WorldWideScience

Sample records for rank states reflect

  1. Ranking Baltic States Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using the h-index and the total number of citations, the best 10 Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian researchers from several disciplines are ranked. The list may be formed based on the h-index and the total number of citations, given in Web of Science, Scopus, Publish or Perish Program and Google Scholar database. Data for the first 10 researchers are presented. Google Scholar is the most complete. Therefore, to define a single indicator, h-index calculated by Google Scholar may be a good and simple one. The author chooses the Google Scholar database as it is the broadest one.

  2. Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluka N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study lies in the acute need to modernise the tools for a more accurate and comparable reflection of the demographic reality of spatial objects of different scales. This article aims to test the methods of “demographic rankings” developed by Yermakov and Shmakov. The method is based on the principles of indirect standardisation of the major demographic coefficients relative to the age structure.The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic development trends and the persistence of wide territorial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country consolidation at the level of averaged values and mortality (polarisation rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background. The study confirmed the validity of the demographic ranking method, which can be instrumental in solving not only scientific but also practical tasks, including those in the field of demographic and social policy.

  3. 10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State ranking of grant applications. 455.131 Section 455... State ranking of grant applications. (a) Except as provided by § 455.92 of this part, all eligible... audit or energy use evaluation pursuant to § 455.20(k). Each State shall develop separate rankings for...

  4. Tensor rank of the tripartite state |W>xn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Nengkun; Guo Cheng; Duan Runyao; Chitambar, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Tensor rank refers to the number of product states needed to express a given multipartite quantum state. Its nonadditivity as an entanglement measure has recently been observed. In this Brief Report, we estimate the tensor rank of multiple copies of the tripartite state |W>=(1/√(3))(|100>+|010>+|001>). Both an upper bound and a lower bound of this rank are derived. In particular, it is proven that the rank of |W> x 2 is 7, thus resolving a previously open problem. Some implications of this result are discussed in terms of transformation rates between |W> xn and multiple copies of the state |GHZ>=(1/√(2))(|000>+|111>).

  5. Separability problem for multipartite states of rank at most 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Đoković, Dragomir Ž

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important problems in quantum information is the separability problem, which asks whether a given quantum state is separable. We investigate multipartite states of rank at most 4 which are PPT (i.e., all their partial transposes are positive semidefinite). We show that any PPT state of rank 2 or 3 is separable and has length at most 4. For separable states of rank 4, we show that they have length at most 6. It is six only for some qubit–qutrit or multiqubit states. It turns out that any PPT entangled state of rank 4 is necessarily supported on a 3⊗3 or a 2⊗2⊗2 subsystem. We obtain a very simple criterion for the separability problem of the PPT states of rank at most 4: such a state is entangled if and only if its range contains no product vectors. This criterion can be easily applied since a four-dimensional subspace in the 3⊗3 or 2⊗2⊗2 system contains a product vector if and only if its Plücker coordinates satisfy a homogeneous polynomial equation (the Chow form of the corresponding Segre variety). We have computed an explicit determinantal expression for the Chow form in the former case, while such an expression was already known in the latter case. (paper)

  6. Effect of State-Specific Factors on Acquisition Path Ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, A.; Nemeth, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ''directed graph analysis'' has been shown to be a promising methodology to implement acquisition path analysis by the IAEA to support the State evaluation process. Based on this methodology a material flow network model has been developed under the Hungarian Support Programme to the IAEA, in which materials in different chemical and physical form can flow through pipes representing declared processes, material transports, diversions or undeclared processes. The ranking of the resulting acquisition paths of the analysis is a key step to facilitate the determination of technical objectives and the planning of safeguards implementation on State-level. These are determined by the attributes of the processes included into the graph and different state-specific factors. In this paper different set of attributes, State-specific factors and their functional combination will be tested for hypothetical case studies. (author)

  7. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    in the overall schooling distribution both over time and among population groups defined by race and gender.METHODS & DATA: To analyze educational rank mobility, I use quantile transition matrices known from studies on intergenerational income mobility. However, because schooling distributions are quite lumpy......, particularly around 12 and 16 years of schooling, percentile ranks of interest may not always be defined among parents or offspring (e.g., the lower or upper quartile may not be given by the data). To deal with this issue, I use a cohort-adjustment that deflates the schooling distribution in proportion...... performance of historically disadvantaged groups. To reconcile these diverging trends, I propose examining educational mobility in terms of percentile ranks in the respective schooling distributions of parents and offspring. Using a novel estimator of educational rank, I compare patterns of mobility...

  8. The tensor rank of tensor product of two three-qubit W states is eight

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lin; Friedland, Shmuel

    2017-01-01

    We show that the tensor rank of tensor product of two three-qubit W states is not less than eight. Combining this result with the recent result of M. Christandl, A. K. Jensen, and J. Zuiddam that the tensor rank of tensor product of two three-qubit W states is at most eight, we deduce that the tensor rank of tensor product of two three-qubit W states is eight. We also construct the upper bound of the tensor rank of tensor product of many three-qubit W states.

  9. Rankings & Estimates: Rankings of the States 2016 and Estimates of School Statistics 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this combined report provide facts about the extent to which local, state, and national governments commit resources to public education. NEA Research offers this report to its state and local affiliates as well as to researchers, policymakers, and the public as a tool to examine public education policies, programs, and…

  10. Teaching in the States: Salary and beyond Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gregory J.; McCreary, John J.

    2018-01-01

    This report investigates factors relevant to choosing locations conducive to both attainment and maintenance of a teaching career. In addition to salary and cost of living, the investigators compiled and ranked variables related to family, such as parental income and education, and differences in political structures that affect careers in…

  11. Measuring up to the Model: A Ranking of State Public Charter School Laws. Ninth Annual Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Todd; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2018-01-01

    This ninth edition of "Measuring up to the Model: A Ranking of State Charter School Laws" presents the latest activity in charter public school legislation across the country. For the second year in a row, the 2018 rankings measure each state's charter school law against the National Alliance's updated model charter school law, "New…

  12. Transcriptome States Reflect Imaging of Aging States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, D Mark; Coletta, Christopher E; Orlov, Nikita V; Wilson, Mark A; Iser, Wendy; Bastian, Paul; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yonqing; Becker, Kevin G; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2018-06-14

    In this study, we describe a morphological biomarker that detects multiple discrete subpopulations (or "age-states") at several chronological ages in a population of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). We determined the frequencies of three healthy adult states and the timing of the transitions between them across the lifespan. We used short-lived and long-lived strains to confirm the general applicability of the state classifier and to monitor state progression. This exploration revealed healthy and unhealthy states, the former being favored in long-lived strains and the latter showing delayed onset. Short-lived strains rapidly transitioned through the putative healthy state. We previously found that age-matched animals in different age-states have distinct transcriptome profiles. We isolated animals at the beginning and end of each identified state and performed microarray analysis (principal component analysis, relative sample to sample distance measurements, and gene set enrichment analysis). In some comparisons, chronologically identical individuals were farther apart than morphologically identical individuals isolated on different days. The age-state biomarker allowed assessment of aging in a novel manner, complementary to chronological age progression. We found hsp70 and some small heat shock protein genes are expressed later in adulthood, consistent with the proteostasis collapse model.

  13. Relationships between nurse- and physician-to-population ratios and state health rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, Jeri L

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between nurse-to-population ratios and population health, as indicated by state health ranking, and to compare the findings with physician-to-population ratios. Secondary analysis correlational design. The sample consisted of all 50 states in the United States. Data sources included the United Health Foundation's 2006 state health rankings, the 2004 National Sample Survey for Registered Nurses, and the U.S. Health Workforce Profile from the New York Center for Health Workforce Studies. Significant relationships between nurse-to-population ratio and overall state health ranking (rho=-.446, p tf?>=.001) and 11 of the 18 components of that ranking were found. Significant components included motor vehicle death rate, high school graduation rate, violent crime rate, infectious disease rate, percentage of children in poverty, percentage of uninsured residents, immunization rate, adequacy of prenatal care, number of poor mental health days, number of poor physical health days, and premature death rate, with higher nurse-to-population ratios associated with higher health rankings. Specialty (public health and school) nurse-to-population ratios were not as strongly related to state health ranking. Physician-to-population ratios were also significantly related to state health ranking, but were associated with different components than nurses. These findings suggest that greater nurses per capita may be uniquely associated with healthier communities; however, further multivariate research is needed.

  14. Reflective self-awareness and conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Nowak, Markus; Lou, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown precuneus, angular gyri, anterior cingulate gyri, and adjacent structures to be highly metabolically active in support of resting consciousness. We hypothesize that these regions constitute a functional network of reflective self-awareness thought to be a core...... function of consciousness. Seven normal volunteers were asked to think intensely on how they would describe the personality traits and physical appearance of themselves and a neutral reference person known to all the subjects (the Danish Queen). During each of the four conditions cerebral blood flow...... during reflective self-awareness. The commonality between the neural networks of the resting conscious state and self-awareness reflects the phenomenological concept of a fundamental contribution of reflective self-awareness to the contents and coherence of the conscious state....

  15. RANKING THE WEB VISIBILITY OF ROMANIAN STATE UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin MAICAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New technologies based on the Internet offer to scientists the possibility of finding scientific information faster, allowing academic institutions to provide more resources to improve their presence on the Internet. We believe that the Internet offers the possibility of publishing but also it represents a support in scientific communication, making the performance of the universities or research centers to be better reflected. The Internet enables collaboration and dissemination of scientific information very quickly, in large areas, managing penetration of education and research in developing countries at very low cost, also enhancing the social role of scientists. Publication of scientific information through traditional methods (books, magazines, collections of articles, etc. is far surpassed by electronic publishing since online offers the most cost effective way to boost academic missions of teaching, research or technology transfer.

  16. Low-rank extremal positive-partial-transpose states and unextendible product bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Sollid, Per Oyvind; Myrheim, Jan

    2010-01-01

    It is known how to construct, in a bipartite quantum system, a unique low-rank entangled mixed state with positive partial transpose (a PPT state) from an unextendible product basis (UPB), defined as an unextendible set of orthogonal product vectors. We point out that a state constructed in this way belongs to a continuous family of entangled PPT states of the same rank, all related by nonsingular unitary or nonunitary product transformations. The characteristic property of a state ρ in such a family is that its kernel Ker ρ has a generalized UPB, a basis of product vectors, not necessarily orthogonal, with no product vector in Im ρ, the orthogonal complement of Ker ρ. The generalized UPB in Ker ρ has the special property that it can be transformed to orthogonal form by a product transformation. In the case of a system of dimension 3x3, we give a complete parametrization of orthogonal UPBs. This is then a parametrization of families of rank 4 entangled (and extremal) PPT states, and we present strong numerical evidence that it is a complete classification of such states. We speculate that the lowest rank entangled and extremal PPT states also in higher dimensions are related to generalized, nonorthogonal UPBs in similar ways.

