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Sample records for rank-order correlation coefficients

  1. Political attitudes in adolescence and emerging adulthood: Developmental changes in mean level, polarization, rank-order stability, and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2015-06-01

    This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N = 1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both attitudes, reflecting an increased disagreement with economic redistribution and multiculturalism around late adolescence. Furthermore, attitudes became decreasingly polarized (i.e., less extreme) and increasingly stable with age. Finally, several effects of attitudes' correlates gradually changed: The effect of educational level on ethnocentrism increased with age, whereas the effect of gender diminished. Regional effects on ethnocentrism developed as youths resided in a new area. No age-related change was found in the effect of parental SES. Overall, these findings support the idea that attitudes mature during the formative phase of adolescence and that this process slows down during emerging adulthood. Furthermore, these results support developmental explanations for the association between attitudes and their correlates. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The connections between postural reactions, scoliosis postures and scoliosis in girls aged 12-15 years old examined using the Spearman’s Rank OrderCorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyński Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyse the Spearman's Rank Order Correlation between the postural reactions, scoliosis postures and scoliosis in girls aged 12-15 years old. Throughout the whole group of girls, positive correlations between attitude parameters in the frontal plane and the postural reactions were observed: The angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /average speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /path length eyes closed, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X eyes closed, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed eyes closed. Negative correlations occurred in cases: absolute value angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point X eyes open, depth of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, length of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes closed. Statistically significant correlations occurred more frequent when the Romberg’s test was held with eyes closed (CE: angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/average speed, angle of primary curvature/path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/ lateral speed, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes closed six were positive: angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/ average speed, angle of primary curvature/ path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed, and one was negative: angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes open (OE only three negative correlations occurred: absolute value angle of secondary curvature

  3. On the Kendall Correlation Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we first discuss the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. In continuous case, we define the Kendall rank correlation coefficient in terms of the concomitants of order statistics, find the expected value of the Kendall rank correlation coefficient and show that the later is free of n. We also prove that in continuous case the Kendall correlation coefficient converges in probability to its expected value. We then propose to consider the expected value of the Kendall rank ...

  4. Robust correlation coefficient based on Qn estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nur Amira; Abdullah, Suhaida; Ahad, Nor Aishah

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new robust correlation coefficient called Qn correlation coefficient. This coefficient is developed as an alternative for classical correlation coefficient as the performance of classical correlation coefficient is nasty under contamination data. This study applied robust scale estimator called Qn because this estimator have high breakdown point. Simulation studies are carried out in determining the performances of the new robust correlation coefficient. Clean and contamination data are generated in assessing the performance of these coefficient. The performances of the Qn correlation coefficient is compared with classical correlation coefficient based on the value of coefficient, average bias and standard error. The outcome of the simulation studies shows that the performance of Qn correlation coefficient is superior compared to the classical and existing robust correlation coefficient.

  5. Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.

  6. Wavelet Correlation Coefficient of 'strongly correlated' financial time series

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Razdan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use wavelet concepts to show that correlation coefficient between two financial data's is not constant but varies with scale from high correlation value to strongly anti-correlation value This studies is important because correlation coefficient is used to quantify degree of independence between two variables. In econophysics correlation coefficient forms important input to evolve hierarchial tree and minimum spanning tree of financial data.

  7. Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.

  8. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  9. Rank order scaling of pictorial depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Andrea; Koenderink, Jan; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    We address the topic of "pictorial depth" in cases of pictures that are unlike photographic renderings. The most basic measure of "depth" is no doubt that of depth order. We establish depth order through the pairwise depth-comparison method, involving all pairs from a set of 49 fiducial points. The pictorial space for this study was evoked by a capriccio (imaginary landscape) by Francesco Guardi (1712-1793). In such a drawing pictorial space is suggested by the artist through a small set of conventional depth cues. As a result typical Western observers tend to agree largely in their visual awareness when looking at such art. We rank depths for locations that are not on a single surface and far apart in pictorial space. We find that observers resolve about 40 distinct depth layers and agree largely in this. From a previous experiment we have metrical data for the same observers. The rank correlations between the results are high. Perhaps surprisingly, we find no correlation between the number of distinct depth layers and the total metrical depth range. Thus, the relation between subjective magnitude and discrimination threshold fails to hold for pictorial depth.

  10. Clustering stocks using partial correlation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sean S.; Chang, Woojin

    2016-11-01

    A partial correlation analysis is performed on the Korean stock market (KOSPI). The difference between Pearson correlation and the partial correlation is analyzed and it is found that when conditioned on the market return, Pearson correlation coefficients are generally greater than those of the partial correlation, which implies that the market return tends to drive up the correlation between stock returns. A clustering analysis is then performed to study the market structure given by the partial correlation analysis and the members of the clusters are compared with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS). The initial hypothesis is that the firms in the same GICS sector are clustered together since they are in a similar business and environment. However, the result is inconsistent with the hypothesis and most clusters are a mix of multiple sectors suggesting that the traditional approach of using sectors to determine the proximity between stocks may not be sufficient enough to diversify a portfolio.

  11. The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…

  12. The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.

  13. Quantifying colocalization by correlation: the Pearson correlation coefficient is superior to the Mander's overlap coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jeremy; Parmryd, Ingela

    2010-08-01

    The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and the Mander's overlap coefficient (MOC) are used to quantify the degree of colocalization between fluorophores. The MOC was introduced to overcome perceived problems with the PCC. The two coefficients are mathematically similar, differing in the use of either the absolute intensities (MOC) or of the deviation from the mean (PCC). A range of correlated datasets, which extend to the limits of the PCC, only evoked a limited response from the MOC. The PCC is unaffected by changes to the offset while the MOC increases when the offset is positive. Both coefficients are independent of gain. The MOC is a confusing hybrid measurement, that combines correlation with a heavily weighted form of co-occurrence, favors high intensity combinations, downplays combinations in which either or both intensities are low and ignores blank pixels. The PCC only measures correlation. A surprising finding was that the addition of a second uncorrelated population can substantially increase the measured correlation, demonstrating the importance of excluding background pixels. Overall, since the MOC is unresponsive to substantial changes in the data and is hard to interpret, it is neither an alternative to nor a useful substitute for the PCC. The MOC is not suitable for making measurements of colocalization either by correlation or co-occurrence.

  14. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of some quantitative traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-seven wheat genotypes and three check varieties were studied for correlation and path coefficient analysis of some quantitative traits in wheat at Kisan (P.G), College, Simbhaoli in India. Generally, the estimates of genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients ...

  15. Frames for exact inversion of the rank order coder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Khaled; Antonini, Marc; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Our goal is to revisit rank order coding by proposing an original exact decoding procedure for it. Rank order coding was proposed by Thorpe et al. who stated that the order in which the retina cells are activated encodes for the visual stimulus. Based on this idea, the authors proposed in [1] a rank order coder/decoder associated to a retinal model. Though, it appeared that the decoding procedure employed yields reconstruction errors that limit the model bit-cost/quality performances when used as an image codec. The attempts made in the literature to overcome this issue are time consuming and alter the coding procedure, or are lacking mathematical support and feasibility for standard size images. Here we solve this problem in an original fashion by using the frames theory, where a frame of a vector space designates an extension for the notion of basis. Our contribution is twofold. First, we prove that the analyzing filter bank considered is a frame, and then we define the corresponding dual frame that is necessary for the exact image reconstruction. Second, to deal with the problem of memory overhead, we design a recursive out-of-core blockwise algorithm for the computation of this dual frame. Our work provides a mathematical formalism for the retinal model under study and defines a simple and exact reverse transform for it with over than 265 dB of increase in the peak signal-to-noise ratio quality compared to [1]. Furthermore, the framework presented here can be extended to several models of the visual cortical areas using redundant representations.

  16. A Rank-Ordered Marginal Filter for Deinterlacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Hoon Kang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new interpolation filter for deinterlacing, which is achievedby enhancing the edge preserving ability of the conventional edge-based line averagemethods. This filter consists of three steps: pre-processing step, fuzzy metric-based weightassignation step, and rank-ordered marginal filter step. The proposed method is able tointerpolate the missing lines without introducing annoying articles. Simulation results showthat the images filtered with the proposed algorithm restrain less annoying pixels than theones acquired by other methods.

  17. correlation studies and path coefficient analysis for seed yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients were estimated according to. Johanson et al. (1955), Miller et al. (1958) and. Singh and Chavdhury (1985). Where: = Phenotypic correlation coefficient between traits x and y; ..... Robert E. Kinger Publishing Company,. Malabar. 427pp. Gurubuz, B. 2001. Correlation and path ...

  18. Modified Regression Correlation Coefficient for Poisson Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaengthong, Nattacha; Domthong, Uthumporn

    2017-09-01

    This study gives attention to indicators in predictive power of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which are widely used; however, often having some restrictions. We are interested in regression correlation coefficient for a Poisson regression model. This is a measure of predictive power, and defined by the relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and the expected value of the dependent variable given the independent variables [E(Y|X)] for the Poisson regression model. The dependent variable is distributed as Poisson. The purpose of this research was modifying regression correlation coefficient for Poisson regression model. We also compare the proposed modified regression correlation coefficient with the traditional regression correlation coefficient in the case of two or more independent variables, and having multicollinearity in independent variables. The result shows that the proposed regression correlation coefficient is better than the traditional regression correlation coefficient based on Bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

  19. Assessing vascular endothelial function using frequency and rank order statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Liu, An-Bang; Lin, Zong-Lin; Tang, Chieh-Ju; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2013-08-01

    Using frequency and rank order statistics (FROS), this study analyzed the fluctuations in arterial waveform amplitudes recorded from an air pressure sensing system before and after reactive hyperemia (RH) induction by temporary blood flow occlusion to evaluate the vascular endothelial function of aged and diabetic subjects. The modified probability-weighted distance (PWD) calculated from the FROS was compared with the dilatation index (DI) to evaluate its validity and sensitivity in the assessment of vascular endothelial function. The results showed that the PWD can provide a quantitative determination of the structural changes in the arterial pressure signals associated with regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure by intact vascular endothelium after the application of occlusion stress. Our study suggests that the use of FROS is a reliable noninvasive approach to the assessment of vascular endothelial degeneration in aging and diabetes.

  20. A Note on the Correlated Random Coefficient Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe

    In this note we derive the bias of the OLS estimator for a correlated random coefficient model with one random coefficient, but which is correlated with a binary variable. We provide set-identification to the parameters of interest of the model. We also show how to reduce the bias of the estimator...

  1. Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in variance components models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetrashvili, Nino; Wit, Ernst C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2016-01-01

    Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in agreement studies with continuous outcomes are model-specific and no generic approach exists. This paper provides two generic approaches for intraclass correlation coefficients of the form Sigma q=1 2). The first approach uses

  2. Diabetic Erythrocytes Test by Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, A.M; Foresto, P; Darrigo, M; Rosso, O.A

    2008-01-01

    Even when a healthy individual is studied, his/her erythrocytes in capillaries continually change their shape in a synchronized erratic fashion. In this work, the problem of characterizing the cell behavior is studied from the perspective of bounded correlated random walk, based on the assumption that diffractometric data involves both deterministic and stochastic components. The photometric readings are obtained by ektacytometry over several millions of shear elongated cells, using a home-made device called Erythrodeformeter. We have only a scalar signal and no governing equations; therefore the complete behavior has to be reconstructed in an artificial phase space. To analyze dynamics we used the technique of time delay coordinates suggested by Takens, May algorithm, and Fourier transform. The results suggest that on random-walk approach the samples from healthy controls exhibit significant differences from those from diabetic patients and these could allow us to claim that we have linked mathematical nonlinear tools with clinical aspects of diabetic erythrocytes’ rheological properties. PMID:19415139

  3. [Electroencephalogram Feature Selection Based on Correlation Coefficient Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinzhi; Tang, Xiaofang

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of classification with small amount of motor imagery training data on the development of brain-computer interface (BCD systems, we proposed an analyzing method to automatically select the characteristic parameters based on correlation coefficient analysis. Throughout the five sample data of dataset IV a from 2005 BCI Competition, we utilized short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and correlation coefficient calculation to reduce the number of primitive electroencephalogram dimension, then introduced feature extraction based on common spatial pattern (CSP) and classified by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Simulation results showed that the average rate of classification accuracy could be improved by using correlation coefficient feature selection method than those without using this algorithm. Comparing with support vector machine (SVM) optimization features algorithm, the correlation coefficient analysis can lead better selection parameters to improve the accuracy of classification.

  4. Null distribution of multiple correlation coefficient under mixture normal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hydar Ali

    2002-01-01

    correlation coefficient, R2, when a sample is drawn from a mixture of two multivariate Gaussian populations. The moments of 1−R2 and inverse Mellin transform have been used to derive the density of R2.

  5. Null distribution of multiple correlation coefficient under mixture normal model

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hydar; Nagar, Daya K.

    2002-01-01

    The multiple correlation coefficient is used in a large variety of statistical tests and regression problems. In this article, we derive the null distribution of the square of the sample multiple correlation coefficient, R2, when a sample is drawn from a mixture of two multivariate Gaussian populations. The moments of 1−R2 and inverse Mellin transform have been used to derive the density of R2.

  6. Generalized Correlation Coefficient Based on Log Likelihood Ratio Test Statistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hsiang-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I point out that both Joe’s and Ding’s strength statistics can only be used for testing the pair-wise independence, and I propose a novel G-square based strength statistic, called Liu’s generalized correlation coefficient, it can be used to detect and compare the strength of not only the pair-wise independence but also the mutual independence of any multivariate variables. Furthermore, I proved that only Liu’s generalized correlation coefficient is strictly increasing on its number of variables, it is more sensitive and useful than Cramer’s V coefficient, in other words, Liu generalized correlation coefficient is not only the G-square based strength statistic, but also an improved statistic for detecting and comparing the strengths of deferent associations of any two or more sets of multivariate variables, moreover, this new strength statistic can also be tested by G2.

  7. Statistical Study of Turbulence: Spectral Functions and Correlation Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkiel, Francois N.

    1958-01-01

    In reading the publications on turbulence of different authors, one often runs the risk of confusing the various correlation coefficients and turbulence spectra. We have made a point of defining, by appropriate concepts, the differences which exist between these functions. Besides, we introduce in the symbols a few new characteristics of turbulence. In the first chapter, we study some relations between the correlation coefficients and the different turbulence spectra. Certain relations are given by means of demonstrations which could be called intuitive rather than mathematical. In this way we demonstrate that the correlation coefficients between the simultaneous turbulent velocities at two points are identical, whether studied in Lagrange's or in Euler's systems. We then consider new spectra of turbulence, obtained by study of the simultaneous velocities along a straight line of given direction. We determine some relations between these spectra and the correlation coefficients. Examining the relation between the spectrum of the turbulence measured at a fixed point and the longitudinal-correlation curve given by G. I. Taylor, we find that this equation is exact only when the coefficient is very small.

  8. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  9. Distributing Correlation Coefficients of Linear Structure-Activity/Property Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity/property relationships are mathematical relationships linking chemical structure and activity/property in a quantitative manner. These in silico approaches are frequently used to reduce animal testing and risk-assessment, as well as to increase time- and cost-effectiveness in characterization and identification of active compounds. The aim of our study was to investigate the pattern of correlation coefficients distribution associated to simple linear relationships linking the compounds structure with their activities. A set of the most common ordnance compounds found at naval facilities with a limited data set with a range of toxicities on aquatic ecosystem and a set of seven properties was studied. Statistically significant models were selected and investigated. The probability density function of the correlation coefficients was investigated using a series of possible continuous distribution laws. Almost 48% of the correlation coefficients proved fit Beta distribution, 40% fit Generalized Pareto distribution, and 12% fit Pert distribution.

  10. A comparison of two indices for the intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the behavior of two indices for measuring the intraclass correlation in the one-way random effects model: the prevailing ICC(1) (Fisher, 1938) and the corrected eta-squared (Bliese & Halverson, 1998). These two procedures differ both in their methods of estimating the variance components that define the intraclass correlation coefficient and in their performance of bias and mean squared error in the estimation of the intraclass correlation coefficient. In contrast with the natural unbiased principle used to construct ICC(1), in the present study it was analytically shown that the corrected eta-squared estimator is identical to the maximum likelihood estimator and the pairwise estimator under equal group sizes. Moreover, the empirical results obtained from the present Monte Carlo simulation study across various group structures revealed the mutual dominance relationship between their truncated versions for negative values. The corrected eta-squared estimator performs better than the ICC(1) estimator when the underlying population intraclass correlation coefficient is small. Conversely, ICC(1) has a clear advantage over the corrected eta-squared for medium and large magnitudes of population intraclass correlation coefficient. The conceptual description and numerical investigation provide guidelines to help researchers choose between the two indices for more accurate reliability analysis in multilevel research.

  11. Correlation Revelation: The Search for Meaning in Pearson's Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Craig

    2016-01-01

    When the author was first charged with getting a group of students to understand the correlation coefficient, he did not anticipate the topic would challenge his own understanding, let alone cause him to eventually question the very nature of mathematics itself. On the surface, the idea seemed straightforward, one that millions of students across…

  12. Highlighting material structure with transmission electron diffraction correlation coefficient maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ákos K; Rauch, Edgar F; Lábár, János L

    2016-04-01

    Correlation coefficient maps are constructed by computing the differences between neighboring diffraction patterns collected in a transmission electron microscope in scanning mode. The maps are shown to highlight material structural features like grain boundaries, second phase particles or dislocations. The inclination of the inner crystal interfaces are directly deduced from the resulting contrast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. correlation studies and path coefficient analysis for seed yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Analysis for seed yield and yield components in Ethiopian coriander. 55. TABLE 1. Phenotypic (below diagonal) and genotypic (above diagonal) correlation coefficients of 14 traits of 49 coriander accessions tested at W ondo Genet and Kokate during the main cropping season of 2007/2008. LBLL. BLN. PH. TSW. DSF.

  14. Modeling Concordance Correlation Coefficient for Longitudinal Study Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Tang, Wan; Yu, Qin; Tu, X. M.

    2010-01-01

    Measures of agreement are used in a wide range of behavioral, biomedical, psychosocial, and health-care related research to assess reliability of diagnostic test, psychometric properties of instrument, fidelity of psychosocial intervention, and accuracy of proxy outcome. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a popular measure of…

  15. On the misinterpretation of the correlation coefficient in pharmaceutical sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    The correlation coefficient is often used and more often misused as a universal parameter expressing the quality in linear regression analysis. The popularity of this dimensionless quantity is evident as it is easy to communicate and considered to be unproblematic to comprehend. However, illustra...

  16. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Kazama, Toshiki; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2012-06-01

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. • Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen • There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor • ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer.

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro [Chiba University, Department of Frontier Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Kazama, Toshiki [Chiba University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  18. Generalization of Clustering Coefficients to Signed Correlation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Giulio; Perugini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The recent interest in network analysis applications in personality psychology and psychopathology has put forward new methodological challenges. Personality and psychopathology networks are typically based on correlation matrices and therefore include both positive and negative edge signs. However, some applications of network analysis disregard negative edges, such as computing clustering coefficients. In this contribution, we illustrate the importance of the distinction between positive and negative edges in networks based on correlation matrices. The clustering coefficient is generalized to signed correlation networks: three new indices are introduced that take edge signs into account, each derived from an existing and widely used formula. The performances of the new indices are illustrated and compared with the performances of the unsigned indices, both on a signed simulated network and on a signed network based on actual personality psychology data. The results show that the new indices are more resistant to sample variations in correlation networks and therefore have higher convergence compared with the unsigned indices both in simulated networks and with real data. PMID:24586367

  19. Random matrix theory analysis of cross-correlations in the US stock market: Evidence from Pearson’s correlation coefficient and detrended cross-correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Chen, Shou; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Yang, Ming-Yan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we first build two empirical cross-correlation matrices in the US stock market by two different methods, namely the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detrended cross-correlation coefficient (DCCA coefficient). Then, combining the two matrices with the method of random matrix theory (RMT), we mainly investigate the statistical properties of cross-correlations in the US stock market. We choose the daily closing prices of 462 constituent stocks of S&P 500 index as the research objects and select the sample data from January 3, 2005 to August 31, 2012. In the empirical analysis, we examine the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients, the distribution of eigenvalues, the distribution of eigenvector components, and the inverse participation ratio. From the two methods, we find some new results of the cross-correlations in the US stock market in our study, which are different from the conclusions reached by previous studies. The empirical cross-correlation matrices constructed by the DCCA coefficient show several interesting properties at different time scales in the US stock market, which are useful to the risk management and optimal portfolio selection, especially to the diversity of the asset portfolio. It will be an interesting and meaningful work to find the theoretical eigenvalue distribution of a completely random matrix R for the DCCA coefficient because it does not obey the Marčenko-Pastur distribution.

  20. A short note on jackknifing the concordance correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dai; Baumgartner, Richard; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2014-02-10

    Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a very popular scaled index of agreement used in applied statistics. To obtain a confidence interval (CI) for the estimate of CCC, jackknifing was proposed and shown to perform well in simulation as well as in applications. However, a theoretical proof of the validity of the jackknife CI for the CCC has not been presented yet. In this note, we establish a sufficient condition for using the jackknife method to construct the CI for the CCC. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Some Health States Are Better Than Others: Using Health State Rank Order to Improve Probabilistic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Jalal, Hawre J

    2016-11-01

    Probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) may lead policy makers to take nonoptimal actions due to misestimates of decision uncertainty caused by ignoring correlations. We developed a method to establish joint uncertainty distributions of quality-of-life (QoL) weights exploiting ordinal preferences over health states. Our method takes as inputs independent, univariate marginal distributions for each QoL weight and a preference ordering. It establishes a correlation matrix between QoL weights intended to preserve the ordering. It samples QoL weight values from their distributions, ordering them with the correlation matrix. It calculates the proportion of samples violating the ordering, iteratively adjusting the correlation matrix until this proportion is below an arbitrarily small threshold. We compare our method with the uncorrelated method and other methods for preserving rank ordering in terms of violation proportions and fidelity to the specified marginal distributions along with PSA and expected value of partial perfect information (EVPPI) estimates, using 2 models: 1) a decision tree with 2 decision alternatives and 2) a chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) Markov model with 3 alternatives. All methods make tradeoffs between violating preference orderings and altering marginal distributions. For both models, our method simultaneously performed best, with largest performance advantages when distributions reflected wider uncertainty. For PSA, larger changes to the marginal distributions induced by existing methods resulted in differing conclusions about which strategy was most likely optimal. For EVPPI, both preference order violations and altered marginal distributions caused existing methods to misestimate the maximum value of seeking additional information, sometimes concluding that there was no value. Analysts can characterize the joint uncertainty in QoL weights to improve PSA and value-of-information estimates using Open Source implementations of our method.

  2. Overcoming multicollinearity in multiple regression using correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainodin, H. J.; Yap, S. J.

    2013-09-01

    Multicollinearity happens when there are high correlations among independent variables. In this case, it would be difficult to distinguish between the contributions of these independent variables to that of the dependent variable as they may compete to explain much of the similar variance. Besides, the problem of multicollinearity also violates the assumption of multiple regression: that there is no collinearity among the possible independent variables. Thus, an alternative approach is introduced in overcoming the multicollinearity problem in achieving a well represented model eventually. This approach is accomplished by removing the multicollinearity source variables on the basis of the correlation coefficient values based on full correlation matrix. Using the full correlation matrix can facilitate the implementation of Excel function in removing the multicollinearity source variables. It is found that this procedure is easier and time-saving especially when dealing with greater number of independent variables in a model and a large number of all possible models. Hence, in this paper detailed insight of the procedure is shown, compared and implemented.

  3. A robust bayesian estimate of the concordance correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dai; Baumgartner, Richard; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A need for assessment of agreement arises in many situations including statistical biomarker qualification or assay or method validation. Concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is one of the most popular scaled indices reported in evaluation of agreement. Robust methods for CCC estimation currently present an important statistical challenge. Here, we propose a novel Bayesian method of robust estimation of CCC based on multivariate Student's t-distribution and compare it with its alternatives. Furthermore, we extend the method to practically relevant settings, enabling incorporation of confounding covariates and replications. The superiority of the new approach is demonstrated using simulation as well as real datasets from biomarker application in electroencephalography (EEG). This biomarker is relevant in neuroscience for development of treatments for insomnia.

  4. Statistical functions and relevant correlation coefficients of clearness index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Diego; Zaaiman, Willem; Colli, Alessandra; Heiser, John; Smith, Scott

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a statistical analysis of the sky conditions, during years from 2010 to 2012, for three different locations: the Joint Research Centre site in Ispra (Italy, European Solar Test Installation - ESTI laboratories), the site of National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden (Colorado, USA) and the site of Brookhaven National Laboratories in Upton (New York, USA). The key parameter is the clearness index kT, a dimensionless expression of the global irradiance impinging upon a horizontal surface at a given instant of time. In the first part, the sky conditions are characterized using daily averages, giving a general overview of the three sites. In the second part the analysis is performed using data sets with a short-term resolution of 1 sample per minute, demonstrating remarkable properties of the statistical distributions of the clearness index, reinforced by a proof using fuzzy logic methods. Successively some time-dependent correlations between different meteorological variables are presented in terms of Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, and introducing a new one.

  5. A comparison of confidence interval methods for the concordance correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient with small number of raters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dai; Svetnik, Vladimir; Coimbra, Alexandre; Baumgartner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with fixed raters or, equivalently, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for continuous outcomes is a widely accepted aggregate index of agreement in settings with small number of raters. Quantifying the precision of the CCC by constructing its confidence interval (CI) is important in early drug development applications, in particular in qualification of biomarker platforms. In recent years, there have been several new methods proposed for construction of CIs for the CCC, but their comprehensive comparison has not been attempted. The methods consisted of the delta method and jackknifing with and without Fisher's Z-transformation, respectively, and Bayesian methods with vague priors. In this study, we carried out a simulation study, with data simulated from multivariate normal as well as heavier tailed distribution (t-distribution with 5 degrees of freedom), to compare the state-of-the-art methods for assigning CI to the CCC. When the data are normally distributed, the jackknifing with Fisher's Z-transformation (JZ) tended to provide superior coverage and the difference between it and the closest competitor, the Bayesian method with the Jeffreys prior was in general minimal. For the nonnormal data, the jackknife methods, especially the JZ method, provided the coverage probabilities closest to the nominal in contrast to the others which yielded overly liberal coverage. Approaches based upon the delta method and Bayesian method with conjugate prior generally provided slightly narrower intervals and larger lower bounds than others, though this was offset by their poor coverage. Finally, we illustrated the utility of the CIs for the CCC in an example of a wake after sleep onset (WASO) biomarker, which is frequently used in clinical sleep studies of drugs for treatment of insomnia.

  6. Invariant correlation filter with linear phase coefficient holographic realization in 4-F correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtikhiev, Nickolay N.; Starikov, Sergey N.; Shaulskiy, Dmitriy V.; Starikov, Rostislav S.; Zlokazov, Evgeny Yu.

    2011-06-01

    Realization of distortion invariant correlation filters in optical image correlators open possibilities for object identification with remarkably high computational capabilities. Application of the linear phase coefficient composite filter (LPCCF) is attractive for recognition of binary edged images. We use methods of digital holographic synthesis to realize LPCCF in a coherent 4-F correlator as a computer-generated amplitude holographic filter. A high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) has to be implemented for such a filter representation. Transparency limitations of high frame rate and high resolution SLM's and its effect on recognition performance of holographic filter in the 4-F correlator are discussed in the given paper.

  7. Additive Representations on Rank-Ordered Sets. I. The Algebraic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers additive conjoint measurement on subsets of Cartesian products containing "rank-ordered" n-tuples. Contrary to what has often been thought, additive conjoint measurement on subsets of Cartesian products has characteristics different from additive conjoint measurement on full

  8. Optimal classifier for imbalanced data using Matthews Correlation Coefficient metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughorbel, Sabri; Jarray, Fethi; El-Anbari, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Data imbalance is frequently encountered in biomedical applications. Resampling techniques can be used in binary classification to tackle this issue. However such solutions are not desired when the number of samples in the small class is limited. Moreover the use of inadequate performance metrics, such as accuracy, lead to poor generalization results because the classifiers tend to predict the largest size class. One of the good approaches to deal with this issue is to optimize performance metrics that are designed to handle data imbalance. Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) is widely used in Bioinformatics as a performance metric. We are interested in developing a new classifier based on the MCC metric to handle imbalanced data. We derive an optimal Bayes classifier for the MCC metric using an approach based on Frechet derivative. We show that the proposed algorithm has the nice theoretical property of consistency. Using simulated data, we verify the correctness of our optimality result by searching in the space of all possible binary classifiers. The proposed classifier is evaluated on 64 datasets from a wide range data imbalance. We compare both classification performance and CPU efficiency for three classifiers: 1) the proposed algorithm (MCC-classifier), the Bayes classifier with a default threshold (MCC-base) and imbalanced SVM (SVM-imba). The experimental evaluation shows that MCC-classifier has a close performance to SVM-imba while being simpler and more efficient.

  9. ROCIT : a visual object recognition algorithm based on a rank-order coding scheme.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Antonio Ignacio; Reeves, Paul C.; Jones, John J.; Farkas, Benjamin D.

    2004-06-01

    This document describes ROCIT, a neural-inspired object recognition algorithm based on a rank-order coding scheme that uses a light-weight neuron model. ROCIT coarsely simulates a subset of the human ventral visual stream from the retina through the inferior temporal cortex. It was designed to provide an extensible baseline from which to improve the fidelity of the ventral stream model and explore the engineering potential of rank order coding with respect to object recognition. This report describes the baseline algorithm, the model's neural network architecture, the theoretical basis for the approach, and reviews the history of similar implementations. Illustrative results are used to clarify algorithm details. A formal benchmark to the 1998 FERET fafc test shows above average performance, which is encouraging. The report concludes with a brief review of potential algorithmic extensions for obtaining scale and rotational invariance.

  10. Knowledge extraction from evolving spiking neural networks with rank order population coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltic, Snjezana; Kasabov, Nikola

    2010-12-01

    This paper demonstrates how knowledge can be extracted from evolving spiking neural networks with rank order population coding. Knowledge discovery is a very important feature of intelligent systems. Yet, a disproportionally small amount of research is centered on the issue of knowledge extraction from spiking neural networks which are considered to be the third generation of artificial neural networks. The lack of knowledge representation compatibility is becoming a major detriment to end users of these networks. We show that a high-level knowledge can be obtained from evolving spiking neural networks. More specifically, we propose a method for fuzzy rule extraction from an evolving spiking network with rank order population coding. The proposed method was used for knowledge discovery on two benchmark taste recognition problems where the knowledge learnt by an evolving spiking neural network was extracted in the form of zero-order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy IF-THEN rules.

  11. Correlating apparent diffusion coefficients with histopathologic findings on meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Bo, E-mail: yinbo7@163.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China); Liu, Li, E-mail: llbbsy@163.com [Department of Radiology, Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, 270 Dongan Rd., Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Bi Yun, E-mail: bianka0830@126.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Yu Xin, E-mail: liyuxin76@126.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Yuan, E-mail: ybllfd@163.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China); Geng, Dao Ying, E-mail: gengdymd@163.com [Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Rd. Middle, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates with histopathologic findings and whether ADC values can be used to differentiate benign from atypical/malignant meningiomas. Materials and methods: MR images were reviewed retrospectively in 138 patients with meningiomas treated between September 1997 and July 2003. The ADC values were measured in the lesions and peritumoral edema, and the normalized ADC (NADC) ratios were calculated using the formula NADC = ADC of the tumor/ADC of the normal white matter. The ADC findings were compared with the histopathologic findings after resection using the World Health Organization criteria (2007). Results: Meningiomas were histologically graded as malignant (9%), atypical (14%) and benign (77%). Of the 138 meningiomas, 32 (23%) were atypical (n = 19) or malignant (n = 13), whereas 106 (77%) were typical. The mean ADC values were statistically different between typical and atypical/malignant meningiomas (0.97 ± 0.21 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s vs 0.85 ± 0.17 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s). The mean NADC ratios were also significantly lower in the atypical/malignant group (1.09 ± 0.23) than in the benign group (1.24 ± 0.25; P = 0.002 < 0.05). The mean ADC values and NADC ratios did not differ significantly among fibrous, meningothelial, transitional and atypical tumors (P > 0.05). The mean ADC values and NADC ratios were higher in the angiomatous and secretory subgroups than in the fibrous, meningothelial, transitional, atypical and malignant subgroups (P < 0.05). The ADC values and NADC ratios were the lowest in the malignant subgroup, and the difference between atypical and malignant meningiomas was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Meningioma subgroups displayed different ADC values from each other. Thus, ADC values may provide a useful supplement to the information obtained from conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging, enhancing the ability of medical professionals to

  12. Rank-ordered filter for edge enhancement of cellular images using interval type II fuzzy set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2015-10-01

    An edge-enhancement technique using an interval type II fuzzy set that uses rank-ordered filter to enhance the edges of cellular images is proposed. When cellular images from any laboratory are digitized, scanned, and stored, some kind of degradation occurs, and directly using a rank-ordered filter may not produce clear edges. These images contain uncertainties, present in edges or boundaries of the image. Fuzzy sets that take into account these uncertainties may be a good tool to process these images. However, a fuzzy set sometimes does not produce better results. We used an interval type II fuzzy set, which considers the uncertainty in a different way. It considers the membership function in the fuzzy set as "fuzzy," so the membership values lie within an interval range. A type II fuzzy set has upper and lower membership levels, and with the two levels, a new membership function is computed using Hamacher t-conorm. A new fuzzy image is formed. A rank-ordered filter is applied to the image to obtain an edge-enhanced image. The proposed method is compared with the existing methods visually and quantitatively using entropic method. Entropy of the proposed method is higher (0.4418) than the morphology method (0.2275), crisp method (0.3599), and Sobel method (0.2669), implying that the proposed method is better.

  13. A guide to appropriate use of Correlation coefficient in medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, misuse of correlation is so common among researchers that some statisticians have wished that the method had never been devised at all. The aim of this article is to provide a guide to appropriate use of correlation in medical research and to highlight some misuse. Examples of the applications of the correlation ...

  14. Genome-scale cluster analysis of replicated microarrays using shrinkage correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianchao; Chang, Chunqi; Salmi, Mari L; Hung, Yeung Sam; Loraine, Ann; Roux, Stanley J

    2008-06-18

    Currently, clustering with some form of correlation coefficient as the gene similarity metric has become a popular method for profiling genomic data. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the standard deviation (SD)-weighted correlation coefficient are the two most widely-used correlations as the similarity metrics in clustering microarray data. However, these two correlations are not optimal for analyzing replicated microarray data generated by most laboratories. An effective correlation coefficient is needed to provide statistically sufficient analysis of replicated microarray data. In this study, we describe a novel correlation coefficient, shrinkage correlation coefficient (SCC), that fully exploits the similarity between the replicated microarray experimental samples. The methodology considers both the number of replicates and the variance within each experimental group in clustering expression data, and provides a robust statistical estimation of the error of replicated microarray data. The value of SCC is revealed by its comparison with two other correlation coefficients that are currently the most widely-used (Pearson correlation coefficient and SD-weighted correlation coefficient) using statistical measures on both synthetic expression data as well as real gene expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two leading clustering methods, hierarchical and k-means clustering were applied for the comparison. The comparison indicated that using SCC achieves better clustering performance. Applying SCC-based hierarchical clustering to the replicated microarray data obtained from germinating spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii, we discovered two clusters of genes with shared expression patterns during spore germination. Functional analysis suggested that some of the genetic mechanisms that control germination in such diverse plant lineages as mosses and angiosperms are also conserved among ferns. This study shows that SCC is an alternative to the Pearson

  15. Attenuation of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Varying Estimates of Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Celia M.

    2010-01-01

    Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.…

  16. Correlation coefficient measurement of the mode-locked laser tones using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Panapakkam, Vivek; Vujicic, Vidak; Merghem, Kamel; Lelarge, Francois; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Barry, Liam P

    2016-06-01

    We use four-wave mixing to measure the correlation coefficient of comb tones in a quantum-dash mode-locked laser under passive and active locked regimes. We study the uncertainty in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the proposed method.

  17. The Robustness of Designs for Trials with Nested Data against Incorrect Initial Intracluster Correlation Coefficient Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korendijk, Elly J. H.; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Maas, Cora J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the case of trials with nested data, the optimal allocation of units depends on the budget, the costs, and the intracluster correlation coefficient. In general, the intracluster correlation coefficient is unknown in advance and an initial guess has to be made based on published values or subject matter knowledge. This initial estimate is likely…

  18. The robustness of designs for trials with nested data against incorrect initial intracluster correlation coefficient estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korendijk, E.J.H.; Moerbeek, M.; Maas, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the case of trials with nested data, the optimal allocation of units depends on the budget, the costs, and the intracluster correlation coefficient. In general, the intracluster correlation coefficient is unknown in advance and an initial guess has to be made based on published values or

  19. Empirical correlations for axial dispersion coefficient and Peclet number in fixed-bed columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Seyed Omid; Gu, Tingyue

    2017-03-24

    In this work, a new correlation for the axial dispersion coefficient was obtained using experimental data in the literature for axial dispersion in fixed-bed columns packed with particles. The Chung and Wen correlation, the De Ligny correlation are two popular empirical correlations. However, the former lacks the molecular diffusion term and the latter does not consider bed voidage. The new axial dispersion coefficient correlation in this work was based on additional experimental data in the literature by considering both molecular diffusion and bed voidage. It is more comprehensive and accurate. The Peclet number correlation from the new axial dispersion coefficient correlation on the average leads to 12% lower Peclet number values compared to the values from the Chung and Wen correlation, and in many cases much smaller than those from the De Ligny correlation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosing cysts with correlation coefficient images from 2-dimensional freehand elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booi, Rebecca C; Carson, Paul L; O'Donnell, Matthew; Richards, Michael S; Rubin, Jonathan M

    2007-09-01

    We compared the diagnostic potential of using correlation coefficient images versus elastograms from 2-dimensional (2D) freehand elastography to characterize breast cysts. In this preliminary study, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board and compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, we imaged 4 consecutive human subjects (4 cysts, 1 biopsy-verified benign breast parenchyma) with freehand 2D elastography. Data were processed offline with conventional 2D phase-sensitive speckle-tracking algorithms. The correlation coefficient in the cyst and surrounding tissue was calculated, and appearances of the cysts in the correlation coefficient images and elastograms were compared. The correlation coefficient in the cysts was considerably lower (14%-37%) than in the surrounding tissue because of the lack of sufficient speckle in the cysts, as well as the prominence of random noise, reverberations, and clutter, which decorrelated quickly. Thus, the cysts were visible in all correlation coefficient images. In contrast, the elastograms associated with these cysts each had different elastographic patterns. The solid mass in this study did not have the same high decorrelation rate as the cysts, having a correlation coefficient only 2.1% lower than that of surrounding tissue. Correlation coefficient images may produce a more direct, reliable, and consistent method for characterizing cysts than elastograms.

  1. Statistics corner: A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaka, M M

    2012-09-01

    Correlation is a statistical method used to assess a possible linear association between two continuous variables. It is simple both to calculate and to interpret. However, misuse of correlation is so common among researchers that some statisticians have wished that the method had never been devised at all. The aim of this article is to provide a guide to appropriate use of correlation in medical research and to highlight some misuse. Examples of the applications of the correlation coefficient have been provided using data from statistical simulations as well as real data. Rule of thumb for interpreting size of a correlation coefficient has been provided.

  2. AN INEQUALITY BETWEEN THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE AND THE ROWWISE CORRELATION-COEFFICIENT FOR PROXIMITY MATRICES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRIJNEN, WP

    De Vries (1993) discusses Pearson's product-moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and Kendall's rank-correlation coefficient for assessing the association between the rows of two proximity matrices. For each of these he introduces a weighted average variant and a rowwise variant. In this

  3. Correlation factor, velocity autocorrelation function and frequency-dependent tracer diffusion coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Kehr, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The correlation factor, defined as the ratio between the tracer diffusion coefficient in lattice gases and the diffusion coefficient for a corresponding uncorrelated random walk, is known to assume a very simple form under certain conditions. A simple derivation of this is given with the aid of

  4. Determining Sample Size for Accurate Estimation of the Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algina, James; Olejnik, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses determining sample size for estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient and presents regression equations that permit determination of the sample size for estimating this parameter for up to 20 predictor variables. (SLD)

  5. Effects of Coarse Grouping and Skewed Marginal Distributions on the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Peter B.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve non-normal bivariate distributions were constructed to investigate the effects which coarsley grouped, skewed marginal distributions have on the correlation coefficient and the accuracy of current methods of correction for grouping. (Author/RC)

  6. Identifying presence of correlated errors in GRACE monthly harmonic coefficients using machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piretzidis, Dimitrios; Sra, Gurveer; Karantaidis, George; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-04-01

    A new method for identifying correlated errors in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly harmonic coefficients has been developed and tested. Correlated errors are present in the differences between monthly GRACE solutions, and can be suppressed using a de-correlation filter. In principle, the de-correlation filter should be implemented only on coefficient series with correlated errors to avoid losing useful geophysical information. In previous studies, two main methods of implementing the de-correlation filter have been utilized. In the first one, the de-correlation filter is implemented starting from a specific minimum order until the maximum order of the monthly solution examined. In the second one, the de-correlation filter is implemented only on specific coefficient series, the selection of which is based on statistical testing. The method proposed in the present study exploits the capabilities of supervised machine learning algorithms such as neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The pattern of correlated errors can be described by several numerical and geometric features of the harmonic coefficient series. The features of extreme cases of both correlated and uncorrelated coefficients are extracted and used for the training of the machine learning algorithms. The trained machine learning algorithms are later used to identify correlated errors and provide the probability of a coefficient series to be correlated. Regarding SVMs algorithms, an extensive study is performed with various kernel functions in order to find the optimal training model for prediction. The selection of the optimal training model is based on the classification accuracy of the trained SVM algorithm on the same samples used for training. Results show excellent performance of all algorithms with a classification accuracy of 97% - 100% on a pre-selected set of training samples, both in the validation stage of the training procedure and in the subsequent use of

  7. Detecting PM2.5's Correlations between Neighboring Cities Using a Time-Lagged Cross-Correlation Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Lin; Chen, Yuming

    2017-08-31

    In order to investigate the time-dependent cross-correlations of fine particulate (PM2.5) series among neighboring cities in Northern China, in this paper, we propose a new cross-correlation coefficient, the time-lagged q-L dependent height crosscorrelation coefficient (denoted by p q (τ, L)), which incorporates the time-lag factor and the fluctuation amplitude information into the analogous height cross-correlation analysis coefficient. Numerical tests are performed to illustrate that the newly proposed coefficient ρ q (τ, L) can be used to detect cross-correlations between two series with time lags and to identify different range of fluctuations at which two series possess cross-correlations. Applying the new coefficient to analyze the time-dependent cross-correlations of PM2.5 series between Beijing and the three neighboring cities of Tianjin, Zhangjiakou, and Baoding, we find that time lags between the PM2.5 series with larger fluctuations are longer than those between PM2.5 series withsmaller fluctuations. Our analysis also shows that cross-correlations between the PM2.5 series of two neighboring cities are significant and the time lags between two PM2.5 series of neighboring cities are significantly non-zero. These findings providenew scientific support on the view that air pollution in neighboring cities can affect one another not simultaneously but with a time lag.

  8. Observations of copolar correlation coefficient through a bright band at vertical incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnic, D. S.; Raghavan, R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses an application of polarimetric measurements at vertical incidence. In particular, the correlation coefficients between linear copolar components are examined, and measurements obtained with the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)'s and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s polarimetric radars are presented. The data are from two well-defined bright bands. A sharp decrease of the correlation coefficient, confined to a height interval of a few hundred meters, marks the bottom of the bright band.

  9. Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy values in the developing infant brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, James M; Isaacson, Jared; Chen, Steven; Stinnett, Sandra; Liu, Chunlei

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to correlate decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) in various white matter (WM) regions using diffusion tenor imaging (DTI) within the first year of life. We performed DTI on 53 infants and measured FA and ADC within 10 WM regions important in brain development. For each region, we calculated the slope of ADC as a function of FA, the correlation coefficient (r) and correlation of determination (r(2)). We performed a group analysis of r values and r(2)values for six WM regions primarily composed of crossing fibers and four regions primarily having parallel fibers. Upon finding that a strong correlation of FA with age existed, we adjusted for age and calculated partial correlation coefficients. Slopes of FA versus ADC ranged from -1.00711 to -1.67592 (p correlation coefficients ranged from -0.49 to 0.03 and r(2) values from 0.31 to 0.79. The highest partial correlation coefficients were then relatively equally distributed between the two types of WM regions. In various regions, FA and ADC evolved with differing degrees of correlation. We found a strong influence of age on the relationship between FA and ADC.

  10. Correlation Between Minimum Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADCmin) and Tumor Cellularity: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Wienke, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on measure of water diffusion that can provide information about tissue microstructure, especially about cell count. Increase of cell density induces restriction of water diffusion and decreases apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). ADC can be divided into three sub-parameters: ADC minimum or ADCmin, mean ADC or ADCmean and ADC maximum or ADCmax Some studies have suggested that ADCmin shows stronger correlations with cell count in comparison to other ADC fractions and may be used as a parameter for estimation of tumor cellularity. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to summarize correlation coefficients between ADCmin and cellularity in different tumors based on large patient data. For this analysis, MEDLINE database was screened for associations between ADC and cell count in different tumors up to September 2016. For this work, only data regarding ADCmin were included. Overall, 12 publications with 317 patients were identified. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations between ADCmin and cellularity. The reported Pearson correlation coefficients in some publications were converted into Spearman correlation coefficients. The pooled correlation coefficient for all included studies was ρ=-0.59 (95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.72 to -0.45), heterogeneity Tau(2)=0.04 (pcorrelated moderately with tumor cellularity. The calculated correlation coefficient is not stronger in comparison to the reported coefficient for ADCmean and, therefore, ADCmin does not represent a better means to reflect cellularity. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Digital image comparison by subtracting contextual transformations—percentile rank order differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehde, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    The common method of digital image comparison by subtraction imposes various constraints on the image contents. Precise registration of images is required to assure proper evaluation of surface locations. The attribute being measured and the calibration and scaling of the sensor are also important to the validity and interpretability of the subtraction result. Influences of sensor gains and offsets complicate the subtraction process. The presence of any uniform systematic transformation component in one of two images to be compared distorts the subtraction results and requires analyst intervention to interpret or remove it. A new technique has been developed to overcome these constraints. Images to be compared are first transformed using the cumulative relative frequency as a transfer function. The transformed images represent the contextual relationship of each surface location with respect to all others within the image. The process of differentiating between the transformed images results in a percentile rank ordered difference. This process produces consistent terrain-change information even when the above requirements necessary for subtraction are relaxed. This technique may be valuable to an appropriately designed hierarchical terrain-monitoring methodology because it does not require human participation in the process.

