind turbine models because it is a requirement of current grid codes. Further, the boundaries of the generic models associated with transient events that cannot be represented exactly are included in the paper.

  16. Performance and Feasibility Analysis of a Wind Turbine Power System for Use on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Matthew D.; Viterna, Larry

    1999-01-01

    A wind turbine power system for future missions to the Martian surface was studied for performance and feasibility. A C++ program was developed from existing FORTRAN code to analyze the power capabilities of wind turbines under different environments and design philosophies. Power output, efficiency, torque, thrust, and other performance criteria could be computed given design geometries, atmospheric conditions, and airfoil behavior. After reviewing performance of such a wind turbine, a conceptual system design was modeled to evaluate feasibility. More analysis code was developed to study and optimize the overall structural design. Findings of this preliminary study show that turbine power output on Mars could be as high as several hundred kilowatts. The optimized conceptual design examined here would have a power output of 104 kW, total mass of 1910 kg, and specific power of 54.6 W/kg.

  17. Performance estimates for the Space Station power system Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The methods which have been used by the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine performance for different gases and flow rates are described. These methods were developed by NASA Lewis during the early days of Brayton cycle component development and they can now be applied to the task of predicting the performance of the Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) Space Station Freedom power system. Computer programs are given for performing these calculations and data from previous NASA Lewis Brayton Compressor and Turbine tests is used to make accurate estimates of the compressor and turbine performance for the CBC power system. Results of these calculations are also given. In general, calculations confirm that the CBC Brayton Cycle contractor has made realistic compressor and turbine performance estimates.

  18. Implementation of a Wind Farm Turbine Control System with Short-Term Grid Faults Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    restrictions for the wind turbines behavior especially under grid faults. Wind turbines are requested to stay connected even during faults. These new requirements are challenging the control of the wind turbines and new control strategies are required to meet the target. This paper dealt...... with the implementation of a control strategy in order to stay connected under grid faults. The method aimed to ensure that a wind farm turbine remains connected and no electric power is delivered to the grid during the fault period. The overall system was modelled and simulated by using the software Matlab/Simulink.......The increased penetration of wind power in the grid has led to important technical barriers that limit the development, where the stability of the system plays a key issue. Grid operators in different countries are issuing new grid requirements, the so-called grid codes that impose more...

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based on industrial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumen Ozdil, N. Filiz; Segmen, M. Rıdvan; Tantekin, Atakan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, thermodynamic analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is presented in a local power plant that is located southern of Turkey. The system that is analyzed includes an evaporator, a turbine, a condenser, a pump and a generator as components. System components are analyzed separately using actual plant data and performance cycle. The relationship between pinch point and exergy efficiency is observed. As the pinch point temperature decreases, the exergy efficiency increases due to low exergy destruction rate. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the ORC are calculated as 9.96% and 47.22%, respectively for saturated liquid form which is the real condition. In order to show the effect of the water phase of the evaporator inlet, exergy destruction and exergy efficiencies of components and overall system are calculated for different water phases. The exergy efficiency of the ORC is calculated as 41.04% for water mixture form which has quality 0.3. On the other hand, it is found as 40.29% for water mixture form which has quality 0.7. Lastly, it is calculated as 39.95% for saturated vapor form. Moreover, exergy destruction rates of the system are 520.01 kW for saturated liquid form, 598.39 kW for water mixture form which has quality 0.3, 609.5 kW for water mixture form which has quality 0.7 and 614.63 kW for saturated vapor form. The analyses show that evaporator has important effect on the system efficiency in terms of exergy rate. The evaporator is investigated particularly in order to improve the performance of the overall system. - Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). • The main reasons of the irreversibility in the ORC. • Determination of exergy efficiency for the different water phases in the evaporator inlet. • Determination of the effect of the ambient temperature on ORC efficiency.

  20. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeck, Alexander R [Orlando, FL

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  1. Experimental study of air delivery into water-conveyance system of the radial-axial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Alexandra; Platonov, Dmitry; Minakov, Andrey; Dekterev, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of oscillatory response in the Francis turbine of hydraulic unit. The experiment was performed on large-scale hydrodynamic test-bench with impeller diameter of 0.3 m. The effect of air injection on the intensity of pressure pulsations was studied at the maximum pressure pulsations in the hydraulic unit. It was revealed that air delivery into the water-conveyance system of the turbine results in almost two-fold reduction of pressure pulsations.