  17. State-Independent Proof of Kochen—Specker Theorem with Thirty Rank-Two Projectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Kochen—Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable theories are incompatible with quantum mechanics. We provide a state-independent proof of the Kochen—Specker theorem using the smallest number of projectors, i.e., thirty rank-2 projectors, associated with the Mermin pentagram for a three-qubit system

  18. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Leggett, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it

  19. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  20. Entropic Movement Complexity Reflects Subjective Creativity Rankings of Visualized Hand Motion Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that human motion trajectories can be characterized by translating continuous trajectories into symbol sequences with well-defined complexity measures. Here we test the hypothesis that the motion complexity individuals generate in their movements might be correlated to the degree of creativity assigned by a human observer to the visualized motion trajectories. We asked participants to generate 55 novel hand movement patterns in virtual reality, where each pattern had to be repeated 10 times in a row to ensure reproducibility. This allowed us to estimate a probability distribution over trajectories for each pattern. We assessed motion complexity not only by the previously proposed complexity measures on symbolic sequences, but we also propose two novel complexity measures that can be directly applied to the distributions over trajectories based on the frameworks of Gaussian Processes and Probabilistic Movement Primitives. In contrast to previous studies, these new methods allow computing complexities of individual motion patterns from very few sample trajectories. We compared the different complexity measures to how a group of independent jurors rank ordered the recorded motion trajectories according to their personal creativity judgment. We found three entropic complexity measures that correlate significantly with human creativity judgment and discuss differences between the measures. We also test whether these complexity measures correlate with individual creativity in divergent thinking tasks, but do not find any consistent correlation. Our results suggest that entropic complexity measures of hand motion may reveal domain-specific individual differences in kinesthetic creativity. PMID:26733896

  1. Teleportation is necessary for faithful quantum state transfer through noisy channels of maximal rank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Raffaele; Loock, Peter van

    2010-01-01

    Quantum teleportation enables deterministic and faithful transmission of quantum states, provided a maximally entangled state is preshared between sender and receiver, and a one-way classical channel is available. Here, we prove that these resources are not only sufficient, but also necessary, for deterministically and faithfully sending quantum states through any fixed noisy channel of maximal rank, when a single use of the cannel is admitted. In other words, for this family of channels, there are no other protocols, based on different (and possibly cheaper) sets of resources, capable of replacing quantum teleportation.

  2. Health Risk Ranking of Lead Contaminated Sites in Bagega Community, Zamfara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaba Olanreaju Clement

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The release of lead dust during the processing of lead-gold ore has become an environmental threat. Therefore the protection of miners’ health and their environment required remediation which can be achieved by ranking the risk posed by lead in order to prioritize the allocation of resources during remediation. Methods: Soil and water samples were collected at BRC, BRG, BVC, BPA and BFA; BWE, BBH and BPO using stratified random and grab sampling methods. Lead concentrations in the samples were determined using AAS while health risk index (HRI via ingestion was estimated using USEPA equations. The ranking of HRI was done using Detailed Quantitative Risk Assessment while the difference between the HRI and USEPA standard were determined using one sample t test. Results: The result showed that BRC/10, BRG/03, BVC/11, BPA/02 and BFA/08 were ranked highest in soil samples, while BWE/02, BBH/09 and BPO/04 were ranked highest in water samples as they posed elevated health risk effects to miners. One sample t test established that the BRC, BPA, BFA and BPO were significantly different from United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA standard. Conclusion: The study discovered that the users of both the lead contaminated soil and water were seriously exposed to potential health risk. It therefore suggested that decision makers should give priority in allocating resources to those sites with elevated lead concentrations during the remediation.

  3. Neural modelling of ranking data with an application to stated preference data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Krier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although neural networks are commonly encountered to solve classification problems, ranking data present specificities which require adapting the model. Based on a latent utility function defined on the characteristics of the objects to be ranked, the approach suggested in this paper leads to a perceptron-based algorithm for a highly non linear model. Data on stated preferences obtained through a survey by face-to-face interviews, in the field of freight transport, are used to illustrate the method. Numerical difficulties are pinpointed and a Pocket type algorithm is shown to provide an efficient heuristic to minimize the discrete error criterion. A substantial merit of this approach is to provide a workable estimation of contextually interpretable parameters along with a statistical evaluation of the goodness of fit.

  4. Low-rank Kalman filtering for efficient state estimation of subsurface advective contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2012-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of the movement of contaminants in porous media is essential to track their trajectory and later extract them from the aquifer. A two-dimensional flow model is implemented and then applied on a linear contaminant transport model in the same porous medium. Because of different sources of uncertainties, this coupled model might not be able to accurately track the contaminant state. Incorporating observations through the process of data assimilation can guide the model toward the true trajectory of the system. The Kalman filter (KF), or its nonlinear invariants, can be used to tackle this problem. To overcome the prohibitive computational cost of the KF, the singular evolutive Kalman filter (SEKF) and the singular fixed Kalman filter (SFKF) are used, which are variants of the KF operating with low-rank covariance matrices. Experimental results suggest that under perfect and imperfect model setups, the low-rank filters can provide estimates as accurate as the full KF but at much lower computational effort. Low-rank filters are demonstrated to significantly reduce the computational effort of the KF to almost 3%. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  5. Identification and ranking of the risk factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of processing and storage technologies and the success of the Internet have made computing resources cheaper, more powerful and more available than before. This technological trend has enabled the realization of a new computing model called cloud computing. Recently, the State-Owned organizations have begun to utilize cloud computing architectures, platforms, and applications to deliver services and meet constituents’ needs. Despite all of the advantages and opportunities of cloud computing technology, there are so many risks that State-Owned organizations need to know about before their migration to cloud environment. The purpose of this study is to identify and rank the risks factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations by making use of IT experts’ opinion. Firstly, by reviewing key articles, a comprehensive list of risks factors were extracted and classified into two categories: tangible and intangible. Then, six experts were interviewed about these risks and their classifications, and 10 risks were identified. After that, process of ranking the risks was done by seeking help from 52 experts and by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. The results show that experts have identified intangible risks as the most important risks in cloud computing usage by State-Owned organizations. As the results indicate, "data confidentiality" risk has the highest place among the other risks.

  6. Reconsidering the use of rankings in the valuation of health states: a model for estimating cardinal values from ordinal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Joshua A

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In survey studies on health-state valuations, ordinal ranking exercises often are used as precursors to other elicitation methods such as the time trade-off (TTO or standard gamble, but the ranking data have not been used in deriving cardinal valuations. This study reconsiders the role of ordinal ranks in valuing health and introduces a new approach to estimate interval-scaled valuations based on aggregate ranking data. Methods Analyses were undertaken on data from a previously published general population survey study in the United Kingdom that included rankings and TTO values for hypothetical states described using the EQ-5D classification system. The EQ-5D includes five domains (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression with three possible levels on each. Rank data were analysed using a random utility model, operationalized through conditional logit regression. In the statistical model, probabilities of observed rankings were related to the latent utilities of different health states, modeled as a linear function of EQ-5D domain scores, as in previously reported EQ-5D valuation functions. Predicted valuations based on the conditional logit model were compared to observed TTO values for the 42 states in the study and to predictions based on a model estimated directly from the TTO values. Models were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between predictions and mean observations, and the root mean squared error of predictions at the individual level. Results Agreement between predicted valuations from the rank model and observed TTO values was very high, with an ICC of 0.97, only marginally lower than for predictions based on the model estimated directly from TTO values (ICC = 0.99. Individual-level errors were also comparable in the two models, with root mean squared errors of 0.503 and 0.496 for the rank-based and TTO-based predictions, respectively. Conclusions

  7. H-index and academic rank in general surgery and surgical specialties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Awais; Kalagara, Roshini; Wasif, Nabil

    2018-09-01

    H-index serves as an alternative to measure academic achievement. Our objective is to study the h-index as a measure of academic attainment in general surgery and surgical specialties. A database of all surgical programs in the United States was created. Publish or Perish software was used to determine surgeons h-index. A total of 134 hospitals and 3712 surgeons (79% male) were included. Overall, mean h-index was 14.9 ± 14.8. H-index increased linearly with academic rank: 6.8 ± 6.4 for assistant professors (n = 1557, 41.9%), 12.9 ± 9.3 for associate professors (n = 891, 24%), and 27.9 ± 17.4 for professors (n = 1170, 31.5%); P h-indices (18.7 ± 16.7 and 18.4 ± 17.6, respectively). Surgeons with additional postgraduate degrees, university affiliations and male had higher mean h-indices; P h-index and the number of publications (R2 = 0.817) and citations (R2 = 0.768). The h-index of academic surgeons correlates with academic rank and serves a potential tool to measure academic productivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Evaluation and Ranking of Children's Hospital Websites in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Ford, Eric W

    2016-08-22

    Children's hospitals are faced with the rising need for technological innovation. Their prospective health care consumers, who increasingly depend on the Web and social media for communication and consumer engagement, drive this need. As patients and family members navigate the Web presence of hospitals, it is important for these specialized organizations to present themselves and their services efficiently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the website content of children's hospitals in order to identify opportunities to improve website design and create benchmarks to judge improvement. All websites associated with a children's hospital were identified using a census list of all children's hospitals in the United States. In March of 2014, each website and its social media were evaluated using a Web crawler that provided a 5-dimensional assessment that included website accessibility, marketing, content, technology, and usability. The 5-dimensional assessment was scored on a scale ranging from 0 to 10 with positive findings rated higher on the scale. Websites were ranked by individual dimensions as well as according to their average ranking across all dimensions. Mean scores of 153 websites ranged from 5.05 to 8.23 across all 5 dimensions. Results revealed that no website scored a perfect 10 on any dimension and that room exists for meaningful improvement. Study findings allow for the establishment of baseline benchmarks for tracking future website and social media improvements and display the need for enhanced Web-based consumer engagement for children's hospitals.

  9. On the Generation of Random Ensembles of Qubits and Qutrits Computing Separability Probabilities for Fixed Rank States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khvedelidze Arsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of random mixed states is discussed, aiming for the computation of probabilistic characteristics of composite finite dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we consider the generation of random Hilbert-Schmidt and Bures ensembles of qubit and qutrit pairs and compute the corresponding probabilities to find a separable state among the states of a fixed rank.

  10. Hospital website rankings in the United States: expanding benchmarks and standards for effective consumer engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Hefner, Jennifer L; Ford, Eric W; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-02-25

    these scores, rank order calculations for the top 100 websites are presented. Additionally, a link to raw data, including AHA ID, is provided to enable researchers and practitioners the ability to further explore relationships to other dynamics in health care. This census assessment of US hospitals and their health systems provides a clear indication of the state of the sector. While stakeholder engagement is core to most discussions of the role that hospitals must play in relation to communities, management of an online presence has not been recognized as a core competency fundamental to care delivery. Yet, social media management and network engagement are skills that exist at the confluence of marketing and technical prowess. This paper presents performance guidelines evaluated against best-demonstrated practice or independent standards to facilitate improvement of the sector's use of websites and social media.

  11. Coal rank (vitrinite reflectance) data for Cretaceous/Tertiary coal measures in the Grande Cache and Hinton areas, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, W.D.; Langenberg, W.; McMechan, M.E.; Tomica, M.A.; McDougall, W.; Burchard, K.

    1996-07-01

    A total of 544 vitrinite reflectance values are reported. The outcrop locations and other pertinent data are listed. Vitrinite reflectances determined in subsurface samples from two coal exploration boreholes and 13 petroleum exploration wells are tabulated. The data have been used (in other studies) to evaluate maturation levels in potential source rocks and to assess methane potential of the coal deposits. A diskette containing the data is included. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Educators Questioning Timing of State Tests Reflecting Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    New York is ahead of most states in its work to design detailed curricula and professional development for the common core and to build brand-new tests to reflect them. What's unfolding in the Empire State as a result of that work illustrates the way the common standards can pressure changes in the education landscape, and torque the tensions…

  13. Quantitative assessments of municipal waste management systems: using different indicators to compare and rank programs in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Krista L; Tonjes, David J

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of waste management technologies and policies in the United States is to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of waste, particularly those relating to energy consumption and climate change. Performance indicators are frequently used to evaluate the environmental quality of municipal waste systems, as well as to compare and rank programs relative to each other in terms of environmental performance. However, there currently is no consensus on the best indicator for performing these environmental evaluations. The purpose of this study is to examine the common performance indicators used to assess the environmental benefits of municipal waste systems to determine if there is agreement between them regarding which system performs best environmentally. Focus is placed on how indicator selection influences comparisons between municipal waste management programs and subsequent system rankings. The waste systems of ten municipalities in the state of New York, USA, were evaluated using each common performance indicator and Spearman correlations were calculated to see if there was a significant association between system rank orderings. Analyses showed that rank orders of waste systems differ substantially when different indicators are used. Therefore, comparative system assessments based on indicators should be considered carefully, especially those intended to gauge environmental quality. Insight was also gained into specific factors which may lead to one system achieving higher rankings than another. However, despite the insufficiencies of indicators for comparative quality assessments, they do provide important information for waste managers and they can assist in evaluating internal programmatic performance and progress. To enhance these types of assessments, a framework for scoring indicators based on criteria that evaluate their utility and value for system evaluations was developed. This framework was used to construct an improved model for

  14. Probabilistic low-rank factorization accelerates tensor network simulations of critical quantum many-body ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Lucas; Tschirsich, Ferdinand; Keck, Maximilian; Plenio, Martin B.; Tamascelli, Dario; Montangero, Simone

    2018-01-01

    We provide evidence that randomized low-rank factorization is a powerful tool for the determination of the ground-state properties of low-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians through tensor network techniques. In particular, we show that randomized matrix factorization outperforms truncated singular value decomposition based on state-of-the-art deterministic routines in time-evolving block decimation (TEBD)- and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG)-style simulations, even when the system under study gets close to a phase transition: We report linear speedups in the bond or local dimension of up to 24 times in quasi-two-dimensional cylindrical systems.