  12. A generalized rank-order method for nonparametric analysis of data from exercise science: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J R; Nelson, J K; Thomas, K T

    1999-03-01

    Frequent violations of the assumption that data are normally distributed occur in exercise science and other life and behavioral sciences. When this assumption is violated, parametric statistical analyses may be inappropriate for data analysis. We provide a rationale for using a generalized form of nonparametric analyses based on the Puri and Sen (1985) L treated as a chi 2 approximation. If data do not meet the assumption of normality, this nonparametric approach has substantial power and is easy to use. An advantage of this generalized technique is that ranked data may be used in standard parametric statistical programs widely available on desktop and mainframe computers, for example, regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) within BioMed, SAS, SPSS. Once the data are ranked and analyzed with these programs, the only adjustment required is to use a standard formula to calculate the nonparametric test statistic, L, instead of the parametric test statistic (e.g., F). Thus, rank-order nonparametric models become parallel with their parametric counterparts allowing the researcher to select between them based on characteristics of the data distribution. Examples of this approach are provided using data from exercise science for regression, ANOVA (including repeated measures) and MANOVA techniques from SPSSPC. Using these procedures, researchers can easily examine data distributions and make an appropriate decision about parametric or nonparametric analyses while continuing to use their regular statistical packages.

  13. Ten-year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Morey, Leslie C; Donnellan, M Brent; Samuel, Douglas B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-06-01

    This study compares the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Ten-year rank-order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (N = 266). Dependability-corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of.60-.90 for traits and.25-.65 for personality disorders. The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The five-factor theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Quantifying the range of cross-correlated fluctuations using a q- L dependent AHXA coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Lin; Chen, Yuming

    2018-03-01

    Recently, based on analogous height cross-correlation analysis (AHXA), a cross-correlation coefficient ρ×(L) has been proposed to quantify the levels of cross-correlation on different temporal scales for bivariate series. A limitation of this coefficient is that it cannot capture the full information of cross-correlations on amplitude of fluctuations. In fact, it only detects the cross-correlation at a specific order fluctuation, which might neglect some important information inherited from other order fluctuations. To overcome this disadvantage, in this work, based on the scaling of the qth order covariance and time delay L, we define a two-parameter dependent cross-correlation coefficient ρq(L) to detect and quantify the range and level of cross-correlations. This new version of ρq(L) coefficient leads to the formation of a ρq(L) surface, which not only is able to quantify the level of cross-correlations, but also allows us to identify the range of fluctuation amplitudes that are correlated in two given signals. Applications to the classical ARFIMA models and the binomial multifractal series illustrate the feasibility of this new coefficient ρq(L) . In addition, a statistical test is proposed to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two given series. Applying our method to the real life empirical data from the 1999-2000 California electricity market, we find that the California power crisis in 2000 destroys the cross-correlation between the price and the load series but does not affect the correlation of the load series during and before the crisis.

  15. Sample size for estimation of the Pearson correlation coefficient in cherry tomato tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the required sample size for estimation of the Pearson coefficient of correlation between cherry tomato variables. Two uniformity tests were set up in a protected environment in the spring/summer of 2014. The observed variables in each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, number of fruits, and total weight of fruits, with calculation of the Pearson correlation matrix between them. Sixty eight sample sizes were planned for one greenhouse and 48 for another, with the initial sample size of 10 plants, and the others were obtained by adding five plants. For each planned sample size, 3000 estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient were obtained through bootstrap re-samplings with replacement. The sample size for each correlation coefficient was determined when the 95% confidence interval amplitude value was less than or equal to 0.4. Obtaining estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient with high precision is difficult for parameters with a weak linear relation. Accordingly, a larger sample size is necessary to estimate them. Linear relations involving variables dealing with size and number of fruits per plant have less precision. To estimate the coefficient of correlation between productivity variables of cherry tomato, with a confidence interval of 95% equal to 0.4, it is necessary to sample 275 plants in a 250m² greenhouse, and 200 plants in a 200m² greenhouse.

  16. Reducing Bias and Error in the Correlation Coefficient Due to Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Anthony J.; Hittner, James B.

    2015-01-01

    It is more common for educational and psychological data to be nonnormal than to be approximately normal. This tendency may lead to bias and error in point estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient. In a series of Monte Carlo simulations, the Pearson correlation was examined under conditions of normal and nonnormal data, and it was compared…

  17. Relationships among the slopes of lines derived from various data analysis techniques and the associated correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for fitting a straight line to a collection of data points is given. The relationships between the slopes and correlation coefficients, and between the corresponding standard deviations and correlation coefficient are given.

  18. Universality of rank-ordering distributions in the arts and sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Martínez-Mekler

    Full Text Available Searching for generic behaviors has been one of the driving forces leading to a deep understanding and classification of diverse phenomena. Usually a starting point is the development of a phenomenology based on observations. Such is the case for power law distributions encountered in a wealth of situations coming from physics, geophysics, biology, lexicography as well as social and financial networks. This finding is however restricted to a range of values outside of which finite size corrections are often invoked. Here we uncover a universal behavior of the way in which elements of a system are distributed according to their rank with respect to a given property, valid for the full range of values, regardless of whether or not a power law has previously been suggested. We propose a two parameter functional form for these rank-ordered distributions that gives excellent fits to an impressive amount of very diverse phenomena, coming from the arts, social and natural sciences. It is a discrete version of a generalized beta distribution, given by f(r = A(N+1-r(b/r(a, where r is the rank, N its maximum value, A the normalization constant and (a, b two fitting exponents. Prompted by our genetic sequence observations we present a growth probabilistic model incorporating mutation-duplication features that generates data complying with this distribution. The competition between permanence and change appears to be a relevant, though not necessary feature. Additionally, our observations mainly of social phenomena suggest that a multifactorial quality resulting from the convergence of several heterogeneous underlying processes is an important feature. We also explore the significance of the distribution parameters and their classifying potential. The ubiquity of our findings suggests that there must be a fundamental underlying explanation, most probably of a statistical nature, such as an appropriate central limit theorem formulation.

  19. Universality of rank-ordering distributions in the arts and sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Alvarez Martínez, Roberto; Beltrán del Río, Manuel; Mansilla, Ricardo; Miramontes, Pedro; Cocho, Germinal

    2009-01-01

    Searching for generic behaviors has been one of the driving forces leading to a deep understanding and classification of diverse phenomena. Usually a starting point is the development of a phenomenology based on observations. Such is the case for power law distributions encountered in a wealth of situations coming from physics, geophysics, biology, lexicography as well as social and financial networks. This finding is however restricted to a range of values outside of which finite size corrections are often invoked. Here we uncover a universal behavior of the way in which elements of a system are distributed according to their rank with respect to a given property, valid for the full range of values, regardless of whether or not a power law has previously been suggested. We propose a two parameter functional form for these rank-ordered distributions that gives excellent fits to an impressive amount of very diverse phenomena, coming from the arts, social and natural sciences. It is a discrete version of a generalized beta distribution, given by f(r) = A(N+1-r)(b)/r(a), where r is the rank, N its maximum value, A the normalization constant and (a, b) two fitting exponents. Prompted by our genetic sequence observations we present a growth probabilistic model incorporating mutation-duplication features that generates data complying with this distribution. The competition between permanence and change appears to be a relevant, though not necessary feature. Additionally, our observations mainly of social phenomena suggest that a multifactorial quality resulting from the convergence of several heterogeneous underlying processes is an important feature. We also explore the significance of the distribution parameters and their classifying potential. The ubiquity of our findings suggests that there must be a fundamental underlying explanation, most probably of a statistical nature, such as an appropriate central limit theorem formulation.

  20. Relevance weighting of tier 1 endocrine screening endpoints by rank order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgert, Christopher J; Stuchal, Leah D; Mihaich, Ellen M; Becker, Richard A; Bentley, Karin S; Brausch, John M; Coady, Katie; Geter, David R; Gordon, Elliot; Guiney, Patrick D; Hess, Frederick; Holmes, Catherine M; LeBaron, Matthew J; Levine, Steve; Marty, Sue; Mukhi, Sandeep; Neal, Barbara H; Ortego, Lisa S; Saltmiras, David A; Snajdr, Suzanne; Staveley, Jane; Tobia, Abraham

    2014-02-01

    Weight of evidence (WoE) approaches are recommended for interpreting various toxicological data, but few systematic and transparent procedures exist. A hypothesis-based WoE framework was recently published focusing on the U.S. EPA's Tier 1 Endocrine Screening Battery (ESB) as an example. The framework recommends weighting each experimental endpoint according to its relevance for deciding eight hypotheses addressed by the ESB. Here we present detailed rationale for weighting the ESB endpoints according to three rank ordered categories and an interpretive process for using the rankings to reach WoE determinations. Rank 1 was assigned to in vivo endpoints that characterize the fundamental physiological actions for androgen, estrogen, and thyroid activities. Rank 1 endpoints are specific and sensitive for the hypothesis, interpretable without ancillary data, and rarely confounded by artifacts or nonspecific activity. Rank 2 endpoints are specific and interpretable for the hypothesis but less informative than Rank 1, often due to oversensitivity, inclusion of narrowly context-dependent components of the hormonal system (e.g., in vitro endpoints), or confounding by nonspecific activity. Rank 3 endpoints are relevant for the hypothesis but only corroborative of Ranks 1 and 2 endpoints. Rank 3 includes many apical in vivo endpoints that can be affected by systemic toxicity and nonhormonal activity. Although these relevance weight rankings (WREL ) necessarily involve professional judgment, their a priori derivation enhances transparency and renders WoE determinations amenable to methodological scrutiny according to basic scientific premises, characteristics that cannot be assured by processes in which the rationale for decisions is provided post hoc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Multicollinearity and correlation among local regression coefficients in geographically weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David; Tiefelsdorf, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Present methodological research on geographically weighted regression (GWR) focuses primarily on extensions of the basic GWR model, while ignoring well-established diagnostics tests commonly used in standard global regression analysis. This paper investigates multicollinearity issues surrounding the local GWR coefficients at a single location and the overall correlation between GWR coefficients associated with two different exogenous variables. Results indicate that the local regression coefficients are potentially collinear even if the underlying exogenous variables in the data generating process are uncorrelated. Based on these findings, applied GWR research should practice caution in substantively interpreting the spatial patterns of local GWR coefficients. An empirical disease-mapping example is used to motivate the GWR multicollinearity problem. Controlled experiments are performed to systematically explore coefficient dependency issues in GWR. These experiments specify global models that use eigenvectors from a spatial link matrix as exogenous variables.

  2. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  3. Quantized correlation coefficient for measuring reproducibility of ChIP-chip data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouyong; Kuroda, Mitzi I; Park, Peter J

    2010-07-27

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) is used to study protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications on a genome-scale. To ensure data quality, these experiments are usually performed in replicates, and a correlation coefficient between replicates is used often to assess reproducibility. However, the correlation coefficient can be misleading because it is affected not only by the reproducibility of the signal but also by the amount of binding signal present in the data. We develop the Quantized correlation coefficient (QCC) that is much less dependent on the amount of signal. This involves discretization of data into set of quantiles (quantization), a merging procedure to group the background probes, and recalculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. This procedure reduces the influence of the background noise on the statistic, which then properly focuses more on the reproducibility of the signal. The performance of this procedure is tested in both simulated and real ChIP-chip data. For replicates with different levels of enrichment over background and coverage, we find that QCC reflects reproducibility more accurately and is more robust than the standard Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients. The quantization and the merging procedure can also suggest a proper quantile threshold for separating signal from background for further analysis. To measure reproducibility of ChIP-chip data correctly, a correlation coefficient that is robust to the amount of signal present should be used. QCC is one such measure. The QCC statistic can also be applied in a variety of other contexts for measuring reproducibility, including analysis of array CGH data for DNA copy number and gene expression data.

  4. Correlation Between Posttraumatic Growth and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Based on Pearson Correlation Coefficient: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Nuo; Wang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hui-Ping; Gong, Juan; Liu, Xiao-Hong

    2017-05-01

    The literature on posttraumatic growth (PTG) is burgeoning, with the inconsistencies in the literature of the relationship between PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms becoming a focal point of attention. Thus, this meta-analysis aims to explore the relationship between PTG and PTSD symptoms through the Pearson correlation coefficient. A systematic search of the literature from January 1996 to November 2015 was completed. We retrieved reports on 63 studies that involved 26,951 patients. The weighted correlation coefficient revealed an effect size of 0.22 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.18 to 0.25. Meta-analysis provides evidence that PTG may be positively correlated with PTSD symptoms and that this correlation may be modified by age, trauma type, and time since trauma. Accordingly, people with high levels of PTG should not be ignored, but rather, they should continue to receive help to alleviate their PTSD symptoms.

  5. Choosing the best index for the average score intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2016-09-01

    The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)(2) index from a one-way random effects model is widely used to describe the reliability of mean ratings in behavioral, educational, and psychological research. Despite its apparent utility, the essential property of ICC(2) as a point estimator of the average score intraclass correlation coefficient is seldom mentioned. This article considers several potential measures and compares their performance with ICC(2). Analytical derivations and numerical examinations are presented to assess the bias and mean square error of the alternative estimators. The results suggest that more advantageous indices can be recommended over ICC(2) for their theoretical implication and computational ease.

  6. Estimating a graphical intra-class correlation coefficient (GICC) using multivariate probit-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chen; Chen, Shaojie; Sair, Haris I; Airan, Raag; Caffo, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Data reproducibility is a critical issue in all scientific experiments. In this manuscript, the problem of quantifying the reproducibility of graphical measurements is considered. The image intra-class correlation coefficient (I2C2) is generalized and the graphical intra-class correlation coefficient (GICC) is proposed for such purpose. The concept for GICC is based on multivariate probit-linear mixed effect models. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo EM (mcm-cEM) algorithm is used for estimating the GICC. Simulation results with varied settings are demonstrated and our method is applied to the KIRBY21 test-retest dataset.

  7. Test for equality of intraclass correlation coefficients under unequal family sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D J; Bhandary, M

    1998-12-01

    The likelihood ratio test, the large-sample z-test, and the large-sample z-test have been proposed to test for the equality of two intraclass correlation coefficients under unequal family sizes based on two independent multinomial samples. It has been found on the basis of simulation studies that the likelihood ratio test consistently and reliably produces results superior to those of the large-sample z-test and large-sample z-test in terms of power for various combinations of intraclass correlation coefficient values.

  8. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient and viscoelasticity of articular cartilage in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, T; Watanabe, A; Nitta, N; Numano, T; Fukushi, M; Niitsu, M

    2012-09-01

    Quantitative MR imaging techniques of degenerative cartilage have been reported as useful indicators of degenerative changes in cartilage extracellular matrix, which consists of proteoglycans, collagen, non-collagenous proteins, and water. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping of cartilage has been shown to correlate mainly with the water content of the cartilage. As the water content of the cartilage in turn correlates with its viscoelasticity, which directly affects the mechanical strength of articular cartilage, ADC can serve as a potentially useful indicator of the mechanical strength of cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between ADC and viscoelasticity as measured by indentation testing. Fresh porcine knee joints (n = 20, age 6 months) were obtained from a local abattoir. ADC of porcine knee cartilage was measured using a 3-Tesla MRI. Indentation testing was performed on an electromechanical precision-controlled system, and viscosity coefficient and relaxation time were measured as additional indicators of the viscoelasticity of cartilage. The relationship between ADC and viscosity coefficient as well as that between ADC and relaxation time were assessed. ADC was correlated with relaxation time and viscosity coefficient (R(2) = 0.75 and 0.69, respectively, p correlation between ADC and viscoelasticity in the superficial articular cartilage. Both molecular diffusion and viscoelasticity were higher in weight bearing than non-weight-bearing articular cartilage areas.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of correlation coefficients estimated from pooling heterogeneous microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-de-Macedo, Márcia M; Ransom, Nick; Feng, Yaping; Hurst, Jonathan; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2013-07-04

    The synthesis of information across microarray studies has been performed by combining statistical results of individual studies (as in a mosaic), or by combining data from multiple studies into a large pool to be analyzed as a single data set (as in a melting pot of data). Specific issues relating to data heterogeneity across microarray studies, such as differences within and between labs or differences among experimental conditions, could lead to equivocal results in a melting pot approach. We applied statistical theory to determine the specific effect of different means and heteroskedasticity across 19 groups of microarray data on the sign and magnitude of gene-to-gene Pearson correlation coefficients obtained from the pool of 19 groups. We quantified the biases of the pooled coefficients and compared them to the biases of correlations estimated by an effect-size model. Mean differences across the 19 groups were the main factor determining the magnitude and sign of the pooled coefficients, which showed largest values of bias as they approached ±1. Only heteroskedasticity across the pool of 19 groups resulted in less efficient estimations of correlations than did a classical meta-analysis approach of combining correlation coefficients. These results were corroborated by simulation studies involving either mean differences or heteroskedasticity across a pool of N > 2 groups. The combination of statistical results is best suited for synthesizing the correlation between expression profiles of a gene pair across several microarray studies.

  10. Computation of accommodation coefficients and the use of velocity correlation profiles in molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijker, Peter; Markvoort, Albert J.; Nedea, Silvia V.; Hilbers, Peter A. J.

    2010-01-01

    For understanding the behavior of a gas close to a channel wall it is important to model the gas-wall interactions as detailed as possible. When using molecular dynamics simulations these interactions can be modeled explicitly, but the computations are time consuming. Replacing the explicit wall with a wall model reduces the computational time but the same characteristics should still remain. Elaborate wall models, such as the Maxwell-Yamamoto model or the Cercignani-Lampis model need a phenomenological parameter (the accommodation coefficient) for the description of the gas-wall interaction as an input. Therefore, computing these accommodation coefficients in a reliable way is very important. In this paper, two systems (platinum walls with either argon or xenon gas confined between them) are investigated and are used for comparison of the accommodation coefficients for the wall models and the explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Velocity correlations between incoming and outgoing particles colliding with the wall have been used to compare explicit simulations and wall models even further. Furthermore, based on these velocity correlations, a method to compute the accommodation coefficients is presented, and these newly computed accommodation coefficients are used to show improved correlation behavior for the wall models.

  11. Time Evolution of Financial Cross-Correlation Coefficients across Market Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, Andrea; Cristelli, Matthieu; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    We investigate the time evolution of financial cross-correlation coefficients during financial crises and compare them to what is observed in periods of stability. We choose three main events, the Dot.Com Bubble, the market crisis which followed the attacks at the Twin Towers in 2001 and the recent subprime crisis. Each of them has a different nature and a different impact on the market, which we analyze by studying separately different economic sectors. As a general trend, we observe an increase of correlation during these high volatility periods and a broadening of the distributions of correlation coefficients. We then compare the spectra of the cross-correlation matrices, calculated in different periods of three years, with the distribution of eigenvalues predicted by the Random Matrix Theory. We find that these spectra are markedly perturbated during crisis periods. Finally we show how a simple stochastic model can produce similar results.

  12. Sample size for estimation of the Pearson correlation coefficient in cherry tomato tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Giacomini Sari; Alessandro Dal’Col Lúcio; Cinthya Souza Santana; Dionatan Ketzer Krysczun; André Luís Tischler; Lucas Drebes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the required sample size for estimation of the Pearson coefficient of correlation between cherry tomato variables. Two uniformity tests were set up in a protected environment in the spring/summer of 2014. The observed variables in each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, number of fruits, and total weight of fruits, with calculation of the Pearson correlation matrix b...

  13. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients in Hierarchical Designs: Evaluation Using Latent Variable Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko

    2011-01-01

    Interval estimation of intraclass correlation coefficients in hierarchical designs is discussed within a latent variable modeling framework. A method accomplishing this aim is outlined, which is applicable in two-level studies where participants (or generally lower-order units) are clustered within higher-order units. The procedure can also be…

  14. The relation between Pearson’s correlation coefficient r and Salton’s cosine measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egghe, L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between Pearson's correlation coefficient and Salton's cosine measure is revealed based on the different possible values of the division of the L1-norm and the L2-norm of a vector. These different values yield a sheaf of increasingly straight lines which together form a cloud of points,

  15. Sample Size Calculation for Estimating or Testing a Nonzero Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, K.; Xia, Yanping

    2008-01-01

    The problems of hypothesis testing and interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient of a multivariate normal distribution are considered. It is shown that available one-sided tests are uniformly most powerful, and the one-sided confidence intervals are uniformly most accurate. An exact method of calculating sample size to…

  16. A simple approximation to the bivariate normal distribution with large correlation coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The bivariate normal distribution function is approximated with emphasis on situations where the correlation coefficient is large. The high accuracy of the approximation is illustrated by numerical examples. Moreover, exact upper and lower bounds are presented as well as asymptotic results on the

  17. Evaluation of icing drag coefficient correlations applied to iced propeller performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas L.; Shaw, R. J.; Korkan, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of three empirical icing drag coefficient correlations is accomplished through application to a set of propeller icing data. The various correlations represent the best means currently available for relating drag rise to various flight and atmospheric conditions for both fixed-wing and rotating airfoils, and the work presented here ilustrates and evaluates one such application of the latter case. The origins of each of the correlations are discussed, and their apparent capabilities and limitations are summarized. These correlations have been made to be an integral part of a computer code, ICEPERF, which has been designed to calculate iced propeller performance. Comparison with experimental propeller icing data shows generally good agreement, with the quality of the predicted results seen to be directly related to the radial icing extent of each case. The code's capability to properly predict thrust coefficient, power coefficient, and propeller efficiency is shown to be strongly dependent on the choice of correlation selected, as well as upon proper specificatioon of radial icing extent.

  18. Spatially varying cross-correlation coefficients in the presence of nugget effects

    KAUST Repository

    Kleiber, William

    2012-11-29

    We derive sufficient conditions for the cross-correlation coefficient of a multivariate spatial process to vary with location when the spatial model is augmented with nugget effects. The derived class is valid for any choice of covariance functions, and yields substantial flexibility between multiple processes. The key is to identify the cross-correlation coefficient matrix with a contraction matrix, which can be either diagonal, implying a parsimonious formulation, or a fully general contraction matrix, yielding greater flexibility but added model complexity. We illustrate the approach with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature dataset in Colorado, allowing the two variables to be positively correlated at low elevations and nearly independent at high elevations, while still yielding a positive definite covariance matrix. © 2012 Biometrika Trust.

  19. A Modular and Scalable Architecture for the Realization of High-speed Programmable Rank Order Filters Using Threshold Logic

    OpenAIRE

    İ. Hatirnaz; Gürkaynak, F. K.; Leblebici, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new scalable architecture for the realization of fully programmable rank order filters (ROF). Capacitive Threshold Logic (CTL) gates are utilized for the implementation of the multi-input programmable majority (voting) functions required in the architecture. The CTL-based realization of the majority gates used in the ROF architecture allows the filter rank as well as the window size to be user-programmable, using a much smaller silicon area, compared to conventional realizations ...

  20. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddivenkatagari Subbarama Krishna Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during kharif, 2008. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively, for thirteen quantitative characters, namely plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, internodal length(cm, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node, first fruiting node, fruit length (cm, fruit width (cm, fruit weight (g, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield per plant (g and marketable yield per plant (g for the identification of appropriate selection indices. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant and total yield per plant had significant positive correlation, while number of branches per plant, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node and first fruiting node had significant negative correlation with marketable yield per plant.Genotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant not only had positively significant association with marketable pod yield per plant, but also had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant and are regarded as the main determinants of marketable pod yield per plant. The improvement in marketable pod yield per plant will be efficient, if the selection is based on fruit weight, total number of fruits per

  1. Measurement and correlation of boiling heat transfer coefficient of R-1234yf in horizontal small tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoo Woan; Chien, Nguyen Ba; Choi, Kwang Il; Oh, Jong Taek [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    We report experimental data of boiling heat transfer of R-1234yf in horizontal small tubes. The experimental data obtained in the horizontal circular small tubes of 1.5 and 3.0 mm inner diameter, the lengths of 1000 and 2000 mm, the mass flux range from 200 - 650 kg/m{sup 2}s, the heat flux range from 5-40 kW/m{sup 2}and saturation temperature of 10 and 15 .deg. C, was used to develop a modified correlation for the heat transfer coefficient. The flow pattern of the experimental data was mapped and analyzed with existing flow pattern maps. The heat transfer coefficient was also compared with some well-known correlations.

  2. Use Correlation Coefficients in Gaussian Process to Train Stable ELM Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Curves for training and testing accuracies of different ELMs changing with L on Treasury Dataset 4 Experiments In this section, we use 12 UCI and KEEL ...sci2s.ugr.es/ keel /datasets.php Use Correlation Coefficients in Gaussian Process 407 classification than other methods. The StaELM models are stable...marize kernel-based ELMs. Section 3 introduces our proposed StaELM. Exper- imental simulations are presented in Section 4. Finally, we conclude this

  3. A Simple Method for Obtaining the Maximal Correlation Coefficient and Related Characterizations

    OpenAIRE

    Papadatos, Nickos; Xifara, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    We provide a method that enables the simple calculation of the maximal correlation coefficient of a bivariate distribution, under suitable conditions. In particular, the method readily applies to known results on order statistics and records. As an application we provide a new characterization of the exponential distribution: Under a splitting model on independent identically distributed observations, it is the (unique, up to a location-scale transformation) parent distribution that maximizes...

  4. Negative Correlation between the Diffusion Coefficient and Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuni, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Johtaro; Horio, Takashi; Kinjo, Masataka

    2017-08-25

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a transcription factor, which interacts with DNA and other cofactors to regulate gene transcription. Binding to other partners in the cell nucleus alters the diffusion properties of GR. Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) was applied to quantitatively characterize the diffusion properties of EGFP labeled human GR (EGFP-hGR) and its mutants in the cell nucleus. RICS is an image correlation technique that evaluates the spatial distribution of the diffusion coefficient as a diffusion map. Interestingly, we observed that the averaged diffusion coefficient of EGFP-hGR strongly and negatively correlated with its transcriptional activities in comparison to that of EGFP-hGR wild type and mutants with various transcriptional activities. This result suggests that the decreasing of the diffusion coefficient of hGR was reflected in the high-affinity binding to DNA. Moreover, the hyper-phosphorylation of hGR can enhance the transcriptional activity by reduction of the interaction between the hGR and the nuclear corepressors.

  5. Ground reaction force analysed with correlation coefficient matrix in group of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbik, Ewa; Krawczyk, Maciej; Syczewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the third cause of death in contemporary society and causes many disorders. Clinical scales, ground reaction force (GRF) and objective gait analysis are used for assessment of patient's rehabilitation progress during treatment. The goal of this paper is to assess whether signal correlation coefficient matrix applied to GRF can be used for evaluation of the status of post-stroke patients. A group of patients underwent clinical assessment and instrumented gait analysis simultaneously three times. The difference between components of patient's GRF (vertical, fore/aft, med/lat) and normal ones (reference GRF of healthy subjects) was calculated as correlation coefficient. Patients were divided into two groups ("worse" and "better") based on the clinical functional scale tests done at the beginning of rehabilitation process. The results obtained by these two groups were compared using statistical analysis. An increase of median value of correlation coefficient is observed in all components of GRF, but only in non-paretic leg. Analysis of GRF signal can be helpful in assessment of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. Improvement in stroke patients was observed in non-paretic leg of the "worse" group. GRF analysis should not be the only tool for objective validation of patient's improvement, but could be used as additional source of information.

  6. Generalized Correlation Coefficient for Non-Parametric Analysis of Microarray Time-Course Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qihua; Thomassen, Mads; Burton, Mark; Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben

    2017-06-06

    Modeling complex time-course patterns is a challenging issue in microarray study due to complex gene expression patterns in response to the time-course experiment. We introduce the generalized correlation coefficient and propose a combinatory approach for detecting, testing and clustering the heterogeneous time-course gene expression patterns. Application of the method identified nonlinear time-course patterns in high agreement with parametric analysis. We conclude that the non-parametric nature in the generalized correlation analysis could be an useful and efficient tool for analyzing microarray time-course data and for exploring the complex relationships in the omics data for studying their association with disease and health.

  7. Generalized Correlation Coefficient for Non-Parametric Analysis of Microarray Time-Course Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Thomassen, Mads; Burton, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Modeling complex time-course patterns is a challenging issue in microarray study due to complex gene expression patterns in response to the time-course experiment. We introduce the generalized correlation coefficient and propose a combinatory approach for detecting, testing and clustering...... the heterogeneous time-course gene expression patterns. Application of the method identified nonlinear time-course patterns in high agreement with parametric analysis. We conclude that the non-parametric nature in the generalized correlation analysis could be an useful and efficient tool for analyzing microarray...

  8. The correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient and tumor cellularity in patients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Liu, Min; Bao, Jing; Xia, Yunbao; Zhang, Jiuquan; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Xuequan; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    To perform a meta-analysis exploring the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and tumor cellularity in patients. We searched medical and scientific literature databases for studies discussing the correlation between the ADC and tumor cellularity in patients. Only studies that were published in English or Chinese prior to November 2012 were considered for inclusion. Summary correlation coefficient (r) values were extracted from each study, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed to investigate potential heterogeneity. Of 189 studies, 28 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 729 patients. The pooled r for all studies was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.62, -0.52), indicating notable heterogeneity (Pcorrelation between the ADC and cellularity for brain tumors. There was no notable evidence of publication bias. There is a strong negative correlation between the ADC and tumor cellularity in patients, particularly in the brain. However, larger, prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings in other cancer types.

  9. Application of the Gini correlation coefficient to infer regulatory relationships in transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2012-09-01

    One of the computational challenges in plant systems biology is to accurately infer transcriptional regulation relationships based on correlation analyses of gene expression patterns. Despite several correlation methods that are applied in biology to analyze microarray data, concerns regarding the compatibility of these methods with the gene expression data profiled by high-throughput RNA transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology have been raised. These concerns are mainly due to the fact that the distribution of read counts in RNA-Seq experiments is different from that of fluorescence intensities in microarray experiments. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of the existing correlation methods and, if necessary, introduction of novel methods into biology is appropriate. In this study, we compared four existing correlation methods used in microarray analysis and one novel method called the Gini correlation coefficient on previously published microarray-based and sequencing-based gene expression data in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). The comparisons were performed on more than 11,000 regulatory relationships in Arabidopsis, including 8,929 pairs of transcription factors and target genes. Our analyses pinpointed the strengths and weaknesses of each method and indicated that the Gini correlation can compensate for the shortcomings of the Pearson correlation, the Spearman correlation, the Kendall correlation, and the Tukey's biweight correlation. The Gini correlation method, with the other four evaluated methods in this study, was implemented as an R package named rsgcc that can be utilized as an alternative option for biologists to perform clustering analyses of gene expression patterns or transcriptional network analyses.

  10. Application of the Gini Correlation Coefficient to Infer Regulatory Relationships in Transcriptome Analysis[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    One of the computational challenges in plant systems biology is to accurately infer transcriptional regulation relationships based on correlation analyses of gene expression patterns. Despite several correlation methods that are applied in biology to analyze microarray data, concerns regarding the compatibility of these methods with the gene expression data profiled by high-throughput RNA transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology have been raised. These concerns are mainly due to the fact that the distribution of read counts in RNA-Seq experiments is different from that of fluorescence intensities in microarray experiments. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of the existing correlation methods and, if necessary, introduction of novel methods into biology is appropriate. In this study, we compared four existing correlation methods used in microarray analysis and one novel method called the Gini correlation coefficient on previously published microarray-based and sequencing-based gene expression data in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). The comparisons were performed on more than 11,000 regulatory relationships in Arabidopsis, including 8,929 pairs of transcription factors and target genes. Our analyses pinpointed the strengths and weaknesses of each method and indicated that the Gini correlation can compensate for the shortcomings of the Pearson correlation, the Spearman correlation, the Kendall correlation, and the Tukey’s biweight correlation. The Gini correlation method, with the other four evaluated methods in this study, was implemented as an R package named rsgcc that can be utilized as an alternative option for biologists to perform clustering analyses of gene expression patterns or transcriptional network analyses. PMID:22797655

  11. Research on the Fusion of Dependent Evidence Based on Rank Correlation Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fengjian; Su, Xiaoyan; Qian, Hong; Yang, Ning; Han, Wenhua

    2017-10-16

    In order to meet the higher accuracy and system reliability requirements, the information fusion for multi-sensor systems is an increasing concern. Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (D-S theory) has been investigated for many applications in multi-sensor information fusion due to its flexibility in uncertainty modeling. However, classical evidence theory assumes that the evidence is independent of each other, which is often unrealistic. Ignoring the relationship between the evidence may lead to unreasonable fusion results, and even lead to wrong decisions. This assumption severely prevents D-S evidence theory from practical application and further development. In this paper, an innovative evidence fusion model to deal with dependent evidence based on rank correlation coefficient is proposed. The model first uses rank correlation coefficient to measure the dependence degree between different evidence. Then, total discount coefficient is obtained based on the dependence degree, which also considers the impact of the reliability of evidence. Finally, the discount evidence fusion model is presented. An example is illustrated to show the use and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Research on the Fusion of Dependent Evidence Based on Rank Correlation Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjian Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the higher accuracy and system reliability requirements, the information fusion for multi-sensor systems is an increasing concern. Dempster–Shafer evidence theory (D–S theory has been investigated for many applications in multi-sensor information fusion due to its flexibility in uncertainty modeling. However, classical evidence theory assumes that the evidence is independent of each other, which is often unrealistic. Ignoring the relationship between the evidence may lead to unreasonable fusion results, and even lead to wrong decisions. This assumption severely prevents D–S evidence theory from practical application and further development. In this paper, an innovative evidence fusion model to deal with dependent evidence based on rank correlation coefficient is proposed. The model first uses rank correlation coefficient to measure the dependence degree between different evidence. Then, total discount coefficient is obtained based on the dependence degree, which also considers the impact of the reliability of evidence. Finally, the discount evidence fusion model is presented. An example is illustrated to show the use and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. SPSS and SAS programs for comparing Pearson correlations and OLS regression coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Bruce; Wuensch, Karl L

    2013-09-01

    Several procedures that use summary data to test hypotheses about Pearson correlations and ordinary least squares regression coefficients have been described in various books and articles. To our knowledge, however, no single resource describes all of the most common tests. Furthermore, many of these tests have not yet been implemented in popular statistical software packages such as SPSS and SAS. In this article, we describe all of the most common tests and provide SPSS and SAS programs to perform them. When they are applicable, our code also computes 100 × (1 - α)% confidence intervals corresponding to the tests. For testing hypotheses about independent regression coefficients, we demonstrate one method that uses summary data and another that uses raw data (i.e., Potthoff analysis). When the raw data are available, the latter method is preferred, because use of summary data entails some loss of precision due to rounding.

  14. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  15. Correlation coefficient based supervised locally linear embedding for pulmonary nodule recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Panpan; Xia, Kewen; Yu, Hengyong

    2016-11-01

    Dimensionality reduction techniques are developed to suppress the negative effects of high dimensional feature space of lung CT images on classification performance in computer aided detection (CAD) systems for pulmonary nodule detection. An improved supervised locally linear embedding (SLLE) algorithm is proposed based on the concept of correlation coefficient. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient is introduced to adjust the distance metric in the SLLE algorithm to ensure that more suitable neighborhood points could be identified, and thus to enhance the discriminating power of embedded data. The proposed Spearman's rank correlation coefficient based SLLE (SC(2)SLLE) is implemented and validated in our pilot CAD system using a clinical dataset collected from the publicly available lung image database consortium and image database resource initiative (LICD-IDRI). Particularly, a representative CAD system for solitary pulmonary nodule detection is designed and implemented. After a sequential medical image processing steps, 64 nodules and 140 non-nodules are extracted, and 34 representative features are calculated. The SC(2)SLLE, as well as SLLE and LLE algorithm, are applied to reduce the dimensionality. Several quantitative measurements are also used to evaluate and compare the performances. Using a 5-fold cross-validation methodology, the proposed algorithm achieves 87.65% accuracy, 79.23% sensitivity, 91.43% specificity, and 8.57% false positive rate, on average. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the original locally linear embedding and SLLE coupled with the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Based on the preliminary results from a limited number of nodules in our dataset, this study demonstrates the great potential to improve the performance of a CAD system for nodule detection using the proposed SC(2)SLLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Political attitudes in adolescence and emerging adulthood : Developmental changes in mean level, polarization, rank-order stability, and correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N=1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both

  17. Political attitudes in adolescence and emerging adulthood : Developmental changes in mean level, polarization, rank-order stability, and correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N = 1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient ratio correlates significantly with prostate cancer gleason score at final pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Løgager, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient measurements (ADCtumor and ADCratio ) and the Gleason score from radical prostatectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients with clinically localized prostate cancer scheduled for radical prostatectomy...... between ADC measurements and the Gleason score for all tumors (P = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an overall area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73 (ADCtumor ) to 0.80 (ADCratio ) in discriminating Gleason score 6 from Gleason score ≥7 tumors. The AUC changed to 0.72 (ADCtumor...

  19. Frontal Face Detection using Haar Wavelet Coefficients and Local Histogram Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setyawan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Face detection is the main building block on which all automatic systems dealing with human faces is built. For example, a face recognition system must rely on face detection to process an input image and determine which areas contain human faces. These areas then become the input for the face recognition system for further processing. This paper presents a face detection system designed to detect frontal faces. The system uses Haar wavelet coefficients and local histogram correlation as differentiating features. Our proposed system is trained using 100 training images. Our experiments show that the proposed system performed well during testing, achieving a detection rate of 91.5%.

  20. Speed Estimation in Geared Wind Turbines Using the Maximum Correlation Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Marhadi, Kun S.; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2015-01-01

    Valid speed signal is essential for proper condition monitoring of modern variable speed wind turbines. Traditionally, a tachometer mounted on the high speed shaft provides reference for tracking speed dependant frequency components, such as generator speed harmonics and gearbox tooth mesh...... to overcome the above mentioned issues. The high speed stage shaft angular velocity is calculated based on the maximum correlation coefficient between the 1 st gear mesh frequency of the last gearbox stage and a pure sinus tone of known frequency and phase. The proposed algorithm utilizes vibration signals...

  1. Effects of sample size on differential gene expression, rank order and prediction accuracy of a gene signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Stretch

    Full Text Available Top differentially expressed gene lists are often inconsistent between studies and it has been suggested that small sample sizes contribute to lack of reproducibility and poor prediction accuracy in discriminative models. We considered sex differences (69♂, 65 ♀ in 134 human skeletal muscle biopsies using DNA microarray. The full dataset and subsamples (n = 10 (5 ♂, 5 ♀ to n = 120 (60 ♂, 60 ♀ thereof were used to assess the effect of sample size on the differential expression of single genes, gene rank order and prediction accuracy. Using our full dataset (n = 134, we identified 717 differentially expressed transcripts (p<0.0001 and we were able predict sex with ~90% accuracy, both within our dataset and on external datasets. Both p-values and rank order of top differentially expressed genes became more variable using smaller subsamples. For example, at n = 10 (5 ♂, 5 ♀, no gene was considered differentially expressed at p<0.0001 and prediction accuracy was ~50% (no better than chance. We found that sample size clearly affects microarray analysis results; small sample sizes result in unstable gene lists and poor prediction accuracy. We anticipate this will apply to other phenotypes, in addition to sex.

  2. Rank-ordered multifractal spectrum of intermittent fluctuations in the cusp : a case study with Cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Herve; Echim, Marius; Chang, Tom

    Data from the four Cluster spacecraft on 26th of February 2001 show that the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of B 2 in the cusp are non-Gaussian and have an intermittent behavior at scales smaller than about 1 minute. PDFs obtained at various scales cannot be collapsed onto a master curve based on a single monofractal index, except in the central regions. We present here a more geometrical approach based on the multifractal analysis of these intermittent fluctuations using both structure functions and the partition function. These traditional multifractal methods based on the statistics of the full set of fluctuations indicate that the spectrum of the scaling exponents is multifractal. However, the fractal characteristics of large amplitude fluctuations (the less frequent ones) might be masked by those with small amplitude which are by far the dominant population. Chang & Wu (2007) recently proposed a new method of multifractal analysis, based on rank-ordered fractal index of fluctuations. This method subdivides the fluctuations into groups according to the range of their scaled sizes. We show preliminary results of this new multifractal analysis applied to Cluster data in the cusp. T. Chang and C.C. Wu, Rank-Ordered Multifractal Spectrum for Intermittent Fluctuations, arXiv:0712.4256v1 [astro-ph] 27 December 2007.

  3. Common pediatric cerebellar tumors: correlation between cell densities and apparent diffusion coefficient metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Korgün; Mathis, Derek; Gimi, Barjor; Gargan, Lynn; Weprin, Bradley; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda

    2013-08-01

    To test whether there is correlation between cell densities and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. This study was reviewed for issues of patient safety and confidentiality and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and was compliant with HIPAA. The need for informed consent was waived. Ninety-five patients who had preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and surgical pathologic findings available between January 2003 and June 2011 were included. There were 37 pilocytic astrocytomas, 34 medulloblastomas (23 classic, eight desmoplastic-nodular, two large cell, one anaplastic), 17 ependymomas (13 World Health Organization [WHO] grade II, four WHO grade III), and seven atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. ADCs of solid tumor components and normal cerebellum were measured. Tumor-to-normal brain ADC ratios (hereafter, ADC ratio) were calculated. The medulloblastomas and ependymomas were subcategorized according to the latest WHO classification, and tumor cellularity was calculated. Correlation was sought between cell densities and mean tumor ADCs, minimum tumor ADCs, and ADC ratio. When all tumors were considered together, negative correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADCs (ρ = -0.737, P correlation between cellularity and ADC ratio. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and minimum tumor ADC in atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ρ = -0.786, P correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADC and ADC ratio. There was no correlation between the ADC metrics and cellularity of the pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and ADC metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. Although ADC metrics are useful in the preoperative diagnosis of common pediatric cerebellar tumors and this utility is generally attributed to differences in cellularity of tumors

  4. Systematic bias of correlation coefficient may explain negative accuracy of genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yao; Vales, M Isabel; Wang, Aoxue; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2017-09-01

    Accuracy of genomic prediction is commonly calculated as the Pearson correlation coefficient between the predicted and observed phenotypes in the inference population by using cross-validation analysis. More frequently than expected, significant negative accuracies of genomic prediction have been reported in genomic selection studies. These negative values are surprising, given that the minimum value for prediction accuracy should hover around zero when randomly permuted data sets are analyzed. We reviewed the two common approaches for calculating the Pearson correlation and hypothesized that these negative accuracy values reflect potential bias owing to artifacts caused by the mathematical formulas used to calculate prediction accuracy. The first approach, Instant accuracy, calculates correlations for each fold and reports prediction accuracy as the mean of correlations across fold. The other approach, Hold accuracy, predicts all phenotypes in all fold and calculates correlation between the observed and predicted phenotypes at the end of the cross-validation process. Using simulated and real data, we demonstrated that our hypothesis is true. Both approaches are biased downward under certain conditions. The biases become larger when more fold are employed and when the expected accuracy is low. The bias of Instant accuracy can be corrected using a modified formula. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Apparent diffusion coefficient ratio correlates significantly with prostate cancer gleason score at final pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Lars; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Løgager, Vibeke; Balslev, Ingegerd; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient measurements (ADCtumor and ADCratio ) and the Gleason score from radical prostatectomy specimens. Seventy-one patients with clinically localized prostate cancer scheduled for radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed prior to prostatectomy and mean ADC values from both cancerous (ADCtumor ) and benign (ADCbenign ) tissue were measured to calculate the ADCratio (ADCtumor divided by ADCbenign ). The ADC measurements were correlated with the Gleason score from the prostatectomy specimens. The association between ADC measurements and Gleason score showed a significant negative correlation (P Gleason score for all tumors (P = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an overall area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73 (ADCtumor ) to 0.80 (ADCratio ) in discriminating Gleason score 6 from Gleason score ≥7 tumors. The AUC changed to 0.72 (ADCtumor ) and 0.90 (ADCratio ) when discriminating Gleason score ≤7(3+4) from Gleason score ≥7(4+3). ADC measurements showed a significant correlation with tumor Gleason score at final pathology. The ADCratio demonstrated the best correlation compared to the ADCtumor value and radically improved accuracy in discriminating Gleason score ≤7(3+4) from Gleason score ≥7(4+3) tumors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient with Ki-67 proliferation index in grading meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Dundamadappa, Sathish K; Thangasamy, Senthur; Flood, Thomas; Moser, Richard; Smith, Thomas; Cauley, Keith; Takhtani, Deepak

    2014-06-01

    A noninvasive method to predict aggressiveness of high-grade meningiomas would be desirable because it would help anticipate tumor recurrence and improve tumor management and the treatment outcomes. The Ki-67 protein is a marker of tumor proliferation, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is related to tumor cellularity. Therefore, we sought to determine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between ADC and Ki-67 values in meningiomas and whether ADC values can differentiate various meningioma subtypes. MRI examinations and histopathology of 68 surgically treated meningiomas were retrospectively reviewed. Mean ADC values were derived from diffusion imaging. Correlation coefficients were calculated for mean ADC and Ki-67 proliferation index values using linear regression. An independent unpaired Student t test was used to compare the ADC and Ki-67 proliferation index values from low-grade and more aggressive meningiomas. A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between ADC and Ki-67 proliferation index for low-grade and aggressive meningiomas (r(2) = -0.33, p = 0.0039). ADC values (± SD) of low-grade meningiomas (0.84 ± 0.14 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and aggressive (atypical or anaplastic) meningiomas (0.75 ± 0.03 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were significantly different (p = 0.0495). Using an ADC cutoff value of 0.70 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, the sensitivity for diagnosing aggressive meningiomas was 29%, specificity was 94%, positive predictive value was 67%, and negative predictive value was 75%. ADC values correlate inversely with Ki-67 proliferation index and help differentiate low-grade from aggressive meningiomas.