  2. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-01-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create amodel database in different simulation tools. This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The repo...

  3. Control System on a Wind Turbine: Evaluation of Control Strategies for a Wind Turbine with Hydraulic Drive Train by Means of Aeroelastic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frøyd, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of wind turbines are going towards floating offshore structures. To improve the stability of these turbines, the weight of the nacelle should be as low as possible. The company ChapDrive has developed a hydraulic drive train that gives the ability to move the generator to the base of the tower and to replace the traditional gearbox. To test the system, ChapDrive has constructed a prototype turbine which is located at Valsneset.This thesis describes the combined aero-elastic and...

  4. Studi Variasi Flowrate Refrigerant pada Sistem Organic Rankine Cycle dengan Fluida Kerja R-123

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Halim Pamungkas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini kelangkaan sumber energi fosil telah menjadi isu utama di seluruh dunia. Hal tersebut memberikan dampak yang signifikan di setiap aspek kehidupan dan salah satunya adalah di bidang pembangkit listrik. Salah satu sistem pembangkit listrik yang tidak menggunakan energi fosil adalah Organic rankine cycle (ORC. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode eksperimental pada suatu sistem Organic rankine cycle yang telah dibangun. Penelitian ini yang divariasikan adalah flowrate dari fluida kerja dalam hal ini R-123. Variasi flowrate yang digunakan yaitu 3-1 GPM (Galon per menit dengan penurunan 0,5 GPM setiap pengambilan data. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini berupa grafik–grafik daya pada turbin, kondensor, pompa dan evaporator, efisiensi siklus dan back work ratio  fungsi flowrate fluida kerja. Efisiensi siklus tertinggi adalah 5,86% yang terjadi pada flowrate 3 GPM dan efisiensi siklus terendah adalah 4,32% yang terjadi pada flowrate 1 GPM.

  5. Turbomachinery design for Rankine cycles in waste heat recovery applications

    OpenAIRE

    Agromayor Otero, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Rankine Cycles are an effective and efficient manner to convert waste thermal energy into power. Numerous fluids can be used in Rankine cycles, including water, hydrocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, siloxanes, alcohols or even mixtures of fluids. The performance of Rankine cycles is highly dependent on the optimization of the operating conditions and the design of its components. The expander is, perhaps, the most important component of the Rankine cycle, as it is the device where the energy of t...

  6. Status of the organic Rankine cycle for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, T. J.; Lacey, P. D.; Sorensen, G. L.

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been under continuous development and evaluation since the 1960s for both terrestrial and space power applications. Recent activities (Bland et al, 1987) have focused primarily on the Space Station's solar dynamic power system and Dynamic Isotope Power Systems (DIPS) applications. This paper addresses ORC-DIPS system level trade studies conducted during the past year and a half. Two companion papers (Bland and Pearson) present more detailed data on specific ORC-DIPS technology issues and testing conducted during the same period.

  7. Advanced control of direct-driven PMSG generator in wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the advanced control system of the wind energy conversion with a variable speed wind turbine. The considered system consists of a wind turbine with the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG, machine side converter (MSC, grid side converter (GSC and control circuits. The mathematical models of a wind turbine system, the PMSG generator and converters have been described. The control algorithms of the converter systems based on the methods of vector control have been applied. In the advanced control system of the machine side converter the optimal MPPT control method has been used. Additionally the pitch control scheme is included in order to achieve the limitation of maximum power and to prevent mechanical damage of the wind turbine. In the control system of the grid side converter the control of active and reactive power has been applied with the application of Voltage Oriented Control (VOC. The performance of the considered wind energy system has been studied by digital simulation. The results of simulation studies confirmed the good effectiveness of the considered wind turbine system and very good performance of the proposed methods of vector control and control systems.

