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Sample records for rankin scale scores

  1. Deriving modified Rankin scores from medical case-records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terence J; Ray, Gautamananda; Atula, Sari; Walters, Matthew R; Dawson, Jesse; Lees, Kennedy R

    2008-12-01

    Modified Rankin score (mRS) is traditionally graded using a face-to-face or telephone interview. Certain stroke assessment scales can be derived from a review of a patient's case-record alone. We hypothesized that mRS could be successfully derived from the narrative within patient case-records. Sequential patients attending our cerebrovascular outpatient clinic were included. Two independent, blinded clinicians, trained in mRS, assessed case-records to derive mRS. They scored "certainty" of their grading on a 5-point Likert scale. Agreement between derived and traditional face-to-face mRS was calculated using attribute agreement analysis. Fifty patients with a range of disabilities were included. Case-record appraisers were poor at deriving mRS (k=0.34 against standard). Derived mRS grades showed poor agreement between observers (k=0.33). There was no relationship between certainty of derived mRS and proportion of correct grades (P=0.727). Accurate mRS cannot be derived from standard hospital records. Direct mRS interview is still required for clinical trials.

  2. Capillary Transit Time Heterogeneity Is Associated with Modified Rankin Scale Score at Discharge in Patients with Bilateral High Grade Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibu Mundiyanapurath

    Full Text Available Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI is inherently unreliable in patients with severe perfusion abnormalities. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a novel index of microvascular flow-patterns, so-called capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH to that of the commonly used delay parameter Tmax in patients with bilateral high grade internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS.Consecutive patients with bilateral ICAS ≥ 70%NASCET who underwent PWI were retrospectively examined. Maps of CTH and Tmax were analyzed with a volumetric approach using several thresholds. Predictors of favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale at discharge 0-2 were identified using univariate and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis.Eighteen patients were included. CTH ≥ 30s differentiated best between patients with favorable and unfavorable outcome when both hemispheres were taken into account (sensitivity 83%, specificity 73%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.833 [confidence interval (CI 0.635; 1.000]; p = 0.027. The best discrimination using Tmax was achieved with a threshold of ≥ 4s (sensitivity 83%, specificity 64%, AUC 0.803 [CI 0.585;1.000]; p = 0.044. The highest AUC was found for left sided volume with CTH ≥ 15s (sensitivity 83%, specificity 91%, AUC 0.924 [CI 0.791;1.000]; p = 0.005.The study suggests that CTH is superior to Tmax in discriminating ICAS patients with favorable from non-favorable outcome. This finding may reflect the simultaneous involvement of large vessels and microvessels in ICAS and underscore the need to diagnose and manage both aspects of the disease.

  3. Experimental and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Small-Scale Solar Organic Rankine Cycle (SORC System

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    Suresh Baral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A small-scale solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a promising renewable energy-driven power generation technology that can be used in the rural areas of developing countries. A prototype was developed and tested for its performance characteristics under a range of solar source temperatures. The solar ORC system power output was calculated based on the thermal and solar collector efficiency. The maximum solar power output was observed in April. The solar ORC unit power output ranged from 0.4 kW to 1.38 kW during the year. The highest power output was obtained when the expander inlet pressure was 13 bar and the solar source temperature was 120 °C. The area of the collector for the investigation was calculated based on the meteorological conditions of Busan City (South Korea. In the second part, economic and thermoeconomic analyses were carried out to determine the cost of energy per kWh from the solar ORC. The selling price of electricity generation was found to be $0.68/kWh and $0.39/kWh for the prototype and low cost solar ORC, respectively. The sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to find the influencing economic parameters for the change in NPV. Finally, the sustainability index was calculated to assess the sustainable development of the solar ORC system.

  4. Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine power cycles for a small scale solar driven reverse osmosis desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchanche, B.F.; Lambrinos, Gr.; Frangoudakis, A.; Papadakis, G. [Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, 11855 Athens (Greece)

    2010-04-15

    Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine heat engines is performed to identify the most suitable engine for driving a small scale reverse osmosis desalination system. Three modified engines derived from simple Rankine engine using regeneration (incorporation of regenerator or feedliquid heaters) are analyzed through a novel approach, called exergy-topological method based on the combination of exergy flow graphs, exergy loss graphs, and thermoeconomic graphs. For the investigations, three working fluids are considered: R134a, R245fa and R600. The incorporated devices produce different results with different fluids. Exergy destruction throughout the systems operating with R134a was quantified and illustrated using exergy diagrams. The sites with greater exergy destruction include turbine, evaporator and feedliquid heaters. The most critical components include evaporator, turbine and mixing units. A regenerative heat exchanger has positive effects only when the engine operates with dry fluids; feedliquid heaters improve the degree of thermodynamic perfection of the system but lead to loss in exergetic efficiency. Although, different modifications produce better energy conversion and less exergy destroyed, the improvements are not significant enough and subsequent modifications of the simple Rankine engine cannot be considered as economically profitable for heat source temperature below 100 C. As illustration, a regenerator increases the system's energy efficiency by 7%, the degree of thermodynamic perfection by 3.5% while the exergetic efficiency is unchanged in comparison with the simple Rankine cycle, with R600 as working fluid. The impacts of heat source temperature and pinch point temperature difference on engine's performance are also examined. Finally, results demonstrate that energy analysis combined with the mathematical graph theory is a powerful tool in performance assessments of Rankine based power systems and permits meaningful comparison of

  5. Prediction of two month modified Rankin Scale with an ordinal prediction model in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

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    Sneade Mary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH is a devastating event with a frequently disabling outcome. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model to predict an ordinal clinical outcome at two months in patients with aSAH. Methods We studied patients enrolled in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT, a randomized multicentre trial to compare coiling and clipping in aSAH patients. Several models were explored to estimate a patient's outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS at two months after aSAH. Our final model was validated internally with bootstrapping techniques. Results The study population comprised of 2,128 patients of whom 159 patients died within 2 months (8%. Multivariable proportional odds analysis identified World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS grade as the most important predictor, followed by age, sex, lumen size of the aneurysm, Fisher grade, vasospasm on angiography, and treatment modality. The model discriminated moderately between those with poor and good mRS scores (c statistic = 0.65, with minor optimism according to bootstrap re-sampling (optimism corrected c statistic = 0.64. Conclusion We presented a calibrated and internally validated ordinal prognostic model to predict two month mRS in aSAH patients who survived the early stage up till a treatment decision. Although generalizability of the model is limited due to the selected population in which it was developed, this model could eventually be used to support clinical decision making after external validation. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, Number ISRCTN49866681

  6. Association between Cerebral Performance Category, Modified Rankin Scale, and discharge disposition after cardiac arrest.

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    Rittenberger, Jon C; Raina, Ketki; Holm, Margo B; Kim, Young Joo; Callaway, Clifton W

    2011-08-01

    Cerebral Performance Category (CPC), Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and discharge disposition are commonly used to determine outcomes following cardiac arrest. This study tested the association between these outcome measures. Retrospective chart review of subjects who survived to hospital discharge between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2009 was conducted. Charts were reviewed for outcomes (CPC, mRS, and discharge disposition). Discharge disposition was classified in 6 categories: home with no services, home with home healthcare, acute rehabilitation facility, skilled nursing facility, long term acute care facility, and hospice. Intra-and inter-rater reliabilities were calculated for outcome measures. Rates of "good outcome" (defined as a CPC of 1-2, mRS of 0-3, or discharge disposition to home or acute rehabilitation facility) were also determined. Kendall's tau correlation coefficients explored relationships among measures. A total of 211 charts were reviewed. Mean age was 60 years (SD 16), the majority (75%) were white males, in- and out-of hospital cardiac arrests were equally prevalent, and ventricular dysrhythmia was most common (N=109, 52%). Half of the subjects were comatose following resuscitation and 75 (35%) received therapeutic hypothermia. Inter-rater percentage agreement for CPC and mRS abstraction was 95.24% (kappa 0.89, pdefinition, 47 subjects (22%) using the mRS definition, and 129 subjects (61%) subjects using discharge disposition definition. There was fair relationship between the CPC and mRS (tau 0.43) and poor relationships between CPC and discharge disposition (tau 0.23) and between mRS and discharge disposition (tau 0.25). Determination of the CPC, mRS and discharge disposition at hospital discharge is reliable from chart review. These instruments provide widely differing estimates of "good outcome". Agreement between these measures ranges from poor to fair. A more nuanced outcome measure designed for the post-cardiac arrest population is needed

  7. Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Small-Scale W912H0-12-C-0059 Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine /Generator Technology 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( SI 5d...same fuel input. This value is used for calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reductions and economic results. Life cycle economics of the system are...associated with engine and other electric generator systems , waste heat from steam or heat distribution, waste heat from boiler exhausts, and heat

  8. Validity of the FOUR Score Coma Scale in the Medical Intensive Care Unit

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    Iyer, Vivek N.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Danielson, Richard D.; Zubkov, Alexander Y.; Elmer, Jennifer L.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the FOUR (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness) score (ranging from 0 to 16), a new coma scale consisting of 4 components (eye response, motor response, brainstem reflexes, and respiration pattern), when used by the staff members of a medical intensive care unit (ICU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This interobserver agreement study prospectively evaluated the use of the FOUR score to describe the condition of 100 critically ill patients from May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2008. We compared the FOUR score to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. For each patient, the FOUR score and the GCS score were determined by a randomly selected staff pair (nurse/fellow, nurse/consultant, fellow/fellow, or fellow/consultant). Pair wise weighted κ values were calculated for both scores for each observer pair. RESULTS: The interrater agreement with the FOUR score was excellent (weighted κ: eye response, 0.96; motor response, 0.97; brainstem reflex, 0.98; respiration pattern, 1.00) and similar to that obtained with the GCS (weighted κ: eye response, 0.96; motor response, 0.97; verbal response, 0.98). In terms of the predictive power for poor neurologic outcome (Modified Rankin Scale score, 3-6), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 for the FOUR score and 0.76 for the GCS score. The mortality rate for patients with the lowest FOUR score of 0 (89%) was higher than that for patients with the lowest GCS score of 3 (71%). CONCLUSION: The interrater agreement of FOUR score results was excellent among medical intensivists. In contrast to the GCS, all components of the FOUR score can be rated even when patients have undergone intubation. The FOUR score is a good predictor of the prognosis of critically ill patients and has important advantages over the GCS in the ICU setting. PMID:19648386

  9. Derivation and Validation of a Novel Prognostic Scale (Modified-Stroke Subtype, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project Classification, Age, and Prestroke Modified Rankin) to Predict Early Mortality in Acute Stroke.

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    Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Quinn, Terence J; Alder, Sarah; Clark, Allan B; Musgrave, Stanley D; Langhorne, Peter; Potter, John F; Myint, Phyo Kyaw

    2016-01-01

    The stroke subtype, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification, age, and prestroke modified Rankin (SOAR) score is a prognostic scale proposed for early mortality prediction after acute stroke. We aimed to evaluate whether including a measure of initial stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified-SOAR [mSOAR] scores) would improve the prognostic accuracy. Using Anglia Stroke and Heart Clinical Network data, 2008 to 2011, we assessed the performance of SOAR and mSOAR against in-hospital mortality using area under the receiver operating curve statistics. We externally validated the prognostic utility of SOAR and mSOAR using an independent cohort data set from Glasgow. We described calibration using Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. A total of 1002 patients were included in the derivation cohort, and 105 (10.5%) died as inpatients. The area under the receiver operating curves for outcome of early mortality derived from the SOAR and mSOAR scores were 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.84) and 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.86), respectively (P=0.001). The external validation data set contained 1012 patients with stroke; of which, 121 (12.0%) patients died within 90 days. The mSOAR scores identified the risk of early mortality ranging from 3% to 42%. External validation of mSOAR score yielded an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.88) for outcome of early mortality. Calibration was good (P=0.70 for the Hosmer-Lemeshow test). Adding National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale data to create a modified-SOAR score improved prognostic utility in both derivation and validation data sets. The mSOAR may have clinical utility by using easily available data to predict mortality. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Preliminary Development of a Free Piston Expander–Linear Generator for Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Waste Heat Recovery System

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    Gaosheng Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel free piston expander-linear generator (FPE-LG integrated unit was proposed to recover waste heat efficiently from vehicle engine. This integrated unit can be used in a small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system and can directly convert the thermodynamic energy of working fluid into electric energy. The conceptual design of the free piston expander (FPE was introduced and discussed. A cam plate and the corresponding valve train were used to control the inlet and outlet valve timing of the FPE. The working principle of the FPE-LG was proven to be feasible using an air test rig. The indicated efficiency of the FPE was obtained from the p–V indicator diagram. The dynamic characteristics of the in-cylinder flow field during the intake and exhaust processes of the FPE were analyzed based on Fluent software and 3D numerical simulation models using a computation fluid dynamics method. Results show that the indicated efficiency of the FPE can reach 66.2% and the maximal electric power output of the FPE-LG can reach 22.7 W when the working frequency is 3 Hz and intake pressure is 0.2 MPa. Two large-scale vortices are formed during the intake process because of the non-uniform distribution of velocity and pressure. The vortex flow will convert pressure energy and kinetic energy into thermodynamic energy for the working fluid, which weakens the power capacity of the working fluid.

  11. Energy, Exergy and Economic Evaluation Comparison of Small-Scale Single and Dual Pressure Organic Rankine Cycles Integrated with Low-Grade Heat Sources

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    Armando Fontalvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat sources such as solar thermal, geothermal, exhaust gases and industrial waste heat are suitable alternatives for power generation which can be exploited by means of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. This paper combines thermodynamic optimization and economic analysis to assess the performance of single and dual pressure ORC operating with different organic fluids and targeting small-scale applications. Maximum power output is lower than 45 KW while the temperature of the heat source varies in the range 100–200 °C. The studied working fluids, namely R1234yf, R1234ze(E and R1234ze(Z, are selected based on environmental, safety and thermal performance criteria. Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE and Specific Investment Cost (SIC for two operation conditions are presented: maximum power output and maximum thermal efficiency. Results showed that R1234ze(Z achieves the highest net power output (up to 44 kW when net power output is optimized. Regenerative ORC achieves the highest performance when thermal efficiency is optimized (up to 18%. Simple ORC is the most cost-effective among the studied cycle configurations, requiring a selling price of energy of 0.3 USD/kWh to obtain a payback period of 8 years. According to SIC results, the working fluid R1234ze(Z exhibits great potential for simple ORC when compared to conventional R245fa.

  12. Experimental Assessment of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Operating at Subcritical and Supercritical Conditions in a Small-Scale Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

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    Marija Lazova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of a helical coil heat exchanger operating at subcritical and supercritical conditions is analysed. The counter-current heat exchanger was specially designed to operate at a maximal pressure and temperature of 42 bar and 200 °C, respectively. The small-scale solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC installation has a net power output of 3 kWe. The first tests were done in a laboratory where an electrical heater was used instead of the concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T collectors. The inlet heating fluid temperature of the water was 95 °C. The effects of different parameters on the heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger were investigated. Particularly, the performance analysis was elaborated considering the changes of the mass flow rate of the working fluid (R-404A in the range of 0.20–0.33 kg/s and the inlet pressure varying from 18 bar up to 41 bar. Hence, the variation of the heat flux was in the range of 5–9 kW/m2. The results show that the working fluid’s mass flow rate has significant influence on the heat transfer rate rather than the operational pressure. Furthermore, from the comparison between the experimental results with the heat transfer correlations from the literature, the experimental results fall within the uncertainty range for the supercritical analysis but there is a deviation of the investigated subcritical correlations.

  13. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

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    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  14. Low-Concentration Solar-Power Systems based on Organic Rankine Cycles for Distributed-Scale Applications:Overview and Further Developments

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    Christos N. Markides

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the emergence and development of low- to medium-grade thermal-energy conversion systems for distributed power generation based on thermodynamic vapour-phase heat-engine cycles undergone by organic working-fluids, namely organic Rankine cycles (ORCs. ORC power systems are, to some extent, a relatively established and mature technology that is well-suited to converting low-/medium-grade heat (at temperatures up to ~ 300 – 400 °C to useful work, at an output power scale from a few kW to 10s of MW. Thermal efficiencies in excess of 25% are achievable at higher temperatures and larger scales, and efforts are currently in progress to improve the overall economic viability, and thus uptake, of ORC power systems by focusing on advanced architectures, working-fluid selection, heat exchangers and expansion machines. Solar-power systems based on ORC technology have a significant potential to be used for distributed power generation, by converting thermal energy from simple and low-cost non-concentrated or low-concentration collectors to mechanical, hydraulic or electrical energy. Current fields of use include mainly geothermal and biomass/biogas, as well as the recovery and conversion of waste heat, leading to improved energy efficiency, primary energy (i.e. fuel use and emission minimization, yet the technology is highly transferable to solar power generation as an affordable alternative to small- to medium-scale photovoltaic (PV systems. Solar-ORC systems offer naturally the advantages of providing a simultaneous thermal-energy output for hot water provision and/or space heating, and the particularly interesting possibility of relatively straightforward on-site (thermal energy storage. Key performance characteristics are presented, and important heat transfer effects that act to limit performance are identified as noteworthy directions of future research for the further development of this technology.

  15. Demystifying the GMAT: Where Do Scale Scores Comes from?

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    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) scaled scores convey the same level of ability over time, and GMAT percentiles convey the competitiveness of scores relative to today's GMAT test takers. In an earlier column, the author discussed the role of the GMAT scaled scores and percentiles. Here, he gets more technical and discusses how GMAT scaled…

  16. The SOAR (Stroke subtype, Oxford Community Stroke Project classification, Age, prestroke modified Rankin) score strongly predicts early outcomes in acute stroke.

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    Myint, Phyo Kyaw; Clark, Allan B; Kwok, Chun Shing; Davis, John; Durairaj, Ramesh; Dixit, Anand K; Sharma, Anil K; Ford, Gary A; Potter, John F

    2014-04-01

    Previous prognostic scoring systems in predicting stroke mortality are complex, require multiple measures that vary with time and failed to produce a simple scoring system. The study aims to derive and internally validate a stroke prognostic scoring system to predict early mortality and hospital length of stay. Data from a U.K. multicenter stroke register were examined (1997-2010). Using a prior hypothesis based on our and others observations, we selected five patient-related factors (age, gender, stroke subtype, clinical classification, and prestroke disability) as candidate prognostic indicators. An 8-point score was derived based on multiple logistic regression model using four out of five variables. Performance of the model was assessed by plotting the estimated probability of in-hospital death against the actual probability by testing for overfitting (calibration) and area under the curve methods (discrimination). The total sample consisted of 12,355 acute stroke patients (ischemic stroke 91.0%). The score predicted both in-patient and seven-day mortality. The crude in-patient mortality were 1.57%, 4.02%, 10.65%, 21.41%, 46.60%, 62.72%, and 75.81% for those who scored 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. The calibration of the model revealed no evidence of overfitting (estimated overfitting 0.001). The area under the curve values for both in-hospital and seven-day mortality were 0.79. The score predicted length of stay with a higher score was associated with longer median length of stay in those discharged alive and shorter median length of stay in those who died (P for both <0.001). A simple 8-point clinical score is highly predictive of acute stroke mortality and length of hospital stay. It could be used as prognostic tool in service planning and also to risk-stratify patients to use these outcomes as markers of stroke care quality across institutions. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  17. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

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    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  18. Automatic scoring of the severity of psoriasis scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas. The pr...

  19. Personality correlates of scores on the Depression-Happiness Scale.

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    Cammock, T; Joseph, S; Lewis, C A

    1994-12-01

    The present aim was to estimate the internal reliability and convergent validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale. Internal reliability was .90, and higher scores on the Depression-Happiness Scale were associated with more internal control (.28), higher self-esteem (.36), and lower trait anxiety (-.69) among 45 undergraduates at the University of Ulster. The results provide some evidence for the validation of the Depression-Happiness Scale as well as confirming previous research on the correlates of happiness.

  20. Computer scoring of the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale.

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    Barchard, Kimberly A; Bajgar, Jane; Leaf, Duncan Ermini; Lane, Richard D

    2010-05-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS; Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlan, 1990) is the most commonly used measure of differentiation and complexity in the use of emotion words and is associated with important clinical outcomes. Hand scoring the LEAS is time consuming. Existing programs for scoring open-ended responses cannot mimic LEAS hand scoring. Therefore, Leaf and Barchard (2006) developed the Program for Open-Ended Scoring (POES) to score the LEAS. In this article, we report a study in which the reliability and validity of POES scoring were examined. In the study, we used three participant types (adult community members, university students, children), three LEAS versions (paper based, computer based, and the LEAS for children), and a diverse set of criterion variables. Across this variety of conditions, the four POES scoring methods had internal consistencies and validities that were comparable to hand scoring, indicating that POES scoring can be used in clinical practice and other applied settings in which hand scoring is impractical.

  1. Working Fluid Stability in Large-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle-Units Using Siloxanes—Long-Term Experiences and Fluid Recycling

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    Tobias G. Erhart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The results in this work show the influence of long-term operation on the decomposition of working fluids in eight different organic rankine cycle (ORC power plants (both heat-led and electricity-led in a range of 900 kW el to 2 MW el . All case study plants are using octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM as a working fluid; the facilities are between six to 12 years old. Detailed analyses, including the fluid distribution throughout the cycle, are conducted on one system. All presented fluid samples are analyzed via head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS. Besides the siloxane composition, the influence of contaminants, such as mineral oil-based lubricants (and their components, is examined. In most cases, the original working fluid degrades to fractions of siloxanes with a lower boiling point (low boilers and fractions with a higher boiling point (high boilers. As a consequence of the analyses, a new fluid recycling and management system was designed and tested in one case study plant (Case Study #8. Pre-post comparisons of fluid samples prove the effectiveness of the applied methods. The results show that the recovery of used working fluid offers an alternative to the purchase of fresh fluid, since operating costs can be significantly reduced. For large facilities, the prices for new fluid range from € 15 per liter (in 2006 to € 22 per liter (in 2013, which is a large reinvestment, especially in light of filling volumes of 4000 liters to 7000 liters per unit. Using the aforementioned method, a price of € 8 per liter of recovered MDM can be achieved.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of the Kampala Trauma Score using estimated Abbreviated Injury Scale scores and physician opinion.

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    Gardner, Andrew; Forson, Paa Kobina; Oduro, George; Stewart, Barclay; Dike, Nkechi; Glover, Paul; Maio, Ronald F

    2017-01-01

    The Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) has been proposed as a triage tool for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to examine the diagnostic accuracy of KTS in predicting emergency department outcomes using timely injury estimation with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score and physician opinion to calculate KTS scores. This was a diagnostic accuracy study of KTS among injured patients presenting to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital A&E, Ghana. South African Triage Scale (SATS); KTS component variables, including AIS scores and physician opinion for serious injury quantification; and ED disposition were collected. Agreement between estimated AIS score and physician opinion were analyzed with normal, linear weighted, and maximum kappa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of KTS-AIS and KTS-physician opinion was performed to evaluate each measure's ability to predict A&E mortality and need for hospital admission to the ward or theatre. A total of 1053 patients were sampled. There was moderate agreement between AIS criteria and physician opinion by normal (κ=0.41), weighted (κ lin =0.47), and maximum (κ max =0.53) kappa. A&E mortality ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.93, KTS-physician opinion 0.89, and SATS 0.88 with overlapping 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Hospital admission ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.73, KTS-physician opinion 0.79, and SATS 0.71 with statistical similarity. When evaluating only patients with serious injuries, KTS-AIS (ROC 0.88) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.88) performed similarly to SATS (ROC 0.78) in predicting A&E mortality. The ROC area for KTS-AIS (ROC 0.71; 95%CI 0.66-0.75) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.74; 95%CI 0.69-0.79) was significantly greater than SATS (ROC 0.57; 0.53-0.60) with regard to need for admission. KTS predicted mortality and need for admission from the ED well when early estimation of the number of serious injuries was used, regardless of method (i.e. AIS criteria or physician opinion

  3. Dyspepsia and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS Score

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    Gontar Alamsyah Siregar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyspepsia is a constellation of symptoms referable to the gastroduodenal region of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Emotional disturbances are often associated with dyspepsia and have been proposed as one of the possible causes of dyspepsia. This study was aimed to evaluate the difference between the severity of dyspepsia using porto alegre dyspeptic symptoms questionnaire (PADYQ and emotional disturbances using depression, anxiety, stress scales (DASS. Method: This study was a cross-sectional analytical study. All the subjects were evaluated using PADYQ and DASS. PADYQ is classified into four categories (no, mild, moderate and severe dyspepsia symptoms. Data was analyzed using Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney test. A p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There were 90 subjects that enrolled in this study, consisted of 47 (52.2% males and 43 (47.8% females. Thirty three (36.7% subjects had PADYQ score was < 6, while it was ≥ 6 in the other 57 (63.3% subjects. DASS scores were significantly different in subjects without dyspepsia symptoms compared to subjects with dyspepsia symptoms. There is a difference in DASS scores between subjects with different categories of dyspepsia symptoms (p < 0.05. Conclusion: There was a difference in the severity of emotional disturbances among subjects with dyspepsia symptoms and without dyspepsia symptoms. The severity of emotional disturbances parallel with the severity of dyspepsia. Evaluation of emotional disturbances in case of dyspepsia will be helpful in the management of dyspepsia.

  4. River Discharge and Local Scale Habitat Influence LIFE Score Macroinvertebrate LIFE Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Cadman, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Midlands of the U.K., we describe how local-scale habitat features (indexed through River Habitat Survey or Danish Habitat Quality Survey) and changing river flow (discharge) influence the response of a macroinvertebrate community index. The approach has broad applicability in developing regional flow......-ecological response models. 2. We analysed the data using multilevel linear regression, combining sample-level and site-level characteristics as predictors. We focused on the potential for common responses across sites; hence for each sample, the macroinvertebrate community was summarised into an index, Lotic...... Invertebrate index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE), an average of abundance-weighted flow groups which indicate the microhabitat preferences of each taxon for higher velocities and clean gravel/cobble substrata or slow/still velocities and finer substrata. 3. For the Danish fauna, the LIFE score responded to three...

  5. Preclusion of ischemic stroke patients from intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment for mild symptoms should not be based on low National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Matthias; Tütüncü, Serdar; Fiebach, Jochen B; Scheitz, Jan F; Audebert, Heinrich J; Nolte, Christian H

    2013-05-01

    Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) improves neurologic outcome after stroke, but is not recommended for patients with minor neurologic deficits commonly classified by a lower cutoff on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Because not all stroke signs are captured on the NIHSS, the use of a strict cutoff may exclude functionally impaired stroke patients from IV tPA treatment. We described functional impairment, safety, and clinical outcome in patients derived from our hospital thrombolysis database who had stroke that was considered disabling despite a neurologic deficit that was considered mild. We used 2 cutoffs: NIHSS score ≤ 4 and ≤ 3. Functional impairment was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Between 2008 and 2011, a total of 670 acute ischemic stroke patients received IV tPA in our institution. 107 (16%) of these patients presented with a NIHSS score ≤ 4; 65 (10%) patients presented with a NIHSS score ≤ 3. All of these patients were considered functionally impaired (mRS score ≥ 2). The most frequent symptoms were language impairment (two-thirds), distal (hand) paresis (one-third), and gait disorder in both groups. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient with a NIHSS score of 4 (1%). Despite IV tPA therapy, 26% had a nonfavorable outcome (mRS score 0-1) after 3 months, and 52% had persisting symptoms in both groups. Language impairment, distal (hand) paresis, and gait disorder are common disabling deficits in patients with low NIHSS scores. Judgment of whether a stroke is disabling should not be based on the NIHSS score but on the assessment of the individual neurologic deficits and their impact on functional impairment. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance analysis a of solar driven organic Rankine cycle using multi-component working fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, E.; Andreasen, J. G.; Modi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Among the different renewable sources of energy, solar power could play a primary role in the development of a more sustainable electricity generation system. While large scale concentrated solar power plants based on the steam Rankine cycle have already been proved to be cost effective, research...... is still under progress for small scale low temperature solar-driven power plants. The steam Rankine cycle is suitable for high temperature applications, but its efficiency drastically decreases as the heat source temperature drops. In these cases a much more promising configuration is the organic Rankine...... field made of parabolic trough collectors and a recuperative organic Rankine cycle. Pressurized water is selected as heat transfer fluid and its maximum temperature is fixed to 150°C. The target power output for the plant is 100 kWel. A part load analysis is carried out in order to define the most...

  7. Rankine-cycle solar-cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, H. M.

    1979-01-01

    Report reviews progress made by three contractors to Marshall Space Flight Center and Department of Energy in developing Rankine-cycle machines for solar cooling and testing of commercially available equipment involved.

  8. Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

  9. Organic Rankine Cycles. Old wine in new bottles; Organic Rankine Cycles. Oude wijn in nieuwe zakken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, T.L.B. [Cumae, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    An overview is given of the renewed interest for the Organic Rankine Cycle technology and new developments with regard to this power generating technology. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de hernieuwde belangstelling voor de Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technologie en nieuwe ontwikkeling m.b.t. deze vorm van elektriciteitopwekking.

  10. Multiple scaling behaviour and nonlinear traits in music scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espinoza, Alfredo; Larralde, Hernán; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We present a statistical analysis of music scores from different composers using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find different fluctuation profiles that correspond to distinct autocorrelation structures of the musical pieces. Further, we reveal evidence for the presence of nonlinear autocorrelations by estimating the DFA of the magnitude series, a result validated by a corresponding study of appropriate surrogate data. The amount and the character of nonlinear correlations vary from one composer to another. Finally, we performed a simple experiment in order to evaluate the pleasantness of the musical surrogate pieces in comparison with the original music and find that nonlinear correlations could play an important role in the aesthetic perception of a musical piece.

  11. Multiple scaling behaviour and nonlinear traits in music scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espinoza, Alfredo; Larralde, Hernán; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We present a statistical analysis of music scores from different composers using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find different fluctuation profiles that correspond to distinct autocorrelation structures of the musical pieces. Further, we reveal evidence for the presence of nonlinear autocorrelations by estimating the DFA of the magnitude series, a result validated by a corresponding study of appropriate surrogate data. The amount and the character of nonlinear correlations vary from one composer to another. Finally, we performed a simple experiment in order to evaluate the pleasantness of the musical surrogate pieces in comparison with the original music and find that nonlinear correlations could play an important role in the aesthetic perception of a musical piece.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder Scale Scores in Pediatric Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    A study compares the scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy children and in children with mood or anxiety disorders. It is observed that children with mood or anxiety disorders obtained higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy children.

  13. Adaptive Visual Analog Scales (AVAS): A modifiable software program for the creation, administration, and scoring of visual analog scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsh-Richard, Dawn M; Hatzis, Erin S; Mathias, Charles W; Venditti, Nicholas; Dougherty, Donald M

    2009-01-01

    ... visual analog scale formats. The continuous format is a series of individual items that are rated along a solid line and scored as a percentage of distance from one of the two anchors of the rating line...

  14. Students Perception of Ability Scale: comparison of scores for gifted, average, and learning disabled students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J W; Boersma, F J

    1986-08-01

    On the Student's Perception of Ability Scale, comparison of scores for gifted, average, and learning disabled students differentiated the groups, thereby providing some construct validity as well as confirming the ceiling is high enough for use.

  15. Comparing the MMPI-2 Scale Scores of Parents Involved in Parental Competency and Child Custody Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, John; Lecci, Len

    2012-01-01

    MMPI-2 scores from a parent competency sample (N = 136 parents) are compared with a previously published data set of MMPI-2 scores for child custody litigants (N = 508 parents; Bathurst et al., 1997). Independent samples t tests yielded significant and in some cases substantial differences on the standard MMPI-2 clinical scales (especially Scales…

  16. Interval Estimation for True Raw and Scale Scores under the Binomial Error Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Chan; Brennan, Robert L.; Kolen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Assuming errors of measurement are distributed binomially, this article reviews various procedures for constructing an interval for an individual's true number-correct score; presents two general interval estimation procedures for an individual's true scale score (i.e., normal approximation and endpoints conversion methods); compares various…

  17. Evaluation of cutoff scores for the Parkinson's disease sleep scale-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Miyamoto, T; Miyamoto, M; Suzuki, S; Numao, A; Watanabe, Y; Tatsumoto, M; Sakuta, H; Watanabe, Y; Fujita, H; Iwanami, M; Sada, T; Kadowaki, T; Hashimoto, K; Trenkwalder, C; Hirata, K

    2015-06-01

    The Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS)-2 is a recently developed tool for evaluating disease-related nocturnal disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its cutoff score has not been clinically assessed. We determined the optimal cutoff score of the Japanese version of the PDSS-2. Patients with PD (n = 146) and controls (n = 100) completed the PDSS-2 and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Poor sleepers were defined as having global PSQI scores >5. Optimal cutoff scores for determining poor sleepers were assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A PDSS-2 total score ≥ 14 exhibited 82.0% sensitivity and 70.6% specificity, whereas a PDSS-2 total score ≥ 15 provided 72.1% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity in distinguishing poor sleepers (PSQI score >5) from good sleepers (PSQI ≤ 5). Nocturnal disturbances were more frequently observed in patients with PD than in controls (PDSS-2 total score ≥ 14 or ≥ 15; 51.4% vs 20%; 45.9% vs 19%). Nocturnal disturbances were associated with higher Hoehn and Yahr stages and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores, impaired quality of life, daytime sleepiness, and depressive symptoms. We suggest that PDSS-2 total scores ≥ 15 are useful for detecting poor sleepers among patients with PD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Autism spectrum disorder scale scores in pediatric mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S; Guyer, Amanda E; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-06-01

    To compare scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy youths and youths with mood or anxiety disorders. A total of 352 youths were recruited (107 healthy participants, 88 with an anxiety disorder, 32 with major depressive disorder, 62 with bipolar disorder, and 63 with a mood disorder characterized by severe nonepisodic irritability). Participants received structured psychiatric interviews and parent ratings on at least one of three ASD symptom scales: Children's Communication Checklist, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Social Responsiveness Scale. Relative to healthy youths, youths with mood or anxiety disorders exhibited higher scores on each ASD symptom scale. ASD symptom scale scores also showed an association with impairment severity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Among patients with mood disorders but not those with anxiety disorders, consistent, statistically significant associations between diagnosis and ASD symptom scale scores remained even after controlling for potential confounders. Patients with mood disorders exhibit higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy youths or youths with anxiety disorders. These data should alert clinicians to the importance of assessing ASD symptoms to identify social reciprocity and communication deficits as possible treatment targets in pediatric mood and anxiety disorders.

  19. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D [Vernon, CT; Biederman, Bruce P [West Hartford, CT; Brasz, Joost J [Fayetteville, NY

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  20. Which clinical variable influences health-related quality of life the most after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage? Hunt and Hess scale, Fisher score, World Federation of Neurosurgeons score, Brussels coma score, and Glasgow coma score compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapapa, Thomas; Tjahjadi, Martin; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    To determine the strength of the correlation between the Hunt and Hess scale, Fisher score, Brussels coma score, World Federation of Neurosurgeons score, and Glasgow coma score and health-related quality of life. Evaluable questionnaires from 236 patients (5.6 years [± standard deviation, 2.854 years] on average after hemorrhage) were included in the analysis. Quality of life was documented using the MOS-36 item short form health survey. Because of the ordinal nature of the variables, Kendall tau was used for calculation. Significance was established as P ≤ 0.05. Weak and very weak correlations were found in general (r ≤ 0.28). The strongest correlations were found between the Glasgow coma score and quality of life (r = 0.236, P = 0.0001). In particular, the "best verbal response" achieved the strongest correlations in the comparison, at r = 0.28/P = 0.0001. The Fisher score showed very weak correlations (r = -0.148/P = 0.012). The Brussels coma score (r = -0.216/P = 0.0001), Hunt and Hess scale (r = -0.197/P = 0.0001), and the World Federation of Neurosurgeons score (r = -0.185/P = 0.0001) revealed stronger correlations, especially in terms of the physical aspects of quality of life. The Glasgow coma scale revealed the strongest, and the Fisher score showed the weakest correlations. Thus the Fisher score, as an indicator of the severity of a hemorrhage, has little significance in terms of health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing the Precision of Subscale Scores by Using Out-of-Scale Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Kamata, Akihito

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the precision of subscale score estimates was evaluated when out-of-scale information was incorporated. Procedures that incorporated out-of-scale information and only information within a subscale were compared through a series of simulations. It was revealed that more information (i.e., more precision) was always provided for…

  2. Optimal design of compact organic Rankine cycle units for domestic solar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbazza, Luca; Pierobon, Leonardo; Mirandola, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators are a promising technology to transform the solar radiation harvested by solar collectors into electric power. The present work aims at sizing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle unit by tailoring its design for domestic solar applications. Stringent design...... solar collectors (hot water temperature equal to 75 degrees C), R1234yf is the optimal solution. The heat exchanger volume ranges between 6.0 and 23.0 dm(3), whereas the thermal efficiency is around 4.5%. R1234ze is the best working fluid employing parabolic solar collectors (hot water temperature equal...

  3. Outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In bacterial meningitis, a decreased level of consciousness is predictive for unfavorable outcome, but the clinical features and outcome in patients presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale are unknown. Methods: We assessed the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale from a nationwide cohort study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2012. Results: Thirty of 1,083 patients (3%) presented with a score of 3 on the Glasgow Coma Scale. In 22 of 30 patients (73%), the minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score could be explained by use of sedative medication or complications resulting from meningitis such as seizures, cerebral edema, and hydrocephalus. Systemic (86%) and neurologic (47%) complications occurred frequently, leading to a high proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome (77%). However, 12 of 30 patients (40%) survived and 7 patients (23%) had a good functional outcome, defined as a score of 5 on the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Patients presenting with a minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and bilaterally absent pupillary light responses, bilaterally absent corneal reflexes, or signs of septic shock on admission all died. Conclusions: Patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis rarely present with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale, but this condition is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. However, 1 out of 5 of these severely ill patients will make a full recovery, stressing the continued need for aggressive supportive care in these patients. PMID:25340065

  4. Determining minimally important score differences in scales of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Hasle, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the following MID values for the COPSOQ scales: ''Quantitative demands'', 0.3 SD; ''Influence'', 0.2 SD; ''Predictability'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from colleagues'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from supervisor'', 0.7 SD; and ''Job satisfaction'', 0.4 SD. For all other COPSOQ scales, where we do not have anchor......). On the basis of the population survey, the MID for each COPSOQ scale was calculated as one-half of a standard deviation (0.5 SD). For the core COPSOQ scales on ''Quantitative demands'', ''Influence at work'', ''Predictability'', ''Social support (from colleagues and supervisors, respectively)'', and ''Job...... satisfaction'', the MIDs were evaluated in the intervention study, where score differences for the scales were linked to the respondents' global self-evaluation of the impact of the interventions. The scales were scored from 0 to 100 in both studies. RESULTS: The MIDs calculated as 0.5 SD were, on average, 9...

  5. Scores of typically developing children on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales: infancy to preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Johanna; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Volden, Joanne; Hodge, Megan; Kembhavi, Gayatri

    2007-01-01

    Norms for the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS) and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, second edition (PDMS-2) are based on cross-sectional data that do not provide information on how the scores of individual children vary over time. This study examined intra-individual variability of PDMS fine and gross motor scores of 77 typically developing children at 9, 11, 13, 16, and 21 months of age and PDMS and PDMS-2 fine and gross motor scores at 4 years. Correlations between scores over time ranged from .13 to .45. PDMS and PDMS-2 scores were correlated at .71 and .75 with significantly different means, indicating that the two versions are not equivalent for 4-year-old children. Most children scored above the 16th percentile, the suggested cut-off on the PDMS, at both 21-month and 4-year assessments, but their percentile ranks fluctuated considerably. Use of confidence intervals contributes to accurate interpretation of scores by differentiating true change in a child's score from change due to measurement error.

  6. Full outline of unresponsiveness score versus Glasgow Coma Scale in children with nontraumatic impairment of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Gurpreet Singh; Gulati, Sheffali; Lodha, Rakesh; Pandey, Rm

    2014-10-01

    The study was designed to compare the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score with Glasgow Coma Scale as a predictor of mortality and poor functional outcome at hospital discharge in children with nontraumatic impairment of consciousness. Seventy children aged 5 to 18 years admitted with impaired consciousness were enrolled. The scores were applied by the Pediatric Neurology fellow within 2 hours of admission. The primary outcome studied was in-hospital mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the 2 scores. The area under the curves for Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness scores were 0.916 and 0.940, respectively. However, the difference between the areas under curve for the 2 scores was not statistically significant (0.023; 95% confidence interval: -0.0115 to 0.058). Our data indicate that both the scores are good predictors for in-hospital mortality and functional outcome. However, no significant difference was observed between the ability of the 2 scores to predict the outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Nociception coma scale-revised scores correlate with metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Boly, Melanie; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: . The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) was recently validated to assess possible pain perception in patients with disorders of consciousness. OBJECTIVE: . To identify correlations between cerebral glucose metabolism and NCS-R total scores. METHODS: . [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, NCS-R, and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised assessments were performed in 49 patients with disorders of consciousness. RESULTS: . We identified a significant positive correlation...

  8. Modified Vancouver Scar Scale score is linked with quality of life after burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Vidya; Burrows, Sally; Kendell, Rosemary; Berghuber, Aaron; Chong, Vincent; Tan, Jason; Edgar, Dale W; Wood, Fiona

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if a scar quality is associated with quality of life (QoL) at six months post-burn and beyond. Quantile regression models adjusted for covariates were used to demonstrate the relationship of modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) total (with and without pigmentation) and the mVSS components, to the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) scores (full scale, Affect and Relations domain, Skin Sensitivity domain). The sample (n=341) comprised 67% males, 83% with skin grafts with a median age 38 years, total body surface area (TBSA) 4%, length of stay seven days, mVSS total score of five and BSHS-B total score of 153. Between six and 12 months of injury, mVSS total, TBSA and female gender were significantly associated with the BSHS-B, a situation that was not affected by the presence or absence of pigmentation scores. The mVSS components did not individually influence QoL. mVSS total score, gender and burn size data may be a useful adjunct to experienced clinical judgment for identifying at risk patients and directing appropriate, timely resource allocation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical Analysis of Scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Schein, Hallie; Duncan, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary analysis of reliability and validity of scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale", which was designed to assess general self-efficacy in students aged 10 to 17 years. Confirmatory factor analysis on cross-validated samples was conducted revealing a marginal fit of the data to the…

  10. Interpretation and precision of the Observer Scar Assessment Scale improved by a revised scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, E.S.; Kuijper, E.J.; Polsbroek, R.M.; Horsthuis, R.B.G.; Prins, J.M.; Lindeboom, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To apply Rasch measurement to develop a rule for clinical interpretation of the Observer Scar Assessment Scale (OSAS) to help surgeons judge reported sum scores clinically. Study Design and Setting We used cross-sectional data of a multicenter randomized clinical trial for the treatment of

  11. Severity score system for progressive myelopathy: development and validation of a new clinical scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, R.M.; Blank, D.; Netto, C.B.O.; Souza, C.F.M.; Fernandes, L.N.T.; Schwartz, I.V.D.; Giugliani, R.; Jardim, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM), was constructed covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter-and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P myelopathies. PMID:22570090

  12. The Impact of Overreporting on MMPI-2-RF Substantive Scale Score Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Danielle L.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of overreporting on the validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) substantive scale scores by comparing correlations with relevant external criteria (i.e., validity coefficients) of individuals who completed the instrument under instructions to (a) feign psychopathology…

  13. Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the impact of the method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nonoverlapping parallel forms each containing eight items from...... questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and convergent/discriminant validity. RESULTS: In difference score analyses...... showed no differential effect by MOA. Participants preferred screen interface over PQ and IVR. CONCLUSION: We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels or psychometric properties of IVR, PQ, or PDA administration compared with PC....

  14. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  15. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  16. Line staff use of the behavioral observation system: assessment of depression scale validity and cut scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePage, James P; Mogge, Neil L; Sellers, David G; DelBen, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    The Behavioral Observation System (BOS) is an objective behavioral tool used by non-degreed line staff to assess depression, mania, psychosis, and acting out in psychiatric inpatients. The current study uses the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-1A to provide evidence for convergent validity for the BOS Depression Scale and to determine effective cut-scores to assist in BOS interpretation. Findings support substantial correlational agreement between the BOS Depression Scale and the BDI. A discriminant function analysis established a "hit rate" of 82% using a Depression Scale score of 7 or greater to identify those with at least moderate levels of depression. The study data lend further credibility to the use of non-degreed line staff as a source of data that can aid in treatment decisions. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Energy analysis of Organic Rankine Cycles for biomass applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing the performances of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs adopted for the exploitation of the biomass resulting from the pruning residues in a 3000 hectares district in Southern Italy. A parametric energy analysis has been carried out to define the influence of the main plant operating conditions. To this purpose, both subcritical and transcritical power plants have been examined and saturated and superheated conditions at the turbine inlet have been imposed. Moreover, the effect of the working fluid, condensation temperature, and internal regeneration on system performances has been investigated. The results show that ORC plants represent an interesting and sustainable solution for decentralised and small-scale power production. Furthermore, the analysis highlights the significant impact of the maximum temperature and the noticeable effect of internal regeneration on the performances of the biomass power plants.

  18. Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in prediction of pediatric coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Atahar; Sankhyan, Naveen; Jayashree, Murlidharan; Singhi, Sunit; Singhi, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    This study was done to compare the admission Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as predictors of outcome in children with impaired consciousness. In this observational study, children (5-12 years) with impaired consciousness of <7 days were included. Children with traumatic brain injury, on sedatives or neuromuscular blockade; with pre-existing cerebral palsy, mental retardation, degenerative brain disease, vision/hearing impairment; and seizure within last 1 hour were excluded. Primary outcomes: comparison of area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes: comparison of AUC of ROC curve for mortality and poor outcome on Pediatric Overall Performance Category Scale at 3 months. Of the 63 children, 20 died during hospital stay. AUC for in-hospital mortality for GCS was 0.83 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) and FOUR score was 0.8 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) [difference between areas -0.0250 (95%CI 0.0192 to 0.0692), Z statistic 1.109, P=0.2674]. AUC for mortality at 3 months for GCS was 0.78 (CI 0.67 to 0.90) and FOUR score was 0.74 (CI 0.62 to 0.87) (P=0.1102) and AUC for poor functional outcome for GCS was 0.82 (CI 0.72 to 0.93) and FOUR score was 0.79 (CI 0.68 to 0.9) (P=0.2377), which were also comparable. Inter-rater reliability for GCS was 0.96 and for FOUR score 0.98. FOUR score was as good as GCS in prediction of in-hospital and 3-month mortality and functional outcome at 3 months. FOUR score had a good inter-rater reliability.

  19. Psychometric assessment of the Rat Grimace Scale and development of an analgesic intervention score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Oliver

    Full Text Available Our limited ability to assess spontaneous pain in rodent models of painful human conditions may be associated with a translational failure of promising analgesic compounds in to clinical use. If measurement of spontaneous pain behaviours can be used to generate an analgesic intervention score their use could expand to guide the use of analgesics, as mandated by regulatory bodies and ethical and welfare obligations. One such measure of spontaneous pain, the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS, has recently been described and shown to exhibit reliability. However, reliability of measurement scores is context and content specific, and further testing required to assess translation to a heterogenous setting (different model, raters, environment. The objectives of this study were to perform reliability testing with the Rat Grimace Scale in a heterogenous setting and generate an analgesic intervention score for its use. In a randomised, blinded study, sixteen adult female rats received one of three analgesia treatments (0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine subcutaneously, 1 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously, 0.2 mg/kg oral buprenorphine in jelly peri-operatively (telemetry unit implantation surgery. Rats were video-recorded (before, 1-6 and 12 hours post-operatively and images collected for independent scoring by three blinded raters using the RGS, and five experts based on "pain/no pain" assessment. Scores were used to calculate inter- and intra-rater reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient and generate an analgesic intervention score with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The RGS scores showed very good inter- and intra-rater reliability (0.85 [0.78-0.90 95% CI] and 0.83 [0.76-0.89], respectively. An analgesic intervention threshold of greater than 0.67 was determined. These data demonstrate that the RGS is a useful tool which can be successfully employed in a heterogenous setting, and has the potential to guide analgesic intervention.

  20. Severity score system for progressive myelopathy: development and validation of a new clinical scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Castilhos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM, covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P < 0.0001; EDSS: r = -0.83, P < 0.0001; Barthel: r = 0.56, P < 0.002; Osame: r = -0.94, P < 0.0001 and reliability (intra-rater: r = 0.83, P < 0.0001; inter-rater: r = 0.94, P < 0.0001 were demonstrated. The metric properties of JOA were similar to those found in SSPROM. Several clinimetric requirements were met for both SSPROM and JOA scales. Since SSPROM has a wider range, it should be useful for follow-up studies on IEM myelopathies.

  1. A pediatric FOUR score coma scale: interrater reliability and predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaikowski, Brianna L; Liang, Hong; Stewart, C Todd

    2014-04-01

    The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) Score is a coma scale that consists of four components (eye and motor response, brainstem reflexes, and respiration). It was originally validated among the adult population and recently in a pediatric population. To enhance clinical assessment of pediatric intensive care unit patients, including those intubated and/or sedated, at our children's hospital, we modified the FOUR Score Scale for this population. This modified scale would provide many of the same advantages as the original, such as interrater reliability, simplicity, and elimination of the verbal component that is not compatible with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), creating a more valuable neurological assessment tool for the nursing community. Our goal was to potentially provide greater information than the formally used GCS when assessing critically ill, neurologically impaired patients, including those sedated and/or intubated. Experienced pediatric intensive care unit nurses were trained as "expert raters." Two different nurses assessed each subject using the Pediatric FOUR Score Scale (PFSS), GCS, and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale at three different time points. Data were compared with the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) assessed by another nurse. Our hypothesis was that the PFSS and PCPC should highly correlate and the GCS and PCPC should correlate lower. Study results show that the PFSS is excellent for interrater reliability for trained nurse-rater pairs and prediction of poor outcome and in-hospital mortality, under various situations, but there were no statistically significant differences between the PFSS and the GCS. However, the PFSS does have the potential to provide greater neurological assessment in the intubated and/or sedated patient based on the outcomes of our study.

  2. Psychometric assessment of the Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System and the MOTHER NAS Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hendrée E; Seashore, Carl; Johnson, Elisabeth; Horton, Evette; O'Grady, Kevin E; Andringa, Kim; Grossman, Matthew R; Whalen, Bonny; Holmes, Alison Volpe

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System (NASS; "Finnegan Scale") and the MOTHER NAS Scale (MNS). Secondary analysis of data from 131 neonates from the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study, a randomized trial in opioid-dependent pregnant women administered buprenorphine or methadone. Both the NASS and MNS demonstrated poor psychometric properties, with internal consistency (Cronbach's αs) failing to exceed .62 at first administration, peak NAS score, and NAS treatment initiation. Findings support the need for development of a NAS measure based on sound psychometric principles. This study found that two frequently used measures of neonatal abstinence syndrome suffer inadequacies in regard to their basic measurement characteristics. (Am J Addict 2016;25:370-373). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.

  4. Nociception coma scale-revised scores correlate with metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Boly, Mélanie; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

    2014-02-01

    The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) was recently validated to assess possible pain perception in patients with disorders of consciousness. To identify correlations between cerebral glucose metabolism and NCS-R total scores. [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, NCS-R, and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised assessments were performed in 49 patients with disorders of consciousness. We identified a significant positive correlation between NCS-R total scores and metabolism in the posterior part of the anterior cingulate cortex, known to be involved in pain processing. No other cluster reached significance. No significant effect of clinical diagnosis (vegetative/unresponsive vs minimally conscious states), etiology or interval since insult was observed. Our data support the hypothesis that the NCS-R total scores are related to cortical processing of nociception and may constitute an appropriate behavioral tool to assess, monitor, and treat possible pain in brain-damaged noncommunicative patients with disorders of consciousness. Future studies using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging should investigate the correlation between NCS-R scores and brain activation in response to noxious stimulation at the single-subject level.