  7. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

  8. Correlation between 3 T apparent diffusion coefficient values and grading of invasive breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipolla, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.cipolla@yahoo.it [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy); Santucci, Domiziana; Guerrieri, Daniele; Drudi, Francesco Maria [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy); Meggiorini, Maria Letizia [Department of Gynaecological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy); Felice, Carlo de [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Apparent diffusion coefficient is a quantitative parameter which reflects molecular water movement. • Grading is an independent prognostic factor which correlates with other histopathological features. • Apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly different between G1 and G3 classes. - Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) provided by 3.0 T (3 T) magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) varied according to the grading of invasive breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A total of 92 patients with 96 invasive breast cancer lesions were enrolled; all had undergone 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local staging. All lesions were confirmed by histological analysis, and tumor grade was established according to the Nottingham Grading System (NGS). MRI included both dynamic contrast-enhanced and DWI sequences, and ADC value was calculated for each lesion. ADC values were compared with NGS classification using the Mann–Whitney U and the Kruskal–Wallis H tests. Grading was considered as a comprehensive prognostic factor, and Rho Spearman test was performed to determine correlation between grading and tumor size, hormonal receptor status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index. Pearson's Chi square test was carried out to compare grading with the other prognostic factors. Results: ADC values were significantly higher in G1 than in G3 tumors. No significant difference was observed when G1 and G3 were compared with G2. Tumor size, hormonal receptor status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index correlated significantly with grading but there was a significant difference only between G1 and G3 related to the ER and PR status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index. There was no statistically significant difference in lesion size between the two groups. Conclusion: ADC values obtained on 3 T DWI correlated with low-grade (G1) and high-grade (G3) invasive breast carcinoma. 3

  9. Statistical analysis of solid waste composition data: Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-11-01

    Data for fractional solid waste composition provide relative magnitudes of individual waste fractions, the percentages of which always sum to 100, thereby connecting them intrinsically. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition data represent closed data, and their interpretation and analysis require statistical methods, other than classical statistics that are suitable only for non-constrained data such as absolute values. However, the closed characteristics of waste composition data are often ignored when analysed. The results of this study showed, for example, that unavoidable animal-derived food waste amounted to 2.21±3.12% with a confidence interval of (-4.03; 8.45), which highlights the problem of the biased negative proportions. A Pearson's correlation test, applied to waste fraction generation (kg mass), indicated a positive correlation between avoidable vegetable food waste and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data, have the potential to generate spurious or misleading results. Therefore, ¨compositional data should be transformed adequately prior to any statistical analysis, such as computing mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endometrial cancer: correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with tumor cellularity and tumor grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Tajima, Shinya; Maeda, Ichiro; Takagi, Masayuki; Ueno, Takahiko; Suzuki, Nao; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are widely used for detecting uterine endometrial cancer. The relationships between ADC values and pathological features of endometrial cancer have not yet been established. To investigate whether ADC values of endometrial cancer vary according to histologic tumor cellularity and tumor grade. We retrospectively reviewed 30 pathologically confirmed endometrial cancers. All patients underwent conventional non-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DWI procedures, and ADC values were calculated. Tumor cellularity was evaluated by counting cancer cells in three high-power ( × 400) fields. The correlation between ADC values and tumor cellularity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test for statistical analysis. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) ADC value ( ×10(-3) mm(2)/s) of endometrial cancer was 0.85 ± 0.22 (range, 0.55-1.71). The mean ± SD tumor cellularity was 528.36 ± 16.89 (range, 298.0-763.6). ADC values were significantly inversely correlated with tumor cellularity. No significant relationship was observed between ADC values and tumor grade (mean ADC values: G1, 0.88 ± 0.265 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; G2, 0.80 ± 0.178 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; G3, 0.81 ± 0.117 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). There is a significant inverse relationship between ADC values and tumor cellularity in endometrial cancer. No significant differences in average ADC value were observed between G1, G2, and G3 tumors. However, the lower the tumor grade, the wider the SD. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  11. Personality traits in old age: measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts. Almost no mean-level change was observed in the younger cohort, whereas Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect declined significantly in the older cohort. The older cohort scored higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. In these cohorts, individual differences in personality traits continued to be stable even in very old age, mean-level changes accelerated.

  12. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients in Hierarchical Design Studies with Discrete Response Variables: A Note on a Direct Interval Estimation Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A latent variable modeling procedure that can be used to evaluate intraclass correlation coefficients in two-level settings with discrete response variables is discussed. The approach is readily applied when the purpose is to furnish confidence intervals at prespecified confidence levels for these coefficients in setups with binary or ordinal…

  13. Confidence Intervals and "F" Tests for Intraclass Correlation Coefficients Based on Three-Way Mixed Effects Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Muellerleile, Paige; Ingram, Debra; Wong, Seok P.

    2011-01-01

    Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) are commonly used in behavioral measurement and psychometrics when a researcher is interested in the relationship among variables of a common class. The formulas for deriving ICCs, or generalizability coefficients, vary depending on which models are specified. This article gives the equations for…

  14. DCCA cross-correlation coefficients reveals the change of both synchronization and oscillation in EEG of Alzheimer disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingyuan; Cai, Lihui; Wang, Ruofan; Song, Zhenxi; Deng, Bin; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disorder of neural system that affects mainly the older population. Recently, many researches show that the EEG of AD patients can be characterized by EEG slowing, enhanced complexity of the EEG signals, and EEG synchrony. In order to examine the neural synchrony at multi scales, and to find a biomarker that help detecting AD in diagnosis, detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) of EEG signals is applied in this paper. Several parameters, namely DCCA coefficients in the whole brain, DCCA coefficients at a specific scale, maximum DCCA coefficient over the span of all time scales and the corresponding scale of such coefficients, were extracted to examine the synchronization, respectively. The results show that DCCA coefficients have a trend of increase as scale increases, and decreases as electrode distance increases. Comparing DCCA coefficients in AD patients with healthy controls, a decrease of synchronization in the whole brain, and a bigger scale corresponding to maximum correlation is discovered in AD patients. The change of max-correlation scale may relate to the slowing of oscillatory activities. Linear combination of max DCCA coefficient and max-correlation scale reaches a classification accuracy of 90%. From the above results, it is reasonable to conclude that DCCA coefficient reveals the change of both oscillation and synchrony in AD, and thus is a powerful tool to differentiate AD patients from healthy elderly individuals.

  15. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour: Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient or WHO classification with recurrence-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mimi; Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kwon, Wooil; Ha, Sang Yun; Ji, Sang A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the correlation between grade of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) based on the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and to assess whether the ADC value and WHO classification can predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) after surgery for pNETs. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. The requirement for informed consent was waived. Between March 2009 and November 2014, forty-nine patients who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with diffusion-weighted image and subsequent surgery for single pNETs were included. Correlations among qualitative MR imaging findings, quantitative ADC values, and WHO classifications were assessed. An ordered logistic regression test was used to control for tumour size as a confounding factor. The association between ADC value (or WHO classification) and RFS was analysed. All tumors (n=49) were classified as low- (n=29, grade 1), intermediate- (n=17, grade 2), and high-grade (n=3, grade 3), respectively. The mean ADC of pNETs was moderately negatively correlated with WHO classification before and after adjustment for tumour size (ρ=-0.64, pcorrelated with WHO tumour grade, regardless of tumour size. However, the WHO tumour classification of pNET may be more suitable for predicting RFS than the ADC value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial correlation in 3D MIMO channels using fourier coefficients of power spectrums

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, an exact closed-form expression for the Spatial Correlation Function (SCF) is derived for the standardized three-dimensional (3D) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel. This novel SCF is developed for a uniform linear array of antennas with non-isotropic antenna patterns. The proposed method resorts to the spherical harmonic expansion (SHE) of plane waves and the trigonometric expansion of Legendre and associated Legendre polynomials to obtain a closed-form expression for the SCF for arbitrary angular distributions and antenna patterns. The resulting expression depends on the underlying angular distributions and antenna patterns through the Fourier Series (FS) coefficients of power azimuth and elevation spectrums. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the SCF being valid for any 3D propagation environment. Numerical results validate the proposed analytical expression and study the impact of angular spreads on the correlation. The derived SCF will help evaluate the performance of correlated 3D MIMO channels in the future. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Full-waveform inversion of triplicated data using a normalized-correlation-coefficient-based misfit function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Grand, Stephen P.; Niu, Fenglin

    2017-09-01

    In seismic full-waveform inversion (FWI), the choice of misfit function determines what information in data is used and ultimately affects the resolution of the inverted images of the Earth's structure. Misfit functions based on traveltime have been successfully applied in global and regional tomographic studies. However, wave propagation through the upper mantle results in multiple phases arriving at a given receiver in a narrow time interval resulting in complicated waveforms that evolve with distance. To extract waveform information as well as traveltime, we use a misfit function based on the normalized correlation coefficient (CC). This misfit function is able to capture the waveform complexities in both phase and relative amplitude within the measurement window. It is also insensitive to absolute amplitude differences between modeled and recorded data, which avoids problems due to uncertainties in source magnitude, radiation pattern, receiver site effects or even miscalibrated instruments. These features make the misfit function based on normalized CC a good candidate to achieve high-resolution images of complex geological structures when interfering phases coexist in the measurement window, such as triplication waveforms. From synthetic tests, we show the advantages of this misfit function over the cross-correlation traveltime misfit function. Preliminary inversion of data from an earthquake in Northeast China images a sharper and stronger amplitude slab stagnant in the middle of the transition zone than FWI of cross-correlation traveltime.

  18. Mental Task Classification Scheme Utilizing Correlation Coefficient Extracted from Interchannel Intrinsic Mode Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mostafizur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent increase of brain computer interface (BCI based applications, the importance of efficient classification of various mental tasks has increased prodigiously nowadays. In order to obtain effective classification, efficient feature extraction scheme is necessary, for which, in the proposed method, the interchannel relationship among electroencephalogram (EEG data is utilized. It is expected that the correlation obtained from different combination of channels will be different for different mental tasks, which can be exploited to extract distinctive feature. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD technique is employed on a test EEG signal obtained from a channel, which provides a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, and correlation coefficient is extracted from interchannel IMF data. Simultaneously, different statistical features are also obtained from each IMF. Finally, the feature matrix is formed utilizing interchannel correlation features and intrachannel statistical features of the selected IMFs of EEG signal. Different kernels of the support vector machine (SVM classifier are used to carry out the classification task. An EEG dataset containing ten different combinations of five different mental tasks is utilized to demonstrate the classification performance and a very high level of accuracy is achieved by the proposed scheme compared to existing methods.

  19. Detrended cross-correlation coefficient: Application to predict apoptosis protein subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunyun; Liu, Sanyang; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    Apoptosis, or programed cell death, plays a central role in the development and homeostasis of an organism. Obtaining information on subcellular location of apoptosis proteins is very helpful for understanding the apoptosis mechanism. The prediction of subcellular localization of an apoptosis protein is still a challenging task, and existing methods mainly based on protein primary sequences. In this paper, we introduce a new position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM)-based method by using detrended cross-correlation (DCCA) coefficient of non-overlapping windows. Then a 190-dimensional (190D) feature vector is constructed on two widely used datasets: CL317 and ZD98, and support vector machine is adopted as classifier. To evaluate the proposed method, objective and rigorous jackknife cross-validation tests are performed on the two datasets. The results show that our approach offers a novel and reliable PSSM-based tool for prediction of apoptosis protein subcellular localization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Research on Ship-Radiated Noise Denoising Using Secondary Variational Mode Decomposition and Correlation Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxing; Li, Yaan; Chen, Xiao; Yu, Jing

    2017-12-26

    As the sound signal of ships obtained by sensors contains other many significant characteristics of ships and called ship-radiated noise (SN), research into a denoising algorithm and its application has obtained great significance. Using the advantage of variational mode decomposition (VMD) combined with the correlation coefficient for denoising, a hybrid secondary denoising algorithm is proposed using secondary VMD combined with a correlation coefficient (CC). First, different kinds of simulation signals are decomposed into several bandwidth-limited intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using VMD, where the decomposition number by VMD is equal to the number by empirical mode decomposition (EMD); then, the CCs between the IMFs and the simulation signal are calculated respectively. The noise IMFs are identified by the CC threshold and the rest of the IMFs are reconstructed in order to realize the first denoising process. Finally, secondary denoising of the simulation signal can be accomplished by repeating the above steps of decomposition, screening and reconstruction. The final denoising result is determined according to the CC threshold. The denoising effect is compared under the different signal-to-noise ratio and the time of decomposition by VMD. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed denoising algorithm using secondary VMD (2VMD) combined with CC compared to EMD denoising, ensemble EMD (EEMD) denoising, VMD denoising and cubic VMD (3VMD) denoising, as well as two denoising algorithms presented recently. The proposed denoising algorithm is applied to feature extraction and classification for SN signals, which can effectively improve the recognition rate of different kinds of ships.

  1. Research on Ship-Radiated Noise Denoising Using Secondary Variational Mode Decomposition and Correlation Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxing Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the sound signal of ships obtained by sensors contains other many significant characteristics of ships and called ship-radiated noise (SN, research into a denoising algorithm and its application has obtained great significance. Using the advantage of variational mode decomposition (VMD combined with the correlation coefficient for denoising, a hybrid secondary denoising algorithm is proposed using secondary VMD combined with a correlation coefficient (CC. First, different kinds of simulation signals are decomposed into several bandwidth-limited intrinsic mode functions (IMFs using VMD, where the decomposition number by VMD is equal to the number by empirical mode decomposition (EMD; then, the CCs between the IMFs and the simulation signal are calculated respectively. The noise IMFs are identified by the CC threshold and the rest of the IMFs are reconstructed in order to realize the first denoising process. Finally, secondary denoising of the simulation signal can be accomplished by repeating the above steps of decomposition, screening and reconstruction. The final denoising result is determined according to the CC threshold. The denoising effect is compared under the different signal-to-noise ratio and the time of decomposition by VMD. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed denoising algorithm using secondary VMD (2VMD combined with CC compared to EMD denoising, ensemble EMD (EEMD denoising, VMD denoising and cubic VMD (3VMD denoising, as well as two denoising algorithms presented recently. The proposed denoising algorithm is applied to feature extraction and classification for SN signals, which can effectively improve the recognition rate of different kinds of ships.

  2. Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient value with prognostic parameters of endometrioid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Chie; Fujii, Shinya; Kaneda, Sachi; Fukunaga, Takeru; Kaminou, Toshio; Kigawa, Junzo; Harada, Tasuku; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    To correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of endometrioid carcinoma with histological tumor grade and degree of myometrial invasion. 3T diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) images of 63 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Two readers measured tumor ADC according to a freehand region of interest (ROI) and a round ROI. Mean and minimum ADCs were correlated with prognostic parameters. The minimum ADC was 0.64 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for grade 1 (G1, n = 42), 0.62 for grade 2 (G2, n = 14), 0.46 for grade 3 (G3, n = 7) on freehand ROI. There were significant differences between G1 and G3 (P = 0.007), and G2 and G3 (P = 0.038). No significant correlation was found between tumor grade and mean ADC (0.85 for G1, 0.82 for G2, and 0.72 for G3, P = 0.166). The minimum ADC was significantly lower for patients with deep (n = 21, 0.54) than for those with superficial (n = 39, 0.65) myometrial invasion. Conversely, mean ADC did not differ significantly (0.84 for superficial and 0.78 for deep myometrial invasion, P = 0.081). The same tendency was shown on round ROI. The minimum ADC correlates with prognostic parameters of endometrial carcinoma more strongly than mean ADC. Lower minimum ADC is associated with higher histological tumor grade and higher degree of myometrial invasion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Blinded versus unblinded estimation of a correlation coefficient to inform interim design adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Cornelia U; Stallard, Nigel; Parsons, Nicholas; Todd, Susan; Friede, Tim

    2017-03-01

    Regulatory authorities require that the sample size of a confirmatory trial is calculated prior to the start of the trial. However, the sample size quite often depends on parameters that might not be known in advance of the study. Misspecification of these parameters can lead to under- or overestimation of the sample size. Both situations are unfavourable as the first one decreases the power and the latter one leads to a waste of resources. Hence, designs have been suggested that allow a re-assessment of the sample size in an ongoing trial. These methods usually focus on estimating the variance. However, for some methods the performance depends not only on the variance but also on the correlation between measurements. We develop and compare different methods for blinded estimation of the correlation coefficient that are less likely to introduce operational bias when the blinding is maintained. Their performance with respect to bias and standard error is compared to the unblinded estimator. We simulated two different settings: one assuming that all group means are the same and one assuming that different groups have different means. Simulation results show that the naïve (one-sample) estimator is only slightly biased and has a standard error comparable to that of the unblinded estimator. However, if the group means differ, other estimators have better performance depending on the sample size per group and the number of groups. © 2016 The Authors. Biometrical Journal Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Intracluster correlation coefficients for the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP): methodological and practical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster-based studies in health research are increasing. An important characteristic of such studies is the presence of intracluster correlation, typically quantified by the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC), that indicate the proportion of data variability that is explained by the way of clustering. The purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate ICC of variables studied in the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth. Methods This was a multicenter cross-sectional study on preterm births involving 20 referral hospitals in different regions of Brazil plus a nested case–control study to assess associated factors with spontaneous preterm births. Estimated prevalence rates or means, ICC with 95% confidence intervals, design effects and mean cluster sizes were presented for more than 250 maternal and newborn variables. Results Overall, 5296 cases were included in the study (4,150 preterm births and 1,146 term births). ICC ranged from 0.3 was found in some clinical management aspects well defined in literature such as use of corticosteroids, indicating there was homogeneity in clusters for these variables. Conclusions Clusters selected for Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth had mainly heterogeneous findings and these results can help researchers estimate the required sample size for future studies on maternal and perinatal health. PMID:24755392

  5. Correlation of subjective slipperiness judgements with quantitative COF (Coefficient Of Friction) measurements for structural steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswell, Jerry L.; Schlegel, Robert E.

    1988-06-01

    When there is no simple or accurate procedure for measuring the coefficient of friction (COF) at a job site, workers and/or supervisors involved must make subjective judgments about the slipperiness of the walking and climbing surfaces and in turn decide whether the surface presents a safe or an unsafe condition for work. This project was designed to determine whether these subjective judgment calls did in fact agree with the COF measurements obtained using a mechanical device. It was noted that the coatings chosen for study were subject to a polishing factor by the boot soles during the trials, causing the COF values to become lower as the trials continued. Poor correlation was obtained between subjective ratings of slipperiness and the COF values measured before the trials began. A relatively high correlation was obtained between subjective ratings and the COF values measured after the trials had been completed. A difference was noted in the subjective ratings for the effects of water on a coating for column climbing, but not for walking a beam, suggesting the effects of water on a coating are related to the type of task being performed in steel erection. An increase in the measured COF was noted for all of the coatings when they were wet as compared to the dry condition. The importance of clean shoe soles was clearly demonstrated.

  6. Measurement of the diffusion coefficients of fluorescence beads and quantum dots by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yesul; Lee, Jaeran; Lee, Yumi; Kim, Sokwon [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    FCS (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy) is a technique used to determine the dynamic characteristics of particles in solution and became common in the field of biophysics with the development of the confocal microscope, the high-speed photo-detector, and real-time data acquisition systems. In this study, the FCS system was composed of a commercial fluorescence microscope, a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm), a data acquisition board, and a software correlator written with LabVIEW. Autocorrelation functions were obtained using the measured fluorescence fluctuations of fluorescent beads and Q-dots (quantum dots) coated with carboxylate in distilled water. The diffusion coefficients of the beads and the Q-dots in distilled water and PBS (phosphate buffered saline) solution were obtained using the viscosity of water and the bead size. Also, using the bead size, we calculated the viscosity of the PBS solution, and we compared the Q-dots in water and in the PBS solution. The result showed that the viscosity of the PBS solution was 2.5 times greater than that of water, and that the sizes of Q-dots in water and PBS solution were one-third and one-sixth smaller than the known values, respectively, due to the pH variation in the solutions.

  7. Experimental correlation of gas-liquid-solid mass transfer coefficient in a stirred tank using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Duan, Xili; Gao, Zhengming

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) system in a stirred tank is experimentally studied. The response surface methodology (RSM) is used to analyze the three phase mass transfer coefficient under different conditions, i.e., rotation speeds (8, 10, and 12 s-1), volumetric solid content fractions (0, 6 and 12%), gas flow rates (6, 8, and 10 m3 h-1) and temperatures (40, 54, and 68 °C). With the RSM, it was found that all of these four operational parameters are significant in affecting the mass transfer coefficient, with the rotation speed being the most significant one. A new correlation is developed with a quadratic term for solid content fraction, indicating that there is a minimum value of mass transfer coefficient at a certain solid content fraction. Compared with traditional experimental design and correlation methods, the RSM in this study reduces experiment time and provides a better correlation to predict the mass transfer coefficient.

  8. Correlation between 3T apparent diffusion coefficient values and grading of invasive breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Valentina; Santucci, Domiziana; Guerrieri, Daniele; Drudi, Francesco Maria; Meggiorini, Maria Letizia; de Felice, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) provided by 3.0T (3T) magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) varied according to the grading of invasive breast carcinoma. A total of 92 patients with 96 invasive breast cancer lesions were enrolled; all had undergone 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local staging. All lesions were confirmed by histological analysis, and tumor grade was established according to the Nottingham Grading System (NGS). MRI included both dynamic contrast-enhanced and DWI sequences, and ADC value was calculated for each lesion. ADC values were compared with NGS classification using the Mann-Whitney U and the Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Grading was considered as a comprehensive prognostic factor, and Rho Spearman test was performed to determine correlation between grading and tumor size, hormonal receptor status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index. Pearson's Chi square test was carried out to compare grading with the other prognostic factors. ADC values were significantly higher in G1 than in G3 tumors. No significant difference was observed when G1 and G3 were compared with G2. Tumor size, hormonal receptor status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index correlated significantly with grading but there was a significant difference only between G1 and G3 related to the ER and PR status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index. There was no statistically significant difference in lesion size between the two groups. ADC values obtained on 3T DWI correlated with low-grade (G1) and high-grade (G3) invasive breast carcinoma. 3T ADC may be a helpful tool for identifying high-grade invasive breast carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical characterization of dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer rate in dialyzers with various filtration coefficients using dimensionless correlation equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Yoshimura, Kengo; Namekawa, Koki; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of filtration coefficient and internal filtration on dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer coefficient in dialyzers using dimensionless mass transfer correlation equations. Aqueous solution of vitamin B12 clearances were obtained for REXEED-15L as a low flux dialyzer, and APS-15EA and APS-15UA as high flux dialyzers. All the other design specifications were identical for these dialyzers except for filtration coefficient. The overall mass transfer coefficient was calculated, moreover, the exponents of Reynolds number (Re) and film mass transfer coefficient of the dialysis-side fluid (k D) for each flow rate were derived from the Wilson plot and dimensionless correlation equation. The exponents of Re were 0.4 for the low flux dialyzer whereas 0.5 for the high flux dialyzers. Dialysis fluid of the low flux dialyzer was close to laminar flow because of its low filtration coefficient. On the other hand, dialysis fluid of the high flux dialyzers was assumed to be orthogonal flow. Higher filtration coefficient was associated with higher k D influenced by mass transfer rate through diffusion and internal filtration. Higher filtration coefficient of dialyzers and internal filtration affect orthogonal flow of dialysis fluid.

  10. Hepatic hemangioma: Correlation of enhancement types with diffusion-weighted MR findings and apparent diffusion coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)], E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp; Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kajita, Kimihiro [Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Tsuge, Yusuke [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Purpose: To correlate hepatic hemangioma enhancement types in gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images with diffusion-weighted MR findings and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). Materials and methods: Respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted MR images (TR/TE, 2422/46 ms; parallel imaging factor, 2; b factor, 500 s/mm{sup 2}; number of averaging, 6) obtained in 35 patients with 44 hepatic hemangiomas diagnosed by gadolinium-enhanced MR and by follow-up imaging were retrospectively evaluated. Hemangiomas were classified into three enhancement types based on gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings: type I, early-enhancement type; type II, peripheral nodular enhancement type; type III, delayed enhancement type. Two blinded readers qualitatively assessed lesion sizes and signal intensities on T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and diffusion-weighted images. The ADCs of hemangiomas were also measured. Results: No significant difference was observed between the three enhancement types in terms of signal intensities on T2-weighted images. Signal intensities on diffusion-weighted images were lower in the order type I to III (P < .01), and mean ADCs were 2.18 x 10{sup -3}, 1.86 x 10{sup -3}, and 1.71 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for types I, II, and III, respectively (P < .01). No correlation was found between lesion sizes and ADCs. Conclusion: Hepatic hemangiomas were found to have enhancement type dependent signal intensities and ADCs on diffusion-weighted MR images. Further studies will have to substantiate that these diffusion patterns might reflect intratumoral blood flow or perfusion.

  11. Hepatic hemangioma: correlation of enhancement types with diffusion-weighted MR findings and apparent diffusion coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Satoshi; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kajita, Kimihiro; Tsuge, Yusuke; Shiratori, Yoshimune; Onozuka, Minoru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-05-01

    To correlate hepatic hemangioma enhancement types in gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images with diffusion-weighted MR findings and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). Respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted MR images (TR/TE, 2422/46 ms; parallel imaging factor, 2; b factor, 500 s/mm(2); number of averaging, 6) obtained in 35 patients with 44 hepatic hemangiomas diagnosed by gadolinium-enhanced MR and by follow-up imaging were retrospectively evaluated. Hemangiomas were classified into three enhancement types based on gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings: type I, early-enhancement type; type II, peripheral nodular enhancement type; type III, delayed enhancement type. Two blinded readers qualitatively assessed lesion sizes and signal intensities on T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and diffusion-weighted images. The ADCs of hemangiomas were also measured. No significant difference was observed between the three enhancement types in terms of signal intensities on T2-weighted images. Signal intensities on diffusion-weighted images were lower in the order type I to III (P<.01), and mean ADCs were 2.18 x 10(-3), 1.86 x 10(-3), and 1.71 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s for types I, II, and III, respectively (P<.01). No correlation was found between lesion sizes and ADCs. Hepatic hemangiomas were found to have enhancement type dependent signal intensities and ADCs on diffusion-weighted MR images. Further studies will have to substantiate that these diffusion patterns might reflect intratumoral blood flow or perfusion.

  12. The life story from age 26 to 32: Rank-order stability and mean-level change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengsavang, Sonia; Pratt, Michael W; Alisat, Susan; Sadler, Pamela

    2017-10-10

    In this longitudinal, mixed-methods project, the primary focus was to examine the rank-order stability and mean-level change in the life story during the period of emerging adulthood to young adulthood, while also investigating how the transition to parenthood may impact the life story. Seventy-two participants described three key life story scenes at age 26 and again at 32 (28% attrition from age 26 to 32). The narratives were coded for a range of features, including motivational themes (agency, communion), affective themes (emotional tone), an integrative meaning theme (coherent positive resolution), and a structural property (narrative complexity). Overall, there was moderate temporal stability and mean-level increase in several features of narrative identity over this key period. Positive changes in communion levels and overall emotional tone of life story scenes were especially evident for new parents at age 32. These longitudinal results suggested that adopting new social roles, in this case becoming a parent, predicted how the life story was expressed, just as they seemed to influence other levels of personality, such as traits, following the social investment principle. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Bayesian estimate of the concordance correlation coefficient with skewed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dai; Baumgartner, Richard; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is one of the most popular scaled indices used to evaluate agreement. Most commonly, it is used under the assumption that data is normally distributed. This assumption, however, does not apply to skewed data sets. While methods for the estimation of the CCC of skewed data sets have been introduced and studied, the Bayesian approach and its comparison with the previous methods has been lacking. In this study, we propose a Bayesian method for the estimation of the CCC of skewed data sets and compare it with the best method previously investigated. The proposed method has certain advantages. It tends to outperform the best method studied before when the variation of the data is mainly from the random subject effect instead of error. Furthermore, it allows for greater flexibility in application by enabling incorporation of missing data, confounding covariates, and replications, which was not considered previously. The superiority of this new approach is demonstrated using simulation as well as real-life biomarker data sets used in an electroencephalography clinical study. The implementation of the Bayesian method is accessible through the Comprehensive R Archive Network. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient and histopathology subtypes of osteosarcoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jifei; Sun, Meili; Liu, Dawei; Hu, Xiaoshu; Pui, Margaret H; Meng, Quanfei; Gao, Zhenhua

    2017-08-01

    Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has made limb-salvage surgery possible for the patients with osteosarcoma. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has been used to monitor chemotherapy response. Purpose To correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with histopathology subtypes of osteosarcoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Material and Methods Twelve patients with osteoblastic (n = 7), chondroblastic (n = 4), and fibroblastic (n = 1) osteosarcomas underwent post-chemotherapy DWI before limb-salvage surgery. ADCs corresponding to 127 histological tissue samples from the 12 resected specimens were compared to histological features. Results The mean ADC value of non-cartilaginous viable tumor (38/91, ADC = 1.22 ± 0.03 × 10(-3 )mm(2)/s) was significantly ( P  0.05) different between viable cartilaginous tumor and cystic/hemorrhagic necrosis. Conclusion DWI allows assessment of tumor necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by ADC differences between viable tumor and necrosis in fibroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas whereas viable chondroblastic osteosarcoma has high ADC and cannot be distinguished reliably from necrosis.

  15. Reliability of environmental sampling culture results using the negative binomial intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sharif S; Zhao, Jianyang; Li, Ben; Jiang, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is commonly used to estimate the similarity between quantitative measures obtained from different sources. Overdispersed data is traditionally transformed so that linear mixed model (LMM) based ICC can be estimated. A common transformation used is the natural logarithm. The reliability of environmental sampling of fecal slurry on freestall pens has been estimated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the natural logarithm transformed culture results. Recently, the negative binomial ICC was defined based on a generalized linear mixed model for negative binomial distributed data. The current study reports on the negative binomial ICC estimate which includes fixed effects using culture results of environmental samples. Simulations using a wide variety of inputs and negative binomial distribution parameters (r; p) showed better performance of the new negative binomial ICC compared to the ICC based on LMM even when negative binomial data was logarithm, and square root transformed. A second comparison that targeted a wider range of ICC values showed that the mean of estimated ICC closely approximated the true ICC.

  16. Correlation of second virial coefficient with solubility for proteins in salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Chirag M; White, Edward T; Litster, James D

    2012-01-01

    In this work, osmotic second virial coefficients (B(22)) were determined and correlated with the measured solubilities for the proteins, α-amylase, ovalbumin, and lysozyme. The B(22) values and solubilities were determined in similar solution conditions using two salts, sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate in an acidic pH range. An overall decrease in the solubility of the proteins (salting out) was observed at high concentrations of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. However, for α-amylase, salting-in behavior was also observed in low concentration sodium chloride solutions. In ammonium sulfate solutions, the B(22) are small and close to zero below 2.4 M. As the ammonium sulfate concentrations were further increased, B(22) values decreased for all systems studied. The effect of sodium chloride on B(22) varies with concentration, solution pH, and the type of protein studied. Theoretical models show a reasonable fit to the experimental derived data of B(22) and solubility. B(22) is also directly proportional to the logarithm of the solubility values for individual proteins in salt solutions, so the log-linear empirical models developed in this work can also be used to rapidly predict solubility and B(22) values for given protein-salt systems. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. Correlation and Path Coefficient Studies in F2 Populations of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffar KIANI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study performed to determine the association between grain yield and yield components in fifty-four selected rice genotypes at F2 populations. Results showed that traits, the panicles per plant (r = 0.751 and filled grains per panicle (r = 0.458 correlated significantly with grain yield, while grain yield was negatively associated with non-filled grains per panicle (-0.297. Path coefficient analysis revealed that grain yield was associated with panicles per plant and filled grains per panicle with the direct effects of 0.691 and 0.568, respectively. The greatest indirect effect belonged to panicle length (0.301 through filled grains per panicle. Stepwise regression analysis showed that 72.1 percent of yield variation could be explained by three characters: the panicles per plant, filled grains per panicle and panicle length. Information obtained in this study revealed that traits, the panicles per plant and filled grains per panicle, could be used as selection criteria for grain yield improvement at segregating populations of rice.

  18. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρDXA, contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  19. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pancreatic Cancer: Characteristics and Correlation With Histopathologic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanling; Li, Na; Zhao, Weiwei; Ren, Jing; Wei, Mengqi; Yang, Yong; Wang, Yingmei; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Zhuoli; Larson, Andrew C; Huan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    To clarify diffusion and perfusion abnormalities and evaluate correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), MR perfusion and histopathologic parameters of pancreatic cancer (PC). Eighteen patients with PC underwent diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Parameters of DCE-MRI and ADC of cancer and non-cancerous tissue were compared. Correlation between the rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the arterial blood into the extravascular extracellular space (K, volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (Ve), and ADC of PC and histopathologic parameters were analyzed. The rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the extravascular extracellular space into blood plasma, K, tissue volume fraction occupied by vascular space, and ADC of PC were significantly lower than nontumoral pancreases. Ve of PC was significantly higher than that of nontumoral pancreas. Apparent diffusion coefficient and K values of PC were negatively correlated to fibrosis content and fibroblast activation protein staining score. Fibrosis content was positively correlated to Ve. Apparent diffusion coefficient values and parameters of DCE-MRI can differentiate PC from nontumoral pancreases. There are correlations between ADC, K, Ve, and fibrosis content of PC. Fibroblast activation protein staining score of PC is negatively correlated to ADC and K. Apparent diffusion coefficient, K, and Ve may be feasible to predict prognosis of PC.

  20. A COMPARATIVE LOOK INTO HOW TO MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES: THROUGH USING PERCENTAGES OR CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Hakkı ERTEN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the appropriateness of two statistical procedures for measuring the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies: percentages and correlation coefficients. To do this a group of 20 learners of English were asked to study 12 words in a written list, with their pronunciations, dictionary definitions, and example sentences. Data was collected through introspection where students were asked to verbalize their mental processes as they studied the target words. A pre-test and post-test were given to measure the task achievement. The qualitative data was transcribed verbatim and content-analysed for tokens of strategy use as well as by noting whether each use of strategies led to successful recall of the words on which they were used. To calculate the strategy effectiveness, both simple percentage calculation and correlation coefficients were employed for comparison. The findings indicated that percentage calculation can give a more realistic picture of strategy effectiveness than correlation coefficients.

  1. Correlated linear response calculations of the C6 dispersion coefficients of hydrogen halides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sauer, S. P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-4 (2007), s. 399-421 ISSN 1574-0404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA401870702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : hydrogen halides * C6 dospersion coefficients * van der Waals coefficients * polarizability at imaginary frequences * SOPPA Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Correlation Coefficients Between Different Methods of Expressing Bacterial Quantification Using Real Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Navidshad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The applications of conventional culture-dependent assays to quantify bacteria populations are limited by their dependence on the inconsistent success of the different culture-steps involved. In addition, some bacteria can be pathogenic or a source of endotoxins and pose a health risk to the researchers. Bacterial quantification based on the real-time PCR method can overcome the above-mentioned problems. However, the quantification of bacteria using this approach is commonly expressed as absolute quantities even though the composition of samples (like those of digesta can vary widely; thus, the final results may be affected if the samples are not properly homogenized, especially when multiple samples are to be pooled together before DNA extraction. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation coefficients between four different methods of expressing the output data of real-time PCR-based bacterial quantification. The four methods were: (i the common absolute method expressed as the cell number of specific bacteria per gram of digesta; (ii the Livak and Schmittgen, ΔΔCt method; (iii the Pfaffl equation; and (iv a simple relative method based on the ratio of cell number of specific bacteria to the total bacterial cells. Because of the effect on total bacteria population in the results obtained using ΔCt-based methods (ΔΔCt and Pfaffl, these methods lack the acceptable consistency to be used as valid and reliable methods in real-time PCR-based bacterial quantification studies. On the other hand, because of the variable compositions of digesta samples, a simple ratio of cell number of specific bacteria to the corresponding total bacterial cells of the same sample can be a more accurate method to quantify the population.

  3. Pitfalls and important issues in testing reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients in orthopaedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Jaebong; Chung, Chin Youb; Ahn, Soyeon; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Hui Jong; Park, Moon Seok

    2012-06-01

    Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) provide a statistical means of testing the reliability. However, their interpretation is not well documented in the orthopedic field. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of ICCs in the orthopedic literature and to demonstrate pitfalls regarding their use. First, orthopedic articles that used ICCs were retrieved from the Pubmed database, and journal demography, ICC models and concurrent statistics used were evaluated. Second, reliability test was performed on three common physical examinations in cerebral palsy, namely, the Thomas test, the Staheli test, and popliteal angle measurement. Thirty patients were assessed by three orthopedic surgeons to explore the statistical methods testing reliability. Third, the factors affecting the ICC values were examined by simulating the data sets based on the physical examination data where the ranges, slopes, and interobserver variability were modified. Of the 92 orthopedic articles identified, 58 articles (63%) did not clarify the ICC model used, and only 5 articles (5%) described all models, types, and measures. In reliability testing, although the popliteal angle showed a larger mean absolute difference than the Thomas test and the Staheli test, the ICC of popliteal angle was higher, which was believed to be contrary to the context of measurement. In addition, the ICC values were affected by the model, type, and measures used. In simulated data sets, the ICC showed higher values when the range of data sets were larger, the slopes of the data sets were parallel, and the interobserver variability was smaller. Care should be taken when interpreting the absolute ICC values, i.e., a higher ICC does not necessarily mean less variability because the ICC values can also be affected by various factors. The authors recommend that researchers clarify ICC models used and ICC values are interpreted in the context of measurement.

  4. Comparison Study on Empirical Correlation for Mass Transfer Coefficient with Gas Hold-up and Input Power of Aeration Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Kyoo; Yang, Hei Cheon [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    As stricter environmental regulation have led to an increase in the water treatment cost, it is necessary to quantitatively study the input power of the aeration process to improve the energy efficiency of the water treatment processes. The objective of this study is to propose the empirical correlations for the mass transfer coefficient with the gas hold-up and input power in order to investigate the mass transfer characteristics of the aeration process. It was found that as the input power increases, the mass transfer coefficient increases because of the decrease of gas hold-up and increase of Reynolds number, the penetration length, and dispersion of mixed flow. The correlations for the volumetric mass transfer coefficients with gas hold-up and input power were consistent with the experimental data, with the maximum deviation less than approximately ±10.0%.

  5. aCORN: An experiment to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation coefficient in free neutron decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, B; Bateman, F; Bauder, W K; Byrne, J; Byron, W A; Chen, W; Darius, G; DeAngelis, C; Dewey, M S; Gentile, T R; Hassan, M T; Jones, G L; Komives, A; Laptev, A; Mendenhall, M P; Nico, J S; Noid, G; Park, H; Stephenson, E J; Stern, I; Stockton, K J S; Trull, C; Wietfeldt, F E; Yerozolimsky, B G

    2017-08-01

    We describe an apparatus used to measure the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient in free neutron decay. The apparatus employs a novel measurement technique in which the angular correlation is converted into a proton time-of-flight asymmetry that is counted directly, avoiding the need for proton spectroscopy. Details of the method, apparatus, detectors, data acquisition, and data reduction scheme are presented, along with a discussion of the important systematic effects.

  6. 3D analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient histograms in hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with histological grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Tomohisa; Saito, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Yu; Harada, Taiyo L; Araki, Yoichi; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2017-01-05

    To evaluate the usefulness of differentiation of histological grade in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using three-dimensional (3D) analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histograms retrospectively. The subjects consisted of 53 patients with 56 HCCs. The subjects included 12 well-differentiated, 35 moderately differentiated, and nine poorly differentiated HCCs. Diffusion-weighted imaging (b-values of 100 and 800 s/mm(2)) were obtained within 3 months before surgery. Regions of interest (ROIs) covered the entire tumor. The data acquired from each slice were summated to derive voxel-by-voxel ADCs for the entire tumor. The following parameters were derived from the ADC histogram: mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, mode, percentiles (5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th), skew, and kurtosis. These parameters were analyzed according to histological grade. After eliminating steatosis lesions, these parameters were re-analyzed. A weak correlation was observed in minimum ADC and 5th percentile for each histological grade (r = -0.340 and r = -0.268, respectively). The minimum ADCs of well, moderately, and poorly differentiated HCC were 585 ± 388, 411 ± 278, and 235 ± 102 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s, respectively. Minimum ADC showed significant differences among tumor histological grades (P = 0.009). The minimum ADC of poorly differentiated HCC and that of combined well and moderately differentiated HCC were 236 ± 102 and 437 ± 299 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s. The minimum ADC of poorly differentiated HCC was significantly lower than that of combined well and moderately differentiated HCC (P = 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity, when a minimum ADC of 400 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s or lower was considered to be poorly differentiated HCC, were 100 and 54%, respectively. After exclusion of the effect of steatosis, the sensitivity and specificity did not change, although the statistical differences became strong (P < 0

  7. Comparison of confidence interval methods for an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionan, Alexei C; Polley, Mei-Yin C; McShane, Lisa M; Dobbin, Kevin K

    2014-11-22

    The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is widely used in biomedical research to assess the reproducibility of measurements between raters, labs, technicians, or devices. For example, in an inter-rater reliability study, a high ICC value means that noise variability (between-raters and within-raters) is small relative to variability from patient to patient. A confidence interval or Bayesian credible interval for the ICC is a commonly reported summary. Such intervals can be constructed employing either frequentist or Bayesian methodologies. This study examines the performance of three different methods for constructing an interval in a two-way, crossed, random effects model without interaction: the Generalized Confidence Interval method (GCI), the Modified Large Sample method (MLS), and a Bayesian method based on a noninformative prior distribution (NIB). Guidance is provided on interval construction method selection based on study design, sample size, and normality of the data. We compare the coverage probabilities and widths of the different interval methods. We show that, for the two-way, crossed, random effects model without interaction, care is needed in interval method selection because the interval estimates do not always have properties that the user expects. While different methods generally perform well when there are a large number of levels of each factor, large differences between the methods emerge when the number of one or more factors is limited. In addition, all methods are shown to lack robustness to certain hard-to-detect violations of normality when the sample size is limited. Decision rules and software programs for interval construction are provided for practical implementation in the two-way, crossed, random effects model without interaction. All interval methods perform similarly when the data are normal and there are sufficient numbers of levels of each factor. The MLS and GCI methods outperform the NIB when one of the factors has a

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Correlation between Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Standardized Uptake Value in Malignant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengming; Wu, Zhifang; Wu, Yiwei; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jihui; Dai, Na; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis is to explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion-weighted MR and the standard uptake value (SUV) of (18)F-FDG on PET/CT in patients with cancer. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE included), EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review were searched for relevant original articles that explored the correlation between SUV and ADC in English. After applying Fisher's r-to-z transformation, correlation coefficient (r) values were extracted from each study and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses based on tumor type were performed to investigate the potential heterogeneity. Forty-nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, comprising 1927 patients. Pooled r for all studies was -0.35 (95% CI: -0.42-0.28) and exhibited a notable heterogeneity (I(2) = 78.4%; P correlation coefficients of ADC/SUV range from -0.12 (lymphoma, n = 5) to -0.59 (pancreatic cancer, n = 2). We concluded that there is an average negative correlation between ADC and SUV in patients with cancer. Higher correlations were found in the brain tumor, cervix carcinoma, and pancreas cancer. However, a larger, prospective study is warranted to validate these findings in different cancer types.

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Correlation between Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Standardized Uptake Value in Malignant Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this meta-analysis is to explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC on diffusion-weighted MR and the standard uptake value (SUV of 18F-FDG on PET/CT in patients with cancer. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE included, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review were searched for relevant original articles that explored the correlation between SUV and ADC in English. After applying Fisher’s r-to-z transformation, correlation coefficient (r values were extracted from each study and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses based on tumor type were performed to investigate the potential heterogeneity. Forty-nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, comprising 1927 patients. Pooled r for all studies was −0.35 (95% CI: −0.42–0.28 and exhibited a notable heterogeneity (I2 = 78.4%; P < 0.01. In terms of the cancer type subgroup analysis, combined correlation coefficients of ADC/SUV range from −0.12 (lymphoma, n = 5 to −0.59 (pancreatic cancer, n = 2. We concluded that there is an average negative correlation between ADC and SUV in patients with cancer. Higher correlations were found in the brain tumor, cervix carcinoma, and pancreas cancer. However, a larger, prospective study is warranted to validate these findings in different cancer types.

  10. Change in ranking order of prescribing patterns by age and sex standardization of the practice population--audit may be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Frede; Vedsted, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Nørskov

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate whether standardization of practice populations by age and sex changes the internal prescription ranking order of a group of practices. DESIGN: Data on the prescribing of cardiovascular drugs in a group of practices were obtained from a county-based database. Information...

  11. The coefficient of determination R(2) and intra-class correlation coefficient from generalized linear mixed-effects models revisited and expanded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Johnson, Paul C D; Schielzeth, Holger

    2017-09-01

    The coefficient of determination R(2) quantifies the proportion of variance explained by a statistical model and is an important summary statistic of biological interest. However, estimating R(2) for generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) remains challenging. We have previously introduced a version of R(2) that we called [Formula: see text] for Poisson and binomial GLMMs, but not for other distributional families. Similarly, we earlier discussed how to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) using Poisson and binomial GLMMs. In this paper, we generalize our methods to all other non-Gaussian distributions, in particular to negative binomial and gamma distributions that are commonly used for modelling biological data. While expanding our approach, we highlight two useful concepts for biologists, Jensen's inequality and the delta method, both of which help us in understanding the properties of GLMMs. Jensen's inequality has important implications for biologically meaningful interpretation of GLMMs, whereas the delta method allows a general derivation of variance associated with non-Gaussian distributions. We also discuss some special considerations for binomial GLMMs with binary or proportion data. We illustrate the implementation of our extension by worked examples from the field of ecology and evolution in the R environment. However, our method can be used across disciplines and regardless of statistical environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Discharge coefficient correlations for circular-arc venturi flowmeters at critical /sonic/ flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, B. T.; Britton, C. L.; Seidl, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental data are analyzed to support theoretical predictions for discharge coefficients in circular-arc venturi flow meters operating in the critical sonic flow regime at throat Reynolds numbers above 150 thousand. The data tend to verify the predicted 0.25% decrease in the discharge coefficient during transition from a laminar to turbulent boundary layer. Four different test gases and three flow measurement facilities were used in the experiments with 17 venturis with throat sizes from 0.15 to 1.37 in. and Beta ratios ranging from 0.014 to 0.25. Recommendations are given as to how the effectiveness of future studies in the field could be improved.

  13. Correlation of membrane/water partition coefficients of detergents with the critical micelle concentration.

    OpenAIRE

    Heerklotz, H; Seelig, J.

    2000-01-01

    The membrane/water partition coefficients, K, of 15 electrically neutral (non-charged or zwitterionic) detergents were measured with phospholipid vesicles by using isothermal titration calorimetry, and were compared to the corresponding critical micellar concentrations, cmc. The detergents measured were oligo(ethylene oxide) alkyl ethers (C(m)EO(n) with m = 10/n = 3, 7 and m = 12/n = 3.8); alkylglucosides (octyl, decyl); alkylmaltosides (octyl, decyl, dodecyl); diheptanoylphosphatidylcholine;...

  14. The Effect of a Fluorophore Photo-Physics on the Lipid Vesicle Diffusion Coefficient Studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dominik; Przybyło, Magda; Sikorski, Aleksander; Langner, Marek

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is a technique, which allows determination of the diffusion coefficient and concentration of fluorescent objects suspended in the solution. The measured parameter is the fluctuation of the fluorescence signal emitted by diffusing molecules. When 100 nm DOPC vesicles labeled with various fluorescent dyes (Fluorescein-PE, NBD-PE, Atto488 DOPE or βBodipy FL) were measured, different values of diffusion coefficients have been obtained. These diffusion coefficients were different from the expected values measured using the dynamic light scattering method (DLS). The FCS was initially developed for solutions containing small fluorescent molecules therefore the observed inconsistency may result from the nature of vesicle suspension itself. The duration of the fluorescence signal may depend on the following factors: the exposure time of the labeled object to the excitation beam, the photo-physical properties (e.g., stability) of a fluorophore, the theoretical model used for the calculations of the diffusion coefficient and optical properties of the vesicle suspension. The diffusion coefficients determined for differently labeled liposomes show that its dependence on vesicle size and quantity of fluorescent probed used for labeling was significant demonstrating that the fluorescence properties of the fluorophore itself (bleaching and/or blinking) were critical factors for a correct outcome of FCS experiment. The new, based on combined FCS and DLS measurements, method for the determination of the focal volume prove itself to be useful for the evaluation of a fluorescence dye with respect to its applicability for FCS experiment.

  15. Reform of the Correlation for the Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficient for Refrigerants Flowing in Horizontal Evaporator Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Yoshida, Suguru; Kakimoto, Yasushi; Ohishi, Katsumi

    The authors had previously proposed a prediction method of the local heat transfer coefficient for pure refrigerants flowing in horizontal smooth evaporator tubes. This method was compared with new experimental data, and found not to be accurately applicable to refrigerants of a large vapor density and/or flow in a tube of small diameter, particularly in the separated flow regime1nthis prediction method, the separation angle is a primary factor, and correlation of this angle is used not only to classify the flow regime into the annular flow and the separated flow, but also to determine the ratio of the wet perimeter to the whole perimeter f the tube for the separated flow. Based on the new experimental data of the separation angle obtained for refrigerants of a large vapor density and in a small diameter tube, the correlation for the separation angle was reformed so that the predicted heat transfer coefficient agrees well also with the new experimental values.