  8. Analysis of a rotating spool expander for Organic Rankine Cycle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Abhinav

    Increasing interest in recovering or utilizing low-grade heat for power generation has prompted a search for ways in which the power conversion process may be enhanced. Amongst the conversion systems, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has generated an enormous amount of interest amongst researchers and system designers. Nevertheless, component level technologies need to be developed and match the range of potential applications. In particular, technical challenges associated with scaling expansion machines (turbines) from utility scale to commercial scale have prevented widespread adoption of the technology. In this regard, this work focuses on a novel rotating spool expansion machine at the heart of an Organic Rankine Cycle. A comprehensive, deterministic simulation model of the rotating spool expander is developed. The comprehensive model includes a detailed geometry model of the spool expander and the suction valve mechanism. Sub-models for mass flow, leakage, heat transfer and friction within the expander are also developed. Apart from providing the ability to characterize the expander in a particular system, the model provides a valuable tool to study the impact of various design variables on the performance of the machine. The investigative approach also involved an experimental program to assess the performance of a working prototype. In general, the experimental data showed that the expander performance was sub-par, largely due to the mismatch of prevailing operating conditions and the expander design criteria. Operating challenges during the shakedown tests and subsequent sub-optimal design changes also detracted from performance. Nevertheless, the results of the experimental program were sufficient for a proof-of-concept assessment of the expander and for model validation over a wide range of operating conditions. The results of the validated model reveal several interesting details concerning the expander design and performance. For example, the match

  9. Comparative investigation of working fluids for an organic Rankine cycle with geothermal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan-Na

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the thermodynamic investigation on the use of geothermal water (130 °C as maximum for power generation through a basic Rankine has been presented together with obtained main results. Six typical organic working fluids (i.e., R245fa, R141b, R290, R600, R152a, and 134a were studied with modifying the input pressure and temperature to the turbine. The results show that there are no significant changes taking place in the efficiency for these working fluids with overheating the inlet fluid to the turbine, i.e., efficiency is a weak function of temperature. However, with the increasing of pressure ratio in the turbine, the efficiency rises more sharply. The technical viability is shown of implementing this type of process for recovering low temperature heat resource.

  10. A hybrid Rankine cycle (HyRC) with ambient pressure combustion (APC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lijun; Thimsen, David; Clements, Bruce; Zheng, Ligang; Pomalis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The main losses in thermal power generation include heat in exhaust flue gas, heat rejected through steam condensation of low-pressure turbine, and exergy destruction in heat exchange process etc. To the extent that the heat losses are significantly greater in temperature than either air or water coolant resources, these losses also represent exergy losses which might be exploited to improve plant capacity and efficiency. This paper presents a hybrid Rankine cycle (HyRC) with an ambient pressure combustion (APC) boiler to address the recovery potential of these losses within the steam Rankine cycle (SRC). The APC–HyRC concept employs an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to supplement SRC and to reduce cycle energy losses to the atmosphere since organic fluids are capable of lowering cycle condensation temperature when a very low temperature heat sink is available. The case studies based on a 399 MW SRC unit show that the APC–HyRC configurations have better thermodynamic performance than its base case SRC at a cycle condensation temperature of 30 °C and below. The best APC–HyRC configuration generates up to 14% more power than the baseline steam cycle which is a 5.45% increase in overall gross efficiency with a cycle condensation temperature at 4 °C. - Highlights: • A hybrid Rankine cycle with water and organic fluid is presented. • Heat losses in exhaust flue gas and exhaust steam are reduced. • Exergy losses in regeneration process are reduced. • Efficiency improvements are made to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. • Issues in design/construction of greenfield and repowering project are discussed

  11. Design, Optimization and Analysis of Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for 5 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hence dampen the loads to the system, which is the focus of the current paper. The paper first p...... on the extrapolated loads, show that it is possible to construct a hydraulic soft yaw system, which is able to reduce the loads on the wind turbine significantly....... presents work previous done on this subject with focus on hydraulic yaw systems. By utilizing the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized. Results show that a significant...... reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw system and rotor shaft are possible, when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. The duty cycles, based...