  5. The performance quality rating scale (PQRS): reliability, convergent validity, and internal responsiveness for two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Rose; Rios, Jorge; Polatajko, Helene; Wolf, Timothy; McEwen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The performance quality rating scale (PQRS) is an observational measure of performance quality of client-selected, personally meaningful activities. It has been used inconsistently with different scoring systems, and there have been no formal publications on its psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to test and compare the psychometric properties of two PQRS scoring systems in two populations. A secondary analysis of video recorded participant-selected activities from previous studies involving either adults living with stroke or children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was conducted. Three pairs of raters scored the video recorded performances with PQRS operational definitions (PQRS-OD) and a generic rating system (PQRS-G). For inter-rater reliability, PQRS-OD ICCs were substantial, ranging from 0.83 to 0.93; while the PQRS-G ICCs were moderate, ranging from 0.71 to 0.77. Test-retest reliability was substantial, >0.80 (ICC), for both rating systems across all rater pairs. Internal responsiveness was high for both rating systems. Convergent validity with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was inconsistent, with scores ranging from low to moderate. Both scoring systems have demonstrated they are reliable and have good internal responsiveness. The PQRS-OD demonstrated greater consistency across raters and is more sensitive to clinically important change than the PQRS-G and should be used when greater accuracy is required. Further exploration of validity with actual rather than perceived performance measures is required.

  6. Spacecraft COst REduction Team (SCORE): TQM/CI on a massive scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Jerry D.

    The business of building satellites and space systems has matured. Few missions require, or can afford, excellent performance at any price. The new paradigm is doing more with less, providing quality systems at lower cost--in other words, doing our job 'Faster-Better-Cheaper.' The TRW Spacecraft COst REduction (SCORE) initiative was launched in 1990 by Daniel S. Goldin, then general manager of TRW's Space & Technology Group. The SCORE mission is to apply continuous improvement (CI) techniques to effect major reductions in the cost (our primary goal) and span time (as a corollary) required for the production of spacecraft. SCORE is a multi-year initiative that is having a profound effect on both the procedural and the cultural aspects of how we do business. The objectives of this initiative are being realized. The focus of this paper is not on the results of SCORE per se, but rather on the things we have leaned about how to do continuous improvement on a massive scale, with multilevel (hierarchical) CI teams. The following sections summarize the chronology of the SCORE initiative, from team formation to development of the year-end report for 1991. Lessons learned, the core of this presentation, are discussed--with particular focus on the unique aspects of SCORE. The SCORE initiative is continuing and, as a part of our evolving culture, will never end. It has resulted in profound insights into the way we do work and (the topic at hand) how to do CI for large and complex multidisciplinary development activities.

  7. Spacecraft COst REduction Team (SCORE): TQM/CI on a massive scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Jerry D.

    1992-01-01

    The business of building satellites and space systems has matured. Few missions require, or can afford, excellent performance at any price. The new paradigm is doing more with less, providing quality systems at lower cost--in other words, doing our job 'Faster-Better-Cheaper.' The TRW Spacecraft COst REduction (SCORE) initiative was launched in 1990 by Daniel S. Goldin, then general manager of TRW's Space & Technology Group. The SCORE mission is to apply continuous improvement (CI) techniques to effect major reductions in the cost (our primary goal) and span time (as a corollary) required for the production of spacecraft. SCORE is a multi-year initiative that is having a profound effect on both the procedural and the cultural aspects of how we do business. The objectives of this initiative are being realized. The focus of this paper is not on the results of SCORE per se, but rather on the things we have leaned about how to do continuous improvement on a massive scale, with multilevel (hierarchical) CI teams. The following sections summarize the chronology of the SCORE initiative, from team formation to development of the year-end report for 1991. Lessons learned, the core of this presentation, are discussed--with particular focus on the unique aspects of SCORE. The SCORE initiative is continuing and, as a part of our evolving culture, will never end. It has resulted in profound insights into the way we do work and (the topic at hand) how to do CI for large and complex multidisciplinary development activities.

  8. Validation of the DRAGON score in 12 stroke centers in anterior and posterior circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbian, Daniel; Seiffge, David J; Breuer, Lorenz; Numminen, Heikki; Michel, Patrik; Meretoja, Atte; Coote, Skye; Bordet, Régis; Obach, Victor; Weder, Bruno; Jung, Simon; Caso, Valeria; Curtze, Sami; Ollikainen, Jyrki; Lyrer, Philippe A; Eskandari, Ashraf; Mattle, Heinrich P; Chamorro, Angel; Leys, Didier; Bladin, Christopher; Davis, Stephen M; Köhrmann, Martin; Engelter, Stefan T; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2013-10-01

    The DRAGON score predicts functional outcome in the hyperacute phase of intravenous thrombolysis treatment of ischemic stroke patients. We aimed to validate the score in a large multicenter cohort in anterior and posterior circulation. Prospectively collected data of consecutive ischemic stroke patients who received intravenous thrombolysis in 12 stroke centers were merged (n=5471). We excluded patients lacking data necessary to calculate the score and patients with missing 3-month modified Rankin scale scores. The final cohort comprised 4519 eligible patients. We assessed the performance of the DRAGON score with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in the whole cohort for both good (modified Rankin scale score, 0-2) and miserable (modified Rankin scale score, 5-6) outcomes. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84 (0.82-0.85) for miserable outcome and 0.82 (0.80-0.83) for good outcome. Proportions of patients with good outcome were 96%, 93%, 78%, and 0% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 8 to 10 score points, respectively. Proportions of patients with miserable outcome were 0%, 2%, 4%, 89%, and 97% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9 to 10 points, respectively. When tested separately for anterior and posterior circulation, there was no difference in performance (P=0.55); areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.84 (0.83-0.86) and 0.82 (0.78-0.87), respectively. No sex-related difference in performance was observed (P=0.25). The DRAGON score showed very good performance in the large merged cohort in both anterior and posterior circulation strokes. The DRAGON score provides rapid estimation of patient prognosis and supports clinical decision-making in the hyperacute phase of stroke care (eg, when invasive add-on strategies are considered).

  9. Outcome measurement in functional somatic syndromes: SF-36 summary scores and some scales were not valid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Andreas; Oernboel, Eva; Licht, Rasmus W; Sharpe, Michael; Fink, Per

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to test the validity of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scales and summaries in patients with severe functional somatic syndromes (FSS), such as fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome. One hundred twenty patients with severe FSS enrolled in a randomized controlled trial filled in the SF-36 questionnaire. We tested for data quality, central scaling assumptions, and agreement with the conceptual model. Most SF-36 scales were found to be valid; however, three scales (role physical, role emotional, and general health) did not satisfy predefined criteria for construct validity, internal consistency, or targeting to the sample. The correlations between SF-36 scales differed considerably from those reported in the general population. As a consequence, the SF-36 summaries, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), did not accurately reflect their underlying scales and were negatively correlated (r=-0.46, 95% CI [-0.60 to -0.31]). Although the SF-36 is a valuable instrument to assess perceived health in patients with severe FSS, there are problems with some of the scales and with the scoring procedure of the summaries. The SF-36 PCS may, therefore, not accurately measure the physical health status of these patients. Alternative summary measures are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey McDole

    Full Text Available The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change have been identified, the mechanism(s of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.

  11. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Uno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70 was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96. In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9, and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4. Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  12. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQIntelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  13. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-05

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

  14. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  15. Empirical Correlates of Low Scores on MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in a Sample of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored the meaning of low scores on the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. Using responses of a sample of university students (N = 811), the authors examined whether low (T less than 39), within-normal-limits (T = 39-64), and high (T greater than 65) score levels on the RC scales are…

  16. SORCE: A design tool for solar organic Rankine cycle systems in distributed generation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Matthew; Quoilin, Sylvain; Hemond, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Recent interest in small-scale solar thermal combined heat and power (CHP) power systems has coincided with demand growth for distributed electricity supplies in areas poorly served by centralized power stations. One potential technical approach to meeting this demand is the parabolic trough solar thermal collector coupled with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) heat engine. Much existing research touches on aspects of the underlying physics and mechanics of this technology, but a holistic treatm...

  17. Does Wechsler Intelligence Scale administration and scoring proficiency improve during assessment training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tyson L; Zachar, Peter; Ray, Glen E; Lobello, Steven G; Underhill, Andrea T

    2007-04-01

    Studies have found that Wechsler scale administration and scoring proficiency is not easily attained during graduate training. These findings may be related to methodological issues. Using a single-group repeated measures design, this study documents statistically significant, though modest, error reduction on the WAIS-III and WISC-III during a graduate course in assessment. The study design does not permit the isolation of training factors related to error reduction, or assessment of whether error reduction is a function of mere practice. However, the results do indicate that previous study findings of no or inconsistent improvement in scoring proficiency may have been the result of methodological factors. Implications for teaching individual intelligence testing and further research are discussed.

  18. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents’ education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father’s education level, mother’s education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother’s education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%–75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance. PMID:28316252

  19. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma scale-age-systolic blood pressure scores in the assessment of nontraumatic critical patients in Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Ö; Torun, G; Ahun, E; Sığırlı, D; Güney, S B; Aydın, M O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the discriminatory ability of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)-age-systolic blood pressure (GAP) score and modified early warning scoring system (mEWS) score for 4-week mortality, for the patients being in the triage category 1 and 2 who refer to Emergency Department (ED). Five hundred and two nontraumatic cases being in the triage category 1 and 2 who were ≥18-year-old and who referred to ED were assessed prospectively. Reason of referral, fashion of referral, age, gender, vital signs, GCS/alert/verbal/painful/unresponsive scores, consultations, diagnoses, and treatments and final outcome (hospitalization, transfer, discharge, treatment rejection, and exitus) were recorded. The mEWS and GAP scores and the mortality ratios of the cases were calculated by observing both in ED and 4-week survivals of the patients. When the mEWS and GAP scores were compared in the prediction of 4-week mortality, no statistically significant difference was found between them (P > 0.05). The power of mortality estimation was found significant for both scoring systems (for both; Pscore with a simple use being a score developed for the estimation of mortality of trauma patients seems to be usable also for the nontraumatic patients with triage category 1-2 in the ED.

  20. Nondaily drinkers score higher on the Alcohol Dependence Scale than daily drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Linda D; Sobell, Linda C; Sobell, Mark B; Dornheim, Liane; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between drinking pattern and alcohol dependence severity, 209 individuals voluntarily seeking treatment for alcohol problems were administered the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS), the Short Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD) questionnaire, and a 12-month Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) drinking assessment as part of their pretreatment assessment. Based on their TLFB data, participants were divided into two groups: daily (DD, n=84) and nondaily (NDD, n=125) drinkers. The two groups were compared on several demographic and drinking variables. It was hypothesized that DD would have higher scores on measures of alcohol dependence than NDD. However, the reverse pattern was found. The NDD had significantly higher ADS scores than the DD. An analysis of ADS subscale scores indicated that the primary difference between the two groups was in the domain of loss of behavior control. It is suggested that NDD may perceive intoxication as more impairing, perhaps because they have acquired less tolerance than DD. These results suggest that treatment focused on restoring a sense of behavior control would be beneficial for NDD.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Scores on the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales in a Sample of Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornebekk, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the scores on a version for children of the Carver and White Behavioral Inhibition and Activation scales (the BIS-BAS scales). This involved administering the BIS-BAS scales, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire…

  2. Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality.This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018, 0.715 (P = 0.0008 (by ABC/2 to 0.738 (P = 0.0002 (by CAVA, 0.877 (P<0.0001 (by ABC/2 to 0.882 (P<0.0001 (by CAVA, and 0.912 (P<0.0001, respectively.Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score.

  3. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  4. Scoring Large-Scale Affinity Purification Mass Spectrometry Datasets with MiST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Erik; Von Dollen, John; Cimermancic, Peter; Gulbahce, Natali; Sali, Andrej; Krogan, Nevan J

    2015-03-09

    High-throughput Affinity Purification Mass Spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments can identify a large number of protein interactions, but only a fraction of these interactions are biologically relevant. Here, we describe a comprehensive computational strategy to process raw AP-MS data, perform quality controls, and prioritize biologically relevant bait-prey pairs in a set of replicated AP-MS experiments with Mass spectrometry interaction STatistics (MiST). The MiST score is a linear combination of prey quantity (abundance), abundance invariability across repeated experiments (reproducibility), and prey uniqueness relative to other baits (specificity). We describe how to run the full MiST analysis pipeline in an R environment and discuss a number of configurable options that allow the lay user to convert any large-scale AP-MS data into an interpretable, biologically relevant protein-protein interaction network. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. The Disablement Score: An Intersubjective Severity Scale of the Social Exclusion of Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Sakakibara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available If a disability is understood as a type of social exclusion, its severity can be gauged from the social aspect. Such measurement is necessary to explore the intersubjective structure of social exclusion associated with bodily functions and structures. This paper presents a sociological and statistical method to rate the severity of a disability as social exclusion. The method is modeled on the rating procedure of occupational prestige. According to this technique, people subjectively rate severity by answering a questionnaire. The ratings are converted into a score (the “disablement score”. The method is applied in a preliminary web survey. The reliability of the scale is examined. People evaluate various conditions very differently, with physical conditions with functional limitations rated as severe and disfigurements as mild. Although the result does not necessarily agree with the objective circumstances, it is meaningful in that it reflects people’s reactions and attitudes toward disabilities.

  6. Comparability of scores on the MMPI-2-RF scales generated with the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, P T; Egger, J I M; Derksen, J J L

    2010-05-01

    In most validity studies on the recently released 338-item MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008), scale scores were derived from the 567-item MMPI-2 booklet. In this study, we evaluated the comparability of the MMPI-2-RF scale scores derived from the original 567-item MMPI-2 booklet with MMPI-2-RF scale scores derived from the 338-item MMPI-2-RF booklet in a Dutch student sample (N = 107). We used a counterbalanced (ABBA) design. We compared results with those previously reported by Tellegen and Ben-Porath (2008). Our findings support the comparability of the scores of the 338-item version and the 567-item version of the 50 MMPI-2-RF scales. We discuss clinical implications and directions for further research.

  7. Temporal stability of the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale for high- and low-scoring normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, André; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Böcker, Koen B.E.; de Haan, Edward H.F.

    1999-01-01

    It has been documented that many normal people report hallucinatory experiences. The Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale is widely used to investigate differences between subjects who score high or low in hallucinatory predisposition. In this study we addressed the question of whether scores remain

  8. Utilities derived from visual analog scale scores in patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrus, Joseph M; Yi, Michael S; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Wu, Albert W; Zackin, Robert; Gorski, Heather; Tsevat, Joel

    2003-01-01

    Visual analog scale (VAS) scores are used as global quality-of-life indicators and, unlike true utilities (which assess the desirability of health states v. an external metric), are often collected in HIV-related clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to derive and evaluate transformations relating aggregate VAS scores to utilities for current health in patients with HIV/AIDS. HIV-specific transformations were developed using linear and nonlinear regression to attain models that best fit mean VAS and standard gamble (SG) utility values directly derived from 299 patients with HIV/AIDS participating in a multicenter study of health values. The authors evaluated the transformations using VAS and SG utility values derived directly from patients in other HIV/AIDS studies. Derived transformations were also compared with published transformations. A simple linear transformation was derived (u = 0.44v + 0.49), as was the exponent for a curvilinear model (u = 1 - [1 - v]1.6), where u = the sample mean utility and v the sample mean VAS score. The curvilinear transformation predicted values within 0.10 of the actual SG utility in 5 of 8 estimates and within 0.05 in 3 of 8 estimates (absolute error ranged from -0.01 to +0.21). The linear transformation performed somewhat better, predicting within 0.10 of the actual SG value in 6 of 8 cases and within 0.05 in 5 of 8 estimates (absolute error ranged from -0.05 to +0.13). An alternative linear model (u = v + 0.018) derived from the literature performed similarly to our linear model (7 of 8 predictions within 0.10, 1 of 8 estimates within 0.05, and absolute error ranging from -0.15 to +0.10), whereas an alternative published curvilinear model (u = 1 - [1 - v]2.3) performed the least well (2 of 8 estimates within 0.10 of the actual values and no estimates within 0.05). Predicted utilities are a reasonable alternative for use in HIV/AIDS decision analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses. Linear transformations performed

  9. Norton scale scores and 1-year mortality in elderly patients following lower limb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, R; Sherman, S; Rozen, N; Chechik, O; Hilu, S; Abdelrazek, S; Salai, M; Justo, D

    2015-06-01

    The Norton scale is used for assessing the risk of pressure ulcers. The association between low admission Norton scale scores (ANSS), complications and mortality in elderly patients following lower limb amputations has never been studied until now. The aim of this study was to investigate if low ANSSs are associated with complications the 30-day and 1-year mortality in elderly patients following lower limb amputations. The medical charts of 104 elderly (≥ 65 years) patients following lower limb amputations were studied for the following measurements: ANSS, demographics, comorbidities, complications during hospitalization, 30-day mortality and 1-year mortality. Complications included acute coronary syndrome, major bleeding, stroke, systemic infections, organ failure and thromboembolism. An ANSS ≤ 14 was considered as being low. Overall 54 (51.9%) patients underwent below-knee amputations and 50 (48.1%) patients underwent above-knee amputations. Most (n = 78; 75.0 %) patients were men and the mean age was 78.5 ± 7.9 years. Following the amputation 46 (44.2%) patients had complications other than pressure ulcers, 24 (23.1%) patients died within 30 days and 63 (60.6%) patients died within 1 year. A total of 61 (58.7%) patients had a low ANSS. The incidence of complications other than pressure ulcers, 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were higher in patients with a low ANSS relative to patients with a high ANSS. A regression analysis showed that 1-year mortality was independently negatively associated with ANSS (t =  2.629; p = 0.010). The Norton scale can be used for predicting 1-year mortality in elderly patients following lower limb amputations.

  10. Correlation between Manchester Grading Scale and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score in Patients with Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Kalliopi; Paraskevas, George; Kanavaros, Panagiotis; Barbouti, Alexandra; Vrettakos, Aristidis; Gekas, Christos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between the Manchester Grading Scale and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score in patients with a hallux valgus deformity. The study sample included 181 feet of 122 patients with hallux valgus and 424 feet of 212 individuals without hallux valgus deformity as the control group. The severity of hallux valgus, utilizing a relative nonmetric scale, the Manchester Grading Scale, and the metric AOFAS score, was determined for all individuals in the hallux valgus and control groups. SPSS version 18 (Chicago, Ill., USA) was used for data analysis. According to the Manchester Grading Scale, the 424 feet of the normal group were classified as 'no deformity'. In the hallux valgus group, 85 feet were classified as 'mild deformity', 67 as 'moderate deformity' and 29 as 'severe deformity'. The AOFAS total score in the control group was 99.14. In the hallux valgus group, patients with mild or moderate deformity had total scores of 86.20 and 68.19, respectively. For those with severe hallux valgus, the total score was 44.69 and the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Using the Pearson correlation, strong negative correlations were found between the AOFAS score and the hallux valgus angle (HVA; r = -0.899, p = 0.000). Strong negative correlations were demonstrated between the AOFAS score and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA) as well (r = -0.748, p = 0.000). The AOFAS score was negatively associated with the Manchester Grading Scale, HVA and first IMA. As the severity of hallux valgus increased, the AOFAS score seemed to decrease. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. An image based system to automatically and objectivelly score the degreeof redness and scaling in psoriasi lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas. The pr...

  12. Establishing the cut-off score for remission and severity-ranges on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Rothschild, Anthony J; Flint, Alastair J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) is a rating scale dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to establish the PDAS cut-off for remission of PD as well as PDAS score-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD. The sec...

  13. The dish-Rankine SCSTPE program (Engineering Experiment no. 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, R. L.; Grigsby, C. E.

    1980-05-01

    Activities planned for phase 2 Of the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (PFDR) program are summarized with emphasis on a dish-Rankine point focusing distributed receiver solar thermal electric system. Major design efforts include: (1) development of an advanced concept indirect-heated receiver;(2) development of hardware and software for a totally unmanned power plant control system; (3) implementation of a hybrid digital simulator which will validate plant operation prior to field testing; and (4) the acquisition of an efficient organic Rankine cycle power conversion unit. Preliminary performance analyses indicate that a mass-produced dish-Rankine PFDR system is potentially capable of producing electricity at a levelized busbar energy cost of 60 to 70 mills per KWh and with a capital cost of about $1300 per KW.

  14. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  15. Heart rate variability for assessing comatose patients with different Glasgow Coma Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Ferrer, Yazmina; Estévez, Mario; Machado, Calixto; Hernández-Cruz, Adrián; Carrick, Frederick R; Leisman, Gerry; Melillo, Robert; Defina, Phillip; Chinchilla, Mauricio; Machado, Yanín

    2013-03-01

    To assess the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in coma by heart rate variability (HRV). Sixteen comatose patients and 22 normal subjects with comparable ages and genders were studied. Patients were classified in two subgroups according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Time, frequency, and informational HRV domain indices were calculated. A notable reduction of HRV was found in patients. Regarding the time domain indices, the triangular index, and the Delta_RRs, were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Absolute power for the whole frequency spectrum decreased whenever GCS scores were lower. A significant decrement was found for absolute power of the VLF and LF bands in the subgroup of GCS=3, and although it was lower for the HF band in these patients, those changes were not statistically significantly different. The LF/HF ratio and the Shannon´s entropy indices were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Our results are discussed regarding the progressive dysfunction the ANS networks when coma deepens. The HRV procedure is a powerful tool to assess the ANS in comatose patients. HRV is a minimally invasive, low-cost methodology, suitable for assessing the ANS in coma. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation of Social Network Attributes with Individuals’ Score on Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Momeni Boroujeni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar Spectrum Disorders include a variety of mood disorders from bipolar II disorder to conditions characterized by hyperthymic mood states. It has been suggested that psychosocial factors also play an important role in bipolar disorders, in this study we have used social network analysis in order to better understand the social positions of those affected by bipolar spectrum disorders. Methods: In this cross sectional study 90 individuals within a bounded network were included and studied by using a standard questionnaire for bipolar spectrum disorder scale (BSDS and a sociometric questionnaire for analyzing the social network of those individuals.Results: This study showed that BSDS score is signi.cantly correlated with the Bonacich power of the participants (P= 0.009 as well as with their Outdegree Strength (P= 0.013.Discussion: The results of this study show that there is interplay between social attributes and Bipolar Spectrum Disorders. This emphasizes the need for understanding the role of social networks and performing further research into quantifying social aspects of psychiatric disorders.

  17. Correlation of Social Network Attributes with Individuals’ Score on Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Momeni Boroujeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar Spectrum Disorders include a variety of mood disorders from bipolar II disorder to conditions characterized by hyperthymic mood states. It has been suggested that psychosocial factors also play an important role in bipolar disorders, in this study we have used social network analysis in order to better understand the social positions of those affected by bipolar spectrum disorders.Methods and Materials: In this cross sectional study 90 individuals within a bounded network were included and studied by using a standard questionnaire for bipolar spectrum disorder scale (BSDS and a sociometric questionnaire for analyzing the social network of those individuals.Results: This study showed that BSDS score is significantly correlated with the Bonacich power of the participants (P= 0.009 as well as with their Outdegree Strength (P= 0.013.Discussion:The results of this study show that there is interplay between social attributes and Bipolar Spectrum Disorders. This emphasizes the need for understanding the role of social networks and performing further research into quantifying social aspects of psychiatric disorders.

  18. Analysis of Low Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles for Solar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfei

    The present work focuses on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems and their application to low temperature waste heat recovery, combined heat and power as well as off-grid solar power generation applications. As CO_2 issues come to the fore front and fossil fuels become more expensive, interest in low grade heat recovery has grown dramatically in the past few years. Solar energy, as a clean, renewable, pollution-free and sustainable energy has great potential for the use of ORC systems. Several ORC solutions have been proposed to generate electricity from low temperature sources. The ORC systems discussed here can be applied to fields such as solar thermal, biological waste heat, engine exhaust gases, small-scale cogeneration, domestic boilers, etc. The current work presents a thermodynamic and economic analysis for the use of ORC systems to convert solar energy or low exergy energy to generate electrical power. The organic working fluids investigated here were selected to investigate the effect of the fluid saturation temperature on the performance of ORCs. The working fluids under investigation are R113, R245fa, R123, with boiling points between 40°C and 200°C at pressures from 10 kPa to 10 MPa. Ambient temperature air at 20oC to 30oC is utilized as cooling resource, and allowing for a temperature difference 10°C for effective heat transfer. Consequently, the working fluids are condensed at 40°C. A combined first- and second-law analysis is performed by varying some system independent parameters at various reference temperatures. The present work shows that ORC systems can be viable and economical for the applications such as waste heat use and off-grid power generation even though they are likely to be more expensive than grid power.

  19. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The Utility of MMPI-2-RF Scale Scores in the Differential Diagnosis of Schizophrenia and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T C; Graham, John R; Arbisi, Paul A

    2017-04-07

    This study was designed to determine whether scores on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales could be used to differentiate between individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The sample was drawn from 2 psychiatric inpatient hospitals and included data from 199 individuals with SCZ and 808 individuals with MDD. A series of multivariate analyses of variance, analyses of variance, and odds ratios were calculated to determine which MMPI-2-RF scales provide the best differentiation between individuals presenting with these 2 disorders. Results indicated scales assessing internalizing dysfunction, including Emotional/Internalizing Dysfunction (EID), Restructured Clinical Scales Demoralization (RCd), Low Positive Emotions (RC2), Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI), and Self Doubt (SFD) best discriminated MDD from SCZ. Scales assessing thought dysfunction, incluidng Thought Dysfunction (THD), Restructured Clinical Scales Ideas of Persecution (RC6) and Aberrant Experiences (RC8), and Psychoticism-Revised (PSYC-r) were demonstrated to best identify SCZ. Comparisons of the examined MMPI-2-RF scales to MMPI-2 scales assessing similar constructs suggested scales from the MMPI-2-RF perform similarly to their MMPI-2 counterparts in detecting MDD or SCZ, but might have increased ability to discriminate SCZ from other conditions. Overall, results of this study suggest that scores on the examined MMPI-2-RF scales provide important information about the differential diagnosis of MDD and SCZ to clinicians working in inpatient settings.

  1. Childhood depression subscales using repeated sessions on Children's Depression Rating Scale - revised (CDRS-R) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Ameena; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham

    2014-08-01

    Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65-0.91). As a result, the clinicians' assessments of the various symptoms became

  2. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  3. A comparison of low IQ scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Thomas B

    2008-06-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index scores were significantly higher than WAIS-III Full Scale IQ scores at the alpha level of .01. There was a significant difference between the RIAS Nonverbal Intelligence and WAIS-III Performance Scale, but there was no significant difference between the RIAS Verbal Intelligence Index and the WAIS-III Verbal Scale IQ. The results raise questions concerning test selection for diagnosing intellectual disability and the use of the correlation statistic for comparing intelligence tests.

  4. Linking physical function outcomes in rheumatology: performance of a crosswalk for converting Health Assessment Questionnaire scores to Short Form 36 physical functioning scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Taal, Erik; Wolfe, Frederick; Vonkeman, Harald; Glas, Cees A W; Van De Laar, Mart A F J

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reliability of a crosswalk, developed in The Netherlands, between the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI) and the Short Form 36 physical functioning scale (PF-10) in a sample of patients with various rheumatic diseases in the US. Baseline data from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 29,020), fibromyalgia (FM; n = 3,776), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 1,609) participating in the National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases were analyzed. Reliability of the crosswalk was evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and agreement between observed and predicted scores was evaluated using the Bland-Altman approach. RESULTS. The crosswalk produced reliable conversions for both the HAQ DI (ICC range 0.70-0.77) and PF-10 (ICC range 0.73-0.78) in all 3 disease groups. The mean difference between observed and expected scores was close to zero in US patients with RA. For all 3 disease groups, the limits of agreement were fairly wide and conversion at the level of individual patients is not recommended. The crosswalk produced reliable conversions at the group level in a crosscultural setting and can be used to convert HAQ DI to PF-10 scores and vice versa in US patients with RA, FM, or SLE.

  5. Organic Rankine Cycle with Solar Heat Storage in Paraffin Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LUCA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an electricity generation system based on an Organic Rankine Cycle and proposed storing the amount of the heat produced by the solar panels using large volume of paraffin wax. The proposed working fluid is R-134a refrigerant. The cycle operates at very low temperatures. A efficiency of 6,55% was obtained.

  6. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  7. Correlation Between Changes in Visual Analog Scale and Patient-Reported Outcome Scores and Patient Satisfaction After Hip Arthroscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Gui, Chengcheng; Walsh, John P; Lodhia, Parth; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Domb, Benjamin G

    2017-09-01

    Improvements in pain, function, and patient satisfaction are used to evaluate the outcomes of hip arthroscopic surgery. To identify correlations between the visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain and patient satisfaction with 4 commonly used patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores to determine to what extent changes in these 2 parameters are reflected in each of the PRO scores. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery between February 2008 and February 2013 were assessed prospectively before surgery, at 3 months, and annually thereafter with the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Hip Outcome Score-sports-specific subscale (HOS-SSS), and Hip Outcome Score-activities of daily living (HOS-ADL). Patients were also assessed using a 10-point VAS for pain and queried for satisfaction at the same time points ("0" indicated no pain, and "10" indicated complete satisfaction with surgery). The VAS score and patient satisfaction were correlated with changes in the 4 PRO scores. During the study period, 1417 patients underwent hip arthroscopic surgery, of whom 1137 patients had 2-year postoperative PRO scores after primary surgery. There was a significant improvement in all PRO scores at 2-year follow-up. The mean improvements in mHHS, NAHS, HOS-ADL, and HOS-SSS scores were 16.7, 21.6, 19.7, and 22.7 points, respectively. The mean improvement in the VAS score was 2.9 points. Mean patient satisfaction at 2-year follow-up was 7.74 (of 10). There was a statistically significant correlation between the VAS and patient satisfaction scores and changes in each of the 4 PRO scores. The strength of the correlation was moderate. This study demonstrated a moderate correlation between the VAS and patient satisfaction outcomes and changes in 4 commonly used PRO scores in hip arthroscopic surgery (mHHS, HOS-ADL, HOS-SSS, and NAHS). In addition to several PRO instruments, a VAS for pain and patient satisfaction

  8. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula and Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome: Assessment of Functional Scores with Review of Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, Carlito; Chung, Lawrance K; Chitale, Rohan V; Yang, Isaac

    2017-10-01

    To assess the use of functional scores in the evaluation of patients with dural arteriovenous fistula and Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. We systematically surveyed the literature to identify relevant patients. Aminoff-Logue Scale (ALS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were ascertained and combined to form a novel functional score, the Aminoff-Rankin Composite (ARC) score. We compared functional scores between surgery and embolization groups and ran one-sided point-biserial analyses to test our expectation that positive correlations exist between functional scores and treatment outcomes. Finally, we reviewed the pathogenesis of dural arteriovenous fistula formation. The quantitative synthesis included 18 patients. Surgery alone was performed in 11 patients (61.11%); 7 patients underwent embolization alone (38.89%). There were no significant differences in functional scores or symptom outcomes when we compared surgery to embolization. The pre-intervention ALS gait, mRS, and ARC scores were correlated with improved symptoms (rpb = 0.43, P = 0.04; rpb = 0.47, P = 0.02; rpb = 0.48, P = 0.04, respectively). In patients whose symptoms were improved, post-intervention ALS gait and micturition scores (2.55 vs. 4.43, P = 0.02 and 1.09 vs. 2.71, P = 0.01, respectively) and post-intervention ARC scores (6.66 vs. 11.57, P = 0.01) were on average lower than in patients whose symptoms were unimproved. We believe that patients with dAVF and Foix-Alajouanine syndrome present with worse function (higher functional scores) as a result of an acute myelopathic episode, and that if diagnosed and treated appropriately, will experience some level of symptom improvement that is evidenced by reduced post-intervention functional scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparability of scores on the MMPI-2-RF scales generated with the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, P.T. van der; Egger, J.I.M.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    In most validity studies on the recently released 338-item MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, Kaemmer, 1989) Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath Tellegen, 2008; Tellegen Ben-Porath, 2008), scale scores were derived from the 567-item MMPI-2 booklet. In this study, we evaluated the

  10. Predicting SF-6D utility scores from the Neck Disability Index and Numeric Rating Scales for Neck and Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y.; Anderson, Paul A.; McDonough, Christine M.; Djurasovic, Mladen; Glassman, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional cohort Objective This study aims to provide an algorithm estimate SF-6D utilities using data from the NDI, neck pain and arm pain scores. Summary of Background Data Although cost-utility analysis is increasingly used to provide information about the relative value of alternative interventions, health state values or utilities are rarely available from clinical trial data. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and numeric rating scales for neck and arm pain, are widely used disease-specific measures of symptoms, function and disability in patients with cervical degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide an algorithm to allow estimation of SF-6D utilities using data from the NDI, and numeric rating scales for neck and arm pain. Methods SF-36, NDI, neck and arm pain rating scale scores were prospectively collected pre-operatively, at 12 and 24 months post-operatively in 2080 patients undergoing cervical fusion for degenerative disorders. SF-6D utilities were computed and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for paired observations from multiple time points between NDI, neck and arm pain scores and SF-6D utility scores. SF-6D scores were estimated from the NDI, neck and arm pain scores using a linear regression model. Using a separate, independent dataset of 396 patients in which and NDI scores were available SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. Results The mean age for those in the development sample, was 50.4 ± 11.0 years and 33% were male. In the validation sample the mean age was 53.1 ± 9.9 years and 35% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the NDI, neck and arm pain scores were statistically significant (p<0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.62, and 0.50 respectively. The regression equation using NDI alone to predict SF-6D had an R2 of 0.66 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.056. In the validation analysis, there was no statistically

  11. Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores and profiles in African American adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Frank C; Andretta, James R; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores in a sample of 477 African American adolescents who had been arrested in a city in the mid-Atlantic. Using cluster analysis, we also identified profiles of CRIS scores and compared adolescents with different profiles on Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scores. Results indicated that CRIS subscale scores were reliable, and the 6-factor structure of the CRIS was supported. Five nigrescence profiles were identified: Miseducation-Pro-Black, Conflicted-Self-Hatred, Multiculturalist, Low Race Salience, and Conflicted-Anti-White. Individuals with Conflicted-Self-Hatred profiles reported significantly and meaningfully higher scores on the 4 syndromes than did their peers, and individuals with the Multiculturalist and Low Race Salience profiles reported the lowest scores. A greater percentage of individuals with Conflicted racial identity profiles had syndrome scores in the clinically significant range. The results of this study demonstrate that some of the nigrescence profiles found in college-age students generalize to adolescents. The implications of the findings for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Visual analogue scale foot and ankle: validity and reliability of Thai version of the new outcome score in subjective form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha; Suntharapa, Thongchai; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2011-08-01

    Nowadays, measuring score in the form of subjective questionnaires is the important tool for clinical evaluation of the foot and ankle-related problems. VisualAnalogue Scale-Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) is the newly developed subjective questionnaire, which has sufficiency of validity and reliability from a previous study Translate the original English version of VAS-FA into the Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai VAS-FA in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. According to the forward-backward translation protocol, original VAS-FA was translated into the Thai version. Thai VAS-FA and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were distributed to 42 Thai patients to complete. For validation, Thai VAS-FA scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. For reliability, the test-retest reliability and internal consistency were analyzed. Thai VAS-FA score demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF), role physical (RP), bodily pain (BP) domains, and total score of SF-36 (statistically significant with p 0.5 values). The result of reliability revealed highly intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.995 from test-retest study. The internal consistency was excellent with Cronbach alpha: 0.995. The original VAS-FA score is a well-validated, subjective, visual-analogue-scale based outcome score. The Thai version of VAS-FA form maintained the validity and reliability of the original version. This newly translated-validated score can be distributed for the evaluation of the functions, symptoms, and limitation of activities in Thai patients with foot and ankle problems.

  13. Simple diagnostic approach to childhood fecal retention using the Leech score and Bristol stool form scale in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hong; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon; Shin, Jae Il; Chung, Ki Sup

    2010-02-01

    To assess fecal retention, plain abdominal radiography is frequently used to complement the clinical history and physical examination, and three scoring systems have been proposed by Barr, Blethyn, and Leech on a single abdominal radiography. The aim of the present study was to find simple and useful diagnostic tools for an approach to fecal retention by correlation of the three scoring systems with the clinical characteristics. This study included 76 children (5.6-15.4 years, male : female = 33:43) who presented with various gastrointestinal complaints and 20 healthy children from the years 2004-2008. Defecation characteristics, abdominal pain, anorexia and nausea, the Bristol stool form scale, and colonic transit time were studied. Plain abdominal radiographs were independently scored with the three scoring systems by a pediatrician and a radiologist. The k-value of the Leech score (0.912) between two of the observers was higher than the others (Barr 0.870 and Blethyn 0.670), and the correlation coefficients of the Leech scoring system by a pediatrician in relation to the colonic transit time (r = 0.861, P constipated children. Furthermore, there were statistically significant associations between the Leech scoring system and the defecation frequency per week (r = -0.569 and -0.625 in two observers) or abdominal pain (r = 0.574 and 0.567). The Leech score and the Bristol stool form scale may be simple and useful diagnostic tools for pediatricians to access childhood fecal loading in outpatient clinics along with a thorough clinical history.

  14. Glasgow coma scale and APACHE-II scores affect the liver transplantation outcomes in patients with acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Necdet; Unalp, Omer; Guler, Ayse; Yaprak, Onur; Dayangac, Murat; Sozbilen, Murat; Akyildiz, Murat; Tokat, Yaman

    2013-12-01

    The timing and selection of patients for liver transplantation in acute liver failure are great challenges. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and APACHE-II scores on liver transplantation outcomes in patients with acute liver failure. A total of 25 patients with acute liver failure were retrospectively analyzed according to age, etiology, time to transplantation, coma scores, complications and mortality. Eighteen patients received transplants from live donors and 7 had cadaveric whole liver transplants. The mean duration of follow-up after liver transplantation was 39.86+/-40.23 months. Seven patients died within the perioperative period and the 1-, 3-, 5-year survival rates of the patients were 72%, 72% and 60%, respectively. The parameters evaluated for the perioperative deaths versus alive were as follows: the mean age of the patients was 33.71 vs 28 years, MELD score was 40 vs 32.66, GCS was 5.57 vs 10.16, APACHE-II score was 23 vs 18.11, serum sodium level was 138.57 vs 138.44 mmol/L, mean waiting time before the operation was 12 vs 5.16 days. Low GCS, high APACHE-II score and longer waiting time before the operation (PAPACHE-II scores are related to poor outcomes in patients with acute liver failure after liver transplantation.

  15. Factorial Validity of Scores on the Aiken Attitude to Mathematics Scales for Adult Pretertiary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janet A.

    1997-01-01

    The Aiken Attitude to Mathematics Scale (L. Aiken, 1974, 1979) was administered to 430 adult students in a tertiary preparation program, and the factorial validity of the scale was investigated through exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were extracted with high reliabilities, as opposed to Aiken's four-factor structure. (SLD)

  16. Using Out-of-Scale Information To Increase the Precision of Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Nilufer K.; Thompson, Tony; Davey, Tim

    Information provided for computerized adaptive test (CAT) simulees was compared under two conditions on two moderately correlated trait composites, mathematics and reading comprehension. The first condition used information provided by in-scale items alone, while the second condition used information provided by in- and out-of-scale items together…

  17. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  18. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10 in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Qamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD = 6.76 with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%. The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P = 0.011. The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P = 0.392.

  19. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Khadija; Kiani, Muhammad Rizwan Bash; Ayyub, Aisha; Khan, Atif Ahmed; Osama, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD=6.76) with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%). The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P=0.011). The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P=0.392).

  20. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time...

  1. The relationship between nasalance scores and nasality ratings obtained with equal appearing interval and direct magnitude estimation scaling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancamp, Tami U; Lewis, Kerry E; Watterson, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    To assess the nasalance/nasality relationship and Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity when nasality ratings are obtained with both equal appearing interval (EAI) and direct magnitude estimation (DME) scaling procedures. To test the linearity of the relationship between nasality ratings obtained from different perceptual scales. STIMULI: Audio recordings of the Turtle Passage. Participants' nasalance scores and audio recordings were obtained simultaneously. A single judge rated the samples for nasality using both EAI and DME scaling procedures. Thirty-nine participants 3 to 17 years of age. Across participants, resonance ranged from normal to severely hypernasal. Nasalance scores and two nasality ratings. The magnitude of the correlation between nasalance scores and EAI ratings of nasality (r  =  .63) and between nasalance and DME ratings of nasality (r  =  .59) was not significantly different. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity for EAI-rated nasality were .71 and .73, respectively. For DME-rated nasality, sensitivity and specificity were .62 and .70, respectively. Regression of EAI nasality ratings on DME nasality ratings did not depart significantly from linearity. No difference was found in the relationship between nasalance and nasality when nasality was rated using EAI as opposed to DME procedures. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity were similar for EAI- and DME-rated nasality. A linear model accounted for the greatest proportion of explained variance in EAI and DME ratings. Consequently, clinicians should be able to obtain valid and reliable estimates of nasality using EAI or DME.

  2. Inclusion of Highest Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Component Score in Mortality Risk Adjustment for Benchmarking of Trauma Center Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, David; Byrne, James P; Alali, Aziz S; Xiong, Wei; Hoeft, Chris; Neal, Melanie; Subacius, Harris; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity. Currently, the arrival GCS motor component (mGCS) score is used in risk-adjustment models for external benchmarking of mortality. However, there is evidence that the highest mGCS score in the first 24 hours after injury might be a better predictor of death. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of including the highest mGCS score on the performance of risk-adjustment models and subsequent external benchmarking results. Data were derived from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program analytic dataset (January 2014 through March 2015) and were limited to the severe TBI cohort (16 years or older, isolated head injury, GCS ≤8). Risk-adjustment models were created that varied in the mGCS covariates only (initial score, highest score, or both initial and highest mGCS scores). Model performance and fit, as well as external benchmarking results, were compared. There were 6,553 patients with severe TBI across 231 trauma centers included. Initial and highest mGCS scores were different in 47% of patients (n = 3,097). Model performance and fit improved when both initial and highest mGCS scores were included, as evidenced by improved C-statistic, Akaike Information Criterion, and adjusted R-squared values. Three-quarters of centers changed their adjusted odds ratio decile, 2.6% of centers changed outlier status, and 45% of centers exhibited a ≥0.5-SD change in the odds ratio of death after including highest mGCS score in the model. This study supports the concept that additional clinical information has the potential to not only improve the performance of current risk-adjustment models, but can also have a meaningful impact on external benchmarking strategies. Highest mGCS score is a good potential candidate for inclusion in additional models. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability and Validity of Adolescents' Scores on the Body Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Heather; Stanley, Melinda A.

    1997-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Body Esteem Scale (BES) were studied with 255 girls and boys in grades 5 through 12. Internal consistency was found for the gender-specific subscales. Results provide preliminary evidence that the BES may be a psychometrically defensible assessment of body esteem among adolescents. (SLD)

  4. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  5. Associations between MMPI-2-RF validity scale scores and extra-test measures of personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Lee, Tayla T C; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Arbisi, Paul A; Gartland, Diane

    2013-08-01

    The current study explored associations between two potentially invalidating self-report styles detected by the Validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), over-reporting and under-reporting, and scores on the MMPI-2-RF substantive, as well as eight collateral self-report measures administered either at the same time or within 1 to 10 days of MMPI-2-RF administration. Analyses were conducted with data provided by college students, male prisoners, and male psychiatric outpatients from a Veterans Administration facility. Results indicated that if either an over- or under-reporting response style was suggested by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales, scores on the majority of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales, as well as a number of collateral measures, were significantly affected in all three groups in the expected directions. Test takers who were identified as potentially engaging in an over- or under-reporting response style by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales appeared to approach extra-test measures similarly regardless of when these measures were administered in relation to the MMPI-2-RF. Limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.

  6. [Correlation between dental pulp demyelination degree and pain visual analogue scale scores data under acute and chronic pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsantiia, N B; Davarashvili, X T; Gogiashvili, L E; Mamaladze, M T; Tsagareli, Z G; Melikadze, E B

    2013-05-01

    The aim of study is the analysis of pulp nerve fibers demyelination degree and its relationship with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score that may be measured as objective criteria. Material and methods of study. Step I: electron micrografs of dental pulp simples with special interest of myelin structural changes detected in 3 scores system, obtained from 80 patients, displays in 4 groups: 1) acute and 2) chronic pulpitis without and with accompined systemic deseases, 20 patients in each group. Dental care was realized in Kutaisi N1 Dental clinic. Step II - self-reported VAS used for describing dental pain. All data were performed by SPSS 10,0 version statistics including Spearmen-rank and Mann-Whitny coefficients for examine the validity between pulp demyelination degree and pain intensity in verbal, numbered and box scales. Researched Data were shown that damaged myelin as focal decomposition of membranes and Schwann cells hyperthrophia correspond with acute dental pain intensity as Spearman index reported in VAS numbered Scales, myelin and axoplasm degeneration as part of chronic gangrenous pulpitis disorders are in direct correlation with VAS in verbal, numbered and behavioral Rating Scales. In fact, all morphological and subjective data, including psychomotoric assessment of dental painin pulpitis may be used in dental practice for evaluation of pain syndrome considered personal story.

  7. A simple risk score for early ischemic stroke mortality derived from National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: a discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Ali; Kahaki, Zahra Zeynali; Sadeghian, Homa; Fakhri, Mohammad; Pourashraf, Maryam; Parviz, Sara; Ghaffarpour, Majid; Ghabaee, Mojdeh

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to design a new simpler form of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) for use in emergency settings, and compare its predictive ability with original NIHSS score for mortality. A total of 152 consecutive patients with first ever ischemic stroke admitted to a university affiliated hospital were recruited. NIHSS score on admission was estimated and the predictive ability of NIHSS items for mortality at 28 days was evaluated by logistic regression. Stepwise discriminant analysis was performed on NIHSS items to obtain a discriminant function with the best discriminative ability for mortality. Further, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were depicted to compare the new determined discriminant function with the original NIHSS score. Cumulative rate of mortality was 11.8% for 28-day follow-up period. Among NIHSS items, scores of visual field, limb ataxia and extinction neglect were not associated with mortality (P>0.05). On the contrary, level of consciousness-commands, language and gaze were determined as independent indicators of mortality (Pdiscriminant function were equal to 0.65, 0.44 and 0.30, respectively. In addition, area under the ROC curve of the calculated discriminant function was not statistically different from NIHSS score (P>0.05). The suggested discriminant function, comprising NIHSS items of level of consciousness-commands, language and gaze, can predict 28-day mortality after ischemic stroke in a similar way to the original NIHSS score and can provide a baseline for stroke severity in emergency settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Number theory and modular forms papers in memory of Robert A Rankin

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Robert A. Rankin, one of the world's foremost authorities on modular forms and a founding editor of The Ramanujan Journal, died on January 27, 2001, at the age of 85. Rankin had broad interests and contributed fundamental papers in a wide variety of areas within number theory, geometry, analysis, and algebra. To commemorate Rankin's life and work, the editors have collected together 25 papers by several eminent mathematicians reflecting Rankin's extensive range of interests within number theory. Many of these papers reflect Rankin's primary focus in modular forms. It is the editors' fervent hope that mathematicians will be stimulated by these papers and gain a greater appreciation for Rankin's contributions to mathematics. This volume would be an inspiration to students and researchers in the areas of number theory and modular forms.

  9. A Construct Validity Investigation of Scores on the Japanese Version of an Academic Self-Concept Scale for a Sample of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Chie Matsuzawa; Michael, William B.

    The twofold purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and construct validity of scores on the Japanese version of an academic self-concept scale titled the Dimensions of Self-Concept (DOSC) Form H and ascertain any relationships between scores on the DOSC scale and selected demographic variables, including class, gender, and…

  10. A Comparison of the Glasgow Coma Scale Score with Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Scale to Predict Patients’ Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Jalali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neurological assessment is an essential element of early warning scores used to recognize critically ill patients. We compared the performance of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS with Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR scale as an alternative method in the identification of clinically relevant outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of GCS with FOUR scale. Methods. For this study 104 patients with brain injury were recruited from the ICU of Taleghani Hospital, a major teaching hospital in Kermanshah in the western part of Iran. Data was collected concurrently from the ICU admissions by three well-educated nurses and then checked for accuracy by the researcher. Patients were followed up until two weeks or hospital discharge to record their survival status. As a final point expected risk of mortality was calculated using the original formulas for each scale. Results. The mean age of 104 participants was 41.38 ± 18.22 (rang 17 to 86 years mostly (81 patients 77.9% males. The FOUR scale has a better prediction for death than GCS. Conclusion. It appears that FOUR scale had better predictive power for mortality and may be a suitable alternative or complementary tool for GCS.

  11. Associations between Symptom Validity Test failure and scores on the MMPI-2-RF validity and substantive scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Roger O; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between Symptom Validity Test (SVT) failure and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008), in the Forensic Disability Claimant samples described in the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual (Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008 a, 2008b). SVTs used included the Word Memory Test (Green, 2003), the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (Allen, Conder, Green, & Cox, 1997), the Medical Symptom Validity Test (Green, 2004), and the Test of Memory Malingering (Tombaugh, 1996). SVT failure was associated with significant elevations throughout the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales and substantive scales. Pairwise contrasts between groups failing 0 and 3 SVTs revealed predominantly large effect sizes for the overreporting validity scales (d = 0.78-1.11), and many of the substantive scales, including the Cognitive Complaints (COG) scale. Results of this study demonstrate an association between SVT performance and elevated scores on the MMPI-2-RF. These results suggest that exaggeration of cognitive symptoms as demonstrated by SVT failure is also associated with overreported emotional, somatic, and neurocognitive complaints on the MMPI-2-RF.

  12. Vitamin D status and 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale scores in patients in neurocritical care: prospective analysis of 497 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Karsy, Michael; Brock, Andrea A; Eli, Ilyas M; Manton, Gabrielle M; Ledyard, Holly K; Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Park, Min S

    2017-08-11

    OBJECTIVE Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a variety of negative outcomes in critically ill patients, but little focused study on the effects of hypovitaminosis D has been performed in the neurocritical care population. In this study, the authors examined the effect of vitamin D deficiency on 3-month outcomes after discharge from a neurocritical care unit (NCCU). METHODS The authors prospectively analyzed 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients admitted to the NCCU of a quaternary care center over a 6-month period. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were used to evaluate their 3-month outcome, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the effects of vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS Four hundred ninety-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. In the binomial logistic regression model, patients without vitamin D deficiency (> 20 ng/dl) were significantly more likely to have a 3-month GOS score of 4 or 5 than those who were vitamin D deficient (OR 1.768 [95% CI 1.095-2.852]). Patients with a higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) (OR 0.925 [95% CI 0.910-0.940]) and those admitted for stroke (OR 0.409 [95% CI 0.209-0.803]) or those with an "other" diagnosis (OR 0.409 [95% CI 0.217-0.772]) were significantly more likely to have a 3-month GOS score of 3 or less. CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse 3-month postdischarge GOS scores in patients admitted to an NCCU. Additional study is needed to determine the role of vitamin D supplementation in the NCCU population.