  15. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  16. Rank Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Carlos

    Studies of rank distributions have been popular for decades, especially since the work of Zipf. For example, if we rank words of a given language by use frequency (most used word in English is 'the', rank 1; second most common word is 'of', rank 2), the distribution can be approximated roughly with a power law. The same applies for cities (most populated city in a country ranks first), earthquakes, metabolism, the Internet, and dozens of other phenomena. We recently proposed ``rank diversity'' to measure how ranks change in time, using the Google Books Ngram dataset. Studying six languages between 1800 and 2009, we found that the rank diversity curves of languages are universal, adjusted with a sigmoid on log-normal scale. We are studying several other datasets (sports, economies, social systems, urban systems, earthquakes, artificial life). Rank diversity seems to be universal, independently of the shape of the rank distribution. I will present our work in progress towards a general description of the features of rank change in time, along with simple models which reproduce it

  17. A Study of the Effects of Rank and Gender on Officers' Club Membership and Club Usage at U.S. Air Force Bases in the Continental United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, C

    1999-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between both officer rank and officer gender and both club membership and member usage at Air Force officers' clubs in the Continental United States (CONUS...

  18. An investigation into the relationship between pre-competition mood states, age, gender and a national ranking in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldizsár, Dóra; Soós, István; Whyte, Ian; Hamar, Pál

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between pre-competition mood state factors in gymnastics by gender, age and a national ranking. Participant-gymnasts (total n=116, male n=49, female n=67) completed a Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) one day prior to their main competition of the year. Information was also gathered from gymnasts of gender, age and a national ranking. Consistent with theoretical predictions, results confirmed that a number of pre-competition mood states differed by age with both juniors and seniors having a higher level of anger than children (p<.05 respectively). Also, seniors demonstrated higher tension than children (p<.001). However, only anger showed significant differences by gender with male gymnasts demonstrating higher levels of anger than female gymnasts (p<.05), and with international gymnasts registering higher levels of anger compared with second class gymnasts (p<.05). Authors suggest that future research should investigate relationships between the pre-competition mood in other gymnastics-related disciplines and sports, as well as competitive performances.

  19. Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveleigh Douglas E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol. This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis. Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did

  20. Multiplex PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  1. Multiplex PageRank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Halu

    Full Text Available Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  2. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Testing University Rankings Statistically: Why this Perhaps is not such a Good Idea after All. Some Reflections on Statistical Power, Effect Size, Random Sampling and Imaginary Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and question the use of statistical significance tests in relation to university rankings as recently suggested. We outline the assumptions behind and interpretations of statistical significance tests and relate this to examples from the recent SCImago Institutions Rankin...

  5. University Rankings: The Web Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguillo, Isidro F.

    2012-01-01

    The publication in 2003 of the Ranking of Universities by Jiao Tong University of Shanghai has revolutionized not only academic studies on Higher Education, but has also had an important impact on the national policies and the individual strategies of the sector. The work gathers the main characteristics of this and other global university…

  6. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  7. Bipolar mood state reflected in cortico-amygdala resting state connectivity: A cohort and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Roscoe O; Margolis, Allison; Masters, Grace A; Keshavan, Matcheri; Öngür, Dost

    2017-08-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we previously compared cohorts of bipolar I subjects in a manic state to those in a euthymic state to identify mood state-specific patterns of cortico-amygdala connectivity. Our results suggested that mania is reflected in the disruption of emotion regulation circuits. We sought to replicate this finding in a group of subjects with bipolar disorder imaged longitudinally across states of mania and euthymia METHODS: We divided our subjects into three groups: 26 subjects imaged in a manic state, 21 subjects imaged in a euthymic state, and 10 subjects imaged longitudinally across both mood states. We measured differences in amygdala connectivity between the mania and euthymia cohorts. We then used these regions of altered connectivity to examine connectivity in the longitudinal bipolar group using a within-subjects design. Our findings in the mania vs euthymia cohort comparison were replicated in the longitudinal analysis. Bipolar mania was differentiated from euthymia by decreased connectivity between the amygdala and pre-genual anterior cingulate cortex. Mania was also characterized by increased connectivity between amygdala and the supplemental motor area, a region normally anti-correlated to the amygdala in emotion regulation tasks. Stringent controls for movement effects limited the number of subjects in the longitudinal sample. In this first report of rsfMRI conducted longitudinally across mood states, we find that previously observed between-group differences in amygdala connectivity are also found longitudinally within subjects. These results suggest resting state cortico-amygdala connectivity is a biomarker of mood state in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs

  9. Dopamine reward prediction errors reflect hidden state inference across time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Clara Kwon; Babayan, Benedicte M.; Uchida, Naoshige; Gershman, Samuel J.

    2017-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons signal reward prediction error (RPE), or actual minus expected reward. The temporal difference (TD) learning model has been a cornerstone in understanding how dopamine RPEs could drive associative learning. Classically, TD learning imparts value to features that serially track elapsed time relative to observable stimuli. In the real world, however, sensory stimuli provide ambiguous information about the hidden state of the environment, leading to the proposal that TD learning might instead compute a value signal based on an inferred distribution of hidden states (a ‘belief state’). In this work, we asked whether dopaminergic signaling supports a TD learning framework that operates over hidden states. We found that dopamine signaling exhibited a striking difference between two tasks that differed only with respect to whether reward was delivered deterministically. Our results favor an associative learning rule that combines cached values with hidden state inference. PMID:28263301

  10. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Zander, Thorsten O.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    2015-01-01

    What can we learn from spontaneously occurring brain and other physiological signals about an individual’s cognitive and affective state and how can we make use of this information? One line of research that is actively involved with this question is Passive Brain-Computer-Interfaces (BCI). To date

  11. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  12. Risk assessment and ranking methodologies for hazardous chemical defense waste: a state-of-the-art review and evaluation. Task 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Rodricks, J.V.; St Hilaire, C.; Bras, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under Task 1 of the Risk Assessment Evaluation Task under the Hazardous Chemical Defense Waste Management Program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of Task 1 was to identify, review, and evaluate the state-of-the-art tools and techniques available for ranking and evaluating disposal facilities. These tools were evaluated for their applicability to DOE's mixed hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites. Various ranking methodologies were reviewed and three were evaluated in detail. Areas that were found to be deficient in each ranking methodology were presented in the report. Recommendations were given for the development of an improved ranking methodology for use on DOE's sites. A literature review was then performed on the various components of a risk assessment methodology. They include source term evaluation, geosphere transport models, exposure pathways models, dose effects models, and sensitivity/uncertainty techniques. A number of recommendations have been made in the report based on the review and evaluation for the development of a comprehensive risk assessment methodology in evaluating mixed waste disposal sites

  13. SibRank: Signed bipartite network analysis for neighbor-based collaborative ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Bita; Haratizadeh, Saman

    2016-09-01

    Collaborative ranking is an emerging field of recommender systems that utilizes users' preference data rather than rating values. Unfortunately, neighbor-based collaborative ranking has gained little attention despite its more flexibility and justifiability. This paper proposes a novel framework, called SibRank that seeks to improve the state of the art neighbor-based collaborative ranking methods. SibRank represents users' preferences as a signed bipartite network, and finds similar users, through a novel personalized ranking algorithm in signed networks.

  14. Mapping Contemporary Terrorism Courses at Top-Ranked National Universities and Liberal Arts Colleges in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Sascha Sheehan

    2012-01-01

    Most of the scholarly work on Terrorism Studies focuses on terrorism research (knowledge production). By contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to teaching about terrorism (knowledge dissemination) at universities. This paper addresses this gap by providing a systematic analysis of contemporary terrorism courses at 106 top-ranked U.S. based universities and colleges. The study uses 1) key word searches of course catalogues for the academic year 2010-2011 to identify terrorism cou...

  15. 1991 Acceptance priority ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High- Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) that the Department of Energy (DOE) has executed with the owners and generators of civilian spent nuclear fuel requires annual publication of the Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR). The 1991 APR details the order in which DOE will allocate Federal waste acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the ranking is based on the age of permanently discharged spent nuclear fuel (SNF), with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. the 1991 APR will be the basis for the annual allocation of waste acceptance capacity to the Purchasers in the 1991 Annual Capacity Report (ACR), to be issued later this year. This document is based on SNF discharges as of December 31, 1990, and reflects Purchaser comments and corrections, as appropriate, to the draft APR issued on May 15, 1991

  16. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  17. Research Productivity and Rankings of Anesthesiology Departments in Canada and the United States: The Relationship Between the h-Index and Other Common Metrics [RETRACTED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Alexandra C; Alavifard, Sepand; Walker, Benjamin; Miller, Donald R; Ramsay, Tim; Boet, Sylvain

    2018-03-05

    To evaluate the relative research productivity and ranking of anesthesiology departments in Canada and the United States, using the Hirsch index (h-index) and 4 other previously validated metrics. We identified 150 anesthesiology departments in Canada and the United States with an accredited residency program. Publications for each of the 150 departments were identified using Thomson's Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science, and the citation report for each department was exported. The bibliometric data were used to calculate publication metrics for 3 time periods: cumulative (1945-2014), 10 years (2005-2014), and 5 years (2010-2014). The following group metrics were then used to determine the publication impact and relative ranking of all 150 departments: h-index, m-index, total number of publications, sum of citations, and average number of citations per article. Ranking for each metric were also stratified by using a proxy for departmental size. The most common journals in which US and Canadian anesthesiology departments publish their work were identified. The majority (23 of the top 25) of top-ranked anesthesiology departments are in the United States, and 2 of the top 25 departments (University of Toronto; McGill University) are in Canada. There was a strong positive relationship between each of h-index, total number of publications, and the sum of citations (0.91-0.97; P productivity on most metrics. The most frequent journals in which US and Canadian anesthesiology departments publish are Anesthesiology, Anesthesia and Analgesia, and the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. Our study ranked the Canadian and US anesthesiology departmental research productivity using the h-index applied to each department, total number of publications, total number of citations, and average number of citations. The strong relationship between the h-index and both the number of publications and number of citations of anesthesiology departments shows that the departments

  18. Freudenthal ranks: GHZ versus W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L

    2013-01-01

    The Hilbert space of three-qubit pure states may be identified with a Freudenthal triple system. Every state has an unique Freudenthal rank ranging from 1 to 4, which is determined by a set of automorphism group covariants. It is shown here that the optimal success rates for winning a three-player non-local game, varying over all local strategies, are strictly ordered by the Freudenthal rank of the shared three-qubit resource. (paper)

  19. Os rankings na educação superior brasileira: políticas de governo ou de estado? Los rankings en la educación superior brasileña: ¿políticas de gobierno de estado? The rankings in Brazilian higher education: policies of government or state?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ignacio Calderón

    2011-12-01

    los grupos políticos que se alternaron en el poder.This article, of a theoretical approach, examines how the rankings work in the policies of Higher Education of Brazilian State, taking as a parameter four presidential terms: two mandates of the government Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995-2002, marked by the implementation of neoliberal reforms, and the other two of the government Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010, an alternative to the democratic left in Latin America in face of the neoliberal expansion. It is supported the hypothesis that after four terms and two different presidents that represent theoretically opposing political projects, the rankings, considered as strategies for stimulating competition to improve the quality of Higher Education gained technical consensus and legitimacy within the government, ceasing to be policies of specific governments to become long-term policies of the Brazilian State, above the interests of political groups that alternated in power.