  16. The functional correlation between rainfall rate and extinction coefficient for frequencies from 3 to 10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the rainfall rate (R) obtained from radiometric brightness temperatures and the extinction coefficient (k sub e) is investigated by computing the values of k sub e over a wide range of rainfall rates, for frequencies from 3 to 25 GHz. The results show that the strength of the relation between the R and the k sub e values exhibits considerable variation for frequencies at this range. Practical suggestions are made concerning the selection of particular frequencies for rain measurements to minimize the error in R determinations.

  17. Variation and pearson correlation coefficients of warner-bratzler shear force measurements within broiler breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of texture properties related to tenderness at different locations within deboned broiler breast fillets have been used to validate techniques for texture analysis and establish correlations between different texture evaluation methods. However, it has been demonstrated that meat text...

  18. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cellularity is different in several tumors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Wienke, Andreas

    2017-08-29

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide clinical evidence regarding relationship between ADC and cellularity in different tumors based on large patient data. Medline library was screened for associations between ADC and cell count in different tumors up to September 2016. Only publications in English were extracted. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA) was used for the research. Overall, 39 publications with 1530 patients were included into the analysis. The following data were extracted from the literature: authors, year of publication, number of patients, tumor type, and correlation coefficients. The pooled correlation coefficient for all studies was ρ = -0.56 (95 % CI = [-0.62; -0.50]),. Correlation coefficients ranged from ρ =-0.25 (95 % CI = [-0.63; 0.12]) in lymphoma to ρ=-0.66 (95 % CI = [-0.85; -0.47]) in glioma. Other coefficients were as follows: ovarian cancer, ρ = -0.64 (95% CI = [-0.76; -0.52]); lung cancer, ρ = -0.63 (95 % CI = [-0.78; -0.48]); uterine cervical cancer, ρ = -0.57 (95 % CI = [-0.80; -0.34]); prostatic cancer, ρ = -0.56 (95 % CI = [-0.69; -0.42]); renal cell carcinoma, ρ = -0.53 (95 % CI = [-0.93; -0.13]); head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, ρ = -0.53 (95 % CI = [-0.74; -0.32]); breast cancer, ρ = -0.48 (95 % CI = [-0.74; -0.23]); and meningioma, ρ = -0.45 (95 % CI = [-0.73; -0.17]).

  19. Applications of interferometrically derived terrain slopes: Normalization of SAR backscatter and the interferometric correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Charles L.; Wegmueller, Urs; Small, David L.; Rosen, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    Terrain slopes, which can be measured with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry either from a height map or from the interferometric phase gradient, were used to calculate the local incidence angle and the correct pixel area. Both are required for correct thematic interpretation of SAR data. The interferometric correlation depends on the pixel area projected on a plane perpendicular to the look vector and requires correction for slope effects. Methods for normalization of the backscatter and interferometric correlation for ERS-1 SAR are presented.

  20. Correlation between tissue metabolism and cellularity assessed by standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient in peritoneal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Lee, Elaine Yuen Phin; Lai, Vincent; Chan, Queenie

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the correlation between standardized uptake value (SUV) (tissue metabolism) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) (water diffusivity) in peritoneal metastases. Patients with peritoneal dissemination detected on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) were prospectively recruited for MRI examinations with informed consent and the study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. FDG-PET/CT, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MRI, and DWI/MRI images were independently reviewed by two radiologists based on visual analysis. SUVmax/SUVmean and ADCmin/ADCmean were obtained manually by drawing ROIs over the peritoneal metastases on FDG-PET/CT and DWI, respectively. Diagnostic characteristics of each technique were evaluated. Pearson's coefficient and McNemar and Kappa tests were used for statistical analysis. Eight patients were recruited for this prospective study and 34 peritoneal metastases were evaluated. ADCmean was significantly and negatively correlated with SUVmax (r = -0.528, P = 0.001) and SUVmean (r = -0.548, P = 0.001). ADCmin had similar correlation with SUVmax (r = -0.508, P = 0.002) and SUVmean (r = -0.513, P = 0.002). DWI/MRI had high diagnostic performance (accuracy = 98%) comparable to FDG-PET/CT, in peritoneal metastasis detection. Kappa values were excellent for all techniques. There was a significant inverse correlation between SUV and ADC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, Mahdi; Shalwan, Abdullah

    2015-07-08

    The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE), Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE), and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE). The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs), as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.

  2. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Alajmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE, Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE, and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE. The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR and coefficient of friction (COF of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs, as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.

  3. Examining the Reliability of Interval Level Data Using Root Mean Square Differences and Concordance Correlation Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchard, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces new statistics for evaluating score consistency. Psychologists usually use correlations to measure the degree of linear relationship between 2 sets of scores, ignoring differences in means and standard deviations. In medicine, biology, chemistry, and physics, a more stringent criterion is often used: the extent to which…

  4. Proposal for a Correction to the Temporal Correlation Coefficient Calculation for Temporal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pigott, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the topological overlap of two graphs becomes important when assessing the changes between temporally adjacent graphs in a time-evolving network. Current methods depend on the fraction of nodes that have persisting edges. This breaks down when there are nodes with no edges, persisting or otherwise. The following outlines a proposed correction to ensure that correlation metrics have the expected behavior.

  5. Page 1 124 S M Bawiskar et al Table 2. Correlation coefficient of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R1 and R2 might have the same source of kinetic energy. The other significant correlation (-0.499) is between wavenumber 1 over R1 and short waves over. R2 which implies that with the increase (decrease) of kinetic energy of wavenumber 1 over R1 there is decrease (increase) of kinetic energy of short waves over R2.

  6. On the construction of bivariate exponential distributions with an arbitrary correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we use a concept of multivariate phase-type distributions to define a class of bivariate exponential distributions. This class has the following three appealing properties. Firstly, we may construct a pair of exponentially distributed random variables with any feasible correlation...

  7. On the Construction of Bivariate Exponential Distributions with an Arbitrary Correlation Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use the concept of multivariate phase-type distributions to define a class of bivariate exponential distributions. This class has the following three appealing properties. Firstly, we may construct a pair of exponentially distributed random variables with any feasible correlation...

  8. MEASUREMENT AND CORRELATION OF THE MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR A LIQUID-LIQUID SYSTEM WITH HIGH DENSITY DIFFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixian Huang

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the mass transfer behavior of a liquid-liquid system with high density difference (∆ρ≈500 kg/m3, single drop experiments were performed by using the ternary chloroform-ethanol-water system. The mass transfer direction was from the dispersed phase to the continuous phase, while the aqueous phase was dispersed in chloroform to generate drops. The influences of drop diameter, initial solute concentration and temperature on the mass transfer were investigated. The effects of the drop diameter and initial solute concentration on interfacial instability of droplets hanging in the continuous phase were also observed. For the purpose of correlation, a mass transfer enhancement factor F was introduced and then correlated as a function of dimensionless variables. The modified correlation from the mass transfer coefficient model was found to fit well with the experimental values.

  9. Time-varying coefficient vector autoregressions model based on dynamic correlation with an application to crude oil and stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fengbin; Qiao, Han; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung; Li, Yuze

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new time-varying coefficient vector autoregressions (VAR) model, in which the coefficient is a linear function of dynamic lagged correlation. The proposed model allows for flexibility in choices of dynamic correlation models (e.g. dynamic conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models, Markov-switching GARCH models and multivariate stochastic volatility models), which indicates that it can describe many types of time-varying causal effects. Time-varying causal relations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and the US Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P 500) stock markets are examined by the proposed model. The empirical results show that their causal relations evolve with time and display complex characters. Both positive and negative causal effects of the WTI on the S&P 500 in the subperiods have been found and confirmed by the traditional VAR models. Similar results have been obtained in the causal effects of S&P 500 on WTI. In addition, the proposed model outperforms the traditional VAR model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient with uterine cervical pathologic finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuning; Li, Hui; Chen, Ziqian; Ni, Ping; Zhong, Qun; Huang, Huijuan; Sandrasegaran, Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in characterizing pathologic features of cervical cancer and benign cervical lesions. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Seventy-three patients with cervical cancer (33-69 years old; 35 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB cervical cancer) and 38 patients (38-61 years old) with normal cervix or cervical benign lesions (control group) were enrolled. All patients underwent 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm(2). ADC values of the entire tumor in the patient group and the whole cervix volume in the control group were assessed. Mean ADC, median ADC, 25th and 75th percentiles of ADC, skewness, and kurtosis were calculated. Histogram parameters were compared between different pathologic features, as well as between stage IB cervical cancer and control groups. Mean ADC, median ADC, and 25th percentile of ADC were significantly higher for adenocarcinoma (p = 0.021, 0.006, and 0.004, respectively), and skewness was significantly higher for squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.011). Median ADC was statistically significantly higher for well or moderately differentiated tumors (p = 0.044), and skewness was statistically significantly higher for poorly differentiated tumors (p = 0.004). No statistically significant difference of ADC histogram was observed between lymphovascular space invasion subgroups. All histogram parameters differed significantly between stage IB cervical cancer and control groups (p < 0.05). Distribution of ADCs characterized by histogram analysis may help to distinguish early-stage cervical cancer from normal cervix or cervical benign lesions and may be useful for evaluating the different pathologic features of cervical cancer.

  11. Use of the correlation coefficient in agricultural sciences: problems, pitfalls and how to deal with them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a number of aspects concerning the analysis, interpretation and reporting of correlations in agricultural sciences. Various problems that one might encounter with these aspects are identified, and suggestions of how to overcome these problems are proposed. Some of the examples presented show how mistaken and even misleading the interpretation of correlation can be when one ignores simple rules of analysis.Este artigo discute uma série de aspectos relacionados a análise, interpretação e forma de relatar correlações em ciências Agrárias. São identificados vários problemas que podem ser encontrados, bem como feitas sugestões de como superá-los. Alguns dos exemplos apresentados mostram quão erradas e mesmo enganosas podem ser as interpretações de correlação quando regras simples de análise são ignoradas.

  12. Simulation data for an estimation of the maximum theoretical value and confidence interval for the correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Paolo; Cilurzo, Francesco; Minghetti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Pedretti, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the article titled "Molecular Dynamics as a tool for in silico screening of skin permeability" (Rocco et al., 2017) [1]. Knowledge of the confidence interval and maximum theoretical value of the correlation coefficient r can prove useful to estimate the reliability of developed predictive models, in particular when there is great variability in compiled experimental datasets. In this Data in Brief article, data from purposely designed numerical simulations are presented to show how much the maximum r value is worsened by increasing the data uncertainty. The corresponding confidence interval of r is determined by using the Fisher r→Z transform.

  13. 'aspect' - a new spectrometer for the measurement of the angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmer, O; Grinten, M G D; Heil, W; Glück, F

    2000-01-01

    The combination of the coefficient a of the antineutrino/electron angular correlation with the beta asymmetry of the neutron provides a sensitive test for scalar and tensor contributions to the electroweak Lagrangian, as well as for right-handed currents. A method is given for measuring a with high sensitivity from the proton recoil spectrum. The method is based on a magnetic spectrometer with electrostatic retardation potentials such as used for searches of the neutrino mass in tritium beta decay. The spectrometer can also be used for similar studies using radioactive nuclei.

  14. Statistical analysis of solid waste composition data: Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data......Data for fractional solid waste composition provide relative magnitudes of individual waste fractions, the percentages of which always sum to 100, thereby connecting them intrinsically. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition data represent closed data, and their interpretation and analysis...... require statistical methods, other than classical statistics that are suitable only for non-constrained data such as absolute values. However, the closed characteristics of waste composition data are often ignored when analysed. The results of this study showed, for example, that unavoidable animal...

  15. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient and the standardized uptake value in neoplastic lesions: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guohua; Ma, Huan; Liu, Bin; Ren, Pengwei; Kuang, Anren

    2017-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET are increasingly being recognized as feasible oncological techniques. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured by diffusion-weighted imaging and the standardized uptake value (SUV) from fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET have similar clinical applications. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between these two parameters in various cancers. Several major databases were searched for eligible studies. The correlation coefficient (ρ) values were pooled in a random-effects model. Begg's test was used to analyze the existence of publication bias and the sources of heterogeneity were explored in subgroup analyses on the basis of study design, diagnostic method, scanning modality, and tumor type. Thirty-five articles were accepted. The pooled ρ value of all of the accepted studies was -0.30 (95% confidence interval: -0.33 to -0.27), and notable heterogeneity was present (I=69.4%, Pcorrelation. The pooled ρ values were -0.26, -0.33, -0.32, and -0.33 for the SUVmax/ADCmean, SUVmax/ADCmin, SUVmean/ADCmean, and SUVmean/ADCmin relationships, respectively. The study design and diagnostic method were potential sources of heterogeneity. Lung cancer showed a stronger correlation (ρ=-0.42) than head and neck cancer (ρ=-0.27), cervical cancer (ρ=-0.21), and breast cancer (ρ=-0.23). A Begg's test indicated no significant publication bias among the accepted studies (P>0.05). The two functional parameters of ADC and SUV showed a very weak inverse correlation, which may contribute toward a sophisticated characterization of tumor biology. However, the findings require further validation with trials with large samples and different tumor types.

  16. Bias-corrected estimator for intraclass correlation coefficient in the balanced one-way random effects model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atenafu Eshetu G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs are used in a wide range of applications. However, most commonly used estimators for the ICC are known to be subject to bias. Methods Using second order Taylor series expansion, we propose a new bias-corrected estimator for one type of intraclass correlation coefficient, for the ICC that arises in the context of the balanced one-way random effects model. A simulation study is performed to assess the performance of the proposed estimator. Data have been generated under normal as well as non-normal scenarios. Results Our simulation results show that the new estimator has reduced bias compared to the least square estimator which is often referred to as the conventional or analytical estimator. The results also show marked bias reduction both in normal and non-normal data scenarios. In particular, our estimator outperforms the analytical estimator in a non-normal setting producing estimates that are very close to the true ICC values. Conclusions The proposed bias-corrected estimator for the ICC from a one-way random effects analysis of variance model appears to perform well in the scenarios we considered in this paper and can be used as a motivation to construct bias-corrected estimators for other types of ICCs that arise in more complex scenarios. It would also be interesting to investigate the bias-variance trade-off.

  17. Bias-corrected estimator for intraclass correlation coefficient in the balanced one-way random effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenafu, Eshetu G; Hamid, Jemila S; To, Teresa; Willan, Andrew R; Feldman, Brian M; Beyene, Joseph

    2012-08-20

    Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) are used in a wide range of applications. However, most commonly used estimators for the ICC are known to be subject to bias. Using second order Taylor series expansion, we propose a new bias-corrected estimator for one type of intraclass correlation coefficient, for the ICC that arises in the context of the balanced one-way random effects model. A simulation study is performed to assess the performance of the proposed estimator. Data have been generated under normal as well as non-normal scenarios. Our simulation results show that the new estimator has reduced bias compared to the least square estimator which is often referred to as the conventional or analytical estimator. The results also show marked bias reduction both in normal and non-normal data scenarios. In particular, our estimator outperforms the analytical estimator in a non-normal setting producing estimates that are very close to the true ICC values. The proposed bias-corrected estimator for the ICC from a one-way random effects analysis of variance model appears to perform well in the scenarios we considered in this paper and can be used as a motivation to construct bias-corrected estimators for other types of ICCs that arise in more complex scenarios. It would also be interesting to investigate the bias-variance trade-off.

  18. Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement imaging of glioblastoma at 7 Tesla: region specific correlation with apparent diffusion coefficient and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Daniel; Burth, Sina; Windschuh, Johannes; Meissner, Jan-Eric; Zaiss, Moritz; Eidel, Oliver; Kickingereder, Philipp; Nowosielski, Martha; Wiestler, Benedikt; Sahm, Felix; Floca, Ralf Omar; Neumann, Jan-Oliver; Wick, Wolfgang; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark Edward; Bachert, Peter; Radbruch, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    To explore the correlation between Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE)-mediated signals and tumor cellularity in glioblastoma utilizing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cell density from histologic specimens. NOE is one type of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) that originates from mobile macromolecules such as proteins and might be associated with tumor cellularity via altered protein synthesis in proliferating cells. For 15 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, NOE-mediated CEST-contrast was acquired at 7 Tesla (asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.3ppm, B1 = 0.7 μT). Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1), T2 and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) were acquired at 3 Tesla and coregistered. The T2 edema and the CE-T1 tumor were segmented. ADC and MTRasym values within both regions of interest were correlated voxelwise yielding the correlation coefficient rSpearman (rSp). In three patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy, cell density of 12 specimens per patient was correlated with corresponding MTRasym and ADC values of the biopsy site. Eight of 15 patients showed a weak or moderate positive correlation of MTRasym and ADC within the T2 edema (0.16≤rSp≤0.53, pcorrelations were statistically insignificant (p>0.05, n = 4) or yielded rSp≈0 (pcorrelation between MTRasym and ADC was found in CE-T1 tumor (-0.310.05, n = 6). The biopsy-analysis within CE-T1 tumor revealed a strong positive correlation between tumor cellularity and MTRasym values in two of the three patients (rSppatient3 = 0.69 and rSppatient15 = 0.87, pcorrelation of ADC and cellularity was heterogeneous (rSppatient3 = 0.545 (p = 0.067), rSppatient4 = -0.021 (p = 0.948), rSppatient15 = -0.755 (p = 0.005)). NOE-imaging is a new contrast promising insight into pathophysiologic processes in glioblastoma regarding cell density and protein content, setting itself apart from DWI. Future studies might be based on the assumption that NOE-mediated CEST visualizes

  19. A New Statistical-Based Correlation for the Rib Fin Effects on the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Rib-Roughened Cooling Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Taslim

    2007-01-01

    combined with about 400 numerical conduction models to determine an overall equivalent heat transfer coefficient that can be used in airfoil cooling design software. A well-known group method of data handling (GMDH scheme was then utilized to develop a correlation that encompasses most pertinent parameters including the rib geometry, rib fin efficiency, and the rib and floor heat transfer coefficients.

  20. A Generalized Spatial Correlation Model for 3D MIMO Channels based on the Fourier Coefficients of Power Spectrums

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-05-07

    Previous studies have confirmed the adverse impact of fading correlation on the mutual information (MI) of two-dimensional (2D) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. More recently, the trend is to enhance the system performance by exploiting the channel’s degrees of freedom in the elevation, which necessitates the derivation and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) channels in the presence of spatial correlation. In this paper, an exact closed-form expression for the Spatial Correlation Function (SCF) is derived for 3D MIMO channels. This novel SCF is developed for a uniform linear array of antennas with nonisotropic antenna patterns. The proposed method resorts to the spherical harmonic expansion (SHE) of plane waves and the trigonometric expansion of Legendre and associated Legendre polynomials. The resulting expression depends on the underlying arbitrary angular distributions and antenna patterns through the Fourier Series (FS) coefficients of power azimuth and elevation spectrums. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the SCF being valid for any 3D propagation environment. The developed SCF determines the covariance matrices at the transmitter and the receiver that form the Kronecker channel model. In order to quantify the effects of correlation on the system performance, the information-theoretic deterministic equivalents of the MI for the Kronecker model are utilized in both mono-user and multi-user cases. Numerical results validate the proposed analytical expressions and elucidate the dependence of the system performance on azimuth and elevation angular spreads and antenna patterns. Some useful insights into the behaviour of MI as a function of downtilt angles are provided. The derived model will help evaluate the performance of correlated 3D MIMO channels in the future.

  1. Apparent diffusion coefficient value of gastric cancer by diffusion-weighted imaging: Correlations with the histological differentiation and Lauren classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Song, E-mail: songliu532909756@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Guan, Wenxian, E-mail: wenxianguan123@126.com [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang, Hao, E-mail: wanghao20140525@126.com [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Pan, Liang, E-mail: panliang2014@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou, Zhuping, E-mail: zhupingzhou@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yu, Haiping, E-mail: haipingyu2012@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Liu, Tian, E-mail: tianliu2014@126.com [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Yang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xiaofengyang2014@126.com [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); He, Jian, E-mail: hjxueren@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou, Zhengyang, E-mail: zyzhou@nju.edu.cn [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Gastric cancers’ ADC values were significantly lower than normal gastric wall. • Gastric adenocarcinomas with different differentiation had different ADC values. • Gastric adenocarcinomas’ ADC values correlated with histologic differentiations. • Gastric cancers’ ADC values correlated with Lauren classifications. • Mean ADC value was better than min ADC value in characterizing gastric cancers. - Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations between histological differentiation and Lauren classification of gastric cancer and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Materials and methods: Sixty-nine patients with gastric cancer lesions underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3.0T) and surgical resection. DWI was obtained with a single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence in the axial plane (b values: 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}). Mean and minimum ADC values were obtained for each gastric cancer and normal gastric walls by two radiologists, who were blinded to the histological findings. Histological type, degree of differentiation and Lauren classification of each resected specimen were determined by one pathologist. Mean and minimum ADC values of gastric cancers with different histological types, degrees of differentiation and Lauren classifications were compared. Correlations between ADC values and histological differentiation and Lauren classification were analyzed. Results: The mean and minimum ADC values of gastric cancers, as a whole and separately, were significantly lower than those of normal gastric walls (all p values <0.001). There were significant differences in the mean and minimum ADC values among gastric cancers with different histological types, degrees of differentiation and Lauren classifications (p < 0.05). Mean and minimum ADC values correlated significantly (all p < 0.001) with histological differentiation (r = 0.564, 0.578) and

  2. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient value on diffusion-weighted MR imaging and Gleason score in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Reinikainen, P; Vanhanen, A; Kapanen, M; Vierikko, T; Ryymin, P; Hyödynmaa, S; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P-L

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates with prostate cancer aggressiveness and further to compare the diagnostic performance of ADC and normalized ADC (nADC: normalized to non-tumor tissue). Thirty pre-treatment patients (mean age, 69years; range: 59-78years) with prostate cancer underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, including DWI with three b values: 50, 400, and 800s/mm(2). Both ADC and nADC were correlated with the Gleason score obtained through transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. The tumor minimum ADC (ADCmin: the lowest ADC value within tumor) had an inverse correlation with the Gleason score (r=-0.43, Pcorrelated with the Gleason score (r=-0.52 and r=-0.55, P<0.01; respectively), and they were lower in patients with Gleason score 3+4 than those with Gleason score 3+3 (P<0.01; respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.765, 0.818, or 0.833 for the ADCmin, nADCmin, or nADCmean; respectively, in differentiating between Gleason score 3+4 and 3+3 tumors. Tumor ADCmin, nADCmin, and nADCmean are useful markers to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased apparent diffusion coefficient in the pituitary and correlation with hypopituitarism in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; He, Bin; Guo, Yijun; Zeng, Jingsong; Tong, Wusong

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between microstructural abnormality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hormone-secreting status remains unknown. In this study, the authors aimed to identify the role of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using a diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) technique and to evaluate the association of such changes with hypopituitarism in patients with TBI. Diffusion-weighted images were obtained in 164 consecutive patients with TBI within 2 weeks after injury to generate the pituitary ADC as a measure of microstructural change. Patients with TBI were further grouped into those with and those without hypopituitarism based on the secretion status of pituitary hormones at 6 months postinjury. Thirty healthy individuals were enrolled in the study and underwent MRI examinations for comparison. Mean ADC values were compared between this control group, the patients with TBI and hypopituitarism, and the patients with TBI without hypopituitarism; correlational studies were also performed. Neurological outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) for all TBI patients 6 months postinjury. In the TBI group, 84 patients had hypopituitarism and 80 had normal pituitary function. The pituitary ADC in TBI patients was significantly less than that in controls (1.83 ± 0.16 vs 4.13 ± 0.33, p correlated with neurological outcome at 6 months following TBI (r = 0.602, p correlated with hormone-secreting status in TBI patients. The authors suggest that pituitary ADC may be a useful biomarker to predict pituitary function in patients with TBI.

  4. Measurement of the electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simson, Martin

    2010-09-21

    This thesis describes measurements with the retardation spectrometer aSPECT at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. The goal of the measurement is to determine the angular correlation coefficient a from the form of the proton recoil spectrum in the decay of the free neutron in order to determine a precise value for the ratio of the weak axial vector and vector coupling constants of the nucleon. A big improvement was achieved with the use of a silicon drift detector which was used here for the first time to detect low energetic protons. A saturation effect of the electronics that was only discovered during the analysis of the data from neutron decay proved to be not correctable. The findings from analysis, simulations and test experiments gained in this work should allow a measurement of a with high precision in a future beamtime. (orig.)

  5. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...... structure in cases where some predicted pairs go into the category "unknown" due to lack of reliability in predicted pairs or unpaired residues. Hence, predicting base pairs of RNA secondary structure can be a three-category problem. The measure is further shown to be well in agreement with existing...... performance measures used for ranking protein secondary structure predictions. Server and software is available at http://rk.kvl.dk/....

  6. Interval estimation for rank correlation coefficients based on the probit transformation with extension to measurement error correction of correlated ranked data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Glynn, Robert J

    2007-02-10

    The Spearman (rho(s)) and Kendall (tau) rank correlation coefficient are routinely used as measures of association between non-normally distributed random variables. However, confidence limits for rho(s) are only available under the assumption of bivariate normality and for tau under the assumption of asymptotic normality of tau. In this paper, we introduce another approach for obtaining confidence limits for rho(s) or tau based on the arcsin transformation of sample probit score correlations. This approach is shown to be applicable for an arbitrary bivariate distribution. The arcsin-based estimators for rho(s) and tau (denoted by rho(s,a), tau(a)) are shown to have asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE) of 9/pi2 compared with the usual estimators rho(s) and tau when rho(s) and tau are, respectively, 0. In some nutritional applications, the Spearman rank correlation between nutrient intake as assessed by a reference instrument versus nutrient intake as assessed by a surrogate instrument is used as a measure of validity of the surrogate instrument. However, if only a single replicate (or a few replicates) are available for the reference instrument, then the estimated Spearman rank correlation will be downwardly biased due to measurement error. In this paper, we use the probit transformation as a tool for specifying an ANOVA-type model for replicate ranked data resulting in a point and interval estimate of a measurement error corrected rank correlation. This extends previous work by Rosner and Willett for obtaining point and interval estimates of measurement error corrected Pearson correlations. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Using the correlation coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P. Krijnen

    2015-01-01

    De correlatie coeffcient wordt gedefinieerd en haar eigenschappen worden samengevat. Een tweetal andere coeffcienten worden gegeven voor het geval de metingen niet normaal verdeeld zijn. Met enkele voorbeelden wordt het gebruik toegelicht. In het kort wordt uitgelegd hoe onderzoekers een uitkomst

  8. Edge detection in potential filed using the correlation coefficients between the average and standard deviation of vertical derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Wu, Yangang; Guan, Yanwu; Hao, Mengcheng

    2017-08-01

    Edge detection is an essential task in the interpretation of potential field data. Many existing edge detection methods are the functions composed by the horizontal derivative and vertical derivative of potential field data. The edges recognized by those methods are bigger than the true edges and when the depths of the geological bodies are different, the edges will be detected fuzzy and difficult to identify the edges accurately. In this paper, we present a new method to delineate the edges of the sources, which is based on the correlation coefficients between the average and standard deviation of vertical derivatives in a sliding window. The algorithm of this method is very simple. The zero value of the correlation coefficients is used to delineate the geological edges. It's clear to see the edges with the zero contours which will lead to continuous and clear detected edges and the method shows the edges more precisely. Moreover, the anomalies in different depths can be detected in the same degree and are insensitive to noise. The measure is initially applied on the synthetic gravity and magnetic data. The tests of theoretical models indicate that the new method could detect the edges of models in different depths and the position is in good accordance with the models' edges. Finally, this method is applied to gravity data from a portion of Vientiane Basin, Laos. As a result, the method is helpful in recognizing geologic fractures clearly. Moreover, it shows more geologic details with smaller window size and gives superior results with higher quality data.

  9. A Discussion about the Methodology to Validate the Correlations of Heat Transfer Coefficients and Pressure Drop during the Condensation in a Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Pisano, Alessandro; Martinez-Ballester, Santiago; Corberán, José M.; Hidalgo Monpeán, Fernando; Illán Gómez, Ferdando; García Cascales, J-Ramón

    2014-01-01

    As already demonstrated by others authors, when the performance of a heat exchanger is analyzed, a semi-empirical model allows getting good prediction of the experimental results provided that it is accompanied by the application of the suitable correlations for calculating heat transfer coefficients (HTC) and pressure drop (PD) in both refrigerant and air side. Many correlations for calculating these coefficients are available in literature, therefore choose the more suitable of them turns o...

  10. Correlation of human papillomavirus status with apparent diffusion coefficient of diffusion-weighted MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Juliette P; van Bemmel, Alexander J M; van Kempen, Pauline M W; Janssen, Luuk M; Terhaard, Chris H J; Pameijer, Frank A; Willems, Stefan M; Stegeman, Inge; Grolman, Wilko; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2016-04-01

    Identification of prognostic patient characteristics in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is of great importance. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive HNSCCs have favorable response to (chemo)radiotherapy. Apparent diffusion coefficient, derived from diffusion-weighted MRI, has also shown to predict treatment response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between HPV status and apparent diffusion coefficient. Seventy-three patients with histologically proven HNSCC were retrospectively analyzed. Mean pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficient was calculated by delineation of total tumor volume on diffusion-weighted MRI. HPV status was analyzed and correlated to apparent diffusion coefficient. Six HNSCCs were HPV-positive. HPV-positive HNSCC showed significantly lower apparent diffusion coefficient compared to HPV-negative. This correlation was independent of other patient characteristics. In HNSCC, positive HPV status correlates with low mean apparent diffusion coefficient. The favorable prognostic value of low pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficient might be partially attributed to patients with a positive HPV status. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E613-E618, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A comparison of confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient in community-based cluster randomization trials with a binary outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschel, Melissa C; Svec, Ivana; Darlington, Gerarda A; Donner, Allan

    2016-04-01

    Many investigators rely on previously published point estimates of the intraclass correlation coefficient rather than on their associated confidence intervals to determine the required size of a newly planned cluster randomized trial. Although confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient that can be applied to community-based trials have been developed for a continuous outcome variable, fewer methods exist for a binary outcome variable. The aim of this study is to evaluate confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient applied to binary outcomes in community intervention trials enrolling a small number of large clusters. Existing methods for confidence interval construction are examined and compared to a new ad hoc approach based on dividing clusters into a large number of smaller sub-clusters and subsequently applying existing methods to the resulting data. Monte Carlo simulation is used to assess the width and coverage of confidence intervals for the intraclass correlation coefficient based on Smith's large sample approximation of the standard error of the one-way analysis of variance estimator, an inverted modified Wald test for the Fleiss-Cuzick estimator, and intervals constructed using a bootstrap-t applied to a variance-stabilizing transformation of the intraclass correlation coefficient estimate. In addition, a new approach is applied in which clusters are randomly divided into a large number of smaller sub-clusters with the same methods applied to these data (with the exception of the bootstrap-t interval, which assumes large cluster sizes). These methods are also applied to a cluster randomized trial on adolescent tobacco use for illustration. When applied to a binary outcome variable in a small number of large clusters, existing confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient provide poor coverage. However, confidence intervals constructed using the new approach combined with Smith

  12. Application of Cross-correlation Greens Function along with FDTD for Fast Computation of Envelope Correlation Coefficient over Wideband for MIMO Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Debdeep

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of cross-correlation Green's functions (CGF) is used in conjunction with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique for calculation of envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) of any arbitrary MIMO antenna system over wide frequency band. Both frequency-domain (FD) and time-domain (TD) post-processing techniques are proposed for possible application with this FDTD-CGF scheme. The FDTD-CGF time-domain (FDTD-CGF-TD) scheme utilizes time-domain signal processing methods and exhibits significant reduction in ECC computation time as compared to the FDTD-CGF frequency domain (FDTD-CGF-FD) scheme, for high frequency-resolution requirements. The proposed FDTD-CGF based schemes can be applied for accurate and fast prediction of wideband ECC response, instead of the conventional scattering parameter based techniques which have several limitations. Numerical examples of the proposed FDTD-CGF techniques are provided for two-element MIMO systems involving thin-wire half-wavelength dipoles ...

  13. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji-Won; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Park, Michael Yong; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P=0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P=0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P=0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09×10(-3)mm2/s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P=0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging biomarkers for assessment of tumor grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reconstructing gene regulatory networks from knock-out data using Gaussian Noise Model and Pearson Correlation Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Salleh, Faridah Hani; Arif, Shereena Mohd; Zainudin, Suhaila; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-12-01

    A gene regulatory network (GRN) is a large and complex network consisting of interacting elements that, over time, affect each other's state. The dynamics of complex gene regulatory processes are difficult to understand using intuitive approaches alone. To overcome this problem, we propose an algorithm for inferring the regulatory interactions from knock-out data using a Gaussian model combines with Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC). There are several problems relating to GRN construction that have been outlined in this paper. We demonstrated the ability of our proposed method to (1) predict the presence of regulatory interactions between genes, (2) their directionality and (3) their states (activation or suppression). The algorithm was applied to network sizes of 10 and 50 genes from DREAM3 datasets and network sizes of 10 from DREAM4 datasets. The predicted networks were evaluated based on AUROC and AUPR. We discovered that high false positive values were generated by our GRN prediction methods because the indirect regulations have been wrongly predicted as true relationships. We achieved satisfactory results as the majority of sub-networks achieved AUROC values above 0.5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient calculation for temporal networks (applied to a real-world pig trade network).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The average topological overlap of two graphs of two consecutive time steps measures the amount of changes in the edge configuration between the two snapshots. This value has to be zero if the edge configuration changes completely and one if the two consecutive graphs are identical. Current methods depend on the number of nodes in the network or on the maximal number of connected nodes in the consecutive time steps. In the first case, this methodology breaks down if there are nodes with no edges. In the second case, it fails if the maximal number of active nodes is larger than the maximal number of connected nodes. In the following, an adaption of the calculation of the temporal correlation coefficient and of the topological overlap of the graph between two consecutive time steps is presented, which shows the expected behaviour mentioned above. The newly proposed adaption uses the maximal number of active nodes, i.e. the number of nodes with at least one edge, for the calculation of the topological overlap. The three methods were compared with the help of vivid example networks to reveal the differences between the proposed notations. Furthermore, these three calculation methods were applied to a real-world network of animal movements in order to detect influences of the network structure on the outcome of the different methods.

  16. HiCRep: assessing the reproducibility of Hi-C data using a stratum-adjusted correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Feipeng; Yardımcı, Galip Gürkan; Song, Fan; Hardison, Ross C; Noble, William Stafford; Yue, Feng; Li, Qunhua

    2017-11-01

    Hi-C is a powerful technology for studying genome-wide chromatin interactions. However, current methods for assessing Hi-C data reproducibility can produce misleading results because they ignore spatial features in Hi-C data, such as domain structure and distance dependence. We present HiCRep, a framework for assessing the reproducibility of Hi-C data that systematically accounts for these features. In particular, we introduce a novel similarity measure, the stratum adjusted correlation coefficient (SCC), for quantifying the similarity between Hi-C interaction matrices. Not only does it provide a statistically sound and reliable evaluation of reproducibility, SCC can also be used to quantify differences between Hi-C contact matrices and to determine the optimal sequencing depth for a desired resolution. The measure consistently shows higher accuracy than existing approaches in distinguishing subtle differences in reproducibility and depicting interrelationships of cell lineages. The proposed measure is straightforward to interpret and easy to compute, making it well-suited for providing standardized, interpretable, automatable, and scalable quality control. The freely available R package HiCRep implements our approach. © 2017 Yang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ji-Won, E-mail: fromentin@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Sung Eun, E-mail: serha@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soon Nam, E-mail: hiohsn@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Michael Yong, E-mail: digirave@kmle.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Young, E-mail: jybyun@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ahwon, E-mail: klee@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Hospital Pathology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •The solid component of all invasive epithelial cancers showed high b{sub 1000} signal intensity. •ADCs can predict the histologic grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs correlate negatively to the surgical stage of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs may be useful imaging biomarkers to assess epithelial ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. Materials and methods: We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. Results: The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P = 0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P = 0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P = 0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P = 0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. Conclusion: The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging

  18. Estimates of the Sampling Distribution of Scalability Coefficient H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Onna, Marieke J. H.

    2004-01-01

    Coefficient "H" is used as an index of scalability in nonparametric item response theory (NIRT). It indicates the degree to which a set of items rank orders examinees. Theoretical sampling distributions, however, have only been derived asymptotically and only under restrictive conditions. Bootstrap methods offer an alternative possibility to…

  19. Apparent diffusion coefficient in estrogen receptor-positive invasive ductal breast carcinoma: correlations with tumor-stroma ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Rock Bum; Cho, Eun Yoon; Ahn, Soomin; Nam, Seok Jin; Ko, Eun Young; Shin, Jung Hee; Hahn, Soo Yeon

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values vary according to tumor-stroma ratio, dominant stroma type, or presence of central fibrosis in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and patient consent was waived. Sixty-one patients with estrogen receptor-positive invasive ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified who underwent breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging were included in this study. The ADC values of the lesions were measured. Two pathologists evaluated the tumor-stroma ratio, dominant stroma type (collagen, fibroblast, lymphocyte), and central fibrosis. Detectability on DW images was compared between the two groups according to the tumor-stroma ratio (stroma rich or stroma poor). Mean ADC values were retrospectively compared with the tumor-stroma ratio, dominant stroma type, and presence of a central fibrosis. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine variables independently associated with ADC. On DW images, detectability was not significantly different between stroma-rich and stroma-poor groups (P = .244). ADC values were significantly lower in the stroma-poor group (P collagen-dominant type were lower than in fibroblast-dominant or lymphocyte-dominant types (P = .021). In multiple linear regression analysis, tumor-stroma ratio (P = .007), tumor size (P = .007), and dominant stroma type (collagen dominant, P = .029) were independently correlated with ADC. In estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers, ADC values showed significant differences according to the tumor-stroma ratio and dominant stroma type. RSNA, 2013

  20. Complex versus Simple Modeling for DIF Detection: When the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (?) of the Studied Item Is Less Than the ? of the Total Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Myers, Nicholas D.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that differential item functioning (DIF) methods that do not account for multilevel data structure could result in too frequent rejection of the null hypothesis (i.e., no DIF) when the intraclass correlation coefficient (?) of the studied item was the same as the ? of the total score. The current study extended…

  1. Determination of the electron-antineutrino correlation coefficient a in neutron beta-decay by measurement of the integrated proton spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Dawber, P G; Grinten, M G D; Habeck, C; Shaikh, F; Spain, J A; Baker, C A; Green, K; Scott, R D; Zimmer, O

    2000-01-01

    The principle is discussed and some preliminary results are given of an experiment in progress at ILL, which aims to determine the electron-antineutrino correlation coefficient, a, from a measurement of the integrated proton energy spectrum following neutron decay in an electromagnetic trap.

  2. Real external predictivity of QSAR models: how to evaluate it? Comparison of different validation criteria and proposal of using the concordance correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Nicola; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-09-26

    The main utility of QSAR models is their ability to predict activities/properties for new chemicals, and this external prediction ability is evaluated by means of various validation criteria. As a measure for such evaluation the OECD guidelines have proposed the predictive squared correlation coefficient Q(2)(F1) (Shi et al.). However, other validation criteria have been proposed by other authors: the Golbraikh-Tropsha method, r(2)(m) (Roy), Q(2)(F2) (Schüürmann et al.), Q(2)(F3) (Consonni et al.). In QSAR studies these measures are usually in accordance, though this is not always the case, thus doubts can arise when contradictory results are obtained. It is likely that none of the aforementioned criteria is the best in every situation, so a comparative study using simulated data sets is proposed here, using threshold values suggested by the proponents or those widely used in QSAR modeling. In addition, a different and simple external validation measure, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), is proposed and compared with other criteria. Huge data sets were used to study the general behavior of validation measures, and the concordance correlation coefficient was shown to be the most restrictive. On using simulated data sets of a more realistic size, it was found that CCC was broadly in agreement, about 96% of the time, with other validation measures in accepting models as predictive, and in almost all the examples it was the most precautionary. The proposed concordance correlation coefficient also works well on real data sets, where it seems to be more stable, and helps in making decisions when the validation measures are in conflict. Since it is conceptually simple, and given its stability and restrictiveness, we propose the concordance correlation coefficient as a complementary, or alternative, more prudent measure of a QSAR model to be externally predictive.

  3. Gene interference regulates aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with cerebral ischemic edema: Correlation with variation in apparent diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Lu, Hong; He, Zhanping; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jing; Tu, Rong

    2012-07-25

    To investigate the effects of mRNA interference on aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with ischemic cerebral edema, and diagnose the significance of diffusion-weighted MRI, we injected 5 μL shRNA- aquaporin-4 (control group) or siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution (1:800) (RNA interference group) into the rat right basal ganglia immediately before occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 0.25 hours after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, diffusion-weighted MRI displayed a high signal; within 2 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient decreased markedly, aquaporin-4 expression increased rapidly, and intracellular edema was obviously aggravated; at 4 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slowly returned to control levels, aquaporin-4 expression slightly increased, and angioedema was observed. In the RNA interference group, during 0.25-6 hours after injection of siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slightly fluctuated and aquaporin-4 expression was upregulated; during 0.5-4 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly higher, while aquaporin-4 expression was significantly lower when compared with the control group, and intracellular edema was markedly reduced; at 0.25 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient and aquaporin-4 expression were similar when compared with the control group; obvious angioedema remained at 6 hours. Pearson's correlation test results showed that aquaporin-4 expression was negatively correlated with the apparent diffusion coefficient (r = -0.806, P coefficient. Aquaporin-4 gene interference can effectively inhibit the upregulation of aquaporin-4 expression during the stage of intracellular edema with time-effectiveness. Moreover, diffusion-weighted MRI can accurately detect intracellular edema.

  4. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Wolf; Gacem, Riad; Anderlei, Tibor; Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Lattermann, Clemens; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-12-02

    Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham's π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/- 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale.

  5. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/− 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

  6. Correlation of standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient in integrated whole-body PET/MRI of primary and recurrent cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Beiderwellen, Karsten; Heusch, Philipp; Buderath, Paul; Aktas, Bahriye; Gratz, Marcel; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Ruhlmann, Verena; Umutlu, Lale

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a potential correlation of the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) and the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) in primary and recurrent cervical cancer based on integrated PET/MRI examinations. 19 consecutive patients (mean age 51.6 years; range 30-72 years) with histopathologically confirmed primary cervical cancer (n = 9) or suspected tumor recurrence (n = 10) were prospectively enrolled for an integrated PET/MRI examination. Two radiologists performed a consensus reading in random order, using a dedicated post-processing software. Polygonal regions of interest (ROI) covering the entire tumor lesions were drawn into PET/MR images to assess SUVmax and into ADC parameter maps to determine ADCmin values. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess a potential correlation between the mean values of ADCmin and SUVmax. In 15 out of 19 patients cervical cancer lesions (n = 12) or lymph node metastases (n = 42) were detected. Mean SUVmax (12.5 ± 6.5) and ADCmin (644.5 ± 179.7 × 10(-5) mm2/s) values for all assessed tumor lesions showed a significant but weak inverse correlation (R = -0.342, p correlation between SUVmax and ADCmin (R = -0.692, p correlation. These initial results of this emerging hybrid imaging technique demonstrate the high diagnostic potential of simultaneous PET/MR imaging for the assessment of functional biomarkers, revealing a significant and strong correlation of tumor metabolism and higher cellularity in cervical cancer lesions.

  7. Limiting partition coefficients of solutes in biphasic trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride ionic liquid-supercritical CO2 system: measurement and LSER-based correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2007-07-05

    Limiting partition coefficients of a selection of low-to-medium volatility solutes between both phases in a biphasic trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride ([thtdp][Cl]) ionic liquid (IL)-supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) system were obtained by capillary column chromatography with [thtdp][Cl] as the stationary liquid and scCO2 as the carrier fluid. It is shown that supercritical fluid chromatography can be used to probe the partitioning behavior of solutes in biphasic IL-scCO2 systems even when the IL has nonzero solubility in scCO2. Relative partition coefficients of solutes at a particular temperature and density of CO2 can be correlated within Abraham's linear solvation energy relationships. Compared with our previous results in a [bmim][BF4]-scCO2 system, the solute partition coefficients in the [thtdp][Cl]-scCO2 system are more sensitive to the solute hydrogen bond acidity descriptor.

  8. Standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient of endometrial cancer evaluated with integrated whole-body PET/MR: Correlation with pathological prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, I-Lun; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Bang-Bin; Wei, Shwu-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Chun; Sheu, Bor-Ching; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Tseng, Yao-Hui; Chen, Xin-Jia; Chen, Chi-Hau; Wei, Lin-Hung; Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Torng, Pao-Ling; Yen, Men-Luh; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the correlation between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin ) of endometrial cancer derived from an integrated positron emission tomography / magnetic resonance (PET/MR) system and to determine their correlation with pathological prognostic factors. This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the hospital, and informed consent was obtained. Between April and December 2014, 47 consecutive patients with endometrial cancer were enrolled and underwent simultaneous PET/MR examinations before surgery. Thirty-six patients with measurable tumors on PET/MR were included for image analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between SUVmax and ADCmin of the tumors. The Mann-Whitney U-test was utilized to evaluate relationships between these two imaging biomarkers and pathological prognostic factors. The mean SUVmax and ADCmin were 14.7 ± 7.1 and 0.48 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s, respectively. A significant inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and ADCmin (r = -0.53; P = 0.001). SUVmax was significantly higher in tumors with advanced stage, deep myometrial invasion, cervical invasion, lymphovascular space involvement, and lymph node metastasis (P PET/MR are inversely correlated and are associated with pathological prognostic factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma: Correlation with Detailed Histologic Features and the Enhancement Ratio on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Roka Namoto Matsubayashi; Teruhiko Fujii; Kotaro Yasumori; Toru Muranaka; Seiya Momosaki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the correlation of Apperent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values in invasive ductal breast carcinomas with detailed histologic features and enhancement ratios on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Methods and Materials. Dynamic MR images and diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) of invasive ductal breast carcinomas were reviewed in 25 (26 lesions) women. In each patient, DWI, T2WI, T1WI, and dynamic images were obtained. The ADC values of the 26 carcinomas were calculated with b-...

  10. Study of the relations of sink and source in saffron by means of correlation coefficients under different irrigation and fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Gholami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the main medicinal plant of Iran. In order to study the relations of sink and source between saffron leaves and corms, a split plot experiment was conducted on the basis of complete randomized block design with three replications in a field in the Ashkezar city of Yazd province during 2013-2014. The main plots and sub plots were irrigated with three levels (100%, 75% and 50% of ETc and the fertilization management methods including control (without any fertilizer or manure, applying 10 t/ha cow manure, 10 t/ha vermicompost by spreading, 10 t/ha vermicompost buried under planting corm rows, 5 t/ha vermicompost buried under planting corm rows, or spraying 10 l/ha Humaster Saffron fertilizer for 1 or 2 times after flowering. The Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between leaf length in every measuring stage and the weight of biggest corm at the end of the first year (as daughter corm. The results showed that correlation coefficients were decreased until 40 days after emergence and then increased. The highest correlation coefficient reached around 80 days after emergence and followed until the end of the growth period. The best corm yield was reached for 10 t/ha vermicompost buried under planting corm rows. Also under different irrigation regimes, the best results were obtained through full irrigation treatment.