  12. Impact of the use of a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling system in arid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ansary, Hany A.; Orfi, Jamel A.; Ali, Mohamed E.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cooling the air entering the compressor section of a gas turbine is a proven method of increasing turbine power output, especially during peak summer demand, and it is increasingly being used in powerplants worldwide. Two turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) systems are widely used: evaporative cooling and mechanical chilling. In this work, the prospects of using a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling. Such a system is capable of achieving a significant reduction in inlet air temperature that satisfies desired power output levels, while consuming less power than conventional mechanical chilling and less water than conventional evaporative cooling, thus combining the benefits of both approaches. Two hybrid system configurations are studied. In the first configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers that are coupled with dry coolers such that the condenser cooling water remains in a closed loop. In the second configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers but with conventional cooling towers. An assessment of the performance and economics of those two configurations is made by comparing them to conventional mechanical chilling and using realistic data. It was found that the TIAC systems are capable of boosting the power output of the gas turbine by 10% or more (of the power output of the ISO conditions). The cost operation analysis shows clearly the hybrid TIAC method with wet cooling has the advantage over the other methods and It would be profitable to install it in the new gas turbine power plants. The figure below shows a comparison of the water consumption for the three different cases. - Highlights: • New hybrid system for the turbine inlet air cooling is studied. • Hybrid system of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling is used. • Hybrid turbine inlet air cooling

  13. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  14. Estimating Health Condition of the Wind Turbine Drivetrain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition Monitoring (CM has been considered as an effective method to enhance the reliability of wind turbines and implement cost-effective maintenance. Thus, adopting an efficient approach for condition monitoring of wind turbines is desirable. This paper presents a data-driven model-based CM approach for wind turbines based on the online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM algorithm. A physical kinetic energy correction model is employed to normalize the temperature change to the value at the rated power output to eliminate the effect of variable speed operation of the turbines. The residual signal, obtained by comparing the predicted values and practical measurements, is processed by the physical correction model and then assessed with a Bonferroni interval method for fault diagnosis. Models have been validated using supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA data acquired from an operational wind farm, which contains various types of temperature data of the gearbox. The results show that the proposed method can detect more efficiently both the long-term aging characteristics and the short-term faults of the gearbox.

  15. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...

  16. Modeling and optimization of a utility system containing multiple extractions steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping

    2011-01-01

    Complex turbines with multiple controlled and/or uncontrolled extractions are popularly used in the processing industry and cogeneration plants to provide steam of different levels, electric power, and driving power. To characterize thermodynamic behavior under varying conditions, nonlinear mathematical models are developed based on energy balance, thermodynamic principles, and semi-empirical equations. First, the complex turbine is decomposed into several simple turbines from the controlled extraction stages and modeled in series. THM (The turbine hardware model) developing concept is applied to predict the isentropic efficiency of the decomposed simple turbines. Stodola's formulation is also used to simulate the uncontrolled extraction steam parameters. The thermodynamic properties of steam and water are regressed through linearization or piece-wise linearization. Second, comparison between the simulated results using the proposed model and the data in the working condition diagram provided by the manufacturer is conducted over a wide range of operations. The simulation results yield small deviation from the data in the working condition diagram where the maximum modeling error is 0.87% among the compared seven operation conditions. Last, the optimization model of a utility system containing multiple extraction turbines is established and a detailed case is analyzed. Compared with the conventional operation strategy, a maximum of 5.47% of the total operation cost is saved using the proposed optimization model. -- Highlights: → We develop a complete simulation model for steam turbine with multiple extractions. → We test the simulation model using the performance data of commercial turbines. → The simulation error of electric power generation is no more than 0.87%. → We establish a utility system operational optimization model. → The optimal industrial operation scheme featured with 5.47% of cost saving.

  17. Flow Simulation of Modified Duct System Wind Turbines Installed on Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosly, N.; Mohd, S.; Zulkafli, M. F.; Ghafir, M. F. Abdul; Shamsudin, S. S.; Muhammad, W. N. A. Wan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of airflow with a flow guide installed and output power generated by wind turbine system being installed on a pickup truck. The wind turbine models were modelled by using SolidWorks 2015 software. In order to investigate the characteristic of air flow inside the wind turbine system, a computer simulation (by using ANSYS Fluent software) is used. There were few models being designed and simulated, one without the rotor installed and another two with rotor installed in the wind turbine system. Three velocities being used for the simulation which are 16.7 m/s (60 km/h), 25 m/s (90 km/h) and 33.33 m/s (120 km/h). The study proved that the flow guide did give an impact to the output power produced by the wind turbine system. The predicted result from this study is the velocity of the air inside the ducting system of the present model is better that reference model. Besides, the flow guide implemented in the ducting system gives a big impact on the characteristics of the air flow.