  20. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

  1. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

  2. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse

  3. Andreev reflection properties in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jin-Tao; Han, Yu [Physics Department, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Gong, Wei-Jiang, E-mail: gwj@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-03-15

    We investigate the Andreev reflection in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that in such a structure, the Andreev current can be manipulated in a highly efficient way, by the adjustment of bias voltage, dot levels, inter-MBS coupling, and the applied magnetic flux. Besides, the dot-MBS coupling manner is an important factor to modulate the Andreev current, because it influences the period of the conductance oscillation. By discussing the underlying quantum interference mechanism, the Andreev-reflection property is explained in detail. We believe that all the results can assist to understand the nontrivial role of the MBSs in driving the Andreev reflection.

  4. The effect of new links on Google PageRank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Litvak, Nelli

    2004-01-01

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. We study the effect of newly created links on Google PageRank. We discuss to

  5. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...

  6. Reflection and diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves by evanescent laser waves. Bare-state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiaoping; Witte, N.S.; Hollenberg, C.L.; Opat, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two methods are presented for the investigation of the reflection and diffraction of atoms by gratings formed either by standing or travelling evanescent laser waves. Both methods use the bare-state rather than dressed-state picture. One method is based on the Born series, whereas the other is based on the Laplace transformation of the coupled differential equations. The two methods yield the same theoretical expressions for the reflected and diffracted atomic waves in the whole space including the interaction and the asymptotic regions. 1 ref., 1 fig

  7. Ranking the contributions of commercial fish and shellfish varieties to mercury exposure in the United States: implications for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Fish and shellfish have important nutritional benefits, and US per capita seafood consumption has increased substantially since 2002. Recent research has reinforced concerns about adverse effects of methylmercury exposure, suggesting that methylmercury doses associated with typical US rates of fish consumption may pose measurable risks, with no threshold. These converging trends create a need to improve risk communication about fish consumption and mercury. The analysis performed here identifies the relative importance of different fish and shellfish as sources of mercury in the US seafood supply and proposes improved consumer advice, so that the public can benefit from fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure. I have quantified contributions to total mercury in the US seafood supply by 51 different varieties of fish and shellfish, then ranked and sorted the 51 varieties in terms of relative impact. Except for swordfish, most fish with the highest mercury levels are relatively minor contributors to total inputs. Tuna (canned light, canned albacore and fresh/frozen varieties) accounts for 37.4 percent of total mercury inputs, while two-thirds of the seafood supply and nine of the 11 most heavily consumed fish and shellfish are low or very low in mercury. Substantial improvement in risk communication about mercury in fish and seafood is needed; in particular, several population subsets need better guidance to base their seafood choices more explicitly on mercury content. I have sorted the 51 seafood varieties into six categories based on mercury levels, as a framework for improving risk communication in this regard. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. General active space commutator-based coupled cluster theory of general excitation rank for electronically excited states: implementation and application to ScH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Mickaël; Olsen, Jeppe; Loras, Jessica; Fleig, Timo

    2013-11-21

    We present a new implementation of general excitation rank coupled cluster theory for electronically excited states based on the single-reference multi-reference formalism. The method may include active-space selected and/or general higher excitations by means of the general active space concept. It may employ molecular integrals over the four-component Lévy-Leblond Hamiltonian or the relativistic spin-orbit-free four-component Hamiltonian of Dyall. In an initial application to ground- and excited states of the scandium monohydride molecule we report spectroscopic constants using basis sets of up to quadruple-zeta quality and up to full iterative triple excitations in the cluster operators. Effects due to spin-orbit interaction are evaluated using two-component multi-reference configuration interaction for assessing the accuracy of the coupled cluster results.

  9. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  10. STRONGER REFLECTION FROM BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISKS IN SOFT X-RAY STATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, James F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; García, Javier A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze 15,000 spectra of 29 stellar-mass black hole (BH) candidates collected over the 16 year mission lifetime of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer using a simple phenomenological model. As these BHs vary widely in luminosity and progress through a sequence of spectral states, which we broadly refer to as hard and soft, we focus on two spectral components: the Compton power law and the reflection spectrum it generates by illuminating the accretion disk. Our proxy for the strength of reflection is the equivalent width of the Fe–K line as measured with respect to the power law. A key distinction of our work is that for all states we estimate the continuum under the line by excluding the thermal disk component and using only the component that is responsible for fluorescing the Fe–K line, namely, the Compton power law. We find that reflection is several times more pronounced (∼3) in soft compared to hard spectral states. This is most readily caused by the dilution of the Fe line amplitude from Compton scattering in the corona, which has a higher optical depth in hard states. Alternatively, this could be explained by a more compact corona in soft (compared to hard) states, which would result in a higher reflection fraction.

  11. STRONGER REFLECTION FROM BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISKS IN SOFT X-RAY STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, James F.; Remillard, Ronald A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); García, Javier A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E., E-mail: jsteiner@mit.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We analyze 15,000 spectra of 29 stellar-mass black hole (BH) candidates collected over the 16 year mission lifetime of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer using a simple phenomenological model. As these BHs vary widely in luminosity and progress through a sequence of spectral states, which we broadly refer to as hard and soft, we focus on two spectral components: the Compton power law and the reflection spectrum it generates by illuminating the accretion disk. Our proxy for the strength of reflection is the equivalent width of the Fe–K line as measured with respect to the power law. A key distinction of our work is that for all states we estimate the continuum under the line by excluding the thermal disk component and using only the component that is responsible for fluorescing the Fe–K line, namely, the Compton power law. We find that reflection is several times more pronounced (∼3) in soft compared to hard spectral states. This is most readily caused by the dilution of the Fe line amplitude from Compton scattering in the corona, which has a higher optical depth in hard states. Alternatively, this could be explained by a more compact corona in soft (compared to hard) states, which would result in a higher reflection fraction.

  12. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  13. Listening to Other Voices: A Description of Teacher Reflection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Examines reflective teaching, discussing the meaning of reflection; the origins of reflection; the popularity and importance of reflective teaching; different types of reflective teaching (technical reflection, deliberative reflection, personalistic reflection, critical reflection, and reflection-in and on-action); and how teacher educators can…

  14. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  15. Critical Reflections of Action Research Used for Professional Development in a Middle Eastern Gulf State

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Alyson

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and critically reflects on an action research project used for professional development purposes in a Middle Eastern Gulf State. The aim of the project was to improve professional development experiences for a group of in-service teacher educators, who were English as Second Language advisers. The initial discussion…

  16. Introduction to using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state (Editorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.; Zander, T.O.

    2015-01-01

    The central question of this Frontiers Research Topic is: What can we learn from brain and other physiological signals about an individual's cognitive and affective state and how can we use this information? This question reflects three important issues which are addressed by the 22 articles in this

  17. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...... changes with behavioral state in a regionally specific manner, and that overall activity increases during quiet sleep, and is even more enhanced in active sleep. PVH activation could be expected to stimulate pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and affect input to autonomic regulatory...

  18. Ranking Operations Management conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U

    2007-01-01

    Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences

  19. Ranking of Sustainability Indicators for Assessment of the New Housing Development Projects: Case of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tupenaite

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is inconceivable without healthy real estate market. A housing project can be regarded as sustainable only when all the dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, and social are dealt with. There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of the new development projects. Although international literature is rich in sustainability assessments, there are no tools developed for assessment of new residential projects in the specific context of the Baltic States. Therefore, the aim of this article is to fill this gap and to propose an integrated, hierarchically structured system of sustainability indicators to be used for assessment of the new housing development projects. This aim is achieved through accomplishing three objectives. First, based on a review of literature related to assessing building project performance and sustainable development in construction, the paper proposes an original hierarchically structured system of sustainability indicators suitable for the Baltic context. Second, based on a survey of experts, significances of criteria are estimated by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method. Finally, paper proposes recommendations to government authorities and real estate developers as to how to enhance the performance of new residential projects according to the principles of sustainability.

  20. Rankings, creatividad y urbanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUÍN SABATÉ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La competencia entre ciudades constituye uno de los factores impulsores de procesos de renovación urbana y los rankings han devenido instrumentos de medida de la calidad de las ciudades. Nos detendremos en el caso de un antiguo barrio industrial hoy en vías de transformación en distrito "creativo" por medio de una intervención urbanística de gran escala. Su análisis nos descubre tres claves críticas. En primer lugar, nos obliga a plantearnos la definición de innovación urbana y cómo se integran el pasado, la identidad y la memoria en la construcción del futuro. Nos lleva a comprender que la innovación y el conocimiento no se "dan" casualmente, sino que son el fruto de una larga y compleja red en la que participan saberes, espacios, actores e instituciones diversas en naturaleza, escala y magnitud. Por último nos obliga a reflexionar sobre el valor que se le otorga a lo local en los procesos de renovación urbana.Competition among cities constitutes one ofthe main factors o furban renewal, and rankings have become instruments to indícate cities quality. Studying the transformation of an old industrial quarter into a "creative district" by the means ofa large scale urban project we highlight three main conclusions. First, itasks us to reconsider the notion ofurban innovation and hoto past, identity and memory should intégrate the future development. Second, it shows that innovation and knowledge doesn't yield per chance, but are the result ofa large and complex grid of diverse knowledges, spaces, agents and institutions. Finally itforces us to reflect about the valué attributed to the "local" in urban renewalprocesses.

  1. Stationary bound-state massive scalar field configurations supported by spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-12-15

    It has recently been demonstrated that asymptotically flat neutral reflecting stars are characterized by an intriguing no-hair property. In particular, it has been proved that these horizonless compact objects cannot support spatially regular static matter configurations made of scalar (spin-0) fields, vector (spin-1) fields and tensor (spin-2) fields. In the present paper we shall explicitly prove that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars can support stationary (rather than static) bound-state massive scalar fields in their exterior spacetime regions. To this end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a linearized scalar field of mass μ and proper frequency ω in the curved background of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star of mass M and radius R{sub s}. It is proved that the regime of existence of these stationary composed star-field configurations is characterized by the simple inequalities 1 - 2M/R{sub s} < (ω/μ){sup 2} < 1. Interestingly, in the regime M/R{sub s} << 1 of weakly self-gravitating stars we derive a remarkably compact analytical equation for the discrete spectrum {ω(M,R_s, μ)}{sup n=∞}{sub n=1} of resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the stationary composed compact-reflecting-star-linearized-massive-scalar-field configurations. Finally, we verify the accuracy of the analytically derived resonance formula of the composed star-field configurations with direct numerical computations. (orig.)