  11. Momentum, sensible heat and CO2 correlation coefficient variability: what can we learn from 20 years of continuous eddy covariance measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Heinesch, Bernard; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Long-term data series of carbon dioxide and other gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere become more and more numerous. Long-term analyses of such exchanges require a good understanding of measurement conditions during the investigated period. Independently of climate drivers, measurements may indeed be influenced by measurement conditions themselves subjected to long-term variability due to vegetation growth or set-up changes. The present research refers to the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) an ICOS candidate site located in a mixed forest (beech, silver fir, Douglas fir, Norway spruce) in the Belgian Ardenne. Fluxes of momentum, carbon dioxide and sensible heat have been continuously measured there by eddy covariance for more than 20 years. During this period, changes in canopy height and measurement height occurred. The correlation coefficients (for momemtum, sensible heat and CO2) and the normalized standard deviations measured for the past 20 years at the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) were analysed in order to define how the fluxes, independently of climate conditions, were affected by the surrounding environment evolution, including tree growth, forest thinning and tower height change. A relationship between canopy aerodynamic distance and the momentum correlation coefficient was found which is characteristic of the roughness sublayer, and suggests that momentum transport processes were affected by z-d. In contrast, no relationship was found for sensible heat and CO2 correlation coefficients, suggesting that the z-d variability observed did not affect their turbulent transport. There were strong differences in these coefficients, however, between two wind sectors, characterized by contrasted stands (height differences, homogeneity) and different hypotheses were raised to explain it. This study highlighted the importance of taking the surrounding environment variability into account in order to ensure the spatio

  12. The generalized correlation for the evaluation of the influence of the Stefan flow on the heat transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Rakov, O. A.

    2013-11-01

    The analytical equations for the steady-state heat-and-mass transfer in the steam evaporation/condensation processes from the steam-gas mixtures on the planar and spherical surfaces are derived. The vapor flow through the motionless dry gas is considered according to the method proposed by Maxwell for the solution of the diffusion problems. The relationships for the calculation of the coefficients taking into account an increase in the mass output and an increase or a decrease in the heat emission (depending on the directions of the heat-and-mass flows) as a result of the influence of the Stefan flow are presented. The derived relationships can be used to calculate the apparatuses in which the steam evaporation or condensation from the steam-gas mixture occurs (the coolers of the vapor from deaerators, the apparatuses for the deep utilization of the heat of the combustion products, the condensation boilers, etc.).

  13. Easy measurement of diffusion coefficients of EGFP-tagged plasma membrane proteins using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Marlar, Saw

    2014-01-01

    Lateral diffusion and compartmentalization of plasma membrane proteins are tightly regulated in cells and thus, studying these processes will reveal new insights to plasma membrane protein function and regulation. Recently, k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS)1 was developed to enable ro...

  14. The electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay. Testing the standard model with the aSPECT-spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Michael

    2011-02-04

    The {beta}-decay of free neutrons is a strongly over-determined process in the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics and is described by a multitude of observables. Some of those observables are sensitive to physics beyond the SM. For example, the correlation coefficients of the involved particles belong to them. The spectrometer aSPECT was designed to measure precisely the shape of the proton energy spectrum and to extract from it the electron anti-neutrino angular correlation coefficient a. A first test period (2005/2006) showed the ''proof-of-principles''. The limiting influence of uncontrollable background conditions in the spectrometer made it impossible to extract a reliable value for the coefficient a (published in 2008). A second measurement cycle (2007/2008) aimed to under-run the relative accuracy of previous experiments ({delta}a)/(a)=5%. I performed the analysis of the data taken there which is the emphasis of this doctoral thesis. A central point are background studies. The systematic impact of background on a was reduced to ({delta}a{sup (syst.)})/(a)=0.61 %. The statistical accuracy of the analyzed measurements is ({delta}a{sup (stat.)})/(a){approx}1.4 %. Besides, saturation effects of the detector electronics were investigated which were initially observed. These turned out not to be correctable on a sufficient level. An applicable idea how to avoid the saturation effects is discussed in the last chapter. (orig.)

  15. In-vitro correlation between reduced scattering coefficient and hemoglobin concentration of human blood determined by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Lelia A.; Michalos, Antonios; Choi, Jee H.; Wolf, Ursula; Wolf, Martin; Gratton, Enrico

    2001-06-01

    We study the correlation between (mu) s' and THC obtained in vitro, in a highly scattering medium containing human blood. We used a frequency domain near infrared spectrometer (modulation frequency: 110 MHz, wavelengths: 758 and 830 nm) to measure in real time (acquisition time: 0.64 s) (mu) s' and THC. We used Liposyn suspension and red blood cells in saline buffer solution. After a couple of minutes of baseline acquisition, several consecutive increments of 3-5 ml blood were added to the solution yielding THC equals 15-100 (mu) M and (mu) a equals 0.03-0.3 1/cm. At the last amount of blood added, increments of glucose in the range of 0.5-20 g/L were added. For each step of blood and glucose added, data were acquired for a couple of minutes. This was repeated 6 times. Average of data was calculated for both (mu) s' and THC for each of the red blood cells and glucose increments added. We found a high correlation between (mu) s' and THC (0.018 X THC + 4.51, R2 equals 0.98 at 758 nm and 0.012 X THC + 4.86, R2 equals 0.97 at 830 nm). We studied the effect of glucose on (mu) s' and we found a high correlation between the glucose added to the suspension and the decrease in (mu) s' for the case of high glucose concentrations. The slope of this correlation is -0.011 at both wavelengths and the correlation factors were R2 X 0.96 at 830 nm and R2 equals 0.91 at 758 nm (case shown). The effect of glucose was less significant at 830 nm than at 758 nm in general. This work is a proof of principle for detection of (mu) s' changes with glucose. This approach also establishes limits for glucose detection in physiological conditions.

  16. PERFORMANCE OF RIDGE REGRESSION ESTIMATOR METHODS ON SMALL SAMPLE SIZE BY VARYING CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS: A SIMULATION STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Fitrianto; Lee Ceng Yik

    2014-01-01

    When independent variables have high linear correlation in a multiple linear regression model, we can have wrong analysis. It happens if we do the multiple linear regression analysis based on common Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method. In this situation, we are suggested to use ridge regression estimator. We conduct some simulation study to compare the performance of ridge regression estimator and the OLS. We found that Hoerl and Kennard ridge regression estimation method has better performan...

  17. Rheological investigation and its correlation with permeability coefficient of drug loaded carbopol gel: influence of absorption enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisal, Prashant B; Patil, Sharvil S; Pokharkar, Varsha B

    2013-04-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the effect of absorption enhancers on the microstructure of Losartan potassium gel and hence its influence on the diffusion of Losartan potassium across nasal mucosa. Losartan potassium loaded carbopol gel (1% w/v) with and without absorption enhancers was prepared. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and ethanol were used as absorption enhancers. Microstructural elucidation of prepared gels was done using shear rheology. Ex vivo drug release studies were performed on the prepared gels. It was observed that the absorption enhancers PEG 4000 and ethanol altered the gel microstructure. The prepared gels were viscoelastic in nature suggesting their suitability for topical application. Permeability coefficient of Losartan potassium loaded into gels was found to be inversely proportional to the storage modulus. Thus increase in storage modulus lead to slow drug diffusion. The current study emphasizes on the fact that selection of polymeric carrier for nasal drug delivery and/or absorption enhancer strongly influence the microstructure of the gel and hence the pharmaceutical performance of the formulation.

  18. Experimental determination of new statistical correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient by convection for flat plates, cylinders and tube banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Fernando Meza Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This project carried out an experimental research with the design, assembly, and commissioning of a convection heat transfer test bench. Objective: To determine new statistical correlations that allow knowing the heat transfer coefficients by air convection with greater accuracy in applications with different heating geometry configurations. Methodology: Three geometric configurations, such as flat plate, cylinders and tube banks were studied according to their physical properties through Reynolds and Prandtl numbers, using a data transmission interface using Arduino® controllers Measured the air temperature through the duct to obtain real-time data and to relate the heat transferred from the heating element to the fluid and to perform mathematical modeling in specialized statistical software. The study was made for the three geometries mentioned, one power per heating element and two air velocities with 10 repetitions. Results: Three mathematical correlations were obtained with regression coefficients greater than 0.972, one for each heating element, obtaining prediction errors in the heat transfer convective coefficients of 7.50% for the flat plate, 2.85% for the plate Cylindrical and 1.57% for the tube bank. Conclusions: It was observed that in geometries constituted by several individual elements, a much more accurate statistical adjustment was obtained to predict the behavior of the convection heat coefficients, since each unit reaches a stability in the surface temperature profile with Greater speed, giving the geometry in general, a more precise measurement of the parameters that govern the transfer of heat, as it is in the case of the geometry of the tube bank.

  19. Additional Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging to Evaluate Prognostic Factors of Breast Cancer: Correlation with the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse prognoses. The main prognostic determinants are lymph node status, tumor size, histological grade, and biological factors, such as hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67 protein levels, and p53 expression. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that provides information related to tumor cellularity and the integrity of the cell membranes. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether ADC measurements could provide information on the prognostic factors of breast cancer. A total of 71 women with invasive breast cancer, treated consecutively, who underwent preoperative breast MRIs with DWI at 3.0 Tesla and subsequent surgery, were prospectively included in this study. Each DWI was acquired with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2). The mean ADC values of the lesions were measured, including the entire lesion on the three largest sections. We performed histopathological analyses for the tumor size, lymph node status, histological grade, hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67, p53, and molecular subtypes. The associations with the ADC values and prognostic factors of breast cancer were evaluated using the independent-samples t test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A low ADC value was associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01) and with high Ki-67 protein levels (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the ADC values among the histological grade (P = 0.48), molecular subtype (P = 0.51), tumor size (P = 0.46), and p53 protein level (P = 0.62). The pre-operative use of the 3.0 Tesla DWI could provide information about the lymph node status and tumor proliferation for breast cancer patients, and could help determine the optimal treatment plan.

  20. Measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, G.

    2007-08-29

    In the four beam times we performed at the FRM-II, we were able to show that the spectrometer works in principle and that a determination of a with it is possible. A set of routines has been written for decoding and analyzing the raw data. The routines are written in C using the ROOT libraries and can be easily adapted or expanded. We have found a reliable way to extract the proton count rates from the data by building pulseheight spectra for each measurement, subtracting background measurements from those and fitting the resulting peak with a Gaussian. The background of the measurements was studied in detail. The background caused by electrons from neutron decay is very well understood and conforms quantitatively to our expectation. Due to the spatial resolution of our detector and the time resolution provided by our DAQ electronics, we were able to study correlated electron-proton pairs from one neutron decay event. They form a clearly visible peak in a time- and channel-distance spectrum, which can be shifted in the channel-dimension by varying the voltages applied to the lower and upper E x B electrodes. Performing a pulseheight analysis for both involved particles allowed us to obtain a fairly clean energy spectrum of the background caused by electrons from neutron decay in our detector. Using these correlations for data analysis may be of interest for future neutron decay experiments which use segmented detectors. (orig.)

  1. Stability and change of personality across the life course: the impact of age and major life events on mean-level and rank-order stability of the Big Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jule; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2011-10-01

    Does personality change across the entire life course, and are those changes due to intrinsic maturation or major life experiences? This longitudinal study investigated changes in the mean levels and rank order of the Big Five personality traits in a heterogeneous sample of 14,718 Germans across all of adulthood. Latent change and latent moderated regression models provided 4 main findings: First, age had a complex curvilinear influence on mean levels of personality. Second, the rank-order stability of Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, and Agreeableness all followed an inverted U-shaped function, reaching a peak between the ages of 40 and 60 and decreasing afterward, whereas Conscientiousness showed a continuously increasing rank-order stability across adulthood. Third, personality predicted the occurrence of several objective major life events (selection effects) and changed in reaction to experiencing these events (socialization effects), suggesting that personality can change due to factors other than intrinsic maturation. Fourth, when events were clustered according to their valence, as is commonly done, effects of the environment on changes in personality were either overlooked or overgeneralized. In sum, our analyses show that personality changes throughout the life span, but with more pronounced changes in young and old ages, and that this change is partly attributable to social demands and experiences. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Correlation Between Apparent Diffusion Coefficients and Standardized Uptake Values in Hybrid (18)F-FDG PET/MR: Preliminary Results in Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ju Hye; Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kong, Eun Jung; Kwon, Sang Don; Kim, Jae Hwang

    2016-06-01

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) share the same role in clinical oncology and it is feasible to obtain the standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) simultaneously by emerging the hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR). This study investigated the correlation between the ADCs of rectal cancer lesions and their SUVs derived from hybrid PET/MR. Nine patients with histologically proven rectal adenocarcinoma (5 men, 4 women; mean age, 70 ± 15.91 years) underwent torso (18)F-FDG PET/CT and regional hybrid (18)F-FDG PET/MR sequentially. A fixed threshold value of 40 % of maximum uptake was used to determine tumor volume of interest (VOI) on PET image; SUVmax, SUVpeak, and SUVmean were calculated automatically. A single freehand region of interest (ROI) was drawn on high b-value (b1000) DWI image and copied to corresponding ADC map to determine the ADCmean of rectal cancer lesion. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was calculated to determine the correlation between SUVs and ADC values. SUVmax, SUVpeak, and SUVmean derived by hybrid PET/MR were 12.35 ± 4.66 (mean ± standard deviation), 9.66 ± 3.15 and 7.41 ± 2.54, respectively. The ADCmean value of rectal cancer lesions was 1.02 ± 0.08 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s. ADCmean was significantly and inversely correlated with SUV values (SUVmax, ρ = -0.95, p PET/MR study demonstrates a significant inverse correlation exists between metabolic activity on (18)F-FDG PET and water diffusion on DWI in rectal cancer.

  3. Correlation between standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient of neoplastic lesions evaluated with whole-body simultaneous hybrid PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakheja, Rajan; Chandarana, Hersh; DeMello, Linda; Jackson, Kimberly; Geppert, Christian; Faul, David; Glielmi, Christopher; Friedman, Kent P

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of neoplastic lesions in the use of a simultaneous PET/MRI hybrid system. Twenty-four patients with known primary malignancies underwent FDG PET/CT. They then underwent whole-body PET/MRI. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with free breathing and a single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with b values of 0, 350, and 750 s/mm(2). Regions of interest were manually drawn along the contours of neoplastic lesions larger than 1 cm, which were clearly identified on PET and diffusion-weighted images. Maximum SUV (SUVmax) on PET/MRI and PET/CT images, mean SUV (SUVmean), minimum ADC (ADCmin), and mean ADC (ADCmean) were recorded on PET/MR images for each FDG-avid neoplastic soft-tissue lesion with a maximum of three lesions per patient. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to asses the following relations: SUVmax versus ADCmin on PET/MR and PET/CT images, SUVmean versus ADCmean, and ratio of SUVmax to mean liver SUV (SUV ratio) versus ADCmin. A subanalysis of patients with progressive disease versus partial treatment response was performed with the ratio of SUVmax to ADCmin for the most metabolically active lesion. Sixty-nine neoplastic lesions (52 nonosseous lesions, 17 bone metastatic lesions) were evaluated. The mean SUVmax from PET/MRI was 7.0 ± 6.0; SUVmean, 5.6 ± 4.6; mean ADCmin, 1.10 ± 0.58; and mean ADCmean, 1.48 ± 0.72. A significant inverse Pearson correlation coefficient was found between PET/MRI SUVmax and ADCmin (r = -0.21, p = 0.04), between SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.18, p = 0.07), and between SUV ratio and ADCmin (r = -0.27, p = 0.01). A similar inverse Pearson correlation coefficient was found between the PET/CT SUVmax and ADCmin. Twenty of 24 patients had previously undergone PET/CT; five patients had a partial treatment response, and six had progressive disease according to Response Evaluation

  4. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient: Evaluation of the correlation with subtypes of mucinous breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Kong, Qing-Cong; Zhu, Ye-Qing; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Peng, Ling-Rong; Tang, Wen-Jie; Yang, Rui-Meng; Xie, Jia-Jun; Liu, Chun-Ling

    2017-06-22

    To evaluate the utility of the whole-lesion histogram apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for characterizing the heterogeneity of mucinous breast carcinoma (MBC) and to determine which ADC metrics may help to best differentiate subtypes of MBC. This retrospective study involved 52 MBC patients, including 37 pure MBC (PMBC) and 15 mixed MBC (MMBC). The PMBC patients were subtyped into PMBC-A (20 cases) and PMBC-B (17 cases) groups. All patients underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5T and the whole-lesion ADC assessments were generated. Histogram-derived ADC parameters were compared between PMBC vs. MMBC and PMBC-A vs. PMBC-B, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine optimal histogram parameters for differentiating these groups. The PMBC group exhibited significantly higher ADC values for the mean (P = 0.004), 25(th) (P = 0.004), 50(th) (P = 0.004), 75(th) (P = 0.006), and 90(th) percentiles (P = 0.013) and skewness (P = 0.021) than did the MMBC group. The 25(th) percentile of ADC values achieved the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.792), with a cutoff value of 1.345 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s, in distinguishing PMBC and MMBC. The PMBC-A group showed significantly higher ADC values for the mean (P = 0.049), 25(th) (P = 0.015), and 50(th) (P = 0.026) percentiles and skewness (P = 0.004) than did the PMBC-B group. The 25(th) percentile of the ADC cutoff value (1.476 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s) demonstrated the best AUC (0.837) among the ADC values for distinguishing PMBC-A and PMBC-B. Whole-lesion ADC histogram analysis enables comprehensive evaluation of an MBC in its entirety and differentiating subtypes of MBC. Thus, it may be a helpful and supportive tool for conventional MRI. 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments to quantify free diffusion coefficients in reaction-diffusion systems: The case of Ca2 + and its dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigaut, Lorena; Villarruel, Cecilia; Ponce, María Laura; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2017-06-01

    Many cell signaling pathways involve the diffusion of messengers that bind and unbind to and from intracellular components. Quantifying their net transport rate under different conditions then requires having separate estimates of their free diffusion coefficient and binding or unbinding rates. In this paper, we show how performing sets of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments under different conditions, it is possible to quantify free diffusion coefficients and on and off rates of reaction-diffusion systems. We develop the theory and present a practical implementation for the case of the universal second messenger, calcium (Ca2 +) and single-wavelength dyes that increase their fluorescence upon Ca2 + binding. We validate the approach with experiments performed in aqueous solutions containing Ca2 + and Fluo4 dextran (both in its high and low affinity versions). Performing FCS experiments with tetramethylrhodamine-dextran in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we infer the corresponding free diffusion coefficients in the cytosol of these cells. Our approach can be extended to other physiologically relevant reaction-diffusion systems to quantify biophysical parameters that determine the dynamics of various variables of interest.

  6. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma: Correlation with Detailed Histologic Features and the Enhancement Ratio on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka Namoto Matsubayashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the correlation of Apperent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC values in invasive ductal breast carcinomas with detailed histologic features and enhancement ratios on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Methods and Materials. Dynamic MR images and diffusion-weighted images (DWIs of invasive ductal breast carcinomas were reviewed in 25 (26 lesions women. In each patient, DWI, T2WI, T1WI, and dynamic images were obtained. The ADC values of the 26 carcinomas were calculated with b-factors of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 using echoplanar DWI. Correlations of the ADC values were examined on dynamic MRI with enhancement ratios (early to delayed phase: E/D ratio and detailed histologic findings for each lesion, including cellular density, the size of cancer nests, and architectural features of the stroma (broad, narrow, and delicate between cancer nests. Results. The mean ADC was 0.915±0.151×10−3 mm2/sec. Cellular density was significantly correlated with ADC values (=.0184 and E/D ratios (=.0315. The ADC values were also significantly correlated to features of the stroma (broad to narrow, =.0366. Conclusion. The findings suggest that DWIs reflect the growth patterns of carcinomas, including cellular density and architectural features of the stroma, and E/D ratios may also be closely correlated to cellular density.

  7. Correlation of Benzene, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, and Naphthalene Distribution Coefficients to the Characteristics of Aquifer Materials With Low Organic Carbon Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory batch experiments on benzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and naphthalene (concentration: 100–1600 μg/l) sorption onto 20 aquifer materials of low organic carbon content (0.006–0.21 %) showed that the equilibrium distribution between solute and aquifer material could be expressed...... by the distribution coefficient, Kd, since the isotherms were linear: Kd(benzene): 0.05–0.65, Kd(TCA): 0.04–0.55, and Kd(naphthalene): 0.1–15.7 ml/g. Correlating observed Kd values to the organic carbon content of the aquifer materials explained only 52–65 % of the variance in Kd. Introducing the specific surface...... be attributed to unknown differences in organic matter composition or to the presence of other sorbing components in the aquifer materials. Fair correlations between Kd values for the studied compounds were observed for the individual aquifer materials....

  8. A Rapid Identification Method for Calamine Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Based on Multi-Reference Correlation Coefficient Method and Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yangbo; Chen, Long; Huang, Bisheng; Chen, Keli

    2017-07-01

    As a mineral, the traditional Chinese medicine calamine has a similar shape to many other minerals. Investigations of commercially available calamine samples have shown that there are many fake and inferior calamine goods sold on the market. The conventional identification method for calamine is complicated, therefore as a result of the large scale of calamine samples, a rapid identification method is needed. To establish a qualitative model using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid identification of various calamine samples, large quantities of calamine samples including crude products, counterfeits and processed products were collected and correctly identified using the physicochemical and powder X-ray diffraction method. The NIR spectroscopy method was used to analyze these samples by combining the multi-reference correlation coefficient (MRCC) method and the error back propagation artificial neural network algorithm (BP-ANN), so as to realize the qualitative identification of calamine samples. The accuracy rate of the model based on NIR and MRCC methods was 85%; in addition, the model, which took comprehensive multiple factors into consideration, can be used to identify crude calamine products, its counterfeits and processed products. Furthermore, by in-putting the correlation coefficients of multiple references as the spectral feature data of samples into BP-ANN, a BP-ANN model of qualitative identification was established, of which the accuracy rate was increased to 95%. The MRCC method can be used as a NIR-based method in the process of BP-ANN modeling.

  9. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient at 3.0t: Correlation with prognostic factors and subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Ga Eun; Kang, Bong Joo; Song, Byung Joo; Kim, Yun Ju; Lee, Dongeon; Ahn, Hyunsoo; Kim, Inah; Son, Yo Han; Grimm, Robert

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters that show correlations with prognostic factors and subtypes of breast cancer. At 3.0T, various ADC histogram parameters were calculated including the entire tumor volume in 173 invasive ductal carcinomas: the minimum, 10th percentile, mean, median, 90th percentile, and maximum. ADC parameters were correlated with prognostic factors and subtype. The mean ADCmedian value was significantly higher in the group with lymph node metastasis, HER2 positivity, and a Ki-67 value correlation between ADCmedian and tumor size, histologic grade, estrogen receptor expression, and progesterone receptor expression (P = 0.272, 0.113, 0.261, and 0.181, respectively). For most ADC parameters except for ADCmin , the mean of variable ADC parameters of HER2-positive, luminal A, luminal B-HER2(+), triple-negative, and luminal B-HER2(-) diseases were arranged in descending order (1.175, 0.936, 0.863, 0.811, and 0.665 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s in ADCmedian , respectively) with statistical significant difference (P coefficient = -0.317). Various ADC parameters were correlated with prognostic factors and subtype, except for ADCmin . HER2 positivity showed high ADC values and high Ki-67 index revealed low ADC values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A custom correlation coefficient (CCC) approach for fast identification of multi-SNP association patterns in genome-wide SNPs data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climer, Sharlee; Yang, Wei; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Gu, C Charles

    2014-11-01

    Complex diseases are often associated with sets of multiple interacting genetic factors and possibly with unique sets of the genetic factors in different groups of individuals (genetic heterogeneity). We introduce a novel concept of custom correlation coefficient (CCC) between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that address genetic heterogeneity by measuring subset correlations autonomously. It is used to develop a 3-step process to identify candidate multi-SNP patterns: (1) pairwise (SNP-SNP) correlations are computed using CCC; (2) clusters of so-correlated SNPs identified; and (3) frequencies of these clusters in disease cases and controls compared to identify disease-associated multi-SNP patterns. This method identified 42 candidate multi-SNP associations with hypertensive heart disease (HHD), among which one cluster of 22 SNPs (six genes) included 13 in SLC8A1 (aka NCX1, an essential component of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling) and another of 32 SNPs had 29 from a different segment of SLC8A1. While allele frequencies show little difference between cases and controls, the cluster of 22 associated alleles were found in 20% of controls but no cases and the other in 3% of controls but 20% of cases. These suggest that both protective and risk effects on HHD could be exerted by combinations of variants in different regions of SLC8A1, modified by variants from other genes. The results demonstrate that this new correlation metric identifies disease-associated multi-SNP patterns overlooked by commonly used correlation measures. Furthermore, computation time using CCC is a small fraction of that required by other methods, thereby enabling the analyses of large GWAS datasets. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficients and standardized uptake values in hybrid {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR: Preliminary results in rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ju Hye [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kong, Eun Jung; Kwon, Sang Don; Kim, Jae Hwang [Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) share the same role in clinical oncology and it is feasible to obtain the standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) simultaneously by emerging the hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR). This study investigated the correlation between the ADCs of rectal cancer lesions and their SUVs derived from hybrid PET/MR. Nine patients with histologically proven rectal adenocarcinoma (5 men, 4 women; mean age, 70 ± 15.91 years) underwent torso {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and regional hybrid {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR sequentially. A fixed threshold value of 40 % of maximum uptake was used to determine tumor volume of interest (VOI) on PET image; SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, and SUV{sub mean} were calculated automatically. A single freehand region of interest (ROI) was drawn on high b-value (b1000) DWI image and copied to corresponding ADC map to determine the ADCmean of rectal cancer lesion. Spearman'rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was calculated to determine the correlation between SUVs and ADC values. SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, and SUV{sub mean} derived by hybrid PET/MR were 12.35 ± 4.66 (mean ± standard deviation), 9.66  ± 3.15 and 7.41 ± 2.54, respectively. The ADCmean value of rectal cancer lesions was 1.02 ± 0.08 × 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s. ADCmean was significantly and inversely correlated with SUV values (SUV{sub max}, ρ = -0.95, p < 0.001; SUV{sub peak}, ρ = -0.93, p < 0.001; SUV{sub mean}, ρ = -0.91, p = 0.001). This preliminary hybrid PET/MR study demonstrates a significant inverse correlation exists between metabolic activity on {sup 18}F-FDG PET and water diffusion on DWI in rectal cancer.

  12. Correlation of Minimum Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Maximum Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor with Clinicopathologic Characteristics in Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürer Budak, Evrim; Toptaş, Tayfun; Aydın, Funda; Öner, Ali Ozan; Çevikol, Can; Şimşek, Tayup

    2017-02-05

    To explore the correlation of the primary tumor's maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) with clinicopathologic features, and to determine their predictive power in endometrial cancer (EC). A total of 45 patients who had undergone staging surgery after a preoperative evaluation with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) were included in a prospective case-series study with planned data collection. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlations between the study variables. The mean ADCmin and SUVmax values were determined as 0.72±0.22 and 16.54±8.73, respectively. A univariate analysis identified age, myometrial invasion (MI) and lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI) as the potential factors associated with ADCmin while it identified age, stage, tumor size, MI, LVSI and number of metastatic lymph nodes as the potential variables correlated to SUVmax. In multivariate analysis, on the other hand, MI was the only significant variable that correlated with ADCmin (p=0.007) and SUVmax (p=0.024). Deep MI was best predicted by an ADCmin cutoff value of ≤0.77 [93.7% sensitivity, 48.2% specificity, and 93.0% negative predictive value (NPV)] and SUVmax cutoff value of >20.5 (62.5% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity, and 81.0% NPV); however, the two diagnostic tests were not significantly different (p=0.266). Among clinicopathologic features, only MI was independently correlated with SUVmax and ADCmin. However, the routine use of (18)F-FDG PET/CT or DW-MRI cannot be recommended at the moment due to less than ideal predictive performances of both parameters.

  13. Formation of translational risk score based on correlation coefficients as an alternative to Cox regression models for predicting outcome in patients with NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElAidi Tina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personalised cancer therapy, such as that used for bronchial carcinoma (BC, requires treatment to be adjusted to the patient's status. Individual risk for progression is estimated from clinical and molecular-biological data using translational score systems. Additional molecular information can improve outcome prediction depending on the marker used and the applied algorithm. Two models, one based on regressions and the other on correlations, were used to investigate the effect of combining various items of prognostic information to produce a comprehensive score. This was carried out using correlation coefficients, with options concerning a more plausible selection of variables for modelling, and this is considered better than classical regression analysis. Methods Clinical data concerning 63 BC patients were used to investigate the expression pattern of five tumour-associated proteins. Significant impact on survival was determined using log-rank tests. Significant variables were integrated into a Cox regression model and a new variable called integrative score of individual risk (ISIR, based on Spearman's correlations, was obtained. Results High tumour stage (TNM was predictive for poor survival, while CD68 and Gas6 protein expression correlated with a favourable outcome. Cox regression model analysis predicted outcome more accurately than using each variable in isolation, and correctly classified 84% of patients as having a clear risk status. Calculation of the integrated score for an individual risk (ISIR, considering tumour size (T, lymph node status (N, metastasis (M, Gas6 and CD68 identified 82% of patients as having a clear risk status. Conclusion Combining protein expression analysis of CD68 and GAS6 with T, N and M, using Cox regression or ISIR, improves prediction. Considering the increasing number of molecular markers, subsequent studies will be required to validate translational algorithms for the prognostic

  14. Correlation of Minimum Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Maximum Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor with Clinicopathologic Characteristics in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Sürer Budak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the correlation of the primary tumor’s maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin with clinicopathologic features, and to determine their predictive power in endometrial cancer (EC. Methods: A total of 45 patients who had undergone staging surgery after a preoperative evaluation with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI were included in a prospective case-series study with planned data collection. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlations between the study variables. Results: The mean ADCmin and SUVmax values were determined as 0.72±0.22 and 16.54±8.73, respectively. A univariate analysis identified age, myometrial invasion (MI and lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI as the potential factors associated with ADCmin while it identified age, stage, tumor size, MI, LVSI and number of metastatic lymph nodes as the potential variables correlated to SUVmax. In multivariate analysis, on the other hand, MI was the only significant variable that correlated with ADCmin (p=0.007 and SUVmax (p=0.024. Deep MI was best predicted by an ADCmin cutoff value of ≤0.77 [93.7% sensitivity, 48.2% specificity, and 93.0% negative predictive value (NPV] and SUVmax cutoff value of >20.5 (62.5% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity, and 81.0% NPV; however, the two diagnostic tests were not significantly different (p=0.266. Conclusion: Among clinicopathologic features, only MI was independently correlated with SUVmax and ADCmin. However, the routine use of 18F-FDG PET/CT or DW-MRI cannot be recommended at the moment due to less than ideal predictive performances of both parameters.

  15. The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both VEGF and PROK1 (No correlation coefficient between VEGF and PROK1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goi, Takanori; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Hirono, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-10-06

    The angiogenic proteins vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prokineticin1 (PROK1) proteins are considered important in colorectal cancer, the relationship between their simultaneous expression and prognosis was investigated in the present study. VEGF and PROK1 expression in 620 primary human colorectal cancer lesions was confirmed via immunohistochemical staining with anti-VEGF and anti-PROK1 antibodies, and the correlation between the expression of these 2 proteins and recurrence/prognosis were investigated. VEGF protein was expressed in 329 (53.1%) and PROK1 protein was expressed in 223 (36.0%). PROK1 and VEGF were simultaneously expressed in 116 (18.7%) of the 620 cases. The correlation coefficient between VEGF expression and PROK1 expression was r = 0.11, and therefore correlation was not observed. Clinical pathology revealed that substantially lymphnode matastasis, hematogenous metastasis, or TMN advanced-stage IV was significantly more prevalent in cases that expressed both VEGF and PROK1 than in the cases negative for both proteins or those positive for only 1 of the proteins. Also the cases positive for both proteins exhibited the worst recurrence and prognosis. In the Cox proportional hazards model, VEGF and PROK1 expression was an independent prognostic factor. The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both PROK1 and VEGF relative to the cases that expressed only 1 protein, and the expression of both proteins was found to be an independent prognostic factor.

  16. A new correlation for convective heat transfer coefficient of water–alumina nanofluid in a square array subchannel under PWR condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Jubair A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Bhowmik, Palash K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1201 N. State St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Xiangyi, Chen [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kune Y., E-mail: kysuh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Thermo-hydrodynamic properties of water–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofluid at PWR condition is analyzed. • Details of CFD simulation and validation procedure is outlined. • Augmented heat transfer capacity of nanofluid is governed by larger pumping power. • A new correlation for nanofluid Nusselt number in subchannel geometry is proposed. - Abstract: The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is performed to determine on the thermo- and hydrodynamic performance of the water–alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanofluid in a square array subchannel featuring pitch-to-diameter ratios of 1.25 and 1.35. Two fundamental aspects of thermal hydraulics, viz. heat transfer and pressure drop, are assessed under typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions at various flow rates (3 × 10{sup 5} ⩽ Re ⩽ 6 × 10{sup 5}) using pure water and differing concentrations of water–alumina nanofluid (0.5–3.0 vol.%) as coolant. Numerical results are compared against predictions made by conventional single-phase convective heat transfer and pressure loss correlations for fully developed turbulent flow. It is observed that addition of tiny nanoparticles in PWR coolant can give rise to the convective heat transfer coefficient at the expense of larger pressure drop. Nevertheless, a modified correlation as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction is proposed to estimate nanofluid Nusselt number more precisely in square array subchannel.

  17. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient and correlation with hepatobiliary phase findings in the differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma from dysplastic nodules in cirrhotic liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchingolo, Riccardo; De Gaetano, Anna Maria; Curione, Davide; Ciresa, Marzia; Miele, Luca; Pompili, Maurizio; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Giuliante, Felice; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the correlation with hepatobiliary phase (delayed phase imaging, DPI) findings in the differentiation of cirrhotic hepatocellular nodules. Forty-three patients with 53 pathology-proven nodules (29 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 13 high-grade (HGDNs) and 11 low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs); mean size 2.17 cm, range 1-4 cm), who underwent liver MRI with DWI and DPI sequences, were retrospectively reviewed. Lesions were classified as hypointense, isointense, or hyperintense relative to the adjacent liver parenchyma. ADC of each nodule, of the surrounding parenchyma, and lesion-to-liver ratio were calculated. Hyperintensity versus iso/hypointensity on DWI, hypointensity versus iso/hyperintensity on DPI, and the mean lesion-to-liver ratio showed a statistically significant difference both between HCCs versus DNs and between "HCCs + HGDNs" versus LGDNs (p Correlation of DWI with DPI improves differential diagnosis of cirrhotic nodules. • Characterization of atypically enhancing lesions becomes more confident.

  18. No correlation between glucose metabolism and apparent diffusion coefficient in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A PET/CT and DW-MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xingchen, E-mail: Xingchen.Wu@uta.fi [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Medical Imaging Centre, Department of Radiology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Korkola, Pasi [Medical Imaging Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Pertovaara, Hannu [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Eskola, Hannu [Medical Imaging Centre, Department of Radiology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland); Jaervenpaeae, Ritva [Medical Imaging Centre, Department of Radiology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Medical School, University of Tampere (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Both positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) are oncologic feasible techniques for evaluating the malignancy of tumors. Standardized uptake value (SUV) is a marker of tumor glucose metabolism detected by PET/CT. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured by DWI can provide information about tissue cellularity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between SUV and ADC in untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Materials and methods: Fifteen pre-therapy patients with histologically proven DLBCL underwent PET/CT and DWI examinations within two days. Tumor glucose metabolism was evaluated by the maximum and mean SUV (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}) on the PET/CT images. The mean ADC value was measured directly on the parametric ADC maps. Results: In total, 28 lymphoma lesions with best match PET/CT and DWI were identified and evaluated. The mean SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} were 16.8 and 11.1, respectively; the mean ADC was 0.74 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. There was no correlation between the mean ADC and the SUV{sub max} or SUV{sub mean}. Conclusion: SUV determined from PET/CT and ADC value measured from DWI are different indices for the diagnosis of tumor malignancy, they may provide complimentary functional information of tumor tissue.

  19. The spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of the implied market information and characteristics of the correlation coefficient matrix of the international crude oil price returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Lixin [Jiangsu University, Energy Development and Environmental Protection Strategy Research Center, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing Normal University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Ding, Zhenqi; Zhen, Zaili [Jiangsu University, Energy Development and Environmental Protection Strategy Research Center, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Minggang [Nanjing Normal University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-08-15

    The international crude oil market plays a crucial role in economies, and the studies of the correlation, risk and synchronization of the international crude oil market have important implications for the security and stability of the country, avoidance of business risk and people's daily lives. We investigate the information and characteristics of the international crude oil market (1999-2015) based on the random matrix theory (RMT). Firstly, we identify richer information in the largest eigenvalues deviating from RMT predictions for the international crude oil market; the international crude oil market can be roughly divided into ten different periods by the methods of eigenvectors and characteristic combination, and the implied market information of the correlation coefficient matrix is advanced. Secondly, we study the characteristics of the international crude oil market by the methods of system risk entropy, dynamic synchronous ratio, dynamic non-synchronous ratio and dynamic clustering algorithm. The results show that the international crude oil market is full of risk. The synchronization of the international crude oil market is very strong, and WTI and Brent occupy a very important position in the international crude oil market. (orig.)

  20. Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma of the Uterus: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Including Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Value and Its Correlation With Ki-67 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai Ming; Liu, Jia; Qiang, Jin Wei; Gu, Wei Yong; Zhang, Guo Fu; Ma, Feng Hua

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) features of endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) including a preliminary investigation of the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and Ki-67 expression. The clinical and MRI data of 15 patients with ESS confirmed by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The conventional MR morphological features, signal intensity on DWI, ADC value (n = 14), and clinicopathological marker Ki-67 (n = 13) were evaluated. Of 15 patients with ESS, 13 tumors were low-grade ESS (LGESS), and the remaining 2 were high-grade ESS (HGESS); 9 tumors were located in the myometrium, 5 were located in the endometrium and/or cervical canal, and 1 was located in extrauterine. Thirteen (87%) of 15 tumors showed a homo- or heterogeneous isointensity on T1-weighted imaging and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging. The hypointense bands were observed in 11 tumors (73%) on T2-weighted imaging. The degenerations (cystic/necrosis/hemorrhage) were observed in 7 LGESS tumors and 2 HGESS tumors. The DWI hyperintensity was observed in 13 tumors (93%) and isointensity in remaining 1. The mean ADC value of the solid components in 14 ESSs was (1.05 ± 0.20) × 10mm/s. The contrast-enhanced MRI showed an obvious enhancement in 14 tumors (93%) (heterogeneous in 7 LGESSs and 2 HGESSs; homogeneous in 5 LGESSs). The ADC value was inversely correlated with the Ki-67 expression (r = -0.613, P = 0.026). Patients with ESS showed some characteristics on conventional MRI and DWI, and there was an inverse correlation between the ADC value and Ki-67 expression.

  1. [Correlation between the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion-weighted imaging in rats' liver fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuefu; Liang, Xianwen; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jianqiang; Zhang, Shufang; Tan, Shun; Li, Qun; Wang, Xiong; Liu, Fan

    2017-02-28

    To explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in different stages of liver fibrosis in rats.
 Methods: A model of liver fibrosis in rats was established by intraperitoneal injection of high-fat diet combined with porcine serum. After drug administration for 4 weeks, 48 rats served as a model group and 12 rats served as a control group, then they underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scanning. The value of ADC was calculated at b value=800 s/mm2. The rats were sacrificed and carried out pathologic examination after DWI scanning immediately. The mRNA expression of TIMP-1 was detected by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The rats of hepatic fibrosis were also divided into a S0 group (n=4), a S1 group (n=11), a S2 group (n=12), a S3 group (n=10), and a S4 group (n=9) according to their pathological stage. The value of ADC and the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA among the different stage groups of liver fibrosis were compared, and the correlation between ADC and the TIMP-1 mRNA were analyzed.
 Results: The ADC value and the TIMP-1 mRNA expression were significantly different between the control group and the liver fibrosis group (F=46.54 and 53.87, P0.05). For the comparison of TIMP-1 mRNA, there was no significant difference between the S1 group and the S2 group, the S3 group and the S4 group (both P>0.05). There were significant differences among the rest of the groups (all Pcorrelation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the ADC value and the TIMP-1 mRNA expression (r=-0.76, Pcorrelation between them.

  2. The apparent diffusion coefficient is strongly correlated with extracellular volume, a measure of myocardial fibrosis, and subclinical cardiomyopathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; An, Dong-Aolei; Hu, Jiani; Jiang, Meng; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Jian-Rong; Wu, Lian-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Extracellular volume (ECV) has been histologically validated as a non-invasive quantitative index of myocardial fibrosis that does not require the use of contrast, which is contraindicated in patients with renal insufficiency. Purpose To evaluate the correlation between the contrast-free apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and ECV, an index of fibrosis. Material and Methods Twenty-four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who were predominantly women (mean age = 36 ± 12 years) and 12 normal participants (mean age = 38 ± 10 years) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) via 3.0 T MR with T1 mapping. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) imaging served as the reference standards with which CMR was compared. The mean ADC, native T1, and ECV were calculated for each patient, and the correlations among these parameters were analyzed. Results Both SLE LGE-positive (LGE+) and SLE LGE-negative (LGE-) participants had higher native T1 values, ECV, and ADC than normal controls ( P ECV (0.31 ± 0.02) and ADC (2.44 ± 0.32 × 10(-3 )mm(2)/s) than SLE LGE- participants ( p  0.05). ADC values were positively correlated with increased ECV (R(2 )= 0.62) and native T1 values (R(2 )= 0.28) in all participants. Conclusion ADC measurements are a suitable alternative to ECV that may be used to assess and quantify myocardial fibrosis in patients with SLE.

  3. Diffusion-Tensor Imaging of Thigh Muscles in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Correlation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy Values With Fatty Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui Dian; Liang, Ying Yin; Xu, Ping; Ling, Jian; Chen, Ying Ming

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values with fatty infiltration in the thigh muscles of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-one boys with DMD were recruited. The grade of fatty infiltration and the ADC and FA values of four thigh muscles (rectus femoris, semitendinosus, sartorius, and gracilis) were measured, and the FA and ADC values were compared with the grade of fatty infiltration. Twenty age-matched healthy boys were enrolled as the control group. The differences in the ADC and FA values of the thigh muscles between patients with DMD and the control group were compared. The patients with DMD showed lower FA values and higher ADC values in all measured muscles when compared with the control group. The FA and ADC values were correlated with the grade of fatty infiltration. For the rectus femoris muscle, r = -0.753 and p = 0.007 for FA, and r = 0.685 and p = 0.001 for ADC. For the semitendinosus muscle, r = -0.621 and p = 0.041 for FA, and r = 0.705 and p = 0.021 for ADC. For the sartorius muscle, r = -0.662 and p = 0.027 for FA, and r = 0.701 and p = 0.017 for ADC. For the gracilis muscle, r = -0.618 and p = 0.043 for FA, and r = 0.695 and p = 0.022 for ADC. Damage to the thigh muscles in patients with DMD can be detected by ADC and FA values using DTI. DTI can be used to assess the severity of the disease.

  4. The relationship between multilevel models and non-parametric multilevel mixture models: Discrete approximation of intraclass correlation, random coefficient distributions, and residual heteroscedasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights, Jason D; Sterba, Sonya K

    2016-11-01

    Multilevel data structures are common in the social sciences. Often, such nested data are analysed with multilevel models (MLMs) in which heterogeneity between clusters is modelled by continuously distributed random intercepts and/or slopes. Alternatively, the non-parametric multilevel regression mixture model (NPMM) can accommodate the same nested data structures through discrete latent class variation. The purpose of this article is to delineate analytic relationships between NPMM and MLM parameters that are useful for understanding the indirect interpretation of the NPMM as a non-parametric approximation of the MLM, with relaxed distributional assumptions. We define how seven standard and non-standard MLM specifications can be indirectly approximated by particular NPMM specifications. We provide formulas showing how the NPMM can serve as an approximation of the MLM in terms of intraclass correlation, random coefficient means and (co)variances, heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 1, and heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 2. Further, we discuss how these relationships can be useful in practice. The specific relationships are illustrated with simulated graphical demonstrations, and direct and indirect interpretations of NPMM classes are contrasted. We provide an R function to aid in implementing and visualizing an indirect interpretation of NPMM classes. An empirical example is presented and future directions are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Intraherd correlation coefficients and design effects for bovine viral diarrhoea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in cow-calf system herds in North-eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J C; Domínguez-Díaz, D; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Argaez-Sosa, J

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the intraherd correlation coefficient (ICC) and design (D) effect for infectious diseases could be of interest in sample size calculation and to provide the correct standard errors of prevalence estimates in cluster or two-stage samplings surveys. Information on 813 animals from 48 non-vaccinated cow-calf herds from North-eastern Mexico was used. The ICC for the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), leptospirosis and neosporosis diseases were calculated using a Bayesian approach adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests. The ICC and D values for BVD, IBR, leptospirosis and neosporosis were 0.31 and 5.91, 0.18 and 3.88, 0.22 and 4.53, and 0.11 and 2.68, respectively. The ICC and D values were different from 0 and D greater than 1, therefore large sample sizes are required to obtain the same precision in prevalence estimates than for a random simple sampling design. The report of ICC and D values is of great help in planning and designing two-stage sampling studies. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wayside Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Envelope Analysis Paved with Time-Domain Interpolation Resampling and Weighted-Correlation-Coefficient-Guided Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope spectrum analysis is a simple, effective, and classic method for bearing fault identification. However, in the wayside acoustic health monitoring system, owing to the high relative moving speed between the railway vehicle and the wayside mounted microphone, the recorded signal is embedded with Doppler effect, which brings in shift and expansion of the bearing fault characteristic frequency (FCF. What is more, the background noise is relatively heavy, which makes it difficult to identify the FCF. To solve the two problems, this study introduces solutions for the wayside acoustic fault diagnosis of train bearing based on Doppler effect reduction using the improved time-domain interpolation resampling (TIR method and diagnosis-relevant information enhancement using Weighted-Correlation-Coefficient-Guided Stochastic Resonance (WCCSR method. First, the traditional TIR method is improved by incorporating the original method with kinematic parameter estimation based on time-frequency analysis and curve fitting. Based on the estimated parameters, the Doppler effect is removed using the TIR easily. Second, WCCSR is employed to enhance the diagnosis-relevant period signal component in the obtained Doppler-free signal. Finally, paved with the above two procedures, the local fault is identified using envelope spectrum analysis. Simulated and experimental cases have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient and correlation with hepatobiliary phase findings in the differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma from dysplastic nodules in cirrhotic liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inchingolo, Riccardo; De Gaetano, Anna Maria; Curione, Davide; Ciresa, Marzia; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, ' ' Agostino Gemelli' ' Hospital, Rome (Italy); Miele, Luca; Pompili, Maurizio [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Internal Medicine, ' ' Agostino Gemelli' ' Hospital, Rome (Italy); Vecchio, Fabio Maria [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Anatomo-Pathology, ' ' Agostino Gemelli' ' Hospital, Rome (Italy); Giuliante, Felice [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Surgery, ' ' Agostino Gemelli' ' Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the correlation with hepatobiliary phase (delayed phase imaging, DPI) findings in the differentiation of cirrhotic hepatocellular nodules. Forty-three patients with 53 pathology-proven nodules (29 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 13 high-grade (HGDNs) and 11 low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs); mean size 2.17 cm, range 1-4 cm), who underwent liver MRI with DWI and DPI sequences, were retrospectively reviewed. Lesions were classified as hypointense, isointense, or hyperintense relative to the adjacent liver parenchyma. ADC of each nodule, of the surrounding parenchyma, and lesion-to-liver ratio were calculated. Hyperintensity versus iso/hypointensity on DWI, hypointensity versus iso/hyperintensity on DPI, and the mean lesion-to-liver ratio showed a statistically significant difference both between HCCs versus DNs and between ''HCCs + HGDNs'' versus LGDNs (p < 0.05); sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of ''HCCs + HGDNs'' were 96.8 %, 100 %, 97.4 % respectively when combining hyperintensity on DWI and hypointensity on DPI, and 90.9 %, 81.0 %, 83.6 % respectively when lesion-to-liver ratio was <0.95. Hyperintensity on DWI, especially in association with hypointensity on DPI, and low lesion-to-liver ratios should raise the suspicion of HCC, or at least of HGDN, thus helping the characterization of atypically enhancing lesions. (orig.)