  13. Sequence analysis of annually normalized citation counts: an empirical analysis based on the characteristic scores and scales (CSS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Ye, Adam Y; Ye, Fred Y

    2017-01-01

    In bibliometrics, only a few publications have focused on the citation histories of publications, where the citations for each citing year are assessed. In this study, therefore, annual categories of field- and time-normalized citation scores (based on the characteristic scores and scales method: 0 = poorly cited, 1 = fairly cited, 2 = remarkably cited, and 3 = outstandingly cited) are used to study the citation histories of papers. As our dataset, we used all articles published in 2000 and their annual citation scores until 2015. We generated annual sequences of citation scores (e.g., [Formula: see text]) and compared the sequences of annual citation scores of six broader fields (natural sciences, engineering and technology, medical and health sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities). In agreement with previous studies, our results demonstrate that sequences with poorly cited (0) and fairly cited (1) elements dominate the publication set; sequences with remarkably cited (3) and outstandingly cited (4) periods are rare. The highest percentages of constantly poorly cited papers can be found in the social sciences; the lowest percentages are in the agricultural sciences and humanities. The largest group of papers with remarkably cited (3) and/or outstandingly cited (4) periods shows an increasing impact over the citing years with the following orders of sequences: [Formula: see text] (6.01%), which is followed by [Formula: see text] (1.62%). Only 0.11% of the papers (n = 909) are constantly on the outstandingly cited level.

  14. Admission Norton scale scores (ANSS) and postoperative complications following hip fracture surgery in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Aviram; Sever, Ronen; Lerman, Yaffa; Salai, Moshe; Justo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine if low ANSS, usually associated with high pressure ulcer risk, are also associated with postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality following hip fracture surgery in the elderly. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary medical center. The medical charts of consecutive elderly (≥ 65 years) patients admitted for hip fracture surgery were studied for the following measurements: ANSS, demographic data, co-morbidities, postoperative complications, the need for revision procedures, and in-hospital mortality. Except for pressure ulcers, postoperative complications included: acute coronary syndrome, acute renal failure, confusion, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, venous thromboembolism, and wound infection. The final cohort included 269 patients: 198 (73.6%) females and 71 (26.4%) males. Mean age for the entire cohort was 82.8 ± 0.4 years. Most patients underwent an internal fixation (n=146; 54.3%) or hemiarthroplasty (n=92; 34.2%). Overall, 110 (40.9%) patients had low (<15) ANSS. Patients with low ANSS had significantly more postoperative complications relative to patients with high ANSS (0.77 ± 0.09 vs. 0.23 ± 0.04; p<0.0001). Among all postoperative complications, urinary tract infection was independently associated with low ANSS (p<0.0001). ANSS were independently associated with postoperative complications (p<0.0001), the need for revision procedures (p=0.019), and in-hospital mortality (p=0.016). We conclude that the Norton scoring system may be used for predicting postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality following hip fracture surgery in the elderly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rethinking Racism in Claudia Rankine's Citizen: An American Lyric

    OpenAIRE

    Hersi, Asli

    2016-01-01

    The issue of race in America in the twenty-first century is still a turbulent matter. The end of segregation in schools, politics, marriages and workplaces created a mask that hid racial inequalities and injustices (Whitmarsh 1). In a time where police brutalities have frequently surfaced in the media in a supposed “post-racial America”, Claudia Rankine writes a thought-provoking 160 page long “book-length poem” about everyday racism arguing that the overlooking of microaggressions (brief dai...

  16. Rethinking Racism in Claudia Rankine's Citizen: An American Lyric

    OpenAIRE

    Hersi, Asli

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Literacy studies The issue of race in America in the twenty-first century is still a turbulent matter. The end of segregation in schools, politics, marriages and workplaces created a mask that hid racial inequalities and injustices (Whitmarsh 1). In a time where police brutalities have frequently surfaced in the media in a supposed “post-racial America”, Claudia Rankine writes a thought-provoking 160 page long “book-length poem” about everyday racism arguing that the ove...

  17. Organic Rankine Cycle System Analysis for Low GWP Working Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Datla, Bala Varma; Brasz, Joost

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has seen a substantial increase in Organic Rankine Cycle system installations for low temperature waste heat power recovery. The availability of HFC245fa has played a major role in this recent surge in ORC systems since it allows the use of existing HVAC hardware (heat exchangers and compressors) to be used as ORC components (turbines, boilers and condensers) with minimal redesign. The environmental drawback of HFC245fa is its relatively high GWP value of 950. The advent of a ...

  18. The influence of demeanor on scores from two validated feline pain assessment scales during the perioperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisman, Mandy; Hasiuk, Michelle M M; Gunn, Marta; Pang, Daniel S J

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of demeanor on validated pain assessment scales. Prospective, blind, clinical trial. Thirty three adult domestic cats scheduled for orchiectomy. Cats were assessed for pain pre (baseline) and 1, 2, 4 hours postoperatively using two validated pain scales [Composite Measures Pain Scale-Feline (rCMPS-F) and UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale (psychomotor and pain expression subscales; U-B MCPS-psych and -painex)], and a demeanor scale. Return of sternal recumbency and postoperative feeding were recorded. Anesthesia consisted of a single intramuscular injection of dexmedetomidine-ketamine-hydromorphone with intratesticular lidocaine and atipamezole and meloxicam postoperatively. Following data collection, cats were assigned to two groups based on baseline demeanor scores (LO ≤ 5/21, 18 cats; HI ≥ 6/21, 15 cats) and data from each group compared. Baseline demeanor predicted pain scores with the U-B MCPS-psych scale: baseline [LO 0 (0-0), HI 2 (0-6), p = 0.0005], 1 hour [LO 1 (0-5), HI 3 (1-5), p = 0.02], and 4 hours [LO 0 (0-2), HI 1 (0-6), p = 0.01]. A similar pattern was observed with the rCMPS-F. This resulted in more crossings of the analgesic intervention threshold in the HI group: U-B UNESP-psych (9 versus 1, p = 0.005) and rCMPS-F (23 versus 3, p  0.99), 1 hour (p = 0.34), 2 hours (p > 0.99) and 4 hours (p = 0.31). LO cats ate sooner (61% versus 33% by 1 hour, p psych and rCMPS-F scales, but not U-B UNESP-painex scale. Demeanor had a significant effect on postoperative feeding. These data highlight the potential for demeanor to confound pain assessment. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography Prognostic Score for Basilar Artery Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemseged, Fana; Shah, Darshan G; Diomedi, Marina; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Bivard, Andrew; Sharma, Gagan; Mitchell, Peter J; Dowling, Richard J; Bush, Steven; Yan, Bernard; Caltagirone, Carlo; Floris, Roberto; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher R; Davis, Stephen M; Campbell, Bruce C V

    2017-03-01

    Basilar artery occlusion is associated with high risk of disability and mortality. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of a new radiological score: the Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography (BATMAN) score. A retrospective analysis of consecutive stroke patients with basilar artery occlusion diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography was performed. BATMAN score is a 10-point computed tomographic angiography-based grading system which incorporates thrombus burden and the presence of collaterals. Reliability was assessed with intraclass coefficient correlation. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score of ≤3 at 3 months and successful reperfusion as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b-3. BATMAN score was externally validated and compared with the Posterior Circulation Collateral score. The derivation cohort included 83 patients with 41 in the validation cohort. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, BATMAN score had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9) in derivation cohort and an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.6-0.9) in validation cohort. In logistic regression adjusted for age and clinical severity, BATMAN score of BATMAN score of BATMAN score had greater accuracy compared with Posterior Circulation Collateral score ( P =0.04). The addition of collateral quality to clot burden in BATMAN score seems to improve prognostic accuracy in basilar artery occlusion patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Role of APACHE II scoring system in the prediction of severity and outcome of acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Chen, Jianping; Zhong, Shanquan; Yuan, Jianqing

    2016-11-01

    Acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is prone to multiple organ dysfunction and has high disability and mortality. This study was to determine the role of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system in the prediction of severity and outcome of acute ICH. A total of 546 ICH patients were prospectively recruited between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014. Patients were divided into three groups according to the APACHE II scores: low score group (5-16), moderate score group (17-28) and high score group (≥29). The ICH volume and location, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, Glasgow Coma Score and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were used to assess the severity of acute ICH. Global outcome at three months was evaluated with the mRS. Of 479 patients, the average age was 56.4 ± 3.4 years, 287 (59.9%) survived and 192 (40.1%) died. Results showed that the higher the APACHE II score, the higher the mortality was; the average hospital stay, ICH volume, NIHSS scores, mRS scores and survival rate were significantly different among three APACHE II groups (p APACHE II scores were able to predict the mortality and correlated positively with actual mortality (r = 0.84, p APACHE II scoring system can be used to predict the severity and outcome of acute ICH.

  1. Time domain Rankine-Green panel method for offshore structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifu; Ren, Huilong; Liu, Riming; Li, Hui

    2017-02-01

    To solve the numerical divergence problem of the direct time domain Green function method for the motion simulation of floating bodies with large flare, a time domain hybrid Rankine-Green boundary element method is proposed. In this numerical method, the fluid domain is decomposed by an imaginary control surface, at which the continuous condition should be satisfied. Then the Rankine Green function is adopted in the inner domain. The transient free surface Green function is applied in the outer domain, which is used to find the relationship between the velocity potential and its normal derivative for the inner domain. Besides, the velocity potential at the mean free surface between body surface and control surface is directly solved by the integration scheme. The wave exciting force is computed through the convolution integration with wave elevation, by introducing the impulse response function. Additionally, the nonlinear Froude-Krylov force and hydrostatic force, which is computed under the instantaneous incident wave free surface, are taken into account by the direct pressure integration scheme. The corresponding numerical computer code is developed and first used to compute the hydrodynamic coefficients of the hemisphere, as well as the time history of a ship with large flare; good agreement is obtained with the analytical solutions as well as the available numerical results. Then the hydrodynamic properties of a FPSO are studied. The hydrodynamic coefficients agree well with the results computed by the frequency method; the influence of the time interval and the truncated time is investigated in detail.

  2. A Reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale's Total Score: Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica López

    Full Text Available The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS is currently the only self-report instrument to measure self-compassion. The SCS is widely used despite the limited evidence for the scale's psychometric properties, with validation studies commonly performed in college students. The current study examined the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS in a large representative sample from the community. The study was conducted in 1,736 persons, of whom 1,643 were included in the analyses. Besides the SCS, data was collected on positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning, as well as on rumination and neuroticism. Analyses included confirmatory factor analyses (CFA, exploratory factor analyses (EFA, and correlations. CFA showed that the SCS's proposed six-factor structure could not be replicated. EFA suggested a two-factor solution, formed by the positively and negatively formulated items respectively. Internal consistency was good for the two identified factors. The negative factor (i.e., sum score of the negatively formulated items correlated moderately to strongly to negative affect, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, as well as to rumination and neuroticism. Compared to this negative factor, the positive factor (i.e., sum score of the positively formulated items correlated weaker to these indicators, and relatively more strongly to positive affect. Results from this study do not justify the common use of the SCS total score as an overall indicator of self-compassion, and provide support for the idea, as also assumed by others, that it is important to make a distinction between self-compassion and self-criticism.

  3. The scores of Hamilton depression, anxiety, and panic agoraphobia rating scales in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Mutlu; Acer, Mehmet; Akbaş, Berfu

    2008-02-01

    Psychological factors may influence the development and prognosis of coronary heart disease. The purpose of this study was to measure levels of depression, anxiety, and panic agoraphobia in patients who had been treated for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We attempted to evaluate the relationship of the scores of depression, anxiety and panic agoraphobia, coronary risk factors, some clinical variables and coronary heart disease. We evaluated the levels of depression, anxiety, and panic agoraphobia of patients who had been treated for ACS, using the Hamilton depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton anxiety (HAM-A), and the Hamilton panic agoraphobia (HAM-PA) rating scales in 82 patients underwent treatment for acute coronary syndrome in this cross-sectional observational study. The relationship of these psychological variables with gender, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and coronary revascularization were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired t test for independent samples and Chi-square test. The majority of the patients were male (54 males and 28 females); the mean age of the patients was 61.9 +/- 12.1 years; 46% were admitted for unstable angina, 37.8% for acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST elevation, and 16.7% with non-ST-elevation MI. Depressive symptoms (HAM-D score>8) were present in 87.8% of the patients. The HAM-D score was closely related to the HAM-A and the HAM-PA scores (ppanic agoraphobia were particularly common findings in female patients and in those patients with diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and CVD. Depression and anxiety disorder may be prevalent in patients who had been treated for ACS. We believe that patients should be carefully followed and treated for depression and anxiety disorder after ACS treatment to prevent adverse outcomes.

  4. Analyzing Multidimensional Response Data Structure Represented by Unidimensional IRT Models To Increase the Precision of Scoring Using Out-of-Scale Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Nilufer K.

    This study investigated specific conditions under which out-of-scale information improves measurement precision and the factors that influence the degree of reliability gains and the amount of bias induced in the reported scores when out-of-scale information is used. In-scale information is information that an item provides for a composite trait…

  5. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycl...

  6. Pittsburgh response to endovascular therapy score as a pre-treatment prognostic tool: External validation in Trevo2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Raza, Syed; Xiang, Bin; Jovin, Tudor G; Liebeskind, David S; Shields, Ryan; Nogueira, Raul G; Rangaraju, Srikant

    2017-07-01

    Background Optimal patient selection is needed to maximize the therapeutic benefit of endovascular therapy for large vessel occlusion stroke. Aims To validate the Pittsburgh response to endovascular therapy (PRE) score in a randomized controlled trial (Trevo2) comparing stent retriever (Trevo) to the Merci device. Methods Trevo2 participants with internal carotid, M1 and M2 middle cerebral artery occlusions with prospectively collected baseline stroke severity (NIHSS), degree of hypodensity (CT ASPECTS), and three-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were included. Multivariable regression was used to confirm association between PRE score variables (age, NIHSS, and ASPECTS), medical comorbidities, randomization arm, and reperfusion status (mTICI2B/3) with good outcome (three-month modified Rankin Scale 0-2). Predictive power (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) for good outcome of pre-treatment prognostic scores (PRE, THRIVE, HIAT2) was compared. Rates of good outcome were compared between successfully reperfused (mTICI2B/3) and non-reperfused (mTICI0-2A) patients across previously identified PRE score risk groups. Results Age, NIHSS, ASPECTS, reperfusion status, and randomization arm were independent predictors of good outcome. PRE score had moderate predictive power (AUC = 0.75) for good outcome and was comparable to other pre-treatment scores. Reperfusion resulted in maximal treatment benefit in patients with PRE score 0-24 (60% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.002) but not in those with PRE ≥50 (11.8% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.49). Conclusion The PRE score is a validated predictor of functional outcome and a tool for patient selection for endovascular therapy in anterior large vessel occlusion stroke. Our finding of limited benefit of reperfusion in patients with PRE score ≥50 needs to be prospectively validated.

  7. Altheim geothermal plant. Power generation by means of an ORC turbogenerator; Geothermieanlagen Altheim. Stromerzeugung mittels Organic-Rankine-Cycle Turbogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernecker, G. [Marktgemeindeamt Altheim (Austria)

    1997-12-01

    The report describes the project of the Austrian market town of Altheim to generate electricity by means of an ORC turbogenerator using low-temperature thermal water. The project is to improve the technical and economic situation of the existing industrial-scale geothermal project. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht beschreibt das Vorhaben der Marktgemeinde Altheim in Oberoesterreich, Strom mittels eines Organic-Rankine-Cycle-Turbogenerators unter Verwendung niedrig temperierten Thermalwassers zu produzieren. Ziel bzw. der Zweck des Projektes ist es, die technische und wirtschaftliche Situation der bestehenden Grossthermieanlage zu verbessern. (orig.)

  8. Design of organic Rankine cycles using a non-conventional optimization approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, J. G.; Larsen, Ulrik; Haglind, F.

    2015-01-01

    The organic Rankine cycle is a suitable technology for utilizing low grade heat for electricity production. Compared to the traditional steam Rankine cycle, the organic Rankine cycle is beneficial, since it enables the choice of a working fluid which performs better than steam at low heat input...... temperatures and at lowpower outputs. Selecting the process layout of the organic Rankine cycle and the working fluid are two key design decisions which are critical for the thermodynamic and economic performance of the cycle. The prevailing approach used in the design and optimization of organic Rankine...... product of the overall heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer area) is assigned to the cycle, while the distribution of this total UA-value to each of the heat exchangers is optimized. Optimizations are carried out for three different marine engine waste heatsources at temperatures ranging from...

  9. Optimal design of compact organic Rankine cycle units for domestic solar applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbazza Luca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators are a promising technology to transform the solar radiation harvested by solar collectors into electric power. The present work aims at sizing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle unit by tailoring its design for domestic solar applications. Stringent design criteria, i. e., compactness, high performance and safe operation, are targeted by adopting a multi-objective optimization approach modeled with the genetic algorithm. Design-point thermodynamic variables, e. g., evaporating pressure, the working fluid, minimum allowable temperature differences, and the equipment geometry, are the decision variables. Flat plate heat exchangers with herringbone corrugations are selected as heat transfer equipment for the preheater, the evaporator and the condenser. The results unveil the hyperbolic trend binding the net power output to the heat exchanger compactness. Findings also suggest that the evaporator and condenser minimum allowable temperature differences have the largest impact on the system volume and on the cycle performances. Among the fluids considered, the results indicate that R1234yf and R1234ze are the best working fluid candidates. Using flat plate solar collectors (hot water temperature equal to 75 °C, R1234yf is the optimal solution. The heat exchanger volume ranges between 6.0 and 23.0 dm3, whereas the thermal efficiency is around 4.5%. R1234ze is the best working fluid employing parabolic solar collectors (hot water temperature equal to 120 °C. In such case the thermal efficiency is around 6.9%, and the heat exchanger volume varies from 6.0 to 18.0 dm3.

  10. 2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain Scores for Forecasting Well-Being from Service-Based Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain scores used to support the approach for forecasting EPA's Human Well-Being Index. A modeling approach was developed...

  11. Comparison of current injury scales for survival chance estimation: an evaluation comparing the predictive performance of the ISS, NISS, and AP scores in a Dutch local trauma registration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, S.P.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Edwards, M.J.R.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prediction of survival chances for trauma patients is a basic requirement for evaluation of trauma care. The current methods are the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and A Severity Characterization of Trauma (ASCOT). Scales for scoring injury severity are part of these methods.

  12. Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

  13. Challenging comparison of stroke scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke scales can be classified as clinicometric scales and functional impairment, handicap scales. All studies describing stroke scales were reviewed by internet searching engines with the final search performed on January 1, 2013. The following string of keywords was entered into search engines; stroke, scale, score and disability. Despite advantages of modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Scandinavian stroke scale comparing to the NIHSS, including their simplification and less inter-rater variability; most of the stroke neurologists around the world continue using the NIHSS. The modified Rankin scale (mRS and Barthel index (BI are widely used functional impairment and disability scales. Distinction between grades of mRS is poorly defined. The Asian stroke disability scale is a simplified functional impairment, handicap scale which is as valid as mRS and BI. At the present time, the NIHSS, mRS and BI are routine stroke scales because physicians have used to work with these scales for more than two decades, although it could not be an acceptable reason. On the other side, results of previous stroke trials, which are the basis of stroke management guidelines are driven using these scales.

  14. Do Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale score changes indicate risk of receiving sick leave benefits 1 year after a pain rehabilitation programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme.......To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme....

  15. Observed Agreement Problems between Sub-Scales and Summary Components of the SF-36 Version 2 - An Alternative Scoring Method Can Correct the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Graeme; Adams, Robert; Wilson, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A number of previous studies have shown inconsistencies between sub-scale scores and component summary scores using traditional scoring methods of the SF-36 version 1. This study addresses the issue in Version 2 and asks if the previous problems of disagreement between the eight SF-36 Version 1 sub-scale scores and the Physical and Mental Component Summary persist in version 2. A second study objective is to review the recommended scoring methods for the creation of factor scoring weights and the effect on producing summary scale scores Methods The 2004 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey dataset was used for the production of coefficients. There were 3,014 observations with full data for the SF-36. Data were analysed in LISREL V8.71. Confirmatory factor analysis models were fit to the data producing diagonally weighted least squares estimates. Scoring coefficients were validated on an independent dataset, the 2008 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. Results Problems of agreement were observed with the recommended orthogonal scoring methods which were corrected using confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusions Confirmatory factor analysis is the preferred method to analyse SF-36 data, allowing for the correlation between physical and mental health. PMID:23593428

  16. Organic Rankine Kilowatt Isotope Power System. Final phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-15

    On 1 August 1975 under Department of Energy Contract EN-77-C-02-4299, Sundstrand Energy Systems commenced development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980s and beyond. The KIPS is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W/sub (e)/ with a minimum of system changes. The principal objectives of the Phase 1 development effort were to: conceptually design a flight system; design a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) that is prototypic of the flight system in order to prove the feasibility of the flight system design; fabricate and assemble the GDS; and performance and endurance test the GDS using electric heaters in lieu of the isotope heat source. Results of the work performed under the Phase 1 contract to 1 July 1978 are presented.

  17. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  18. Affordable Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami Nathan [Eaton Corporation

    2017-06-30

    Nearly 30% of fuel energy is not utilized and wasted in the engine exhaust. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems offer a promising approach on waste energy recovery and improving the efficiency of Heavy-Duty diesel engines. Major barriers in the ORC WHR system are the system cost and controversial waste heat recovery working fluids. More than 40% of the system cost is from the additional heat exchangers (recuperator, condenser and tail pipe boiler). The secondary working fluid loop designed in ORC system is either flammable or environmentally sensitive. The Eaton team investigated a novel approach to reduce the cost of implementing ORC based WHR systems to Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines while utilizing safest working fluids. Affordable Rankine Cycle (ARC) concept aimed to define the next generation of waste energy recuperation with a cost optimized WHR system. ARC project used engine coolant as the working fluid. This approach reduced the need for a secondary working fluid circuit and subsequent complexity. A portion of the liquid phase engine coolant has been pressurized through a set of working fluid pumps and used to recover waste heat from the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust tail pipe exhaust energy. While absorbing heat, the mixture is partially vaporized but remains a wet binary mixture. The pressurized mixed-phase engine coolant mixture is then expanded through a fixed-volume ratio expander that is compatible with two-phase conditions. Heat rejection is accomplished through the engine radiator, avoiding the need for a separate condenser. The ARC system has been investigated for PACCAR’s MX-13 HD diesel engine.

  19. Validity of a Diagnostic Scale for Acupuncture: Application of the Item Response Theory to the Five Viscera Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Tomura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In acupuncture therapy, diagnosis, acupoints, and stimulation for patients with the same illness are often inconsistent among between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM practitioners. This is in part due to the paucity of evidence-based diagnostic methods in TCM. To solve this problem, establishment of validated diagnostic tool is inevitable. We first applied the Item Response Theory (IRT model to the Five Viscera Score (FVS to test its validity by evaluating the ability of the questionnaire items to identify an individual’s latent traits. Next, the health-related QOL scale (SF-36, a suitable instrument for evaluating acupuncture therapy, was administered to evaluate whether the FVS can be used to make a health-related diagnosis. All 20 items of the FVS had adequate item discrimination, and 13 items had high item discrimination power. Measurement accuracy was suited for application in a range of individuals, from healthy to symptomatic. When the FVS and SF-36 were administered to other subjects, a part of which overlap with the first subjects, we found an association between the two scales, and the same findings were obtained when symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects were compared regardless of age and sex. In conclusion, the FVS may be effective in clinical diagnosis.

  20. Comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting mortality in critically ill patients*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Kramer, Andrew A; Rohs, Thomas; Hanna, Susan; Sadaka, Farid; O'Brien, Jacklyn; Bible, Shonna; Dickess, Stacy M; Foss, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness has been incorporated in prediction models that are used in the ICU. The Glasgow Coma Scale has value but is incomplete and cannot be assessed in intubated patients accurately. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score may be a better predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. Thirteen ICUs at five U.S. hospitals. One thousand six hundred ninety-five consecutive unselected ICU admissions during a six-month period in 2012. Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score were recorded within 1 hour of admission. Baseline characteristics and physiologic components of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system, as well as mortality were linked to Glasgow Coma Scale/Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score information. None. We recruited 1,695 critically ill patients, of which 1,645 with complete data could be linked to data in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of predicting ICU mortality using the Glasgow Coma Scale was 0.715 (95% CI, 0.663-0.768) and using the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was 0.742 (95% CI, 0.694-0.790), statistically different (p = 0.001). A similar but nonsignificant difference was found for predicting hospital mortality (p = 0.078). The respiratory and brainstem reflex components of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score showed a much wider range of mortality than the verbal component of Glasgow Coma Scale. In multivariable models, the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was more useful than the Glasgow Coma Scale for predicting mortality. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score might be a better prognostic tool of ICU mortality than the Glasgow Coma Scale in critically ill patients, most likely a result of incorporating brainstem reflexes and respiration into the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score.

  1. The Use of Quality Control and Data Mining Techniques for Monitoring Scaled Scores: An Overview. Research Report. ETS RR-12-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Alina A.

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining comparability of test scores is a major challenge faced by testing programs that have almost continuous administrations. Among the potential problems are scale drift and rapid accumulation of errors. Many standard quality control techniques for testing programs, which can effectively detect and address scale drift for small numbers of…

  2. Association between the sense of coherence 13-item version scale score of pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy and threatened premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizuka-Kagami, Naomi; Shimada, Keiko; Tabuchi, Noriko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the score of the sense of coherence 13-item version (SOC-13) scale in the second trimester of pregnancy is associated with threatened premature birth. All the subjects gave their informed written consent before their participation in the study. A self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted on the pregnant women at approximately 18 weeks of pregnancy. The questionnaire consisted of items on demographic characteristics, perinatal abnormalities, stress perception scale (SPS), and SOC-13 scale. Approximately 30 weeks of pregnancy after the first survey, we surveyed whether any treatment had been provided for threatened premature birth during the course of the current pregnancy. The study period was from December 2007 to February 2010. One hundred and seventy-seven pregnant women participated in the study, but only the data from 151 pregnant women were analyzed. Forty-three (28.5%) pregnant women had threatened premature birth and received some treatment. Logistic regression analysis was carried out with threatened premature birth as the dependent variable and age, childbirth history, smoking habit, history of miscarriage or premature birth in previous pregnancies, SPS score, and SOC-13 scale score as the independent variables. It was shown that SOC-13 scale score affected threatened premature birth (p premature birth. This study suggests that the SOC-13 scale score in the second trimester of pregnancy could be of great value in clinical health care of pregnant women with a risk of threatened premature birth in the subsequent course of pregnancy.

  3. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FLUOROETHERS AS A WORKING FLUIDS FOR LOW TEMPERATURE ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemenko S.V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrofluoroethers as a new class of working fluids for the organic Rankine cycle have been considered to utilize the low-potential waste heat. Temperature range 300…400 K was chosen to provide energy conversion of waste heat from fuel cells. The direct assessment of the efficiency criteria for the Rankine cycle via artificial neural networks (ANN was used. To create ANN the critical parameters of substance and normal boiling temperature as input were chosen. The forecast of efficiency criteria for the Rankine cycle as output parameter which reproduces the coefficient of performance with high accuracy and without thermodynamic property calculations was presented.

  5. MMPI-A scores and high points of male juvenile delinquents: scales 4, 5, and 6 as markers of juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Todd L; Farris, Kelly L; Brenowitz, Lisa H

    2002-09-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) clinical, supplementary, and content scale score patterns for 655 male delinquents were examined. Low scores on Scale 5 (Masculinity/Femininity) were found to be the most frequent deviation, followed by elevations on Scales 6 (Paranoia) and 4 (Psychopathic Deviate). This is consistent with previous research, although the importance of Scale 5 deviations has been little noted because of the traditional focus on scale elevations only. Classification analysis indicated that a combination of MMPI-A scales discriminated between this delinquent sample and the normative sample, with a sensitivity of 90%-95% and a specificity of 80%-85%. This level of sensitivity was maintained in a replication sample (N = 473).

  6. Analysis of a rotating spool expander for Organic Rankine Cycle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Abhinav

    Increasing interest in recovering or utilizing low-grade heat for power generation has prompted a search for ways in which the power conversion process may be enhanced. Amongst the conversion systems, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has generated an enormous amount of interest amongst researchers and system designers. Nevertheless, component level technologies need to be developed and match the range of potential applications. In particular, technical challenges associated with scaling expansion machines (turbines) from utility scale to commercial scale have prevented widespread adoption of the technology. In this regard, this work focuses on a novel rotating spool expansion machine at the heart of an Organic Rankine Cycle. A comprehensive, deterministic simulation model of the rotating spool expander is developed. The comprehensive model includes a detailed geometry model of the spool expander and the suction valve mechanism. Sub-models for mass flow, leakage, heat transfer and friction within the expander are also developed. Apart from providing the ability to characterize the expander in a particular system, the model provides a valuable tool to study the impact of various design variables on the performance of the machine. The investigative approach also involved an experimental program to assess the performance of a working prototype. In general, the experimental data showed that the expander performance was sub-par, largely due to the mismatch of prevailing operating conditions and the expander design criteria. Operating challenges during the shakedown tests and subsequent sub-optimal design changes also detracted from performance. Nevertheless, the results of the experimental program were sufficient for a proof-of-concept assessment of the expander and for model validation over a wide range of operating conditions. The results of the validated model reveal several interesting details concerning the expander design and performance. For example, the match

  7. The use of the SF-36 questionnaire in adult survivors of childhood cancer: evaluation of data quality, score reliability, and scaling assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter David L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 has been used in a number of previous studies that have investigated the health status of childhood cancer survivors, but it never has been evaluated regarding data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability in this population. As health status among childhood cancer survivors is being increasingly investigated, it is important that the measurement instruments are reliable, validated and appropriate for use in this population. The aim of this paper was to determine whether the SF-36 questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing self-perceived health status of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We examined the SF-36 to see how it performed with respect to (1 data completeness, (2 distribution of the scale scores, (3 item-internal consistency, (4 item-discriminant validity, (5 internal consistency, and (6 scaling assumptions. For this investigation we used SF-36 data from a population-based study of 10,189 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results Overall, missing values ranged per item from 0.5 to 2.9 percent. Ceiling effects were found to be highest in the role limitation-physical (76.7% and role limitation-emotional (76.5% scales. All correlations between items and their hypothesised scales exceeded the suggested standard of 0.40 for satisfactory item-consistency. Across all scales, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability was found to be higher than the suggested value of 0.70. Consistent across all cancer groups, the physical health related scale scores correlated strongly with the Physical Component Summary (PCS scale scores and weakly with the Mental Component Summary (MCS scale scores. Also, the mental health and role limitation-emotional scales correlated strongly with the MCS scale score and weakly with the PCS scale score. Moderate to strong correlations with both summary scores were found for the general health perception, energy/vitality, and social functioning

  8. Pavement scores synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to summarize the use of pavement scores by the states, including the : rating methods used, the score scales, and descriptions; if the scores are used for recommending pavement : maintenance and rehabilitation action...

  9. Knowledge discovery and data mining in psychology: Using decision trees to predict the Sensation Seeking Scale score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kastrin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge discovery from data is an interdisciplinary research field combining technology and knowledge from domains of statistics, databases, machine learning and artificial intelligence. Data mining is the most important part of knowledge discovery process. The objective of this paper is twofold. The first objective is to point out the qualitative shift in research methodology due to evolving knowledge discovery technology. The second objective is to introduce the technique of decision trees to psychological domain experts. We illustrate the utility of the decision trees on the prediction model of sensation seeking. Prediction of the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V score was based on the bundle of Eysenck's personality traits and Pavlovian temperament properties. Predictors were operationalized on the basis of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and Slovenian adaptation of the Pavlovian Temperament Survey (SVTP. The standard statistical technique of multiple regression was used as a baseline method to evaluate the decision trees methodology. The multiple regression model was the most accurate model in terms of predictive accuracy. However, the decision trees could serve as a powerful general method for initial exploratory data analysis, data visualization and knowledge discovery.

  10. Inter-rater reliability of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used scoring system for comatose patients in intensive care. Limitations of the GCS include the impossibility to assess the verbal score in intubated or aphasic patients, and an inconsistent inter-rater reliability. The FOUR (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness) score, a new coma scale not reliant on verbal response, was recently proposed. The aim of the present study was to compare the inter-rater reliability of the GCS and the FOUR score among unselected patients in general critical care. A further aim was to compare the inter-rater reliability of neurologists with that of intensive care unit (ICU) staff. Methods In this prospective observational study, scoring of GCS and FOUR score was performed by neurologists and ICU staff on 267 consecutive patients admitted to intensive care. Results In a total of 437 pair wise ratings the exact inter-rater agreement for the GCS was 71%, and for the FOUR score 82% (P = 0.0016); the inter-rater agreement within a range of ± 1 score point for the GCS was 90%, and for the FOUR score 92% (P = ns.). The exact inter-rater agreement among neurologists was superior to that among ICU staff for the FOUR score (87% vs. 79%, P = 0.04) but not for the GCS (73% vs. 73%). Neurologists and ICU staff did not significantly differ in the inter-rater agreement within a range of ± 1 score point for both GCS (88% vs. 93%) and the FOUR score (91% vs. 88%). Conclusions The FOUR score performed better than the GCS for exact inter-rater agreement, but not for the clinically more relevant agreement within the range of ± 1 score point. Though neurologists outperformed ICU staff with regard to exact inter-rater agreement, the inter-rater agreement of ICU staff within the clinically more relevant range of ± 1 score point equalled that of the neurologists. The small advantage in inter-rater reliability of the FOUR score is most likely insufficient to replace the GCS, a score with a long

  11. What score on the Vancouver Scar Scale constitutes a hypertrophic scar? Results from a survey of North American burn-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Callie M; Sood, Ravi F; Honari, Shari; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Gibran, Nicole S

    2015-11-01

    Reliable characterization of a hypertrophic scar (HTS) is integral to epidemiologic studies designed to identify clinical and genetic risk factors for HTS. The Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) has been widely used for this purpose; however, no publication has defined what score on this scale corresponds to a clinical diagnosis of HTS. In a survey of 1000 burn care providers, we asked respondents what VSS score indicates a HTS and asked them to score scar photos using the VSS. We used receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate VSS sub-scores and their combinations in diagnosis of HTS. Of 130 responses (13.5%), most were physicians (43.9%) who had worked in burn care for over 10 years (63.1%) and did not use the VSS in clinical practice (58.5%). There was no consensus as to what VSS score indicates a diagnosis of HTS. VSS height score (0-3) performed best for diagnosis of HTS; using a cut-off of ≥1, height score was 99.5% sensitive and 85.9% specific for HTS. Burn clinicians do not routinely use the VSS and perceptions vary widely regarding what constitutes a HTS. When a dichotomous variable is needed, the VSS height score with a cut-off of ≥1 may be optimal. Our findings underscore the need for an objective tool to reproducibly characterize HTS across burn centers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Powered Vapor Compression Ice Maker Using Solar Energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Bing; Bu, Xianbiao; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

      To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working...

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of a Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker using solar energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Bing; Bu, Xianbiao; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working...

  14. Rankin-Selberg methods for closed string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2014-01-01

    After integrating over supermoduli and vertex operator positions, scattering amplitudes in superstring theory at genus $h\\leq 3$ are reduced to an integral of a Siegel modular function of degree $h$ on a fundamental domain of the Siegel upper half plane. A direct computation is in general unwieldy, but becomes feasible if the integrand can be expressed as a sum over images under a suitable subgroup of the Siegel modular group: if so, the integration domain can be extended to a simpler domain at the expense of keeping a single term in each orbit -- a technique known as the Rankin-Selberg method. Motivated by applications to BPS-saturated amplitudes, Angelantonj, Florakis and I have applied this technique to one-loop modular integrals where the integrand is the product of a Siegel-Narain theta function times a weakly, almost holomorphic modular form. I survey our main results, and take some steps in extending this method to genus greater than one.

  15. Performance analysis of organic Rankine cycles using different working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat from renewable or waste energy sources can be effectively recovered to generate power by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC in which the working fluid has an important impact on its performance. The thermodynamic processes of ORCs using different types of organic fluids were analyzed in this paper. The relationships between the ORC’s performance parameters (including evaporation pressure, condensing pressure, outlet temperature of hot fluid, net power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, total cycle irreversible loss, and total heat-recovery efficiency and the critical temperatures of organic fluids were established based on the property of the hot fluid through the evaporator in a specific working condition, and then were verified at varied evaporation temperatures and inlet temperatures of the hot fluid. Here we find that the performance parameters vary monotonically with the critical temperatures of organic fluids. The values of the performance parameters of the ORC using wet fluids are distributed more dispersedly with the critical temperatures, compared with those of using dry/isentropic fluids. The inlet temperature of the hot fluid affects the relative distribution of the exergy efficiency, whereas the evaporation temperature only has an impact on the performance parameters using wet fluid.

  16. Organic Rankine cycle - review and research directions in engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Angad

    2017-11-01

    Waste heat to power conversion using Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) is expected to play an important role in CO2 reductions from diesel engines. Firstly, a review of automotive ORCs is presented focusing on the pure working fluids, thermal architectures and expanders. The discussion includes, but is not limited to: R245fa, ethanol and water as fluids; series, parallel and cascade as architectures; dry saturated, superheated and supercritical as expansion conditions; and scroll, radial turbine and piston as expansion machines. Secondly, research direction in versatile expander and holistic architecture (NOx + CO2) are proposed. Benefits of using the proposed unconventional approaches are quantified using Ricardo Wave and Aspen HYSYS for diesel engine and ORC modelling. Results indicate that, the implementation of versatile piston expander tolerant to two-phase and using cyclopentane can potentially increase the highway drive cycle power by 8%. Furthermore, holistic architecture offering complete utilisation of charge air and exhaust recirculation heat increased the performance noticeably to 5% of engine power at the design point condition.

  17. Biogas Engine Waste Heat Recovery Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Italy is a leading country in the biogas sector. Energy crops and manure are converted into biogas using anaerobic digestion and, then, into electricity using internal combustion engines (ICEs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improving the efficiency of these engines taking the real operation into account. To this purpose, in the present work, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC technology is used to recover the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases of a 1 MWel biogas engine. The ICE behavior being affected by the biogas characteristics, the ORC unit is designed, firstly, using the ICE nameplate data and, then, with data measured during a one-year monitoring activity. The optimum fluid and the plant configuration are selected in both cases using an “in-house” optimization tool. The optimization goal is the maximization of the net electric power while the working fluid is selected among 115 pure fluids and their mixtures. Results show that a recuperative ORC designed using real data guarantees a 30% higher net electric power than the one designed with ICE nameplate conditions.

  18. Sharing good NEWS across the world: developing comparable scores across 12 countries for the neighborhood environment walkability scale (NEWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The IPEN (International Physical Activity and Environment Network) Adult project seeks to conduct pooled analyses of associations of perceived neighborhood environment, as measured by the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated version (NEWS-A), with physical activity using data from 12 countries. As IPEN countries used adapted versions of the NEWS/NEWS-A, this paper aimed to develop scoring protocols that maximize cross-country comparability in responses. This information is also highly relevant to non-IPEN studies employing the NEWS/NEWS-A, which is one of the most popular measures of perceived environment globally. Methods The following countries participated in the IPEN Adult study: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hong Kong, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Participants (N = 14,305) were recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability and socio-economic status. Countries collected data on the perceived environment using a self- or interviewer-administered version of the NEWS/NEWS-A. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to derive comparable country-specific measurement models of the NEWS/NEWS-A. The level of correspondence between standard and alternative versions of the NEWS/NEWS-A factor-analyzable subscales was determined by estimating the correlations and mean standardized difference (Cohen’s d) between them using data from countries that had included items from both standard and alternative versions of the subscales. Results Final country-specific measurement models of the NEWS/NEWS-A provided acceptable levels of fit to the data and shared the same factorial structure with six latent factors and two single items. The correspondence between the standard and alternative versions of subscales of Land use mix – access, Infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling, and Aesthetics was high. The Brazilian version of the Traffic safety

  19. Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine-vapor Compression Ice Maker Utilizing Food Industry Waste Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Hu; Yuanshu Cao; Weibin Ma

    2015-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by food industry exhaust gases and engine cooling water, an organic Rankine-vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of working fluid types, hot water temperature and condensation temperature on the system performance were analyzed and the ice making capacity from unit mass hot water and unit power waste heat were evaluated. The calculated results show th...

  20. Common intensive care scoring systems do not outperform age and glasgow coma scale score in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage treated in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul

    2017-10-25

    Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003-2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.

  1. Waste Heat-to-Power Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, John [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Smutzer, Chad [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, Jayanti [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    The objective of this program was to develop a novel, scalable scroll expander for conversion of waste heat to power; this was accomplished and demonstrated in both a bench-scale system as well as a full-scale system. The expander is a key component in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery systems which are used to convert medium-grade waste heat to electric power in a wide range of industries. These types of waste heat recovery systems allow for the capture of energy that would otherwise just be exhausted to the atmosphere. A scroll expander has the benefit over other technologies of having high efficiency over a broad range of operating conditions. The speed range of the TIAX expander (1,200 to 3,600 RPM) enables the shaft power output to directly drive an electric generator and produce 60 Hz electric power without incurring the equipment costs or losses of electronic power conversion. This greatly simplifies integration with the plant electric infrastructure. The TIAX scroll expander will reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a small-scale waste heat recovery system, while increasing the system efficiency compared to the prevailing ORC technologies at similar scale. During this project, TIAX demonstrated the scroll expander in a bench-scale test setup to have isentropic efficiency of 70-75% and operated it successfully for ~200 hours with minimal wear. This same expander was then installed in a complete ORC system driven by a medium grade waste heat source to generate 5-7 kW of electrical power. Due to funding constraints, TIAX was unable to complete this phase of testing, although the initial results were promising and demonstrated the potential of the technology.

  2. Dutch Translation and Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Lysholm Score and Tegner Activity Scale for Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshuis, Rienk; Lentjes, Gijsbertus Wilhelmus; Tegner, Yelverton; Wolterbeek, Nienke; Veen, Maurits Remmelt

    2016-11-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background The Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale are frequently used patient-reported instruments to determine the functional status and activity level after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Objectives To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale for use in the Dutch population and to evaluate the reliability and validity of these questionnaires in individuals after ACL reconstruction. Methods The translation and adaptation were conducted in several steps according to the guidelines in the literature. The measurement properties of the Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale (internal consistency, construct validity, and floor and ceiling effects) were tested in 96 patients. Reproducibility was tested in 69 patients with ACL injuries. On the first occasion, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (IKDC) and RAND 36-Item Health Survey (RAND-36) were also administered. Results The Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale showed good test-retest reliability between repeated measures (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively) and reasonable to good internal consistency (Cronbach α = .70-.83). The Lysholm score had a very strong correlation with the IKDC (r = 0.83, P<.01) and moderate correlation with the RAND-36 (r = 0.55, P<.01). The Tegner activity scale had moderate correlations with both the IKDC (r = 0.42, P<.01) and RAND-36 (r = 0.48, P<.01). Conclusion The psychometric performance of the Lysholm score and the Tegner activity scale as outcome measures for Dutch patients after ACL reconstruction is acceptable. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(11):976-983. Epub 28 Sep 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6566.

  3. Performance Evaluation of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Working under Supercritical Conditions in a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in low grade heat valorization using organic Rankine cycle (ORC technologies has increased significantly. A new small-scale ORC with a net capacity of 3 kW was efficiently integrated with a concentrated solar power technology for electricity generation. The excess heat source from Photovoltaic (PV collectors with a maximum temperature of 100 °C was utilized through a supercritical heat exchanger that uses R-404A as working medium. By ensuring supercritical heat transfer leads to a better thermal match in the heat exchanger and improved overall cycle efficiency. A helical coil heat exchanger was designed by using heat transfer correlations from the literature. These heat transfer correlations were derived for different conditions than ORCs and their estimated uncertainty is ~20%. In order to account for the heat transfer correlation uncertainties this component was oversized by 20%. Next, a prototype was built and installed in an integrated concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T/Rankine system. The results from the measurements show that for better estimation of the sizing of the heat exchanger a more accurate correlation is required in order to design an optimal configuration and thus employ cheaper components.

  4. A Co-Powered Biomass and Concentrated Solar Power Rankine Cycle Concept for Small Size Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Tortora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the matching of an advanced small scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP Rankine cycle plant with end-user thermal and electric load. The power plant consists of a concentrated solar power field co-powered by a biomass furnace to produce steam in a Rankine cycle, with a CHP configuration. A hotel was selected as the end user due to its high thermal to electric consumption ratio. The power plant design and its operation were modelled and investigated by adopting transient simulations with an hourly distribution. The study of the load matching of the proposed renewable power technology and the final user has been carried out by comparing two different load tracking scenarios, i.e., the thermal and the electric demands. As a result, the power output follows fairly well the given load curves, supplying, on a selected winter day, about 50 GJ/d of thermal energy and the 6 GJ/d of electric energy, with reduced energy dumps when matching the load.

  5. AN OBSERVATIONAL CLINICAL STUDY OF ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF PSS (POISON SEVERITY SCORE AND GCS (GLASGOW COMA SCALE SCORING SYSTEMS IN PREDICTING SEVERITY AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN OP POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandrasekhar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common poisonings in India because of easy availability often requiring ICU care and ventilator support. Clinical research has indicated that respiratory failure is the most important cause of death due to organophosphorus poisoning. It results in respiratory muscle weakness, pulmonary oedema, respiratory depression, increased secretions and bronchospasm. These complications and death can be prevented with timely institution of ventilator support. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred consecutive patients admitted with a history of organophosphorus poisoning at Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, were taken for study after considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed history, confirmation of poisoning, examination and other than routine investigations, serum pseudocholinesterase and arterial blood gas analysis was done. The severity and clinical outcomes in OP poisoning is graded by PSS (poison severity score and GCS (Glasgow coma scale scoring systems. RESULTS This study was conducted in 100 patients with male preponderance. Majority of poisoning occurred in 21-30 age group (n=5. Most common compound consumed in our study was methyl parathion and least common was phosphoran. Slightly more than half of the patients consumed less than 50 mL of poison. 21 patients consumed between 50 to 100 mL. Distribution of poison severity score of patients studied showed 45 cases of grade 1 poisoning. 26 cases of grade 2 poisoning, 23 cases of grade 3 poisoning and 6 cases of grade 4 poisoning (death within first 24 hours. Distribution of GCS score of patients studied GCS scores were <10 in 25 patients at admission and 24 patients after 24 hours. GCS scores were ≥10 in 75 patients at admission and 76 patients after 24 hours. Poison severity score is not prognostic, but merely defines severity of OP poisoning at a given time. CONCLUSION Both Glasgow coma scale and poison severity scoring systems

  6. Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Turbo Expander for Small Rated Power Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system, which operates with organic fluids, is one of the leading technologies for “waste energy recovery”. It works as a conventional Rankine Cycle but, as mentioned, instead of steam/water, an organic fluid is used. This change allows it to convert low temperature heat into electric energy where required. Large numbers of studies have been carried out to identify the most suitable fluids, system parameters and the various configurations. In the present market, most ORC systems are designed and manufactured for the recovery of thermal energy from various sources operating at “large power rating” (exhaust gas turbines, internal combustion engines, geothermal sources, large melting furnaces, biomass, solar, etc.; from which it is possible to produce a large amount of electric energy (30 kW ÷ 300 kW. Such applications for small nominal power sources, as well as the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (car sedan or town, ships, etc. or small heat exchangers, are very limited. The few systems that have been designed and built for small scale applications, have, on the other hand, different types of expander (screw, scroll, etc.. These devices are not adapted for placement in small and restricted places like the interior of a conventional car. The aim of this work is to perform the preliminary design of a turbo-expander that meets diverse system requirements such as low pressure, small size and low mass flow rates. The expander must be adaptable to a small ORC system utilizing gas of a diesel engine or small gas turbine as thermal source to produce 2–10 kW of electricity. The temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases, in this case study (400–600 °C and a pressure of 2 bar, imposes a limit on the use of an organic fluid and on the net power that can be produced. In addition to water, fluids such as CO2, R134a and R245fa have been considered. Once the operating fluids has been chosen

  7. Establishing score equivalence of the Functional Independence Measure motor scale and the Barthel Index, utilising the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Rasch measurement theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; O'Connor, Rory J; Stucki, Gerold; Tennant, Alan

    2017-05-16

    Two widely used outcome measures to assess functioning in neurological rehabilitation are the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and the Barthel Index. The current study aims to establish the equivalence of the total score of the FIM™ motor scale and the Barthel Index through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and Rasch measurement theory. Secondary analysis of a large sample of patients with stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis, undergoing rehabilitation was conducted. All patients were assessed at the same time on both the FIM™ and the Barthel Index. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Linking Rules were used to establish conceptual coherency between the 2 scales, and the Rasch measurement model to establish an exchange of the total scores. Using the FIM™ motor scale, items from both scales linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health d4 Mobility or d5 Self-care chapters. Their co-calibration satisfied the assumptions of the Rasch model for each of 3 diagnostic groups. A ceiling effect was observed for the Barthel Index when contrasted against the FIM™ motor scale. Having a Rasch interval metric to transform scores between the FIM™ motor scale and Barthel Index is valuable for monitoring functioning, meta-analysis, quality audits and hospital benchmarking.

  8. Examining the Impact of Unscorable Item Responses on the Validity and Interpretability of MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Wendy R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Handel, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    This article examined the impact of unscorable item responses on the psychometric validity and practical interpretability of scores on the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2/Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF). In analyses conducted with five…

  9. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol

    2007-01-01

    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  10. A study of the effect of a visual arts-based program on the scores of Jefferson Scale for Physician Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuang-Tao; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-10-25

    The effect of visual arts interventions on development of empathy has not been quantitatively investigated. A study was conducted on the effect of a visual arts-based program on the scores of the Jefferson Scale for Physician Empathy (JSPE). A total of 110 clerks (n = 92) and first-year postgraduate residents (PGY1s) (n = 18) participating in the program were recruited into this study. The 4-hr program covered the subjects of learning to interpret paintings, interpreting paintings relating to medicine, illness and human suffering, the related-topics of humanitarianism and the other humanities fields and values and meaning. The JSPE was completed at the beginning (pretest) and the end (posttest) of the program. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest JSPE scores. The average of the scores for the pretest was lower in the subgroup of PGY1s than the subgroup of clerks (p = 0.0358). An increased but not significantly mean posttest JESPE score was noted for the subgroup of PGY1s. Neither the females nor the males had higher posttest JSPE scores than the pretest scores. Although using a structured visual arts-based program as an intervention may be useful to enhance medical students' empathy, our results failed to show a positive effect on the JSPE Scores for a group of clerks and PGY1s. This suggests that further experimental studies are needed if quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of visual-arts based programs on empathy is to be investigated.