  2. Hippocampal Theta-Gamma Coupling Reflects State-Dependent Information Processing in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Seiichiro; Redish, A David

    2018-03-20

    During decision making, hippocampal activity encodes information sometimes about present and sometimes about potential future plans. The mechanisms underlying this transition remain unknown. Building on the evidence that gamma oscillations at different frequencies (low gamma [LG], 30-55 Hz; high gamma [HG], 60-90 Hz; and epsilon, 100-140 Hz) reflect inputs from different circuits, we identified how changes in those frequencies reflect different information-processing states. Using a unique noradrenergic manipulation by clonidine, which shifted both neural representations and gamma states, we found that future representations depended on gamma components. These changes were identifiable on each cycle of theta as asymmetries in the theta cycle, which arose from changes within the ratio of LG and HG power and the underlying phases of those gamma rhythms within the theta cycle. These changes in asymmetry of the theta cycle reflected changes in representations of present and future on each theta cycle. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does resting-state connectivity reflect depressive rumination? A tale of two analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G; Misic, Bratislav; Buschkuehl, Martin; Kross, Ethan; Deldin, Patricia J; Peltier, Scott; Churchill, Nathan W; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Vakorin, Vasily; McIntosh, Anthony R; Jonides, John

    2014-12-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by rumination. Prior research suggests that resting-state brain activation reflects rumination when depressed individuals are not task engaged. However, no study has directly tested this. Here we investigated whether resting-state epochs differ from induced ruminative states for healthy and depressed individuals. Most previous research on resting-state networks comes from seed-based analyses with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). By contrast, we examined resting state connectivity by using the complete multivariate connectivity profile (i.e., connections across all brain nodes) and by comparing these results to seeded analyses. We find that unconstrained resting-state intervals differ from active rumination states in strength of connectivity and that overall connectivity was higher for healthy vs. depressed individuals. Relationships between connectivity and subjective mood (i.e., behavior) were strongly observed during induced rumination epochs. Furthermore, connectivity patterns that related to subjective mood were strikingly different for MDD and healthy control (HC) groups suggesting different mood regulation mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Riflessioni sull'attuale stato della scienza economica. (Reflections on the present state of economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. STEINDL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il documento è un contributo ad una serie di ricordi e riflessioni sulle esperienze professionali di illustri  economisti con Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review iniziatinel 1979. In esso Josef Steindl ricorda le importanti avventi in materia di economia e il proprio lavoro e la vita per riflettere sullo stato dell'economia di oggi .The paper is a contribution to a series of recollections and reflections on the professional experiences of distinguished economists which the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review started in 1979. In it Josef Steindl recalls the major advents in the field of economics and his own work and life to reflect on the state of today’s economics.JEL: B31, A11

  5. Probing spin-polarized edge state superconductivity by Andreev reflection in in-plane magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinthaler, Rolf W.; Tkachov, Grigory; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M. [Faculty of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Finding signatures of unconventional superconductivity in Quantum Spin Hall systems is one of the challenges of solid state physics. Here we induce superconductivity in a 3D topological insulator thin film to cause the formation of helical edge states, which are protected against backscattering even in finite magnetic fields. Above a critical in-plane magnetic field, which is much smaller than the critical field of typical superconductors, the quasi-particle gap closes, giving rise to energy-dependent spin polarization. In this regime the spin-polarized edge state superconductivity can be detected by Andreev reflection. We propose measurement setups to experimentally observe the spin-dependent excess current and dI/dV characteristics.

  6. How Many Alternatives Can Be Ranked? A Comparison of the Paired Comparison and Ranking Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, Minsu; Yi, Nari; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of converting ranking data into paired comparison (PC) data and suggest the number of alternatives that can be ranked by comparing a PC and a ranking method. Using a total of 222 health states, a household survey was conducted in a sample of 300 individuals from the general population. Each respondent performed a PC 15 times and a ranking method 6 times (two attempts of ranking three, four, and five health states, respectively). The health states of the PC and the ranking method were constructed to overlap each other. We converted the ranked data into PC data and examined the consistency of the response rate. Applying probit regression, we obtained the predicted probability of each method. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between the predicted probabilities of those methods. The mean absolute error was also assessed between the observed and the predicted values. The overall consistency of the response rate was 82.8%. The Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.789, 0.852, and 0.893 for ranking three, four, and five health states, respectively. The lowest mean absolute error was 0.082 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.090) in ranking five health states, followed by 0.123 (95% CI 0.111-0.135) in ranking four health states and 0.126 (95% CI 0.113-0.138) in ranking three health states. After empirically examining the consistency of the response rate between a PC and a ranking method, we suggest that using five alternatives in the ranking method may be superior to using three or four alternatives. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluctuations of Attentional Networks and Default Mode Network during the Resting State Reflect Variations in Cognitive States: Evidence from a Novel Resting-state Experience Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, Laurens; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Salmon, Eric; Peters, Frédéric; Majerus, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed the recruitment of a range of neural networks during the resting state, which might reflect a variety of cognitive experiences and processes occurring in an individual's mind. In this study, we focused on the default mode network (DMN) and attentional networks and investigated their association with distinct mental states when participants are not performing an explicit task. To investigate the range of possible cognitive experiences more directly, this study proposes a novel method of resting-state fMRI experience sampling, informed by a phenomenological investigation of the fluctuation of mental states during the resting state. We hypothesized that DMN activity would increase as a function of internal mentation and that the activity of dorsal and ventral networks would indicate states of top-down versus bottom-up attention at rest. Results showed that dorsal attention network activity fluctuated as a function of subjective reports of attentional control, providing evidence that activity of this network reflects the perceived recruitment of controlled attentional processes during spontaneous cognition. Activity of the DMN increased when participants reported to be in a subjective state of internal mentation, but not when they reported to be in a state of perception. This study provides direct evidence for a link between fluctuations of resting-state neural activity and fluctuations in specific cognitive processes.

  8. How to Rank Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W

    2016-01-01

    There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68-0.84 Spearman's ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows.

  9. On Page Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    In this paper the concept of page rank for the world wide web is discussed. The possibility of describing the distribution of page rank by an exponential law is considered. It is shown that the concept is essentially equal to that of status score, a centrality measure discussed already in 1953 by

  10. On Rank and Nullity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    This note explains how Emil Artin's proof that row rank equals column rank for a matrix with entries in a field leads naturally to the formula for the nullity of a matrix and also to an algorithm for solving any system of linear equations in any number of variables. This material could be used in any course on matrix theory or linear algebra.

  11. Hitting the Rankings Jackpot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Samford University was ranked 27th in the nation in a report released by "Forbes" magazine. In this article, the author relates how the people working at Samford University were surprised at its ranking. Although Samford is the largest privately institution in Alabama, its distinguished academic achievements aren't even…

  12. State Institutes of the Siberian Khanate and their Reflection in Archaeological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Tataurov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the state institutes of the Siberian khanate and their reflection in the archaeological materials received during archaeological studying of sites of this period. There are considered processes of a class formation and formation of the stratified society. It is based on the criteria expressed in the works by known Siberian archaeologist N.P. Matveeva. In article the assessment is given to a level of development of productive forces of the population of the state, it is pointed out value of resettlement processes and development of trade relations both in the khanate, and with the adjacent states. The special attention is paid to emergence of the cities of the khanate, their role in centralization of the power, in development of interstate and interstate means of communication, trade. There is given appreciation of fortification systems of the cities and boundary towns of the khanate and is drawn the conclusion about participation in construction of the experts invited from Central Asia. There are analyzes questions of property and social stratification and reflection of this process in a funeral ceremony. The assumption become that as additional criteria of level of statehood of the Siberian khanate can act personal markers of the power – the press, headdresses, the weapon, etc. Criterion of level of centralization of the power for the Siberian khanate is the professional army which consisted from the tatars, hired groups and a militia. Fortification systems of protection of borders of the khanate in the south of Baraby and in Tarsky Priirtyshje also point to the high level of the khan’s power. In the conclusion it is said that archaeological materials fill missing information of written sources and their attraction in historical reconstruction of the tyurko-tatar statehood is one of indispensable conditions of similar researches.

  13. 7 CFR 1491.6 - Ranking considerations and proposal selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ranking considerations and proposal selection. 1491.6... PROGRAM General Provisions § 1491.6 Ranking considerations and proposal selection. (a) Before the State.... The national ranking criteria will be established by the Chief and the State criteria will be...

  14. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

  15. ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven C.; Steckl, Andrew J.

    2007-06-01

    A phosphor-converted light-emitting diode (pcLED) luminaire featuring enhanced light extraction by internal reflection (ELiXIR) with efficacy of 60 lm/W producing 18 lumens of yellowish green light at 100 mA is presented. The luminaire consists of a commercial blue high power LED, a polymer hemispherical shell lens with interior phosphor coating, and planar aluminized reflector. High extraction efficiency of the phosphor-converted light is achieved by separating the phosphor from the LED and using internal reflection to steer the light away from lossy reflectors and the LED package and out of the device. At 10 and 500 mA, the luminaire produces 2.1 and 66 lumens with efficacies of 80 and 37 lm/W, respectively. Technological improvements over existing commercial LEDs, such as more efficient pcLED packages or, alternatively, higher efficiency green or yellow for color mixing, will be essential to achieving 150 200 lm/W solid-state lighting. Advances in both areas are demonstrated.

  16. Quantum state-resolved gas/surface reaction dynamics probed by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Li [Department of Dynamics at Surfaces, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, Goettingen (Germany); Ueta, Hirokazu; Beck, Rainer D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Moleculaire, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Bisson, Regis [Aix-Marseille Universite, PIIM, CNRS, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2013-05-15

    We report the design and characterization of a new molecular-beam/surface-science apparatus for quantum state-resolved studies of gas/surface reaction dynamics combining optical state-specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage with detection of surface-bound reaction products by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). RAIRS is a non-invasive infrared spectroscopic detection technique that enables online monitoring of the buildup of reaction products on the target surface during reactant deposition by a molecular beam. The product uptake rate obtained by calibrated RAIRS detection yields the coverage dependent state-resolved reaction probability S({theta}). Furthermore, the infrared absorption spectra of the adsorbed products obtained by the RAIRS technique provide structural information, which help to identify nascent reaction products, investigate reaction pathways, and determine branching ratios for different pathways of a chemisorption reaction. Measurements of the dissociative chemisorption of methane on Pt(111) with this new apparatus are presented to illustrate the utility of RAIRS detection for highly detailed studies of chemical reactions at the gas/surface interface.

  17. A Reflection and Comparison of Physician Training in the United States of America and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit S. Aiyer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a final year medical student at the University of Birmingham in England, I am very familiar with the training structure of physicians in the National Health Service (NHS. Recently, I had the opportunity to do 4 months of clinical electives at the University of Massachusetts in Worcester, Massachusetts and Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City, New York. This experience allowed me to gain insight on the American training system for medical student graduates that provided a new perspective on physician training. The following reflection will be based on my experiences in the two countries and focus on the working guidelines for junior doctors in the United States that is based on the Accredited Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME Duty Hours protocol, and will be compared to the European Work Time Directive (EWTD guidelines for British junior doctors.

  18. Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-06-08

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in "q-sampling" protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.

  19. A Ranking Approach to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Mathieu; Onogi, Akio; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ueda, Naonori

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a recent selective breeding method which uses predictive models based on whole-genome molecular markers. Until now, existing studies formulated GS as the problem of modeling an individual's breeding value for a particular trait of interest, i.e., as a regression problem. To assess predictive accuracy of the model, the Pearson correlation between observed and predicted trait values was used. In this paper, we propose to formulate GS as the problem of ranking individuals according to their breeding value. Our proposed framework allows us to employ machine learning methods for ranking which had previously not been considered in the GS literature. To assess ranking accuracy of a model, we introduce a new measure originating from the information retrieval literature called normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG). NDCG rewards more strongly models which assign a high rank to individuals with high breeding value. Therefore, NDCG reflects a prerequisite objective in selective breeding: accurate selection of individuals with high breeding value. We conducted a comparison of 10 existing regression methods and 3 new ranking methods on 6 datasets, consisting of 4 plant species and 25 traits. Our experimental results suggest that tree-based ensemble methods including McRank, Random Forests and Gradient Boosting Regression Trees achieve excellent ranking accuracy. RKHS regression and RankSVM also achieve good accuracy when used with an RBF kernel. Traditional regression methods such as Bayesian lasso, wBSR and BayesC were found less suitable for ranking. Pearson correlation was found to correlate poorly with NDCG. Our study suggests two important messages. First, ranking methods are a promising research direction in GS. Second, NDCG can be a useful evaluation measure for GS.