  8. Tutorial on use of intraclass correlation coefficients for assessing intertest reliability and its application in functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zeng, Li; Lin, Zi-Jing; Cazzell, Mary; Liu, Hanli

    2015-05-01

    Test-retest reliability of neuroimaging measurements is an important concern in the investigation of cognitive functions in the human brain. To date, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), originally used in inter-rater reliability studies in behavioral sciences, have become commonly used metrics in reliability studies on neuroimaging and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). However, as there are six popular forms of ICC, the adequateness of the comprehensive understanding of ICCs will affect how one may appropriately select, use, and interpret ICCs toward a reliability study. We first offer a brief review and tutorial on the statistical rationale of ICCs, including their underlying analysis of variance models and technical definitions, in the context of assessment on intertest reliability. Second, we provide general guidelines on the selection and interpretation of ICCs. Third, we illustrate the proposed approach by using an actual research study to assess intertest reliability of fNIRS-based, volumetric diffuse optical tomography of brain activities stimulated by a risk decision-making protocol. Last, special issues that may arise in reliability assessment using ICCs are discussed and solutions are suggested.

  9. Efficient nonrigid registration using ranked order statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennakoon, Ruwan B.; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2013-01-01

    of research. In this paper we propose a fast and accurate non-rigid registration method for intra-modality volumetric images. Our approach exploits the information provided by an order statistics based segmentation method, to find the important regions for registration and use an appropriate sampling scheme...

  10. Rank order scaling of pictorial depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, A.; Koenderink, J.; Wagemans, J.

    2011-01-01

    We address the topic of “pictorial depth” in cases of pictures that are unlike photographic renderings. The most basic measure of “depth” is no doubt that of depth order. We establish depth order through the pairwise depth-comparison method, involving all pairs from a set of 49 fiducial points. The

  11. Degree-Day Prediction Models for the Flight Phenology of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Assessed with the Concordance Correlation Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A A; Moon, R D; Wright, R J; Hunt, T E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-08-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native, univoltine pest of corn and dry beans in North America. The current degree-day model for predicting a specified percentage of yearly moth flight involves heat unit accumulation above 10°C after 1 May. However, because the moth's observed range has expanded into the northern and eastern United States, there is concern that suitable temperatures before May could allow for significant S. albicosta development. Daily blacklight moth catch and temperature data from four Nebraska locations were used to construct degree-day models using simple or sine-wave methods, starting dates between 1 January and 1 May, and lower (-5 to 15°C) and upper (20 to 43.3°C) developmental thresholds. Predicted dates of flight from these models were compared with observed flight dates using independent datasets to assess model performance. Model performance was assessed with the concordance correlation coefficient to concurrently evaluate precision and accuracy. The best model for predicting timing of S. albicosta flight used simple degree-day calculations beginning on 1 March, a 3.3°C (38°F) lower threshold, and a 23.9°C (75°F) upper threshold. The revised cumulative flight model indicated field scouting to estimate moth egg density at the time of 25% flight should begin when 1,432 degree-days (2,577 degree-days °F) have accumulated. These results underscore the importance of assessing multiple parameters in phenological models and utilizing appropriate assessment methods, which in this case may allow for improved timing of field scouting for S. albicosta. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Quantitative assessment of simultaneous F-18 FDG PET/MRI in patients with various types of hepatic tumors: Correlation between glucose metabolism and apparent diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eunjung; Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Ihn Ho

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism and water diffusion may have a relationship or an effect on each other in the same tumor. Knowledge of their relationship could expand the understanding of tumor biology and serve the field of oncologic imaging. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between metabolism and water diffusivity in hepatic tumors using a simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) system with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to reveal the metabolic and diffusional characteristics of each type of hepatic tumor. Forty-one patients (mean age 63 ± 13 years, 31 male) with hepatic tumors (18 hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], six cholangiocarcinoma [CCC], 10 metastatic tumors, one neuroendocrine malignancy, and six benign lesions) underwent FDG PET/MRI before treatment. Maximum standard uptake (SUVmax) values from FDG PET and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from the diffusion-weighted images were obtained for the tumor and their relationships were examined. We also investigated the difference in SUVmax and ADC for each type of tumor. SUVmax showed a negative correlation with ADC (r = -0.404, p = 0.009). The median of SUVmax was 3.22 in HCC, 6.99 in CCC, 6.30 in metastatic tumors, and 1.82 in benign lesions. The median of ADC was 1.039 × 10-3 mm/s2 in HCC, 1.148 × 10-3 mm/s2 in CCC, 0.876 × 10-3 mm/s2 in metastatic tumors, and 1.323 × 10-3 mm/s2 in benign lesions. SUVmax was higher in metastatic tumors than in benign lesions (p = 0.023). Metastatic tumors had a lower ADC than CCC (p = 0.039) and benign lesions (p = 0.004). HCC had a lower ADC than benign lesions, with a suggestive trend (p = 0.06). Our results indicate that SUVmax is negatively correlated with ADC in hepatic tumors, and each group of tumors has different metabolic and water diffusivity characteristics. Evaluation of hepatic tumors by PET/MRI could be helpful in understanding tumor characteristics.

  13. Complex versus Simple Modeling for Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Detection: When the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (Rho) of the Studied Item Is Less than the Rho of the Total Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that DIF methods that do not account for multilevel data structure could result in too frequent rejection of the null hypothesis (i.e., no DIF) when the intraclass correlation coefficient (?) of the studied item was the same as ? of the total score. The current study extended previous research by comparing the…

  14. Using the value of Lin's concordance correlation coefficient as a criterion for efficient estimation of areas of leaves of eelgrass from noisy digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarría-Heras, Héctor; Leal-Ramírez, Cecilia; Villa-Diharce, Enrique; Castillo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Eelgrass is a cosmopolitan seagrass species that provides important ecological services in coastal and near-shore environments. Despite its relevance, loss of eelgrass habitats is noted worldwide. Restoration by replanting plays an important role, and accurate measurements of the standing crop and productivity of transplants are important for evaluating restoration of the ecological functions of natural populations. Traditional assessments are destructive, and although they do not harm natural populations, in transplants the destruction of shoots might cause undesirable alterations. Non-destructive assessments of the aforementioned variables are obtained through allometric proxies expressed in terms of measurements of the lengths or areas of leaves. Digital imagery could produce measurements of leaf attributes without the removal of shoots, but sediment attachments, damage infringed by drag forces or humidity contents induce noise-effects, reducing precision. Available techniques for dealing with noise caused by humidity contents on leaves use the concepts of adjacency, vicinity, connectivity and tolerance of similarity between pixels. Selection of an interval of tolerance of similarity for efficient measurements requires extended computational routines with tied statistical inferences making concomitant tasks complicated and time consuming. The present approach proposes a simplified and cost-effective alternative, and also a general tool aimed to deal with any sort of noise modifying eelgrass leaves images. Moreover, this selection criterion relies only on a single statistics; the calculation of the maximum value of the Concordance Correlation Coefficient for reproducibility of observed areas of leaves through proxies obtained from digital images. Available data reveals that the present method delivers simplified, consistent estimations of areas of eelgrass leaves taken from noisy digital images. Moreover, the proposed procedure is robust because both the optimal

  15. Physiological Background of Differences in Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Between Acute Malignant and Benign Vertebral Body Fractures: Correlation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient With Quantitative Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using the 2-Compartment Exchange Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geith, Tobias; Biffar, Andreas; Schmidt, Gerwin; Sourbron, Steven; Dietrich, Olaf; Reiser, Maximilian; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in vertebral bone marrow of benign and malignant fractures is related to the volume of the interstitial space, determined with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with acute benign (n = 24) and malignant (n = 19) vertebral body fractures were examined at 1.5 T. A diffusion-weighted single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence (b = 100 to 600 s/mm) and DCE turbo-FLASH sequence were evaluated. Regions of interest were manually selected for each fracture. Apparent diffusion coefficient was determined with a monoexponential decay model. The DCE magnetic resonance imaging concentration-time curves were analyzed using a 2-compartment tracer-kinetic model. Apparent diffusion coefficient showed a significant positive correlation with interstitial volume in the whole study population (Pearson r = 0.66, P correlation between ADC and the permeability-surface area product could be observed when analyzing the whole study population (Spearman rs = 0.40, P = 0.008), but not when separately examining the subgroups. Plasma flow showed a significant correlation with ADC in benign fractures (Pearson r = 0.23, P = 0.03). Plasma volume did not show significant correlations with ADC. The results support the hypothesis that the ADC of a lesion is inversely correlated to its cellularity. This explains previous observations that ADC is reduced in more malignant lesions.

  16. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (ptraining reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  17. Correlation of human papillomavirus status with apparent diffusion coefficient of diffusion-weighted MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Juliette P; van Bemmel, Xander; van Kempen, Pauline M. W.; Janssen, Luuk M; Terhaard, Chris H J; Pameijer, Frank A; Willems, Stefan M.; Stegeman, Inge; Grolman, Wilko; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of prognostic patient characteristics in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is of great importance. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive HNSCCs have favorable response to (chemo)radiotherapy. Apparent diffusion coefficient, derived from diffusion-weighted MRI, has

  18. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heethal Jaiprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001 and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001. The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  19. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10−2.5 Class II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Illustration...

  20. THE PEAK ENERGY-DURATION CORRELATION AND POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS ON GAMMA RAY BURST PROGENITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Young Chang

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the correlation between the peak energy and the burst duration using available long GRB data with known redshift, whose circumburst medium type has been suggested via afterglow light curve modeling. We find that the peak energy and the burst duration of the observed GRBs are correlated both in the observer frame and in the GRB rest frame. For our total sample we obtain, for instance, the Spearman rank-order correlation values sim 0.75 and sim 0.65 with the chance probabilities P=1.0 times 10^{-3} and P=6.0 times 10^{-3} in the observer frame and in the GRB rest frame, respectively. We note that taking the effects of the expanding universe into account reduces the value a bit. We further attempt to separate our GRB sample into the ``ISM'' GRBs and the ``WIND'' GRBs according to environment models inferred from the afterglow light curves and apply statistical tests, as one may expect that clues on the progenitor of GRBs can be deduced directly from prompt emission properties other than from the ambient environment surrounding GRBs. We find that two subsamples of GRBs show different correlation coefficients. That is, the Spearman rank-order correlation are sim 0.65 and sim 0.57 for the ``ISM'' GRBs and ``WIND'' GRBs, respectively, after taking the effects of the expanding universe into account. It is not yet, however, statistically very much significant that the GRBS in two types of circumburst media show statistically characteristic behaviors, from which one may conclude that all the long bursts are not originated from a single progenitor population. A larger size of data is required to increase the statistical significance.

  1. Using EEG spatial correlation, cross frequency energy, and wavelet coefficients for the prediction of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handojoseno, A M Ardi; Shine, James M; Nguyen, Tuan N; Tran, Yvonne; Lewis, Simon J G; Nguyen, Hung T

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients with Freezing of Gait (FOG) often experience sudden and unpredictable failure in their ability to start or continue walking, making it potentially a dangerous symptom. Emerging knowledge about brain connectivity is leading to new insights into the pathophysiology of FOG and has suggested that electroencephalogram (EEG) may offer a novel technique for understanding and predicting FOG. In this study we have integrated spatial, spectral, and temporal features of the EEG signals utilizing wavelet coefficients as our input for the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network and k-Nearest Neighbor classifier. This approach allowed us to predict transition from walking to freezing with 87 % sensitivity and 73 % accuracy. This preliminary data affirms the functional breakdown between areas in the brain during FOG and suggests that EEG offers potential as a therapeutic strategy in advanced PD.

  2. Water apparent diffusion coefficient correlates with gamma oscillation of local field potentials in the rat brain nucleus accumbens following alcohol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Abe, Yoshifumi; Le Bihan, Denis

    2017-09-01

    Ethanol is a vasoactive agent as well as psychoactive drug. The neurovascular response, coupled with neuronal activity, can be disturbed by alcohol intake. Hence, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI, which relies on neurovascular coupling, might not be reliable to reflect alcohol-induced neuronal responses. Recently, diffusion fMRI has been shown to be more sensitive to neural activity than BOLD fMRI even when neurovascular coupling is disrupted. Especially, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is sensitive to changes occurring in the cellular tissue structure upon activation. In the present study, we compared BOLD fMRI signals, ADC, and local field potentials (LFPs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following injection of an ethanol solution (0.4 g/kg body weight) in rats under medetomidine anesthesia. An increase in the gamma oscillation power of LFP and an ADC decrease were observed 5 min after the injection of EtOH. The BOLD signals showed a negative slow drift, similar to mean arterial pressure with a peak approximately 10 min after the injection. These results confirm that DfMRI can be a better marker of the neuronal activity than BOLD fMRI, especially when the brain hemodynamic status is changed by vasoactive drugs such as ethanol.

  3. Lipidomics study of plasma phospholipid metabolism in early type 2 diabetes rats with ancient prescription Huang-Qi-San intervention by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Zhu, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Wei-Min; Rong, Xiang-Lu; Feng, Yi-Fan

    2016-08-25

    Potential impact of lipid research has been increasingly realized both in disease treatment and prevention. An effective metabolomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) along with multivariate statistic analysis has been applied for investigating the dynamic change of plasma phospholipids compositions in early type 2 diabetic rats after the treatment of an ancient prescription of Chinese Medicine Huang-Qi-San. The exported UPLC/Q-TOF-MS data of plasma samples were subjected to SIMCA-P and processed by bioMark, mixOmics, Rcomdr packages with R software. A clear score plots of plasma sample groups, including normal control group (NC), model group (MC), positive medicine control group (Flu) and Huang-Qi-San group (HQS), were achieved by principal-components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Biomarkers were screened out using student T test, principal component regression (PCR), partial least-squares regression (PLS) and important variable method (variable influence on projection, VIP). Structures of metabolites were identified and metabolic pathways were deduced by correlation coefficient. The relationship between compounds was explained by the correlation coefficient diagram, and the metabolic differences between similar compounds were illustrated. Based on KEGG database, the biological significances of identified biomarkers were described. The correlation coefficient was firstly applied to identify the structure and deduce the metabolic pathways of phospholipids metabolites, and the study provided a new methodological cue for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolites in the process of regulating Huang-Qi-San for treating early type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with the standardized uptake value (SUV) in hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lesions. Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, P.; Buchbender, C. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Koehler, J. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Medical Oncology; and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in non-small cell lung cancer lesions with standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (FDG-PET/MRI) and those derived from FDG-PET/CT. Materials and Methods: In 18 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC (17 men, 1 woman; mean age, 61 {+-} 12 years), whole-body FDG-PET/MRI was performed after whole-body FDG-PET/CT. Regions of interest (ROI) encompassing the entire primary tumor were drawn into FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MR images to determine the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) and into ADC parameter maps to assess mean ADC values. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare SUV and ADC values. Results: The SUV{sub max} of NSCLC was 12.3 {+-} 4.8 [mean {+-} SD], and the SUV{sub mean} was 7.2 {+-} 2.8 as assessed by FDG-PET/MRI. The SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} derived from FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI correlated well (R = 0.93; p < 0.001 and R = 0.92; p < 0.001, respectively). The ADC{sub mean} of the pulmonary tumors was 187.9 {+-} 88.8 x 10{sup -5} {sup mm{sup 2/s}} [mean {+-} SD]. The ADC{sub mean} exhibited a significant inverse correlation with the SUV{sub max} (R = -0.72; p < 0.001) as well as with the SUVmean assessed by FDG-PET/MRI (R = -0.71; p < 0.001). Conclusion: This simultaneous PET/MRI study corroborates the assumed significant inverse correlation between increased metabolic activity on FDG-PET and restricted diffusion on DWI in NSCLC. (orig.)

  5. Diffusion weighted MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Does the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlate with tracer uptake (SUV)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regier, M., E-mail: mregier@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, T. [Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schwarz, D.; Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Buhk, J.-H. [Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Kooijman, H. [Philips Healthcare, Clinical Application, Luebeckertordamm 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, G. [Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: To investigate the potential correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient assessed by diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and glucose metabolism determined by the standardized uptake value (SUV) at 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT and DWI (TR/TE, 2000/66 ms; b-values, 0 and 500 s/mm{sup 2}) were performed in 41 consecutive patients with histologically verified NSCLC. Analysing the PET-CT data calculation of the mean (SUV{sub mean}) and maximum (SUV{sub max}) SUV was performed. By placing a region-of-interest (ROI) encovering the entire tumor mean (ADC{sub mean}) and minimum ADC (ADC{sub min}) were determined by two independent radiologists. Results of 18F-FDG PET-CT and DWI were compared on a per-patient basis. For statistical analysis Pearson's correlation coefficient, Bland–Altman and regression analysis were assessed. Results: Data analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of the ADC{sub min} and SUV{sub max} (r = −0.46; p = 0.032). Testing the correlation of the ADC{sub min} and SUV{sub max} for each histological subtype separately revealed that the inverse correlation was good for both adenocarcinomas (r = −0.47; p = 0.03) and squamouscell carcinomas (r = −0.71; p = 0.002), respectively. No significant correlation was found for the comparison of ADC{sub min} and SUV{sub mean} (r = −0.29; p = 0.27), ADC{sub mean} vs. SUV{sub mean} (r = −0.28; p = 0.31) or ADC{sub mean} vs. SUV{sub max} (r = −0.33; p = 0.23). The κ-value of 0.88 indicated a good agreement between both observers. Conclusion: This preliminary study is the first to verify the relation between the SUV and the ADC in NSCLC. The significant inverse correlation of these two quantitative imaging approaches points out the association of metabolic activity and tumor cellularity. Therefore, DWI with ADC measurement might represent a new prognostic marker in NSCLC.

  6. Correlation for cross-flow resistance coefficient using STAR-CCM+ simulation data for flow of water through rod bundle supported by spacer grid with split-type mixing vane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbodemegbe, V.Y., E-mail: vincevalt@gmail.com [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technique, Kaiserstrasse 12, Karlsruhe (Germany); Cheng, Xu, E-mail: xu.cheng@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technique, Kaiserstrasse 12, Karlsruhe (Germany); Akaho, E.H.K, E-mail: akahoed@yahoo.com [School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, PO Box AE 1, Kwabenya, Accra (Ghana); Allotey, F.K.A, E-mail: fkallotey@gmail.com [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, PO Box LG 197, Legon, Accra (Ghana)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Investigate spacer grid with split-type mixing vanes. • Extent of predictability of experimental data by STAR-CCM+. • Reliability of two equation turbulence models. • Resistance to cross-flow through gaps. - Abstract: Mass transfer by diversion cross-flow through gaps is an important inter-subchannel interaction in fuel bundle of power reactors. It is normally due to the lateral pressure difference between adjacent sub-channels. This phenomenon is augmented in the presence of flow deflectors and is referred to as, directed cross-flow. Diversion cross-flow carries the momentum and energy of flow and hence affects the velocity and temperature profile in the rod bundle. The resistance to cross-flow in the transverse momentum equations is specified by the cross-flow resistant coefficient which is the subject of concern in the present study. In order to obtain data to correlate cross-flow resistance coefficient, computational fluid dynamic simulation using STAR-CCM+ was performed for flow of water at the bundle Reynolds number of Re1 = 3.4×10{sup 4} through a 5 × 5 rod bundle geometry supported by spacer grid with split mixing vanes for which the rod to rod pitch to diameter ratio was 1.33 and the rod to wall pitch to diameter ratio was 0.74. The two layer k-epsilon turbulence model with an all y+ automatic wall treatment function in STAR-CCM+ were adopted for an isothermal single phase (water) flow through the geometry. The objectives were to primarily investigate the extent of predictability of the experimental data by the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation as a measure of reliability on the CFD code employed and also apply the simulation data to develop correlations for determining resistance coefficient to cross-flow. Validation of simulation results with experimental data showed good correlation of mean flow parameters with experimental data whiles turbulent fluctuations deviated largely from experimental trends. Generally, the

  7. Weight-correction of carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO2 ) reduces its inter-individual variability and improves its correlation with blood carbon dioxide levels in neonates receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belteki, Gusztav; Lin, Benjamin; Morley, Colin J

    2017-10-01

    Carbon-dioxide elimination during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is thought to be proportional to the carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO2 ) which is calculated as frequency x (tidal volume)(2) . DCO2 can be used to as an indicator of CO2 elimination but values obtained in different patients cannot be directly compared. To analyze the relationship between DCO2 , the weight-corrected DCO2 (DCO2 corr) and blood gas PCO2 values obtained from infants receiving HFOV. DCO2 data were obtained from 14 infants at 1/s sampling rate and the mean DCO2 was determined over 10 min periods preceding the time of the blood gas. DCO2 corr was calculated by dividing the DCO2 by the square of the body weight in kg. Weight-correction significantly reduced the inter-individual variability of DCO2 . When data from all the babies were combined, standard DCO2 showed no correlation with PCO2 but DCO2 corr showed a weak but statistically significant inverse correlation. The correlation was better when the endotracheal leak was correlation between the HFOV tidal volume (VThf) and the PCO2 . In any baby, DCO2 corr >50 mL(2) /sec/kg(2) or VThf > 2.5 mL/kg was rarely needed to avoid hypercapnia. Weight-correction of DCO2 values improved its comparability between patients. Weight-corrected DCO2 correlated better with PCO2 than uncorrected DCO2 but the correlation was weak. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  9. Correlation of (18)F-FDG PET and MRI Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histogram Metrics with Survival in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Fahey, Frederic H; Kocak, Mehmet; Brown, Douglas; Ricci, Kelsey I; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Fouladi, Maryam; Poussaint, Tina Young

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe baseline (18)F-FDG PET voxel characteristics in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and to correlate these metrics with baseline MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram metrics, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival. Methods: Baseline brain (18)F-FDG PET and MRI scans were obtained in 33 children from Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium clinical DIPG trials. (18)F-FDG PET images, postgadolinium MR images, and ADC MR images were registered to baseline fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images. Three-dimensional regions of interest on fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images and postgadolinium MR images and (18)F-FDG PET and MR ADC histograms were generated. Metrics evaluated included peak number, skewness, and kurtosis. Correlation between PET and MR ADC histogram metrics was evaluated. PET pixel values within the region of interest for each tumor were plotted against MR ADC values. The association of these imaging markers with survival was described. Results: PET histograms were almost always unimodal (94%, vs. 6% bimodal). None of the PET histogram parameters (skewness or kurtosis) had a significant association with PFS, although a higher PET postgadolinium skewness tended toward a less favorable PFS (hazard ratio, 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-16.28 [P = 0.11]). There was a significant association between higher MR ADC postgadolinium skewness and shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.11-5.91 [P = 0.028]), and there was the suggestion that this also led to shorter overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.18; 95% CI, 0.95-5.04 [P = 0.067]). Higher MR ADC postgadolinium kurtosis tended toward shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.98-1.74 [P = 0.073]). PET and MR ADC pixel values were negatively correlated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Further, the level of PET and MR ADC correlation was significantly positively associated with PFS; tumors with higher

  10. Software for Computing the Tetrachoric Correlation Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Daniel Ledesma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La correlación tetracórica es un caso particular de análisis de correlación entre variables continuas distribuidas normalmente pero que han sido medidas en formato dicotómico. En este artículo se presenta ViSta-Tetrachor, un software gratuito que emplea una aproximación al coeficiente de correlación tetracórica caracterizada por ser más fácil de computar que las ecuaciones originales, así como más eficiente que otras aproximaciones propuestas. ViSta-Tetrachor proporciona estimaciones puntuales e intervalos de confianza para el estadístico. También permite generar matrices de correlación tetracórica y aplicar un análisis factorial a estas matrices. Se presenta una breve descripción del programa junto con diversos ejemplos de aplicación.

  11. Software for Computing the Tetrachoric Correlation Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Daniel Ledesma; Guillermo Macbeth; Pedro Valero-Mora

    2011-01-01

    La correlación tetracórica es un caso particular de análisis de correlación entre variables continuas distribuidas normalmente pero que han sido medidas en formato dicotómico. En este artículo se presenta ViSta-Tetrachor, un software gratuito que emplea una aproximación al coeficiente de correlación tetracórica caracterizada por ser más fácil de computar que las ecuaciones originales, así como más eficiente que otras aproximaciones propuestas. ViSta-Tetrachor proporciona estimaciones puntuale...

  12. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC with the standardized uptake value (SUV in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients using hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Michael Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with standardized uptake values (SUV derived from combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (18F-FDG PET/MRI.38 patients with histopathologically proven NSCLC (mean age 60.1 ± 9.5 y received whole-body PET/CT (Siemens mCT™ 60 min after injection of a mean dose of 280 ± 50 MBq 18F-FDG and subsequent PET/MRI (mean time after tracer injection: 139 ± 26 min, Siemens Biograph mMR. During PET acquisition, simultaneous diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, b values: 0, 500, 1000 s/mm² was performed. A maximum of 10 lymph nodes per patient suspicious for malignancy were analyzed. Regions of interest (ROI were drawn covering the entire lymph node on the attenuation-corrected PET-image and the monoexponential ADC-map. According to histopathology or radiological follow-up, lymph nodes were classified as benign or malignant. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for all lymph node metastases correlating SUVmax and SUVmean with ADCmean.A total of 146 suspicious lymph nodes were found in 25 patients. One hundred lymph nodes were eligible for final analysis. Ninety-one lymph nodes were classified as malignant and 9 as benign according to the reference standard. In malignant lesions, mean SUVmax was 9.1 ± 3.8 and mean SUVmean was 6.0 ± 2.5 while mean ADCmean was 877.0 ± 128.6 x10(-5 mm²/s in PET/MRI. For all malignant lymph nodes, a weak, inverse correlation between SUVmax and ADCmean as well as SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.30, p<0.05 and r = -0.36, p<0.05 existed.The present data show a weak inverse correlation between increased glucose-metabolism and cellularity in lymph node metastases of NSCLC patients. 18F-FDG-PET and DWI thus may offer complementary information for the evaluation of treatment response in lymph node metastases of NSCLC.

  13. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with the standardized uptake value (SUV) in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients using hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Nensa, Felix; Grueneisen, Johannes; Grueneien, Johannes; Gomez, Benedikt; Köhler, Jens; Reis, Henning; Ruhlmann, Verena; Umutlu, Lale; Heusch, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (18F-FDG PET/MRI). 38 patients with histopathologically proven NSCLC (mean age 60.1 ± 9.5 y) received whole-body PET/CT (Siemens mCT™) 60 min after injection of a mean dose of 280 ± 50 MBq 18F-FDG and subsequent PET/MRI (mean time after tracer injection: 139 ± 26 min, Siemens Biograph mMR). During PET acquisition, simultaneous diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, b values: 0, 500, 1000 s/mm²) was performed. A maximum of 10 lymph nodes per patient suspicious for malignancy were analyzed. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn covering the entire lymph node on the attenuation-corrected PET-image and the monoexponential ADC-map. According to histopathology or radiological follow-up, lymph nodes were classified as benign or malignant. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for all lymph node metastases correlating SUVmax and SUVmean with ADCmean. A total of 146 suspicious lymph nodes were found in 25 patients. One hundred lymph nodes were eligible for final analysis. Ninety-one lymph nodes were classified as malignant and 9 as benign according to the reference standard. In malignant lesions, mean SUVmax was 9.1 ± 3.8 and mean SUVmean was 6.0 ± 2.5 while mean ADCmean was 877.0 ± 128.6 x10(-5) mm²/s in PET/MRI. For all malignant lymph nodes, a weak, inverse correlation between SUVmax and ADCmean as well as SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.30, pcorrelation between increased glucose-metabolism and cellularity in lymph node metastases of NSCLC patients. 18F-FDG-PET and DWI thus may offer complementary information for the evaluation of treatment response in lymph node metastases of NSCLC.

  14. Diffusion-weighted imaging and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer: Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient and maximum standardized uptake values with prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Belgin; Pourbagher, Aysin; Torun, Nese

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the correlations between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the standardized uptake value (SUV) with prognostic factors in breast cancer. Seventy women with invasive breast cancer (56 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, four of mixed ductal and lobular invasive carcinoma, three of lobular invasive carcinoma, two of micropapillary carcinoma, and one each of mixed ductal and mucinous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, and tubular carcinoma) were included in this study. All patients underwent presurgical breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5T and whole-body (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT). For all invasive breast cancers and invasive ductal carcinomas, we assessed the relationships among ADC, SUV, and pathological prognostic factors. Both the median ADC value and maximum SUV (SUVmax) were significantly associated with vascular invasion (P = 0.008 and P = 0.026, respectively). SUVmax was also significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.001), histological grade (P = 0.001), lymph node status (P = 0.0015), estrogen receptor status (P = 0.010), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status (P = 0.020), whereas ADC values were not. The correlation between the ADC and SUVmax was not significant (P = 0.356; R = -0.112). Mucinous carcinoma showed high ADC and relatively low SUVmax. Medullary carcinoma showed low ADC and high SUVmax. When we evaluated the relationships among ADC, SUVmax, and prognostic factors in the 56 invasive ductal carcinomas, our statistical results were not significantly changed, except SUVmax was also significantly associated with progesterone receptor status (P = 0.034), but not lymph node status. SUVmax may be valuable for predicting the prognosis of breast cancer. Both ADC and SUVmax are useful to predict vascular invasion. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016

  15. Estimating the intra-cluster correlation coefficient for evaluating an educational intervention program to improve rabies awareness and dog bite prevention among children in Sikkim, India: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auplish, Aashima; Clarke, Alison S; Van Zanten, Trent; Abel, Kate; Tham, Charmaine; Bhutia, Thinlay N; Wilks, Colin R; Stevenson, Mark A; Firestone, Simon M

    2017-05-01

    Educational initiatives targeting at-risk populations have long been recognized as a mainstay of ongoing rabies control efforts. Cluster-based studies are often utilized to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population in response to education campaigns. The design of cluster-based studies requires estimates of intra-cluster correlation coefficients obtained from previous studies. This study estimates the school-level intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) for rabies knowledge change following an educational intervention program. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 226 students from 7 schools in Sikkim, India, using cluster sampling. In order to assess knowledge uptake, rabies education sessions with pre- and post-session questionnaires were administered. Paired differences of proportions were estimated for questions answered correctly. A mixed effects logistic regression model was developed to estimate school-level and student-level ICCs and to test for associations between gender, age, school location and educational level. The school- and student-level ICCs for rabies knowledge and awareness were 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.19) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.09), respectively. These ICCs suggest design effect multipliers of 5.45 schools and 1.05 students per school, will be required when estimating sample sizes and designing future cluster randomized trials. There was a good baseline level of rabies knowledge (mean pre-session score 71%), however, key knowledge gaps were identified in understanding appropriate behavior around scared dogs, potential sources of rabies and how to correctly order post rabies exposure precaution steps. After adjusting for the effect of gender, age, school location and education level, school and individual post-session test scores improved by 19%, with similar performance amongst boys and girls attending schools in urban and rural regions. The proportion of participants that were able to correctly order post

  16. Correlation of radiographic and functional measurements in patients who underwent primary scoliosis surgery in adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mariscal, Felisa; Gomez-Rice, Alejandro; Izquierdo, Enrique; Pizones, Javier; Zúñiga, Lorenzo; Alvarez-González, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    Prospective radiographic and clinical analysis. To evaluate whether radiographic spinopelvic parameters correlate with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures, in the long run, in patients operated on scoliosis in adult age. There are papers that correlate sagittal radiographic parameters with HRQOL scores for healthy spine as well as for some spinal disorders. However, there are limited studies evaluating correlations between HRQOL measures, radiographic spinopelvic parameters, and age in patients operated on scoliosis in adult age. Fifty-nine patients, older than 21 years at surgery time (median: 50.2 years), were operated upon at a single center. All of them suffered mainly frontal deformity, idiopathic or degenerative curves, and long fusions, with more than a 2-year follow-up (median:8.5 years). Full-length freestanding radiographs, including the spine and pelvis, and SRS22 and SF36 instruments, were available for every patient at final follow-up. Sagittal and frontal radiographic parameters and age were analyzed for correlation with HRQOL. A multivariate analysis was performed. No significant correlation was found between frontal parameters and HRQOL measures. Spearman rank order test showed correlation (P Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) activity and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (r = -0.44), pelvic tilt (PT) (r = -0.49), and age (r = -0.5). SRS total was correlated (P scoliosis, frontal radiographic parameters did not correlate with HRQOL measures. In univariate analysis, patient age, SVA, and PT correlated with activity scores, although the correlation coefficients did not reach high values. After multivariate analysis, SVA was not a predictor of function.

  17. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 3. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for certain starlike functions. MD FIROZ ALI A ... Keywords. Univalent; starlike; meromorphic functions; subordination; coefficient bounds; inverse coefficient bounds ...

  18. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However...... characterisation of building materials on which the attempt is based to standardize the drying experiment as well as to derive a single number material coefficient. The drying itself is briefly reviewed and existing approaches are discussed. On this basis, possible definitions are evaluated. Finally, a drying...... coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived...

  19. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim F; Zientek, Linda R; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients.

  20. Mucus can change the permeation rank order of drug candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagesaether, Ellen; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of mucus on the permeability of newly developed structurally related free fatty acid receptor 1-agonists TUG-488, TUG-499 and TUG-424, which were compared to the more hydrophilic ketoprofen and the more hydrophobic testosterone as reference drugs...

  1. Examination Malpractice in Nigeria: Rank-ordering the Types ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although 'giraffing' and carrying of prepared materials into the examination hall were the most common forms of examination malpractice, bribery (ranked 4.5) was the anchor. Students, peer group and parents were the worst malpractitioners in a decreasing order of culpability. Overvaluing of certificates and teachers' ...

  2. Nonrigid registration of volumetric images using ranked order statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennakoon, Ruwan; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Cao, Zhenwei

    2014-01-01

    burden and increase the registration accuracy has become an intensive area of research. In this paper we propose a fast and accurate non-rigid registration method for intra-modality volumetric images. Our approach exploits the information provided by an order statistics based segmentation method, to find......Non-rigid image registration techniques using intensity based similarity measures are widely used in medical imaging applications. Due to high computational complexities of these techniques, particularly for volumetric images, finding appropriate registration methods to both reduce the computation...... the important regions for registration and use an appropriate sampling scheme to target those areas and reduce the registration computation time. A unique advantage of the proposed method is its ability to identify the point of diminishing returns and stop the registration process. Our experiments...

  3. Measurement of the {beta}-{nu} angular correlation parameter in the decay of {sup 6}He using a Paul trap; Mesure du coefficient de correlation angulaire {beta}-{nu} dans la decroissance de {sup 6}He a l'aide d'un piege de Paul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mery, A

    2007-07-15

    The central topic of this work is the study of the properties and the implementation of a Paul trap used for the measurement of the beta-neutrino angular correlation parameter in the decay of {sup 6}He. This coefficient provides a signature of the nature of the interactions involved in the weak interaction. The value of this coefficient can be deduced from the kinematical distribution of the decay events. An electromagnetic trap is used for the trapping of {sup 6}He{sup +} ions in a small volume. This trap has an open geometry that enables the detection in coincidence of the electron and the recoil ion emitted in the beta decay. A dedicated detection set up is used for the measurement of the electron energy, the ion time of flight and the position of the two particles for each event. A general description of the LPCTrap facility and of its performances is presented and shows that this set up is able to fulfill the proposed measurement. Especially, a comparison is made between the characteristics of the ion cloud obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements with a good agreement. More than 100 000 coincident events have been recorded during the first experiment. A preliminary analysis of these results is shown. It includes a description of the different observables as well as a comparison between the experimental time of flight spectrum and the simulated spectrum. These data will allow a measurement of the angular correlation parameter with a statistical error smaller than 2 %. (author)

  4. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  5. Correlation of dental age, skeletal age, and chronological age among children aged 9-14 years: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Palanisamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth can be one of the most uncertain variations, but understanding the same is very important for diagnosis and treatment planning. Skeletal age and dental age have been used to determine a child′s developmental age. Several researchers have evaluated the association between dental and skeletal maturity with chronologic age on different population. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether dental age estimation can be replaced for skeletal age estimation in the Dakshina Kannada population. Methods: A total of 104 samples equally distributed among both genders in the age group of 9-14 years were selected. Skeletal age was estimated using hand-wrist radiographs and Fishman′s skeletal maturation index and dental age was measured using Demirjian′s method. Results: Spearman′s rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between the skeletal maturity and dental maturity. The mean ages of male and female samples were determined as 11.89 ± 1.867 years and 12.21 ± 1.473 years, respectively. Chronological age was found to be positively correlated to dental age and skeletal age and found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01. The correlation between dental age and skeletal age was also found to be statistically significant with P < 0.001 and correlation coefficient of 0.683 and 0.704 for males and females. Conclusion: The present study showed a strong relation between the developmental ages in mixed dentition population; hence, dental age can be considered as a replacement in the study population.

  6. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods......Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a specimen and non-uniform intensity in the test chamber. In this study, several methods that convert Sabine absorption coefficients...

  7. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  9. Graph characterization via Ihara coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peng; Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R

    2011-02-01

    The novel contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we demonstrate how to characterize unweighted graphs in a permutation-invariant manner using the polynomial coefficients from the Ihara zeta function, i.e., the Ihara coefficients. Second, we generalize the definition of the Ihara coefficients to edge-weighted graphs. For an unweighted graph, the Ihara zeta function is the reciprocal of a quasi characteristic polynomial of the adjacency matrix of the associated oriented line graph. Since the Ihara zeta function has poles that give rise to infinities, the most convenient numerically stable representation is to work with the coefficients of the quasi characteristic polynomial. Moreover, the polynomial coefficients are invariant to vertex order permutations and also convey information concerning the cycle structure of the graph. To generalize the representation to edge-weighted graphs, we make use of the reduced Bartholdi zeta function. We prove that the computation of the Ihara coefficients for unweighted graphs is a special case of our proposed method for unit edge weights. We also present a spectral analysis of the Ihara coefficients and indicate their advantages over other graph spectral methods. We apply the proposed graph characterization method to capturing graph-class structure and clustering graphs. Experimental results reveal that the Ihara coefficients are more effective than methods based on Laplacian spectra.

  10. Generation of Klobuchar Coefficients for Ionospheric Error Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Moon; Park, Kwan-Dong; Ha, Jihyun; Lee, Sanguk

    2010-06-01

    An ionospheric error simulation is needed for creating precise Global Positioning System (GPS) signal using GPS simulator. In this paper we developed Klobuchar coefficients αn and βn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) generation algorithms for simulator and verified accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm extract those Klobuchar coefficients from broadcast (BRDC) messages provided by International GNSS Service during three years from 2006 through 2008 and curve-fit them with sinusoidal and linear functions or constant. The generated coefficients from our developed algorithms are referred to as MODL coefficients, while those coefficients from BRDC messages are named as BRDC coefficients. The maximum correlation coefficient between MODL and BRDC coefficients was found for α2 and the value was 0.94. On the other hand, the minimum correlation was 0.64 for the case of α1. We estimated vertical total electron content using the Klobuchar model with MODL coefficients, and compared the result with those from the BRDC model and global ionosphere maps. As a result, the maximum RMS was 3.92 and 7.90 TECU, respectively.

  11. Generation of Klobuchar Coefficients for Ionospheric Error Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Moon Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An ionospheric error simulation is needed for creating precise Global Positioning System (GPS signal using GPS simulator. In this paper we developed Klobuchar coefficients αn and βn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4 generation algorithms for simulator and verified accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm extract those Klobuchar coefficients from broadcast (BRDC messages provided by International GNSS Service during three years from 2006 through 2008 and curve-fit them with sinusoidal and linear functions or constant. The generated coefficients from our developed algorithms are referred to as MODL coefficients, while those coefficients from BRDC messages are named as BRDC coefficients. The maximum correlation coefficient between MODL and BRDC coefficients was found for α 2 and the value was 0.94. On the other hand, the minimum correlation was 0.64 for the case of α1 . We estimated vertical total electron content using the Klobuchar model with MODL coefficients, and compared the result with those from the BRDC model and global ionosphere maps. As a result, the maximum RMS was 3.92 and 7.90 TECU, respectively.

  12. Lower bound of assortativity coefficient in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao

    2017-03-01

    The degree-degree correlation is important in understanding the structural organization of a network and dynamics upon a network. Such correlation is usually measured by the assortativity coefficient r, with natural bounds r ∈ [ - 1 , 1 ] . For scale-free networks with power-law degree distribution p ( k ) ˜ k - γ , we analytically obtain the lower bound of assortativity coefficient in the limit of large network size, which is not -1 but dependent on the power-law exponent γ. This work challenges the validation of the assortativity coefficient in heterogeneous networks, suggesting that one cannot judge whether a network is positively or negatively correlated just by looking at its assortativity coefficient alone.

  13. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  14. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield and agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... germplasm, intermatted with EV 8430-SR and IK. 8149 SR. It has synchronous male and female flowering, lower plant height and small tassel size. Yield and Striga tolerance. Forest and savannah. 4. ACR 97 TZE COMP3 C4. Early white flint dent cultivar, derived from early mid- altitude germplasm with EV ...

  15. Correlation of Cadmium Distribution Coefficients to Soil Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Rootzen, Helle; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2003-01-01

    that the organic carbon content was a significant variable at both pH values. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and gibbsite were important at the low pH (5.3) while iron oxides also were important at the high pH (6.7). None of the other clay minerals present in the soils (illite, smectite, kaolinite, hydroxy...

  16. Correlation coefficient in the analysis of electoral outcome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    General elections conducted in Nigeria have always attracted a mixed reaction from both internal and external observers over the nature of its conducts. Many Nigerians observed that, the 1999 and 2003 presidential elections were characterized by irregularities, fraud and violence, yet the results were respectively declared ...

  17. correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield characters of bambara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance DAC

    Research, Samaru (11011'N; 70 38'E, 686 m above sea level) in the Northern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to determine the inter-relationships and contributions of various yield characters to. Bambara groundnut seed yield. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The.

  18. Estimating octanol-air partition coefficients with octanol-water partition coefficients and Henry's law constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, William M; Howard, Philip H

    2005-11-01

    The octanol-air partition coefficient (K(OA)) is useful for predicting the partitioning behavior of organic compounds between air and environmental matrices such as soil, vegetation, and aerosol particles. At present, experimentally determined K(OA) values are available for only several hundred compounds. Therefore, the ability to estimate K(OA) is necessary for screening level evaluation of most chemicals. Although it is possible to estimate K(OA) from the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) and Henry's law constant (HLC), various concerns have been raised in regard to the usability of this estimation methodology. This work examines the accuracy and usability of K(OW) and HLC in application to a comprehensive database set of K(OA) values for screening level environmental assessment. Results indicate that K(OW) and HLC can be used to accurately predict K(OA) even when estimated K(OW) and HLC values are used. For an experimental dataset of 310log K(OA) values for different compounds, the K(OW)-HLC method was statistically accurate as follows: correlation coefficient (r2): 0.972, standard deviation: 0.526, absolute mean error: 0.358 using predominantly experimental K(OW) and HLC values. When K(OW) and HLC values were estimated (using the KOWWIN and HENRYWIN programs), the statistical accuracy was: correlation coefficient (r2): 0.957, standard deviation: 0.668, absolute mean error: 0.479.

  19. Recursive calculation of Hansen coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.

    1990-06-01

    Hansen coefficients are used in expansions of the elliptic motion. Three methods for calculating the coefficients are studied: Tisserand's method, the Von Zeipel-Andoyer (VZA) method with explicit representation of the polynomials required to compute the Hansen coefficients, and the VZA method with the values of the polynomials calculated recursively. The VZA method with explicit polynomials is by far the most rapid, but the tabulation of the polynomials only extends to 12th order in powers of the eccentricity, and unless one has access to the polynomials in machine-readable form their entry is laborious and error-prone. The recursive calculation of the VZA polynomials, needed to compute the Hansen coefficients, while slower, is faster than the calculation of the Hansen coefficients by Tisserand's method, up to 10th order in the eccentricity and is still relatively efficient for higher orders. The main advantages of the recursive calculation are the simplicity of the program and one's being able to extend the expansions to any order of eccentricity with ease. Because FORTRAN does not implement recursive procedures, this paper used C for all of the calculations. The most important conclusion is recursion's genuine usefulness in scientific computing.

  20. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1 an(−λ, f )zn for z ∈ D. (1.4). One of the well-known extremal problems in the theory of univalent functions is to esti- mate the modulus of the Taylor coefficients an(−λ, f ) given by (1.4). This problem has been extensively studied in the literature ...

  1. Volumetric runoff coefficients for experimental rural catchments in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación V.; Molina, Cecilio; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Ayuso, José L.; Casalí, Javier; Cid, Patricio; Dafonte, Jorge; Duarte, Antonio C.; Farguell, Joaquim; Giménez, Rafael; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, Helena; Gómez, Jose A.; González-Hidalgo, J. Carlos; Keizer, J. Jacob; Lucía, Ana; Mateos, Luciano; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. Luz; Schnabel, Sussane; Serrano-Muela, M. Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of runoff and peaks therein is essential for designing hydraulic infrastructures and for assessing the hydrological implications of likely scenarios of climate and/or land-use change. Different methods are available to calculate runoff coefficients. For instance, the runoff coefficient of a catchment can be described either as the ratio of total depth of runoff to total depth of rainfall or as the ratio of peak flow to rainfall intensity for the time of concentration (Dhakal et al. 2012). If the first definition is considered, runoff coefficients represent the global effect of different features and states of catchments and its determination requires a suitable analysis according to the objectives pursued (Chow et al., 1988). In this work, rainfall-runoff data and physical attributes from small rural catchments located in the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) were examined in order to compare the representative values of runoff coefficients using three different approaches: i) statistical analysis of rainfall-runoff data and their quantiles (Dhakal et al., 2012); ii) probabilistic runoff coefficients from the rank-ordered pairs of observed rainfall-runoff data and their relationships with rainfall depths (Schaake et al., 1967); iii) finally, a multiple linear model based on geomorphological attributes. These catchments exhibit great variety with respect to their natural settings, such as climate, topography and lithology. We present a preliminary analysis of the rainfall-runoff relationships as well as their variability in a complex context such as the Iberian Peninsula where contrasted environmental systems coexist. We also discuss reference parameters representing runoff coefficients commonly included into hydrological models. This study is conceived as the first step to explore further working protocols and modeling gaps in a very susceptible area to the climate change such as the Iberian Peninsula's, where the analysis of runoff coefficients is

  2. Algebraic polynomials with random coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Farahmand

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an asymptotic value for the mathematical expected number of points of inflections of a random polynomial of the form a0(ω+a1(ω(n11/2x+a2(ω(n21/2x2+…an(ω(nn1/2xn when n is large. The coefficients {aj(w}j=0n, w∈Ω are assumed to be a sequence of independent normally distributed random variables with means zero and variance one, each defined on a fixed probability space (A,Ω,Pr. A special case of dependent coefficients is also studied.