  18. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1993--July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This Yearly Technical Progress Report covers the period August 3, 1993 through July 31, 1994 for Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program by Solar Turbines Incorporated under DOE Contract No. DE-AC421-93MC30246. As allowed by the Contract (Part 3, Section J, Attachment B) this report is also intended to fulfill the requirements for a fourth quarterly report. The objective of Phase 2 of the ATS Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized in the year 2000. During the period covered by this report, Solar has completed three of eight program tasks and has submitted topical reports. These three tasks included a Project Plan submission of information required by NEPA, and the selection of a Gas-Fueled Advanced Turbine System (GFATS). In the latest of the three tasks, Solar`s Engineering team identified an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine as the eventual outcome of DOE`s ATS program coupled with Solar`s internal New Product Introduction (NPI) program. This machine, designated ``ATS50`` will operate at a thermal efficiency (turbine shaft power/fuel LHV) of 50 percent, will emit less than 10 parts per million of NOx and will reduce the cost of electricity by 10 percent. It will also demonstrate levels of reliability, availability, maintainability, and durability (RAMD) equal to or better than those of today`s gas turbine systems. Current activity is concentrated in three of the remaining five tasks a Market Study, GFATS System Definition and Analysis, and the Design and Test of Critical Components.

  19. Applying Systems Engineering to Improve the Main Gas Turbine Exhaust System Maintenance Strategy for the CG-47 Ticonderoga Class Cruiser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    national security and prosperity (U.S. Navy 2014). In perspective, oceans are the lifeblood of the planet and its entire population . The National...maintenance strategy, reliability-centered maintenance, cost, schedule, performance, growth -work, new-work, optimal fleet response plan, time-directed...76 5. Main Gas Turbine Exhaust System Growth -Work ..................77 E. RECOMMENDATIONS TO IMPROVE THE MAIN GAS TURBINE EXHAUST SYSTEM

  20. Heat shield manifold system for a midframe case of a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Clinton A.; Eng, Jesse; Schopf, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-25

    A heat shield manifold system for an inner casing between a compressor and turbine assembly is disclosed. The heat shield manifold system protects the outer case from high temperature compressor discharge air, thereby enabling the outer case extending between a compressor and a turbine assembly to be formed from less expensive materials than otherwise would be required. In addition, the heat shield manifold system may be configured such that compressor bleed air is passed from the compressor into the heat shield manifold system without passing through a conventional flange to flange joint that is susceptible to leakage.

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  2. A review of test results on parabolic dish solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Rankine engines and for production of process steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-11-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies. Most of the tests were at modules and assemblies that used a dish-mounted, organic Rankine cycle turbine for production of electric power. Some tests were also run on equipment for production of process steam or for production of electricity using dish-mounted reciprocating steam engines. These tests indicate that early modules achieve efficiencies of about 18 percent in converting sunlight to electricity (excluding the inverter but including parasitics). A number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other operating experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  3. Aero-hydro-elastic simulation platform for wave energy systems and floating wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallesoee, B.S.

    2011-01-15

    This report present results from the PSO project 2008-1-10092 entitled Aero-Hydro-Elastic Simulation Platform for Wave Energy Systems and floating Wind Turbines that deals with measurements, modelling and simulations of the world's first combined wave and wind energy platform. The floating energy conversion platform, Poseidon, is owned and operated by Floating Power Plant A/S. The platform has been operating for two test periods; one period where it was operating as a wave energy conversion platform only and one period where the three turbines was mounted and the platform operated as a combined wind and wave energy platform. The PSO project has equipped the platform with comprehensive measurements equipment for measuring platform motion, wave and wind conditions and turbine loads. Data from the first test period has been used for determine if the turbine could be mounted on the platform. Preliminary analysis of data from the second test period indicates that the platform is suitable as wind turbine foundation and that the turbines reduce the platform motion. (Author)