  11. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  12. Characterizing Breast Deformities After Massive Weight Loss: Utilizing the Pittsburgh Rating Scale to Examine Factors Affecting Severity Score and Surgical Decision Making in a Retrospective Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, John Henry; Coombs, Demetrius M; James, Isaac; Fishman, Jordan; Rubin, J Peter; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A

    2018-03-01

    Massive weight loss (MWL) can result in variable contour deformities of the breasts. The Pittsburgh Rating Scale (PRS) was designed to describe the multitude of deformities after MWL and recommends operations to consider for surgical improvement. We present the first comprehensive description of breast deformities in a large sample of MWL patients, examine factors affecting the severity of deformities, and report the correlation between PRS score and surgical decision making. A retrospective review of all MWL patients presenting for breast surgery at our institution's Life After Weight Loss program from 2004 to 2015 was performed. Information including demographics, body mass indices (BMIs), method of weight loss, and type of surgical intervention was collected. Preoperative breast photographs were blinded and scored according to the PRS. A total of 204 MWL patients were identified; 26% (53) scored 1, 34% (69) scored 2, and 40% (82) scored 3 on the PRS. Greater deformities were seen after weight loss from bariatric surgery versus diet and exercise alone (P = 0.031), in mastopexy versus augmentation/mastopexy (P = 0.001), and in breast reduction versus augmentation/mastopexy patients (P > 0.0001). Patients who underwent reduction mammaplasty had the greatest maximum BMI compared with other procedures (P = 0.016). The PRS scores were positively correlated to maximum BMI (P < 0.001), delta BMI (P < 0.001), and current BMI (P < 0.001). Massive weight loss patients have variable, and often severe, breast deformities, and the PRS remains a valuable classification tool. Severity scores correlate with BMI, procedure, and weight loss mechanism. Similar scores between mastopexy-only and reduction mammaplasty patients may reflect a composite of personal cosmetic expectations and cost. The PRS scale should also be expanded to include breast reduction as a surgical remedy for PRS grade 3 breast deformities. Understanding breast deformities in this unique population has

  13. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) scale score differences in bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with binge eating disorder versus BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is among the most common psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband, psychological test that includes measures of emotional and behavioral dysfunction, which have been associated with BED behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates; however these studies have lacked appropriate controls. In the current study, we compared MMPI-2-RF scale scores of bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with BED (BED+) with BMI-matched controls without BED (BED-). Three-hundred and seven BED+ participants (72.64% female and 67.87% Caucasian; mean BMI of 51.36 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.94]) were drawn from a large, database (N = 1304). Three-hundred and seven BED- participants were matched on BMI and demographics (72.64% female, 68.63% Caucasian, and mean BMI of 51.30 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.70]). The BED+ group scored significantly higher on measures of Demoralization, Low Positive Emotions, and Dysfunctional Negative Emotions and scored lower on measures of Antisocial Behaviors, reflecting behavioral constraint. Optimal T-Score cutoffs were below the traditional 65 T score for several MMPI-2-RF scales. MMPI-2-RF externalizing measures also added incrementally to differentiating between the groups beyond the Binge Eating Scale (BES). BED+ individuals produced greater elevations on a number of MMPI-2-RF internalizing scales and externalizing scales. Use of the test in conjunction with a clinical interview and other self-report data can further aid the clinician in guiding patients to appropriate treatment to optimize outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A new prognostic scale for the early prediction of ischemic stroke recovery mainly based on traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and NIHSS score: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke-Gang; Fu, Cai-Hong; Li, Huan-Qin; Xin, Xi-Yan; Gao, Ying

    2015-11-16

    Ischemic stroke (IS) is a common disease, often resulting in death or disability. Previous studies on prognosis of stroke mainly focused on the baseline condition or modern expensive tests. However, the change of clinical symptoms during acute stage is considerably neglected. In our study, we aim to develop a new prognostic scale to predict the 90-day outcome of IS patients. In this retrospective cohort study, a secondary data analysis was performed on 489 patients extracted from 1046 patients of 4 hospitals. A new prognostic scale was constructed to predict the recovery of IS mainly based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) symptoms & signs and the changes during the first 3 days of patients in the 3 TCM hospitals. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cutoff point for prediction. In the end, the scale was used to test the outcome of IS patients in Xuanwu hospital. The new prognostic scale was composed of 8 items including age degree (OR = 3.32; 95 % CI: 1.72-6.42), history of diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR = 2.20; 95 % CI: 1.19-4.08), NIHSS score (OR = 3.08; 95 % CI: 2.16-4.40), anxiety (OR = 3.17; 95 % CI: 1.90-5.29) and irritability (OR = 4.61; 95 % CI: 1.36-15.63) on the 1st day of illness onset, change in NIHSS score (OR = 2.49; 95 % CI: 1.31-4.73), and circumrotating (OR = 7.80; 95 % CI: 1.98-30.64) and tinnitus (OR = 13.25; 95 % CI: 1.55-113.34) during the first 3 days of stroke onset. The total score of the scale was 16.5 and the cutoff point was 9.5, which means patients would have poor outcome at 90 days of stroke onset if the score was higher than 9.5. The new scale was validated on the data of Xuanwu hospital, and the value of its sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy were 69.6 %, 83.3 % and 75.0 % respectively. The 8-item scale, mainly based on TCM symptoms, NIHSS score and their changes during the first 3 days, can predict the 90-day outcome for IS

  15. Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: effect of blood alcohol concentration on Glasgow Coma Scale score and relation to computed tomography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundhaug, Nils Petter; Moen, Kent Gøran; Skandsen, Toril; Schirmer-Mikalsen, Kari; Lund, Stine B; Hara, Sozaburo; Vik, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The influence of alcohol is assumed to reduce consciousness in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but research findings are divergent. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of different levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores in patients with moderate and severe TBI and to relate the findings to brain injury severity based on the admission CT scan. In this cohort study, 265 patients (age range 16-70 years) who were admitted to St. Olavs University Hospital with moderate and severe TBI during a 7-year period were prospectively registered. Of these, 217 patients (82%) had measured BAC. Effects of 4 BAC groups on GCS score were examined with ordinal logistic regression analyses, and the GCS scores were inverted to give an OR > 1. The Rotterdam CT score based on admission CT scan was used to adjust for brain injury severity (best score 1 and worst score 6) by stratifying patients into 2 brain injury severity groups (Rotterdam CT scores of 1-3 and 4-6). Of all patients with measured BAC, 91% had intracranial CT findings and 43% had BAC > 0 mg/dl. The median GCS score was lower in the alcohol-positive patients (6.5, interquartile range [IQR] 4-10) than in the alcohol-negative patients (9, IQR 6-13; p alcohol-positive and alcohol-negative patients regarding other injury severity variables. Increasing BAC was a significant predictor of lower GCS score in a dose-dependent manner in age-adjusted analyses, with OR 2.7 (range 1.4-5.0) and 3.2 (range 1.5-6.9) for the 2 highest BAC groups (p effect of BAC group on GCS scores in patients with Rotterdam CT scores of 1-3: OR 3.1 (range 1.4-6.6) and 6.7 (range 2.7-16.7) for the 2 highest BAC groups (p alcohol significantly reduced the GCS score in a dose-dependent manner in patients with moderate and severe TBI and with Rotterdam CT scores of 1-3. In patients with Rotterdam CT scores of 4-6, and therefore more CT findings indicating increased intracranial pressure

  16. The responsiveness of the International Prostate Symptom Score, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edmond P H; Chin, Weng Yee; Lam, Cindy L K; Wan, Eric Y F

    2015-08-01

    To examine the responsiveness of a combined symptom severity and health-related quality of life measure, condition-specific health-related quality of life measure and mental health measure in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. To establish the responsiveness of measures that accurately capture the change in health status of patients is crucial before any longitudinal studies can be appropriately planned and evaluated. Prospective longitudinal observational study. 402 patients were surveyed at baseline and 1-year using the International Prostate Symptom Score, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21. The internal and external responsiveness were assessed. Surveys were conducted from March 2013-July 2014. In participants with improvements, the internal responsiveness for detecting positive changes was satisfactory in males and females for all scales, expect for the Depression subscale. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score was more externally responsive than the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. The International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were more responsive in males than in females. The symptom questions of the International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were not externally responsive in females. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score outperformed the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 in both males and females, in terms of external responsiveness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Basic Scale on Insomnia complaints and Quality of Sleep (BaSIQS): reliability, initial validity and normative scores in higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Gomes, Ana; Ruivo Marques, Daniel; Meia-Via, Ana Maria; Meia-Via, Mariana; Tavares, José; Fernandes da Silva, Carlos; Pinto de Azevedo, Maria Helena

    2015-04-01

    Based on successive samples totaling more than 5000 higher education students, we scrutinized the reliability, structure, initial validity and normative scores of a brief self-report seven-item scale to screen for the continuum of nighttime insomnia complaints/perceived sleep quality, used by our team for more than a decade, henceforth labeled the Basic Scale on Insomnia complaints and Quality of Sleep (BaSIQS). In study/sample 1 (n = 1654), the items were developed based on part of a larger survey on higher education sleep-wake patterns. The test-retest study was conducted in an independent small group (n = 33) with a 2-8 week gap. In study/sample 2 (n = 360), focused mainly on validity, the BaSIQS was completed together with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In study 3, a large recent sample of students from universities all over the country (n = 2995) answered the BaSIQS items, based on which normative scores were determined, and an additional question on perceived sleep problems in order to further analyze the scale's validity. Regarding reliability, Cronbach alpha coefficients were systematically higher than 0.7, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was greater than 0.8. Structure analyses revealed consistently satisfactory two-factor and single-factor solutions. Concerning validity analyses, BaSIQS scores were significantly correlated with PSQI component scores and overall score (r = 0.652 corresponding to a large association); mean scores were significantly higher in those students classifying themselves as having sleep problems (p education students. It might be a convenient short tool in research and applied settings to rapidly assess sleep quality or screen for insomnia complaints, and it may be easily used in other populations with minor adaptations.

  18. Optimization of MRI-based scoring scales of brain injury severity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M; Fiori, Simona; Boyd, Roslyn N; Guzzetta, Andrea; Doecke, James; Gal, Yaniv; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    Several scoring systems for measuring brain injury severity have been developed to standardize the classification of MRI results, which allows for the prediction of functional outcomes to help plan effective interventions for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to use statistical techniques to optimize the clinical utility of a recently proposed template-based scoring method by weighting individual anatomical scores of injury, while maintaining its simplicity by retaining only a subset of scored anatomical regions. Seventy-six children with unilateral cerebral palsy were evaluated in terms of upper limb motor function using the Assisting Hand Assessment measure and injuries visible on MRI using a semiquantitative approach. This cohort included 52 children with periventricular white matter injury and 24 with cortical and deep gray matter injuries. A subset of the template-derived cerebral regions was selected using a data-driven region selection algorithm. Linear regression was performed using this subset, with interaction effects excluded. Linear regression improved multiple correlations between MRI-based and Assisting Hand Assessment scores for both periventricular white matter (R squared increased to 0.45 from 0, P < 0.0001) and cortical and deep gray matter (0.84 from 0.44, P < 0.0001) cohorts. In both cohorts, the data-driven approach retained fewer than 8 of the 40 template-derived anatomical regions. The equal or better prediction of the clinically meaningful Assisting Hand Assessment measure using fewer anatomical regions highlights the potential of these developments to enable enhanced quantification of injury and prediction of patient motor outcome, while maintaining the clinical expediency of the scoring approach.

  19. Optimization of MRI-based scoring scales of brain injury severity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M. [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, CSIRO Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD (Australia); The University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Fiori, Simona [Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa (Italy); Boyd, Roslyn N. [The University of Queensland, Queensland Cerebral Palsy and Rehabilitation Research Centre, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Guzzetta, Andrea [Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Doecke, James; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, CSIRO Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD (Australia); Gal, Yaniv [The University of Queensland, Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    Several scoring systems for measuring brain injury severity have been developed to standardize the classification of MRI results, which allows for the prediction of functional outcomes to help plan effective interventions for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to use statistical techniques to optimize the clinical utility of a recently proposed template-based scoring method by weighting individual anatomical scores of injury, while maintaining its simplicity by retaining only a subset of scored anatomical regions. Seventy-six children with unilateral cerebral palsy were evaluated in terms of upper limb motor function using the Assisting Hand Assessment measure and injuries visible on MRI using a semiquantitative approach. This cohort included 52 children with periventricular white matter injury and 24 with cortical and deep gray matter injuries. A subset of the template-derived cerebral regions was selected using a data-driven region selection algorithm. Linear regression was performed using this subset, with interaction effects excluded. Linear regression improved multiple correlations between MRI-based and Assisting Hand Assessment scores for both periventricular white matter (R squared increased to 0.45 from 0, P < 0.0001) and cortical and deep gray matter (0.84 from 0.44, P < 0.0001) cohorts. In both cohorts, the data-driven approach retained fewer than 8 of the 40 template-derived anatomical regions. The equal or better prediction of the clinically meaningful Assisting Hand Assessment measure using fewer anatomical regions highlights the potential of these developments to enable enhanced quantification of injury and prediction of patient motor outcome, while maintaining the clinical expediency of the scoring approach. (orig.)

  20. Thai venous stroke prognostic score: TV-SPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poungvarin, Niphon; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Ratanakorn, Disya; Towanabut, Somchai; Tantirittisak, Tassanee; Suwanwela, Nijasri; Phanthumchinda, Kamman; Tiamkoa, Somsak; Chankrachang, Siwaporn; Nidhinandana, Samart; Laptikultham, Somsak; Limsoontarakul, Sansern; Udomphanthuruk, Suthipol

    2009-11-01

    Prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has never been studied in Thailand. A simple prognostic score to predict poor prognosis of CVST has also never been reported. The authors are aiming to establish a simple and reliable prognostic score for this condition. The medical records of CVST patients from eight neurological training centers in Thailand who received between April 1993 and September 2005 were reviewed as part of this retrospective study. Clinical features included headache, seizure, stroke risk factors, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood pressure on arrival, papilledema, hemiparesis, meningeal irritation sign, location of occluded venous sinuses, hemorrhagic infarction, cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure, treatment options, length of stay, and other complications were analyzed to determine the outcome using modified Rankin scale (mRS). Poor prognosis (defined as mRS of 3-6) was determined on the discharge date. One hundred ninety four patients' records, 127 females (65.5%) and mean age of 36.6 +/- 14.4 years, were analyzed Fifty-one patients (26.3%) were in the poor outcome group (mRS 3-6). Overall mortality was 8.4%. Univariate analysis and then multivariate analysis using SPSS version 11.5 revealed only four statistically significant predictors influencing outcome of CVST They were underlying malignancy, low GCS, presence of hemorrhagic infarction (for poor outcome), and involvement of lateral sinus (for good outcome). Thai venous stroke prognostic score (TV-SPSS) was derived from these four factors using a multiple logistic model. A simple and pragmatic prognostic score for CVST outcome has been developed with high sensitivity (93%), yet low specificity (33%). The next study should focus on the validation of this score in other prospective populations.

  1. Application of Biomass from Palm Oil Mill for Organic Rankine Cycle to Generate Power in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Pane, Z.; Amin, M. N.

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing oil and gas demand with the depletion of fossil resources in the current situation make efficient energy systems and alternative energy conversion processes are urgently needed. With the great potential of resources in Indonesia, make biomass has been considered as one of major potential fuel and renewable resource for the near future. In this paper, the potential of palm oil mill waste as a bioenergy source has been investigated. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) small scale power plant has been preliminary designed to generate electricity. The working fluid candidates for the ORC plant based on the heat source temperature domains have been investigated. The ORC system with a regenerator has higher thermal efficiency than the basic ORC system. The study demonstrates the technical feasibility of ORC solutions in terms of resources optimizations and reducing of greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Improving the efficiency of heat supply systems on the basis of plants operating on organic Rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomin, I. N.; Daminov, A. Z.; Sadykov, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    Results of experimental and analytical studies of the plant main element – plant turbomachine (turbo-expander) operating on organic Rankine cycle were obtained for facilities of the heat supply systems of small-scale power generation. At simultaneous mathematical modeling and experimental studies it was found that the best working medium to be used in the turbomachines of these plants is Freon R245fa which has the most suitable calorimetric properties to be used in the cycle. The mathematical model of gas flow in the turbomachine was developed. The main engineering dependencies to calculate the optimal design parameters of the turbomachine were obtained. The engineering problems of providing the minimum axial size of the turbomachine impeller were solved and the main design elements were unified.

  3. Eleven Years of Data on the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student Version (JSE-S): Proxy Norm Data and Tentative Cutoff Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to provide typical descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student version (JSE-S) of male and female medical school matriculants to serve as proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. Subjects and Methods The participants were 2,637 students (1,336 women and 1,301 men) who matriculated at Sidney Kimmel (formerly Jefferson) Medical College between 2002 and 2012, and completed the JSE at the beginning of medical school. Information extracted from descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks for male and female matriculants were used to develop proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. Results The score distributions of the JSE tended to be moderately skewed and platykurtic. Women obtained a significantly higher mean score (116.2 ± 9.7) than men (112.3 ± 10.8) on the JSE-S (t2,635 = 9.9, p empathy. PMID:25924560

  4. Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and Glasgow Coma Scale in medical patients with altered sensorium: interrater reliability and relation to outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Arunodaya R; Jacob, Poovathru C; Nandhagopal, R; Ganguly, S S; Obaidy, Ammar; Al-Asmi, Abdullah R

    2013-06-01

    Full Outline of UnResponsiveness, or FOUR score (FS), is a recently described scoring system for evaluation of altered sensorium. This study examined interrater reliability for FS and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) among medical patients with altered mental status and compared outcome predictability of GCS, FS, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. Adult patients with altered mental status due to medical causes were rated by neurology consultants and internal medicine residents on FS and GCS. Interobserver reliability for GCS and FS was assessed using κ score. Relation with outcomes was explored using univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 100 patients (age, 62 ± 17 years), 60 had neurologic conditions; 26, metabolic encephalopathy; 9, infections; and 7, others. Thirty-nine patients died at 3 months. κ Scores ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 for GCS and from 0.71 to 0.95 for FS. On multivariate analysis, GCS was predictive of outcome at 3 months; FS was predictive of mortality. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves suggested equivalent performance of both scoring systems. Interrater reliability and outcome predictability for FS were comparable with those for GCS. This study supports the use of FS for evaluation of altered mental status in the medical wards. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparative study of cognitive function following traumatic brain injury: Significance of initial Glasgow coma scale score to predict cognitive outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Majumder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability all over the world. It is associated with diversities of outcomes including cognitive deficits. The worse cognitive outcome is often associated with more severe degree of TBI as measured by initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score. Materials and Methods: Present study compared the cognitive function of TBI patients having initial GCS score 9-10 with those having the initial GCS score 11-12. The assessment on Postgraduate Institute battery of brain dysfunction was conducted when the patients came for their follow-up visit at a tertiary health care facility between 6 months and 12 months of sustaining TBI. Results: There was moderate degree of cognitive dysfunction in the group with initial GCS score of 9-10 and no dysfunction in the group with initial GCS score of 11-12. Conclusion: The initial GCS score of 10 may be critical to predict cognitive deficits among TBI patients during 6-12 months of recovery period.

  6. BSRS-5 (5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale) scores affect every aspect of quality of life measured by WHOQOL-BREF in healthy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I-Cheng; Yen Jean, Mei-Chu; Lei, Sio-Meng; Cheng, Hsiang-Huo; Wang, Jung-Der

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate and quantify the possible effect of psychological symptoms on healthy workers' quality of life (QOL). The workers were recruited from a factory in south Taiwan. We assessed their psychological symptoms with a 5-item brief symptom rating scale (BSRS-5) and measured the QOL using the Taiwanese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to explore the association between the two tools after control of confounding by other predictors. A total of 1,080 workers, who attended a physical examination, completed questionnaires and informed consent forms. Scores on the BSRS-5 significantly predicted scores in each domain and items of the WHOQOL-BREF. The magnitude of psychological domain score seemed to be affected the most; every 1 point increase in BSRS-5 was associated with a 0.39 raw score (equivalent to 2.44 percentile) decrease in QOL. The sleep facet of WHOQOL appeared to have the highest association, followed by items of negative feelings, energy, and concentration. The BSRS-5 score is predictive for scores of all four domains and 26 items of the Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF for regular factory workers.

  7. A Reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale's Total Score : Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, Angélica; Sanderman, Robbert; Smink, Ans; Zhang, Ying; van Sonderen, Eric; Ranchor, Adelita; Schroevers, Maya J.

    2015-01-01

    The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is currently the only self-report instrument to measure self-compassion. The SCS is widely used despite the limited evidence for the scale's psychometric properties, with validation studies commonly performed in college students. The current study examined the factor

  8. An Alternative Method in the New Educational Program from the Point of Performance-Based Assessment: Rubric Scoring Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Adnan

    2007-01-01

    Scoring rubrics are useful to serve performance assessment for learning and assessment because they can be created for a variety of subjects and situations. Rubrics look like more suitable and effective tools for summative and formative evaluation because they include qualitative description of the performance criteria. In recent years, rubrics…

  9. The Nottingham Expectation and Complication score following Surgery (NECS): an universal scale for surgical outcome audit and peer comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Harshal; Muquit, Samiul; Al-Helli, Othman; White, Barrie; Basu, Surajit

    2017-04-01

    Consultant Outcomes Publication (COP) is an NHS England initiative for promoting improvements in quality of care. However, at present outcomes are commonly expressed as mortality rates which do not necessarily reflect the performance of surgeons. We developed the Nottingham Expectation and Complication score following Surgery (NECS) to determine the success of surgical treatment from both the clinical perspective and the practical expectations agreed between surgeons and patients during the consent process. This was a pilot study to trial the use of the NECS score. It is a simple expression of overall outcome comprising three clinical domains: S - surgical outcome, T - surgical/technical complications and M - medical complications recorded by the treating clinician, and practical outcome determined by a joint clinical/patient assessment. 107 elective neurosurgical patients were included in this prospective study. 95 completed questionnaires were included. 75% patients achieved the best possible treatment score (S3T3M4). Of the 25% of patients who did not achieve this ideal outcome, the most common cause was either medical deterioration 18%, or technical complications of surgery discussed during the consent process 17%, or both. Surgeons rated their outcomes as expectations exceeded in 2% of cases, met in 92%, partially met in 5% and failed in 1%. Patients rated their outcomes as expectations exceeded in 37%, met in 37%, partially met in 18%, and 5% reported that their expectations were not met or they were worse than before the operation. Bivariate correlation analysis (Pearson's r coefficient) between overall 'expectation score' of patients and surgeons showed moderate correlation with r = .25 (p = .014). NECS score can be used as an indicator to assess technical performance and patient satisfaction. It provides a more balanced quality indicator of the surgical service delivery than COP. It also offers additional advantages for auditing/planning improving

  10. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering......-butane yields the best compromise in terms of cycle net power output, turbine cost and efficiency for the considered case study. When a conservative design approach is adopted, the turbine features a two-stage configuration with supersonic converging nozzles and post-expansion. Conversely, a single...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  11. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering......-butane yields the best compromise in terms of cycle net power output, turbine cost and efficiency for the considered case study. When a conservative design approach is adopted, the turbine features a two-stage configuration with supersonic converging nozzles and post-expansion. Conversely, a single...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of a Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker using solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing; Bu, Xianbiao; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with increasing generation temperature. For every working fluid there is an optimal generation temperature at which organic Rankine efficiency achieves the maximum value. The cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day are, respectively, 126.44 W m(-2) and 7.61 kg m(-2) day(-1) at the generation temperature of 140 °C for working fluid of R245fa, which demonstrates the feasibility of organic Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker.

  13. Rasch Analysis of a New Hierarchical Scoring System for Evaluating Hand Function on the Motor Assessment Scale for Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce S. Sabari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To develop two independent measurement scales for use as items assessing hand movements and hand activities within the Motor Assessment Scale (MAS, an existing instrument used for clinical assessment of motor performance in stroke survivors; (2 To examine the psychometric properties of these new measurement scales. Design. Scale development, followed by a multicenter observational study. Setting. Inpatient and outpatient occupational therapy programs in eight hospital and rehabilitation facilities in the United States and Canada. Participants. Patients (N=332 receiving stroke rehabilitation following left (52% or right (48% cerebrovascular accident; mean age 64.2 years (sd 15; median 1 month since stroke onset. Intervention. Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures. Data were tested for unidimensionality and reliability, and behavioral criteria were ordered according to difficulty level with Rasch analysis. Results. The new scales assessing hand movements and hand activities met Rasch expectations of unidimensionality and reliability. Conclusion. Following a multistep process of test development, analysis, and refinement, we have redesigned the two scales that comprise the hand function items on the MAS. The hand movement scale contains an empirically validated 10-behavior hierarchy and the hand activities item contains an empirically validated 8-behavior hierarchy.

  14. Sharing good NEWS across the world: developing comparable scores across 12 countries for the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Kerr, Jacqueline; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sarmiento, Olga L; Hinckson, Erica A; Salvo, Deborah; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Davey, Rachel; Mitáš, Josef; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Sallis, James F

    2013-01-01

    The IPEN (International Physical Activity and Environment Network) Adult project seeks to conduct pooled analyses of associations of perceived neighborhood environment, as measured by the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS...

  15. Baseline Factors Affecting Changes in Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale Score After Intravitreal Aflibercept or Laser for Diabetic Macular Edema: Post Hoc Analyses from VISTA and VIVID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoot, Dilsher S; Baker, Keith; Saroj, Namrata; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Metzig, Carola; Thompson, Desmond; Singh, Rishi P

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate whether select baseline systemic and ocular factors influence ≥2-step improvement in the Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale (DRSS) score at week 100 in VISTA and VIVID. Post hoc analysis of 2 similarly designed phase 3 trials, VISTA and VIVID. Total of 456 patients with center-involved diabetic macular edema (DME). VISTA and VIVID randomized 872 DME patients to receive intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) 2 mg every 4 weeks (2q4), IAI 2 mg every 8 weeks after 5 monthly doses (2q8), or macular laser photocoagulation. This post hoc analysis evaluated the influence of select baseline factors on ≥2-step DRSS score improvement by logistic regression in an integrated VISTA and VIVID dataset using observed cases (n = 456) with patients in each treatment group divided into tertiles based on each characteristic. Proportion of patients with ≥2-step improvement in DRSS score from baseline at week 100 by age, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central subfield thickness (CST), and DRSS score. At week 100, 10.1%, 34.3%, and 37.6% of patients in the laser, 2q4, and 2q8 groups experienced a ≥2-step DRSS score improvement, respectively. Age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, BMI, BCVA, and CST had no impact on the ability to achieve ≥2-step improvement in DRSS score. Initial DRSS score was the only factor significantly associated with ≥2-step DRSS score improvement in all treatment groups at weeks 24, 52, 76, and 100. Relatively higher proportions of IAI-treated patients with worse BCVA or thicker CST experienced ≥2-step DRSS score improvement compared with those with better BCVA or thinner CST, respectively, but these associations were not statistically significant. A strong association was present between baseline DRSS score and ≥2-step DRSS score improvement at week 100 for DME patients in VISTA and VIVID. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier

  16. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Seta, Angelo; Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    due to the peculiar physical properties of the working fluid and the gas-dynamic phenomena occurring in the machine. Unlike steam Rankine and Brayton engines, organic Rankine cycle expanders combine small enthalpy drops with large expansion ratios. These features yield turbine designs with few highly-loaded...... variables affecting the turbine design. Part B of this two-part paper presents the first application of a design method where the thermodynamic cycle optimization is combined with calculations of the maximum expander performance using the mean-line design tool described in part A. The high computational...

  17. What Do People Who Score Highly on the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Really Believe?: A Mixed Methods Investigation in People With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzli, Samantha; Smith, Anne; Watkins, Rochelle; Schütze, Robert; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) has been used to identify people with back pain who have high levels of "fear of movement" to direct them into fear reduction interventions. However, there is considerable debate as to what construct(s) the scale measures. Somatic Focus and Activity Avoidance subscales identified in factor analytic studies remain poorly defined. Using a mixed methods design, this study sought to understand the beliefs that underlie high scores on the TSK to better understand what construct(s) it measures. In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 adults with chronic nonspecific low back pain (average duration=7 y), scoring highly on the TSK (average score=47/68), were conducted. Following inductive analysis of transcripts, individuals were classified into groups on the basis of underlying beliefs. Associations between groups and itemized scores on the TSK and subscales were explored. Frequencies of response for each item were evaluated. Two main beliefs were identified: (1) The belief that painful activity will result in damage; and (2) The belief that painful activity will increase suffering and/or functional loss. The Somatic Focus subscale was able to discriminate between the 2 belief groups lending construct validity to the subscale. Ambiguous wording of the Activity Avoidance subscale may explain limitations in discriminate ability. The TSK may be better described as a measure of the "beliefs that painful activity will result in damage and/or increased suffering and/or functional loss."

  18. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) processing speed scores as measures of noncredible responding: The third generation of embedded performance validity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Abeare, Christopher A; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Tyson, Bradley T; Kucharski, Brittany; Zuccato, Brandon G; Roth, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that select processing speed measures can also serve as embedded validity indicators (EVIs). The present study examined the diagnostic utility of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests as EVIs in a mixed clinical sample of 205 patients medically referred for neuropsychological assessment (53.3% female, mean age = 45.1). Classification accuracy was calculated against 3 composite measures of performance validity as criterion variables. A PSI ≤79 produced a good combination of sensitivity (.23-.56) and specificity (.92-.98). A Coding scaled score ≤5 resulted in good specificity (.94-1.00), but low and variable sensitivity (.04-.28). A Symbol Search scaled score ≤6 achieved a good balance between sensitivity (.38-.64) and specificity (.88-.93). A Coding-Symbol Search scaled score difference ≥5 produced adequate specificity (.89-.91) but consistently low sensitivity (.08-.12). A 2-tailed cutoff on the Coding/Symbol Search raw score ratio (≤1.41 or ≥3.57) produced acceptable specificity (.87-.93), but low sensitivity (.15-.24). Failing ≥2 of these EVIs produced variable specificity (.81-.93) and sensitivity (.31-.59). Failing ≥3 of these EVIs stabilized specificity (.89-.94) at a small cost to sensitivity (.23-.53). Results suggest that processing speed based EVIs have the potential to provide a cost-effective and expedient method for evaluating the validity of cognitive data. Given their generally low and variable sensitivity, however, they should not be used in isolation to determine the credibility of a given response set. They also produced unacceptably high rates of false positive errors in patients with moderate-to-severe head injury. Combining evidence from multiple EVIs has the potential to improve overall classification accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Optimal Transport Destination for Ischemic Stroke Patients With Unknown Vessel Status: Use of Prehospital Triage Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemm, Eckhard; Ebinger, Martin; Nolte, Christian H; Endres, Matthias; Schlemm, Ludwig

    2017-08-01

    Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and large vessel occlusion may benefit from direct transportation to an endovascular capable comprehensive stroke center (mothership approach) as opposed to direct transportation to the nearest stroke unit without endovascular therapy (drip and ship approach). The optimal transport strategy for patients with AIS and unknown vessel status is uncertain. The rapid arterial occlusion evaluation scale (RACE, scores ranging from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating higher stroke severity) correlates with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and was developed to identify patients with large vessel occlusion in a prehospital setting. We evaluate how the RACE scale can help to inform prehospital triage decisions for AIS patients. In a model-based approach, we estimate probabilities of good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of ≤2 at 3 months) as a function of severity of stroke symptoms and transport times for the mothership approach and the drip and ship approach. We use these probabilities to obtain optimal RACE cutoff scores for different transfer time settings and combinations of treatment options (time-based eligibility for secondary transfer under the drip and ship approach, time-based eligibility for thrombolysis at the comprehensive stroke center under the mothership approach). In our model, patients with AIS are more likely to benefit from direct transportation to the comprehensive stroke center if they have more severe strokes. Values of the optimal RACE cutoff scores range from 0 (mothership for all patients) to >9 (drip and ship for all patients). Shorter transfer times and longer door-to-needle and needle-to-transfer (door out) times are associated with lower optimal RACE cutoff scores. Use of RACE cutoff scores that take into account transport times to triage AIS patients to the nearest appropriate hospital may lead to improved outcomes. Further studies should examine the feasibility of translation into

  20. Part-Load Performance of a Wet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Mazzucco, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    ) fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable working fluid for the organic Rankine process. This step enables to parametrize the part-load model...

  1. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    %) fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane), toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison...... indicate that the net power output of the steam Rankine cycle process is higher at high engine loads, while the performance of the organic Rankine cycle units is higher at lower loads. Preliminary turbine design considerations suggest that higher turbine efficiencies can be obtained for the ORC unit......This paper presents a comparison of the conventional dual pressure steam Rankine cycle process and the organic Rankine cycle process for marine engine waste heat recovery. The comparison was based on a container vessel, and results are presented for a high-sulfur (3 wt %) and low-sulfur (0.5 wt...

  2. Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Preliminary Cut Scores to Support Data-Informed Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Swogger, Emily D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Sanchez, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We report findings of a convergent validity study examining the internalizing subscale (SRSS-I5) of the newly adapted Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE12) with the internalizing subscale of the Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991) conducted in 13 schools across three states with 195 kindergarten…

  3. Does True Neurocognitive Dysfunction Contribute to Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2nd Edition-Restructured Form Cognitive Validity Scale Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phillip K; Schroeder, Ryan W; Heinrichs, Robin J; Baade, Lyle E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated RBS and FBS-r to identify non-credible reporters of cognitive symptoms, but the extent that these scales might be influenced by true neurocognitive dysfunction has not been previously studied. The present study examined the relationship between these cognitive validity scales and neurocognitive performance across seven domains of cognitive functioning, both before and after controlling for PVT status in 120 individuals referred for neuropsychological evaluations. Variance in RBS, but not FBS-r, was significantly accounted for by neurocognitive test performance across most cognitive domains. After controlling for PVT status, however, relationships between neurocognitive test performance and validity scales were no longer significant for RBS, and remained non-significant for FBS-r. Additionally, PVT failure accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in both RBS and FBS-r. Results support both the convergent and discriminant validity of RBS and FBS-r. As neither scale was impacted by true neurocognitive dysfunction, these findings provide further support for the use of RBS and FBS-r in neuropsychological evaluations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Examiners and Content and Site: Oh My! a National Organization's Investigation of Score Variation in Large-Scale Performance Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Stefanie S.; Roy, Marguerite; Klinger, Don A.; De Champlain, André F.

    2015-01-01

    Examiner effects and content specificity are two well known sources of construct irrelevant variance that present great challenges in performance-based assessments. National medical organizations that are responsible for large-scale performance based assessments experience an additional challenge as they are responsible for administering…

  5. Effects of TimeSlips on Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia scores of senile dementia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Chen

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: TimeSlips is beneficial to relieve depressive symptoms and ameliorate the emotions of mild or moderate senile dementia patients, thus improving their life quality and reducing the burden of their caregivers. A large-scale experimental research on TimeSlips with rigorous design is proposed for further studies.

  6. A reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale's Total Score: Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Smink, A.; Zhang, Y.; van Sonderen, E.; Ranchor, A.V.; Schroevers, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is currently the only self-report instrument to measure self-compassion. The SCS is widely used despite the limited evidence for the scale’s psychometric properties, with validation studies commonly performed in college students. The current study examined the factor

  7. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  8. A protocol for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: Item scoring rules, Rater training, and outcome accuracy with data on its application in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Kelly J; Rough, Jennifer N; Evans, Maggie; Ho, Sheau-Yan; Meyerhoff, Jonah; Roberts, Lorinda M; Vacek, Pamela M

    2016-08-01

    We present a fully articulated protocol for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), including item scoring rules, rater training procedures, and a data management algorithm to increase accuracy of scores prior to outcome analyses. The latter involves identifying potentially inaccurate scores as interviews with discrepancies between two independent raters on the basis of either scores >=5-point difference) or meeting threshold for depression recurrence status, a long-term treatment outcome with public health significance. Discrepancies are resolved by assigning two new raters, identifying items with disagreement per an algorithm, and reaching consensus on the most accurate scores for those items. These methods were applied in a clinical trial where the primary outcome was the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-Seasonal Affective Disorder version (SIGH-SAD), which includes the 21-item HAM-D and 8 items assessing atypical symptoms. 177 seasonally depressed adult patients were enrolled and interviewed at 10 time points across treatment and the 2-year followup interval for a total of 1589 completed interviews with 1535 (96.6%) archived. Inter-rater reliability ranged from ICCs of .923-.967. Only 86 (5.6%) interviews met criteria for a between-rater discrepancy. HAM-D items "Depressed Mood", "Work and Activities", "Middle Insomnia", and "Hypochondriasis" and Atypical items "Fatigability" and "Hypersomnia" contributed most to discrepancies. Generalizability beyond well-trained, experienced raters in a clinical trial is unknown. Researchers might want to consider adopting this protocol in part or full. Clinicians might want to tailor it to their needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Creating a brief rating scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items based on the Rasch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.

  10. Final Report. Conversion of Low Temperature Waste Heat Utilizing Hermetic Organic Rankine Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2005-04-20

    The design of waste heat recovery using the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine is updated. Advances in power electronics with lower cost enable the use of a single shaft, high-speed generator eliminating wear items and allowing hermetic sealing of the working fluid. This allows maintenance free operation and a compact configuration that lowers cost, enabling new market opportunities.

  11. Method of optimizing performance of Rankine cycle power plants. [US DOE Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, W.L.; Pines, H.S.; Doyle, P.A.; Silvester, L.F.

    1980-06-23

    A method is described for efficiently operating a Rankine cycle power plant to maximize fuel utilization efficiency or energy conversion efficiency or minimize costs by selecting a turbine fluid inlet state which is substantially on the area adjacent and including the transposed critical temperature line.

  12. Theoretical and experimental research of organic Rankine cycle steam turbine plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishkin, A. A.; Delkov, A. V.; Melkozerov, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    Currently steam power cycles using organic actuation fluid - Freon, ammonia, ethanol, isobutene, etc are becoming increasingly important. Such cycles are called Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). With the help of such cycles it is possible to use low-grade heat sources in the production of mechanical and electrical energy.

  13. Validation of the Chinese version of the resilience scale and its cutoff score for detecting low resilience in Chinese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Hong, Jin Sheng

    2013-05-01

    We aim to investigate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and to determine the cutoff score of the RS-14 for screening Chinese cancer patients with low resilience. The current study was divided into two studies. In the first study, we randomly selected 625 people and obtained their scores in the Chinese version of the RS-14 and SF-36 using cross-sectional survey. We then calculated the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the RS-14. In the second study, we selected 970 hospital cancer patients diagnosed during 2010 to 2011 and assessed for their resilience once and for anxiety, depression, and quality of life on two occasions. We determined the cutoff score of the RS-14 based on the maximum Youden Index, with the scores of anxiety and depression as gold standards. The correlation coefficients for inter-items were in the range of 0.23 to 0.68 (P cancer patients with low resilience (sensitivity and specificity were 0.74 and 0.71, respectively). The Chinese version of the RS-14 has good validity and reliability, and it can measure the resilience of Chinese people. The cutoff score of 64 for the RS-14 is appropriate for detecting cancer patients with low resilience in order to decrease psychological stress and improving quality of life. Health care nurses can screen and detect cancer patients with low resilience based on the said cutoff score to timely provide psychological care and interventions for the patients.

  14. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khadija Qamar; Muhammad Rizwan Bash Kiani; Aisha Ayyub; Atif Ahmed Khan; Mohammad Osama

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medic...

  15. Effect of intraarticular inoculation of mesenchymal stem cells in dogs with hip osteoarthritis by means of objective force platform gait analysis: concordance with numeric subjective scoring scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Jose M; Cuervo, Belen; Rubio, Monica; Sopena, Joaquín; Domínguez, Juan M; Santana, Angelo; Carrillo, Jose M

    2016-10-07

    Subjective pain assessment scales have been widely used for assessing lameness in response to pain, but the accuracy of these scales has been questioned. To assess scale accuracy, 10 lame, presa Canario dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) associated with bilateral hip dysplasia were first treated with mesenchymal stem cells. Then, potential lameness improvement was analyzed using two pain scales (Bioarth and visual analog scale). These data were compared with similar data collected using a force platform with the same animals during a period of 6 months after treatment. The F test for intraclass correlation showed that concordance in pain/lameness scores between the 2 measuring methodologies was not significant (P value ≥ 0.9213; 95 % confidence interval, -0.56, 0.11). Although subjective pain assessment showed improvement after 6 months, force platform data demonstrated those same animals had returned to the initial lameness state. Use of pain assessment scales to measure lameness associated with OA did not have great accuracy and concordance when compared with quantitative force platform gait analysis.

  16. Influence of Deep Breathing on Heart Rate Variability in Parkinson’s Disease: Co-relation with Severity of Disease and Non-Motor Symptom Scale Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Gayatri J; Chakor, Rahul T

    2014-01-01

    Context: Dysautonomia and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are frequent, disabling and reduce quality of life of patient. Aims and Objective: There is a paucity of studies on autonomic dysfunction in PD in Indian population. The study aimed to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and co-relate the findings with severity of PD and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score. Materials and Methods: We evaluated autonomic function in 30 diagnosed patients of PD (age 55-70 years) and 30 healthy age-matched controls by 3 min deep breathing test (DBT). NMSS was used to identify non-motor symptoms and Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Scale to grade severity of PD. The DBT findings were co-related with severity of PD (HY staging) and NMSS score. Results: DBT was found to be abnormal in 40% while it was on borderline in 33.3% of PD patients. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between patients and control group for the DBT. NMS were reported across all the stages of PD but with variable frequency and severity for individual symptom. A negative co-relation was found between results of deep breathing test and clinical severity of disease and NMSS score. Conclusion: Abnormalities of autonomic function and NMS were integral and present across all the stages of PD patients. Early recognition and treatment of these may decrease morbidity and improve quality of life of PD patients. PMID:25177554

  17. Influence of Deep Breathing on Heart Rate Variability in Parkinson's Disease: Co-relation with Severity of Disease and Non-Motor Symptom Scale Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidikar, Mukta Pritam; Jagtap, Gayatri J; Chakor, Rahul T

    2014-07-01

    Dysautonomia and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequent, disabling and reduce quality of life of patient. There is a paucity of studies on autonomic dysfunction in PD in Indian population. The study aimed to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and co-relate the findings with severity of PD and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score. We evaluated autonomic function in 30 diagnosed patients of PD (age 55-70 years) and 30 healthy age-matched controls by 3 min deep breathing test (DBT). NMSS was used to identify non-motor symptoms and Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Scale to grade severity of PD. The DBT findings were co-related with severity of PD (HY staging) and NMSS score. DBT was found to be abnormal in 40% while it was on borderline in 33.3% of PD patients. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between patients and control group for the DBT. NMS were reported across all the stages of PD but with variable frequency and severity for individual symptom. A negative co-relation was found between results of deep breathing test and clinical severity of disease and NMSS score. Abnormalities of autonomic function and NMS were integral and present across all the stages of PD patients. Early recognition and treatment of these may decrease morbidity and improve quality of life of PD patients.

  18. Relationships between transvaginal colour Doppler findings, infectious parameters and visual analogue scale scores in patients with mild acute pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbay, Koray; Deveci, Serol

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the relationships between colour Doppler findings, infectious parameters and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores in patients with mild acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Twenty-seven patients diagnosed with PID were enrolled in the study. Resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of uterine, arcuate and utero-ovarian arteries were measured, as well as VAS score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and body temperature at hospital admission. After the initial visit, all measurements were repeated and recorded on days 7, 15 and 30. PI and RI values of uterine arteries showed significant increases between days 1 and 7. However, PI and RI values of uterine arteries, RI values of arcuate arteries and RI values of utero-ovarian arteries showed significant increases between days 1 and 30. Statistically significant decreases in infectious parameters and VAS scores were observed between days 1 and 7, days 1 and 15 and days 1 and 30. Infectious parameters and VAS scores showed concordant changes with clinical recovery in mild PID. Significant changes were also observed in PI and RI values of uterine arteries, but Doppler measurements of arcuate and utero-ovarian arteries showed a slower and later response to treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining a Cut-Off Point for Scores of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: Secondary Data Analysis of an Intervention Study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nanishi

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding self-efficacy can be measured with the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF. Mothers with low BSES-SF scores stop exclusive breastfeeding prematurely, but specific interventions can prevent that undesirable outcome. Because those interventions can be expensive, often one must decide which mothers will receive them. For that purpose, a cut-off BSES-SF score would be useful, but none is available. Therefore, we aimed to assess the overall accuracy of BSES-SF scores as predictors of not practicing post-discharge exclusive breastfeeding, and to choose an appropriate cut-off score for making that prediction.This is a secondary data analysis of an intervention study. Data from 378 women in two non-Baby-Friendly Hospitals were analyzed. Participants were women in their third trimester who were 16 years of age or older, were able to read and write Japanese, were expected to have a singleton birth, and had completed the BSES-SF before discharge. BSES-SF scores were measured before discharge. Breastfeeding status was assessed 4 weeks and 12 weeks postpartum. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were used to assess the predictive ability of the BSES-SF and to inform the choice of a cut-off point.For both of the ROC curves (4 and 12 weeks postpartum the area under the curve was 0.74. To obtain a high sensitivity, a cut-off score of 50 was chosen. With that cut-off score the sensitivity was 79% and the specificity was 52% 4 weeks postpartum, and they were 77% and 52%, respectively, 12 weeks postpartum.In conclusion, the BSES-SF has moderate overall accuracy to distinguish women who will not practice exclusive breastfeeding after discharge from those who will. At non-Baby-Friendly hospitals in Japan, interventions to support exclusive breastfeeding might be considered for new mothers who have BSES-SF scores that are less than or equal to 50.

  20. Determining a Cut-Off Point for Scores of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: Secondary Data Analysis of an Intervention Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanishi, Keiko; Green, Joseph; Taguri, Masataka; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding self-efficacy can be measured with the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). Mothers with low BSES-SF scores stop exclusive breastfeeding prematurely, but specific interventions can prevent that undesirable outcome. Because those interventions can be expensive, often one must decide which mothers will receive them. For that purpose, a cut-off BSES-SF score would be useful, but none is available. Therefore, we aimed to assess the overall accuracy of BSES-SF scores as predictors of not practicing post-discharge exclusive breastfeeding, and to choose an appropriate cut-off score for making that prediction. This is a secondary data analysis of an intervention study. Data from 378 women in two non-Baby-Friendly Hospitals were analyzed. Participants were women in their third trimester who were 16 years of age or older, were able to read and write Japanese, were expected to have a singleton birth, and had completed the BSES-SF before discharge. BSES-SF scores were measured before discharge. Breastfeeding status was assessed 4 weeks and 12 weeks postpartum. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the predictive ability of the BSES-SF and to inform the choice of a cut-off point. For both of the ROC curves (4 and 12 weeks postpartum) the area under the curve was 0.74. To obtain a high sensitivity, a cut-off score of 50 was chosen. With that cut-off score the sensitivity was 79% and the specificity was 52% 4 weeks postpartum, and they were 77% and 52%, respectively, 12 weeks postpartum. In conclusion, the BSES-SF has moderate overall accuracy to distinguish women who will not practice exclusive breastfeeding after discharge from those who will. At non-Baby-Friendly hospitals in Japan, interventions to support exclusive breastfeeding might be considered for new mothers who have BSES-SF scores that are less than or equal to 50.

  1. Increased automatic spreading activation in healthy subjects with elevated scores in a scale assessing schizophrenic language disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Andresen, B; Domin, F; Martin, T; Probsthein, E; Kretschmer, G; Krausz, M; Naber, D; Spitzer, M

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies on semantic priming have suggested that schizophrenic patients with language disturbances demonstrate enhanced semantic and indirect semantic priming effects relative to controls. However, the interpretation of semantic priming studies in schizophrenic patients is obscured by methological problems and several artefacts (such as length of illness). We, therefore, used a psychometric high-risk approach to test whether healthy subjects reporting language disturbances resembling those of schizophrenics (as measured by the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire subscale 'language') display increased priming effects. In addition, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was used to cover symptoms of schizotypal personality. Enhanced priming was expected to occur under conditions favouring automatic processes. One hundred and sixty healthy subjects performed a lexical decision semantic priming task containing two different stimulus onset asynchronicities (200 ms and 700 ms) with two experimental conditions (semantic priming and indirect semantic priming) each. Analyses of variance revealed that the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-' language' high scorers significantly differed from low scorers in three of the four priming conditions indicating increased automatic spreading activation. No significant results were obtained for the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and subscales scores. In line with Maher and Spitzer it is suggested that increased automatic spreading activation underlies schizophrenia-typical language disturbances which in our study cannot be attributed to confounding variables such as different reaction time baselines, medication or length of illness. Finally, results confirm that the psychometric high-risk approach is an important tool for investigating issues relevant to schizophrenia.

  2. www.common-metrics.org: a web application to estimate scores from different patient-reported outcome measures on a common scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Felix Fischer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs. When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www.common-metrics.org , which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales. Results Currently, the application allows estimation using six different IRT models for Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Function. Based on published item parameters, users of the application can directly estimate latent trait estimates using expected a posteriori (EAP for sum scores as well as for specific response patterns, Bayes modal (MAP, Weighted likelihood estimation (WLE and Maximum likelihood (ML methods and under three different prior distributions. The obtained estimates can be downloaded and analyzed using standard statistical software. Conclusions This application enhances the usability of IRT modeling for researchers by allowing comparison of the latent trait estimates over different PROs, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9 and Anxiety (GAD-7 scales, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and others. Advantages of this approach include comparability of data derived with different measures and tolerance against missing values. The validity of the underlying models needs to be investigated in the future.

  3. Cutoff Scores for MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF Cognitive-Somatic Validity Scales for Psychometrically Defined Malingering Groups in a Military Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alvin

    2016-07-12

    This research examined cutoff scores for MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF validity scales specifically developed to assess non-credible reporting of cognitive and/or somatic symptoms. The validity scales examined included the Response Bias Scale (RBS), the Symptom Validity Scales (FBS, FBS-r), Infrequent Somatic Responses scale (Fs), and the Henry-Heilbronner Indexes (HHI, HHI-r). Cutoffs were developed by comparing a psychometrically defined non-malingering group with three psychometrically defined malingering groups (probable, probable to definite, and definite malingering) and a group that combined all malingering groups. The participants in this research were drawn from a military sample consisting largely of patients with traumatic brain injury (mostly mild traumatic brain injury). Specificities for cutoffs of at least 0.90 are provided. Sensitivities, predictive values, and likelihood ratios are also provided. RBS had the largest mean effect size (d) when the malingering groups were compared to the non-malingering group (d range = 1.23-1.58). Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Measuring benefits and patients' satisfaction when glasses are not needed after cataract and presbyopia surgery: scoring and psychometric validation of the Freedom from Glasses Value Scale (FGVS©)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of items, create a scoring method and assess the psychometric properties of the Freedom from Glasses Value Scale (FGVS), which measures benefits of freedom from glasses perceived by cataract and presbyopic patients after multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) surgery. Methods The 21-item FGVS, developed simultaneously in French and Spanish, was administered by phone during an observational study to 152 French and 152 Spanish patients who had undergone cataract or presbyopia surgery at least 1 year before the study. Reduction of items and creation of the scoring method employed statistical methods (principal component analysis, multitrait analysis) and content analysis. Psychometric properties (validation of the structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-group validity) of the resulting version were assessed in the pooled population and per country. Results One item was deleted and 3 were kept but not aggregated in a dimension. The other 17 items were grouped into 2 dimensions ('global evaluation', 9 items; 'advantages', 8 items) and divided into 5 sub-dimensions, with higher scores indicating higher benefit of surgery. The structure was validated (good item convergent and discriminant validity). Internal consistency reliability was good for all dimensions and sub-dimensions (Cronbach's alphas above 0.70). The FGVS was able to discriminate between patients wearing glasses or not after surgery (higher scores for patients not wearing glasses). FGVS scores were significantly higher in Spain than France; however, the measure had similar psychometric performances in both countries. Conclusions The FGVS is a valid and reliable instrument measuring benefits of freedom from glasses perceived by cataract and presbyopic patients after multifocal IOL surgery. PMID:20497555

  5. Admission Norton scale scores (ANSS) are associated with post-operative complications following spine fracture surgery in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Ronen; Gold, Aviram; Segal, Ortal; Regev, Gilad; Keynan, Ory; Salai, Moshe; Justo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine if low ANSS, usually associated with high pressure ulcer risk, are also associated with post-operative complications following spine fracture surgery in the elderly. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at the division of orthopedic surgery in a tertiary medical center between January 2008 and October 2010. The medical charts of consecutive elderly (≥ 65 years) patients admitted for spine fracture surgery were studied for the following measurements: ANSS, demographic data, co-morbidities, and post-operative complications. Except for pressure ulcers, post-operative complications included: acute coronary syndrome, acute renal failure, confusion, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, venous thromboembolism, and wound infection. The final cohort included 90 patients: 66 (73.3%) females and 24 (26.7%) males. Mean age for the entire cohort was 78.9 ± 0.7 years. Most patients had lumbar fractures (n=49; 54.4%) or thoracal fractures (n=26; 28.9%). Most patients underwent kyphoplasty (n=65; 72.2%). Mean ANSS was 15.9 ± 0.3, and 29 (32.2%) patients had low (<15) ANSS. Patients with low ANSS had significantly more post-operative complications relative to patients with high ANSS (1.0 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1; p<0.0001). Among all post-operative complications, urinary tract infection was independently associated with ANSS (p<0.0001). Binary regression analysis showed that ANSS were independently associated with post-operative complications (p=0.001). We conclude that low ANSS are associated with post-operative complications and urinary tract infection in particular, following spine fracture surgery in the elderly. Hence, the Norton scoring system may be used for predicting and preventing post-operative complications in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Graa Andreasen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the conventional dual pressure steam Rankine cycle process and the organic Rankine cycle process for marine engine waste heat recovery. The comparison was based on a container vessel, and results are presented for a high-sulfur (3 wt % and low-sulfur (0.5 wt % fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane, toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison indicate that the net power output of the steam Rankine cycle process is higher at high engine loads, while the performance of the organic Rankine cycle units is higher at lower loads. Preliminary turbine design considerations suggest that higher turbine efficiencies can be obtained for the ORC unit turbines compared to the steam turbines. When the efficiency of the c-pentane turbine was allowed to be 10% points larger than the steam turbine efficiency, the organic Rankine cycle unit reaches higher net power outputs than the steam Rankine cycle unit at all engine loads for the low-sulfur fuel case. The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power.