  20. Ranking as parameter estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2009), s. 142-158 ISSN 1745-7645 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2C06001; GA AV ČR 1ET100750401; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : ranking * Bayesian estimation * negotiation * modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/karny- ranking as parameter estimation.pdf

  1. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  2. Mood states of soccer players in the english leagues: reflections of an increasing workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Thatcher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the demands of the modern English competitive soccer season would be reflected in the mood states of professional soccer players. Sixty-nine male participants either activity competing in English soccer leagues or resident in England were recruited and grouped accordingly as professional soccer players, university level soccer players, Sunday league soccer players, or non-sporting controls. On three separate occasions; at the beginning, at the middle, and finally towards the end of the English soccer season, participants completed both the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire as well as a questionnaire related to their teams’ performance in addition to their perceived life stress. Results showed the POMS scores to differ over the season in relation to the groups’ standard of competition. ANOVAs demonstrated this pattern to be significant for the dependent measures of tension, depression, and confusion with significant group by time interactions (95% level of confidence. At the outset of the season professionals had the most positive POMS profile, however, as the season progressed they showed the greatest change towards a negative profile. These results indicate that English soccer is placing professional players at a predisposition of demonstrating POMS commensurate with negative adaptation to training, having important implications for their long-term performance and health.

  3. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  4. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  5. Monte Carlo methods in PageRank computation: When one iteration is sufficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli; Nemirovsky, D.; Osipova, N.

    2005-01-01

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. Google computes the PageRank using the power iteration method which requires

  6. Monte Carlo methods in PageRank computation: When one iteration is sufficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli; Nemirovsky, D.; Osipova, N.

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer, and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. Google computes the PageRank using the power iteration method, which requires

  7. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  8. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  9. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  10. Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

  11. 46 CFR 282.11 - Ranking of flags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ranking of flags. 282.11 Section 282.11 Shipping... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Foreign-Flag Competition § 282.11 Ranking of flags. The operators under each... priority of costs which are representative of the flag. For liner cargo vessels, the ranking of operators...

  12. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f i ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  13. REFLECTIONS ON BEHAVIORAL CRISES PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland PAULAUSKAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of civilization made crises an inseparable part of our lives. Crises manifest themselves in almost all social areas and organizations, including educational institutions. The goals of the article are to present a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behaviors, and discuss the psycho-social characteristics of emotionally disturbed adolescents situated in a residential special education school in the United States. The article also gives an analysis of their most prevalent behavioral crises, escalation stages, as well as nonviolent crisis prevention and intervention strategies. The methods that were used include scientific literature review, analysis of statistical information supplied from different government sources, review and analysis of student records, as well as the author’s analytical reflections in working with emotionally disturbed youngsters in residential special education schools in the United States.The results of the study indicate that scientists from different fields use different terminology to describe socially nonconforming behaviors. The author presents a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behavior that could enhance better understanding and identification of high risk situations and conduct leading to serious crises. The analysis of student records revealed that most of the adolescents situated in special education residential schools are diagnosed with a number of mental health problems. This suggests that the currently prevailing care and education paradigm in the special education residential schools should shift to a more comprehensive treatment paradigm. The article also discusses the pros and cons of nonviolent crisis intervention. It is the author’s opinion that all special education schools serving children with emotional disorders should adopt one of the nonviolent crisis intervention models and develop and implement crisis management policies, plans and procedures.

  14. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f {sub i} ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  15. Reflection states in Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and brane-web for D-type quiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgine, J.-E.; Fukuda, M.; Matsuo, Y.; Zhu, R.-D.

    2017-12-01

    Reflection states are introduced in the vertical and horizontal modules of the Ding-Iohara-Miki (DIM) algebra (quantum toroidal gl_1 ). Webs of DIM representations are in correspondence with ( p, q)-web diagrams of type IIB string theory, under the identification of the algebraic intertwiner of Awata, Feigin and Shiraishi with the refined topological vertex. Extending the correspondence to the vertical reflection states, it is possible to engineer the N=1 quiver gauge theory of D-type (with unitary gauge groups). In this way, the Nekrasov instanton partition function is reproduced from the evaluation of expectation values of intertwiners. This computation leads to the identification of the vertical reflection state with the orientifold plane of string theory. We also provide a translation of this construction in the Iqbal-Kozcaz-Vafa refined topological vertex formalism.

  16. Diversifying customer review rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima

    2015-06-01

    E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. College Rankings. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Tamara

    The popularity of college ranking surveys published by "U.S. News and World Report" and other magazines is indisputable, but the methodologies used to measure the quality of higher education institutions have come under fire by scholars and college officials. Criticisms have focused on methodological flaws, such as failure to consider…

  18. OutRank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Steinhausen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Outlier detection is an important data mining task for consistency checks, fraud detection, etc. Binary decision making on whether or not an object is an outlier is not appropriate in many applications and moreover hard to parametrize. Thus, recently, methods for outlier ranking have been proposed...

  19. Improving Ranking Using Quantum Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Melucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows that ranking information units by quantum probability differs from ranking them by classical probability provided the same data used for parameter estimation. As probability of detection (also known as recall or power) and probability of false alarm (also known as fallout or size) measure the quality of ranking, we point out and show that ranking by quantum probability yields higher probability of detection than ranking by classical probability provided a given probability of ...

  20. Overall and class-specific scores of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables as a tool to rank intake of pesticide residues in United States: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Chiu, Yu-Han; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend trend trend 0.07) for the OC-PRBS. The PRBS and OP-PRBS had similar performance when they were derived from fruits and vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Graded Reflectivity Mirror for the Solid State Heat Capacity Laser Final Report CRADA No. TC-2085-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This was a collaborative effort between The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Boeing Company, to develop a Graded Reflectivity Mirror (GRM) to achieve improved near field fill and higher brightness in the far field output of LLNL’s Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL).

  2. The Reflection Component from Cygnus X-1 in the Soft State Measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomsick, John A.; Nowak, Michael A.; Parker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late-2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ~1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power-law, and reflection components along...

  3. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  4. Theory of the Andreev reflection and the density of states in proximity contact normal-superconducting infinite double-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagato, Yasushi; Nagai, Katsuhiko

    1993-01-01

    Proximity contact N-S double-layer with infinite layer widths is studied in the clean limit. The finite reflection at the interface is taken into account. Starting from a recent theory of finite width double-layer by Ashida et al., the authors obtain explicit expressions for the quasi-classical Green's function which already satisfy the boundary condition and include no exploding terms at infinities. The self-consistent pair potentials are obtained numerically with sufficient accuracy. The Andreev reflection at the N-S interface is discussed on the basis of the self-consistent pair potential. It is shown that there exists a resonance state in a potential valley formed between the depressed pair potential and the partially reflecting interface, which leads to a peak of the Andreev reflection coefficient with the height unity slightly below the bulk superconductor energy gap. They also find general relationship between the Andreev reflection coefficient and the local density of states of the superconductor just at the interface

  5. Multidimensional ranking the design and development of U-Multirank

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegele, Frank

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades ranking has become one of the most controversial issues in higher education and research. It is widely recognized now that, although some of the current rankings can be severely criticized, they seem to be here to stay. In addition, rankings appear to have a great impact on decision-makers at all levels of higher education and research systems worldwide, including in universities. Rankings reflect a growing international competition among universities for talent and resources; at the same time they reinforce competition by their very results. Yet major concerns remain a

  6. Two Ranking Methods of Single Valued Triangular Neutrosophic Numbers to Rank and Evaluate Information Systems Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Ibrahim Abdel Aal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of neutrosophic can provide a generalization of fuzzy set and intuitionistic fuzzy set that make it is the best fit in representing indeterminacy and uncertainty. Single Valued Triangular Numbers (SVTrN-numbers is a special case of neutrosophic set that can handle ill-known quantity very difficult problems. This work intended to introduce a framework with two types of ranking methods. The results indicated that each ranking method has its own advantage. In this perspective, the weighted value and ambiguity based method gives more attention to uncertainty in ranking and evaluating ISQ as well as it takes into account cut sets of SVTrN numbers that can reflect the information on Truth-membership-membership degree, false membership-membership degree and Indeterminacy-membership degree. The value index and ambiguity index method can reflect the decision maker's subjectivity attitude to the SVTrN- numbers.

  7. Fourth-rank cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrakchi, A.E.L.; Tapia, V.

    1992-05-01

    Some cosmological implications of the recently proposed fourth-rank theory of gravitation are studied. The model exhibits the possibility of being free from the horizon and flatness problems at the price of introducing a negative pressure. The field equations we obtain are compatible with k obs =0 and Ω obs t clas approx. 10 20 t Planck approx. 10 -23 s. When interpreted at the light of General Relativity the treatment is shown to be almost equivalent to that of the standard model of cosmology combined with the inflationary scenario. Hence, an interpretation of the negative pressure hypothesis is provided. (author). 8 refs

  8. University Rankings and Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Marginson, S.

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real outputs are of no common value. It is necessary that rankings be soundly based in scientific terms if a virtuous relationship between performance and...

  9. University Rankings and Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  10. Do changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect trait or state changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) has become an important and commonly used instrument to assess personality functioning. Several studies report significant changes on MCMI personality disorder scales after psychological treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre......-post-treatment changes in 39-session psychodynamic group psychotherapy as measured with the MCMI reflect real personality change or primarily reflect symptomatic state changes. Pre-post-treatment design included 236 psychotherapy outpatients. Personality changes were measured on the MCMI-II and symptomatic state changes...... on the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The MCMI Schizoid, Avoidant, Self-defeating, and severe personality disorder scales revealed substantial changes, which could be predicted from changes on SCL-90-R global symptomatology (GSI) and on the SCL-90-R Depression scale. The MCMI Dependent personality score...

  11. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Mathewson PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood.

  12. Trajectory effects in the negative charge-state fraction of 3He and 4He reflected from a sodium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.J.; Eckstein, W.; Verbeek, H.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of the positive and negative charge-state fractions of He reflected from a sodium target with incident energies in the range of 1.75 keV/nucleon to 5 keV/nucleon are presented. The exit angle of the particles was held constant at 75 0 from the surface normal, while the incident angle was varied from 0 0 (normal incidence) to 75 0 . The positive charge-state fractions exhibited no incident-angle or incident-energy dependence and dependend only upon the exit energy. For normal incidence, the negative charge-state fractions were also only dependent upon the exit energy. However, for glancing incidence, the negative charge-state fractions were incident- and exit-energy dependent. These results are compared to previous results for D [1] and are discussed in terms of the trajectory-dependent formation probability of the negative ions. (orig.)

  13. Fractional cointegration rank estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasak, Katarzyna; Velasco, Carlos

    the parameters of the model under the null hypothesis of the cointegration rank r = 1, 2, ..., p-1. This step provides consistent estimates of the cointegration degree, the cointegration vectors, the speed of adjustment to the equilibrium parameters and the common trends. In the second step we carry out a sup......-likelihood ratio test of no-cointegration on the estimated p - r common trends that are not cointegrated under the null. The cointegration degree is re-estimated in the second step to allow for new cointegration relationships with different memory. We augment the error correction model in the second step...... to control for stochastic trend estimation effects from the first step. The critical values of the tests proposed depend only on the number of common trends under the null, p - r, and on the interval of the cointegration degrees b allowed, but not on the true cointegration degree b0. Hence, no additional...

  14. Resting‐state connectivity of pre‐motor cortex reflects disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Soelberg Sørensen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the relationship between motor resting-state connectivity of the dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and methods A total of 27 patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RR-MS) and 15 patients with secondary...... progressive MS (SP-MS) underwent functional resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Independent component analysis was used to characterize motor resting-state connectivity. Multiple regression analysis was performed in SPM8...... between the individual expression of motor resting-state connectivity in PMd and EDSS scores including age as covariate. Separate post hoc analyses were performed for patients with RR-MS and SP-MS. Results The EDSS scores ranged from 0 to 7 with a median score of 4.3. Motor resting-state connectivity...