  3. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  4. Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.

  5. Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Travelling wave-like solutions of the Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation with vari- able coefficients are studied using the ... exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. Some of the most impor- tant methods are the ... In general, there is no standard method for solving nonlinear. PDEs and more so for PDEs in 2+1 ...

  6. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  7. Study of transport coefficients of nanodiamond nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzei, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental data on the thermal conductivity coefficient and viscosity coefficient of nanodiamond nanofluids are presented. Distilled water and ethylene glycol were used as the base fluid. Dependences of transport coefficients on concentration are obtained. It was shown that the thermal conductivity coefficient increases with increasing nanodiamonds concentration. It was shown that base fluids properties and nanodiamonds concentration affect on the rheology of nanofluids.

  8. Prediction of mass transfer coefficient in rotating bed contactor (Higee) using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipendu

    2009-02-01

    The feasibility of drastically reducing the contactor size in mass transfer processes utilizing centrifugal field has generated a lot of interest in rotating packed bed (Higee). Various investigators have proposed correlations to predict mass transfer coefficients in Higee, but, none of the correlations was more than 20-30% accurate. In this work, artificial neural network (ANN) is employed for predicting mass transfer coefficient data. Results show that ANN provides better estimation of mass transfer coefficient with accuracy 5-15%.

  9. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  10. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  11. Calculation of coefficient of sharing Octanol-Water of organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such calculation gives us a model that gives results in remarkable correlation with the descriptors of blocks fragments of the atom-centered and functional groups (R2 = 0.949, δ = 0477) (R2 = 0.926,δ = 0,548) respectively. Keywords: QSPR, Model, Activity coefficient, Infinite dilution, aqueous solution, Molecular descriptors ...

  12. Complementarity and Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Lorenzo; Bruß, Dagmar; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    We provide an interpretation of entanglement based on classical correlations between measurement outcomes of complementary properties: States that have correlations beyond a certain threshold are entangled. The reverse is not true, however. We also show that, surprisingly, all separable nonclassical states exhibit smaller correlations for complementary observables than some strictly classical states. We use mutual information as a measure of classical correlations, but we conjecture that the first result holds also for other measures (e.g., the Pearson correlation coefficient or the sum of conditional probabilities).

  13. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail: cconca@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: jorge@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: smaranda@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: vanni@math.tifrbng.res.in [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)

    2011-09-15

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  14. Generation of Klobuchar Ionospheric Error Model Coefficients Using Fourier Series and Accuracy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Moon Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric error modeling is necessary to create reliable global navigation satellite system (GNSS signals using a GNSS simulator. In this paper we developed algorithms to generate Klobuchar coefficients αn, βn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4 for a GNSS simulator and verified accuracy of the algorithm. The eight Klobuchar coefficients were extracted from three years of global positioning system broadcast (BRDC messages provided by International GNSS service from 2006 through 2008 and were fitted with Fourier series. The generated coefficients from our developed algorithms are referred to as Fourier Klobuchar model (FOKM coefficients, while those coefficients from BRDC massages are named as BRDC coefficients. The correlation coefficient values between FOKM and BRDC were higher than 0.97. We estimated total electron content using the Klobuchar model with FOKM coefficients and compared the result with that from the BRDC model. As a result, the maximum root mean square was 1.6 total electron content unit.

  15. Generation of Klobuchar Ionospheric Error Model Coefficients Using Fourier Series and Accuracy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Moon; Park, Kwan-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Ionospheric error modeling is necessary to create reliable global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals using a GNSS simulator. In this paper we developed algorithms to generate Klobuchar coefficients αn, βn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) for a GNSS simulator and verified accuracy of the algorithm. The eight Klobuchar coefficients were extracted from three years of global positioning system broadcast (BRDC) messages provided by International GNSS service from 2006 through 2008 and were fitted with Fourier series. The generated coefficients from our developed algorithms are referred to as Fourier Klobuchar model (FOKM) coefficients, while those coefficients from BRDC massages are named as BRDC coefficients. The correlation coefficient values between FOKM and BRDC were higher than 0.97. We estimated total electron content using the Klobuchar model with FOKM coefficients and compared the result with that from the BRDC model. As a result,the maximum root mean square was 1.6 total electron content unit.

  16. Holographic Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Lithium Bromide in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Masaru; Aoki, Kazuo; Yamada, Shuichi; Okubo, Takahiro

    About 90 points of diffusion coefficient of lithium bromide (LiBr) in aqueous solution were measured by holographic interferometry in the temperature range of 20∼50°C and the concentration range of 0.4∼55mass%. A correlation among concentration, temperature and diffusion coefficients was done, and an empirical equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient in the concentration and the temperature ranges mentioned above was proposed. Differences between experimental values and correlated expression were almost within±2%. Accuracy of the measured diffusion coefficients was discussed and the measurements are shown to be made within error of ±6.8%.

  17. Estimating Crop Coefficients Using Remote Sensing-Based Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hubbard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop coefficient (Kc-based estimation of crop evapotranspiration is one of the most commonly used methods for irrigation water management. However, uncertainties of the generalized dual crop coefficient (Kc method of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56 can contribute to crop evapotranspiration estimates that are substantially different from actual crop evapotranspiration. Similarities between the crop coefficient curve and a satellite-derived vegetation index showed potential for modeling a crop coefficient as a function of the vegetation index. Therefore, the possibility of directly estimating the crop coefficient from satellite reflectance of a crop was investigated. The Kc data used in developing the relationship with NDVI were derived from back-calculations of the FAO-56 dual crop coefficients procedure using field data obtained during 2007 from representative US cropping systems in the High Plains from AmeriFlux sites. A simple linear regression model ( is developed to establish a general relationship between a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from a moderate resolution satellite data (MODIS and the crop coefficient (Kc calculated from the flux data measured for different crops and cropping practices using AmeriFlux towers. There was a strong linear correlation between the NDVI-estimated Kc and the measured Kc with an r2 of 0.91 and 0.90, while the root-mean-square error (RMSE for Kc in 2006 and 2007 were 0.16 and 0.19, respectively. The procedure for quantifying crop coefficients from NDVI data presented in this paper should be useful in other regions of the globe to understand regional irrigation water consumption.

  18. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  19. M-Bonomial Coefficients and Their Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we introduce M-bonomial coefficients or (M-bonacci binomial coefficients). These are similar to the binomial and the Fibonomial (or Fibonacci-binomial) coefficients and can be displayed in a triangle similar to Pascal's triangle from which some identities become obvious.

  20. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  1. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  2. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  3. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  4. Discrete wavelet transform coefficients for emotion recognition from EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohanes, Rendi E J; Ser, Wee; Huang, Guang-bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to use DWT coefficients as features for emotion recognition from EEG signals. Previous feature extraction methods used power spectra density values dervied from Fourier Transform or sub-band energy and entropy derived from Wavelet Transform. These feature extracion methods eliminate temporal information which are essential for analyzing EEG signals. The DWT coefficients represent the degree of correlation between the analyzed signal and the wavelet function at different instances of time; therefore, DWT coefficients contain temporal information of the analyzed signal. The proposed feature extraction method fully utilizes the simultaneous time-frequency analysis of DWT by preserving the temporal information in the DWT coefficients. In this paper, we also study the effects of using different wavelet functions (Coiflets, Daubechies and Symlets) on the performance of the emotion recognition system. The input EEG signals were obtained from two electrodes according to 10-20 system: F(p1) and F(p2). Visual stimuli from International Affective Picture System (IAPS) were used to induce two emotions: happy and sad. Two classifiers were used: Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Experimental results confirmed that the proposed DWT coefficients method showed improvement of performance compared to previous methods.

  5. Clinopyroxene REE distribution coefficients for shergottites The REE content of the Shergotty melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, G.; Wagstaff, J.; Yang, S.-R.

    1986-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) distribution coefficients were measured between synthetic pyroxenes and melts similar in composition to the Shergotty intercumulus fluid. REE-doped synthetic glass samples were analyzed by means of an automated microbeam electron microprobe. The coefficients were found to exhibit a strong positive correlation with pyroxene wollastonite content. Using distribution coefficients measured for the natural phase compositions, REE abundances for the Shergotty intercumulus melt were computed.

  6. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  7. A Methodology for Aggregation of Multiple Criteria Rank-Ordered Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    matrix method by Shannon [217], an extension beyond Shannon by Navarrete , et al. [185], a point system by Smith [2211, a branch and bound algorithm...Science Annual, Vol. 5, New York: The Bobbs Merrill Company, 1974. 36. Shisko, R., A Survey of Solution Concepts for Majority Rule Games, Santa Monica : The...Preferences," lat. Journal of Game Theory- Vol. 4, Issue 2, 1975, p. 95. 185. Navarrete , N. Jr., Fukushima, N., and Mine, H., "A New Ranking Method

  8. Relative Performance Information, Rank Ordering and Employee Performance: A Research Note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.; Maas, V.S.; van Rinsum, M.

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to examine whether the provision of detailed relative performance information (i.e., information about the specific performance levels of peers) affects employee performance. We also investigate how – if at all – explicit ranking of performance levels affects how

  9. A data envelopment analysis model for rank ordering suppliers in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Brandão Rocha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of integration companies-suppliers top the strategic agendas of managers. Developing a system showing which suppliers merit continuing and deepening the partnership is difficult because of the large quantity of variables to be analyzed. The internationalized petroleum industry, requiring a large variety of materials, is no different. In this context, the Brazilian company PETROBRAS S.A. has a system to evaluate its suppliers based on a consensus panel formed by its managers. This paper shows a two phase methodology for classifying and awarding suppliers using the DEA model. Firstly, the suppliers are classified according to their efficiency based on commercial transactions realized. Secondly they are classified according to the opinions of the managers, using a DEA model for calculating votes, with the assurance regions and superefficiency defining the best suppliers. The paper presents a case study in the E&P segment of PETROBRAS and the results obtained with the methodology.Os benefícios da integração entre empresas e fornecedores assumem um cunho cada vez mais estratégico nas empresas. Porém, avaliar quais fornecedores são merecedores de aprofundar parceria tornou-se extremamente complexo pela grande quantidade de variáveis no processo. Na indústria do petróleo não é diferente. A empresa brasileira PETROBRAS S.A. possui um sistema para classificar e premiar seus fornecedores baseado em painéis de consenso entre gerentes. Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia alternativa para classificação e premiação, que utiliza o método DEA em duas fases. Primeiramente, os fornecedores são selecionados de acordo com sua eficiência baseando-se em variáveis relativas a transações realizadas. Em seguida, os fornecedores são classificados de acordo com a opinião dos gerentes, utilizando o método DEA, com regiões de segurança e super-eficiência, como forma de agregação dos votos dos gerentes, definindo-se assim seus melhores fornecedores. O artigo apresenta também estudo de caso no segmento E&P da PETROBRAS.

  10. Value Representations by Rank Order in a Distributed Network of Varying Context Dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, Timothy L.; Tunney, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a human fMRI experiment investigating the influence of context upon value judgement. Trials were separated into high and low value blocks such that it is possible to investigate the effect of a change in surrounding trials upon the encoding of financial value. The ventral striatum was dependent upon "local context", with…

  11. Chiasmal coefficient of flash and pattern visual evoked potentials for detection of chiasmal misrouting in albinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, JWR; Jansonius, NM; Kooijman, AC

    The diagnosis of albinism can be confirmed by electrophysiological examination, when chiasmal misrouting can be demonstrated. The present study describes a quantitative analysis method for this purpose. A chiasmal coefficient (CC) was calculated by correlating the differential potential over left

  12. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, C. J.; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ

  13. Effective distribution coefficients of admixtures in plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, D. (Vitkovicke Zelezarny Klementa Gottwalda, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)); Kuchar, L.; Wozniakova, B. (Vysoka Skola Banska, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Nezeleznych Kovu a Jaderne Metalurgie)

    1980-01-01

    The values of effective distribution coefficients of Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Si in plutonium were determined on the basis of distributing these admixtures during zone refining of plutonium. The results confirm the theoretical assumptions for distributing admixtures in plutonium which were expressed in periodical dependence of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of admixtures in plutonium on the atomic number of admixture.

  14. Resummed coefficient function for the shape function

    OpenAIRE

    Aglietti, U.

    2001-01-01

    We present a leading evaluation of the resummed coefficient function for the shape function. It is also shown that the coefficient function is short-distance-dominated. Our results allow relating the shape function computed on the lattice to the physical QCD distributions.

  15. Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferraris

    2012-01-01

    accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.

  16. Prediction of longitudinal dispersion coefficient using multivariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    River water quality; artificial neural network; longitudinal dispersion coefficient; pollution transmission. Abstract. In this paper, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) was developed as a novel soft-computingtechnique for predicting longitudinal dispersion coefficient (DL) in rivers. As mentioned in the literature ...

  17. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable ...

  18. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  19. Efficient Estimation in Heteroscedastic Varying Coefficient Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhua Wei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers statistical inference for the heteroscedastic varying coefficient model. We propose an efficient estimator for coefficient functions that is more efficient than the conventional local-linear estimator. We establish asymptotic normality for the proposed estimator and conduct some simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  20. Evidence for validity of ileal digestibility coefficients in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Daniel; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2012-08-01

    Measures of amino acid (AA) digestibility are used widely to estimate bioavailability of AA in feed and food ingredients for monogastric animals. In principle, the digestibility assay is simpler than in vivo assessments of AA bioavailability and allows for simultaneous estimation of the bioavailability of all AA in an experimental diet. It is generally assumed that absorption of intact AA in the hindgut of monogastrics is minimal, even though colonocytes do contain AA transporters and have been shown to absorb AA. This assumption is supported by the observation that infusion of AA into the hindgut does not improve nitrogen balance in monogastrics. In addition, growth performance of monogastrics is more highly correlated with ileal than faecal AA digestibility. Therefore, ileal digestibility coefficients provide better estimates of AA bioavailability than faecal digestibility coefficients. Measures of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA are confounded with endogenous gut AA losses (EAAL). The curvilinear increase in AID of AA with increasing dietary AA level has been attributed to the relatively large contribution of EAAL to total ileal AA flows at low dietary AA levels. Subtracting basal EAAL from total ileal AA flows yields standardized ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients that appear to be more additive than AID coefficients in mixtures of feed ingredients. An implicit assumption when using SID AA coefficients in diet formulation is that the post-absorptive utilization of AA is not influenced by the dietary protein source. This assumption appears inappropriate when using feed or food ingredients that have been over-heated, induce large amounts of EAAL, or contain substantial amounts of fermentable fibre. Improved understanding of processes that contribute to the discrepancy between bioavailability and ileal digestibility will allow a more effective use of AA digestibility coefficients in diet formulation.

  1. Gini coefficient as a life table function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini

  2. Correlation measurement of squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krivitsky, Leonid; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Dong, R.

    2009-01-01

    We study the implementation of a correlation measurement technique for the characterization of squeezed light which is nearly free of electronic noise. With two different sources of squeezed light, we show that the sign of the covariance coefficient, revealed from the time-resolved correlation da...

  3. Investigation of two-phase heat transfer coefficients of argon-freon cryogenic mixed refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-11-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule Thomson refrigerators are widely used in various kinds of cryogenic systems these days. Although heat transfer coefficient estimation for a multi-phase and multi-component fluid in the cryogenic temperature range is necessarily required in the heat exchanger design of mixed refrigerant Joule Thomson refrigerators, it has been rarely discussed so far. In this paper, condensation and evaporation heat transfer coefficients of argon-freon mixed refrigerant are measured in a microchannel heat exchanger. A Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) with 340 μm hydraulic diameter has been developed as a compact microchannel heat exchanger and utilized in the experiment. Several two-phase heat transfer coefficient correlations are examined to discuss the experimental measurement results. The result of this paper shows that cryogenic two-phase mixed refrigerant heat transfer coefficients can be estimated by conventional two-phase heat transfer coefficient correlations.

  4. Recommended coefficients for sorption of iodine, silver, and cesium on graphite dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempniewicz, Marek M., E-mail: stempniewicz@nrg.eu [NRG Arnhem, Utrechtseweg 310, PO Box 9034, 6800 ES Arnhem (Netherlands); Goede, Pieter, E-mail: goedep@gmail.com [PBMR, 1279 Mike Crawford Avenue, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Sorption of fission product vapors on dust particles—important safety aspect of HTRs. • Sorption coefficients represent well the AVR data for cesium, iodine, and silver on dust. • Sorption rates higher at low temperatures and lower at high temperatures. • A set of recommended sorption coefficient for computer code users. - Abstract: This paper describes the work performed to find the sorption coefficients that represent well the available experimental data for cesium, iodine, and silver on dust particles. The purpose of this work is to generate a set of coefficients that may be recommended for computer code users. The following data was correlated: • I-131 on AVR dust. • Ag-110m on AVR dust. • Cs-134 and Cs-137 on AVR dust. The results are summarized as follows: • The available data can be correlated. The data scatter is about 4 orders of magnitude. Therefore the coefficients of the Langmuir isotherms vary by 4 orders of magnitude. • Sorption rates are higher at low temperatures and lower at high temperatures. This tendency has been observed in the data compiled at Oak Ridge. It is therefore surmised that the highest value of the sorption coefficients are appropriate for the low temperatures and the lowest value of the sorption coefficients are appropriate for the high temperatures. The recommended sorption coefficients are presented in this paper. • The present set of coefficients is very rough and should be a subject for future verification against experimental data.

  5. Tensor models, Kronecker coefficients and permutation centralizer algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloun, Joseph Ben; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2017-11-01

    We show that the counting of observables and correlators for a 3-index tensor model are organized by the structure of a family of permutation centralizer algebras. These algebras are shown to be semi-simple and their Wedderburn-Artin decompositions into matrix blocks are given in terms of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of symmetric groups. The matrix basis for the algebras also gives an orthogonal basis for the tensor observables which diagonalizes the Gaussian two-point functions. The centres of the algebras are associated with correlators which are expressible in terms of Kronecker coefficients (Clebsch-Gordan multiplicities of symmetric groups). The color-exchange symmetry present in the Gaussian model, as well as a large class of interacting models, is used to refine the description of the permutation centralizer algebras. This discussion is extended to a general number of colors d: it is used to prove the integrality of an infinite family of number sequences related to color-symmetrizations of colored graphs, and expressible in terms of symmetric group representation theory data. Generalizing a connection between matrix models and Belyi maps, correlators in Gaussian tensor models are interpreted in terms of covers of singular 2-complexes. There is an intriguing difference, between matrix and higher rank tensor models, in the computational complexity of superficially comparable correlators of observables parametrized by Young diagrams.

  6. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  7. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  8. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  9. Photonic crystal fibres with large nonlinear coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the upper limits on the nonlinear coefficients obtainable in various silica-based photonic crystal fibre designs. For a fixed wavelength, the highest nonlinearities are found to occur when a substantial part of the field energy resides in air. The case of a silica strand in air...... is found to constitute an upper bound on the nonlinear coefficients obtained; however, all the designs investigated allow nonlinear coefficients larger than 50% of this limiting value. On the other hand, the choice of fibre design is found to have a significant influence on the dispersion properties....

  10. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  11. Associations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and KI 67 in different tumors: a meta-analysis. Part 1: ADCmean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Wienke, Andreas

    2017-09-26

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on measure of water diffusion in tissues. This diffusion can be quantified by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Some reports indicated that ADC can reflect tumor proliferation potential. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide evident data regarding associations between ADC and KI 67 in different tumors. Studies investigating the relationship between ADC and KI 67 in different tumors were identified. MEDLINE library was screened for associations between ADC and KI 67 in different tumors up to April 2017. Overall, 42 studies with 2026 patients were identified. The following data were extracted from the literature: authors, year of publication, number of patients, tumor type, and correlation coefficients. Associations between ADC and KI 67 were analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficient. The reported Pearson correlation coefficients in some studies were converted into Spearman correlation coefficients. The pooled correlation coefficient between ADCmean and KI 67 for all included tumors was ρ = -0.44. Furthermore, correlation coefficient for every tumor entity was calculated. The calculated correlation coefficients were as follows: ovarian cancer: ρ = -0.62, urothelial carcinomas: ρ = -0.56, cerebral lymphoma: ρ = -0.55, neuroendocrine tumors: ρ = -0.52, glioma: ρ = -0.51, lung cancer: ρ = -0.50, prostatic cancer: ρ = -0.43, rectal cancer: ρ = -0.42, pituitary adenoma:ρ = -0.44, meningioma, ρ = -0.43, hepatocellular carcinoma: ρ = -0.37, breast cancer: ρ = -0.22.

  12. Interrater Reliability Estimators Commonly Used in Scoring Language Assessments: A Monte Carlo Investigation of Estimator Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Grant B.; Zhu, Min; Johnson, Robert L.; Hodge, Kari J.

    2014-01-01

    Common estimators of interrater reliability include Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, Spearman rank-order correlations, and the generalizability coefficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of estimators of interrater reliability when varying the true reliability, number of scale categories, and number of…

  13. Recursive Harmonic Numbers and Binomial Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Maw, Aung Phone; Kyaw, Aung

    2017-01-01

    We define recursive harmonic numbers as a generalization of harmonic numbers. The table of recursive harmonic numbers, which is like Pascal's triangle, is constructed. A formula for recursive harmonic numbers containing binomial coefficients is also presented.

  14. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  15. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  16. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Runoff Coefficient C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation District (RTD)s light rail tracks were modeled to determine the Rational Method : runoff coefficient, C, values corresponding to ballasted tracks. To accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a : rain...

  17. Measuring Resource Inequality: The Gini Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Catalano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from work done by the authors at the Mathematics for Social Justice Workshop held in June of 2007 at Middlebury College. We provide a description of the Gini coefficient and some discussion of how it can be used to promote quantitative literacy skills in mathematics courses. The Gini Coefficient was introduced in 1921 by Italian statistician Corrado Gini as a measure of inequality. It is defined as twice the area between two curves. One, the Lorenz curve for a given population with respect to a given resource, represents the cumulative percentage of the resource as a function of the cumulative percentage of the population that shares that percentage of the resource. The second curve is the line y = x which is the Lorenz curve for a population which shares the resource equally. The Gini coefficient can be interpreted as the percentage of inequality represented in the population with respect to the given resource. We propose that the Gini coefficient can be used to enhance students’ understanding of calculus concepts and provide practice for students in using both calculus and quantitative literacy skills. Our examples are based mainly on distribution of energy resources using publicly available data from the Energy Information Agency of the United States Government. For energy resources within the United States, we find that by household, the Gini coefficient is 0.346, while using the 51 data points represented by the states and Washington D.C., the Gini coefficient is 0.158. When we consider the countries of the world as a population of 210, the Gini coefficient is 0.670. We close with ideas for questions which can be posed to students and discussion of the experiences two other mathematics instructors have had incorporating the Gini coefficient into pre-calculus-level mathematics classes.

  18. The Automation of Sound Absorption Coefficient Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawanto, Denny; Suwandi, Achmad

    2006-01-01

    By manual method, the sound absorption coefficient measurement should be done by utilizing many type of equipment such as: measuring amplifier, level recorder, band-pass filter, protactor, etc. However it caused inefficient and need longer time in processing measurement data, therefore the automation system of sound absorption coefficient has been realized. An acoustical real time analyzer type B&K 2144 has been used to record the decay of sound pressure level, thus the processing data is dri...

  19. Bounds for OPE coefficients on the Regge trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Hansen, Tobias; Penedones, João

    2017-10-01

    We consider the Regge limit of the CFT correlation functions and , where J is a vector current, T is the stress tensor and O is some scalar operator. These correlation functions are related by a type of Fourier transform to the AdS phase shift of the dual 2-to-2 scattering process. AdS unitarity was conjectured some time ago to be positivity of the imaginary part of this bulk phase shift. This condition was recently proved using purely CFT arguments. For large N CFTs we further expand on these ideas, by considering the phase shift in the Regge limit, which is dominated by the leading Regge pole with spin j( ν), where ν is a spectral parameter. We compute the phase shift as a function of the bulk impact parameter, and then use AdS unitarity to impose bounds on the analytically continued OPE coefficients {C}_JJ}j(ν )} and C TTj(ν) that describe the coupling to the leading Regge trajectory of the current J and stress tensor T. AdS unitarity implies that the OPE coefficients associated to non-minimal couplings of the bulk theory vanish at the intercept value ν = 0, for any CFT. Focusing on the case of large gap theories, this result can be used to show that the physical OPE coefficients {C}_{JJT and C TTT , associated to non-minimal bulk couplings, scale with the gap Δ g as Δ g - 2 or Δ g - 4 . Also, looking directly at the unitarity condition imposed at the OPE coefficients {C_JJT and C TTT results precisely in the known conformal collider bounds, giving a new CFT derivation of these bounds. We finish with remarks on finite N theories and show directly in the CFT that the spin function j( ν) is convex, extending this property to the continuation to complex spin.

  20. Optical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the most common types of coherent optical correlators, which are classified as spatial plane correlators, frequency plane correlators and special reference correlators. Only the spatial plane correlators are dealt with rather thoroughly. Basic principles, some special features,

  1. Comparison of RNFL thickness and RPE-normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient for glaucoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) attenuation coefficient, based on normalization on the retinal pigment epithelium, was introduced. In contrast to conventional RNFL thickness measures, this novel measure represents a scattering property of the RNFL tissue. In this paper, we compare the RNFL thickness and the RNFL attenuation coefficient on 10 normal and 8 glaucomatous eyes by analyzing the correlation coefficient and the receiver operator curves (ROCs). The thickness and attenuation coefficient showed moderate correlation (r=0.82). Smaller correlation coefficients were found within normal (r=0.55) and glaucomatous (r=0.48) eyes. The full separation between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the RNFL attenuation coefficient yielded an area under the ROC (AROC) of 1.0. The AROC for the RNFL thickness was 0.9875. No statistically significant difference between the two measures was found by comparing the AROC. RNFL attenuation coefficients may thus replace current RNFL thickness measurements or be combined with it to improve glaucoma diagnosis.

  2. A rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70s ribosome determined by depolarized laser light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, J.; Fijnaut, H.M.

    We have obtained a rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70S ribosome isolated from Escherichia-coli (MRE-600), from the depolarized light scattering spectrum measured by photon correlation spectroscopy. The intensity correlation function of depolarized scattered light contains contributions due

  3. Estimation of genomic inbreeding coefficients based on high-density SNP markers in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan-cheng; Huang, He-tian; Yan, Qing-xia; Wang, Ya-chun; Yu, Ying; Chen, Shao-hu; Sun, Dong-xiao; Zhang, Sheng-li; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-20

    In livestock, inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree information is usually used to evaluate the level of inbreeding. Recently, with cost reduction of high-density SNP genotyping, it's possible to analyze real genomic inbreeding degree using genomic information. In this study, utilizing high-density SNP chip data, we analyzed the frequency and distribution of runs of homozygosity (ROH) in 2107 Chinese Holstein cattle in Beijing area, and calculated 2 genomic inbreeding coefficients, i.e., 1) the proportion of ROH length in the total length of autosomal genome (Froh), and 2) the percentage of homozygous SNPs (Fhom). Then we analyzed the correlation between 2 genomic inbreeding coefficients and the correlation between genomic and pedigree inbreeding coefficients. We totally detected 44 676 ROHs that mainly ranged from 1 to 10 Mb. Various lengths of ROHs existed in the genome. There were more short ROHs than long ROHs. ROHs aren't evenly distributed in chromosomes. The area with most ROHs is in the middle part of chromosome 10. Strong correlation (r > 0.90) existed between 2 kinds of genomic inbreeding coefficients, but the correlation between pedigree and genomic inbreeding coefficients were much lower (r inbreeding. Genomic inbreeding measures may reflect individuals' real inbreeding, which could be a useful tool to evaluate population inbreeding.

  4. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  5. An eight-legged tactile sensor to estimate coefficient of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Chen; Rodpongpun, Sura; Luo, William; Isaacson, Nathan; Kark, Lauren; Khamis, Heba; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that a tangential force larger than the maximum static friction force is required to initiate the sliding motion between two objects, which is governed by a material constant called the coefficient of static friction. Therefore, knowing the coefficient of static friction is of great importance for robot grippers which wish to maintain a stable and precise grip on an object during various manipulation tasks. Importantly, it is most useful if grippers can estimate the coefficient of static friction without having to explicitly explore the object first, such as lifting the object and reducing the grip force until it slips. A novel eight-legged sensor, based on simplified theoretical principles of friction is presented here to estimate the coefficient of static friction between a planar surface and the prototype sensor. Each of the sensor's eight legs are straight and rigid, and oriented at a specified angle with respect to the vertical, allowing it to estimate one of five ranges (5 = 8/2 + 1) that the coefficient of static friction can occupy. The coefficient of friction can be estimated by determining whether the legs have slipped or not when pressed against a surface. The coefficients of static friction between the sensor and five different materials were estimated and compared to a measurement from traditional methods. A least-squares linear fit of the sensor estimated coefficient showed good correlation with the reference coefficient with a gradient close to one and an r(2) value greater than 0.9.

  6. Nozzle geometry variations on the discharge coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. Alam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical works have been conducted to investigate the effect of nozzle geometries on the discharge coefficient. Several contoured converging nozzles with finite radius of curvatures, conically converging nozzles and conical divergent orifices have been employed in this investigation. Each nozzle and orifice has a nominal exit diameter of 12.7×10−3 m. A 3rd order MUSCL finite volume method of ANSYS Fluent 13.0 was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in simulating turbulent flows through various nozzle inlet geometries. The numerical model was validated through comparison between the numerical results and experimental data. The results obtained show that the nozzle geometry has pronounced effect on the sonic lines and discharge coefficients. The coefficient of discharge was found differ from unity due to the non-uniformity of flow parameters at the nozzle exit and the presence of boundary layer as well.

  7. Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariaei F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature ("meshed" network to negative curvature ("core concentric" network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.

  8. Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.

  9. Snapping Sharks, Maddening Mindreaders, and Interactive Images: Teaching Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark L.

    Understanding correlation coefficients is difficult for students. A free computer program that helps introductory psychology students distinguish between positive and negative correlation, and which also teaches them to understand the differences between correlation coefficients of different size is described in this paper. The program is…

  10. ESTIMATION OF RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION COEFFICIENTS OF EGYPTSAT-1 SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Nasr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors usually must be calibrated as part of a measurement system. Calibration may include the procedure of correcting the transfer of the sensor, using the reference measurements, in such a way that a specific input-output relation can be guaranteed with a certain accuracy and under certain conditions. It is necessary to perform a calibration to relate the output signal precisely to the physical input signal (e.g., the output Digital Numbers (DNs to the absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance. Generic calibration data associated with Egyptsat-1 sensor are not provided by the manufacturer. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate Egyptsat-1 sensor specific calibration data and tabulates the necessary constants for its different multispectral bands. We focused our attention on the relative calibration between Egyptsat-1 and Spot-4 sensors for their great spectral similarity. The key idea is to use concurrent correlation of signals received at both sensors in the same day (i.e., sensors are observing the same phenomenon. Calibration formula constructed from Spot-4 sensor is used to derive the calibration coefficients for Egyptsat-1. A brief overview of the radiometric calibration coefficients retrieval procedures is presented. A reasonable estimate of the overall calibration coefficient is obtained. They have been used to calibrate reflectances of Egyptsat-1 sensor. Further updates to evaluate and improve the retrieved calibration data are being investigated.

  11. Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.

  12. Separation methods for estimating octanol-water partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Salwa K; Poole, Colin F

    2003-11-25

    Separation methods for the indirect estimation of the octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) are reviewed with an emphasis on high throughput methods with a wide application range. The solvation parameter model is used to identify suitable separation systems for estimating logP in an efficient manner that negates the need for empirical trial and error experiments. With a few exceptions, systems based on reversed-phase chromatography employing chemically bonded phases are shown to be unsuitable for estimating logP for compounds of diverse structure. This is because the fundamental properties responsible for chromatographic retention tend to be different to those responsible for partition between octanol and water, especially the contribution from hydrogen bonding interactions. On the other hand, retention in several micellar and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography systems is shown to be highly correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. These systems are suitable for the rapid, high throughput determination of logP for neutral, weakly acidic, and weakly basic compounds. For compounds with a permanent charge, electrophoretic migration and electrostatic interactions with the stationary phase results in inaccurate estimation of partition coefficients. The experimental determination of solute descriptors offers an alternative approach for estimating logP, and other biopartitioning properties. A distinct advantage of this approach is that once the solute descriptors are known, solute properties can be estimated for any distribution or transport system for which a solvation parameter model has been established.

  13. Control in the coefficients with variational crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2012-01-01

    to “volumetric” Lebesgue norm, changes of the coefficients is generally speaking not continuous. We utilize the lifting formulation of the discontinuous Galerkin method to deal with this issue.Our main result is that limit points of sequences of designs verifying discrete versions of stationarity can also......We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations...

  14. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakore@rediffmail.com; Prajapati, A. V., E-mail: anand0prajapati@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Sonvane, Y. A., E-mail: yas@ashd.svnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  15. Sensitivity study of control rod depletion coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Blomberg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This report investigates the sensitivity of the control rod depletion coefficients, Sg, to different input parameters and how this affects the accumulated 10B depletion, β. Currently the coefficients are generated with PHOENIX4, but the geometries can be more accurately simulated in McScram. McScram is used to calculate Control Rod Worth, which in turn is used to calculate Nuclear End Of Life, and Sg cannot be generated in the current version of McScram. Therefore, it is also analyzed whether...

  16. PRACTICAL METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE DYNAMIC COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora PASĂRE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In practice collision is between two bodies, one which is carried kicking and moving, and another is hit and is at rest. There were obtained by shock request. The number of times the dynamic coefficient are greater effects (stress and strain caused by dynamic loading, as compared with the same load applied to the shock and called static load with the dynamic load equivalent studied. Dynamic coefficient is determined basically by measuring static and dynamic arrows that appear at a requested beam weighing suddenly falls from a height known. Sizes arrows static and dynamic compared to what theoretically obtained by calculations.

  17. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The effective stress coefficient, introduced by Biot, is used for predicting effective stress or pore pressure in the subsurface. It is not a constant value. It is different for different types of sediment and it is stress dependent. We used a model, based on contact between the grains to describe...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies....

  18. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    The effective stress coefficient, introduced by Biot, is used for predicting effective stress or pore pressure in the subsurface. It is not a constant value. It is different for different types of sediment and it is stress dependent. We used a model, based on contact between the grains to describe...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  19. Fractional correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendlovic, D; Ozaktas, H M; Lohmann, A W

    1995-01-10

    Recently, optical interpretations of the fractional-Fourier-transform operator have been introduced. On the basis of this operator the fractional correlation operator is defined in two different ways that are both consistent with the definition of conventional correlation. Fractional correlation is not always a shift-invariant operation. This property leads to some new applications for fractional correlation as shift-variant image detection. A bulk-optics implementation of fractional correlation is suggested and demonstrated with computer simulations.

  20. Spawning, copulation and inbreeding coefficients in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, J A; Hart, M W

    2005-12-22

    Patterns of population genetic variation have frequently been understood as consequences of life history covariates such as dispersal ability and breeding systems (e.g. selfing). For example, marine invertebrates show enormous variation in life history traits that are correlated with the extent of gene flow between populations and the magnitude of differentiation among populations at neutral genetic markers (FST). Here we document an unexpected correlation between marine invertebrate life histories and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (non-zero values of FIS, the inbreeding coefficient). FIS values were significantly higher in studies of species with free-spawned planktonic sperm than in studies of species that copulate or have some form of direct sperm transfer to females or benthic egg masses. This result was robust to several different analytical approaches. We note several mechanisms that might contribute to this pattern, and appeal for more studies and ideas that might help to explain our observations.

  1. UNIPORM WAD COEFFICIENTS FOR BEAMS IN REINFORCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    derived coefficients with ela.Jtic analysis of single span beam.s, the total panel loading with the total load the four .tupporting beams carry. Under these three aspects investigation has been made on the recommendation of the new Building Code Standards. {11) which i.t to be launched in the near future. INTRODUCTION.

  2. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Koning (Alex); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution,

  3. Calculation of aberration coefficients by ray tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, M; Lencová, B

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we present an approach for the calculation of aberration coefficients using accurate ray tracing. For a given optical system, intersections of a large number of trajectories with a given plane are computed. In the Gaussian image plane the imaging with the selected optical system can be described by paraxial and aberration coefficients (geometric and chromatic) that can be calculated by least-squares fitting of the analytical model on the computed trajectory positions. An advantage of such a way of computing the aberration coefficients is that, in comparison with the aberration integrals and the differential algebra method, it is relatively easy to use and its complexity stays almost constant with the growing complexity of the optical system. This paper shows a tested procedure for choosing proper initial conditions and computing the coefficients of the fifth-order geometrical and third-order, first-degree chromatic aberrations by ray tracing on an example of a weak electrostatic lens. The results are compared with the values for the same lens from a paper Liu [Ultramicroscopy 106 (2006) 220-232].

  4. Prediction of longitudinal dispersion coefficient using multivariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) was developed as a novel soft-computing technique for predicting longitudinal dispersion coefficient (DL) in rivers. As mentioned in the literature, experimental dataset related to DL was collected and used for preparing MARS model. Results of MARS.

  5. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  6. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  7. UNIPORM WAD COEFFICIENTS FOR BEAMS IN REINFORCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems. It has also been tried to verify some of the results by comparing the recommended side ratio of the slab loadings with the yield line analysis of slabs, the derived coefficients with ela.Jtic analysis of single span beam.s, the total panel loading with the total load the four .tupporting beams carry. Under these three.

  8. Second virial coefficients of dipolar hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipse, A.P.; Kuipers, B.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    An asymptotic formula is reported for the second virial coefficient B2 of a dipolar hard-sphere (DHS) fluid, in zero external field, for strongly coupled dipolar interactions. This simple formula, together with the one for the weak-coupling B2, provides an accurate prediction of the second virial

  9. Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.

    The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions

  10. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement...

  11. Regularity of the interband light absorption coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light absorption coefficient; density of states; random operators. 1. ... The operators H. ± ω may be unbounded. However, the finite volume operators H ,ω are symmetric finite-dimensional matrices when is a finite set, so their ...... [1] Atoyan M S, Kazaryan E M and Sarkisyan H A, Interband light absorption in parabolic.

  12. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  13. (Hordeum Vulgare) Crop Coefficient and Comparative Assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    evapotranspiration, to estimate barley crop coefficient (kc), and to evaluate the water productivity taking into ... corresponding economic water productivity for tomato and onion were 87 – 89% and 81 – 82% higher than that of ... areas where water scarcity is critical problem and irrigation is a necessity for crop production.

  14. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  15. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS-. P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical ...

  16. Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO right arrow N2 + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900 to 1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch (1992), and at the low temperatures (100 to 200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox (1993). Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation (DeMore et al., 1992) is accurate at 300 K, we derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. We find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-600/T)cu cm/s.

  17. Cohomology with coefficients for operadic coalgebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coefficients, there should be a cohomology theory for the P-coalgebra .... For any positive integer n, n will denote the group of permutations on n elements. For σ ∈ n, ϵ(σ) .... V ⊗ M to M ⊗ V . Think of η (or ητ ) as the left (or right) V -coaction on M.

  18. Infinite matrices, wavelet coefficients and frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the action of A on f∈L2(ℝ and on its wavelet coefficients, where A=(almjklmjk is a double infinite matrix. We find the frame condition for A-transform of f∈L2(ℝ whose wavelet series expansion is known.

  19. An effect size index for comparing two independent alpha coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Yun; Weng, Li-Jen

    2009-05-01

    Since Cronbach proposed the alpha coefficient in 1951, researchers have contributed to the derivation of its sampling distribution and the testing of related statistical hypotheses. Yet, there has been no research on effect size index relevant to coefficient alpha to our knowledge. Considering the importance of effect size in understanding quantitative research findings, we therefore developed an effect size index Delta for the comparison of two independent alphas with equal test length based on the asymptotic distribution of (1/2)ln(1 - alphahat) under the assumptions of normality and compound symmetry. Simulations indicated that the index was applicable when the sample size was at least 100. The robustness of the derived index when the required assumptions were violated was also explored. It is suggested that the index should be applicable in most cases of unequal test lengths and could be extended to non-normally distributed component scores. Moreover, a small simulation was conducted to explore the behaviour of Delta with correlated errors, a frequently studied situation violating the assumption of compound symmetry. The proposed index was found to be robust unless a large number of highly correlated errors were present in the data.

  20. Simultaneous Description of Activity Coefficients and Solubility with eCPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Anders; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    with salt specific parameters. The focus is on accurate description of the salt solubility, and low deviation correlations are obtained for all salts investigated. The inclusion of the solubility data in the parametrization has, compared to parameters only parametrized to osmotic coefficients and activity...... molality. The model is, furthermore, compared to the activity coefficient model, Extended UNIQUAC. It is shown that the eCPA provides more accurate solubility description at higher temperatures than Extended UNIQUAC but also that Extended UNIQUAC is slightly better at describing the activity coefficients...

  1. On the solar cycle variation in the barometer coefficients of high latitude neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, M.; Ogita, N.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of barometer coefficients of neutron monitors located at high latitudes has been performed by using the results of the spherical harmonic analysis based on the records from around twenty stations for twelve years from January 1966 to December 1977. The average of data at eight stations, where continuous records are available for twelve years, show that the absolute value of barometer coefficient is in positive correlation with the cosmic ray neutron intensity. The variation rate of the barometer coefficient to the cosmic ray neutron intensity is influenced by the changes in the cutoff rigidity and in the primary spectrum.

  2. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  3. Dense fluid self-diffusion coefficient calculations using perturbation theory and molecular dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COELHO L. A. F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to correlate self-diffusion coefficients in dense fluids by using the perturbation theory (WCA coupled with the smooth-hard-sphere theory is presented and tested against molecular simulations and experimental data. This simple algebraic expression correlates well the self-diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane, ethylene, and sulfur hexafluoride. We have also performed canonical ensemble molecular dynamics simulations by using the Hoover-Nosé thermostat and the mean-square displacement formula to compute self-diffusion coefficients for the reference WCA intermolecular potential. The good agreement obtained from both methods, when compared with experimental data, suggests that the smooth-effective-sphere theory is a useful procedure to correlate diffusivity of pure substances.

  4. Series extension: predicting approximate series coefficients from a finite number of exact coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, Anthony J.

    2016-10-01

    Given the first 20-100 coefficients of a typical generating function of the type that arises in many problems of statistical mechanics or enumerative combinatorics, we show that the method of differential approximants performs surprisingly well in predicting (approximately) subsequent coefficients. These can then be used by the ratio method to obtain improved estimates of critical parameters. In favourable cases, given only the first 20 coefficients, the next 100 coefficients are predicted with useful accuracy. More surprisingly, this is also the case when the method of differential approximants does not do a useful job in estimating the critical parameters, such as those cases in which one has stretched exponential asymptotic behaviour. Nevertheless, the coefficients are predicted with surprising accuracy. As one consequence, significant computer time can be saved in enumeration problems where several runs would normally be made, modulo different primes, and the coefficients constructed from their values modulo different primes. Another is in the checking of newly calculated coefficients. We believe that this concept of approximate series extension opens up a whole new chapter in the method of series analysis.

  5. Meromorphic univalent function with negative coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dernek

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Mn be the classes of regular functions f(z=z−1+a0+a1z+… defined in the annulus 00, (n∈ℕ0, where I0f(z=f(z, If(z=(z−1−z(z−1−2∗f(z, Inf(z=I(In−1f(z, and ∗ is the Hadamard convolution. We denote by Γn=Mn⋃Γ, where Γ denotes the class of functions of the form f(z=z−1+∑k=1∞|ak|zk. We obtained that relates the modulus of the coefficients to starlikeness for the classes Mn and Γn, and coefficient inequalities for the classes Γn.

  6. Improving the calculation of interdiffusion coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rakesh R.; Eagar, Thomas W.

    1990-12-01

    Least-squares spline interpolation techniques are reviewed and presented as a mathematical tool for noise reduction and interpolation of diffusion profiles. Numerically simulated diffusion profiles were interpolated using a sixth-order spline. The spline fit data were successfully used in conjunction with the Boltzmann-Matano treatment to compute the interdiffusion coefficient, demonstrating the usefulness of splines as a numerical tool for such calculations. Simulations conducted on noisy data indicate that the technique can extract the correct diffusivity data given compositional data that contain only three digits of information and are contaminated with a noise level of 0.001. Splines offer a reproducible and reliable alternative to graphical evaluation of the slope of a diffusion profile, which is used in the Boltzmann-Matano treatment. Hence, use of splines reduces the numerical errors associated with calculation of interdiffusion coefficients from raw diffusion profile data.

  7. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Alex; Franses, Philip Hans

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, which amounts to computing the confidence intervals of an alpha, as these intervals automatically account for differences across the numbers of items. We also give appropriate statistics to test for ...

  8. CALCULATION OF IONIZATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ionization. 1. INTRODUCTION. Plusieurs problèmes liés à l'étude des plasmas de laboratoire, d'astrophysique et de fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée nécessitent la connaissance au préalable de la structure atomique comme les énergies et longueurs d'onde des différents niveaux et les sections efficaces et les coefficients ...

  9. Rate Coefficient Determination in Charge Transfer Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Vaeck; Michèle Desouter-Lecomte; Ezinvi Baloïtcha; Marie-Christine Bacchus-Montabonel

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: The development of experimental ion-trap techniques provides the opportunity to compare directly theoretical rate coefficients to experimental data in the low-temperature regime. In the present work, we consider the ion-atom collisional systems, N2+, O2+, Si3+ and Si4+ on a He target, in order to examine the present status of the agreement between theory and experiment.

  10. Rate Coefficient Determination in Charge Transfer Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Vaeck

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The development of experimental ion-trap techniques provides the opportunity to compare directly theoretical rate coefficients to experimental data in the low-temperature regime. In the present work, we consider the ion-atom collisional systems, N2+, O2+, Si3+ and Si4+ on a He target, in order to examine the present status of the agreement between theory and experiment.