  7. Arthritis self-efficacy scale scores in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing arthritis self-management education with or without exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Emily; Nyland, John; Henzman, Cameron; McGinnis, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. To evaluate studies that used arthritis self-management education alone or with exercise to improve Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale scores of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Increasing self-efficacy may improve patient knee osteoarthritis symptom management and function. MEDLINE (1946-March 2013), CINAHL (1981-March 2013), and PsycINFO (1967-March 2013) databases were searched. Twenty-four studies, including 3163 subjects (women, n = 2547 [80.5%]; mean ± SD age, 65.3 ± 6.5 years), met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was performed to compare the standardized mean difference effect sizes (Cohen d) of randomized controlled studies that used the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale pain (13 studies, n = 1906), other symptoms (13 studies, n = 1957), and function (5 studies, n = 399) subscales. Cohen d effect sizes were also calculated for cohort studies that used the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale pain (10 studies, n = 1035), other symptoms (9 studies, n = 913), and function (3 studies, n = 141) subscales. Both randomized controlled studies and cohort studies were grouped by intervention type (intervention 1, arthritis self-management education alone; intervention 2, arthritis self-management education with exercise), and effect sizes were compared (Mann-Whitney U tests, Pmanagement education with exercise displayed higher methodological quality scale scores (76.8 ± 13.1 versus 61.6 ± 19.6, P = .03). Statistically significant standardized effect-size differences between intervention 1 and intervention 2 were not observed. Small to moderate effect sizes were observed regardless of whether the intervention included exercise. Exercise interventions used in conjunction with arthritis self-management education programs need to be developed to better enhance the self-efficacy of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Therapy, level 2b-.

  8. Performance of four ischemic stroke prognostic scores in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo W. Kuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Ischemic stroke (IS prognostic scales may help clinicians in their clinical decisions. This study aimed to assess the performance of four IS prognostic scales in a Brazilian population. Method We evaluated data of IS patients admitted at Hospital Paulistano, a Joint Commission International certified primary stroke center. In-hospital mortality and modified Rankin score at discharge were defined as the outcome measures. The performance of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, Stroke Prognostication Using Age and NIHSS (SPAN-100, Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL, and Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE were compared. Results Two hundred six patients with a mean ± SD age of 67.58 ± 15.5 years, being 55.3% male, were included. The four scales were significantly and independently associated functional outcome. Only THRIVE was associated with in-hospital mortality. With area under the curve THRIVE and NIHSS were the scales with better performance for functional outcome and THRIVE had the best performance for mortality. Conclusion THRIVE showed the best performance among the four scales, being the only associated with in-hospital mortality.

  9. The score distribution and factor structure of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-Positive Scale (CAPE-P15) in a Canadian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mashal K; Jacobson, Jill A; Bowie, Christopher R; Munhall, Kevin G

    2017-12-13

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) share several risk factors with psychotic disorders and confer greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Thus, individuals with PLEs not only comprise a valuable population in which to study the aetiology and premorbid changes associated with psychosis, but also represent a high-risk population that could benefit from clinical monitoring or early intervention efforts. We examined the score distribution and factor structure of the current 15-item Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-Positive Scale (CAPE-P15) in a Canadian sample. The CAPE-P15, which measures current PLEs in the general population, was completed by 1741 university students. The distribution of total scores was positively skewed, and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 3-factor structure produced the best fit. The CAPE-P15 has a similar score distribution and consistently measures three types of positive PLEs: persecutory ideation, bizarre experiences and perceptual abnormalities when administered in Canada vs Australia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Effect of Admission Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Score on Neurological Outcome in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Receiving Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hifumi, Toru; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kawakita, Kenya; Sawano, Hirotaka; Tahara, Yoshio; Hase, Mamoru; Nishioka, Kenji; Shirai, Shinichi; Hazui, Hiroshi; Arimoto, Hideki; Kashiwase, Kazunori; Kasaoka, Shunji; Motomura, Tomokazu; Yasuga, Yuji; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Ken; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Because the initial (on admission) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) examination has not been fully evaluated in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest (CA) who receive therapeutic hypothermia (TH), the aim of the present study was to determine any association between the admission GCS motor score and neurologic outcomes in patients with out-of-hospital CA who receive TH. In the J-PULSE-HYPO study registry, patients with bystander-witnessed CA were eligible for inclusion. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on GCS motor score (1, 2-3, and 4-5) to assess various effects on neurologic outcome. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of good neurologic outcome at 90 days. Of 452 patients, 302 were enrolled. There was a significant difference among the 3 patient groups with regard to neurologic outcome at 90 days in the univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the GCS motor score on admission, age >65 years, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the time from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation, and pupil size patients sustaining out-of-hospital CA who receive TH.

  11. Re-adjusting the cut-off score of the Korean version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale for high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jin; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Noh, Dong-Hyun; Sunwoo, Hyun-Jung; Jeon, Ye Seul; Lee, Sang-Youn; Jo, Ye-Ul; Bong, Gui-Young

    2017-10-01

    The current cut-off score of the Korean version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (K-CARS) does not seem to be sensitive enough to precisely diagnose high-functioning autism. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal cut-off score of K-CARS for diagnosing high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A total of 329 participants were assessed by the Korean versions of the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (K-ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (K-ADOS), and K-CARS. IQ and Social Maturity Scale scores were also obtained. The true positive and false negative rates of K-CARS were 77.2% and 22.8%, respectively. Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Social Quotient (SQ) were significant predictors of misclassification. The false negative rate increased to 36.0% from 19.8% when VIQ was >69.5, and the rate increased to 44.1% for participants with VIQ > 69.5 and SQ > 75.5. In addition, if SQ was >83.5, the false negative rate increased to 46.7%, even if the participant's VIQ was ≤69.5. Optimal cut-off scores were 28.5 (for VIQ ≤ 69.5 and SQ ≤ 75.5), 24.25 (for VIQ > 69.5 and SQ > 75.5), and 24.5 (for SQ > 83.5), respectively. The likelihood of a false negative error increases when K-CARS is used to diagnose high-functioning autism and Asperger's syndrome. For subjects with ASD and substantial verbal ability, the cut-off score for K-CARS should be re-adjusted and/or supplementary diagnostic tools might be needed to enhance diagnostic accuracy for ASD. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Premorbid functioning of patients with first-episode nonaffective psychosis: a comparison of deterioration in academic and social performance, and clinical correlates of Premorbid Adjustment Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Ralph C; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    Motivated by a previous study among male veterans [Allen, D.N., Frantom, L.V., Strauss, G.P., van Kammen, D.P., 2005. Differential patterns of premorbid academic and social deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 75, 389-397], the present analysis examined: (1) patterns of premorbid academic and social functioning during childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence, and (2) associations between these premorbid functioning dimensions and a number of clinical variables. Data on premorbid functioning were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) in 95 hospitalized first-episode patients. Analyses were similar to those conducted by Allen and colleagues (2005). Deterioration was evident in both academic and social functioning from childhood to early adolescence, along with a pronounced/accelerated deterioration in academic functioning from early adolescence to late adolescence, occurring in both male and female patients. Age at onset of prodromal symptoms was predicted by childhood/early adolescent/late adolescent academic functioning scores, and age at onset of psychotic symptoms was significantly associated only with childhood academic functioning. Severity of negative symptoms was predicted by childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores, and severity of general psychopathology symptoms was predicted by late adolescent academic functioning, as well as childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores. Consistent with prior findings, deterioration in premorbid functioning appears to be more pronounced in the academic than social dimension of the PAS. Some PAS scores are predictive of ages at onset of prodrome/psychosis and severity of psychotic symptoms. Ongoing research on premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia may have implications for future prevention goals.

  13. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Aoki, Shigeki; Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing.

  14. External Validation of the Prestroke Independence, Sex, Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score for Predicting Pneumonia After Stroke Using Data From the China National Stroke Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runhua; Ji, Ruijun; Pan, Yuesong; Jiang, Yong; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-05-01

    Pneumonia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity after stroke. The Prestroke Independence, Sex, Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (ISAN) score was shown to be a useful tool for predicting stroke-associated pneumonia based on UK multicenter cohort study. We aimed to externally validate the score using data from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the CNSR from 2007 to 2008 were included. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve was used to evaluate discrimination. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test and Pearson correlation coefficient were performed to assess calibration of the model. A total of 19,333 patients (AIS = 14400; ICH = 4933) were included and the overall pneumonia rate was 12.7%. The AUC was .76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: .75-.78) for the subgroup of AIS and .70 (95% CI: .68-.72) for the subgroup of ICH. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed the ISAN score with the good calibration for AIS and ICH (P = .177 and .405, respectively). The plot of observed versus predicted pneumonia rates suggested higher correlation for patients with AIS than with ICH (Pearson correlation coefficient = .99 and .83, respectively). The ISAN score was a useful tool for predicting in-hospital pneumonia after acute stroke, especially for patients with AIS. Further validations need to be done in different populations. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kabasawa, Hiroyuki [GE Healthcare, Japan Applied Science Laboratory, Hino (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  16. Clinician judgment vs formal scales for predicting intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Cameron A.; Sparks, Mary J.; Watson, Tiffany D.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Comeau, Mary E.; Rosand, Jonathan; Battey, Thomas W.K.; Koch, Sebastian; Perez, Mario L.; James, Michael L.; McFarlin, Jessica; Osborne, Jennifer L.; Woo, Daniel; Kittner, Steven J.; Sheth, Kevin N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the performance of formal prognostic instruments vs subjective clinical judgment with regards to predicting functional outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: This prospective observational study enrolled 121 ICH patients hospitalized at 5 US tertiary care centers. Within 24 hours of each patient's admission to the hospital, one physician and one nurse on each patient's clinical team were each asked to predict the patient's modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months and to indicate whether he or she would recommend comfort measures. The admission ICH score and FUNC score, 2 prognostic scales selected for their common use in neurologic practice, were calculated for each patient. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) with respect to patients' actual 3-month mRS for the physician and nursing predictions were compared against the same correlation coefficients for the ICH score and FUNC score. Results: The absolute value of the correlation coefficient for physician predictions with respect to actual outcome (0.75) was higher than that of either the ICH score (0.62, p = 0.057) or the FUNC score (0.56, p = 0.01). The nursing predictions of outcome (r = 0.72) also trended towards an accuracy advantage over the ICH score (p = 0.09) and FUNC score (p = 0.03). In an analysis that excluded patients for whom comfort care was recommended, the 65 available attending physician predictions retained greater accuracy (r = 0.73) than either the ICH score (r = 0.50, p = 0.02) or the FUNC score (r = 0.42, p = 0.004). Conclusions: Early subjective clinical judgment of physicians correlates more closely with 3-month outcome after ICH than prognostic scales. PMID:26674335

  17. Multi-Objective Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants Using Pure and Mixed Working Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermal phase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle power plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers......, which is beneficial for cycle performance. On the other hand, larger heat transfer surface areas are typically required for evaporation and condensation when zeotropic mixtures are used as working fluids. In order to assess the feasibility of using zeotropic mixtures, it is, therefore, important...... to consider the additional costs of the heat exchangers. In this study, we aim at evaluating the economic feasibility of zeotropic mixtures compared to pure fluids. We carry out a multi-objective optimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plants using low...

  18. Prospects of the use of nanofluids as working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondejar, Maria E.; Andreasen, Jesper G.; Regidor, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The search of novel working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems is driven by the recent regulations imposing additional phase-out schedules for substances with adverse environmental characteristics. Recently, nanofluids (i.e. colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids) have been...... suggested as potential working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems due to their enhanced thermal properties, potentially giving advantages with respect to the design of the components and the cycle performance. Nevertheless, a number of challenges concerning the use of nanofluids must...... be investigated prior to their practical use. Among other things, the trade-off between enhanced heat transfer and increased pressure drop in heat exchangers, and the impact of the nanoparticles on the working fluid thermophysical properties, must be carefully analyzed. This paper is aimed at evaluating...

  19. Equation of State Selection for Organic Rankine Cycle Modeling Under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; O'Connell, John; Abildskov, Jens

    combustion, geothermal and solar heat sources. The working fluid is essential to the performance of the cycle. In order to evaluate and test promising fluid candidates, an appropriate Equation of State (EoS) [1] is necessary. For ORC applications, an EoS is commonly selected based on goodness-of-fits to data......In recent years there has been a great interest in the design and selection of working fluids for low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), to efficiently produce electrical power from waste heat from chemical engineering applications, as well as from renewable energy sources such as biomass...... cycle, all influence the model output uncertainty. The procedure is highlighted for an ORC for with a low-temperature heat source from exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine.[1] Saleh B, Koglbauer G, Wendland M, Fischer J. Working fluids for lowtemperature organic Rankine cycles. Energy 2007...

  20. Economic analysis of a dish-Rankine solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, R. L.; Irwin, R. E.

    An analysis of the performance and costs of a first generation dish Rankine solar thermal power system for small community and industrial applications is presented. The system is of the point-focusing distributed receiver type, with distributed generation and employs multiple paraboloidal concentrators with organic Rankine cycle power conversion systems at the focus of each dish. Projected life cycle energy costs for a fully developed and mass produced system are shown to be competitive with costs projected in the near future for electricity generated by more conventional means. It is shown that: (1) the method of rating plant poer output has a minor influence on life cycle energy cost, (2) optimum dish size is greater than 12m, (3) energy cost is virtually independent of plant size above 1 MW sub e and (4) dish spacing and geometric arrangement can be optimized to reduce energy cost.

  1. Experimental Study of a Low-Temperature Power Generation System in an Organic Rankine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Yongchao; Zhang, Yufeng; Deng, Na

    2015-01-01

    as the engine of the power generator. The style of the preheater was a shell and tube heat exchanger, which could provide a long path for the working fluid. A flooded heat exchanger with a high heat transfer coefficient was taken as the evaporator. R134a was used as working fluid for the Rankine cycle......This paper presents a new power generation system under the principle of organic Rankine cycle which can generate power with a low-temperature heat source. A prototype was built to investigate the proposed system. In the prototype, an air screw compressor was converted into an expander and used...... in the system. This study compared and analyzed the experimental performance of the prototype at different heat source temperatures. The results show that the preheater and flooded evaporator was used for sensible heating and latent heating of the working fluid, respectively, as expected. When the temperature...

  2. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; La Seta, Angelo; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    Rankine cycle power systems. In this two-part paper, an overall cycle model and a model of an axial turbine were combined in order to provide a comprehensive preliminary design of the organic Rankine cycle unit, taking into account both cycle and turbine optimal designs. Part A presents the preliminary......Axial-flow turbines represent a well-established technology for a wide variety of power generation systems. Compactness, flexibility, reliability and high efficiency have been key factors for the extensive use of axial turbines in conventional power plants and, in the last decades, in organic...... turbine design model, the details of the validation and a sensitivity analysis on the main parameters, in order to minimize the number of decision variables in the subsequent turbine design optimization. Part B analyzes the application of the combined turbine and cycle designs on a selected case study...

  3. Study of toluene stability for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) space-based power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Vance; Ragaller, Dana

    1988-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly, and endurance operation of a dynamic test loop, built to evaluate the thermal stability of a proposed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) working fluid, is discussed. The test fluid, toluene, was circulated through a heater, simulated turbine, regenerator, condenser and pump to duplicate an actual ORC system. The maximum nominal fluid temperature, 750 F, was at the turbine simulator inlet. Samples of noncondensible gases and liquid toluene were taken periodically during the test. The samples were analyzed to identify the degradation products formed and the quantity of these products. From these data it was possible to determine the degradation rate of the working fluid and the generation rate of noncondensible gases. A further goal of this work was to relate the degradation observed in the dynamic operating loop to degradation obtained in isothermal capsule tests. This relationship was the basis for estimating the power loop degradation in the Space Station Organic Rankine Cycle system.

  4. Application of unscented Kalman filter for condition monitoring of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Schlanbusch, Rune; Kandepu, Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    emphasis on compactness and reliability. In such context, organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators are a promising technology. The implementation of an organic Rankine cycle unit is thus considered for the power system of the Draugen offshore platform in the northern sea, which is the case study......This work relates to a project focusing on energy optimization on offshore facilities. On oil and gas platforms it is common practice to employ gas turbines for power production. So as to increase the system performance and reduce emissions, a bottoming cycle unit can be designed with particular...... for this project. Considering the plant dynamics, it is of paramount importance to monitor the peak temperatures within the once-through boiler serving the bottoming unit to prevent the decomposition of the working fluid. This paper accordingly aims at applying the unscented Kalman filter to estimate...

  5. Investigations on the application of zeotropic fluid mixtures in the organic rankine cycle for the geothermal power generation; Untersuchung zum Einsatz von zeotropen Fluidgemischen im Organic Rankine Cycle fuer die geothermische Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberle, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The organic rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle process which uses an organic fluid working fluid instead of water in comparison to the commercial rankine process. The organic rankine cycle facilitates sufficiently high pressures at moderate temperatures. The organic rankine cycle significantly expands the technically possible and economically feasible ranges of application of such heat and power processes. The geothermal power is a very attractive field of application. Thermal water with a temperature of nearly 100 Celsius can be used for the power generation by means of the organic rankine cycle. Especially zeotropic mixtures are interesting as a working fluid. This is due to a non-isothermal phase change to a temperature glide which adapts very well to the temperature progress of the heat source. The author of the book under consideration reports on the application of different mixtures in the organic rankine cycle. The evaluation is based on a thermodynamic analysis and considers also toxicological, ecologic, technical as well as economic aspects.

  6. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  7. System and method for regulating EGR cooling using a Rankine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Morris, Dave

    2017-08-29

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and method for regulating exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling, and more particularly, to a Rankine cycle WHR system and method, including a recuperator bypass arrangement to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling for engine efficiency improvement and thermal management. This disclosure describes other unique bypass arrangements for increased flexibility in the ability to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling.

  8. Exergetic Analysis of an Integrated Tri-Generation Organic Rankine Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ratha Z. Mathkor; Brian Agnew; Mohammed A. Al-Weshahi; Fathi Latrsh

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output) tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output of the system that comprised a parabolic trough collector (PTC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), single-effect desalination (SED), and single effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (ACH) was electrical power, distille...

  9. Comparison of Organic Rankine Cycle Under Varying Conditions Using Turbine and Twin-Screw Expanders

    OpenAIRE

    Read, M G; Smith, I.K.; Stosic, N.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-variable optimization program has been developed to investigate the performance of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) for low temperature heat recovery applications. This cycle model contains detailed thermodynamic models of the system components, and the methods used to match the operation of the expander to the requirements of the cycle are described. Two types of ORC system are considered; one containing a turbine to expand dry saturated or superheated vapour, and one with a twin-screw ...

  10. Comparison of organic rankine cycle systems under varying conditions using turbine and twin-screw expanders

    OpenAIRE

    Read, M G; Smith, I.K.; Stosic, N.; Kovacevic, A.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-variable optimization program has been developed to investigate the performance of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) for low temperature heat recovery applications using both turbine and twin-screw expanders when account is taken of performance variation due to changes in ambient conditions. The cycle simulation contains thermodynamic models of both types of expander. In the case of the twin-screw machine, the methods used to match the operation of the expander to the requirements of the ...

  11. Autonomous low-temperature solar Rankine cycle system for reverse osmosis desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolakos, D.; Makris, G.; Papadakis, G.; Kyritsis, S. [Agricultural University of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Bouzianas, K. [Hellas Energy K. Bouzianas P. Moschovitis and Co., Athens (Greece)

    2004-07-01

    The research regards the development, application testing and performance evaluation of a low temperature solar organic Rankine cycle system for Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination. Below is given a technical description of the system under development: Thermal energy produced by the solar array evaporates the working fluid (HFC- 134a) in the evaporator surface. The super-heated vapour is driven to the expanders where the generated mechanical work produced by the Rankine cycle drives the RO unit pumps (high pressure pump, cooling water pump, feed water pump) and circulating pump. The saturated vapour at the expanders' outlet is directed to the condenser and condensates. On the condenser surface, seawater is pre-heated and directed to the seawater reservoir. Seawater pre-heating is applied to increase the fresh water recovery ratio. The seawater tank is insulated. The use of seawater on the condenser surface decreases the temperature of ''Low Temperature Reservoir'' of Rankine cycle thus a better cycle efficiency is achieved. For the prototype system 240 m2 of vacuum tube solar collectors will be deployed. The evaporator and condenser capacity is estimated to be about 100 kW. For these systems' characteristics and considering a water recovery ratio of seawater RO desalination unit of 30%, the average yearly fresh water production is estimated at 1450 m3 (or 4 m3 daily). Specific innovations of the system are: Low temperature thermal sources can be exploited efficiently for fresh water production; solar energy is used indirectly and does not heat the seawater; the RO unit is driven by mechanical work produced from the process; the system condenser acts as sea water pre-heater and this serves a double purpose; (1) increase of feed water temperature implies higher fresh water production (2) decrease of temperature of ''low temperature reservoir'' of Rankine cycle implies higher cycle efficiencies. (orig.)

  12. Optimisation robuste de turbines pour les cycles organiques de Rankine (ORC)

    OpenAIRE

    Bufi, Elio Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology has received great interest from the scientific and technical community because of its capability to recover energy from low-grade heat sources. In some applications, as the Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), ORC plants need to be as compact as possible because of geometrical and weight constraints. Recently, these issues have been studied in order to promote the ORC technology for Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) applications. The idea to r...

  13. Thermodynamic Optimization of a Geothermal- Based Organic Rankine Cycle System Using an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Özkaraca; Pınar Keçebaş; Cihan Demircan; Ali Keçebaş

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable form of energy, however due to misuse, processing and management issues, it is necessary to use the resource more efficiently. To increase energy efficiency, energy systems engineers carry out careful energy control studies and offer alternative solutions. With this aim, this study was conducted to improve the performance of a real operating air-cooled organic Rankine cycle binary geothermal power plant (GPP) and its components in the aspects of thermodynamic ...

  14. Working fluids selection for fishing boats waste heat powered organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xianbiao; Wang, Lingbao; Li, Huashan

    2014-10-01

    To utilize waste heat from fishing boats, an organic Rankine cycle/vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed. Six working fluids were selected and compared in order to identify suitable working fluids which may yield high system efficiencies. The calculated results show that R600a is most suitable working fluid through comprehensive comparison of efficiency, size parameter, pressure ratio, coefficient of performance, system pressure and safety.

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Powered Vapor Compression Ice Maker Using Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Hu; Xianbiao Bu; Weibin Ma

    2014-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with incr...

  16. Comparison of Nutech Functional Score with European Stroke Scale for Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident Treated with Human Embryonic Stem Cells: NFS for CVA Patients Treated with hESCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2017-06-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising modality for treatment of patients with chronic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in whom treatment other than physiotherapy or occupational therapy does not address the repair or recovery of the lost function. In this study, the author aimed at evaluating CVA patients treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy and comparing their study outcomes with globally accepted European Stroke Scale (ESS) to that with novel scoring system, Nutech functional score (NFS), a 21-point positional and directional scoring system for assessing patients with CVA. Patients diagnosed with CVA were assessed with NFS and ESS before and after hESC therapy. NFS assessed the patients in the direction of 1-5 (bad to good), where 5 was considered as the highest possible grade (HPG). The findings were obtained for the patients who scored HPG, and had shown improvement by at least one grade. Overall, 66.7% of patients scored HPG level on the NFS scale and about 62.5% of the patients scored HPG according to the ESS scale. Approximately, 52.2% patients showed an improvement of 100% (by at least one grade) on NFS scale. None of the patients showed 100% improvement in the alteration of the score by at least one grade when scored with ESS. NFS and ESS scores show that a large population of CVA patients was benefitted with hESC therapy. NFS was found to give more convincing results than ESS, and overcomes the shortcomings of ESS.

  17. On the Rankin-Selberg method for higher genus string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Florakis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Closed string amplitudes at genus $h\\leq 3$ are given by integrals of Siegel modular functions on a fundamental domain of the Siegel upper half-plane. When the integrand is of rapid decay near the cusps, the integral can be computed by the Rankin-Selberg method, which consists of inserting an Eisenstein series $E_h(s)$ in the integrand, computing the integral by the orbit method, and finally extracting the residue at a suitable value of $s$. String amplitudes, however, typically involve integrands with polynomial or even exponential growth at the cusps, and a renormalization scheme is required to treat infrared divergences. Generalizing Zagier's extension of the Rankin-Selberg method at genus one, we develop the Rankin-Selberg method for Siegel modular functions of degree 2 and 3 with polynomial growth near the cusps. In particular, we show that the renormalized modular integral of the Siegel-Narain partition function of an even self-dual lattice of signature $(d,d)$ is proportional to a residue of the Langla...

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Powered Vapor Compression Ice Maker Using Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with increasing generation temperature. For every working fluid there is an optimal generation temperature at which organic Rankine efficiency achieves the maximum value. The cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day are, respectively, 126.44 W m−2 and 7.61 kg m−2 day−1 at the generation temperature of 140°C for working fluid of R245fa, which demonstrates the feasibility of organic Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker.

  19. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Anne-Marie A.; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S.; Leehey, Maureen A.; Pontone, Gregory M.; Chou, Kelvin L.; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Greater body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with improved survival among persons with Huntington disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Weight loss is common among persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with worse quality of life. OBJECTIVE To explore the association between change in BMI, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores, and survival among persons with PD and to test whether there is a positive association between BMI at randomization and survival. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Secondary analysis (from May 27, 2014, to October 13, 2015) of longitudinal data (3–6 years) from 1673 participants who started the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1). This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate (10 g/d) that was performed at 45 sites throughout the United States and Canada. Participants with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) PD were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Change across time in motor UPDRS score, change across time in total UPDRS score, and time to death. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of BMI on the change in motor and total UPDRS scores after controlling for covariates. Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models of time to death. A participant’s BMI was measured at randomization, and BMI trajectory groups were classified according to whether participants experienced weight loss (“decreasing BMI”), weight stability (“stable BMI”), or weight gain (“increasing BMI”) during the study. RESULTS Of the 1673 participants (mean [SD] age, 61.7 [9.6] years; 1074 [64.2%] were male), 158 (9.4%) experienced weight loss

  20. Preoperative APACHE II and GCS scores as predictors of outcomes in patients with malignant MCA infarction after decompressive hemicraniectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Lin; Chu, Hsin; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Ma, Hsin-I; Cheng, Chun-An; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Decompressive hemicraniectomy is accepted as the most effective life-saving treatment for malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. However, the outcome remains hard to predict. This study examined the efficacy of using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores before emergency craniectomy for predicting clinical outcome in malignant MCA infarction. Seventy-nine consecutive patients with malignant MCA infarction treated from January 2006 to October 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The GCS and APACHE II scores within the first 24 h of neurological deterioration or before decompressive hemicraniectomy, were used to predict short-term functional outcome rated by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained to determine the accuracy and best cut-off value for each scoring system. At 6 months, there was dramatic life-saving effect of surgery, with a significant reduction in mortality rate (from 71% to 19%, P 8 (P = 0.003) and APACHE II APACHE II scores are useful tools in predicting outcomes for patients with malignant MCA infarction who underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy.

  1. Changes in Basic Movement Ability and Activities of Daily Living After Hip Fractures: Correlation Between Basic Movement Scale and Motor-Functional Independence Measure Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Shogo; Sawada, Koshiro; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Mikami, Yasuo; Mori, Isamu; Takamuku, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Tai; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-09-19

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between basic movement ability and activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery and predict ADL outcomes from changes in basic movement ability. Fifty-four patients receiving rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery were collected prospectively. Ambulatory ability was evaluated using a Basic Movement Scale (BMS), and ADL was evaluated using the motor subscale of the Functional Independence Measure (motor-FIM). From the results of evaluating BMS and motor-FIM weekly, the important postoperative period to regain ADL was investigated. There was a close correlation between BMS and motor-FIM scores at each evaluation point (r = 0.971, P basic movement ability at POW 2 also reflected the prognosis, constructive interventions should be implemented early to help patients ambulate and regain other basic movements by no later than POW 2.

  2. Extending Structural Analyses of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to Consider Criterion-Related Validity: Can Composite Self-Esteem Scores Be Good Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Brecheen, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Although the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) is the most widely used measure of global self-esteem in the literature, there are ongoing disagreements about its factor structure. This methodological debate informs how the measure should be used in substantive research. Using a sample of 1,127 college students, we test the overall fit of previously specified models for the RSES, including a newly proposed bifactor solution (McKay, Boduszek, & Harvey, 2014 ). We extend previous work by evaluating how various latent factors from these structural models are related to a set of criterion variables frequently studied in the self-esteem literature. A strict unidimensional model poorly fit the data, whereas models that accounted for correlations between negatively and positively keyed items tended to fit better. However, global factors from viable structural models had similar levels of association with criterion variables and with the pattern of results obtained with a composite global self-esteem variable calculated from observed scores. Thus, we did not find compelling evidence that different structural models had substantive implications, thereby reducing (but not eliminating) concerns about the integrity of the self-esteem literature based on overall composite scores for the RSES.

  3. Validation of the DRAGON Score in a Chinese Population to Predict Functional Outcome of Intravenous Thrombolysis-Treated Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinmiao; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Chunjuan; Liu, Liping; Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-08-01

    The DRAGON score predicts functional outcome of ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Our aim was to evaluate its utility in a Chinese stroke population. Patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis were prospectively registered in the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of acute ischemic Stroke in China. We excluded patients with basilar artery occlusion and missing data, leaving 970 eligible patients. We calculated the DRAGON score, and the clinical outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. Model discrimination was quantified by calculating the C statistic. Calibration was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The C statistic was .73 (.70-.76) for good outcome and .75 (.70-.79) for miserable outcome. Proportions of patients with good outcome were 94%, 83%, 70%, and 0% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 8 to 10 score points, respectively. Proportions of patients with miserable outcome were 0%, 3%, 9%, and 50% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 8 to 10 points, respectively. There was high correlation between predicted and observed probability of 3-month favorable and miserable outcome in the external validation cohort (Pearson correlation coefficient, .98 and .98, respectively, both P DRAGON score showed good performance to predict functional outcome after tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment in the Chinese population. This study demonstrated the accuracy and usability of the DRAGON score in the Chinese population in daily practice. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Incorporating a Modified Graeb Score to the Modified Fisher Scale for Improved Risk Prediction of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Matt E; Jaja, Blessing N R; Macdonald, R Loch

    2017-04-17

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a cause of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Risk scales to predict DCI have scarcely been evaluated for predictive accuracy. Accounting for volume of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in the modified Fischer scale (mFS) may improve its predictive accuracy. To compare the modified Graeb score (mGS) to the mFS for risk prediction of DCI, and to investigate whether incorporating an mGS cut-point into the mFS could improve predictive accuracy. This retrospective analysis was based on the Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1) trial cohort. IVH volume was quantified with the mGS. The relation of the mGS to DCI was evaluated using logistic regression and the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC). An optimized mGS cut-point was identified using the Youden index, and was incorporated into the mFS to dichotomize grades 2 and 4. The AUC was used to compare the predictive performance of the mGS with that of the mFS, and to assess whether there was an improvement in DCI prediction after creation of the dichotomized scale. The mFS and the mGS had similar discrimination for DCI (AUC: 0.608 vs 0.618; P = .79). A new scale including both the mFS and mGS significantly improved the AUC compared to the mFS (AUC: 0.647 vs 0.608; P = .022). The mFS and the mGS have similar prognostic utility. Accounting for IVH volume improved prediction of DCI by the mFS.

  5. Evidence for the use of preoperative risk assessment scores in elective cranial neurosurgery: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Elina; Tuominen, Hanna; Korja, Miikka

    2014-08-01

    Preoperative risk scores are designed to guide patient management by providing a means of predicting operative outcome. Several risk scores are used in neurosurgery, but studies on their clinical relevance are scarce. Therefore, it is not clear whether these risk scores are beneficial or helpful in predicting outcome after elective cranial neurosurgery. In this review, we summarize the current scientific evidence for using preoperative risk scores in elective cranial neurosurgery. A systematic review of the MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed databases in November 2013 yielded 25 relevant studies with a minimum of 30 patients per study. The studies evaluated the value of the preoperative ASA physical status classification, the Karnofsky performance score (KPS), the Charlson comorbidity score, the modified Rankin Scale and the sex, KPS, ASA physical status classification, location, and edema (SKALE) score in assessing postoperative outcome in cranial neurosurgery. Surgery-related and nonsurgical complications were assessed separately whenever reported in the original article. For this purpose, the studies were placed into 4 categories based on the reported outcome: surgery-related outcome, nonsurgical outcome, morbidity, and mortality. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. KPS has the strongest support in the literature for predicting surgery-related outcomes. There is no strong support in the literature for the use of any preoperative scores in predicting nonsurgical outcomes after elective craniotomies. KPS and ASA physical status classification seem to predict early (≤ 30-day) morbidity of intracranial tumor patients. The Charlson comorbidity score may be applicable in predicting mortality of elective intracranial aneurysm patients. Only 4 studies were prospective in design. Large prospective studies are needed to validate the use of the reviewed risk scores in elective cranial

  6. Combined Multimodal Computed Tomography Score Correlates With Futile Recanalization After Thrombectomy in Patients With Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa de Rueda, Mariano; Parrilla, Guillermo; Manzano-Fernández, Sergio; García-Villalba, Blanca; Zamarro, Joaquín; Hernández-Fernández, Francisco; Sánchez-Vizcaino, Cristina; Carreón, Ester; Morales, Ana; Moreno, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Futile recanalization after acute ischemic stroke occurs in almost half of the patients despite optimal angiographic results. Multimodal neuroimaging may help to improve patient's selection but is still dismissed by many interventionalists. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of each parameter of multimodal computed tomography (CT) and their combination for predicting futile recanalization after successful thrombectomy. We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of consecutive patients with anterior circulation stroke, fully assessable multimodal CT, and successful recanalization. Nonenhanced CT, CT angiography source images, cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and mismatch CBV-CBF maps were studied by Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS); collaterals on CT angiography were graded as poor or good (≤50% or >50% of the middle cerebral artery territory). Futile recanalization was defined as modified Rankin Scale score >2 at 3 months despite successful recanalization. One hundred fifty patients were included and 57% of them had futile recanalization. They had lower ASPECTS on nonenhanced CT, CT angiography source images, CBV, CBF, and mismatch CBV-CBF and presented more frequently poor collaterals (all Pmultimodal CT score predicted futile recanalization. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Sentiment analysis methods for understanding large-scale texts: a case for using continuum-scored words and word shift graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Reagan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The emergence and global adoption of social media has rendered possible the real-time estimation of population-scale sentiment, an extraordinary capacity which has profound implications for our understanding of human behavior. Given the growing assortment of sentiment-measuring instruments, it is imperative to understand which aspects of sentiment dictionaries contribute to both their classification accuracy and their ability to provide richer understanding of texts. Here, we perform detailed, quantitative tests and qualitative assessments of 6 dictionary-based methods applied to 4 different corpora, and briefly examine a further 20 methods. We show that while inappropriate for sentences, dictionary-based methods are generally robust in their classification accuracy for longer texts. Most importantly they can aid understanding of texts with reliable and meaningful word shift graphs if (1 the dictionary covers a sufficiently large portion of a given text’s lexicon when weighted by word usage frequency; and (2 words are scored on a continuous scale.

  8. Birth Weight Predicts Scores on the ADHD Self-Report Scale and Attitudes towards Casual Sex in College Men: A Short-Term Life History Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Frederick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Early development can have long-term effects on physiology and behavior. While severe disturbances predictably lead to dysfunction, recent work in humans and animals has led to a growing appreciation for the more subtle ways in which early conditions can modulate behavioral tendencies later in life. Life history theory predicts that early cues signaling a stressful or suboptimal environment might lead an organism to adopt a strategy favoring short-term gains and early reproduction. Fifty college men reported their birth weight, completed the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Self-Report Scale, and answered a series of questions about their sexual history and attitudes towards short-term sexual encounters. Lower birth weights were associated with higher scores on the ADHD scale (r = −.352; p ≤ .05 and more favorable attitudes towards casual sex (r = −.456; p ≤ 0.001. There was a significant interaction between birth weight and casual sex favorability in predicting number of sexual partners (F1,46 = 4.994; p ≤ .05. This suggests that, although men who are smaller at birth may otherwise be at a disadvantage in reproductive terms, they may offset their reduced fitness by being more willing to engage in casual sex.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-DRAGON score: 3-month outcome prediction after intravenous thrombolysis for anterior circulation stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turc, Guillaume; Apoil, Marion; Naggara, Olivier; Calvet, David; Lamy, Catherine; Tataru, Alina M; Méder, Jean-François; Mas, Jean-Louis; Baron, Jean-Claude; Oppenheim, Catherine; Touzé, Emmanuel

    2013-05-01

    The DRAGON score, which includes clinical and computed tomographic scan parameters, showed a high specificity to predict 3-month outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated by intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. We adapted the score for patients undergoing MRI as the first-line diagnostic tool. We reviewed patients with consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke treated ≤ 4.5 hour by intravenous tissue plasminogen activator between 2003 and 2012 in our center, where MRI is systematically implemented as first-line diagnostic work-up. We derived the MRI-DRAGON score keeping all clinical parameters of computed tomography-DRAGON (age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and glucose level, prestroke handicap, onset to treatment time), and considering the following radiological variables: proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion on MR angiography instead of hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign, and diffusion-weighted imaging Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (DWI ASPECTS) ≤ 5 instead of early infarct signs on computed tomography. Poor 3-month outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale >2. We calculated c-statistics as a measure of predictive ability and performed an internal cross-validation. Two hundred twenty-eight patients were included. Poor outcome was observed in 98 (43%) patients and was significantly associated with all parameters of the MRI-DRAGON score in multivariate analysis, except for onset to treatment time (nonsignificant trend). The c-statistic was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.88) for poor outcome prediction. All patients with a MRI-DRAGON score ≤ 2 (n=22) had a good outcome, whereas all patients with a score ≥ 8 (n=11) had a poor outcome. The MRI-DRAGON score is a simple tool to predict 3-month outcome in acute stroke patients screened by MRI then treated by intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and may help for therapeutic decision.

  10. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Maria Fogaça Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54% of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44% was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement ( > 0.90 and reliability ( > 0.90 in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively. The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001. Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability.

  11. The use of brain CT Scan in craniocerebral trauma with Glasgow coma scale scores of 13 – 15 in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital 1999-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofizal Jannis

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available There is still a controversy among the neurologists whether brain CT scan must be performed on the mild head trauma patients. This study was executed to find out the correlation between the brain CT scan image findings and its clinical impairment among the mild head trauma patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS score of 13 to 15. The study was a retrospective study by analyzing the uniform medical records of the head trauma patients hospitalized at the Neurology ward of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital within the period of 1999 to 2001. During that period 1,663 patients were hospitalized due to head trauma, and 1,166 of them (70.1 % were suffered from mild head trauma patients with GCS score of 13-15. Among those with brain CT scan examinations (N: 271, the neurological abnormalities were found on 144 (53.1% of patients, consisted of cerebral edema (11,4%, intracerebral hemorrhage (5.5%, epidural hemorrhage (16.2%, subdural hemorrhage (18.1%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (5.5%, and combination (13.8%. The further analysis showed that cranial nerves disturbance, amnesia, loss of conciousness for more than 10 minutes, and vomiting are significantly correlated to the brain CT scan abnormality. Combination of the above four clinical signs and symptoms have sensitivity of 90 % in predicting brain insults. This findings may be used as a simple set of clinical criteria for identifying mild head trauma patients who need undergo CT scan examination. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 156-60 Keywords: mild head injury, brain CT scan

  12. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement (κ > 0.90) and reliability (α > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability. PMID:28117473

  13. A study on the direct and indirect costs of multiple sclerosis based on expanded disability status scale score in khuzestan, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabipour, Amin; Asl, Zahra Ahmadi; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Ghasemzadeh, Roya; Tabesh, Hamed; Arab, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a common and chronic neurologic disorder. This disorder imposes physical, economic, and psychosocial burden on individuals, their families and society. This study aims to analyze the costs of multiple sclerosis disease based on the severity of disability. We performed a cross-sectional cost of illness study. This study was conducted in 332 patients of Khuzestan province of Iran. Data were included: Patient's characteristics, disability status, medical, and nonmedical costs and were gathered by using the questionnaire during 3 months period. Costs analysis was performed in the basis of expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 18 software. Mean age of the patients was 33.5 (standard deviation [SD]: 9.1) and 70.5% of patients were female. Mean EDSS score of the patients was 2.2 (SD: 1.6). Most patients (92.1%) had relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) form of the disease. Costs mean per patients was 8.6 ± 7.9 million Rial. The direct and indirect costs were 93.1% and 6.9% of total costs, respectively. The major cost of the disease belongs to the pharmaceutical treatment (22% of costs). The majority costs (approximately 62%) attributed to EDSS of 6-7 and >7. Furthermore, there was strong significant relationship between cost of illness and disability severity of patients (P < 0.05). Cost mean per MS patients was relatively high. Furthermore, the results showed that cost of disease had positive and significant relationships with EDSS score that is, progression of disability increase costs of patients.

  14. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems: Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  15. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems - Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long-time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  16. Experimental Comparison Of Working Fluids For Organic Rankine Cycle With Single-Screw Expander

    OpenAIRE

    Gusev, Sergei; Ziviani, Davide; Bell, Ian; De Paepe, Michel; van den Broek, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) fed by a heat source with adaptable temperature and mass flow. For a suitable choice of working fluid, the setting of its evaporation pressure is crucial for the performance of an ORC installation. The higher the evaporation pressure, the higher the cycle efficiency on the one hand, but the lower the energy recovered from the heat source due to a higher outlet temperature on the other hand. An optimum has to be found to achie...

  17. Numerical Optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle Scheme for Co-generation

    OpenAIRE

    Potenza, Marco; Naccarato, Fabrizio; Stigliano, Gianbattista; Risi, Arturo de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the optimization of a small size Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system powered by a linear Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) solar field by means of numerical model code developed on purpose. In the proposed scheme the solar energy is collected by a newly designed low cost PTC of 20m2 with a single tracking axis and it is concentrated on an opaque pipe collector in which flows as thermal fluid the Therminol® 66 oil. An oil-free scroll expander coupled with a 2 kW e...

  18. Theoretical study of thermally driven heat pumps based on double organic rankine cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Demierre, Jonathan; Favrat, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Thermally driven heat pumps for heating and cooling. – Ed.: Annett Kühn – Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013 ISBN 978-3-7983-2686-6 (print) ISBN 978-3-7983-2596-8 (online) urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-39458 [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-39458] This study deals with a type of thermally driven heat pumps that consists of a reverse Rankine heat pump cycle, the compressor of which is driven by the turbine of a supercritical Organi...

  19. Uncertainty assessment of equations of state with application to an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Bell, Ian; O’Connell, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluations of equations of state (EoS) should include uncertainty. This study presents a genericmethod to analyse EoS from a detailed uncertainty analysis of the mathematical form and the dataused to obtain EoS parameter values. The method is illustrated by comparison of Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK......) cubic EoS with perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS for anorganic Rankine cycle (ORC) for heat recovery to power fromthe exhaust gas of a marine diesel engineusing cyclopentane as working fluid. Uncertainties of the EoS input parameters including...

  20. Conceptual design and analysis of a Dish-Rankine solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, R. L.

    1980-08-01

    A Point Focusing Distributed Receiver (PFDR) solar thermal electric system which employs small Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) engines is examined with reference to its projected technical/economic performance. With mass-produced power modules (about 100,000 per year), the projected life-cycle energy cost for an optimized no-storage system is estimated at 67 mills/kWh (Levelized Busbar Energy Cost) without the need for advanced development of any of its components. At moderate production rates (about 50 MWe/yr) system energy costs are competitive with conventional power generation systems in special remote-site types of applications.

  1. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60 hull and KRISO container ship (KCS, a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI. The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  2. Design and optimization of a novel organic Rankine cycle with improved boiling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Larsen, U.; Knudsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to improve the boiling process. Optimizations are carried out for eight hydrocarbon mixtures for hot fluid inlet temperatures at 120 °C and 90 °C, using a genetic algorithm to determine the cycle conditions for which the net power output is maximized. The most promising mixture is an isobutane....../pentane mixture which, for the 90 °C hot fluid inlet temperature case, achieves a 14.5% higher net power output than an optimized organic Rankine cycle using the same mixture. Two parameter studies suggest that optimum conditions for the organic split-cycle are when the temperature profile allows the minimum...

  3. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    natural gas (LNG). The study compares the performance of six different ORC configurations both in design and off-design operation, and provides guidelines with respect to the most promising heat sources and sinks to be utilized by an ORC unit in order to maximize the annual fuel savings. In addition......Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...

  4. Utilization of recently developed codes for high power Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    Two recently developed FORTRAN computer codes for high power Brayton and Rankine thermodynamic cycle analysis for space power applications are presented. The codes were written in support of an effort to develop a series of subsystem models for multimegawatt Nuclear Electric Propulsion, but their use is not limited just to nuclear heat sources or to electric propulsion. Code development background, a description of the codes, some sample input/output from one of the codes, and state future plans/implications for the use of these codes by NASA's Lewis Research Center are provided.

  5. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  6. Pittsburgh outcomes after stroke thrombectomy score predicts outcomes after endovascular therapy for anterior circulation large vessel occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Liggins, John T P; Aghaebrahim, Amin; Streib, Christopher; Sun, Chung-Huan; Gupta, Rishi; Nogueira, Raul; Frankel, Michael; Mlynash, Michael; Lansberg, Maarten; Albers, Gregory; Jadhav, Ashutosh; Jovin, Tudor G

    2014-08-01

    Prognostication tools that predict good outcome in patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusions after endovascular therapy are lacking. We aim to develop a tool that incorporates clinical and imaging data to predict outcomes after endovascular therapy. In a derivation cohort of anterior circulation large vessel occlusion stroke patients treated with endovascular therapy within 8 hours from time last seen well (n=247), we performed logistic regression to identify independent predictors of good outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale, 0-2). Factors were weighted based on β-coefficients to derive the Pittsburgh Outcomes After Stroke Thrombectomy (POST) score. POST was validated in an institutional endovascular database (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, n=393) and the Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution Study-2 (DEFUSE-2) data set (n=105), as well as in patients treated beyond 8 hours (n=194) and in octogenarians (n=111). In the derivation cohort, independent predictors (PPittsburgh Medical Center, AUC=0.81; DEFUSE-2, AUC=0.86), as well as in patients treated beyond 8 hours (AUC, 0.85) and octogenarians (AUC=0.76). POST had better predictive accuracy for good and poor outcome than the ischemic stroke predictive risk score (iSCORE). POST score is a validated predictor of outcome in patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusions after endovascular therapy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. AP Potential Expectancy Tables Based on PSAT/NMSQT and SAT Scores on the 2015-16 Redesigned Scales Using Final Concordance Tables. Statistical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Wyatt, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ has used PSAT/NMSQT® scores to identify students who are likely to earn a 3 or higher on a specific AP Exam based on research showing moderate to strong relationships between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam scores (Camara & Millsap, 1998; Ewing, Camara, & Millsap, 2006; Zhang, Patel, & Ewing, 2014a). For most…

  8. AP Potential™ Expectancy Tables Based on PSAT/NMSQT® and SAT® Scores on the 2015-16 Redesigned Scales. Statistical Report 2016-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Wyatt, Jeffrey N.; Smith, Kara

    2016-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ has used PSAT/NMSQT® scores to identify students who are likely to earn a 3 or higher on a specific AP® Exam--based on research showing moderate to strong relationships between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam scores (Camara & Millsap, 1998; Ewing, Camara & Millsap, 2006; Zhang, Patel & Ewing, 2014a). For most…

  9. Clot Burden Score on Baseline Computerized Tomographic Angiography and Intra-Arterial Treatment Effect in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treurniet, Kilian M; Yoo, Albert J; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Lingsma, Hester F; Boers, Anna M M; Fransen, Puck S S; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A; Sprengers, Marieke E S; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F M; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert J; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Bot, Joseph C J; Beenen, Ludo F M; van den Berg, René; van Zwam, Wim H; van der Lugt, Aad; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Dippel, Diederik W J; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Marquering, Henk A; Majoie, Charles B L M

    2016-12-01

    A high clot burden score (CBS) is associated with favorable outcome after intravenous treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The added benefit of intra-arterial treatment might be less in these patients. The aim of this exploratory post hoc analysis was to assess the relation of CBS with neurological improvement and endovascular treatment effect. For 499 of 500 patients in the MR CLEAN study (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands), the CBS was determined. Ordinal logistic regression models with and without main baseline prognostic variables were used to assess the association between CBS (continuous or dichotomized at CBS of 6) and a shift toward better outcome on the modified Rankin Scale. The model without main baseline prognostic variables only included treatment allocation and CBS. Models with and without a multiplicative interaction term of CBS and treatment were compared using the χ2 test to assess treatment effect modification by CBS. Higher CBS was associated with a shift toward better outcome on the modified Rankin Scale; adjusted common odds ratio per point CBS was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.20]. Dichotomized CBS had an adjusted common odds ratio of 1.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.51). Both effect estimates were slightly attenuated by adding baseline prognostic variables. The addition of the interaction terms did not significantly improve the fit of the models. There was a small and insignificant increase of intra-arterial treatment efficacy in the high CBS group. A higher CBS is associated with improved outcome and may be used as a prognostic marker. We found no evidence that CBS modifies the effect of intra-arterial treatment. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR1804. URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN10888758. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Head-to-head comparison of health-state values derived by a probabilistic choice model and scores on a visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Stolk, Elly A; Devlin, Nancy J; Xie, Feng; Quik, Elise H; Pickard, A Simon

    2017-11-01

    Health states were quantified based on discrete choice (DC) modeling and visual analogue scale (VAS) values using the five-level version of the EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L). The aim of this study was to determine the extent of the relationship between DC derived values (indirect method) and VAS values (direct method). Data were collected in Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. Respondents were asked to perform paired comparisons between two EQ-5D-5L health states for DC. In total, 400 different EQ-5D-5L states were included. After each DC task, respondents were prompted to score the two states one after another on a VAS. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated between DC and VAS values and illuminating graphs were designed. Approximately 400 respondents participated from each country. High similarity [individual intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) >0.85] of DC and moderate correspondence of VAS values were observed for the four countries. Cross-country comparison of DC values shows a nonlinear relationship to the VAS values. EQ-5D-5L derived DC and VAS values show a close but nonlinear relationship. Given the obvious biases associated with the VAS, DC methods based on ordinal responses may be a better alternative.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy: making sense of the total score through a second order confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Valente, Alexandra; Costa, Patrício; Elorduy, Marta; Virumbrales, Montserrat; Costa, Manuel J; Palés, Jorge

    2016-09-19

    Empathy is a key aspect of the physician-patient interactions. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) is one of the most used empathy measures of medical students. The development of cross-cultural empathy studies depends on valid and reliable translations of the JSE. This study sought to: (1) adapt and assess the psychometric properties in Spanish students of the Spanish JSE validated in Mexican students; (2) test a second order latent factor model. The Spanish JSE was adapted from the Spanish JSE-S, resulting in a final version of the measure. A non-probabilistic sample of 1104 medical students of two Spanish medical schools completed a socio-demographic and the Spanish JSE-S. Descriptive statistics, along with a confirmatory factor analysis, the average variance extracted (AVE), Cronbach's alphas and composite reliability (CR) coefficients were computed. An independent samples t-test was performed to access sex differences. The Spanish JSE-S demonstrated acceptable to good sensitivity (individual items - except for item 2 - and JSE-S total score: -2.72 factor analysis supported the three-factor solution and the second order latent factor model. The findings provide support for the sensitivity, construct validity and reliability of the adapted Spanish JSE-S with Spanish medical students. Data confirm the hypothesized second order latent factor model. This version may be useful in future research examining empathy in Spanish medical students, as well as in cross-cultural studies.