  4. Overview of Modelling and Advanced Control Strategies for Wind Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Simani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this paper comes from a real need to have an overview of the challenges of modelling and control for very demanding systems, such as wind turbine systems, which require reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety over power conversion efficiency. These issues have begun to stimulate research and development in the wide control community particularly for these installations that need a high degree of “sustainability”. Note that this represents a key point for offshore wind turbines, since they are characterised by expensive and/or safety critical maintenance work. In this case, a clear conflict exists between ensuring a high degree of availability and reducing maintenance times, which affect the final energy cost. On the other hand, wind turbines have highly nonlinear dynamics, with a stochastic and uncontrollable driving force as input in the form of wind speed, thus representing an interesting challenge also from the modelling point of view. Suitable control methods can provide a sustainable optimisation of the energy conversion efficiency over wider than normally expected working conditions. Moreover, a proper mathematical description of the wind turbine system should be able to capture the complete behaviour of the process under monitoring, thus providing an important impact on the control design itself. In this way, the control scheme could guarantee prescribed performance, whilst also giving a degree of “tolerance” to possible deviation of characteristic properties or system parameters from standard conditions, if properly included in the wind turbine model itself. The most important developments in advanced controllers for wind turbines are also briefly referenced, and open problems in the areas of modelling of wind turbines are finally outlined.

  5. Modern technical diagnostic system for the main components of powerful turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezovit, G.P.; Uglyarenko, V.P.; Burlaka, S.I.; Goroz, N.I.; Orinin, S.E.; Komaritsa, V.N.; Zav'yalov, D.N.; Mazurenko, O.A.

    2011-01-01

    The modern diagnostic system to monitor the technical state of a powerful turbine generator is considered. This system permits the detection of defects in its main components and cooling system at the early stage of their development, prevention of damage and, as a consequence, emergency shutdown of nuclear power units

  6. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, D.-C.; Chuang, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses of the plant for combustion gas turbine based power generation systems. Exergy analysis is performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. The results show the exergy analyses for a steam cycle system predict the plant efficiency more precisely. The plant efficiency for partial load operation is lower than full load operation. Increasing the pinch points will decrease the combined cycle plant efficiency. The engineering design is based on inlet air-cooling and natural gas preheating for increasing the net power output and efficiency. To evaluate the energy utilization, one combined cycle unit and one cogeneration system, consisting of gas turbine generators, heat recovery steam generators, one steam turbine generator with steam extracted for process have been analyzed. The analytical results are used for engineering design and component selection

  7. Reliability Assessment and Energy Loss Evaluation for Modern Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao

    . The cost of energy in wind turbine system is then addressed in Chapter 5, where different wind classes and operation modes of the reactive power injection are taken into account. Finally, the internal and external challenges for power converters in the DFIG systems to ride through balanced grid faults......With a steady increase of the wind power penetration, the demands to the wind power technology are becoming the same as those to the conventional energy sources. In order to fulfill the requirements, power electronics technology is the key for the modern wind turbine systems – both the Doubly...... to explore the reliability and cost of energy in the modern wind turbine systems. Moreover, advanced control strategies have been proposed and developed for an efficient and reliable operation during the normal condition as well as under grid faults. The documented thesis starts with the descriptions...

  8. A Plan for Revolutionary Change in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of Distributed Engine Control technology on the gas turbine engine has been a vexing challenge for the controls community. A successful implementation requires the resolution of multiple technical issues in areas such as network communications, power distribution, and system integration, but especially in the area of high temperature electronics. Impeding the achievement has been the lack of a clearly articulated message about the importance of the distributed control technology to future turbine engine system goals and objectives. To resolve these issues and bring the technology to fruition has, and will continue to require, a broad coalition of resources from government, industry, and academia. This presentation will describe the broad challenges facing the next generation of advanced control systems and the plan which is being put into action to successfully implement the technology on the next generation of gas turbine engine systems.