  11. Numerical Integral of Resistance Coefficients in Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. S.

    2017-01-01

    The resistance coefficients in the screened Coulomb potential of stellar plasma are evaluated to high accuracy. I have analyzed the possible singularities in the integral of scattering angle. There are possible singularities in the case of an attractive potential. This may result in a problem for the numerical integral. In order to avoid the problem, I have used a proper scheme, e.g., splitting into many subintervals where the width of each subinterval is determined by the variation of the integrand, to calculate the scattering angle. The collision integrals are calculated by using Romberg’s method, therefore the accuracy is high (I.e., ˜10-12). The results of collision integrals and their derivatives for -7 ≤ ψ ≤ 5 are listed. By using Hermite polynomial interpolation from those data, the collision integrals can be obtained with an accuracy of 10-10. For very weakly coupled plasma (ψ ≥ 4.5), analytical fittings for collision integrals are available with an accuracy of 10-11. I have compared the final results of resistance coefficients with other works and found that, for a repulsive potential, the results are basically the same as others’ for an attractive potential, the results in cases of intermediate and strong coupling show significant differences. The resulting resistance coefficients are tested in the solar model. Comparing with the widely used models of Cox et al. and Thoul et al., the resistance coefficients in the screened Coulomb potential lead to a slightly weaker effect in the solar model, which is contrary to the expectation of attempts to solve the solar abundance problem.

  12. Extraction of the coefficient of giant magnetoresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzerda, Y.U. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)); Chen, C. (AT T Bell Laboratories, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Cheng, S. (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 (United States)); Vavra, W.; Prinz, G.A. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)); Meigs, G.; Lin, H. (AT T Bell Laboratories, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Ho, G.H. (Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States))

    1994-06-20

    Element specific magnetic hysteresis (ESMH) loops have been used in conjunction with measured magnetoresistance curves to extract the coefficient of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), which is the maximum achievable value of the GMR independent of magnetic domain effects and incomplete moment alignment effects, for sputtered Fe/Cu/Co sandwiches on silicon substrates. Using the ESMH loops to calculate GMR curves, comparison with the measured GMR curves shows that the magnetization reversal process is best described by multidomain Ising behavior.

  13. Detailed Investigations of Load Coefficients on Grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Frigaard, Peter

    In this report is presented the results of model tests carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, aalborg University (AAU) on behalf of DONG Energy A/S and Vattenfall A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was to investigate the load coefficient on different grates and a solid plate for designi...... offshore windmill access platforms against run-up generated forces with special attention to the influence of air entrainment and the angle of attack....

  14. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, AA; Chen, X.; Fox, J; Fulda, M; Dorsey, R.; Seapy, B; Glenday, J; E Bray

    2014-01-01

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction t...

  15. A New Methodology of Spatial Cross-Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial correlation modeling comprises both spatial autocorrelation and spatial cross-correlation processes. The spatial autocorrelation theory has been well-developed. It is necessary to advance the method of spatial cross-correlation analysis to supplement the autocorrelation analysis. This paper presents a set of models and analytical procedures for spatial cross-correlation analysis. By analogy with Moran’s index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form, a theoretical framework is derived for geographical cross-correlation modeling. First, two sets of spatial cross-correlation coefficients are defined, including a global spatial cross-correlation coefficient and local spatial cross-correlation coefficients. Second, a pair of scatterplots of spatial cross-correlation is proposed, and the plots can be used to visually reveal the causality behind spatial systems. Based on the global cross-correlation coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient can be decomposed into two parts: direct correlation (partial correlation) and indirect correlation (spatial cross-correlation). As an example, the methodology is applied to the relationships between China’s urbanization and economic development to illustrate how to model spatial cross-correlation phenomena. This study is an introduction to developing the theory of spatial cross-correlation, and future geographical spatial analysis might benefit from these models and indexes. PMID:25993120

  16. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    . Particle sizes in the range 0.05-5 mm were tested, and the effective diffusion coefficients were estimated from measured effectiveness factors using the Thiele modulus. At 1079 K the effective diffusion coefficients were 5.5 X 10(-6) m(2)/s and 6.8 X 10(-6) m(2)/s for N2O and NO, respectively....... The experimental results were compared with theoretical values calculated from the mean pore radius and the cross-linked pore model. The method of mean pore radius underestimated the effective diffusion coefficient more than an order of magnitude. Using the cross-linked pore model, the bimodal pore size....... In the case of strong pore diffusion limitations, the error in the interpretation of experimental results using the mean pore radius could be a factor of 5 on the intrinsic rate constant. For an average coal char reacting with oxygen at 1300 K, this would be the case for particle sizes larger than about 50...

  17. Serial and spatial error correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    This paper demonstrates that jointly modeling serial and spatial error correlation results in a trade-off between the serial and spatial autocorrelation coefficients. Ignoring this trade-off causes inefficiency and may lead to nonstationarity. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling placental transport: correlation of in vitro BeWo cell permeability and ex vivo human placental perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Rytting, Erik; Mose, Tina

    2009-01-01

    . Placental passage of benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate in an ex vivo human perfusion system. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 71, 984-991]. In this work, the transport of these same three compounds, plus the reference compound antipyrine, was investigated using BeWo (b30) cell monolayers. Transport......The placental passage of three compounds with different physicochemical properties was recently investigated in ex vivo human placental perfusion experiments (caffeine, benzoic acid, and glyphosate) [Mose, T., Kjaerstad, M.B., Mathiesen, L., Nielsen, J.B., Edelfors, S., Knudsen, L.E., 2008...... across the BeWo cells was observed in the rank order of caffeine>antipyrine>benzoic acid>glyphosate in terms of both the apparent permeability coefficient and the initial slope, defined as the linear rate of substance transferred to the fetal compartment as percent per time, a parameter used to compare...

  19. Phased Beam Tracing Method Using the Reflection Coefficient Calculated from the Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    The phased beam tracing method (PBTM) is a technique which can calculate the pressure impulse response instead of energy impulse response, by taking the phase information into account. Inclusion of the phase information can extend the application of beam tracing technique to the mid frequency range...... in spite of the fact that the usual assumptions of geometric acoustics still hold. In the calculation of pressure impulse response, it is essential to have the reflection characteristics of the surfaces in the enclosed space. There is a method to obtain the reflection coefficient of the surface using......, whereas Rindel proposed the angle dependent reflection coefficient which can be calculated from absorption coefficient under the several assumptions. In this research, the angle dependent reflection coefficients were adopted in the phased beam tracing method and the results are compared with measurement...

  20. Thermal performance analysis for heat exchangers having a variable overall heat transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, J. C.; Granryd, E.

    The classic, conventional analysis for the thermal performance of heat exchangers is based on three assumptions: constant fluid flow rate, constant specific heat fluids, and constant overall heat transfer coefficient. Our analysis describes a general approach for analyzing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in which the overall heat transfer coefficient varies as a function of enthalpy, with the other two basic assumptions of constant mass flow rates and constant specific heats unchanged. Many heat exchangers have an overall heat transfer coefficient that is not constant. The conventional heat exchanger thermal performance analysis is correct as long as a true, area-weighted mean value is used. In many applications, however, fluids undergo a change in phase, and the heat transfer coefficient is a function of the local quality or enthalpy; hence, the true, area-weighted, mean heat transfer coefficient will be a function of the heat flux distribution. Examples are presented that illustrate the variation in overall heat transfer coefficient for an evaporation process. We present a general method for computing a true, area-weighted mean overall heat transfer coefficient that permits use of a local overall heat transfer coefficient that is an arbitrary function of enthalpy. This method allows a simple yet accurate analysis of the effects of a variable overall heat transfer coefficient to be made without the use of a large mainframe computer. We then investigate: (1) linear variation of local overall heat transfer coefficient with respect to enthalpy; and (2) two heat transfer correlations applicable to flow-boiling inside a tube.

  1. Aplicability of phenotypic and canonic correlations and path coefficients in the selection of oat genotypes Aplicabilidade de correlações fenotípicas, canônicas e coeficientes de trilha na seleção de genótipos em aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir Lorencetti

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Indirect selection through traits of higher heritability and of case measurements can result in larger genetic progress compared to using direct selection. This work was performed with the following objectives: (1 to estimative the phenotypic correlations between individual plant grain yield and agronomic traits of importance in the selection of white oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes; (2 to identify traits that have the higher direct and indirect effects on grain yield; (3 to determine the intensity of association between primary and secondary components of grain yield; and, (4 to evaluate the consistency of these estimates using five oat genotypes crossed in a diallel format. The number of panicles per plant (NPP showed to be the trait highest correlated with individual plant grain yield (GY both through single correlations and through direct effects on grain yields. For weight of a thousand grains (WTG ´ GY, in most crosses there was no detected association, leading to possible troubles for breeders, since larger grains were not associated to higher yield, except for the crosses UPF16 ´ UFRGS17 and UFRGS17 ´ URPel95/015. The trait number of grains per plant (NGP was directly correlated with GY in all crosses, although the direct effects estimates on GY were negative for the crosses UPF16 ´ UPF18, UPF16 ´ URPel95/015, UPF18 ´ UFRGS17 and UFRGS7 ´ URPel95/015, indicating that correlations are not the main causes altering GY, which could be explained, in the present work, by indirect effects via NPP and mainly via panicle weight (PW.A seleção indireta através de caracteres com maior herdabilidade e de fácil mensuração, poderá resultar num elevado progresso genético em relação ao uso de seleção direta. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de: (1 estimar as correlações fenotípicas entre rendimento de grãos de plantas individuais e caracteres agronômicos de interesse na seleção de genótipos de aveia branca; (2

  2. Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2007-05-18

    Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Ferguson (1949) 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient delta, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect) items. In this paper a general form of the formula, deltaG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of deltaG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12) from 2003-2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761). Coefficients for reliability (alpha) and discrimination (deltaG) are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Both scoring methods were reliable (alpha > 0.88). However, deltaG was substantially lower (0.73) for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (deltaG = 0.96), indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Coefficient deltaG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's delta has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is suggested that the more general

  3. Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949) [1] derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect) items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12) from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761). Coefficients for reliability (α) and discrimination (δG) are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88). However, δG was substantially lower (0.73) for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96), indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is suggested that the

  4. Probability based calibration of pressure coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Ole; Pedersen, Marie Louise; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    not depend on the type of variable action. A probability based calibration of pressure coefficients have been carried out using pressure measurements on the standard CAARC building modelled on scale of 1:383. The extreme pressures measured on the CAARC building model in the wind tunnel have been fitted...... to Gumbel distributions, and these fits are found to represent the data measured with good accuracy. The pressure distributions found have been used in a calibration of partial factors, which should achieve a certain theoretical target reliability index. For a target annual reliability index of 4...

  5. Expansion Coefficient on Oxides and Oxide Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Classification) EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS ON OXIDES AND OXIDE CERAMICS 12 PFRSONAL AUTHOR(S) Josephine Covino 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT...drastically alter expansion properties of oxides. It has been found that fine-grained (᝺ tm) anisotropic ceramic materials, such as hafnium oxide, hafnium ...Gokhale. "Thermal Expansion of Zircon ," Jap. J. AppZ. Phys., 7 (1968), p. 1126. 34 -- ’-a.’! nw-W’W L. .WW U. .PV _ 77 NWC TP 6663 81. J. L. Amoros, M

  6. Determination of diffusion coefficients of various livestock antibiotics in water at infinite dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Allan N.; Adamos, Kristoni G.; Bonifacio, Pauline B.; Adornado, Adonis P.; Bungay, Vergel C.; Vairavan, Rajendaran

    2017-11-01

    The fate of antibiotics entering the environment raised concerns on the possible effect of antimicrobial resistance bacteria. Prediction of the fate and transport of these particles are needed to be determined, significantly the diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution. A systematic determination of diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution of five different kinds of livestock antibiotics namely: Amtyl, Ciprotyl, Doxylak Forte, Trisullak, and Vetracin Gold in the 293.15 to 313.15 K temperature range are reported through the use of the method involving the electrolytic conductivity measurements. A continuous stirred tank reactor is utilized to measure the electrolytic conductivities of the considered systems. These conductivities are correlated by using the Nernst-Haskell equation to determine the infinite dilution diffusion coefficient. Determined diffusion coefficients are based on the assumption that in dilute solution, these antibiotics behave as strong electrolyte from which H+ cation dissociate from the antibiotic's anion.

  7. Population-genetic influences on genomic estimates of the inbreeding coefficient: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Trevor J.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Culturally-driven marital practices provide a key instance of an interaction between social and genetic processes in shaping patterns of human genetic variation, producing, for example, increased identity by descent through consanguineous marriage. A commonly used measure to quantify identity by descent in an individual is the inbreeding coefficient, a quantity that reflects not only consanguinity, but also other aspects of kinship in the population to which the individual belongs. Here, in populations worldwide, we examine the relationship between genomic estimates of the inbreeding coefficient and population patterns in genetic variation. Methods Using genotypes at 645 microsatellites, we compare inbreeding coefficients from 5,043 individuals representing 237 worldwide populations to demographic consanguinity frequency estimates available for 26 populations, as well as to other quantities that can illuminate population-genetic influences on inbreeding coefficients. Results We observe higher inbreeding coefficient estimates in populations and geographic regions with known high levels of consanguinity or genetic isolation, and in populations with an increased effect of genetic drift and decreased genetic diversity with increasing distance from Africa. For the small number of populations with specific consanguinity estimates, we find a correlation between inbreeding coefficients and consanguinity frequency (r=0.349, P=0.040). Conclusions The results emphasize the importance of both consanguinity and population-genetic factors in influencing variation in inbreeding coefficients, and they provide insight into factors useful for assessing the effect of consanguinity on genomic patterns in different populations. PMID:25060268

  8. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshita, T.; Oka, M.; Imon, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mimori, Y.; Nakamura, S. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-09-01

    We measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI in the cerebral white matter of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and age-matched normal subjects. In PSP, ADC in the prefrontal and precentral white matter was significantly higher than in controls. There was no significant difference in signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The ADC did correlate with signal intensity. The distribution of the elevation of ADC may be the consequence of underlying pathological changes, such as neurofibrillary tangles or glial fibrillary tangles in the cortex. Our findings suggest that ADC measurement might be useful for demonstrating subtle neuropathological changes. (orig.)

  9. THE ROWWISE CORRELATION BETWEEN 2 PROXIMITY MATRICES AND THE PARTIAL ROWWISE CORRELATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Han|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067650538

    This paper discusses rowwise matrix correlation, based on the weighted sum of correlations between all pairs of corresponding rows of two proximity matrices, which may both be square (symmetric or asymmetric) or rectangular. Using the correlation coefficients usually associated with Pearson,

  10. Excess entropy scaling for the diffusion coefficient in expanded liquid metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretonnet, J L

    2004-06-15

    Molecular-dynamics simulation is used to compute the pair correlation function and the velocity autocorrelation function of Cs and Rb along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve, from which the excess entropy S(ex) and the diffusion coefficient D are deduced. The numerical results of both physical properties are correlated and a scaling law between the excess entropy and the reduced diffusion coefficient D(*)(=D/D(0)) is investigated for different expressions of the reduction parameter D(0). The choice of thermodynamic states along the liquid--vapor coexistence curve gives us the possibility to extend the investigation of the relation between the reduced diffusion coefficient and the excess entropy over a wide area and to test the adequacy of the scaling law confidently.

  11. development of dual purpose sorghum: correlation and path ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (Table 3). Grain yield and stem sugar traits. The correlation coefficients between grain yield and. T. ABLE 2. Correlation coefficients between grain yield and stem sugar content with selected agronomic traits in sorghum. SBX. GY. SBW. DT50F. HDL. SJS. NLP. PHT. Stem brix (SBX). 1.000. Grain yield (GY). 0.071**. 1.000.

  12. The Convergence Coefficient across Political Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Formal work on the electoral model often suggests that parties or candidates should locate themselves at the electoral mean. Recent research has found no evidence of such convergence. In order to explain nonconvergence, the stochastic electoral model is extended by including estimates of electoral valence. We introduce the notion of a convergence coefficient, c. It has been shown that high values of c imply that there is a significant centrifugal tendency acting on parties. We used electoral surveys to construct a stochastic valence model of the the elections in various countries. We find that the convergence coefficient varies across elections in a country, across countries with similar regimes, and across political regimes. In some countries, the centripetal tendency leads parties to converge to the electoral mean. In others the centrifugal tendency dominates and some parties locate far from the electoral mean. In particular, for countries with proportional electoral systems, namely, Israel, Turkey, and Poland, the centrifugal tendency is very high. In the majoritarian polities of the United States and Great Britain, the centrifugal tendency is very low. In anocracies, the autocrat imposes limitations on how far from the origin the opposition parties can move. PMID:24385886

  13. The convergence coefficient across political systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Maria; Schofield, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Formal work on the electoral model often suggests that parties or candidates should locate themselves at the electoral mean. Recent research has found no evidence of such convergence. In order to explain nonconvergence, the stochastic electoral model is extended by including estimates of electoral valence. We introduce the notion of a convergence coefficient, c. It has been shown that high values of c imply that there is a significant centrifugal tendency acting on parties. We used electoral surveys to construct a stochastic valence model of the the elections in various countries. We find that the convergence coefficient varies across elections in a country, across countries with similar regimes, and across political regimes. In some countries, the centripetal tendency leads parties to converge to the electoral mean. In others the centrifugal tendency dominates and some parties locate far from the electoral mean. In particular, for countries with proportional electoral systems, namely, Israel, Turkey, and Poland, the centrifugal tendency is very high. In the majoritarian polities of the United States and Great Britain, the centrifugal tendency is very low. In anocracies, the autocrat imposes limitations on how far from the origin the opposition parties can move.

  14. On Learning Cluster Coefficient of Private Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Wu, Xintao; Zhu, Jun; Xiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as clustering coefficient or modularity often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum) on tabular data. In this paper, we treat a graph statistics as a function f and develop a divide and conquer approach to enforce differential privacy. The basic procedure of this approach is to first decompose the target computation f into several less complex unit computations f1, …, fm connected by basic mathematical operations (e.g., addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), then perturb the output of each fi with Laplace noise derived from its own sensitivity value and the distributed privacy threshold ε i , and finally combine those perturbed fi as the perturbed output of computation f. We examine how various operations affect the accuracy of complex computations. When unit computations have large global sensitivity values, we enforce the differential privacy by calibrating noise based on the smooth sensitivity, rather than the global sensitivity. By doing this, we achieve the strict differential privacy guarantee with smaller magnitude noise. We illustrate our approach by using clustering coefficient, which is a popular statistics used in social network analysis. Empirical evaluations on five real social networks and various synthetic graphs generated from three random graph models show the developed divide and conquer approach outperforms the direct approach.

  15. The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic…

  16. Biot's coefficient as an indicator of strength and porosity reduction: Calcareous sediments from Kerguelen Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Borre, Mai Kirstine; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    β to fall, even when porosity remains constant. Biot's coefficient correlates with strength-indicating properties: compressional and shear modulus, oedometer modulus, yield strength, strain from direct loading and creep strain. Our data indicate that β may be used for predicting the diagenetic...

  17. Influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of rubber at high sliding velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2004-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of a rubber body onto a solid surface at high speeds. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that the friction

  18. Self-affine roughness influence on the friction coefficient for rubbers onto solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient mu(f) of a rubber body under incomplete contact onto a solid surface. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that with

  19. Correlation of PUV and SUV in the extremities while using PEM as a high-resolution positron emission scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Sania [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mawlawi, Osama; Taylor, Shree; Millican, Richelle; Swanston, Nancy M.; Rohren, Eric M. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, J.E. [Yale University Hospital, Department of Radiology, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Owing to its unique configuration of two adjustable plate detectors positron emission mammography, or PEM, could theoretically also function as a high-resolution positron emission scanner for the extremities or neck. PEM quantitates its activity via a ''PEM uptake value,'' or PUV, and although its relationship to the standardized uptake value, or SUV, has been demonstrated in the breasts, to our knowledge there are no studies validating PUV in other sites such as the extremities. This was a retrospective chart review of two separate protocols of a total of 15 patients. The patients all had hypermetabolic lesions in the extremities or neck on imaging with PET/CT and were sent after their PET/CT to PEM for further imaging. Owing to the sequential nature of these examinations no additional radiotracer was administered. Spearman's rank order correlation was calculated between the PUVmax obtained from PEM images, and the SUVmax for all. Spearman's rank order correlation for all sites was 0.42, which is not significantly different from 0 (p = 0.13). When neck lesions were excluded from the group, there was a strong and statistically significant correlation between PUVmax and SUVmax, with Spearman's rank correlation of 0.73, and significantly different from 0 (p = 0.0068). The correlation of PUV and SUV in the extremities indicates the potential use of PEM as a semiquantitative, high-resolution positron emission scanner and warrants further investigation, especially in the realms of disease processes that often present in the extremities, such as melanoma, osteomyelitis, and arthritis, as well as playing a role in the imaging of patients with metallic hardware post-limb salvage surgery. (orig.)

  20. Questionnaire discrimination: (re-introducing coefficient δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure. Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12 from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761. Coefficients for reliability (α and discrimination (δG are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88. However, δG was substantially lower (0.73 for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96, indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is

  1. Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm/sup 2//s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm/sup 2//s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site.

  2. Coefficient of performance of Stirling refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Mungan, Carl

    2017-09-01

    Stirling coolers transfer heat in or out of the working fluid during all four stages of their operation, and their coefficient of performance depends on whether the non-isothermal heat exchanges are performed reversibly or irreversibly. Both of these possibilities can in principle be arranged. Notably, if the working fluid is an ideal gas, the input of energy in the form of heat during one isochoric step is equal in magnitude to the output during the other isochoric step in the cycle. The theoretical performance of the fridge can then attain the reversible Carnot limit if a regenerator is used, which is a high heat capacity material through which the gas flows. Various Stirling refrigerator configurations are analysed in this article at a level of presentation suitable for an introductory undergraduate thermodynamics course.

  3. Friction Experiments for Dynamical Coefficient Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Arnoux

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study, including three experimental devices, is presented in order to investigate dry friction phenomena in a wide range of sliding speeds for the steel on steel contact. A ballistic setup, with an air gun launch, allows to estimate the friction coefficient between 20 m/s and 80 m/s. Tests are completed by an adaptation of the sensor on a hydraulic tensile machine (0.01 m/s to 3 m/s and a pin-on-disk tribometer mounted on a CNC lathe (1 to 30 m/s. The interactions at the asperity scale are characterized by a white light interferometer surface analysis.

  4. Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolos, Laura [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Frankfurt Institute for Advances Studies. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Manuel, Cristina [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarkar, Sreemoyee [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba Road, Mumbai-400005 (India); Tarrus, Jaume [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.

  5. Manning's roughness coefficient for Illinois streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Prater, Crystal D.; Halfar, Teresa M.; Wobig, Loren A.

    2012-01-01

    Manning's roughness coefficients for 43 natural and constructed streams in Illinois are reported and displayed on a U.S. Geological Survey Web site. At a majority of the sites, discharge and stage were measured, and corresponding Manning's coefficients—the n-values—were determined at more than one river discharge. The n-values discussed in this report are computed from data representing the stream reach studied and, therefore, are reachwise values. Presentation of the resulting n-values takes a visual-comparison approach similar to the previously published Barnes report (1967), in which photographs of channel conditions, description of the site, and the resulting n-values are organized for each site. The Web site where the data can be accessed and are displayed is at URL http://il.water.usgs.gov/proj/nvalues/.

  6. Correlation Evaluation on Small LTE Handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the first MIMO handset on the market. It investigates the correlation coefficient computed from coaxial cable measurements and from optical fiber measurements. The results are compared and discussed. The question of the actual feasibility of low correlation for...... for the LTE-700 band in small terminals is raised....

  7. Heritability estimates and correlations between subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PavarniN

    exceptions were positive genetic correlations of fibre diameter (FD) and coefficient of variation of FD with staple formation score and belly and points score. Genetic progress in subjective traits thus appears possible, if desired in a selection strategy. Keywords: Correlations, heritabilities, linearly assessed traits, subjective ...

  8. Bootstrapping correlation functions in N=4 SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Chicherin, Dmitry; Eden, Burkhard; Heslop, Paul; Korchemsky, Gregory P; Sokatchev, Emery

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new approach to computing the chiral part of correlation functions of stress-tensor supermultiplets in N=4 SYM that relies on symmetries, analytic properties and the structure of the OPE only. We demonstrate that the correlation functions are given by a linear combination of chiral N=4 superconformal invariants accompanied by coefficient functions depending on the space-time coordinates only. We present the explicit construction of these invariants and show that the six-point correlation function is fixed in the Born approximation up to four constant coefficients by its symmetries. In addition, the known asymptotic structure of the correlation function in the light-like limit fixes unambiguously these coefficients up to an overall normalization. We demonstrate that the same approach can be applied to obtain a representation for the six-point NMHV amplitude that is free from any auxiliary gauge fixing parameters, does not involve spurious poles and manifests half of the dual superconformal symmet...

  9. Detection of epigenetic changes using ANOVA with spatially varying coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghua, Xiao; Xinlei, Wang; Quincey, LaPlant; Nestler, Eric J; Xie, Yang

    2013-03-13

    Identification of genome-wide epigenetic changes, the stable changes in gene function without a change in DNA sequence, under various conditions plays an important role in biomedical research. High-throughput epigenetic experiments are useful tools to measure genome-wide epigenetic changes, but the measured intensity levels from these high-resolution genome-wide epigenetic profiling data are often spatially correlated with high noise levels. In addition, it is challenging to detect genome-wide epigenetic changes across multiple conditions, so efficient statistical methodology development is needed for this purpose. In this study, we consider ANOVA models with spatially varying coefficients, combined with a hierarchical Bayesian approach, to explicitly model spatial correlation caused by location-dependent biological effects (i.e., epigenetic changes) and borrow strength among neighboring probes to compare epigenetic changes across multiple conditions. Through simulation studies and applications in drug addiction and depression datasets, we find that our approach compares favorably with competing methods; it is more efficient in estimation and more effective in detecting epigenetic changes. In addition, it can provide biologically meaningful results.

  10. Quantitative Genetics Model as the Unifying Model for Defining Genomic Relationship and Inbreeding Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunkao; Da, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The traditional quantitative genetics model was used as the unifying approach to derive six existing and new definitions of genomic additive and dominance relationships. The theoretical differences of these definitions were in the assumptions of equal SNP effects (equivalent to across-SNP standardization), equal SNP variances (equivalent to within-SNP standardization), and expected or sample SNP additive and dominance variances. The six definitions of genomic additive and dominance relationships on average were consistent with the pedigree relationships, but had individual genomic specificity and large variations not observed from pedigree relationships. These large variations may allow finding least related genomes even within the same family for minimizing genomic relatedness among breeding individuals. The six definitions of genomic relationships generally had similar numerical results in genomic best linear unbiased predictions of additive effects (GBLUP) and similar genomic REML (GREML) estimates of additive heritability. Predicted SNP dominance effects and GREML estimates of dominance heritability were similar within definitions assuming equal SNP effects or within definitions assuming equal SNP variance, but had differences between these two groups of definitions. We proposed a new measure of genomic inbreeding coefficient based on parental genomic co-ancestry coefficient and genomic additive correlation as a genomic approach for predicting offspring inbreeding level. This genomic inbreeding coefficient had the highest correlation with pedigree inbreeding coefficient among the four methods evaluated for calculating genomic inbreeding coefficient in a Holstein sample and a swine sample. PMID:25517971

  11. Temperature Coefficient for Modeling Denitrification in Surface Water Sediments Using the Mass Transfer Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. W. Appelboom; G. M. Chescheir; R. W. Skaggs; J. W. Gilliam; Devendra M. Amatya

    2006-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers with the high costs of water quality monitoring. When modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks, denitrification within the sediments needs to be accounted for. Birgand et. al. developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment...

  12. Temperature coefficient for modeling denitrification in surface water sediments using the mass transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Appelboom; G.M. Chescheir; F. Birgand; R.W. Skaggs; J.W. Gilliam; D. Amatya

    2010-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers. Modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks requires quantifying the denitrification within the sediments in canals and streams. In a previous study, several of the authors developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment denitrification....

  13. Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficient for Refrigerant With Oil Contained in Horizontal Evaporator Tuvbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yoshida, Suguru

    A method which is generally applicable to predict the axially local (circumferentially averaged) heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant with oil contained flowing in horizontal evaporator tubes was developed by modifying a prediction method for pure refrigerants. The dimensionless correlation for an annular flow regime takes account of the influence of oil on an improvement or a reduction in the heat transfer, in addition to the change of the properties due to the addition of oil. For a separated flow regime, the correlations of the average heat transfer coefficients in the top part and the bottom part and their boundary angle were developed by modifying each correlation for pure refrigerants. The circumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficient for the separated flow regime can be obtained by using the solution of the steady heat conduction equation in the tube wall, to which the values calculated from the above correlations are applied as the boundary conditions at the inside surface of the tube. Which flow regime, annular or separated, prevails can be determined by the correlation of the boundary angle. The present prediction method was confirmed to be applicable to various kinds of refrigerant-oil mixture.

  14. Expressions for the Evaporation and Condensation Coefficients in the Hertz-Knudsen Relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Aaron H; Ward, Charles A

    2016-07-27

    Although the Hertz-Knudsen (HK) relation is often used to correlate evaporation data, the relation contains two empirical parameters (the evaporation and condensation coefficients) that have inexplicably been found to span 3 orders of magnitude. Explicit expressions for these coefficients have yet to be determined. This review will examine sources of error in the HK relation that have led to the coefficients' scatter. Through an examination of theoretical, experimental, and molecular dynamics simulation studies of evaporation, this review will show that the HK relation is incomplete, since it is missing an important physical concept: the coupling between the vapor and liquid phases during evaporation. The review also examines a modified HK relation, obtained from the quantum-mechanically based statistical rate theory (SRT) expression for the evaporation flux and applying a limit to it in which the thermal energy is dominant. Explicit expressions for the evaporation and condensation coefficients are defined in this limit, with the surprising result that the coefficients are not bounded by unity. An examination is made with 127 reported evaporation experiments of water and of ethanol, leading to a new physical interpretation of the coefficients. The review concludes by showing how seemingly small simplifications, such as assuming thermal equilibrium across the liquid-vapor interface during evaporation, can lead to the erroneous predictions from the HK relation that have been reported in the literature.

  15. The effect of chalk on the finger-hold friction coefficient in rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amca, Arif Mithat; Vigouroux, Laurent; Aritan, Serdar; Berton, Eric

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chalk on the friction coefficient between climber's fingers and two different rock types (sandstone and limestone). The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of humidity and temperature on the friction coefficient and on the influence of chalk. Eleven experienced climbers took part in this study and 42 test sessions were performed. Participants hung from holds which were fixed on a specially designed hang board. The inclination of the hang board was progressively increased until the climber's hand slipped from the holds. The angle of the hang board was simultaneously recorded by using a gyroscopic sensor and the friction coefficient was calculated at the moment of slip. The results showed that there was a significant positive effect of chalk on the coefficient of friction (+18.7% on limestone and +21.6% on sandstone). Moreover sandstone had a higher coefficient of friction than limestone (+15.6% without chalk, +18.4% with chalk). These results confirmed climbers' belief that chalk enhances friction. However, no correlation with humidity/temperature and friction coefficient was noted which suggested that additional parameters should be considered in order to understand the effects of climate on finger friction in rock climbing.

  16. Assessing Reliability of a Multi-Dimensional Scale by Coefficient Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Šerbetar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess internal consistency by calculating coefficient alpha. It presents the variation in coefficient alpha, depending on questionnaire length and the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the questionnaire. The maximum possible value for coefficient alpha was also calculated by the item elimination method. The study included 99 children aged 10. The children completed The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory – 28 (ACSI-28; Smith et al., 1995, which contains seven constructs: coping with adversity, coachability, concentration, confidence and achievement motivation, goal setting and mental preparation, peaking under pressure and freedom from worry. The results confirmed that the values of the alpha coefficient vary depending on the number and composition of items and the sample size. In terms of item structure, homogeneous constructs yielded lower values for the alpha coefficient (in a range from .48 to .61 than the questionnaire with all the constructs (alpha = .79, despite higher inter-item correlations. In terms of the number of items, the longer test generated higher alpha coefficients (alpha = .79 than the shorter test (half-sets of items = .60, .73, .69, .70. A higher overall value (alpha = .83 can be achieved by item elimination.

  17. Ballistic Coefficient Prediction for Resident Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R.; Arora, N.; Vittaldev, V.; Gaylor, D.

    2012-09-01

    Recent improvements in atmospheric density modeling now provide more confidence in spacecraft ballistic coefficient (BC) estimations, which were previously corrupted by large errors in density. Without attitude knowledge, forecasting the true BC for accurate future state and uncertainty predictions remains elusive. In this paper, our objective is to improve this predictive capability for ballistic coefficients for Resident Space Objects (RSOs), thus improving the existing drag models and associated accuracy of the U.S. Space Object Catalog. To work towards this goal we implement a two-pronged strategy that includes elements of time series analysis and physics based simulations. State-of-the-art empirical time series prediction methods are applied and tested on BC time series in the context of both simulation data and actual data provided by the Air Force. An archive of simulated BC data is generated using custom 6DOF high fidelity simulations for RSOs using plate models for shapes. The simulator includes force and torque perturbations due to the nonspherical Earth, third-body perturbations, SRP, and atmospheric drag. The simulated BC profiles demonstrate significant variation over short time spans (due primarily to varying frontal areas), providing motivation to improve future BC estimation strategies. The 6DOF modeling is intended to provide a physics-based BC data set to complement the BC data set provided by the AF. For the ‘black-box' time series algorithms, a variety of approaches are considered, whereas two prediction models showed the most promising performance: a multi-tone harmonic model and an autoregressive (AR) model. Both the multi-tone harmonic model and the AR model are subjected to multiple levels of optimizations resulting in highly optimized final models that are tuned specifically with the 205 BC time series provided by the AF. Two versions of the AR model are developed based on the model prediction methodology. The second version of the AR

  18. Flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of odd and even homologous bimesogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Katie L.; Morris, Stephen M.; Castles, Flynn; Qasim, Malik M.; Gardiner, Damian J.; Coles, Harry J.

    2012-01-01

    It is known that bimesogenic liquid crystals exhibit a marked “odd-even” effect in the flexoelastic ratio (the effective flexoelectric coefficient to the average elastic coefficient), with the ratio being higher for the “odd-spaced” bimesogens (those with an odd number of alkyl groups in the spacer chain) than their neighboring even-spaced counterparts. To determine the contribution of each property to the flexoelastic ratio, we present experimental results on the flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of two homologous nonsymmetric bimesogens which possess odd and even alkyl spacers. Our results show that, although there are differences in the flexoelectric coefficients, there are substantially larger differences in the effective elastic coefficient. Specifically, the odd bimesogen is found to have both a low splay elastic coefficient and a very low bend elastic coefficient which, when combined, results in a significantly lower effective elastic coefficient and consequently a higher flexoelastic ratio.

  19. On separation of exchange term from the coefficient of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6 ... plus two coefficients of the electromechanical and magnetomechanical couplings, form the coefficient of magnetoelectromechanical coupling (CMEMC), a very important characteristic used for analysingmagnetoelectroelastic smart (composite) materials.

  20. Block Empirical Likelihood for Longitudinal Single-Index Varying-Coefficient Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a single-index varying-coefficient model with application to longitudinal data. In order to accommodate the within-group correlation, we apply the block empirical likelihood procedure to longitudinal single-index varying-coefficient model, and prove a nonparametric version of Wilks’ theorem which can be used to construct the block empirical likelihood confidence region with asymptotically correct coverage probability for the parametric component. In comparison with normal approximations, the proposed method does not require a consistent estimator for the asymptotic covariance matrix, making it easier to conduct inference for the model's parametric component. Simulations demonstrate how the proposed method works.

  1. Strength and Biot's coefficient for high-porosity oil- or water-saturated chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    considerations for the size of the drilling window and the magnitude of the lateral stress involve the Biot coefficient. Additionally, the fluid effect of oil-saturated chalk behaving much stronger than water-saturated chalk affects geomechanical considerations related to e.g. water injection into a reservoir...... during hydrostatic loading. The hypothesis is that the Biot coefficient and the theory of poroelasticity may cover the fluid effect by including the increased fluid bulk modulus from oil to water. A high number of test results for both oil- and water-saturated high-porosity outcrop chalk show correlation...

  2. The osmotic second virial coefficient and the Gibbs-McMillan-Mayer framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, J.M.; Breil, Martin Peter

    2009-01-01

    . The independent variables of the solvents are temperature, pressure, and chemical potentials. The derivatives in the Gibbs-McMillan-Mayer framework are transformed into derivatives in the Gibbs framework. This offers the possibility for an interpretation and correlation of the osmotic second virial coefficient...... variables associated with the Kirkwood-Buff, the McMillan-Mayer, and the Lewis-Randall solution theories. In this paper we analyse the osmotic second virial coefficient using a Gibbs-McMillan-Mayer framework which is similar to the McMillan-Mayer framework with the exception that pressure rather than volume...

  3. Retrieving complex surface impedances from statistical absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondet, Boris Jean-Francois; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In room acoustic simulations the surface materials are commonly represented with energy parameters, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which do not carry phase information. This paper presents a method to transform statistical absorption coefficients into complex surface impedances...... coefficients, prior information about the absorber of interest can be used as constraints, which is shown to help determine the correct impedance from absorption coefficient. Further stability and sensitivity investigations indicate that the method presented constitutes an efficient solution to convert sound...

  4. Molecular modeling of diffusion coefficient and ionic conductivity of CO2 in aqueous ionic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ratés, Miquel; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles; Bonet Avalos, Josep; Nieto-Draghi, Carlos

    2012-03-08

    Mass diffusion coefficients of CO(2)/brine mixtures under thermodynamic conditions of deep saline aquifers have been investigated by molecular simulation. The objective of this work is to provide estimates of the diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in salty water to compensate the lack of experimental data on this property. We analyzed the influence of temperature, CO(2) concentration,and salinity on the diffusion coefficient, the rotational diffusion, as well as the electrical conductivity. We observe an increase of the mass diffusion coefficient with the temperature, but no clear dependence is identified with the salinity or with the CO(2) mole fraction, if the system is overall dilute. In this case, we notice an important dispersion on the values of the diffusion coefficient which impairs any conclusive statement about the effect of the gas concentration on the mobility of CO(2) molecules. Rotational relaxation times for water and CO(2) increase by decreasing temperature or increasing the salt concentration. We propose a correlation for the self-diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in terms of the rotational relaxation time which can ultimately be used to estimate the mutual diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in brine. The electrical conductivity of the CO(2)-brine mixtures was also calculated under different thermodynamic conditions. Electrical conductivity tends to increase with the temperature and salt concentration. However, we do not observe any influence of this property with the CO(2) concentration at the studied regimes. Our results give a first evaluation of the variation of the CO(2)-brine mass diffusion coefficient, rotational relaxation times, and electrical conductivity under the thermodynamic conditions typically encountered in deep saline aquifers.

  5. Dirac-Fock internal conversion coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Band, I M; Nestor, C W; Tikkanen, P O; Raman, S

    2002-01-01

    Internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) obtained from relativistic self-consistent-field Dirac-Fock (DF) calculations are presented. The exchange terms of DF equations are included exactly, both for the interaction between bound electrons and for the interaction between bound and free electrons. Static and dynamic effects resulting from finite nuclear size are taken into account, the latter using the surface current model. Experimental electron-binding energies are used wherever possible. The hole in the atomic shell from which an electron was emitted is not taken into consideration because there is no compelling experimental evidence to warrant it. ICCs are given here for each Z between Z=10 and Z=126; for K, L sub 1 , L sub 2 , and L sub 3 atomic shells; for nuclear-transition multipolarities E1... E5, M1 ... M5; and for nuclear-transition energies from approx 1 keV above the L sub 1 threshold to 2000 keV. Also given are the total ICCs. Accurate (<=5%) experimental ICCs (K and total) are known for 77 tra...

  6. Sedimentation coefficient distributions of large particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter

    2016-07-21

    The spatial and temporal evolution of concentration boundaries in sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation reports on the size distribution of particles with high hydrodynamic resolution. For large particles such as large protein complexes, fibrils, viral particles, or nanoparticles, sedimentation conditions usually allow migration from diffusion to be neglected relative to sedimentation. In this case, the shape of the sedimentation boundaries of polydisperse mixtures relates directly to the underlying size-distributions. Integral and derivative methods for calculating sedimentation coefficient distributions g*(s) of large particles from experimental boundary profiles have been developed previously, and are recapitulated here in a common theoretical framework. This leads to a previously unrecognized relationship between g*(s) and the time-derivative of concentration profiles. Of closed analytical form, it is analogous to the well-known Bridgman relationship for the radial derivative. It provides a quantitative description of the effect of substituting the time-derivative by scan differences with finite time intervals, which appears as a skewed box average of the true distribution. This helps to theoretically clarify the differences between results from time-derivative method and the approach of directly fitting the integral definition of g*(s) to the entirety of experimental boundary data.

  7. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin

    2014-06-17

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio.

  8. An Investigation of the Sampling Distribution of the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbooks, Wendy J.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    This study developed and investigated an empirical sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient. The effects of sample size, number of variables, and population value of the congruence coefficient on the sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient were examined. Sample data were generated on the basis of the common factor model and…

  9. Concordance-based Kendall's Correlation for Computationally-Light vs. Computationally-Heavy Centrality Metrics: Lower Bound for Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We identify three different levels of correlation (pair-wise relative ordering, network-wide ranking and linear regression that could be assessed between a computationally-light centrality metric and a computationally-heavy centrality metric for real-world networks. The Kendall's concordance-based correlation measure could be used to quantitatively assess how well we could consider the relative ordering of two vertices vi and vj with respect to a computationally-light centrality metric as the relative ordering of the same two vertices with respect to a computationally-heavy centrality metric. We hypothesize that the pair-wise relative ordering (concordance-based assessment of the correlation between centrality metrics is the most strictest of all the three levels of correlation and claim that the Kendall's concordance-based correlation coefficient will be lower than the correlation coefficient observed with the more relaxed levels of correlation measures (linear regression-based Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient and the network wide ranking-based Spearman's correlation coefficient. We validate our hypothesis by evaluating the three correlation coefficients between two sets of centrality metrics: the computationally-light degree and local clustering coefficient complement-based degree centrality metrics and the computationally-heavy eigenvector centrality, betweenness centrality and closeness centrality metrics for a diverse collection of 50 real-world networks.

  10. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  11. Indistinguishability and correlation in model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna, H G; Sagar, R P, E-mail: sagar@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-05-06

    We study the influence of wavefunction symmetry on localization measures of quantum mechanical distributions for two non-interacting particles in a box, in position and in momentum spaces. A comparison between the marginal distributions and the previously studied one-particle model is performed. The correlation coefficient and mutual information are examined as measures of correlation and the differences discussed. The influence of symmetry on the correlation measures is examined in both spaces.

  12. Impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-02-21

    We present a study through extensive simulation that considers the impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data collected from media mimicking breast tissue. We found that while the impact of scattering heterogeneities/targets is modest on photoacoustic recovery of optical absorption coefficients, the impact of scattering contrast caused by adipose tissue, a layer of normal tissue along the boundary of the breast, is dramatic on reconstruction of optical absorption coefficients using photoacoustic data-up to 25.8% relative error in recovering the absorption coefficient is estimated in such cases. To overcome this problem, we propose a new method to enhance photoacoustic recovery of the optical absorption coefficient in heterogeneous media by considering inhomogeneous scattering coefficient distribution provided by diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Results from extensive simulations show that photoacoustic recovery of absorption coefficient maps can be improved considerably with a priori scattering information from DOT.

  13. Quantifying interhemispheric symmetry of somatosensory evoked potentials with the intraclass correlation coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wassenberg, Wilma J. G.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    Although large intersubject variability is reported for cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), variability between hemispheres within one subject is thought to be small. Therefore, interhemispheric comparison of SEP waveforms might be clinically useful to detect unilateral abnormalities in

  14. Variability in Pretest-Posttest Correlation Coefficients by Student Achievement Level. NCEE 2011-4033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Russell; Haimson, Joshua; Perez-Johnson, Irma; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    State assessments are increasingly used as outcome measures for education evaluations. The scaling of state assessments produces variability in measurement error, with the conditional standard error of measurement increasing as average student ability moves toward the tails of the achievement distribution. This report examines the variability in…

  15. Correlation Coefficient Control For A Frequency Reconfigurable Dual-Band Compact MIMO Antenna Destined For LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Buskgaard, Emil Feldborg; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we are proposing a compact design for an implementation of a two element MIMO antenna destined for LTE smart phones. The antennas are collocated at one end of the PCB to minimize antenna volume. Each element is dual-band and frequency reconfigurable using tunable capacitors...

  16. SPSS and SAS programs for comparing Pearson correlations and OLS regression coefficients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weaver, Bruce; Wuensch, Karl L

    2013-01-01

    .... To our knowledge, however, no single resource describes all of the most common tests. Furthermore, many of these tests have not yet been implemented in popular statistical software packages such as SPSS and SAS...

  17. Simultaneous Differential Polarimetric Measurements and Co-Polar Correlation Coefficient Measurement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A polarimetric Doppler weather radar system which allows measurement of linear orthogonal polarimetric variables without a switch by using simultaneous transmission...

  18. Photodissociation of HBr. 1. Electronic structure, photodissociation dynamics, and vector correlation coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Andrey G; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G; Brown, Alex

    2006-04-27

    Ab initio potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, and spin-orbit coupling matrix elements are computed for HBr. These are then used, within the framework of time-dependent quantum-mechanical wave-packet calculations, to study the photodissociation dynamics of the molecule. Total and partial integral cross sections, the branching fraction for the formation of excited-state bromine atoms Br(2P(1/2)), and the lowest order anisotropy parameters, beta, for both ground and excited-state bromine are calculated as a function of photolysis energy and compared to experimental and theoretical data determined previously. Higher order anisotropy parameters are computed for the first time for HBr and compared to recent experimental measurements. A new expression for the Re[a1(3) (parallel, perpendicular)] parameter describing coherent parallel and perpendicular production of ground-state bromine in terms of the dynamical functions is given. Although good agreement is obtained between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurements, the discrepancies are analyzed to establish how improvements might be achieved. Insight is obtained into the nonadiabatic dynamics by comparing the results of diabatic and fully adiabatic calculations.

  19. Anthropometry of Women of the U.S. Army--1977. Report Number 4. Correlation Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    758 .740 .719 .7L.4 o670 330 BICEPS CIRC, FLXD .777 ,780 .718 o698 o693 .725 &578 ,788 34C ELBOW CIRCO FLXD ,596 o579 e487 e512 e494 .522 .534 ,645 35C...486 32C ARM CIRC AT SCYE .(72 .363 .440 .679 .693 .625 .242 .364 33C BICEPS CIRCo FLXD .122 .377 .’*27 .653 .68C .669 .145 .289 340 ELBOW CIRC, FLXO...339 340 ELBOW CIRCO FLXD .381 .562 .578 .440 .467 .491 .5o5 .429 350 FOREARM CIRCO FLXD o291 .584 ,618 .357 .411 .416 .560 .445 40 TABLE 2 CONTINUED

  20. A study on correlation coefficients between fatty acids in the meat of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... tissues were removed and stored in a deep freezer at −20°C until use. Fatty acid profile determination. Total lipids were extracted from ingredients according ... The data sets of completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 8 chickens as replicate were compared in the treatments using the one-way ...