  12. Apgar Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as ... baby's general condition at birth. What Does the Apgar Test Measure? The test measures your baby's: Heart ...

  13. A composite score for a measuring instrument utilising re-scaled Likert values and item weights from matrices of pairwise ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Hennessy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    A methodology is proposed to develop a measuring instrument (metric for evaluating subjects from a population that cannot provide data to facilitate the development of such a metric (e.g. pre-term infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Central to this methodology is the employment of an expert group that decides on the items to be included in the metric, the weights assigned to these items, and an index associated with the Likert scale points for each item. The experts supply pairwise ratios of an importance between items, and the geometric mean method is applied to these to establish the item weights – a well-established procedure in multi-criteria decision analysis. The ratios are found by having a managed discussion before asking the members of the expert panel to mark a visual analogue scale for each item.

    Opsomming

    ‘n Metode word aangebied waarmee ‘n meetinstrument (metriek ontwikkel kan word vir die evaluering van persone uit ‘n populasie wat nie self die data vir die ontwikkeling van die metriek kan voorsien nie (bv. vroeggebore babas in die neonatale intensiewe sorgeenheid. Die kern van hierdie werkswyse is die gebruik van ‘n deskundige groep wat die items vir die meetinstrument kies, gewigte aan die items toeken, en vir elke item ‘n indeks opstel wat met die Likert-skaal punte geassosieer word. Die deskundiges het paarsgewyse verhoudings tussen items verskaf en die meetkundig-gemiddelde metode is hierop toegepas om die itemgewigte te verkry – ‘n goedgevestigde gebruik in meerdoelwitbesluitkunde. Die paarsgewyse verhoudings is gewerf deur die deskundiges, na ‘n bestuurde bespreking, vir elke item ‘n visuele analoogskaal te laat invul.

    How to cite this article:
    Becker, P.J., Wolvaardt, J.S., Hennessy, A. & Maree, C., 2009, 'A composite score for a measuring instrument utilising re-scaled Likert values and item weights from matrices of pair wise ratios

  14. [Spanish versions of the Simplified Motor Score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in out-of-hospital treatment of head injury in adults: a preliminary study of each scale's ability to predict adverse events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Guillem; Mayol, Sergi; García, Esteban; Casajuana, Edgar; Quintana, Salvador

    2015-06-01

    To determine the ability of the modified (Spanish) version of the Simplified Motor Score (mSMS) to predict adverse events during hospitalization and to compare its predictive ability to that of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in adults with head injuries treated outside the hospital. Observational study of retrospective cohorts including all patients over the age of 14 years attended for head injuries occurring within 24 hours of treatment by an advanced life-support unit staffed by nurses between May 1, 2013, and May 1, 2014. The mSMS was a translation of the English original, created through a process of discussions of direct and back translations to arrive at consensus. Out-of-hospital patient records were searched to find GCS and mSMS scores. To predict the ability of each scale to predict brain injuries, neurosurgery, intubation, and/or inhospital death, we calculated the area under the receiving operator characteristic curves (AUCs). Of the total of 115 head-injury patients attended, 64 met the inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) age was 47 (24) years. Twelve (18.8%) patients developed some form of adverse event during hospitalization; 91.6% had brain damage, 58.3% required intubation, 8.3% required surgery, and 41.6% died. The AUC for the GCS was 0.907 (95% CI, 0.81-1.00; P<.001); the AUC for the mSMS was 0.796 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95; P=.001). Although the ability of the mSMS to predict in-hospital adverse outcomes is good, it is inferior to the GCS in adults with head injuries attended outside the hospital.

  15. Research of efficiency of the organic Rankine cycle on a mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study are the organic Rankine cycle. The purpose of research is to evaluate the impact on the net efficiency of the initial and final properties of the cycle at work on a saturated and superheated steam. Investigations were carried out on the basis of a mathematical model, in which the thermodynamic properties of materials are determined on the basis of “REFPROP”. On the basis of the available scientific publications on the use of working fluids in an organic Rankine cycle analysis was selected ozone-safe pentane. A mathematical model has been developed on condition that condenser is used as air cooler which allows the substance to condense at a temperature below 0 °С. Numerical study on the mathematical model shown that net efficiency at work on pentane linearly depends on the condensation temperature and parabolically depends on the initial temperature with the saturated steam. During work at the superheated steam efficiency strongly depends on both the initial temperature and of the initial pressure. With rising initial temperature is necessary to gradually increase the initial pressure under certain conditions.

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants Using Pure and Mixed Working Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper G. Andreasen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermal phase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle power plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers, which is beneficial for cycle performance. On the other hand, larger heat transfer surface areas are typically required for evaporation and condensation when zeotropic mixtures are used as working fluids. In order to assess the feasibility of using zeotropic mixtures, it is, therefore, important to consider the additional costs of the heat exchangers. In this study, we aim at evaluating the economic feasibility of zeotropic mixtures compared to pure fluids. We carry out a multi-objective optimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plants using low-temperature heat at 90 ∘ C to produce electrical power at around 500 kW. The primary outcomes of the study are Pareto fronts, illustrating the power/cost relations for R32, R134a and R32/R134a (0.65/0.35 mole . The results indicate that R32/R134a is the best of these fluids, with 3.4 % higher net power than R32 at the same total cost of 1200 k$.

  17. Selecting working fluids in an organic Rankine cycle for power generation from low temperature heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Vélez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un estudio termodinámico realizado sobre el uso de fuentes de calor de baja temperatura para la generaci ón de energía a través de un ciclo Rankin e subcrítico con fluidos de trabajo orgánicos. Un análisis d el estado del arte de esta tecn ología muestra como línea de investigación abierta, la selección del fluido de trabajo, pues hasta ahora, no existe un fluido que satisfaga t odos los aspectos medioambientales y técnicos a tener en cuenta en estos ciclos. Por ello, se ha desarrollado una serie de simulaciones que permiten estudiar el comportamiento del ciclo Rankine con difer entes configuraciones y fluidos (húmedo, seco e isoentrópico, permitiendo con ello observar de qué manera influyen cambios ta nto en esos tipos de fluidos utilizados (refrigerantes, hidroca rburos y agua, como de condiciones de temperatura, presión, flujo, etc. , sobre la eficiencia total del ciclo. Con el trabajo realizado se demuestra la viabilidad de este tipo de proceso en la recuperación de calore s en la industria y/o aprovechamiento de fuentes renovables de baja y media temperatura para la producción de energía eléctrica.

  18. Waste Heat Recovery of a PEMFC System by Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two systems are brought forward to recover the waste heat of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC, which are named the organic Rankine cycle (ORC, and heat pump (HP combined organic Rankine cycle (HPORC. The performances of both systems are simulated on the platform of MATLAB with R123, R245fa, R134a, water, and ethanol being selected as the working fluid, respectively. The results show that, for PEMFC where operating temperature is constantly kept at 60 °C, there exists an optimum working temperature for each fluid in ORC and HPORC. In ORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with R245fa being selected as the working fluid. The corresponding thermal efficiency of the recovery system is 4.03%. In HPORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with water being selected in HP and R123 in ORC. The thermal efficiency of the recovery system increases to 4.73%. Moreover, the possibility of using ORC as the cooling system of PEMFC is also studied. The heat released from PEMFC stack is assumed to be wholly recovered by the ORC or HPORC system. The results indicate that the HPORC system is much more feasible for the cooling system of a PEMFC stack, since the heat recovery ability can be promoted due to the presence of HP.

  19. The Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography Score for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion Treated with Mechanical Thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haihua; Ma, Ning; Liu, Lian; Gao, Feng; Mo, Dapeng; Miao, Zhongrong

    2018-02-05

    Recently, the Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography (BATMAN) score predicts clinical outcome of acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO), yet there is no extensive external validation. The purpose of this study was to validate the prognostic value of BATMAN scoring system for the prediction of clinical outcome in patients with acute BAO treated with endovascular mechanical thrombectomy by using cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We analyzed the clinical and angiographic data of consecutive patients with acute BAO from March 2012 to November 2016. The BATMAN scoring system was used to assess the collateral status and thrombus burden. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score 2b-3 was defined as successful recanalization. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the area under the curve (AUC) and the optimum cutoff value. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the predictor of clinical outcome. This study included 63 patients with acute BAO who underwent mechanical thrombectomy. Of these patients, 90.5% (57/63) achieved successful recanalization (TICI, 2b-3) and 34.9% (22/63) had a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2). ROC analysis indicated that the AUC of the BATMAN score was .722 (95% confidence interval [CI], .594-.827), and the optimal cutoff value was 3 (sensitivity = 72.73, specificity = 63.41). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the BATMAN score higher than 3 was associated with favorable outcome (odds ratio, 5.214; 95% CI, 1.47-18.483; P = .011). The BATMAN score on DSA seems to predict the functional outcome in patients of acute BAO treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement ( > 0.90) and reliability ( > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (-0.048 ± 0.350 and -0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from -0.73 to 0.64 and -1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p composta por 103 pacientes, sendo a maioria homens (n = 56; 54%), com média de idade = 52 ± 18 anos. O principal motivo de internação nas UTIs foi insuficiência respiratória (em 44%). Os dois instrumentos apresentaram excelente concordância interobservador (> 0,90) e confiabilidade ( > 0,90) em todos os domínios. Constatou-se um baixo viés interobservador na EMU e no Perme Escore (-0,048 ± 0,350 e -0,06 ± 0,73, respectivamente). Os IC95% para os mesmos instrumentos variaram

  1. Questionário específico para sintomas do joelho "Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale": tradução e validação para a língua portuguesa Specific questionnaire for knee symptoms - the "Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale": translation and validation into Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Peccin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do joelho apresentam conseqüências variadas para a função e a qualidade de vida do indivíduo. Para traduzir, validar e verificar as propriedades de medida do questionário específico para sintomas do joelho "Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale" para a língua portuguesa, selecionamos, por conveniência, 50 pacientes (29 homens e 21 mulheres, média de idade 38,7 anos com lesão de joelho (lesão meniscal, lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior, condromalácia ou artrose. A reprodutibilidade e a concordância ordinal inter e intra-entrevistador foram excelentes (alfa = 0,9. A concordância nominal inter-entrevistadores foi boa (Kappa = 0,7 e intra-entrevistador, excelente (Kappa = 0,8. No processo de validação, correlacionamos o questionário Lysholm com a escala numérica da dor (r=-0,6; p=0,001 e com o índice de Lequesne (r= -0,8; p=0,001. As correlações entre o Lysholm e a avaliação global da saúde pelo paciente e pelo terapeuta apresentaram-se fracas e não significantes. As correlações entre o questionário Lysholm e o SF-36 foram significantes nos aspectos físicos (r = 0,4; p = 0,04, de dor (r = 0,5; p = 0,001 e de capacidade funcional (r = 0,7; p = 0,0001. Concluímos que a tradução e adaptação cultural do "Lysholm knee scoring scale" para o nosso idioma apresentou reprodutibilidade e validade em pacientes com lesão meniscal, lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior, condromalácia ou artrose do joelho.Knee diseases present variable consequences for an individual’s function and quality of life. For the purposes of translating, validating and checking the measurement properties of the specific questionnaire for knee symptoms - the "Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale" - into Portuguese, we selected, for convenience, 50 patients (29 males and 21 females, mean age = 38.7 years with knee injuries (meniscal injury, anterior cruciate ligament injury, chondromalacia or arthrosis. Reproducibility and ordinal consistency inter- and

  2. The large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline: a method to rapidly compare genetic content between bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Sahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. As whole genome sequence data from bacterial isolates becomes cheaper to generate, computational methods are needed to correlate sequence data with biological observations. Here we present the large-scale BLAST score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline, which rapidly compares the genetic content of hundreds to thousands of bacterial genomes, and returns a matrix that describes the relatedness of all coding sequences (CDSs in all genomes surveyed. This matrix can be easily parsed in order to identify genetic relationships between bacterial genomes. Although pipelines have been published that group peptides by sequence similarity, no other software performs the rapid, large-scale, full-genome comparative analyses carried out by LS-BSR.Results. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the LS-BSR pipeline was tested on 96 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes; the pipeline ran in 163 min using 16 processors, which is a greater than 7-fold speedup compared to using a single processor. The BSR values for each CDS, which indicate a relative level of relatedness, were then mapped to each genome on an independent core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based phylogeny. Comparisons were then used to identify clade specific CDS markers and validate the LS-BSR pipeline based on molecular markers that delineate between classical E. coli pathogenic variant (pathovar designations. Scalability tests demonstrated that the LS-BSR pipeline can process 1,000 E. coli genomes in 27–57 h, depending upon the alignment method, using 16 processors.Conclusions. LS-BSR is an open-source, parallel implementation of the BSR algorithm, enabling rapid comparison of the genetic content of large numbers of genomes. The results of the pipeline can be used to identify specific markers between user-defined phylogenetic groups, and to identify the loss and/or acquisition of genetic information between bacterial isolates. Taxa-specific genetic markers can then be translated

  3. Relative Influence of Capillary Index Score, Revascularization and Time on Stroke Outcomes from the IMS III Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Firas; Elias, John J.; Tomsick, Thomas A.; Liebeskind, David S; Broderick, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Until recently, acute ischemic stroke (AIS) trials have failed to show a benefit of endovascular therapy (EVT) compared to standard therapy, leading some authors to recommend decreasing the time from ictus to revascularization (TIR) to improve outcomes. We hypothesize that improving patient selection using the capillary index score (CIS) may also be a useful strategy. Methods CIS was calculated, blinded to outcome, from pre-treatment diagnostic cerebral angiograms for 78 subjects in the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III database with internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery trunk (M1) occlusion. The CIS was dichotomized into favorable (fCIS = 2 or 3) and poor (pCIS = 0 or 1). Outcomes were categorized based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90-days (0 to 2 considered a good outcome). Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) score 2b or 3 was considered good revascularization. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to relate CIS, TIR, mTICI score, and NIH Stroke Scale score to good outcomes. Results Only CIS and mTICI score were correlated with good outcomes (p < 0.01). Patients with fCIS and good revascularization achieved 71% mRS ≤ 2, compared to 13% for patients with pCIS and good revascularization. Conclusions In this subset of patients from the IMS III Trial, CIS and mTICI were strong predictors of outcome after endovascular reperfusion. Using the CIS to improve patient selection could be a powerful strategy to improve rate of good outcomes in EVT. A randomized trial is needed. Clinical Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00359424 PMID:25953374

  4. 'Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator' mobile applications (Apps): a systematic review and scoring using the validated user version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (uMARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ahmed; Hellig, Julian C; Perera, Marlon; Bolton, Damien; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-12-08

    The use of mobile phone applications (Apps) has modernised the conventional practice of medicine. The diagnostic ability of the current Apps in prostate specific antigen monitoring, and its diagnostic ability within prostate cancer (PCa) risk calculators have not yet been appraised. We aimed to review, rate and assess the everyday functionality, and utility of all the currently available PCa risk calculator Apps. A systematic search on iTunes, Google Play Store, Blackberry World and Windows Apps Store, was performed on 23/11/2017, using the search term 'prostate cancer risk calculator'. After applying the exclusion criteria, each App was individually assessed and rated using pre-set criteria and grading was performed using the validated uMARS scale. In total, 83 Apps were retrieved. After applying our exclusion criteria, only 9 Apps were relevant, with 2 duplicated, and the remaining 7 were suitable for critical review. Data sizes ranged from 414 kb to 10.1 Mb. The cost of the Apps ranged from South African rand (ZAR) 0.00 to ZAR 29.99. The overall mean category uMARS scores ranged from 2.8/5 to 4.5/5. Apps such as Rotterdam Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator, Coral-Prostate Cancer Nomogram Calculator and CPC Risk Calculator, performed the best. The current PCa risk calculator mobile Apps available may be beneficial in counselling the concerned at risk patient. These Apps have potential to assist both the patient and the urologist alike. The PCa risk calculator App 'predictability' may be further enhanced by the incorporation of newly validated risk factors and predictors for PCa.

  5. Linking Physical and Mental Health Summary Scores from the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) to the PROMIS(®) Global Health Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalet, Benjamin D; Rothrock, Nan E; Hays, Ron D; Kazis, Lewis E; Cook, Karon F; Rutsohn, Joshua P; Cella, David

    2015-10-01

    Global health measures represent an attractive option for researchers and clinicians seeking a brief snapshot of a patient's overall perspective on his or her health. Because scores on different global health measures are not comparable, comparative effectiveness research (CER) is challenging. To establish a common reporting metric so that the physical and mental health scores on the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12 (©) ) can be converted into scores on the corresponding Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) Global Health scores. Following a single-sample linking design, participants from an Internet panel completed items from the PROMIS Global Health and VR-12 Health Survey. A common metric was created using analyses based on item response theory (IRT), producing score cross-walk tables for the mental and physical health components of each measure. The linking relationships were evaluated by calculating the standard deviation of differences between the observed and linked PROMIS scores and estimating confidence intervals by sample size. Participants (N = 2025) were 49 % male and 73 % white; mean age was 46 years. Mental and physical health subscales of the PROMIS Global Health and the VR-12. The mean VR-12 physical component and mental component scores were 45.2 and 46.6, respectively; the mean PROMIS physical and mental health scores were 48.3 and 48.5, respectively. We found evidence that the combined set of VR-12 and PROMIS items were relatively unidimensional and that we could proceed with linking. Linking worked better between the physical health than mental health scores using VR-12 item responses (vs. linking based on algorithmic scores). For each of the cross-walks, users can minimize the impact of linking error with modest increases in sample sizes. VR-12 scores can be expressed on the PROMIS Global Health metric to facilitate the evaluation of treatment, including CER. Extending these results to other common

  6. Comparison of a Novel Organic-Fluid Thermofluidic Heat Converter and an Organic Rankine Cycle Heat Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph J.W. Kirmse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Up-THERM heat converter is an unsteady, two-phase thermofluidic oscillator that employs an organic working fluid, which is currently being considered as a prime-mover in small- to medium-scale combined heat and power (CHP applications. In this paper, the Up-THERM heat converter is compared to a basic (sub-critical, non-regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC heat engine with respect to their power outputs, thermal efficiencies and exergy efficiencies, as well as their capital and specific costs. The study focuses on a pre-specified Up-THERM design in a selected application, a heat-source temperature range from 210 °C to 500 °C and five different working fluids (three n-alkanes and two refrigerants. A modeling methodology is developed that allows the above thermo-economic performance indicators to be estimated for the two power-generation systems. For the chosen applications, the power output of the ORC engine is generally higher than that of the Up-THERM heat converter. However, the capital costs of the Up-THERM heat converter are lower than those of the ORC engine. Although the specific costs (£/kW of the ORC engine are lower than those of the Up-THERM converter at low heat-source temperatures, the two systems become progressively comparable at higher temperatures, with the Up-THERM heat converter attaining a considerably lower specific cost at the highest heat-source temperatures considered.

  7. Selection and optimization of pure and mixed working fluids for low grade heat utilization using organic Rankine cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Larsen, Ulrik; Knudsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic methodology for organic Rankine cycle optimization, where the working fluid is included as an optimization parameter, in order to maximize the net power output of the cycle. The method is applied on two optimization cases with hot fluid inlet temperatures at 120°C and 90°C. P...

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations...

  9. Multi-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycle power plants using pure and mixed working fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermalphase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cyclepower plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers whenthe...... mixturesare usually degraded compared to an ideal mixture heat transfer coefficient linearly interpolatedbetween the pure fluid values. This entails a need for larger and more expensive heat exchangers. Previousstudies primarily focus on the thermodynamic benefits of zeotropic mixtures by employing firstand...... second law analyses. In order to assess the feasibility of using zeotropic mixtures, it is, however,important to consider the additional costs of the heat exchangers. In this study, we aim at evaluatingthe economic feasibility of zeotropic mixtures compared to pure fluids. We carry out a multi...

  10. Working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycles - Impact of uncertainty of fluid properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a generic methodology to select working fluids for ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles)taking into account property uncertainties of the working fluids. A Monte Carlo procedure is described as a tool to propagate the influence of the input uncertainty of the fluid parameters on the ORC...... modeloutput, and provides the 95%-confidence interval of the net power output with respect to the fluid property uncertainties. The methodology has been applied to a molecular design problem for an ORCusing a low-temperature heat source and consisted of the following four parts: 1) formulation...... of processmodels and constraints 2) selection of property models, i.e. Penge Robinson equation of state 3)screening of 1965 possible working fluid candidates including identification of optimal process parametersbased on Monte Carlo sampling 4) propagating uncertainty of fluid parameters to the ORC netpower output...

  11. Parametric theoretical study of a two-stage solar organic Rankine cycle for RO desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmadakis, G.; Manolakos, D.; Papadakis, G. [Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, 11855 Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    The present work concerns the parametric study of an autonomous, two-stage solar organic Rankine cycle for RO desalination. The main goal of the current simulation is to estimate the efficiency, as well as to calculate the annual mechanical energy available for desalination in the considered cases, in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters on the performance of the system. The parametric study concerns the variation of different parameters, without changing actually the baseline case. The effect of the collectors' slope and the total number of evacuated tube collectors used, have been extensively examined. The total cost is also taken into consideration and is calculated for the different cases examined, along with the specific fresh water cost (EUR/m{sup 3}). (author)

  12. Comparative investigation of working fluids for an organic Rankine cycle with geothermal water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Na; Xiao, Song

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the thermodynamic investigation on the use of geothermal water (130 °C as maximum) for power generation through a basic Rankine has been presented together with obtained main results. Six typical organic working fluids (i.e., R245fa, R141b, R290, R600, R152a, and 134a) were studied with modifying the input pressure and temperature to the turbine. The results show that there are no significant changes taking place in the efficiency for these working fluids with overheating the inlet fluid to the turbine, i.e., efficiency is a weak function of temperature. However, with the increasing of pressure ratio in the turbine, the efficiency rises more sharply. The technical viability is shown of implementing this type of process for recovering low temperature heat resource.

  13. Effectiveness of Operation of Organic Rankine Cycle Installation Applied in the Liquid Natural Gas Regasification Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, R.; Stachel, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    An analysis of the operation of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) installation heated by a low-temperature heat source is presented for the case where a condenser of a working fluid is cooled by a liquid of ultralow temperature. For this purpose, the process of regasification of liquid natural gas (LNG) is considered. In the process, the condensation heat of the working fluid in ORC is taken by the LNG evaporating subsequently (i.e., undergoing regasification). The paper presents the schematic of this installation and its application, as well as the results of calculations on the basis of the analysis in terms of the power and efficiency. In the analysis, organic fluids used in the ORC as working ones have been selected.

  14. Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems with Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a linear active disturbance rejection controller is proposed for a waste heat recovery system using an organic Rankine cycle process, whose model is obtained by applying the system identification technique. The disturbances imposed on the waste heat recovery system are estimated through an extended linear state observer and then compensated by a linear feedback control strategy. The proposed control strategy is applied to a 100 kW waste heat recovery system to handle the power demand variations of grid and process disturbances. The effectiveness of this controller is verified via a simulation study, and the results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can provide satisfactory tracking performance and disturbance rejection.

  15. Draft report: application of organic Rankine cycle heat recovery systems to diesel powered marine vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-15

    The analysis and results of an investigation of the application of organic Rankine cycle heat recovery systems to diesel-powered marine vessels are described. The program under which this study was conducted was sponsored jointly by the US Energy Research and Development Administration, the US Navy, and the US Maritime Administration. The overall objective of this study was to investigate diesel bottoming energy recovery systems, currently under development by three US concerns, to determine the potential for application to marine diesel propulsion and auxiliary systems. The study primarily focused on identifying the most promising vessel applications (considering vessel type, size, population density, operational duty cycle, etc.) so the relative economic and fuel conservation merits of energy recovery systems could be determined and assessed. Vessels in the current fleet and the projected 1985 fleet rated at 1000 BHP class and above were investigated.

  16. Thermal Stability of Hexamethyldisiloxane (MM for High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Preißinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC units for the usage of industrial waste heat at high temperatures requires direct contact evaporators without intermediate thermal oil circuits. Therefore, the thermal stability of high-temperature working fluids gains importance. In this study, the thermal degradation of hexamethyldisiloxane (MM is investigated in an electrically heated tube. Qualitative results concerning remarks on degradation products as well as quantitative results like the annual degradation rate are presented. It is shown that MM is stable up to a temperature of 300 °C with annual degradation rates of less than 3.5%. Furthermore, the break of a silicon–carbon bond can be a main chemical reaction that influences the thermal degradation. Finally, it is discussed how the results may impact the future design of ORC units.

  17. Rankine cycle condenser pressure control using an energy conversion device bypass valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C; Nelson, Christopher R; Zigan, James A

    2014-04-01

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system and method in which pressure in a Rankine cycle (RC) system of the WHR system is regulated by diverting working fluid from entering an inlet of an energy conversion device of the RC system. In the system, an inlet of a controllable bypass valve is fluidly coupled to a working fluid path upstream of an energy conversion device of the RC system, and an outlet of the bypass valve is fluidly coupled to the working fluid path upstream of the condenser of the RC system such that working fluid passing through the bypass valve bypasses the energy conversion device and increases the pressure in a condenser. A controller determines the temperature and pressure of the working fluid and controls the bypass valve to regulate pressure in the condenser.

  18. Organic Rankine cycle unit for waste heat recovery on ships (PilotORC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    The project PilotORC was aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the use of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units to recover low-temperature waste heat sources (i.e. exhaust gases, scavenge air, engine cooling system, and lubricant oil system) on container vessels. The project...... included numerical simulations and experimental tests on a 125 kW demonstration ORC unit that utilizes the waste heat of the main engine cooling system on board one of Mærsk's container vessels. During the design of the demonstration ORC unit, different alternatives for the condenser were analyzed in order...... to minimize the size of the heat exchanger area. Later on the ORC unit was successfully installed on board, and it has been working uninterruptedly since, demonstrating the matureness of the ORC technology for maritime applications. During the onboard testing, additional measuring devices were installed...

  19. Recent research trends in organic Rankine cycle technology: A bibliometric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Haglind, Fredrik; Asim, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Expanded. Different aspects of the publications were analyzed, such as publication type, major research areas, journals, citations, authorship pattern, affiliations as well as the keyword occurrence frequency. The impact factor, h-index and number of citations were used to investigate the strength...... of active countries, institutes, authors, and journals in the organic Rankine cycle technology field. From 2000 to 2016, there were 2120 articles published by 3443 authors from 997 research institutes scattered over 71 countries. The total number of citations and impact factor are 36,739 and 4597......, respectively, corresponding to 17 citations per paper and an impact factor of 2.168 per publication. The research articles originate primarily from China, the USA, and European countries. Results indicate that China, the United States, Italy, Greece, Belgium, Spain, Germany and the United Kingdom...

  20. Control system to a Rankine cycle with a Tesla turbine using arduino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Josenei G., E-mail: joseneigodoi@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Lamartine F.; Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (ENU/IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The thermal Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat in energy. This cycle occurs in steady state, in other words the cycle is a closed loop circuit with continuous feedback, which guarantees the reuse process one energy transformed in the various stages of the cycle. This cycle is used to drive a turbine type TESLA designed for the system. The objective of this work is to create the control and automation of this cycle using an micro-controlled system with Arduino that will hold the collection of sensors and the system will act to maintain the balance of the cycle causing it to behave continuously and with less interference from human operation for maintenance. Data will be collected and further processed, where it will display all the sensors and the situation of the actuators involved. Using Arduino system ensures the stability and reliability with a low cost of implementation.

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle with a Rankine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas (NG). A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel while a pre-reformer breaks down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel...... enters then into the anode side of the SOFC. The remaining fuels after the SOFC stacks enter a burner for further burning. The off-gases are then used to produce steam for a Rankine cycle in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). Different system setups are suggested. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67......% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional Combined Cycles (CC). Both ASR (Adiabatic Steam Reformer) and CPO (Catalytic Partial Oxidation) fuel pre-reformer reactors are considered in this investigation....

  2. Computer modeling of a regenerative solar-assisted Rankine power cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed interpretation of the computer program that describes the performance of one of these cycles; namely, a regenerative Rankine power cycle is presented. Water is used as the working medium throughout the cycle. The solar energy collected at relatively low temperature level presents 75 to 80% of the total heat demand and provides mainly the latent heat of vaporization. Another energy source at high temperature level superheats the steam and supplements the solar energy share. A program summary and a numerical example showing the sequency of computations are included. The outcome from the model comprises line temperatures, component heat rates, specific steam consumption, percentage of solar energy contribution, and the overall thermal efficiency.

  3. Comparison Between the Original and Shortened Versions of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in Ischemic Stroke Patients of Intermediate Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun Fan; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Wong, K S Lawrence; Chen, Christopher L H

    2016-01-01

    The 15-item National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) has been critiqued for its complexity and variability, and shortened versions have been proposed. This study aimed to compare the measurement properties of the original version with 3 shortened versions with 11, 8, and 5 items, respectively. Analyses were performed using data from an international, double-blind randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of MLC601 on stroke recovery in patients with ischemic stroke of intermediate severity (Chinese Medicine Neuroaid Efficacy on Stroke recovery [CHIMES]). To compare discriminative ability and responsiveness to change, the effect sizes of the NIHSS scores in relation to modified Rankin Scale, mini-mental status examination, and Barthel index were estimated using regression analysis. For both discriminative ability and responsiveness to change, the original version exhibited a larger effect size (0.55 and 0.84) in relation to modified Rankin Scale than the other 3 shortened versions (0.35-0.46 and 0.74-0.78). The original 15-item NIHSS retained information that made it more discriminative and responsive to change than the shortened versions. We recommend future clinical researchers to use the full version NIHSS to evaluate patients' stroke severity. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00554723. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Adverse drug reaction prediction using scores produced by large-scale drug-protein target docking on high-performance computing machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiago X LaBute

    Full Text Available Late-stage or post-market identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs is a significant public health issue and a source of major economic liability for drug development. Thus, reliable in silico screening of drug candidates for possible ADRs would be advantageous. In this work, we introduce a computational approach that predicts ADRs by combining the results of molecular docking and leverages known ADR information from DrugBank and SIDER. We employed a recently parallelized version of AutoDock Vina (VinaLC to dock 906 small molecule drugs to a virtual panel of 409 DrugBank protein targets. L1-regularized logistic regression models were trained on the resulting docking scores of a 560 compound subset from the initial 906 compounds to predict 85 side effects, grouped into 10 ADR phenotype groups. Only 21% (87 out of 409 of the drug-protein binding features involve known targets of the drug subset, providing a significant probe of off-target effects. As a control, associations of this drug subset with the 555 annotated targets of these compounds, as reported in DrugBank, were used as features to train a separate group of models. The Vina off-target models and the DrugBank on-target models yielded comparable median area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curves (AUCs during 10-fold cross-validation (0.60-0.69 and 0.61-0.74, respectively. Evidence was found in the PubMed literature to support several putative ADR-protein associations identified by our analysis. Among them, several associations between neoplasm-related ADRs and known tumor suppressor and tumor invasiveness marker proteins were found. A dual role for interstitial collagenase in both neoplasms and aneurysm formation was also identified. These associations all involve off-target proteins and could not have been found using available drug/on-target interaction data. This study illustrates a path forward to comprehensive ADR virtual screening that can potentially scale with

  5. Adverse drug reaction prediction using scores produced by large-scale drug-protein target docking on high-performance computing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBute, Montiago X; Zhang, Xiaohua; Lenderman, Jason; Bennion, Brian J; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-01-01

    Late-stage or post-market identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a significant public health issue and a source of major economic liability for drug development. Thus, reliable in silico screening of drug candidates for possible ADRs would be advantageous. In this work, we introduce a computational approach that predicts ADRs by combining the results of molecular docking and leverages known ADR information from DrugBank and SIDER. We employed a recently parallelized version of AutoDock Vina (VinaLC) to dock 906 small molecule drugs to a virtual panel of 409 DrugBank protein targets. L1-regularized logistic regression models were trained on the resulting docking scores of a 560 compound subset from the initial 906 compounds to predict 85 side effects, grouped into 10 ADR phenotype groups. Only 21% (87 out of 409) of the drug-protein binding features involve known targets of the drug subset, providing a significant probe of off-target effects. As a control, associations of this drug subset with the 555 annotated targets of these compounds, as reported in DrugBank, were used as features to train a separate group of models. The Vina off-target models and the DrugBank on-target models yielded comparable median area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curves (AUCs) during 10-fold cross-validation (0.60-0.69 and 0.61-0.74, respectively). Evidence was found in the PubMed literature to support several putative ADR-protein associations identified by our analysis. Among them, several associations between neoplasm-related ADRs and known tumor suppressor and tumor invasiveness marker proteins were found. A dual role for interstitial collagenase in both neoplasms and aneurysm formation was also identified. These associations all involve off-target proteins and could not have been found using available drug/on-target interaction data. This study illustrates a path forward to comprehensive ADR virtual screening that can potentially scale with increasing number

  6. Analysis and optimization of the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M. [Dpto. Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Civil e Industrial, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avda, Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Solar thermal driven reverse osmosis desalination is a promising renewable energy-driven desalination technology. A joint use of the solar thermal powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and the desalination technology of less energy consumption, reverse osmosis (RO), makes this combination interesting in some scarce water resource scenarios. However, prior to any practical experience with any new process, a comprehensive and rigorous theoretical study must be done in order to assess the performance of the new technology or combination of existing technologies. The main objective of the present paper is the expansion of the theoretical analysis done by the authors in previous works to the case in which the thermal energy required by a solar ORC is supplied by means of stationary solar collectors. Twelve substances are considered as working fluids of the ORC and four different models of stationary solar collectors (flat plate collectors, compound parabolic collectors and evacuated tube collectors) are also taken into account. Operating conditions of the solar ORC that minimizes the aperture area needed per unit of mechanical power output of the solar cycle are determined for every working fluid and every solar collector. The former is done considering a direct vapour generation configuration of the solar cycle and also the configuration with water as heat transfer fluid flowing inside the solar collector. This work is part of the theoretical analysis of the solar thermal driven seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination technology. Nevertheless, the supplied information can be also used for the assessment of different applications of the solar ORC. In that case, results presented in this paper can be useful in techno-economic analysis, selection of working fluids of the Rankine cycle, sizing of systems and assessment of solar power cycle configuration. (author)

  7. A Study on the Direct and Indirect Costs of Multiple Sclerosis Based on Expanded Disability Status Scale Score in Khuzestan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Torabipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Cost mean per MS patients was relatively high. Furthermore, the results showed that cost of disease had positive and significant relationships with EDSS score that is, progression of disability increase costs of patients.

  8. Scores on the MMPI-2-RF scales as a function of increasing levels of failure on cognitive symptom validity tests in a military sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alvin; Ingram, M Victoria; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2012-01-01

    This research examined associations between the full range of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) validity and substantive scales and increasing levels of cognitive symptom validity test (SVT) failure in a sample of 501 military members who completed a neuropsychological evaluation primarily for mild traumatic brain injury resulting from a closed head injury and blast exposure or heat injury. SVT failure was associated with significant linear increases in all of the over-reporting MMPI-2-RF validity scales and most of the substantive scales. For the validity scales, all over-reporting scales had large effect sizes (ESs) when comparing a group that failed no SVTs with a group that failed three SVTs. A comparison between these two groups for the substantive scales revealed the largest ESs for scales related to somatic/cognitive complaints and emotional dysfunction. RBS (Response Bias Scale) had the largest ES of all scales (d = 1.69), followed by FBS-r (Symptom Validity Scale; d = 1.34), AXY (Anxiety, d = 1.21), and COG (Cognitive Complaints, d = 1.19). The scales related to behavioral dysfunction had the smallest ESs of all of the substantive scales, and there were no significant associations between the vast majority of these scales and SVT failure. With respect to clinically significant elevations, those who did not fail SVTs had clinically significant elevations only on COG and NUC (Neurological Complaints), and MLS (Malaise) approached clinical significance. For those who failed SVTs, RBS was the only over-reporting scale that was elevated across all failure groups. Those who failed any SVT had clinically significant elevations on COG, MLS, NUC, and AXY. Those who failed three SVTs had additional elevations on scales related to emotional dysfunction.

  9. Carga de trabajo en tres grupos de pacientes de UCI Española según el Nursing Activities Score Carga de trabalho em três grupos de pacientes em uma UTI espanhola segundo Nursing Activites Score Assessment of nursing workload in three groups of patients in a Spanish ICU using the Nursing Activities Score Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Carmona-Monge

    2013-04-01

    diferentes grupos de pacientes que passam com mais frequência pelas unidades de cuidados intensivos.The purpose of this study was to assess the nursing workload at admission to and discharge from intensive care of three groups of patients (i.e., acute coronary syndrome, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis. A prospective, descriptive study was performed over a 27-month period and included 563 patients. The workload was assessed using the Nursing Activities Score scale. Significant differences in the workload were determined on the days of admission and discharge: the workload was higher in both cases for patients with acute respiratory failure and sepsis compared with patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome. This difference was maintained over the first seven days of their hospital stay. From day 8 on, the difference disappeared, and a workload balance was achieved in the three groups. Good staffing requires adequate tools for measuring care needs and understanding the workload required in the groups of patients who are most frequently admitted to intensive care.

  10. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured.

  11. A comparison of global rating scale and checklist scores in the validation of an evaluation tool to assess performance in the resuscitation of critically ill patients during simulated emergencies (abbreviated as "CRM simulator study IB").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John; Neilipovitz, David; Cardinal, Pierre; Chiu, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Crisis resource management (CRM) skills are a set of nonmedical skills required to manage medical emergencies. There is currently no gold standard for evaluation of CRM performance. A prior study examined the use of a global rating scale (GRS) to evaluate CRM performance. This current study compared the use of a GRS and a checklist as formal rating instruments to evaluate CRM performance during simulated emergencies. First-year and third-year residents participated in two simulator scenarios each. Three raters then evaluated resident performance in CRM using edited video recordings using both a GRS and a checklist. The Ottawa GRS provides a seven-point anchored ordinal scale for performance in five categories of CRM, and an overall performance score. The Ottawa CRM checklist provides 12 items in the five categories of CRM, with a maximum cumulative score of 30 points. Construct validity was measured on the basis of content validity, response process, internal structure, and response to other variables. T-test analysis of Ottawa GRS scores was conducted to examine response to the variable of level of training. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) scores were used to measure inter-rater reliability for both scenarios. Thirty-two first-year and 28 third-year residents participated in the study. Third-year residents produced higher mean scores for overall CRM performance than first-year residents (P CRM checklist (P CRM checklist. Users indicated a strong preference for the Ottawa GRS given ease of scoring, presence of an overall score, and the potential for formative evaluation. Construct validity seems to be present when using both the Ottawa GRS and CRM checklist to evaluate CRM performance during simulated emergencies. Data also indicate the presence of moderate inter-rater reliability when using both the Ottawa GRS and CRM checklist.

  12. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lilian A Y; Caromano, Fátima A; Assis, Silvana M B; Hukuda, Michele E; Voos, Mariana C; Carvalho, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA) of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD); age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS), and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004) and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001) and TA for this task (r=0.83, pDMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032), VS (r=0.65, p=0.002) and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034). These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  13. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lilian A. Y.; Caromano, Fátima A.; Assis, Silvana M. B.; Hukuda, Michele E.; Voos, Mariana C.; Carvalho, Eduardo V.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA) of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD); age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS), and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004) and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001) and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001). There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032), VS (r=0.65, p=0.002) and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information. PMID:25590443

  14. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A. Y. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD; age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS, and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004 and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001 and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001. There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032, VS (r=0.65, p=0.002 and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  15. Lord-Wingersky Algorithm Version 2.0 for Hierarchical Item Factor Models with Applications in Test Scoring, Scale Alignment, and Model Fit Testing. CRESST Report 830

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lord and Wingersky's (1984) recursive algorithm for creating summed score based likelihoods and posteriors has a proven track record in unidimensional item response theory (IRT) applications. Extending the recursive algorithm to handle multidimensionality is relatively simple, especially with fixed quadrature because the recursions can be defined…

  16. The effect of rater training on scoring performance and scale-specific expertise amongst occupational therapists participating in a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Elholm Madsen, Esben; Sørensen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    ' competency. The training programme could be used in undergraduate and postgraduate dysphagia education initiatives to help OTs understanding of the content and the scoring criteria for each aspect of occupational performance during a meal, thus developing observation skills as well as recognizing...

  17. [Religious/spiritual well-being in mentally ill persons II: the development of a short scale and comparison scores for clinical psychiatric groups and healthy controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB) was successfully applied in several clinical as well as non-clinical studies. However, the original version of the scale often showed to be as too comprehensive especially for clinical surroundings. There for the aim of this study is to develop a short version of the scale comprising 12 items. Based on a sample representative of the Austrian general population (N = 1,500), a first MI-RSWB short version is developed by means of factor- and reliability analysis. Furthermore the new short version of the scale is initially validated through several indicators of mental illness. The MI-RSWB short version shows convincing psychometric properties. The total scale as well as the sub scales exhibit at least a sufficient internal consistency. A significant negative association with several indicators of psychiatric illness is also confirmed for the short version of the scale. The MI-RWSB 12 scale is especially recommended for further research focusing on the clinical relevance of religiosity and spirituality.

  18. Correlations of scores on the Gifted Evaluation Scale with those on WISC-III and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test for students referred for Gifted Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, E M; Folino, L

    1994-04-01

    29 students (M age of 8.0 yr.) who were referred for evaluation were administered the Gifted Evaluation Scale, the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, and the WISC-III. Paired t tests comparing the mean GES Quotient with the K-BIT mean IQ and WISC-III Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQs yielded no statistically significant differences (range of IQs = 120.6 to 122.9). While the significant correlation of the GES Quotient and WISC-III Performance IQ was .42, r = -.37 for the GES Quotient and WISC-III Verbal IQ. No significant correlation was found between the GES Quotient and the WISC-III Full Scale or K-BIT IQs. The limitations and implications of the study, with regard to the use of the Gifted Evaluation Scale, are discussed.

  19. Exergy and economic analysis of organic rankine cycle hybrid system utilizing biogas and solar energy in rural area of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Zheng, Siyu; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Due to the existing huge biogas resource in the rural area of China, biogas is widely used for production and living. Cogeneration system provides an opportunity to realize the balanced utilization of the renewable energy such as biogas and solar energy. This paper presented a numerical...... investigation of a hybrid energy-driven organic Rankine cycle (ORC) cogeneration system, involving a solar organic Rankine cycle and a biogas boiler. The biogas boiler with a module of solar Parabolic-Trough Collectors (PTC) is employed to provide heat source to the ORC via two distinct intermediate pressurized...... circuits. The cogeneration supplied the power to the air-condition in summer condition and hot water, which is heated in the condenser, in winter condition. The system performance under the subcritical pressures has been assessed according to the energy-exergy and economic analysis with the organic working...

  20. Radial turbine expander design for organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery in high efficiency, off-highway vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Alshammari, F.; Karvountzis-Kontakiotis, A; Pesiridis, A

    2016-01-01

    Although state-of-the-art, heavy duty diesel engines of today can reach peak thermal efficiencies of approximately 45%, still most of the fuel energy is transformed into wasted heat in the internal combustion process. Recovering this wasted energy could increase the overall thermal efficiency of the engine as well as reduce the exhaust gas emissions. Compared to other Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) technologies, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems are regarded favourably due to their relative simp...

  1. Part-Load Performance of a Wet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Pierobon; Tuong-Van Nguyen; Andrea Mazzucco; Ulrik Larsen; Fredrik Haglind

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT) fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable worki...

  2. Modelling of organic Rankine cycle power systems in off-design conditions: an experimentally-validated comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dickes, Rémi; Dumont, Olivier; Daccord, Rémi; Quoilin, Sylvain; Lemort, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Because of environmental issues and the depletion of fossil fuels, the world energy sector is undergoing many changes toward increased sustainability. Among the many fields of research and development, power generation from low-grade heat sources is gaining interest and the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is seen as one of the most promising technologies for such applications. In this paper, it is proposed to perform an experimentally-validated comparison of different modelling methods for the of...

  3. Bayesian Zero-Failure (BAZE) reliability demonstration testing procedure and its application to a Rankine dynamic radioisotope power conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H.F. Jr.; Waller, R.A.

    1976-07-01

    A Bayesian Zero-Failure (BAZE) reliability demonstration testing procedure is developed. The procedure may be used to verify component failure rates associated with both real-time dependent and cycle-dependent chance failure mechanisms. A constant falure-rate model with a gamma prior distribution is assumed. The procedure is used to obtain sample test plans for components of a proposed Rankine power conversion system.

  4. Test results of an organic Rankine-cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    The organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power conversion assembly was tested. Qualification testing of the electrical transport subsystem was also completed. Test objectives were to verify compatibility of all system elements with emphasis on control of the power conversion assembly, to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the components, and to validate operating procedures. After 34 hours of power generation under a wide range of conditions, the net module efficiency exceeded 18% after accounting for all parasitic losses.

  5. Performance of Siloxane Mixtures in a High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle Considering the Heat Transfer Characteristics during Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Weith; Florian Heberle; Markus Preißinger; Dieter Brüggemann

    2014-01-01

    The application of the Organic Rankine Cycle to high temperature heat sources is investigated on the case study of waste heat recovery from a selected biogas plant. Two different modes of operation are distinguished: pure electric power and combined heat and power generation. The siloxanes hexamethyldisiloxane (MM) and octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM) are chosen as working fluids. Moreover, the effect of using mixtures of these components is analysed. Regarding pure electricity generation, process...

  6. Organic Rankine cycle – review and research directions in engine applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panesar Angad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat to power conversion using Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC is expected to play an important role in CO2 reductions from diesel engines. Firstly, a review of automotive ORCs is presented focusing on the pure working fluids, thermal architectures and expanders. The discussion includes, but is not limited to: R245fa, ethanol and water as fluids; series, parallel and cascade as architectures; dry saturated, superheated and supercritical as expansion conditions; and scroll, radial turbine and piston as expansion machines. Secondly, research direction in versatile expander and holistic architecture (NOx + CO2 are proposed. Benefits of using the proposed unconventional approaches are quantified using Ricardo Wave and Aspen HYSYS for diesel engine and ORC modelling. Results indicate that, the implementation of versatile piston expander tolerant to two-phase and using cyclopentane can potentially increase the highway drive cycle power by 8%. Furthermore, holistic architecture offering complete utilisation of charge air and exhaust recirculation heat increased the performance noticeably to 5% of engine power at the design point condition.

  7. Exergetic Analysis of an Integrated Tri-Generation Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratha Z. Mathkor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output of the system that comprised a parabolic trough collector (PTC, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC, single-effect desalination (SED, and single effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (ACH was electrical power, distilled water, and refrigerant load. The electrical power was produced by the ORC which used cyclopentane as working fluid and Therminol VP-1 was specified as the heat transfer oil (HTO in the collectors with thermal storage. The absorption chiller and the desalination unit were utilize the waste heat exiting from the steam turbine in the ORC to provide the necessary cooling energy and drinking water respectively. The modelling, which includes an exergetic analysis, focuses on the performance of the solar tri-generation system. The simulation results of the tri-generation system and its subsystems were produced using IPSEpro software and were validated against experimental data which showed good agreement. The tri-generation system was able to produce about 194 Ton of refrigeration, and 234 t/day distilled water.

  8. Organic Rankine kilowatt isotope power system. First annual summary report, August 1, 1975--August 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Sundstrand Energy Systems is developing a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980's. The KIPS is a plutonium oxide fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W(e) with a minimum of system changes. Research progress is reported on Phase I comprising: (1) flight system conceptual design and ground demonstration; (2) flight system design and ground qualification; and (3) flight system production, acceptance testing and delivery. The principal objectives of Phase I are to: (1) conceptually design the flight system, (2) based on the flight system concept, design and build the ground demonstration system (GDS), (3) conduct performance and endurance testing using electric heaters to simulate the radioisotope heat source, (4) identify and initiate long lead development efforts required to achieve the initial flight qualification hardware availability date of April 1981, and (5) finalize the flight concept design and prepare the program plan for the Phase II effort.

  9. Energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on solid oxide fuel cell and organic Rankine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Hamdullahpur, Feridun [Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is conducted. The physical and thermodynamic elements of the plant include an SOFC, an ORC, a heat exchanger for the heating process and a single-effect absorption chiller for cooling. The results obtained from this study show that there is at least a 22% gain in efficiency using the trigeneration plant compared with the power cycle (SOFC and ORC). The study also shows that the maximum efficiency of the trigeneration plant is 74%, heating cogeneration is 71%, cooling cogeneration is 57% and net electricity is 46%. Furthermore, it is found that the highest net power output that can be provided by the trigeneration plant considered in this study is 540 kW and, the highest SOFC-AC power is 520 kW. The study reveals that the inlet pressure of the turbine has an insignificant effect on the efficiency. The study also examines the effect of both the SOFC current density and the SOFC inlet flow temperature on the cell voltage and voltage loss. (author)

  10. Numerical computation of motions and structural loads for large containership using 3D Rankine panel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yonghwan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present the results of our numerical seakeeping analyses of a 6750-TEU containership, which were subjected to the benchmark test of the 2nd ITTC-ISSC Joint Workshop held in 2014. We performed the seakeeping analyses using three different methods based on a 3D Rankine panel method, including 1) a rigid-body solver, 2) a flexible-body solver using a beam model, and 3) a flexible-body solver using the eigenvectors of a 3D Finite Element Model (FEM). The flexible-body solvers adopt a fully coupled approach between the fluid and structure. We consider the nonlinear Froude-Krylov and restoring forces using a weakly nonlinear approach. In addition, we calculate the slamming loads on the bow flare and stern using a 2D generalized Wagner model. We compare the numerical and experimental results in terms of the linear response, the time series of the nonlinear response, and the longitudinal distribution of the sagging and hogging moments. The flexible-body solvers show good agreement with the experimental model with respect to both the linear and nonlinear results, including the high-frequency oscillations due to springing and whipping vibrations. The rigid-body solver gives similar results except for the springing and whipping.