  15. UP-DOWN cortical dynamics reflect state transitions in a bistable network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jercog, Daniel; Roxin, Alex; Barthó, Peter; Luczak, Artur; Compte, Albert; de la Rocha, Jaime

    2017-08-04

    In the idling brain, neuronal circuits transition between periods of sustained firing (UP state) and quiescence (DOWN state), a pattern the mechanisms of which remain unclear. Here we analyzed spontaneous cortical population activity from anesthetized rats and found that UP and DOWN durations were highly variable and that population rates showed no significant decay during UP periods. We built a network rate model with excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) populations exhibiting a novel bistable regime between a quiescent and an inhibition-stabilized state of arbitrarily low rate. Fluctuations triggered state transitions, while adaptation in E cells paradoxically caused a marginal decay of E-rate but a marked decay of I-rate in UP periods, a prediction that we validated experimentally. A spiking network implementation further predicted that DOWN-to-UP transitions must be caused by synchronous high-amplitude events. Our findings provide evidence of bistable cortical networks that exhibit non-rhythmic state transitions when the brain rests.

  16. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-10

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  17. Combined effect of bottom reflectivity and water turbidity on steady state thermal efficiency of salt gradient solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, M.; Patil, P.S.; Patil, S.R.; Samdarshi, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    In salt gradient solar ponds, the clarity of water and absorptivity of the bottom are important concerns. However, both are practically difficult to maintain beyond a certain limit. The reflectivity of the bottom causes the loss of a fraction of the incident radiation flux, resulting in lower absorption of flux in the pond. Turbidity hinders the propagation of radiation. Thereby it decreases the flux reaching the storage zone. Both these factors lower the efficiency of the pond significantly. However, the same turbidity also prevents the loss of radiation reflected from the bottom. Hence, the combined effect is compensatory to some extent. The present work is an analysis of the combined effect of the bottom's reflectivity and water turbidity on the steady state efficiency of solar ponds. It is found that in the case of a reflective bottom, turbidity, within certain limits, improves the efficiency of pond. This is apparently contradictory to the conventional beliefs about the pond. Nevertheless, this conclusion is of practical importance for design and maintenance of solar ponds

  18. Neophilia Ranking of Scientific Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packalen, Mikko; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The ranking of scientific journals is important because of the signal it sends to scientists about what is considered most vital for scientific progress. Existing ranking systems focus on measuring the influence of a scientific paper (citations)-these rankings do not reward journals for publishing innovative work that builds on new ideas. We propose an alternative ranking based on the proclivity of journals to publish papers that build on new ideas, and we implement this ranking via a text-based analysis of all published biomedical papers dating back to 1946. In addition, we compare our neophilia ranking to citation-based (impact factor) rankings; this comparison shows that the two ranking approaches are distinct. Prior theoretical work suggests an active role for our neophilia index in science policy. Absent an explicit incentive to pursue novel science, scientists underinvest in innovative work because of a coordination problem: for work on a new idea to flourish, many scientists must decide to adopt it in their work. Rankings that are based purely on influence thus do not provide sufficient incentives for publishing innovative work. By contrast, adoption of the neophilia index as part of journal-ranking procedures by funding agencies and university administrators would provide an explicit incentive for journals to publish innovative work and thus help solve the coordination problem by increasing scientists' incentives to pursue innovative work.

  19. Resting-state connectivity of pre-motor cortex reflects disability in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogonowski, A-M; Siebner, H R; Soelberg Sørensen, P; Paulson, O B; Dyrby, T B; Blinkenberg, M; Madsen, K H

    2013-11-01

    To characterize the relationship between motor resting-state connectivity of the dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 27 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) and 15 patients with secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) underwent functional resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Independent component analysis was used to characterize motor resting-state connectivity. Multiple regression analysis was performed in SPM8 between the individual expression of motor resting-state connectivity in PMd and EDSS scores including age as covariate. Separate post hoc analyses were performed for patients with RR-MS and SP-MS. The EDSS scores ranged from 0 to 7 with a median score of 4.3. Motor resting-state connectivity of left PMd showed a positive linear relation with clinical disability in patients with MS. This effect was stronger when considering the group of patients with RR-MS alone, whereas patients with SP-MS showed no increase in coupling strength between left PMd and the motor resting-state network with increasing clinical disability. No significant relation between motor resting-state connectivity of the right PMd and clinical disability was detected in MS. The increase in functional coupling between left PMd and the motor resting-state network with increasing clinical disability can be interpreted as adaptive reorganization of the motor system to maintain motor function, which appears to be limited to the relapsing-remitting stage of the disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Rank diversity of languages: generic behavior in computational linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocho, Germinal; Flores, Jorge; Gershenson, Carlos; Pineda, Carlos; Sánchez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Statistical studies of languages have focused on the rank-frequency distribution of words. Instead, we introduce here a measure of how word ranks change in time and call this distribution rank diversity. We calculate this diversity for books published in six European languages since 1800, and find that it follows a universal lognormal distribution. Based on the mean and standard deviation associated with the lognormal distribution, we define three different word regimes of languages: "heads" consist of words which almost do not change their rank in time, "bodies" are words of general use, while "tails" are comprised by context-specific words and vary their rank considerably in time. The heads and bodies reflect the size of language cores identified by linguists for basic communication. We propose a Gaussian random walk model which reproduces the rank variation of words in time and thus the diversity. Rank diversity of words can be understood as the result of random variations in rank, where the size of the variation depends on the rank itself. We find that the core size is similar for all languages studied.

  1. Rank Diversity of Languages: Generic Behavior in Computational Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocho, Germinal; Flores, Jorge; Gershenson, Carlos; Pineda, Carlos; Sánchez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Statistical studies of languages have focused on the rank-frequency distribution of words. Instead, we introduce here a measure of how word ranks change in time and call this distribution rank diversity. We calculate this diversity for books published in six European languages since 1800, and find that it follows a universal lognormal distribution. Based on the mean and standard deviation associated with the lognormal distribution, we define three different word regimes of languages: “heads” consist of words which almost do not change their rank in time, “bodies” are words of general use, while “tails” are comprised by context-specific words and vary their rank considerably in time. The heads and bodies reflect the size of language cores identified by linguists for basic communication. We propose a Gaussian random walk model which reproduces the rank variation of words in time and thus the diversity. Rank diversity of words can be understood as the result of random variations in rank, where the size of the variation depends on the rank itself. We find that the core size is similar for all languages studied. PMID:25849150

  2. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  3. Strong reflection and periodic resonant transmission of helical edge states in topological-insulator stub-like resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The helical edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) experience appreciable quantum mechanical scattering in narrow channels when the width changes abruptly. The interference of the geometry scattering in narrow-wide-narrow waveguide structures is shown to give rise to the strong suppression of transmission when the incident energy is barely above the propagation threshold. Periodic resonant transmission takes place in this high reflection regime while the length of the wide section is varied. The resonance condition is governed by the transverse confinement in the wide section, where the form of quantization is manifested to differ for the two orthogonal directions. The confined energy levels in TI quantum dots are derived based on this observation. In addition, the off-diagonal spin-orbit term is found to produce an anomalous resonance state, which merges with the bottom ordinary resonance state to annihilate

  4. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  5. Ranking Specific Sets of Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jan; Woltran, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Ranking sets of objects based on an order between the single elements has been thoroughly studied in the literature. In particular, it has been shown that it is in general impossible to find a total ranking - jointly satisfying properties as dominance and independence - on the whole power set of objects. However, in many applications certain elements from the entire power set might not be required and can be neglected in the ranking process. For instance, certain sets might be ruled out due to hard constraints or are not satisfying some background theory. In this paper, we treat the computational problem whether an order on a given subset of the power set of elements satisfying different variants of dominance and independence can be found, given a ranking on the elements. We show that this problem is tractable for partial rankings and NP-complete for total rankings.

  6. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  7. Synaptic Dynamics and Neuronal Network Connectivity are reflected in the Distribution of Times in Up states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh eDao Duc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of neuronal networks connected by synaptic dynamics can sustain long periods of depolarization that can last for hundreds of milliseconds such as Up states recorded during sleep or anesthesia. Yet the underlying mechanism driving these periods remain unclear. We show here within a mean-field model that the residence times of the neuronal membrane potential in cortical Up states does not follow a Poissonian law, but presents several peaks. Furthermore, the present modeling approach allows extracting some information about the neuronal network connectivity from the time distribution histogram. Based on a synaptic-depression model, we find that these peaks, that can be observed in histograms of patch-clamp recordings are not artifacts of electrophysiological measurements, but rather are an inherent property of the network dynamics. Analysis of the equations reveals a stable focus located close to the unstable limit cycle, delimiting a region that defines the Up state. The model further shows that the peaks observed in the Up state time distribution are due to winding around the focus before escaping from the basin of attraction. Finally, we use in vivo recordings of intracellular membrane potential and we recover from the peak distribution, some information about the network connectivity. We conclude that it is possible to recover the network connectivity from the distribution of times that the neuronal membrane voltage spends in Up states.

  8. Reflecting on the State of the IIPJ and the Condition of Indigenous Peoples Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. White

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As we come to the end of 2012, it is natural for the IIPJ contributors, readers, staff, and volunteers to reflect on the work of the Journal and on the reason we all contributed to that work. The year has been, by any standards, a real success. Yet, when we look worldwide, there is still much work to be done. Take, for example, the continuing gap in well-being; it is clear that there are some common problems across the more developed countries. Where efforts to create real partnerships between Indigenous peoples and governments have started, we hope they push forward. Where they have not, then they must start. May this upcoming year, 2013, be a year we look back on with pride for the accomplishments that occur.

  9. Statistical methods for ranking data

    CERN Document Server

    Alvo, Mayer

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces advanced undergraduate, graduate students and practitioners to statistical methods for ranking data. An important aspect of nonparametric statistics is oriented towards the use of ranking data. Rank correlation is defined through the notion of distance functions and the notion of compatibility is introduced to deal with incomplete data. Ranking data are also modeled using a variety of modern tools such as CART, MCMC, EM algorithm and factor analysis. This book deals with statistical methods used for analyzing such data and provides a novel and unifying approach for hypotheses testing. The techniques described in the book are illustrated with examples and the statistical software is provided on the authors’ website.

  10. Change in drawing placement: A measure of change in mood state reflective of hemispheric lateralization of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; O'Mara, Erin M; Wilson, Josephine F

    2018-04-26

    The Valence Hypothesis of cerebral lateralization of emotion suggests greater right hemisphere activation during negative mood and greater left hemisphere activation during positive mood. This can manifest as visual field attentional bias. Here, study participants completed an assessment of current mood state (PANAS) and made a drawing (Drawing 1). To induce positive or negative mood, participants played a game; then, the winner read a script depicting a positive interpersonal interaction and the loser read a script depicting a negative interpersonal interaction. Participants then drew a second picture (Drawing 2) and completed the PANAS. We hypothesized that the game outcome would change current mood state and hemispheric activation, which would be reflected in drawing placement. The placement of Drawing 2 moved right for winners and left for losers. Winners experienced a greater increase in positive affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than losers and had decreased negative affect from Time 1. Losers had decreased positive affect from Time 1 and had a greater increase in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than winners. Our results suggest that change in current mood state may be objectively observed by evaluating hemispatial bias reflective of brain hemispheric activation with drawings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Educational Transitions in the United States: Reflections on the American Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    Education involves socialization so that individuals become productive members of society. At present, in the United States, educational transitions are primarily viewed in terms of their location in an outcomes-oriented process and framed as helping people achieve the American Dream, but in terms of the status quo national economic interest. But…

  12. Dominant male song performance reflects current immune state in a cooperatively breeding songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    York, Jenny E.; Radford, Andrew N.; Groothuis, Ton G.; Young, Andrew J.