  9. Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System With Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygaard; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2012-01-01

    Small-signal stability analysis of power system oscillations is a well established field within power system analysis, but not much attention has yet been paid to systems with a high penetration of wind turbines and with large wind power plants (WPP). In this paper a comprehensive analysis...... is presented which assesses the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind turbine (WT) model with all grid relevant control functions is used in the study....... The WT is, furthermore, equipped with a park level WPP voltage controller and comparisons are presented. The WT model for this work is a validated dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT. The study is based on modal analysis which is complemented with time domain simulations on the nonlinear...

  10. Impact of Penetration Wind Turbines on Transient Stability in Sulbagsel Electrical Interconnection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtrimarini Karim, Andi; Mawar Said, Sri; Chaerah Gunadin, Indar; Darusman B, Mustadir

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a rotor angle analysis when transient disturbance occurs when wind turbines enter the southern Sulawesi electrical interconnection system (Sulbagsel) both without and with the addition of a Power Stabilizer (PSS) control device. Time domain simulation (TDS) method is used to analyze the rotor angle deviation (δ) and rotor angle velocity (ω). A total of 44 buses, 47 lines, 6 transformers, 15 generators and 34 loads were modeled for analysis after the inclusion of large-scale wind turbines in the Sidrap and Jeneponto areas. The simulation and computation results show the addition of PSS devices to the system when transient disturbance occurs when the winds turbine entering the Sulbagsel electrical system is able to dampen and improve the rotor angle deviation (δ) and the rotor angle velocity (ω) towards better thus helping the system to continue operation at a new equilibrium point.

  11. Advanced turbine systems program. Final report, August 3, 1993--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Six tasks were approved under the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) extension program. The six tasks include the following: Task 5.0 -- Market Study. The objective of the market study task is to focus on distributed generation prospects for an industrial ATS, using the Allison ATS family as the primary gas turbine systems. Task 6.0 -- Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System (GFATS) Definition and Analysis. Task 8.01 -- Castcool{reg_sign} Blades Fabrication Process Development. Task 8.04 -- ATS Low Emission Combustion System. Task 8.07 -- Ceramic Vane Design and Evaluation. Task 9.0 -- Program Management. Each of these tasks is described, progress is discussed, and results are given.

  12. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  13. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G

    2014-07-07

    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  14. STUDY ON DISCHARGE HEAT UTILIZATION OF 250 MWe PCMSR TURBINE SYSTEM FOR DESALINATION USING MODIFIED MED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor is one type of Advanced Nuclear Reactors. The PCMSR has benefit charasteristics of very efficient fuel use, high safety charecteristic as well as high thermodinamics efficiency. This is due to its breeding capability, inherently safe characteristic and totally passive safety system. The PCMSR design consists of three module, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. Analysis in performed by parametric calculation of the turbine system to calculate the turbine system efficiency and the hat available for desalination. After that the mass and energi balance of desalination process are calculated to calculate the amount of distillate produced and the amount of feed sea water needed. The turbine module is designed to be operated at maximum temperature cycle of 1373 K (1200 0C and minimum temperature cycle of 333 K (60 0K. The parametric calculation shows that the optimum turbine pressure ratio is 4.3 that gives the conversion efficiency of 56 % for 4 stages turbine and 4 stages compressor and equiped with recuperator. In this optimum condition, the 250 MWe PCMSR turbine system produces 196 MWth of waste heat with the temperature of cooling fluid in the range from 327 K (54 0C to 368 K (92 0C. This waste heat can be utilized for desalination. By using MMED desalination system, this waste heat can be used to produce fresh water (distillate from sea water feed. The amount of the destillate produced is 48663 ton per day by using 15 distillation effects. The performance ratio value is 2.8727 kg/MJ by using 15 distillation effects. Keywords: PCMSR, discharged heat, MMED desalination   PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor merupakan salah satu tipe dari Reaktor Nuklir Maju. PCMSR memiliki keuntungan berupa penggunaan bahan bakar yang sangat efisisien, sifat keselamatan tinggi dan sekaligus efisiensi termodinamika yang tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kemampuan pembiakan bahan bakar, sifat

  15. Modeling an autonomous wind turbine electric pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Forcos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the variable renewable energy sources, wind energy integration can be made using storage methods. All of these have been developed during time, but one might be more accessible than others because is using a free natural resource, water. This is pump storage. The purpose of this paper is modeling an autonomous wind turbine connected to an electric pump, in the aim of storage, and finally the determination of the efficiency.