  11. Performance analysis of an organic Rankine cycle with internal heat exchanger having zeotropic working fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranis Deethayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performance of a 50 kW organic Rankine cycle (ORC with internal heat exchanger (IHE having R245fa/R152a zeotropic refrigerant with various compositions was investigated. The IHE could reduce heat rate at the ORC evaporator and better cycle efficiency could be obtained. The zeotropic mixture could reduce the irreversibilities during the heat exchanges at the ORC evaporator and the ORC condenser due to its gliding temperature; thus the cycle working temperatures came closer to the temperatures of the heat source and the heat sink. In this paper, effects of evaporating temperature, mass fraction of R152a and effectiveness of internal heat exchanger on the ORC performances for the first law and the second law of thermodynamics were considered. The simulated results showed that reduction of R245fa composition could reduce the irreversibilities at the evaporator and the condenser. The suitable composition of R245fa was around 80% mass fraction and below this the irreversibilities were nearly steady. Higher evaporating temperature and higher internal heat exchanger effectiveness also increased the first law and second law efficiencies. A set of correlations to estimate the first and the second law efficiencies with the mass fraction of R245fa, the internal heat exchanger effectiveness and the evaporating temperature were also developed.

  12. Organic Rankine Cycle Analysis: Finding the Best Way to Utilize Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Chakroun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a type of power cyclethat uses organic substances such as hydrocarbons orrefrigerants as the working fluid. ORC technology is usedto generate electricity in waste heat recovery applications,because the available heat is not at a high enoughtemperature to operate with other types of cycles. Theoptimum amount of working fluid required for the cycle(i.e., optimum charge level was investigated. Three chargelevels (13, 15, and 18 lbm were tested, and their effect onefficiency and performance of the system was analyzed.The heat source for the fluid was waste steam from thePurdue Power Plant, which had an average temperatureof 120oC. Regular city tap water at a temperature of 15oCwas used as the heat sink. For each charge level, multipletests were performed by measuring the temperaturesand pressures at all state points in the cycle, in order tounderstand any overarching patterns within the data.An important parameter that was analyzed is the 2nd lawefficiency. This efficiency is a measure of the effectivenessof the energy utilization compared to that of an idealcase. The peak efficiency increased from 24% to 27% asthe charge in the system decreased. Therefore, movingforward, this research suggests that a lower charge levelin the system will increase efficiency. However, testingbelow 13 lbm might cause mechanical complications inthe equipment as there may not be enough fluid to flowaround; thus, a compromise had to be made.

  13. Dynamic Simulation of an Organic Rankine Cycle—Detailed Model of a Kettle Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pili

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs are nowadays a valuable technology to produce electricity from low and medium temperature heat sources, e.g., in geothermal, biomass and waste heat recovery applications. Dynamic simulations can help improve the flexibility and operation of such plants, and guarantee a better economic performance. In this work, a dynamic model for a multi-pass kettle evaporator of a geothermal ORC power plant has been developed and its dynamics have been validated against measured data. The model combines the finite volume approach on the tube side and a two-volume cavity on the shell side. To validate the dynamic model, a positive and a negative step function in heat source flow rate is applied. The simulation model performed well in both cases. The liquid level appeared the most challenging quantity to simulate. A better agreement in temperature was achieved by increasing the volume flow rate of the geothermal brine by 2% over the entire simulation. Measurement errors, discrepancies in working fluid and thermal brine properties and uncertainties in heat transfer correlations can account for this. In the future, the entire geothermal power plant will be simulated, and suggestions to improve its dynamics and control by means of simulations will be provided.

  14. Simulation of a passive house coupled with a heat pump/organic Rankine cycle reversible unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Randaxhe, François

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of a passive house located in Denmark with a large solar absorber, a horizontal ground heat exchanger coupled with a HP/ORC unit. The HP/ORC reversible unit is a module able to work as an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) or as a heat pump (HP). There are 3 possible...... modes that need to be chosen optimally depending on the weather conditions, the heat demand and the temperature level of the storage. The ORC mode is activated, as long as the heat demand of the house is covered by the storage to produce electricity based upon the heat generated by the solar roof...... of the year in the Modelica language. A peak of 3.28 kW of power is reached in ORC mode with a heat input of 59.5 kW from the solar roof (23.9 kWh are produced during a typical summer day). In a representative winter day, 17.28 kWh are consumed by the heat pump with a daily average COP of 4.1. Conclusions...

  15. Comparison of different iterative schemes for ISPH based on Rankine source solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH method has a good adaptability for the simulation of free surface flow problems. There are two forms of SPH. One is weak compressible SPH and the other one is incompressible SPH (ISPH. Compared with the former one, ISPH method performs better in many cases. ISPH based on Rankine source solution can perform better than traditional ISPH, as it can use larger stepping length by avoiding the second order derivative in pressure Poisson equation. However, ISPH_R method needs to solve the sparse linear matrix for pressure Poisson equation, which is one of the most expensive parts during one time stepping calculation. Iterative methods are normally used for solving Poisson equation with large particle numbers. However, there are many iterative methods available and the question for using which one is still open. In this paper, three iterative methods, CGS, Bi-CGstab and GMRES are compared, which are suitable and typical for large unsymmetrical sparse matrix solutions. According to the numerical tests on different cases, still water test, dam breaking, violent tank sloshing, solitary wave slamming, the GMRES method is more efficient than CGS and Bi-CGstab for ISPH method.

  16. Organic Rankine-cycle power systems working fluids study: Topical report No. 2, Toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.L.; Demirgian, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    The US Department of Energy initiated an investigation at Argonne National Laboratory in 1982 to experimentally determine the thermal stability limits and degradation rates of toluene as a function of maximum cycle temperature. Following the design and construction of a dynamic test loop capable of closely simulating the thermodynamic conditions of typical organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power systems, four test runs, totaling about 3900 h of test time and covering a temperature range of 600-677(degree)F, were completed. Both liquid and noncondensable-vapor (gaseous) samples were drawn periodically and analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. A computer program that can predict degradation in an ORC engine was developed. Experimental results indicate that, if oxygen can be excluded from the system, toluene is a stable fluid up to the maximum test temperature; the charge of toluene could be used for several years before replacement became necessary. (Additional data provided by Sundstrand Corp. from tests sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration indicate that toluene may be used at temperatures up to 750(degree)F.) Degradation products are benign; the main liquid degradation products are bibenzyls, and the main gaseous degradation products are hydrogen and methane. A cold trap to remove gaseous degradation products from the condenser is necessary for extended operation. 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Corrections to the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Carlo; Yue, Yubei

    2014-12-01

    Several years ago, Carlo Cercignani and one of the authors in a paper (C. Cercignani, 2991) performed a mathe-matical analysis of the corrections to the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions due to the curvature of a shock front, using singular perturbation methods in order to "connect" the solutions to the the Boltzmann equation inside and outside the shock layer. It turned out that these corrections can be obtained at leading order by integrating appropriately the Boltzmann shock profile for a planar (one-dimensional in space) shock wave. However, they are entirely due to the spatially asymmetry of the shock, and they vanish if the shock is described using a simple bi-modal ansatz like the well-know Mott-Smith model. In the present work we extend and simplify the previous results, and then use a recently-developed deterministic (spectral) Boltzmann solver for a gas of hard-spheres in order to obtain accurate numerical values for the curvature corrections.

  18. Thermal analysis of a Phase Change Material for a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasiello, M.; Braimakis, K.; Andreozzi, A.; Karellas, S.

    2017-11-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising technology for low temperature power generation, for example for the utilization of medium temperature solar energy. Since heat generated from solar source is variable throughout the day, the implementation of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems to guarantee the continuous operation of solar ORCs is a critical task, and Phase Change Materials (PCM) rely on latent heat to store large amounts of energy. In the present study, a thermal analysis of a PCM for a solar ORC is carried out. Three different types of PCMs are analyzed. The energy equation for the PCM is modeled by using the heat capacity method, and it is solved by employing a 1Dexplicit finite difference scheme. The solar source is modeled with a time-variable temperature boundary condition, with experimental data taken from the literature for two different solar collectors. Results are presented in terms of temperature profiles and stored energy. It has been shown that the stored energy depends on the heat source temperature, on the employed PCM and on the boundary conditions. It has been demonstrated that the use of a metal foam can drastically enhance the stored energy due to the higher overall thermal conductivity.

  19. The simulation of organic rankine cycle power plant with n-pentane working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhilal, Otong; Mulyana, Cukup; Suhendi, Nendi; Sapdiana, Didi

    2016-02-01

    In the steam power plant in Indonesia the dry steam from separator directly used to drive the turbin. Meanwhile, brine from the separator with low grade temperature reinjected to the earth. The brine with low grade temperature can be converted indirectly to electrical power by organic Rankine cycle (ORC) methods. In ORC power plant the steam are released from vaporization of organic working fluid by brine. The steam released are used to drive an turbine which in connected to generator to convert the mechanical energy into electric energy. The objective of this research is the simulation ORC power plant with n-pentane as organic working fluid. The result of the simulation for brine temperature around 165°C and the pressure 8.001 bar optained the net electric power around 1173 kW with the cycle thermal efficiency 14.61% and the flow rate of n-pentane around 15.51 kg/s. This result enable to applied in any geothermal source in Indonesia.

  20. Thermo-Economic Evaluation of Organic Rankine Cycles for Geothermal Power Generation Using Zeotropic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic evaluation of binary power plants based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC for geothermal power generation. The focus of this study is to analyse if an efficiency increase by using zeotropic mixtures as working fluid overcompensates additional requirements regarding the major power plant components. The optimization approach is compared to systems with pure media. Based on process simulations, heat exchange equipment is designed and cost estimations are performed. For heat source temperatures between 100 and 180 °C selected zeotropic mixtures lead to an increase in second law efficiency of up to 20.6% compared to pure fluids. Especially for temperatures about 160 °C, mixtures like propane/isobutane, isobutane/isopentane, or R227ea/R245fa show lower electricity generation costs compared to the most efficient pure fluid. In case of a geothermal fluid temperature of 120 °C, R227ea and propane/isobutane are cost-efficient working fluids. The uncertainties regarding fluid properties of zeotropic mixtures, mainly affect the heat exchange surface. However, the influence on the determined economic parameter is marginal. In general, zeotropic mixtures are a promising approach to improve the economics of geothermal ORC systems. Additionally, the use of mixtures increases the spectrum of potential working fluids, which is important in context of present and future legal requirements considering fluorinated refrigerants.

  1. Reciprocating Expander for an Exhaust Heat Recovery Rankine Cycle for a Passenger Car Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoko Shonda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, on average, two thirds of the fuel energy consumed by an engine is wasted through the exhaust gases and the cooling liquid. The recovery of this energy would enable a substantial reduction in fuel consumption. One solution is to integrate a heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle. The key component in such a system is the expander, which has a strong impact on the system’s performance. A survey of different expander technologies leads us to select the reciprocating expander as the most promising one for an automotive application. This paper therefore proposes a steady-state semi-empirical model of the expander device developed under the Engineering Equation Solver (EES environment. The ambient and mechanical losses as well as internal leakage were taken into account by the model. By exploiting the expander manufacturer’s data, all the parameters of the expander model were identified. The model computes the mass flow rate, the power output delivered and the exhaust enthalpy of the steam. The maximum deviation between predictions and measurement data is 4.7%. A performance study of the expander is carried out and shows that the isentropic efficiency is quite high and increases with the expander rotary speed. The mechanical efficiency depends on mechanical losses which are quite high, approximately 90%. The volumetric efficiency was also evaluated.

  2. Evaluation of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle using dry organic working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to evaluate the performance of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The system was evaluated in Jackson, MS, using five dry organic working fluids, R218, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, and RC318. The purpose of this study is to investigate how hourly temperature change affects the electricity production and exergy destruction rates of the solar ORC, and to determine the effect of the working fluid on the proposed system. The system was also evaluated in Tucson, AZ, to investigate the effect of average hourly outdoor temperatures on its performance. The potential of the system to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is also investigated. A parametric analysis to determine how temperature and pressure of the organic working fluid, the solar collector area, and the turbine efficiency affect the electricity production is performed. Results show that the ORC produces the most electricity during the middle of the day, when the temperatures are the highest and when the solar collectors have the highest efficiency. Also, R-236ea is the working fluid that shows the best performance of the evaluated fluids. An economic analysis was performed to determine the capital cost available for the proposed system.

  3. Dual-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems using genetic algorithm: a comparison between basic and recuperative cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Nasir; Ameen, Muhammad Tahir; Tariq, Muhammad Kashif; Shah, Syed Nadeem Abbas; Naveed, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Exploitation of low potential waste thermal energy for useful net power output can be done by manipulating organic Rankine cycle systems. In the current article dual-objectives (η_{th} and SIC) optimization of ORC systems [basic organic Rankine cycle (BORC) and recuperative organic Rankine cycle (RORC)] has been done using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (II). Seven organic compounds (R-123, R-1234ze, R-152a, R-21, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in basic cycle and four dry compounds (R-123, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in recuperative cycle to investigate the behaviour of two systems and compare their performance. Sensitivity analyses show that recuperation boosts the thermodynamic behaviour of systems but it also raises specific investment cost significantly. R-21, R-245ca and R-601 show attractive performance in BORC whereas R-601 and R-236ea in RORC. RORC, due to higher total investment cost and operation & maintenance costs, has longer payback periods as compared to BORC.

  4. Part-Load Performance of aWet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pierobon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable working fluid for the organic Rankine process. This step enables to parametrize the part-load model of the plant and to estimate its performance at different power outputs. The novel plant has a nominal power of 250 kW and a thermal efficiency of 43%. The major irreversibilities take place in the burner, recuperator, compressor and in the condenser. Toluene is the optimal working fluid for the organic Rankine engine. The part-load investigation indicates that the plant can operate at high efficiencies over a wide range of power outputs (50%–100%, with a peak thermal efficiency of 45% at around 80% load. While the ORC turbogenerator is responsible for the efficiency drop at low capacities, the off-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit.

  5. A Comparative Exergoeconomic Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery from a Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor via Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Shokati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative exergoeconomic analysis is reported for waste heat recovery from a gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR using various configurations of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs for generating electricity. The ORC configurations studied are: a simple organic Rankine cycle (SORC, an ORC with an internal heat exchanger (HORC and a regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC. Exergoeconomic analyses are performed with the specific exergy costing (SPECO method. First, energy and exergy analyses are applied to the combined cycles. Then, a cost-balance, as well as auxiliary equations are developed for the components to determine the exergoeconomic parameters for the combined cycles and their components. The three combined cycles are compared considering the same operating conditions for the GT-MHR cycle, and a parametric study is done to reveal the effects on the exergoeconomic performance of the combined cycles of various significant parameters, e.g., turbine inlet and evaporator temperatures and compressor pressure ratio. The results show that the GT-MHR/RORC has the lowest unit cost of electricity generated by the ORC turbine. This value is highest for the GT-MHR/HORC. Furthermore, the GT-MHR/RORC has the highest and the GT-MHR/HORC has the lowest exergy destruction cost rate.

  6. Effect of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (RORC on the Performance of Solar Thermal Power in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalya Pikra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents effect of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (RORC on the performance of solar thermal power in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Solar thermal power is a plant that uses solar energy as heat source. Indonesia has high humidity level, so that parabolic trough is the most suitable type of solar thermal power technology to be developed, where the design is made with small focal distance. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a Rankine cycle that use organic fluid as working fluid to utilize low temperature heat sources. RORC is used to increase ORC performance. The analysis was done by comparing ORC system with and without regenerator addition. Refrigerant that be used in the analysis is R123. Preliminary data was taken from the solar collector system that has been installed in Yogyakarta. The analysis shows that with 36 m total parabolic length, the resulting solar collector capacity is 63 kW, heat input/evaporator capacity is determined 26.78 kW and turbine power is 3.11 kW for ORC, and 3.38 kW for RORC. ORC thermal efficiency is 11.28% and RORC is 12.26%. Overall electricity efficiency is 4.93% for ORC, and 5.36% for RORC. With 40°C condensing temperature and evaporation at 10 bar saturated condition, efficiency of RORC is higher than ORC. Greater evaporation temperature at the same pressure (10 bar provide greater turbine power and efficiency.

  7. Performance of a reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle unit coupled with a passive house to get a positive energy building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Fontaine, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    and generate electricity, coupled to a solar thermal collector roof. This reversible HP/organic Rankine cycle unit presents three operating modes: direct heating, HP and organic Rankine cycle. This work focuses on describing the dynamic model of the multi-component system followed by a techno-economic analysis......Wh/year and total electrical consumption of 2318 kWh/year) with a 138.8 m2 solar roof in Denmark....

  8. Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Preliminary Cut Scores to Support Data-Informed Decision Making in Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Cantwell, Emily Dawn; Schatschneider, Christopher; Menzies, Holly; Crittenden, Meredith; Messenger, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    We report findings of a convergent validity study examining the internalizing subscale (SRSS-I6) of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) with the internalizing subscale of the Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991). Participants included 227 sixth- through 12th-grade students from nine schools across…

  9. Bridging the Gap Between Large-scale Data Sets and Analyses: Semi-automated Methods to Facilitate Length Polymorphism Scoring and Data Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers can be developed more quickly and at a lower cost than microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism markers, which makes them ideal markers for large-scale studies of understudied taxa — such as species at risk. However,...

  10. Alkali Metal Rankine Cycle Boiler Technology Challenges and Some Potential Solutions for Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Alkali metal boilers are of interest for application to future space Rankine cycle power conversion systems. Significant progress on such boilers was accomplished in the 1960's and early 1970's, but development was not continued to operational systems since NASA's plans for future space missions were drastically curtailed in the early 1970's. In particular, piloted Mars missions were indefinitely deferred. With the announcement of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) in July 1989 by President Bush, interest was rekindled in challenging space missions and, consequently in space nuclear power and propulsion. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) were proposed for interplanetary space vehicles, particularly for Mars missions. The potassium Rankine power conversion cycle became of interest to provide electric power for NEP vehicles and for 'dual-mode' NTP vehicles, where the same reactor could be used directly for propulsion and (with an additional coolant loop) for power. Although the boiler is not a major contributor to system mass, it is of critical importance because of its interaction with the rest of the power conversion system; it can cause problems for other components such as excess liquid droplets entering the turbine, thereby reducing its life, or more critically, it can drive instabilities-some severe enough to cause system failure. Funding for the SEI and its associated technology program from 1990 to 1993 was not sufficient to support significant new work on Rankine cycle boilers for space applications. In Fiscal Year 1994, funding for these challenging missions and technologies has again been curtailed, and planning for the future is very uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to review the technologies developed in the 1960's and 1970's in the light of the recent SEI applications. In this way, future Rankine cycle boiler programs may be conducted most efficiently. This report is aimed at evaluating alkali metal boiler

  11. Validación de los Puntajes de Corte del MACI a través de las Escalas Clínicas del MMPI-A Validation of Cutoff Scores for MACI Using the MMPI-A Clinical Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia V Vinet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inserta en el proyecto de desarrollo de normas chilenas del MACI, se reporta la validación concurrente de los puntajes de corte de las escalas del MACI, utilizando como criterio las escalas clínicas del MMPI-A. Las puntuaciones MMPI-A de los participantes de la muestra de baremación del MACI (n = 807 fueron analizadas a través de una serie de MANOVAS y ANO VAS que diferenciaron significativamente a los grupos de funcionamiento sano y funcionamiento alterado creados a partir de la segmentación de la muestra total según el puntaje de corte de cada escala. La discusión destaca la congruencia de la diferenciación realizada por el MMPI-A y sus aportes a la mejor comprensión de las escalas MACI.Inserted in a project for building Chilean norms for the MACI, the concurrent validation of the cutoff scores of MACI is reported, using as a criterion the MMPI-A scores obtained by the MACI normative sample (n = 807. Data were analyzed through a set of MANOVAS and ANO VAS that allowed significant differentiation between healthy functioning and disorderly functioning groups that were created by dividing the sample on the basis of cutoff scores for each scale. Discussion emphasizes the congruence of MMPI-A results and its contribution to the better understanding of MACI scales.

  12. Development and a Validation of a Charge Sensitive Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Simulation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ziviani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems and the large number of cycle models proposed in the literature, charge-based ORC models are still almost absent. In this paper, a detailed overall ORC simulation model is presented based on two solution strategies: condenser subcooling and total working fluid charge of the system. The latter allows the subcooling level to be predicted rather than specified as an input. The overall cycle model is composed of independent models for pump, expander, line sets, liquid receiver and heat exchangers. Empirical and semi-empirical models are adopted for the pump and expander, respectively. A generalized steady-state moving boundary method is used to model the heat exchangers. The line sets and liquid receiver are used to better estimate the total charge of the system and pressure drops. Finally, the individual components are connected to form a cycle model in an object-oriented fashion. The solution algorithm includes a preconditioner to guess reasonable values for the evaporating and condensing temperatures and a main cycle solver loop which drives to zero a set of residuals to ensure the convergence of the solution. The model has been developed in the Python programming language. A thorough validation is then carried out against experimental data obtained from two test setups having different nominal size, working fluids and individual components: (i a regenerative ORC with a 5 kW scroll expander and an oil flooding loop; (ii a regenerative ORC with a 11 kW single-screw expander. The computer code is made available through open-source dissemination.

  13. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal efficiency of the system was found to be 8% with an operating temperature of 120 °C. The hot water produced by the unit has a temperature of 40 °C. Economic assessment was done for 1-kW and 5-kW solar ORC water pumping systems. These systems use different types of solar collectors: a parabolic trough collector (PTC and an evacuated tube collector (ETC. The economic analysis showed that the costs of water are $2.47/m3 (highest and $1.86/m3 (lowest for the 1-kW system and a 150-m pumping head. In addition, the cost of water is reduced when the size of the system is increased and the pumping head is reduced. The minimum volumes of water pumped are 2190 m3 and 11,100 m3 yearly for 1 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The payback period is eight years with a profitability index of 1.6. The system is highly feasible and promising in the context of Nepal.

  14. Thermo-Economic Performance Analysis of a Regenerative Superheating Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghe Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a promising form of technology for recovering low-grade waste heat. In this study, a regenerative ORC system is established to recover the waste flue gas of 160 °C. Focusing on thermodynamic and economic performance while simultaneously considering the limitations of volume flow ratio (VFR and the effect of superheat, working fluid selection and parameter optimization have been investigated. The optimization of the evaporation temperature is carried out by analyzing the variation of net power output and specific investment cost (SIC. Then, the net power output, specific net power output, total exergy destruction rate, VFR, total capital cost, and levelized electricity cost (LEC are selected as criteria, and a fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation method is adopted to select a more suitable working fluid and determine the optimal degree of superheat. In addition, the preheating coefficient, latent heat coefficient, superheating coefficient, and internal heat coefficient were proposed to explore the effect of working fluid critical temperature on thermal efficiency. Research studies demonstrate that there is an optimal evaporation temperature, maximizing net power output and minimizing the SIC. Isohexane and butane have greater specific net power output due to greater latent heat. A suitable degree of superheat is not only conducive to improving the working capacity of working fluids, but also reduces the VFR, total capital cost, SIC, and LEC for different working fluids. Thus, the system’s thermodynamic and economic performance—as well as the operational stability—are improved. Among the six working fluids, butane exhibits the best comprehensive performance, and its optimal evaporation temperature and degree of superheat are 100 °C and 5 °C, respectively.

  15. Applied studies in advanced boiler technology for Rankine cycle power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, F.W.; Negreanu, M.J.

    1978-02-01

    A study is presented on a new rotational boiler design which has improved passive dynamic response and two-phase flow stability characteristics. A survey of small boiler manufacturers in the United States indicated that currently available designs are based on steady-state operating requirements rather than for dynamic performance. Recent work by EPA and ERDA which addressed boiler designs for mobile automotive Rankine cycle power systems showed that boilers of a monotube or multipass tube configuration design could be developed which were physically compact, but still were subject to the two-phase flow instability problem when coupled within an operating power system. The objectives of this work were to evaluate alternative boiler configurations which would improve boiler dynamic response and also have good two-phase liquid-vapor interface flow stability. The major physical design limitation of any boiler is the small external hot gas heat transfer coefficient. Such a low coefficient requires considerable design enhancements to increase the rate of energy transfer to the circulation system fluid. The rotational boiler is a physical design configuration which addresses this problem. The results of an analytic study using several mathematical model formulations showed that a rotational boiler could have a passive response time constant which was approximately one-half the magnitude for an equivalent single pass monotube boiler. An experimental prototype rotational boiler was designed, manufactured and tested, with the experimental results confirming that the experimental passive response time constants were comparable to the estimates from the analytic models. The experimental boiler operating in two-phase flow was found to be stable and responsive to external inputs. A rotational boiler configuration is a good alternative design configuration for small compact vapor generator designs based on fast transient passive response and two-phase flow stability.

  16. Thermodynamic Optimization of a Geothermal- Based Organic Rankine Cycle System Using an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Özkaraca

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a renewable form of energy, however due to misuse, processing and management issues, it is necessary to use the resource more efficiently. To increase energy efficiency, energy systems engineers carry out careful energy control studies and offer alternative solutions. With this aim, this study was conducted to improve the performance of a real operating air-cooled organic Rankine cycle binary geothermal power plant (GPP and its components in the aspects of thermodynamic modeling, exergy analysis and optimization processes. In-depth information is obtained about the exergy (maximum work a system can make, exergy losses and destruction at the power plant and its components. Thus the performance of the power plant may be predicted with reasonable accuracy and better understanding is gained for the physical process to be used in improving the performance of the power plant. The results of the exergy analysis show that total exergy production rate and exergy efficiency of the GPP are 21 MW and 14.52%, respectively, after removing parasitic loads. The highest amount of exergy destruction occurs, respectively, in condenser 2, vaporizer HH2, condenser 1, pumps 1 and 2 as components requiring priority performance improvement. To maximize the system exergy efficiency, the artificial bee colony (ABC is applied to the model that simulates the actual GPP. Under all the optimization conditions, the maximum exergy efficiency for the GPP and its components is obtained. Two of these conditions such as Case 4 related to the turbine and Case 12 related to the condenser have the best performance. As a result, the ABC optimization method provides better quality information than exergy analysis. Based on the guidance of this study, the performance of power plants based on geothermal energy and other energy resources may be improved.

  17. External validation of the DRAGON score in an elderly Spanish population: prediction of stroke prognosis after IV thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Rodríguez-Campello, Ana; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Ois, Ángel; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous (i.v.) thrombolysis within 4.5 h of symptom onset has proven efficacy in acute ischemic stroke treatment, although half of all outcomes are unfavorable. The recently published DRAGON score aims to predict the 3-month outcome in stroke patients who have received i.v. alteplase. The purpose of this study was an external validation of the results of the DRAGON score in a Spanish cohort. Patients with acute stroke treated with alteplase were prospectively registered in our BasicMar database. We collected demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, the time from stroke onset to treatment, baseline serum glucose levels and stroke severity for this population. We then reviewed hyperdense cerebral artery signs and signs of early infarct on the admission CT scan. We calculated the DRAGON score and used the developers' 3-month prognosis categories: good [modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) 0-2], poor (mRS 3-6) and miserable (mRS 5-6) outcome. Discrimination was tested using the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC-ROC). Calibration was assessed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Our final cohort of 297 patients was older (median age 74 years, IQR 65-80) and had more risk factors and severe strokes [median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) points 13, IQR 7-19] than the original study population. Poor prognosis was observed in 143 (48.1%) patients. Higher DRAGON scores were associated with a higher risk of poor prognosis. None of our treated stroke patients with a DRAGON score ≥8 at admission experienced a favorable outcome after 3 months. All DRAGON variables were significantly associated with a worse outcome in the multivariate analysis except for onset-to-treatment time (p = 0.334). Discrimination to predict poor prognosis was very good (AUC-ROC 0.84) and the score had good Hosmer-Lemeshow calibration (p = 0.84). The DRAGON score is easy to perform and offers a rapid, reliable prediction of poor prognosis in acute-stroke patients

  18. Analysis of long-term (median 10.5 years) outcomes in children presenting with traumatic brain injury and an initial Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 or 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Daniel H; White, Ian K; Rees, Jacqueline M; Baumanis, Maraya M; Smith, Jodi L; Ackerman, Laurie L; Boaz, Joel C; Luerssen, Thomas G

    2015-10-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with low presenting Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores have very high morbidity and mortality rates. Neurosurgeons may be faced with difficult decisions in managing the most severely injured (GCS scores of 3 or 4) patients. The situation may be considered hopeless, with little chance of a functional recovery. Long-term data are limited regarding the clinical outcome of children with severe head injury. The authors evaluate predictor variables and the clinical outcomes at discharge, 1 year, and long term (median 10.5 years) in a cohort of children with TBI presenting with postresuscitation GCS scores of 3 and 4. A review of a prospectively collected trauma database was performed. Patients treated at Riley Hospital for Children (Indianapolis, Indiana) from 1988 to 2004 were reviewed. All children with initial GCS (modified for pediatric patients) scores of 3 or 4 were identified. Patients with a GCS score of 3 were compared with those with a GCS score of 4. The outcomes of all patients at the time of death or discharge and at 1-year and long-term follow-up were measured with a modified Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) that included a "normal" outcome. Long-term outcomes were evaluated by contacting surviving patients. Statistical "classification trees" were formed for survival and outcome, based on predictor variables. Sixty-seven patients with a GCS score of 3 or 4 were identified in a database of 1636 patients (4.1%). Three of the presenting factors differed between the GCS 3 patients (n = 44) and the GCS 4 patients (n = 23): presence of hypoxia, single seizure, and open basilar cisterns on CT scan. The clinical outcomes were statistically similar between the 2 groups. In total, 48 (71.6%) of 67 patients died, remained vegetative, or were severely disabled by 1 year. Eight patients (11.9%) were normal at 1 year. Ten of the 22 patients with long-term follow-up were either normal or had a GOS score of 5. Multiple clinical

  19. Organic Rankine-Cycle Power Systems Working Fluids Study: Topical report No. 3, 2-methylpyridine/water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.L.; Demirgian, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A mixture of 35 mole percent (mol %) 2-methylpyridine and 65 mol % water was tested at 575, 625, and 675/degree/F in a dynamic loop. Samples of the degraded fluid were chemically analyzed to determine the identities of major degradation products and the quantity of degradation. Computed degradation rates were found to be higher than those for Fluorinol 85 or toluene. For this reason (and other reasons, related to fluid handling), other fluids are recommended as the first choice for service in organic Rankine-cycle systems in preference to 2-methylpyridine/water. 7 refs., 39 figs., 39 tabs.

  20. Integrated working fluid-thermodynamic cycle design of organic Rankine cycle power systems for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    recovery. Inthis paper, an organic Rankine cycle process and its pure working fluid are designed simultaneously forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine. This approach can overcome designissues caused by the high sensitivity between the fluid and cycle design variables...... the simultaneousdesign approach the optimum solution was found in 5.04 s, while a decomposed approach found thesame solution in 5.77 h. However, the decomposed approach provided insights on the correlationbetween the fluid and cycle design variables by analyzing all possible solutions. It was shown that thehigh...

  1. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  2. Experimental and thermodynamic analysis of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) of gasoline engine using swash-plate expander

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, José,; Ruiz Rosales, Santiago; Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; ROYO PASCUAL, LUCÍA; Haller, R.; Nicolas, B.; Glavatskaya, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental testing of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrate in a 2 liter turbocharged gasoline engine using ethanol as working fluid. The main components of the cycle are a boiler, a condenser, a pump and a swash-plate expander. Five engine operating points have been tested, they correspond to a nominal heat input into the boiler of 5, 12, 20, 25 and 30 kW. With the available bill of material based on prototypes, power balances and cycles efficiencies were estim...

  3. Development of an Organic Rankine-Cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiceniuk, T.

    1985-01-01

    An organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power module was developed for use in a multimodule solar power plant to be built and operated in a small community. Many successful components and subsystems, including the reciever, power conversion subsystem, energy transport subsystem, and control subsystem, were tested. Tests were performed on a complete power module using a test bed concentrator in place of the proposed concentrator. All major single-module program functional objectives were met and the multimodule operation presented no apparent problems. The hermetically sealed, self-contained, ORC power conversion unit subsequently successfully completed a 300-hour endurance run with no evidence of wear or operating problems.

  4. Factors influencing outcome in acute ischaemic stroke : outcome scales, the role of blood glucose and rtPA treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttenboogaart, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes several aspects that influence outcome in acute ischaemic strok. In the first part, two frequently used outcome scales - the Barthel index and modified Rankin scale - are studied and for both scales, optimal endpoints for stroke trials are proposed. In the second part, the

  5. Thermal energy storage for low grade heat in the organic Rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Michael John

    Limits of efficiencies cause immense amounts of thermal energy in the form of waste heat to be vented to the atmosphere. Up to 60% of unrecovered waste heat is classified as low or ultra-low quality, making recovery difficult or inefficient. The organic Rankine cycle can be used to generate mechanical power and electricity from these low temperatures where other thermal cycles are impractical. A variety of organic working fluids are available to optimize the ORC for any target temperature range. San Diego State University has one such experimental ORC using R245fa, and has been experimenting with multiple expanders. One limitation of recovering waste heat is the sporadic or cyclical nature common to its production. This inconsistency makes sizing heat recovery ORC systems difficult for a variety of reasons including off-design-point efficiency loss, increased attrition from varying loads, unreliable outputs, and overall system costs. Thermal energy storage systems can address all of these issues by smoothing the thermal input to a constant and reliable level and providing back-up capacity for times when the thermal input is deactivated. Multiple types of thermal energy storage have been explored including sensible, latent, and thermochemical. Latent heat storage involves storing thermal energy in the reversible phase change of a phase change material, or PCM, and can have several advantages over other modalities including energy storage density, cost, simplicity, reliability, relatively constant temperature output, and temperature customizability. The largest obstacles to using latent heat storage include heat transfer rates, thermal cycling stability, and potentially corrosive PCMs. Targeting 86°C, the operating temperature of SDSU's experimental ORC, multiple potential materials were explored and tested as potential PCMs including Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate (MgCl2˙6H2O), Magnesium Nitrate Hexahydrate (Mg(NO3)2˙6H 2O), montan wax, and carnauba wax. The

  6. A Burst Mode, Ultrahigh Temperature UF4 Vapor Core Reactor Rankine Cycle Space Power System Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, E. T.; Kahook, S. D.; Diaz, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    Static and dynamic neutronic analyses have been performed on an innovative burst mode (100's of MW output for a few thousand seconds) Ulvahigh Temperature Vapor Core Reactor (UTVR) space nuclear power system. The NVTR employs multiple, neutronically-coupled fissioning cores and operates on a direct, closed Rankine cycle using a disk Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generater for energy conversion. The UTVR includes two types of fissioning core regions: (1) the central Ultrahigh Temperature Vapor Core (UTVC) which contains a vapor mixture of highly enriched UF4 fuel and a metal fluoride working fluid and (2) the UF4 boiler column cores located in the BeO moderator/reflector region. The gaseous nature of the fuel the fact that the fuel is circulating, the multiple coupled fissioning cores, and the use of a two phase fissioning fuel lead to unique static and dynamic neutronic characteristics. Static neutronic analysis was conducted using two-dimensional S sub n, transport theory calculations and three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport theory calculations. Circulating-fuel, coupled-core point reactor kinetics equations were used for analyzing the dynamic behavior of the UTVR. In addition to including reactivity feedback phenomena associated with the individual fissioning cores, the effects of core-to-core neutronic and mass flow coupling between the UTVC and the surrounding boiler cores were also included in the dynamic model The dynamic analysis of the UTVR reveals the existence of some very effectlve inherent reactivity feedback effects that are capable of quickly stabilizing this system, within a few seconds, even when large positive reactivity insertions are imposed. If the UTVC vapor fuel density feedback is suppressed, the UTVR is still inherently stable because of the boiler core liquid-fuel volume feedback; in contrast, suppression of the vapor fuel density feedback in 'conventional" gas core cavity reactors causes them to become inherently unstable. Due to the

  7. Mannitol and Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Propensity Score and Multivariable Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial 2 Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Arima, Hisatomi; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Guojun; Woodward, Mark; Muñoz-Venturelli, Paula; Lavados, Pablo M; Stapf, Christian; Robinson, Thompson; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Lindley, Richard I; Parsons, Mark; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-10-01

    Mannitol is often used to reduce cerebral edema in acute intracerebral hemorrhage but without strong supporting evidence of benefit. We aimed to determine the impact of mannitol on outcome among participants of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2). INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded end point, randomized controlled trial of 2839 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (mannitol treatment (within 7 days) and poor outcome, defined by death or major disability on the modified Rankin Scale score (3-6) at 90 days. There was no significant difference in poor outcome between mannitol (n=1533) and nonmannitol (n=993) groups: propensity score-matched odds ratio of 0.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.09; P=0.30) and multivariable odds ratio of 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.07; P=0.18). Although a better outcome was suggested in patients with larger (≥15 mL) than those with smaller (mannitol (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.78] versus odds ratio, 0.91 [95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.15]; P homogeneityMannitol was not associated with excess serious adverse events. Mannitol seems safe but might not improve outcome in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00716079. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Effects of a Self-Exercise Program on Activities of Daily Living in Patients After Acute Stroke: A Propensity Score Analysis Based on the Japan Association of Rehabilitation Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Nariaki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Jeong, Seungwon; Sugiyama, Motoya; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-03-01

    To investigate whether self-exercise programs for patients after stroke contribute to improved activities of daily living (ADL) at hospital discharge. Retrospective, observational, propensity score (PS)-matched case-control study. General hospitals. Participants included patients after stroke (N=1560) hospitalized between January 3, 2006, and December 26, 2012, satisfying the following criteria: (1) data on age, sex, duration from stroke to hospital admission, length of stay, FIM score, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Japan Stroke Scale score, and self-exercise program participation were available; and (2) admitted within 7 days after stroke onset, length of stay was between 7 and 60 days, prestroke mRS score was ≤2, and not discharged because of FIM or mRS exacerbation. A total of 780 PS-matched pairs were selected for each of the self-exercise program and no-self-exercise program groups. Self-exercise program participation. At discharge, FIM motor score, FIM cognitive score, FIM motor score gain (discharge value - admission value), FIM motor score gain rate (gain/length of stay), a binary variable divided by the median FIM motor score gain rate (high efficiency or no-high efficiency), and mRS score. Patients were classified into a self-exercise program (n=780) or a no-self-exercise program (n=780) group. After matching, there were no significant between-group differences, except motor system variables. The receiver operating characteristic curve for PS had an area under the curve value of .71 with a 95% confidence interval of .68 to .73, and the model was believed to have a relatively favorable fit. A logistic regression analysis of PS-matched pairs suggested that the self-exercise program was effective, with an overall odds ratio for ADL (high efficiency or no-high efficiency) of 2.2 (95% confidence ratio, 1.75-2.70). SEPs may contribute to improving ADL. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by

  9. The dish-Rankine SCSTPE program (Engineering Experiment no. 1). [systems engineering and economic analysis for a small community solar thermal electric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, R. L.; Grigsby, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities planned for phase 2 Of the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (PFDR) program are summarized with emphasis on a dish-Rankine point focusing distributed receiver solar thermal electric system. Major design efforts include: (1) development of an advanced concept indirect-heated receiver;(2) development of hardware and software for a totally unmanned power plant control system; (3) implementation of a hybrid digital simulator which will validate plant operation prior to field testing; and (4) the acquisition of an efficient organic Rankine cycle power conversion unit. Preliminary performance analyses indicate that a mass-produced dish-Rankine PFDR system is potentially capable of producing electricity at a levelized busbar energy cost of 60 to 70 mills per KWh and with a capital cost of about $1300 per KW.

  10. An experimental analysis of flow boiling and pressure drop in a brazed plate heat exchanger for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desideri, Adriano; Zhang, Ji; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems for low quality waste heat recovery applications can play a major role in achieving targets of increasing industrial processes efficiency and thus reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Low capacity organic Rankine cycle systems are equipped with brazed...... and pressure drop during vaporization at typical temperatures for low quality waste heat recovery organic Rankine cycle systems are presented for the working fluids HFC-245fa and HFO-1233zd. The experiments were carried out at saturation temperatures of 100°C, 115°C and 130°C and inlet and outlet qualities...... plate heat exchangers which allows for efficient heat transfer with a compact design. Accurate heat transfer correlations characterizing these devices are required from the design phase to the development of model-based control strategies. In this paper, the experimental heat transfer coefficient...

  11. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  12. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease: Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Data From NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-term Study 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Anne-Marie A; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S; Leehey, Maureen A; Pontone, Gregory M; Chou, Kelvin L; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2016-03-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with improved survival among persons with Huntington disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Weight loss is common among persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with worse quality of life. To explore the association between change in BMI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores, and survival among persons with PD and to test whether there is a positive association between BMI at randomization and survival. Secondary analysis (from May 27, 2014, to October 13, 2015) of longitudinal data (3-6 years) from 1673 participants who started the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1). This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate (10 g/d) that was performed at 45 sites throughout the United States and Canada. Participants with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) PD were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. Change across time in motor UPDRS score, change across time in total UPDRS score, and time to death. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of BMI on the change in motor and total UPDRS scores after controlling for covariates. Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models of time to death. A participant's BMI was measured at randomization, and BMI trajectory groups were classified according to whether participants experienced weight loss ("decreasing BMI"), weight stability ("stable BMI"), or weight gain ("increasing BMI") during the study. Of the 1673 participants (mean [SD] age, 61.7 [9.6] years; 1074 [64.2%] were male), 158 (9.4%) experienced weight loss (decreasing BMI), whereas 233 (13.9%) experienced weight gain (increasing BMI). After adjusting for covariates, we

  13. Um novo escore para dependência a nicotina e uma nova escala de conforto do paciente durante o tratamento do tabagismo A new nicotine dependence score and a new scale assessing patient comfort during smoking cessation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Scholz Issa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é considerado a maior causa evitável de morbidade e mortalidade. O manuseio farmacológico da síndrome de abstinência de nicotina possibilita melhores taxas de cessação. Desenvolvemos um sistema de coleta de dados em nosso programa de assistência ao fumante, que inclui dois instrumentos novos: um escore para dependência de nicotina em fumantes de Smoking is considered the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of nicotine withdrawal syndrome enables better cessation rates. In our smoking cessation program, we have developed a data collection system, which includes two new instruments: a score that assesses nicotine dependence in smokers of < 10 cigarettes/day; and a patient comfort scale to be used during smoking cessation treatment. Here, we describe the two instruments, both of which are still undergoing validation.

  14. The clot burden score, the Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale, the cerebral blood volume ASPECTS, and two novel imaging parameters in the prediction of clinical outcome of ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolytic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillanpaa, Niko; Hakomaki, Jari; Lahteela, Arto; Dastidar, Prasun; Soimakallio, Seppo [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Center, Tampere (Finland); Saarinen, Jukka T.; Numminen, Heikki; Elovaara, Irina [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Tampere (Finland); Rusanen, Harri [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Oulu (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    Recently two classification methods based on the location and the extent of thrombosis detected with CT angiography have been introduced: the Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale (BASIS) and the clot burden score (CBS). We studied the performance of BASIS and CBS in predicting good clinical outcome (mRS {<=}2 at 90 days) in an acute (<3 h) stroke cohort treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy. Eighty-three consecutive patients who underwent multimodal CT were analyzed. Binary logistic regression model was used to assess how BASIS, CBS, and cerebral blood volume (CBV) ASPECTS predict favorable clinical outcome. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were calculated and compared. Patients with low CBS and CBV ASPECTS scores and major strokes according to BASIS had significantly higher admission NIHSS scores, larger perfusion defects, and more often poor clinical outcome. In logistic regression analysis, CBV ASPECTS, CBS and BASIS were significantly associated with the clinical outcome. The performance of BASIS improved when patients with thrombosis of the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery were classified as having minor stroke (M1-BASIS). In the anterior circulation, the sum of CBS and CBV ASPECTS (CBSV) proved to be the most robust predictor of favorable outcome. CBV ASPECTS and CBS had high sensitivity but moderate to poor specificity while BASIS was only moderately sensitive and specific. CBS, BASIS, and CBV ASPECTS are statistically robust and sensitive but unspecific predictors of good clinical outcome. Two new derived imaging parameters, CBSV and M1-BASIS, share these properties and may have increased prognostic value. (orig.)

  15. Validation of the Hindi version of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kameshwar; Dash, Deepa; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) with the Hindi and Indian adaptation of items 9 and 10. NIHSS items 9 and 10 were modified and culturally adapted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) and the resulting version was termed as Hindi version (HV-NIHSS). HV-NIHSS was applied by two independent investigators on 107 patients with stroke. Inter-observer agreement and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated. The predictive validity of the HV-NIHSS was calculated using functional outcome after three months in the form of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index (BI). The study included 107 patients of stroke recruited from a tertiary referral hospital at Delhi between November 1, 2009, and October 1, 2010; the mean age of these patients was 56.26±13.84 years and 65.4% of them had suffered ischemic stroke. Inter-rater reliability was high between the two examiners, with Pearson's r ranging from 0.72 to 0.99 for the 15 items on the Scale. Intra-class correlation coefficient for the total score was 0.995 (95% CI-0.993-0.997). Concurrent construct validity was established between HV-NIHSS and baseline Glasgow Coma Scale, with a high correlation (Spearman coefficient = -0.863, PHindi language version of the NIHSS developed at AIIMS appears reliable and valid when applied to a Hindi-speaking population.

  16. Translation and validation into Brazilian Portuguese of the Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale (SPRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane R. Servelhere

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP are characterized by progressive lower limb weakness and spasticity. There are no validated instruments to quantify disease severity in Portuguese. Objective To translate and validate the Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale (SPRS into Brazilian-Portuguese. Method Two experienced and English-fluent neurologists translated SPRS into Portuguese, creating SPRS-BR. We then assessed inter and intra-rater reliability of this version using coefficients of correlation and variability in a cohort of 30 patients. Results Mean age of patients and disease duration were 47.7 ± 10.5 and 17.0 ± 10.6 years, respectively. Twenty-one had pure HSP and SPG4 was the most frequent genotype. Mean Rankin and SPRS-BR scores were 2.2 ± 0.9 and 19.9 ± 9.9, respectively. Mean intra and inter-rater correlation coefficients of SPRS-BR scores were 0.951 and 0.934, whereas coefficients of variation were 11.5% (inter-rater and 9.9% (intra-rater. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole SPRS-BR scale was 0.873. Conclusion SPRS-BR is a useful, reliable and valid clinical instrument.

  17. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie...

  18. The effects of fluid balance and colloid administration on outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Macdonald, R Loch

    2013-10-01

    Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a significant cause of mortality and disability. The administration of colloids and the induction of a positive fluid balance during the vasospasm risk period remain controversial. Here, we compared DIND and outcomes among propensity score-matched cohorts who did and did not receive colloids and also tested the effect of a positive fluid balance on these endpoints. Exploratory analysis was performed on 413 patients enrolled in CONSCIOUS-1, a prospective randomized trial of clazosentan for the prevention of angiographic vasospasm. Propensity score matching was performed on the basis of age, gender, pre-existing heart conditions, hypertension, nicotine use, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies scores, aneurysm location, clazosentan treatment, subarachnoid clot burden, and severity of angiographic vasospasm. Inferential statistics were used for group-wise comparisons. One hundred twenty-three subjects were matched (41 received colloids, whereas 82 did not). The covariate balance and propensity score distributions were acceptable. There was no difference between the groups with respect to DIND (17 vs. 22%; p = 0.64) or the presence (48 vs. 51%; p = 0.71) or volume of delayed infarcts (volume >7.5 cm3; 62 vs. 48%; p = 0.41). Similarly, no differences were found on multivariate analysis between patients who did and did not have a positive fluid balance, although patients with severe angiographic vasospasm had more delayed infarcts with a negative fluid balance (p = 0.01). Among all subjects, the administration of colloids and a positive fluid balance were associated with worse outcomes on the NIHSS (p = 0.04) and modified Rankin (p = 0.02) scales, respectively. Colloid administration and induction of a positive fluid balance during the vasospasm risk period may be associated with poor outcomes in specific patient groups. Patient selection is of utmost importance

  19. Selection of cooling fluid for an organic Rankine cycle unit recovering heat on a container ship sailing in the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez de la Fuente, Santiago; Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    air as coolant. This paper explores the use of two different coolants, air and seawater, for an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit using the available waste heat in the scavenge air system of a container ship navigating in Arctic Circle. Using a two-step single objective optimisation process, detailed...

  20. Performance Evaluation of a HP/ORC (Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle) System with Optimal Control of Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Nielsen, Mads P.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    come to contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables.This paper describes an innovative concept that consists of the addition of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) toa combined solar system coupled to a ground-source heat pump (HP) in a single-family building. The ORC enables the use of solar...

  1. Design and optimisation of organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery in marine applications using the principles of natural selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    , boundary conditions, hazard levels and environmental concerns. A generally applicable methodology, based on the principles of natural selection, is presented and used to determine the optimum working fluid, boiler pressure and Rankine cycle process layout for scenarios related to marine engine heat......Power cycles using alternative working fluids are currently receiving significant attention. Selection of working fluid among many candidates is a key topic and guidelines have been presented. A general problem is that the selection is based on numerous criteria, such as thermodynamic performance...... recovery. Included in the solution domain are 109 fluids in sub and supercritical processes, and the process is adapted to the properties of the individual fluid. The efficiency losses caused by imposing process constraints are investigated to help propose a suitable process layout. Hydrocarbon dry type...

  2. Thermal-Economic Modularization of Small, Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants for Mid-Enthalpy Geothermal Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodha Y. Nusiaputra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The costs of the surface infrastructure in mid-enthalpy geothermal power systems, especially in remote areas, could be reduced by using small, modular Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC power plants. Thermal-economic criteria have been devised to standardize ORC plant dimensions for such applications. We designed a modular ORC to utilize various wellhead temperatures (120–170 °C, mass flow rates and ambient temperatures (−10–40 °C. A control strategy was developed using steady-state optimization, in order to maximize net power production at off-design conditions. Optimum component sizes were determined using specific investment cost (SIC minimization and mean cashflow (MCF maximization for three different climate scenarios. Minimizing SIC did not yield significant benefits, but MCF proved to be a much better optimization function.

  3. Experimental study on Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency intended for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper pressents an experimental study of Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency. Water was chosen as the working fluid in the system. The experimental test was conducted on a test bench equipped with a burner charged by compressed fresh air. Generated exhaust gases parameters were previously determined over the diesel engine operating range (28 engine operating points were studied. For each test point the working fluid parameters (flow rate and evaporating pressure were varied. Thus, the enthalpy flow through the heat exchanger was determined. Heat exchanger was designed as 23 helical tubes are inserted. On the basis of the results, it was found out that efficiency varies from 25 % to 51,9 %. The optimal working fluid pressure is 20 bar at most of the operating points while the optimum fluid mass flow rate varies from 2 g/s to 10 g/s.

  4. Energy performance and economic evaluation of heat pump/organic rankine cycle system with sensible thermal storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...

  5. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System with Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, C.; Dumont, O.; Nielsen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...