  16. Oscillatory Stability and Eigenvalue Sensitivity Analysis of A DFIG Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lihui; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and oscillatory stability analysis of a wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). A detailed mathematical model of DFIG wind turbine with vector-control loops is developed, based on which the loci of the system Jacobian's eigenvalues have been analyzed......, showing that, without appropriate controller tuning a Hopf bifurcation can occur in such a system due to various factors, such as wind speed. Subsequently, eigenvalue sensitivity with respect to machine and control parameters is performed to assess their impacts on system stability. Moreover, the Hopf...

  17. A fiber-optic ice detection system for large-scale wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-gil; Sampath, Umesh; Kim, Hyunjin; Song, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Icing causes substantial problems in the integrity of large-scale wind turbines. In this work, a fiber-optic sensor system for detection of icing with an arrayed waveguide grating is presented. The sensor system detects Fresnel reflections from the ends of the fibers. The transition in Fresnel reflection due to icing gives peculiar intensity variations, which categorizes the ice, the water, and the air medium on the wind turbine blades. From the experimental results, with the proposed sensor system, the formation of icing conditions and thickness of ice were identified successfully in real time.

  18. An air bearing system for small high speed gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A. B.; Davies, S. J.; Nimir, Y. L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the second phase of an experimental program concerning the application of air bearings to small turbomachinery test rigs and small gas turbines. The first phase examined externally pressurized (EP) journal bearings, with a novel EP thrust bearing, for application to 'warm air' test rigs, and was entirely successful at rotational speeds in excess of 100,000 rpm. This second phase examined several designs of tilting pad-spiring journal bearings, one with a novel form of externally pressurized pad, but all using the original EP thrust bearing. The designs tested are described, including some oscillogram traces, for tests up to a maximum of 70,000 rpm; the most successful using a carbon pad-titanium beam spring arrangement. The thrust bearing which gave trouble-free operation throughout, is also described. The results of an original experiment to measure the 'runway speed' of a radial inflow turbine are also presented, which show that overspeeds of 58 percent above the design speed can result from free-power turbine coupling failure.

  19. Miniature horizontal axis wind turbine system for multipurpose application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, F.J.; Yuan, F.G.; Hu, J.Z.; Qiu, Y.P.

    2014-01-01

    A MWT (miniature wind turbine) has received great attention recently for powering WISP (Wireless Intelligent Sensor Platform). In this study, two MHAWTs (miniature horizontal axis wind turbines) with and without gear transmission were designed and fabricated. A physics-based model was proposed and the optimal load resistances of the MHAWTs were predicted. The open circuit voltages, output powers and net efficiencies were measured under various ambient winds and load resistances. The experimental results showed the optimal load resistances matched well with the predicted results; the MHAWT without gear obtained higher output power at the wind speed of 2 m/s to 6 m/s, while the geared MHAWT exhibited better performance at the wind speed higher than 6 m/s. In addition, a DCM (discontinuous conduction mode) buck-boost converter was adopted as an interface circuit to maximize the charging power from MHAWTs to rechargeable batteries, exhibiting maximum efficiencies above 85%. The charging power reached about 8 mW and 36 mW at the wind speeds of 4 m/s and 6 m/s respectively, which indicated that the MHAWTs were capable for sufficient energy harvesting for powering low-power electronics continuously. - Highlights: • Performance of the miniature wind turbines with and without gears was compared. • The physics-based model was established and proved successfully. • The interface circuit with efficiency of more than 85% was designed

  20. Steam turbine power plant having improved testing method and system for turbine inlet valves associated with downstream inlet valves preferably having feedforward position managed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardi, F.; Ronnen, U.G.

    1981-01-01

    A throttle valve test system for a large steam turbine functions in a turbine control system to provide throttle and governor valve test operations. The control system operates with a valve management capability to provide for pre-test governor valve mode transfer when desired, and it automatically generates feedforward valve position demand signals during and after valve tests to satisfy test and load control requirements and to provide smooth transition from valve test status to normal single or sequential governor valve operation. A digital computer is included in the control system to provide control and test functions in the generation of the valve position demand signals