  6. Cogenerative Performance of a Wind − Gas Turbine − Organic Rankine Cycle Integrated System for Offshore Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Michele; Branchini, Lisa; De Pascale, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Gas Turbines (GT) are widely used for power generationin offshore oil and gas facilities, due to their high reliability,compactness and dynamic response capabilities. Small heavyduty and aeroderivative units in multiple arrangements aretypically used to offer larger load flexibility......, but limitedefficiency of such machines is the main drawback. A solutionto enhance the system performance, also in Combined Heat andPower (CHP) arrangement, is the implementation of OrganicRankine Cycle (ORC) systems at the bottom of the gas turbines.Moreover, the resulting GT-ORC combined cycle could befurther...... a 10MW offshorewind farm and three gas turbines rated for 16:5MW, eachone coupled with an 4:5MW ORC module. The ORC mainparameters are observed under different wind power fluctuations.Due to the non-programmable availability of wind and powerdemand, the part-load and dynamic characteristics...

  7. Study on the Characteristics of Expander Power Output Used for Offsetting Pumping Work Consumption in Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The circulation pump in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC increases the pressure of the liquid working fluid from low condensing pressure to high evaporating pressure, and the expander utilizes the pressure difference to generate work. A portion of the expander output power is used to offset the consumed pumping work, and the rest of the expander power is exactly the net work produced by the ORC system. Because of the relatively great theoretical pumping work and very low efficiency of the circulation pump reported in previous papers, the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work need serious consideration. In particular, the present work examines those characteristics. It is found that the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work are satisfactory only under the condition that the working fluid absorbs sufficient heat in the evaporator and its specific volume at the evaporator outlet is larger than or equal to a threshold value.

  8. 10-75-kWe-reactor-powered organic Rankine-cycle electric power systems (ORCEPS) study. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-30

    This 10-75 kW(e) Reactor-ORCEPS study was concerned with the evaluation of several organic Rankine cycle energy conversion systems which utilized a /sup 235/U-ZrH reactor as a heat source. A liquid metal (NaK) loop employing a thermoelectric converter-powered EM pump was used to transfer the reactor energy to the organic working fluid. At moderate peak cycle temperatures (750/sup 0/F), power conversion unit cycle efficiencies of up to 25% and overall efficiencies of 20% can be obtained. The required operating life of seven years should be readily achievable. The CP-25 (toluene) working fluid cycle was found to provide the highest performance levels at the lowest system weights. Specific weights varies from 100 to 50 lb/kW(e) over the power level range 10 to 75 kW(e). (DLC)

  9. Structural optimisation of a high speed Organic Rankine Cycle generator using a genetic algorithm and a finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, S. [Machines Division, ABB industry Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The aim in this work is to design a 250 kW high speed asynchronous generator using a genetic algorithm and a finite element method for Organic Rankine Cycle. The characteristics of the induction motors are evaluated using two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) The movement of the rotor and the non-linearity of the iron is included. In numerical field problems it is possible to find several local extreme for an optimisation problem, and therefore the algorithm has to be capable of determining relevant changes, and to avoid trapping to a local minimum. In this work the electromagnetic (EM) losses at the rated point are minimised. The optimisation includes the air gap region. Parallel computing is applied to speed up optimisation. (orig.) 2 refs.

  10. Optimization of Cycle and Expander Design of an Organic Rankine Cycle Unit using Multi-Component Working Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    for an organic Rankine cycle unit utilizing waste heat from low temperature heat sources. The study addresses a case where the minimum temperature of the heat source is constrained and a case where no constraint is imposed. The former case is the wasteheat recovery from jacket cooling water of a marine diesel...... engine onboard a large ship, and the latter is representative of a low-temperature geothermal, solar or waste heat recovery application. Multi-component working fluids are investigated, as they allow improving the match between the temperature pro-files in the heat exchangers and, consequently, reducing...... the irreversibility in the ORC system. This work considers mixtures of R245fa/pentane and propane/isobutane. The use of multi-component working fluids typically results in increased heat transfer areas and different expander designs compared to purefluids. In order to properly account for turbine performance...

  11. Systematic Methods for Working Fluid Selection and the Design, Integration and Control of Organic Rankine Cycles—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Linke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient power generation from low to medium grade heat is an important challenge to be addressed to ensure a sustainable energy future. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs constitute an important enabling technology and their research and development has emerged as a very active research field over the past decade. Particular focus areas include working fluid selection and cycle design to achieve efficient heat to power conversions for diverse hot fluid streams associated with geothermal, solar or waste heat sources. Recently, a number of approaches have been developed that address the systematic selection of efficient working fluids as well as the design, integration and control of ORCs. This paper presents a review of emerging approaches with a particular emphasis on computer-aided design methods.

  12. Megawatt-Scale Application of Thermoelectric Devices in Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, A. R.; Buckle, J.; Siviter, J.; Montecucco, A.; McCulloch, E.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the recent investment in renewable and sustainable energy sources, over 95% of the UK's electrical energy generation relies on the use of thermal power plants utilizing the Rankine cycle. Advanced supercritical Rankine cycle power plants typically have a steam temperature in excess of 600°C at a pressure of 290 bar and yet still have an overall efficiency below 50%, with much of this wasted energy being rejected to the environment through the condenser/cooling tower. This paper examines the opportunity for large-scale application of thermoelectric heat pumps to modify the Rankine cycle in such plants by preheating the boiler feedwater using energy recovered from the condenser system at a rate of approximately 1 MWth per °C temperature rise. A derivation of the improved process cycle efficiency and breakeven coefficient of performance required for economic operation is presented for a typical supercritical 600-MWe installation.

  13. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-26

    This software (Asset Scoring Tool) is designed to help building owners and managers to gain insight into the as-built efficiency of their buildings. It is a web tool where users can enter their building information and obtain an asset score report. The asset score report consists of modeled building energy use (by end use and by fuel type), building systems (envelope, lighting, heating, cooling, service hot water) evaluations, and recommended energy efficiency measures. The intended users are building owners and operators who have limited knowledge of building energy efficiency. The scoring tool collects minimum building data (~20 data entries) from users and build a full-scale energy model using the inference functionalities from Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS). The scoring tool runs real-time building energy simulation using EnergyPlus and performs life-cycle cost analysis using FEDS. An API is also under development to allow the third-party applications to exchange data with the web service of the scoring tool.

  14. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score applied to CT angiography source images is a strong predictor of futile recanalization in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawiorski, Michal M.; Alonso de Lecinana, Maria [Hospital Universitario La Paz, IdiPAZ, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IRYCIS, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Sanchez, Patricia; Fuentes, Blanca; Sanz-Cuesta, Borja E.; Marin, Begona; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio [Hospital Universitario La Paz, IdiPAZ, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Pastor, Andres; Diaz-Otero, Fernando [Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, IiSGM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Calleja, Patricia [Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Lourido, Daniel; Vicente, Agustina; Fandino, Eduardo [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IRYCIS, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Sierra-Hidalgo, Fernando [Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Reliable predictors of poor clinical outcome despite successful revascularization might help select patients with acute ischemic stroke for thrombectomy. We sought to determine whether baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) applied to CT angiography source images (CTA-SI) is useful in predicting futile recanalization. Data are from the FUN-TPA study registry (ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02164357) including patients with acute ischemic stroke due to proximal arterial occlusion in anterior circulation, undergoing reperfusion therapies. Baseline non-contrast CT and CTA-SI-ASPECTS, time-lapse to image acquisition, occurrence, and timing of recanalization were recorded. Outcome measures were NIHSS at 24 h, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, modified Rankin scale score, and mortality at 90 days. Futile recanalization was defined when successful recanalization was associated with poor functional outcome (death or disability). Included were 110 patients, baseline NIHSS 17 (IQR 12; 20), treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT; 45 %), primary mechanical thrombectomy (MT; 16 %), or combined IVT + MT (39 %). Recanalization rate was 71 %, median delay of 287 min (225; 357). Recanalization was futile in 28 % of cases. In an adjusted model, baseline CTA-SI-ASPECTS was inversely related to the odds of futile recanalization (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7), whereas NCCT-ASPECTS was not (OR 0.8; 95 % CI 0.5-1.2). A score ≤5 in CTA-SI-ASPECTS was the best cut-off to predict futile recanalization (sensitivity 35 %; specificity 97 %; positive predictive value 86 %; negative predictive value 77 %). CTA-SI-ASPECTS strongly predicts futile recanalization and could be a valuable tool for treatment decisions regarding the indication of revascularization therapies. (orig.)

  15. Scoring nail psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, K.M.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Bastiaens, M.T.; Plusje, L.G.; Baran, R.L.; Pasch, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scoring systems are indispensable in evaluating the severity of disease and monitoring treatment response. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the competence of various nail psoriasis severity scoring systems and to develop a new scoring system. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective,

  16. Versión breve de la escala de satisfacción laboral: evaluación estructural y distribucional de sus puntajes / Brief version of the job satisfaction scale: structural and distributive evaluation of their scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Boluarte Carbajal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La evaluación de la satisfacción laboral permite conocer y explicar varios resultados conductuales del trabajador, como su desempeño laboral. El presente estudio analiza la estructura interna de la versión breve de la Escala de Satisfacción Laboral de Warr, Cook y Wall (1979, que se orienta a medir unidimensionalmente el constructo de satisfacción laboral con ítems relacionados con la satisfacción intrínseca y extrínseca. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 88 profesionales de una institución de rehabilitación ubicada en Lima Metropolitana, a los que se les administró la versión completa del instrumento (16 ítems para examinar la versión abreviada y derivar una nueva. Se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC para evaluar la estructura factorial, mediante el modelamiento de ecuaciones estructurales. Se halló que una dimensión latente es válida para el instrumento completo, y se obtuvo una nueva versión breve con diferentes ítems, mayor varianza explicada y cargas factoriales elevadas. Las estimaciones de confiabilidad fueron aceptables. La distribución del puntaje fue inusualmente ajustada a un modelo Wakeby. Se discute los resultados en el contexto del uso de esta nueva versión y de la distribución de los puntajes. ABSTRACT The job satisfaction evaluation allows us to know and explain several behavioral results of a worker such as his job performance. This study analyzes the internal structure of the brief version by Warr, Cook and Wall’s Job Satisfaction Scale (1979, which is designed to unidimensionaly measure the job satisfaction construct with items related to intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction. The sample was composed by 88 professionals from a rehabilitation institution located in Metropolitan Lima, who were given the full version of the instrument (16 items, to examine the abbreviated version and derive a new one. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA to evaluate the factorial

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  18. ASTRAL, DRAGON and SEDAN scores predict stroke outcome more accurately than physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, G; Gioulekas, F; Papavasileiou, V; Strbian, D; Michel, P

    2016-11-01

    ASTRAL, SEDAN and DRAGON scores are three well-validated scores for stroke outcome prediction. Whether these scores predict stroke outcome more accurately compared with physicians interested in stroke was investigated. Physicians interested in stroke were invited to an online anonymous survey to provide outcome estimates in randomly allocated structured scenarios of recent real-life stroke patients. Their estimates were compared to scores' predictions in the same scenarios. An estimate was considered accurate if it was within 95% confidence intervals of actual outcome. In all, 244 participants from 32 different countries responded assessing 720 real scenarios and 2636 outcomes. The majority of physicians' estimates were inaccurate (1422/2636, 53.9%). 400 (56.8%) of physicians' estimates about the percentage probability of 3-month modified Rankin score (mRS) > 2 were accurate compared with 609 (86.5%) of ASTRAL score estimates (P DRAGON score estimates (P DRAGON score estimates (P DRAGON and SEDAN scores predict outcome of acute ischaemic stroke patients with higher accuracy compared to physicians interested in stroke. © 2016 EAN.

  19. Dataset of working conditions and thermo-economic performances for hybrid organic Rankine plants fed by solar and low-grade energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardigno, Domenico; Fanelli, Emanuele; Viggiano, Annarita; Braccio, Giacobbe; Magi, Vinicio

    2016-06-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article "A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources" (Scardigno et al., 2015) [1]. The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces.

  20. Flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of R134a, R1234yf and R1234ze in a plate heat exchanger for organic Rankine cycle units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ji; Desideri, Adriano; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2017-01-01

    . This paper is aimed at obtaining flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in a plate heat exchanger under the working conditions prevailing in the evaporator of organic Rankine cycle units. Two hydrofluoroolefins R1234yf and R1234ze, and one hydrofluorocarbon R134a, were selected......The optimal design of the evaporator is one of the key issues to improve the efficiency and economics of organic Rankine cycle units. The first step in studying the evaporator design is to understand the thermal-hydraulic performance of the working fluid in the evaporator of organic Rankine cycles......, respectively. The working conditions covered relatively high saturation temperatures (corresponding reduced pressures of 0.35-0.74), which are prevailing in organic Rankine cycles yet absent in the open literature. The experimental data were compared with existing correlations, and new correlations were...

  1. Optimization of Biomass-Fuelled Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems Integrated with Subcritical or Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Maraver; Sylvain Quoilin; Javier Royo

    2014-01-01

    This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling deman...

  2. Performance Analysis and Working Fluid Selection of a Supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle for Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis of a supercritical organic Rankine cycle system driven by exhaust heat using 18 organic working fluids is presented. Several parameters, such as the net power output, exergy efficiency, expander size parameter (SP, and heat exchanger requirement of evaporator and the condenser, were used to evaluate the performance of this recovery cycle and screen the working fluids. The results reveal that in most cases, raising the expander inlet temperature is helpful to improve the net power output and the exergy efficiency. However, the effect of the expander inlet pressure on those parameters is related to the expander inlet temperature and working fluid used. Either lower expander inlet temperature and pressure, or higher expander inlet temperature and pressure, generally makes the net power output more. Lower expander inlet temperature results in larger total heat transfer requirement and expander size. According to the screening criteria of both the higher output and the lower investment, the following working fluids for the supercritical ORC system are recommended: R152a and R143a.

  3. Organic Rankine-cycle power systems working fluids study: Topical report No. 1: Fluorinol 85. [85 mole % trofluoroethanol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.L.; Demirgian, J.C.; Cole, R.L.

    1986-09-01

    An investigation to experimentally determine the thermal stability limits and degradation rates of Fluorinol 85 as a function of maximum cycle temperatures was initiated in 1982. Following the design and construction of a dynamic test loop capable of simulating the thermodynamic conditions of possible prototypical organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power systems, several test runs were completed. The Fluorinol 85 test loop was operated for about 3800 h, covering a temperature range of 525-600/sup 0/F. Both liquid and noncondensable vapor (gas) samples were drawn periodically and analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry. Results indicate that Fluorinol 85 would not decompose significantly over an extended period of time, up to a maximum cycle temperature of 550/sup 0/F. However, 506-h data at 575/sup 0/F show initiation of significant degradation. The 770-h data at 600/sup 0/F, using a fresh charge of Fluorinol 85, indicate an annual degradation rate of more than 17.2%. The most significant degradation product observed is hydrofluoric acid, which could cause severe corrosion in an ORC system. Devices to remove the hydrofluoric acid and prevent extreme temperature excursions are necessary for any ORC system using Fluorinol 85 as a working fluid.

  4. Exergy analysis of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell and organic Rankine cycle for cooling, heating and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Carleton University 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Hamdullahpur, Feridun [Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    The study examines a novel system that combined a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for cooling, heating and power production (trigeneration) through exergy analysis. The system consists of an SOFC, an ORC, a heat exchanger and a single-effect absorption chiller. The system is modeled to produce a net electricity of around 500 kW. The study reveals that there is 3-25% gain on exergy efficiency when trigeneration is used compared with the power cycle only. Also, the study shows that as the current density of the SOFC increases, the exergy efficiencies of power cycle, cooling cogeneration, heating cogeneration and trigeneration decreases. In addition, it was shown that the effect of changing the turbine inlet pressure and ORC pump inlet temperature are insignificant on the exergy efficiencies of the power cycle, cooling cogeneration, heating cogeneration and trigeneration. Also, the study reveals that the significant sources of exergy destruction are the ORC evaporator, air heat exchanger at the SOFC inlet and heating process heat exchanger. (author)

  5. An Innovative Application of a Solar Storage Wall Combined with the Low-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chen Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to collect energy on the waste heat from air produced by solar ventilation systems. This heat used for electricity generation by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system was implemented. The advantages of this method include the use of existing building’s wall, and it also provides the region of energy scarcity for reference. This is also an innovative method, and the results will contribute to the efforts made toward improving the design of solar ventilation in the field of solar thermal engineering. In addition, ORC system would help generate electricity and build a low-carbon building. This study considered several critical parameters such as length of the airflow channel, intensity of solar radiation, pattern of the absorber plate, stagnant air layer, and operating conditions. The simulation results show that the highest outlet temperature and heat collecting efficiency of solar ventilation system are about 120°C and 60%, respectively. The measured ORC efficiency of the system was 6.2%. The proposed method is feasible for the waste heat from air produced by ventilation systems.

  6. Analysis and optimization of three main organic Rankine cycle configurations using a set of working fluids with different thermodynamic behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Basma; Mabrouk, Mohamed Tahar; Kairouani, Lakdar; Kheiri, Abdelhamid

    2017-06-01

    Different configurations of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems are potential thermodynamic concepts for power generation from low grade heat. The aim of this work is to investigate and optimize the performances of the three main ORC systems configurations: basic ORC, ORC with internal heat exchange (IHE) and regenerative ORC. The evaluation for those configurations was performed using seven working fluids with typical different thermodynamic behaviours (R245fa, R601a, R600a, R227ea, R134a, R1234ze and R1234yf). The optimization has been performed using a genetic algorithm under a comprehensive set of operative parameters such as the fluid evaporating temperature, the fraction of flow rate or the pressure at the steam extracting point in the turbine. Results show that there is no general best ORC configuration for all those fluids. However, there is a suitable configuration for each fluid. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  7. Technical Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle System Using Low-Temperature Source to Generate Electricity in Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the shipping sector has growth rapidly as followed by the increasing of world population and the demands for public transportation via sea. This issue entails the large attention on emission, energy efficiency and fuel consumption on the ship. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR is one of the solution to overcome the mentioned issue and one of the WHR method is by installing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system in ship. ORC demonstrate to recover and exploit the low temperature waste heat rejected by the ship power generation plant. The main source of heat to be utilized is obtained from container ship (7900 kW BHP, DWT 10969 mt ship jacket water cooling system and use R-134a as a refrigerant. The main equipment consists of evaporator, condenser, pump and steam turbine to generate the electricity. The main objective is to quantifying the estimation of electrical power which can be generated at typical loads of the main engine. As the final result of analysis, the ORC system is able to generate the electricity power ranged from 77,5% - 100% of main engine load producing power averagely 57,69 kW.

  8. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  9. About the prediction of Organic Rankine Cycles performances integrating local high-fidelity turbines simulation and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congedo, Pietro; de Santis, Dante; Geraci, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) are of key-importance when exploiting energy systems with a high efficiency. The variability of renewable heat sources makes more complex the global performance prediction of a cycle. The thermodynamic properties of the complex fluids used in the process are another source of uncertainty. The need for a predictive and robust simulation tool of ORCs remains strong. A high-order accurate Residual Distribution scheme has been recently developed for efficiently computing a turbine stage on unstructured grids, including advanced equations of state in order to take into account the complex fluids used in ORCs. Advantages in using high-order methods have been highlighted, in terms of number of degrees of freedom and computational time used, for computing the numerical solution with a greater accuracy compared to lower-order methods, even for shocked flows. The objective of this work is to quantify the numerical error with respect to the various sources of uncertainty of the ORC turbine, thus providing a very high-fidelity prediction in the coupled physical/stochastic space.

  10. Modelling the Influence of Climate on the Performance of the Organic Rankine Cycle for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Korolija

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study of the relative influences of different system design decisions upon the performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC used to generate electricity from foundry waste heat. The design choices included concern the working fluid, whether to use a regenerator and the type of condenser. The novelty of the research lies in its inclusion of the influence of both the ORC location and the auxiliary electricity used by the pumps and fans in the ORC power system. Working fluids suitable for high temperature applications are compared, including three cyclic siloxanes, four linear siloxanes and three aromatic fluids. The ORC is modelled from first principles and simulation runs carried out using weather data for 106 European locations and a heat input profile that was derived from empirical data. The impact of design decisions upon ORC nominal efficiency is reported followed by the impact upon annual system efficiency in which variations in heat input and the condition of outdoor air over a year are considered. The main conclusion is that the location can have a significant impact upon the efficiency of ORC systems due to the influence of climate upon the condenser and auxiliary electricity requirements.

  11. Performance analysis of exhaust heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle in a passenger car with a compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilvacs, M.; Prisecaru, T.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Prisecaru, M.; Pop, E.; Popescu, Gh; Ciobanu, C.; Mohanad, A.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    Compression ignition engines transform approximately 40% of the fuel energy into power available at the crankshaft, while the rest part of the fuel energy is lost as coolant, exhaust gases and other waste heat. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be used to recover this waste heat. In this paper, the characteristics of a system combining a compression ignition engine with an ORC which recover the waste heat from the exhaust gases are analyzed. The performance map of the diesel engine is measured on an engine test bench and the heat quantities wasted by the exhaust gases are calculated over the engine's entire operating region. Based on this data, the working parameters of ORC are defined, and the performance of a combined engine-ORC system is evaluated across this entire region. The results show that the net power of ORC is 6.304kW at rated power point and a maximum of 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption can be achieved.

  12. Optimal design of solid oxide fuel cell, ammonia-water single effect absorption cycle and Rankine steam cycle hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Dehghani, Hossein; Ali Moosavian, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    A combined system containing solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine power plant, Rankine steam cycle and ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is introduced and analyzed. In this process, power, heat and cooling are produced. Energy and exergy analyses along with the economic factors are used to distinguish optimum operating point of the system. The developed electrochemical model of the fuel cell is validated with experimental results. Thermodynamic package and main parameters of the absorption refrigeration system are validated. The power output of the system is 500 kW. An optimization problem is defined in order to finding the optimal operating point. Decision variables are current density, temperature of the exhaust gases from the boiler, steam turbine pressure (high and medium), generator temperature and consumed cooling water. Results indicate that electrical efficiency of the combined system is 62.4% (LHV). Produced refrigeration (at -10 °C) and heat recovery are 101 kW and 22.1 kW respectively. Investment cost for the combined system (without absorption cycle) is about 2917 kW-1.

  13. Thermo-Economic Analysis of Zeotropic Mixtures and Pure Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC for waste heat recovery. A case study for a heat source temperature of 150 °C and a subcritical, saturated cycle is performed. As working fluids R245fa, isobutane, isopentane, and the mixture of isobutane and isopentane are considered. The minimal temperature difference in the evaporator and the condenser, as well as the mixture composition are chosen as variables in order to identify the most suitable working fluid in combination with optimal process parameters under thermo-economic criteria. In general, the results show that cost-effective systems have a high minimal temperature difference ΔTPP,C at the pinch-point of the condenser and a low minimal temperature difference ΔTPP,E at the pinch-point of the evaporator. Choosing isobutane as the working fluid leads to the lowest costs per unit exergy with 52.0 €/GJ (ΔTPP,E = 1.2 K; ΔTPP,C = 14 K. Considering the major components of the ORC, specific costs range between 1150 €/kW and 2250 €/kW. For the zeotropic mixture, a mole fraction of 90% isobutane leads to the lowest specific costs per unit exergy. A further analysis of the ORC system using isobutane shows high sensitivity of the costs per unit exergy for the selected cost estimation methods and for the isentropic efficiency of the turbine.

  14. Performance of Siloxane Mixtures in a High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle Considering the Heat Transfer Characteristics during Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Weith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of the Organic Rankine Cycle to high temperature heat sources is investigated on the case study of waste heat recovery from a selected biogas plant. Two different modes of operation are distinguished: pure electric power and combined heat and power generation. The siloxanes hexamethyldisiloxane (MM and octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM are chosen as working fluids. Moreover, the effect of using mixtures of these components is analysed. Regarding pure electricity generation, process simulations using the simulation tool Aspen Plus show an increase in second law efficiency of 1.3% in case of 97/03 wt % MM/MDM-mixture, whereas for the combined heat and power mode a 60/40 wt % MM/MDM-mixture yields the highest efficiency with an increase of nearly 3% compared to most efficient pure fluid. Next to thermodynamic analysis, measurements of heat transfer coefficients of these siloxanes as well as their mixtures are conducted and Kandlikar’s correlation is chosen to describe the results. Based on that, heat exchanger areas for preheater and evaporator are calculated in order to check whether the poorer heat transfer characteristics of mixtures devalue their efficiency benefit due to increased heat transfer areas. Results show higher heat transfer areas of 0.9% and 14%, respectively, compared to MM.

  15. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  16. Economic assessment of greenhouse gas reduction through low-grade waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Byung Sik; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Usman, Muhammad [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Low-grade waste heat recovery technologies reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels and improve overall efficiency. This paper presents the economic assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction through waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The ORC engine is one of the mature low temperature heat engines. The low boiling temperature of organic working fluid enables ORC to recover low-temperature waste heat. The recovered waste heat is utilized to produce electricity and hot water. The GHG emissions for equivalent power and hot water from three fossil fuels-coal, natural gas, and diesel oil-are estimated using the fuel analysis approach and corresponding emission factors. The relative decrease in GHG emission is calculated using fossil fuels as the base case. The total cost of the ORC system is used to analyze the GHG reduction cost for each of the considered fossil fuels. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to investigate the effect of the key parameter of the ORC system on the cost of GHG reduction. Throughout the 20-year life cycle of the ORC plant, the GHG reduction cost for R245fa is 0.02 $/kg to 0.04 $/kg and that for pentane is 0.04 $/kg to 0.05 $/kg. The working fluid, evaporation pressure, and pinch point temperature difference considerably affect the GHG emission.

  17. Economic, Energetic, and Environmental Performance of a Solar Powered Organic Rankine Cycle with Electric Energy Storage in Different Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis to determine the economic, energetic, and environmental benefits that could be obtained from the implementation of a combined solar-power organic Rankine cycle (ORC with electric energy storage (EES to supply electricity to several commercial buildings including a large office, a small office, and a full service restaurant. The operational strategy for the ORC-EES system consists in the ORC charging the EES when the irradiation level is sufficient to generate power, and the EES providing electricity to the building when there is not irradiation (i.e., during night time. Electricity is purchased from the utility grid unless it is provided by the EES. The potential of the proposed system to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC, carbon dioxide emission (CDE, and cost was evaluated. Furthermore, the available capital cost for a variable payback period for the ORC-EES system was determined for each of the evaluated buildings. The effect of the number of solar collectors on the performance of the ORC-EES is also studied. Results indicate that the proposed ORC-EES system is able to satisfy 11%, 13%, and 18% of the electrical demand for the large office, the small office and the restaurant, respectively.

  18. International multicentre validation of the arteriovenous malformation-related intracerebral haemorrhage (AVICH) score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidert, Marian C; Lawton, Michael T; Kim, Louis J; Nerva, John D; Kurisu, Kaoru; Ikawa, Fusao; Konczalla, Juergen; Dinc, Nazife; Seifert, Volker; Habdank-Kolaczkowski, Julian; Hatano, Taketo; Hayase, Makoto; Podlesek, Dino; Schackert, Gabriele; Wanet, Thomas; Gläsker, Sven; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Kneist, Andreas; Sure, Ulrich; Seifert, Burkhardt; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl

    2017-10-06

    The recently published arteriovenous malformation-related intracerebral haemorrhage (AVICH) score showed better outcome prediction for patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM)-related intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) than other AVM or ICH scores. Here we present the results of a multicentre, external validation of the AVICH score. All participating centres (n=11) provided anonymous data on 325 patients to form the Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade, the supplemented SM (sSM) grade, the ICH score and the AVICH score. Modified Rankin score (mRS) at last follow-up (mean 25.6 months) was dichotomized into favourable (mRS 0-2, n=210) and unfavourable (mRS 3-6;n=115). Univariate and AUROC analyses were performed to validate the AVICH score. Except nidus structure and AVM size, all single parameters forming the SM, sSM, ICH and AVICH score and the scores itself were significantly different between both outcome groups in the univariate analysis. The AVICH score was confirmed to be the highest predictive outcome score with an AUROC of 0.765 compared with 0.705 for the ICH score and 0.682 for the sSM grade. The multicentre-validated AVICH score predicts clinical outcome superior to pre-existing scores. We suggest the routine use of this score for future clinical outcome prediction and in clinical research. NCT02920645. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  20. The Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Final Report: Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna Post [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zia, Jalal [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This research and development (R&D) project exemplifies a shared public private commitment to advance the development of energy efficient industrial technologies that will reduce the U.S. dependence upon foreign oil, provide energy savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for the conversion of waste heat from gas turbine exhaust to electricity. In conventional ORCs, the heat from the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to a hydrocarbon based working fluid by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. The Direct Evaporator accomplishes preheating, evaporation and superheating of the working fluid by a heat exchanger placed within the exhaust gas stream. Direct Evaporation is simpler and up to 15% less expensive than conventional ORCs, since the secondary oil loop and associated equipment can be eliminated. However, in the past, Direct Evaporation has been avoided due to technical challenges imposed by decomposition and flammability of the working fluid. The purpose of this project was to retire key risks and overcome the technical barriers to implementing an ORC with Direct Evaporation. R&D was conducted through a partnership between the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and General Electric (GE) Global Research Center (GRC). The project consisted of four research tasks: (1) Detailed Design & Modeling of the ORC Direct Evaporator, (2) Design and Construction of Partial Prototype Direct Evaporator Test Facility, (3) Working Fluid Decomposition Chemical Analyses, and (4) Prototype Evaluation. Issues pertinent to the selection of an ORC working fluid, along with thermodynamic and design considerations of the direct evaporator, were identified. The FMEA (Failure modes and effects analysis) and HAZOP (Hazards and operability analysis) safety studies performed to mitigate risks are described, followed by a discussion of the flammability analysis of the

  2. Assessment of agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scoring the recovery of horses from anesthesia by use of subjective grading scales and development of a system for evaluation of the recovery of horses from anesthesia by use of accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Lascola, Kara M; Carter, Jennifer E; da Cunha, Anderson F; Donaldson, Lydia L; Doherty, Thomas J; Martin-Flores, Manuel; Hofmeister, Erik H; Keating, Stephanie C J; Mama, Khursheed R; Mason, Diane E; Posner, Lysa P; Sano, Hiroki; Seddighi, Reza; Shih, Andre C; Weil, Ann B; Schaeffer, David J

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scores determined by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS) or a composite grading scale (CGS) for quality of recovery of horses from anesthesia and to investigate use of 3-axis accelerometry (3AA) for objective evaluation of recovery. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Horses were fitted with a 3AA device and then were anesthetized. Eight diplomates evaluated recovery by use of an SDS, and 7 other diplomates evaluated recovery by use of a CGS. Agreement was tested with κ and AC1 statistics for the SDS and an ANOVA for the CGS. A library of mathematical models was used to map 3AA data against CGS scores. RESULTS Agreement among diplomates using the SDS was slight (κ = 0.19; AC1 = 0.22). The CGS scores differed significantly among diplomates. Best fit of 3AA data against CGS scores yielded the following equation: RS = 9.998 × SG0.633 × ∑UG0.174, where RS is a horse's recovery score determined with 3AA, SG is acceleration of the successful attempt to stand, and ∑UG is the sum of accelerations of unsuccessful attempts to stand. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Subjective scoring of recovery of horses from anesthesia resulted in poor agreement among diplomates. Subjective scoring may lead to differences in conclusions about recovery quality; thus, there is a need for an objective scoring method. The 3AA system removed subjective bias in evaluations of recovery of horses and warrants further study.

  3. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  4. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  5. Early warning scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    A free app available from the Apple App Store is aimed at supporting health professionals in Wales to use the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). The tool helps staff identify patients who are developing serious illness.

  6. Comparative study of four maxillofacial trauma scoring systems and expert score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Yi; An, Jin-gang; He, Yang; Gong, Xi

    2014-11-01

    To select a scoring system suitable for the scoring of maxillofacial trauma by comparing 4 commonly used scoring systems according to expert scoring. Twenty-eight subjects who had experienced maxillofacial trauma constituted the study cohort. Four commonly used systems were selected: New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS), Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MFISS), and Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MISS). Each patient was graded using these 4 systems. From the experience of our trauma center, an expert scoring table was created. After the purpose and scheme of the study had been explained, 35 experts in maxillofacial surgery were invited to grade the injury of the 28 patients using the expert scoring table according to their clinical experience. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score were compared. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score demonstrated a normal distribution. All results demonstrated significant differences (P maxillofacial injuries. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DRAGON score predicts functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients receiving both intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Arthur; Pednekar, Noorie; Lehrer, Rachel; Todo, Akira; Sahni, Ramandeep; Marks, Stephen; Stiefel, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    The DRAGON score, which includes clinical and computed tomographic (CT) scan parameters, predicts functional outcomes in ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA). We assessed the utility of the DRAGON score in predicting functional outcome in stroke patients receiving both IV tPA and endovascular therapy. A retrospective chart review of patients treated at our institution from February 2009 to October 2015 was conducted. All patients with computed tomography angiography (CTA) proven large vessel occlusions (LVO) who underwent intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy were included. Baseline DRAGON scores and modified Rankin Score (mRS) at the time of hospital discharge was calculated. Good outcome was defined as mRS ≤3. Fifty-eight patients with LVO of the anterior circulation were studied. The mean DRAGON score of patients on admission was 5.3 (range, 3-8). All patients received IV tPA and endovascular therapy. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that DRAGON scores ≥7 was associated with higher mRS (P DRAGON scores ≤6. Patients with DRAGON scores of 7 and 8 on admission had a mortality rate of 3.8% and 40%, respectively. The DRAGON score can help predict better functional outcomes in ischemic stroke patients receiving both IV tPA and endovascular therapy. This data supports the use of the DRAGON score in selecting patients who could potentially benefit from more invasive therapies such as endovascular treatment. Larger prospective studies are warranted to further validate these results.

  8. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  9. Arteriovenous malformation embocure score: AVMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Demetrius K; Moftakhar, Roham; Straus, David; Munich, Stephan A; Chaus, Fahad; Kaszuba, Megan C

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs) may be treated with microsurgery, radiosurgery, endovascular surgery, or a combination of these modalities. Grading scales are available to aid the assessment of curative risk for microsurgery and radiosurgery. No grading system has been developed to assess the curative risk of endovascular surgery. To report our retrospective application of the AVM embocure score to patients treated at our institution between 2005 and 2011 METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 39 patients with CAVM treated at our institution between 2005 and 2011 with the primary aim of achieving a curative embolization. After reviewing all the different variables associated with the conventional Onyx embolization technique for CAVMs, we identified the following as the most relevant characteristics influencing the chances for complete angiographic embolization and complication risk: the number of arterial pedicles and draining veins, size of AVM nidus, and vascular eloquence. We sought to develop a scoring system to assess the complication risk for a curative embolization of CAVM with liquid embolic Onyx (Covidien, Irvine, California, USA). We developed the AVM embocure score (AVMES). This scoring system ranges from 3 to 10 and is the arithmetic sum of the number of arterial pedicles feeding the AVM (≤3, 4-6, >6), the number of draining veins (≤3, 4-6, >6), the size of the AVM nidus in centimeters (≤3, 4-6, >6), and the vascular eloquence (0-1). We applied AVMES to the same cohort of patients and validated the predictability of complete angiographic embolization and expected clinical risk of complication. In lesions with an AVMES of 3 (n=8), there was a 100% rate of complete AVM obliteration and 0% rate of major complications. In AVMES 4 (n=12) lesions, there was 75% complete obliteration rate, with 8% major morbidity. In AVMES 5 (n=9) lesions, there was 78% complete obliteration and 11% major morbidity. In AVMES >5 (n=10) there was 20

  10. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  11. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and

  12. Syncopation and the score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyang Song

    Full Text Available The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature. Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10 were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved.

  13. Reliable scar scoring system to assess photographs of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecott, Gabriel A; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Branski, Ludwik K; Hegde, Sachin; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N; Maldonado, Susana A; Rivero, Haidy G; Rodriguez-Escobar, Noe; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Several scar-scoring scales exist to clinically monitor burn scar development and maturation. Although scoring scars through direct clinical examination is ideal, scars must sometimes be scored from photographs. No scar scale currently exists for the latter purpose. We modified a previously described scar scale (Yeong et al., J Burn Care Rehabil 1997) and tested the reliability of this new scale in assessing burn scars from photographs. The new scale consisted of three parameters as follows: scar height, surface appearance, and color mismatch. Each parameter was assigned a score of 1 (best) to 4 (worst), generating a total score of 3-12. Five physicians with burns training scored 120 representative photographs using the original and modified scales. Reliability was analyzed using coefficient of agreement, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, variance, and coefficient of variance. Analysis of variance was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Color mismatch and scar height scores were validated by analyzing actual height and color differences. The intraclass correlation coefficient, the coefficient of agreement, and Cronbach alpha were higher for the modified scale than those of the original scale. The original scale produced more variance than that in the modified scale. Subanalysis demonstrated that, for all categories, the modified scale had greater correlation and reliability than the original scale. The correlation between color mismatch scores and actual color differences was 0.84 and between scar height scores and actual height was 0.81. The modified scar scale is a simple, reliable, and useful scale for evaluating photographs of burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and development of an automotive organic Rankine-cycle powerplant with a reciprocating expander. Final report. Volume II. Detailed discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    Work performed for the design and development of an organic Rankine-cycle engine for automobile propulsion is reported. An automotive power plant using an organic Rankine-cycle system with a reciprocating expander has been designed, built, and tested on an engine dynamometer in a preprototype configuration. The system is designed to provide performance approximately equivalent to that of a 351-CID internal combustion engine in the reference car, a 1972 Ford Galaxie 500. A description of the preprototype system, major components, and results from component and system testing are presented. The fuel economy based on steady-state measurements is estimated to be 10.2 mpg over the federal driving cycle with a maximum of 16 mpg at 30 mph. Projections of steady-state emission measurements show compliance with the 1970 Clean Air Act standards for 1978 vehicle emissions. The levels for unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen were 41 percent, 6 percent, and 69 percent of the standards, respectively. At the conclusion of the preprototype phase of the program, a prototype design effort was initiated to upgrade and improve the performance of the preprototype system. The reference vehicle for this prototype design is a compact car in the weight class of a 1974 Ford Pinto. The results of this design study, including performance projections, are also presented.

  15. Calculation of wave resistance by using Kochin function in the Rankine source method; Rankinsosuho ni okeru kochin kansu wo mochiita zoha teiko keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to avoid negative wave resistance (which is physically incomprehensible) generated in calculating wave resistance by using the Rankine source method, a proposal was made on a wave resistance calculation method using the Kochin function which describes behavior of speed potential in regions far apart from a hull. The Baba`s condition was used as a free surface condition for the speed potential which expresses wave motions around a hull. This has allowed a new Kochin function which uses as unknown the speed potential on the hull surface and the free surface near the hull to be defined and combined with the Rankine source method. A comparison was made between the calculated values for wave resistance, hull subsidence and trim change of an ore transporting vessel (SR107 type of ship) in a fully loaded condition and the result of water tank tests. The wave resistance values derived from pressure integration have all become negative when the Froude number is from 0.1 to 0.2, while no negative resistance has appeared in the calculations by using the Kochin function, but the result has agreed with that of the water tank tests. Accuracy of the calculations at low speeds was improved. The trim change in the calculations was slightly smaller than that in the water tank tests. The subsidence showed a good agreement. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Confidence Scoring of Speaking Performance: How Does Fuzziness become Exact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…

  17. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the discriminatory ability of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)‑age‑systolic blood pressure (GAP) score and modified early warning scoring system (mEWS) score for 4‑week mortality, for the patients being in the triage category 1 and 2 who refer to Emergency ...

  18. Validation of the Simplified Motor Score in patients with traumatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. This study used data from a large prospectively entered database to assess the efficacy of the motor score (M score) component of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Simplified Motor Score (SMS) in predicting overall outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective. To safely and reliably ...

  19. Score test variable screening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this paper makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient...

  20. Your Criminal Fico Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Scores.” Journal of Applied Psychology 97(2012): 469–478. Chan, Janet, and Lyria Bennett Moses, “Is Big Data Challenging Criminology?” Theoretical...release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) One of the more contentious uses of big data ...analytics in homeland security is predictive policing, which harnesses big data to allocate police resources, decrease crime, and increase public safety

  1. Score test variable screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this article makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  2. External validation of the MRI-DRAGON score: early prediction of stroke outcome after intravenous thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turc, Guillaume; Aguettaz, Pierre; Ponchelle-Dequatre, Nelly; Hénon, Hilde; Naggara, Olivier; Leclerc, Xavier; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Leys, Didier; Mas, Jean-Louis; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT-) DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA). We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013) anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France), where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively. We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 [5]-[14]; poor outcome in 78(34%) patients). The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87), and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54). The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.

  3. External validation of the MRI-DRAGON score: early prediction of stroke outcome after intravenous thrombolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Turc

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT- DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA.We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013 anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France, where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively.We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 [5]-[14]; poor outcome in 78(34% patients. The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54.The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.

  4. Coma scales: a historical review

    OpenAIRE

    Bordini, Ana Luisa; Luiz, Thiago F.; Fernandes, Maurício; Arruda, Walter O.; Teive, Hélio A.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the most important coma scales developed in the last fifty years. METHOD: A review of the literature between 1969 and 2009 in the Medline and Scielo databases was carried out using the following keywords: coma scales, coma, disorders of consciousness, coma score and levels of coma. RESULTS: Five main scales were found in chronological order: the Jouvet coma scale, the Moscow coma scale, the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), the Bozza-Marrubini scale and the FOUR score (Full Out...

  5. Successful Reperfusion With Mechanical Thrombectomy Is Associated With Reduced Disability and Mortality in Patients With Pretreatment Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score ≤6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilles, Jean-Philippe; Consoli, Arthuro; Redjem, Hocine; Coskun, Oguzhan; Ciccio, Gabriele; Smajda, Stanislas; Labreuche, Julien; Preda, Cristian; Ruiz Guerrero, Clara; Decroix, Jean-Pierre; Rodesch, Georges; Mazighi, Mikael; Blanc, Raphaël; Piotin, Michel; Lapergue, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    In acute ischemic stroke patients, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) is correlated with infarct volume and is an independent factor of functional outcome. Patients with pretreatment DWI-ASPECTS ≤6 were excluded or under-represented in the recent randomized mechanical thrombectomy trials. Our aim was to assess the impact of reperfusion in pretreatment DWI-ASPECTS ≤6 patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy. We analyzed data collected between January 2012 and August 2015 in a bicentric prospective clinical registry of consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Every patient with a documented internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusion with pretreatment DWI-ASPECTS ≤6 was eligible for this study. The primary end point was a favorable outcome defined by a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 90 days. Two hundred and eighteen patients with a DWI-ASPECTS ≤6 were included. Among them, 145 (66%) patients had successful reperfusion at the end of mechanical thrombectomy. Reperfused patients had an increased rate of favorable outcome (38.7% versus 17.4%; P =0.002) and a decreased rate of mortality at 3 months (22.5% versus 39.1%; P =0.013) compared with nonreperfused patients. The symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate was not different between the 2 groups (13.0% versus 14.1%; P =0.83). However, in patients with DWI-ASPECTS <5, favorable outcome was low (13.0% versus 9.5%; P =0.68) with a high mortality rate (45.7% versus 57.1%; P =0.38) with or without successful reperfusion. Successful reperfusion is associated with reduced mortality and disability in patients with a pretreatment DWI-ASPECTS ≤6. Further data from randomized studies are needed, particularly in patients with DWI-ASPECTS <5. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fingerprinting of music scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  8. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  9. A Mathematical Model of Hourly Solar Radiation in Varying Weather Conditions for a Dynamic Simulation of the Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehong Sung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of hourly solar radiation with weather variability is proposed based on the simple sky model. The model uses a superposition of trigonometric functions with short and long periods. We investigate the effects of the model variables on the clearness (kD and the probability of persistence (POPD indices and also evaluate the proposed model for all of the kD-POPD weather classes. A simple solar organic Rankine cycle (SORC system with thermal storage is simulated using the actual weather conditions, and then, the results are compared with the simulation results using the proposed model and the simple sky model. The simulation results show that the proposed model provides more accurate system operation characteristics than the simple sky model.

  10. A supplementary grading scale combining lesion-to-eloquence distance for predicting surgical outcomes of patients with brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuming; Lin, Fuxin; Wu, Jun; Li, Hao; Wang, Lijun; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Yong

    2017-03-31

    OBJECTIVE Case selection for the surgical treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) remains challenging. This study aimed to construct a predictive grading system combining lesion-to-eloquence distance (LED) for selecting patients with BAVMs for surgery. METHODS Between September 2012 and September 2015, the authors retrospectively studied 201 consecutive patients with BAVMs. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), followed by resection. Both angioarchitectural factors and LED were analyzed with respect to the change between preoperative and final postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. LED refers to the distance between the lesion and the nearest eloquent area (eloquent cortex or eloquent fiber tracts) measured on preoperative fMRI and DTI. Based on logistic regression analysis, the authors constructed 3 new grading systems. The HDVL grading system includes the independent predictors of mRS change (hemorrhagic presentation, diffuseness, deep venous drainage, and LED). Full Score combines the variables in the Spetzler-Martin (S-M) grading system (nidus size, eloquence of adjacent brain, and venous drainage) and the HDVL. For the third grading system, the fS-M grading system, the authors added information regarding eloquent fiber tracts to the S-M grading system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was compared with those of the S-M grading system and the supplementary S-M grading system of Lawton et al. RESULTS LED was significantly correlated with a change in mRS score (p eloquent fiber tracts to preoperative evaluation can effectively improve its predictive accuracy.

  11. Working Fluid Stability in Large-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle-Units Using Siloxanes—Long-Term Experiences and Fluid Recycling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erhart, Tobias; Gölz, Jürgen; Eicker, Ursula; van den Broek, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    .... All presented fluid samples are analyzed via head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Besides the siloxane composition, the influence of contaminants, such as mineral oil-based lubricants...

  12. Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    simplified’ in the sense that it does not account for costs associated with financing (other than cost of money or discount rate) or taxes, or for...was completed in constant dollars (excluding inflation) per recommendations for non- financed projects in the BLCC model documentation and Handbook... startup costs. Labor & materials required to install (actual and projected for ‘typical’ installation) ElectraTherm, MUSE and deployment site

  13. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator plus eptifibatide versus recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator alone in acute ischemic stroke: propensity score-matched post hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, Opeolu; Sucharew, Heidi; Khoury, Jane; Tomsick, Thomas; Khatri, Pooja; Palesch, Yuko; Schmit, Pamela A; Pancioli, Arthur M; Broderick, Joseph P

    2015-02-01

    The Combined Approach to Lysis Utilizing Eptifibatide and rt-PA in Acute Ischemic Stroke-Enhanced Regimen (CLEAR-ER) trial demonstrated safety of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) plus eptifibatide in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). CLEAR-ER randomized AIS patients (5:1) to 0.6 mg/kg r-tPA plus eptifibatide versus standard r-tPA (0.9 mg/kg). Interventional Management of Stroke III randomized AIS patients to r-tPA plus endovascular therapy versus standard r-tPA. Albumin in Acute Stroke Part 2 randomized patients to albumin±r-tPA versus saline±r-tPA. Our aim was to compare outcomes in CLEAR-ER combination arm patients to propensity score-matched r-tPA only subjects in Albumin in Acute Stroke Part 2 and Interventional Management of Stroke III. The primary outcome was 90-day severity-adjusted modified Rankin score (mRS) dichotomization based on baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Secondary outcomes were 90-day mRS dichotomization as excellent (mRS, 0-1); mRS dichotomization as favorable (mRS, 0-2); and nonparametric analysis of the ordinal mRS. Eighty-five combination arm CLEAR-ER subjects were matched with 169 Albumin in Acute Stroke Part 2 and Interventional Management of Stroke III trials' r-tPA only patients (controls). Median age in CLEAR-ER and control subjects was 68years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in the CLEAR-ER subjects was 11 and in control subjects 12. At 90 days, CLEAR-ER subjects had a nonsignificantly greater proportion of patients with favorable outcomes (45% versus 36%; unadjusted relative risks, 1.24; 95% confidence intervals, 0.91-1.69; P=0.18). Secondary outcomes were 52% versus 34% excellent outcomes (relative risks, 1.51; 95% confidence intervals, 1.13-2.02; P=0.007); 60% versus 53% favorable outcome (relative risks, 1.13; 95% confidence intervals, 0.90-1.41; P=0.31); and ordinal Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P=0.10. r-tPA plus eptifibatide showed a favorable direction of effect that was

  14. Model for predicting the injury severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shuichi; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Murata, Masato; Kaneko, Minoru; Aoki, Makoto; Kanbe, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takuro; Ohyama, Yoshio; Tamura, Jun'ichi

    2015-07-01

    To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score from parameters that are obtained in the emergency department at arrival. We reviewed the medical records of trauma patients who were transferred to the emergency department of Gunma University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2010. The injury severity score, age, mean blood pressure, heart rate, Glasgow coma scale, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, platelet count, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrin degradation products, were examined in those patients on arrival. To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score, multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The injury severity score was set as the dependent variable, and the other parameters were set as candidate objective variables. IBM spss Statistics 20 was used for the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at P  Watson ratio was 2.200. A formula for predicting the injury severity score in trauma patients was developed with ordinary parameters such as fibrin degradation products and mean blood pressure. This formula is useful because we can predict the injury severity score easily in the emergency department.

  15. External validation of the ability of the DRAGON score to predict outcome after thrombolysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesen, C; Christensen, A; Nielsen, J K; Christensen, H

    2013-11-01

    Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasminogen activator between 2009 and 2011 were included. Upon admission all patients underwent physical and neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale along with non-contrast CT scans and CT angiography. Patients were followed up through the Outpatient Clinic and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.96; pDRAGON scale provided good discriminative capability (AUC-ROC: 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.0; p=0.003) for highly unfavourable outcome. We confirmed the validity of the DRAGON scale in predicting outcome after thrombolysis treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship of Apgar Scores and Bayley Mental and Motor Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serunian, Sally A.; Broman, Sarah H.

    1975-01-01

    Examined the relationship of newborns' 1-minute Apgar scores to their 8-month Bayley mental and motor scores and to 8-month classifications of their development as normal, suspect, or abnormal. Also investigated relationships between Apgar scores and race, longevity, and birth weight. (JMB)

  17. Credit Scoring Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siana Halim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally easier to predict defaults accurately if a large data set (including defaults is available for estimating the prediction model. This puts not only small banks, which tend to have smaller data sets, at disadvantage. It can also pose a problem for large banks that began to collect their own historical data only recently, or banks that recently introduced a new rating system. We used a Bayesian methodology that enables banks with small data sets to improve their default probability. Another advantage of the Bayesian method is that it provides a natural way for dealing with structural differences between a bank’s internal data and additional, external data. In practice, the true scoring function may differ across the data sets, the small internal data set may contain information that is missing in the larger external data set, or the variables in the two data sets are not exactly the same but related. Bayesian method can handle such kind of problem.

  18. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  19. What Is the Apgar Score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids What Is the Apgar Score? KidsHealth > For Parents > What Is the Apgar ... Qué es la puntuación de Apgar? About the Apgar Score The Apgar score, the very first test ...

  20. Right tail increasing dependence between scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M.; García, Jesús E.; González-López, V. A.; Romano, N.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the behavior of the conditional probability Prob(U > u|V > v) of two records coming from students of an undergraduate course, where U is the score of calculus I, scaled in [0, 1] and V is the score of physics scaled in [0, 1], the physics subject is part of the admission test of the university. For purposes of comparison, we consider two different undergraduate courses, electrical engineering and mechanical engineering, during nine years, from 2003 to 2011. Through a Bayesian perspective we estimate Prob(U > u|V > v) year by year and course by course. We conclude that U is right tail increasing in V, in both courses and for all the years. Moreover, over these nine years, we observe different ranges of variability for the estimated probabilities of electrical engineering when compared to the estimated probabilities of mechanical engineering.