    Conspicuous displays are thought to have evolved as signals of individual quality, though precisely what they encode remains a focus of debate. While high quality signals may be produced by high quality individuals due to good genes or favourable early-life conditions, whether current immune state

  13. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  14. Trial-by-trial variations in subjective attentional state are reflected in ongoing prestimulus EEG alpha oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Stuart Peter Macdonald

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parieto-occipital EEG alpha power and subjective reports of attentional state are both associated with visual attention and awareness, but little is currently known about the relationship between these two measures. Here, we bring together these two literatures to explore the relationship between alpha activity and participants’ introspective judgements of attentional state as each varied from trial to trial during performance of a visual detection task. We collected participants’ subjective ratings of perceptual decision confidence and attentional state on continuous scales on each trial of a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP detection task while recording EEG. We found that confidence and attentional state ratings were largely uncorrelated with each other, but both were strongly associated with task performance and post-stimulus decision-related EEG activity. Crucially, attentional state ratings were also negatively associated with prestimulus EEG alpha power. Attesting to the robustness of this association, we were able to classify attentional state ratings via prestimulus alpha power on a single-trial basis. Moreover, when we repeated these analyses after smoothing the time series of attentional state ratings and alpha power with increasingly large sliding windows, both the correlations and classification performance improved considerably, with the peaks occurring at a sliding window size of approximately seven minutes worth of trials. Our results therefore suggest that slow fluctuations in attentional state in the order of minutes are reflected in spontaneous alpha power. Since these subjective attentional state ratings were associated with objective measures of both behaviour and neural activity, we suggest that they provide a simple and effective estimate of task engagement that could prove useful in operational settings that require human operators to maintain a sustained focus of visual attention.

  15. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  16. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium

  17. Extreme learning machine for ranking: generalization analysis and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Peng, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yicong; Li, Luoqing; Pan, Zhibin

    2014-05-01

    The extreme learning machine (ELM) has attracted increasing attention recently with its successful applications in classification and regression. In this paper, we investigate the generalization performance of ELM-based ranking. A new regularized ranking algorithm is proposed based on the combinations of activation functions in ELM. The generalization analysis is established for the ELM-based ranking (ELMRank) in terms of the covering numbers of hypothesis space. Empirical results on the benchmark datasets show the competitive performance of the ELMRank over the state-of-the-art ranking methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  19. Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods.

  20. Rank-dependant factorization of entanglement evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siomau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In some cases the complex entanglement evolution can be factorized on simple terms. • We suggest factorization equations for multiqubit entanglement evolution. • The factorization is solely defined by the rank of the final state density matrices. • The factorization is independent on the local noisy channels and initial pure states. - Abstract: The description of the entanglement evolution of a complex quantum system can be significantly simplified due to the symmetries of the initial state and the quantum channels, which simultaneously affect parts of the system. Using concurrence as the entanglement measure, we study the entanglement evolution of few qubit systems, when each of the qubits is affected by a local unital channel independently on the others. We found that for low-rank density matrices of the final quantum state, such complex entanglement dynamics can be completely described by a combination of independent factors representing the evolution of entanglement of the initial state, when just one of the qubits is affected by a local channel. We suggest necessary conditions for the rank of the density matrices to represent the entanglement evolution through the factors. Our finding is supported with analytical examples and numerical simulations.

  1. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  2. The Auditory Enhancement Effect is Not Reflected in the 80-Hz Auditory Steady-State Response

    OpenAIRE

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J.; Portron, Arthur; Semal, Catherine; Demany, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The perceptual salience of a target tone presented in a multitone background is increased by the presentation of a precursor sound consisting of the multitone background alone. It has been proposed that this “enhancement” phenomenon results from an effective amplification of the neural response to the target tone. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in humans, by comparing the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to a target tone that was enhanced by a precursor sound with the ASSR to a...

  3. Near resonant charge transfer in Na(4D)+K+ → Na++K*: Optical pumping of the Na(4D) state and energy dependence of rank 4 alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.E.B.; Huelser, H.; Witte, R.; Hertel, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    Rank 4 alignment has been observed in a quasi one electron system. Relative charge transfer cross sections of the Na 4dσ, 4dπ and 4dδ sublevels for the K + +Na(4D)→K * +Na + system have been measured. A strong energy dependence is observed. The results at energies less than 1 keV may be attributed to rotational coupling of the Na 4dπ state to the K 4fδ state. The Na atom is excited in a two-step process, the first step being excitation to the 3 2 P 3/2 level with a two-mode laser to pump from both hyperfine levels of the ground state simultaneously. This two-mode laser is described in detail. The optical pumping problem is solved using rate equations. The general formula for describing the scattering intensity for cylindrical symmetry, in terms of multipole moments, for atoms excited by two linearly polarised lasers is derived and used to evaluate the experimental results. (orig.)

  4. PageRank tracker: from ranking to tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Fu, Keren; Loza, Artur; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Video object tracking is widely used in many real-world applications, and it has been extensively studied for over two decades. However, tracking robustness is still an issue in most existing methods, due to the difficulties with adaptation to environmental or target changes. In order to improve adaptability, this paper formulates the tracking process as a ranking problem, and the PageRank algorithm, which is a well-known webpage ranking algorithm used by Google, is applied. Labeled and unlabeled samples in tracking application are analogous to query webpages and the webpages to be ranked, respectively. Therefore, determining the target is equivalent to finding the unlabeled sample that is the most associated with existing labeled set. We modify the conventional PageRank algorithm in three aspects for tracking application, including graph construction, PageRank vector acquisition and target filtering. Our simulations with the use of various challenging public-domain video sequences reveal that the proposed PageRank tracker outperforms mean-shift tracker, co-tracker, semiboosting and beyond semiboosting trackers in terms of accuracy, robustness and stability.

  5. Elucidation of the electronic states in polyethylene glycol by attenuated Total reflectance spectroscopy in the far-ultraviolet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Nami; Wakabayashi, Tomonari; Morisawa, Yusuke

    2018-05-01

    We measured the attenuated total reflectance-far ultraviolet (ATR-FUV) spectra of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG; average molecular weights of 200, 300, and 400) and related materials in the liquid state in the 145-200-nm wavelength region. For appropriately assigning the absorption bands, we also performed theoretical simulation of the unit-number dependent electronic spectra. The FUV spectra of PEGs contain three bands, which are assigned to the transitions between n(CH2OCH2)-3s Rydberg state (176 nm), n(CH2OCH2)-3p Rydberg state (163 nm), and n(OH)-3p Rydberg state (153 nm). Since the contribution of n(OH) decreases compared to n(CH2OCH2) with increase in the number of units, the ratios of the molar absorption coefficients, ε, at 153 nm relative to 163 nm, decrease. On the other hand, the ratio of ε at 176 nm to that at 163 nm increases with increase in the number of units, because of the difference in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the transitions. The calculated results suggest that n orbitals form two electronic bands. In the upper band, the electrons expand over the ether chain, whereas in the lower band, the electrons are localized in the terminal OH in the PEGs.

  6. Pathological Corporate Governance Deficiencies in South Africa's State-Owned Companies: A Critical Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, states use state-owned companies (SOCs or public corporations to provide public goods, limit private and foreign control of the domestic economy, generate public funds for the fiscus, increase service delivery and encourage economic development and industrialisation. Particularly given its unique socio-political and economic dynamics, a country such as South Africa clearly needs this type of strategic enterprise. Yet, that does not mean that everything at our SOCs is as it should be. The beleaguered South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC has recently seen the resignation of board members, shareholder interference in its operational affairs, and a high turnover of chief accounting officers and other executive management members. Due to non-performance, it has also received several cash injections from its shareholder to enable it to continue to deliver its services. In addition, the shareholder minister took it upon herself to amend the SABC's memorandum of incorporation, conferring upon herself the authority to appoint, suspend or even dismiss key executive members. South African Airways (SAA, in turn, has had seven CEOs in less than four years, has had to be bailed out at a cost of R550 million, and has in addition been granted a R5 billion guarantee by the shareholder for a restructuring exercise. Other SOCs such as Eskom, the Post Office and Telkom have also experienced high board and executive management turnover, perennial underperformance necessitating regular bailouts, and challenges regarding the division of power between their boards and the various shareholder ministers. Another issue that seems to plague South Africa's SOCs is the appointment of board members and executive officials with questionable qualifications. By critically examining the corporate governance challenges besetting the SABC, SAA and Eskom in particular, this article seeks to explore the root causes of the corporate governance deficiencies of SOCs

  7. CNN-based ranking for biomedical entity normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haodi; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Hua; Wang, Baohua; Huang, Dong

    2017-10-03

    Most state-of-the-art biomedical entity normalization systems, such as rule-based systems, merely rely on morphological information of entity mentions, but rarely consider their semantic information. In this paper, we introduce a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem and benefits from semantic information of biomedical entities. The CNN-based ranking method first generates candidates using handcrafted rules, and then ranks the candidates according to their semantic information modeled by CNN as well as their morphological information. Experiments on two benchmark datasets for biomedical entity normalization show that our proposed CNN-based ranking method outperforms traditional rule-based method with state-of-the-art performance. We propose a CNN architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem. Comparison results show that semantic information is beneficial to biomedical entity normalization and can be well combined with morphological information in our CNN architecture for further improvement.

  8. Human adipose cells in vitro are either refractory or responsive to insulin, reflecting host metabolic state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Lizunov

    Full Text Available While intercellular communication processes are frequently characterized by switch-like transitions, the endocrine system, including the adipose tissue response to insulin, has been characterized by graded responses. Yet here individual cells from adipose tissue biopsies are best described by a switch-like transition between the basal and insulin-stimulated states for the trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Two statistically-defined populations best describe the observed cellular heterogeneity, representing the fractions of refractive and responsive adipose cells. Furthermore, subjects exhibiting high systemic insulin sensitivity indices (SI have high fractions of responsive adipose cells in vitro, while subjects exhibiting decreasing SI have increasing fractions of refractory cells in vitro. Thus, a two-component model best describes the relationship between cellular refractory fraction and subject SI. Since isolated cells exhibit these different response characteristics in the presence of constant culture conditions and milieu, we suggest that a physiological switching mechanism at the adipose cellular level ultimately drives systemic SI.

  9. The auditory enhancement effect is not reflected in the 80-Hz auditory steady-state response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J; Portron, Arthur; Semal, Catherine; Demany, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    The perceptual salience of a target tone presented in a multitone background is increased by the presentation of a precursor sound consisting of the multitone background alone. It has been proposed that this "enhancement" phenomenon results from an effective amplification of the neural response to the target tone. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in humans, by comparing the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to a target tone that was enhanced by a precursor sound with the ASSR to a target tone that was not enhanced. In order to record neural responses originating in the brainstem, the ASSR was elicited by amplitude modulating the target tone at a frequency close to 80 Hz. The results did not show evidence of an amplified neural response to enhanced tones. In a control condition, we measured the ASSR to a target tone that, instead of being perceptually enhanced by a precursor sound, was acoustically increased in level. This level increase matched the magnitude of enhancement estimated psychophysically with a forward masking paradigm in a previous experimental phase. We found that the ASSR to the tone acoustically increased in level was significantly greater than the ASSR to the tone enhanced by the precursor sound. Overall, our results suggest that the enhancement effect cannot be explained by an amplified neural response at the level of the brainstem. However, an alternative possibility is that brainstem neurons with enhanced responses do not contribute to the scalp-recorded ASSR.

  10. Universal scaling in sports ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Weibing; Li Wei; Cai Xu; Bulou, Alain; Wang Qiuping A

    2012-01-01

    Ranking is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human society. On the web pages of Forbes, one may find all kinds of rankings, such as the world's most powerful people, the world's richest people, the highest-earning tennis players, and so on and so forth. Herewith, we study a specific kind—sports ranking systems in which players' scores and/or prize money are accrued based on their performances in different matches. By investigating 40 data samples which span 12 different sports, we find that the distributions of scores and/or prize money follow universal power laws, with exponents nearly identical for most sports. In order to understand the origin of this universal scaling we focus on the tennis ranking systems. By checking the data we find that, for any pair of players, the probability that the higher-ranked player tops the lower-ranked opponent is proportional to the rank difference between the pair. Such a dependence can be well fitted to a sigmoidal function. By using this feature, we propose a simple toy model which can simulate the competition of players in different matches. The simulations yield results consistent with the empirical findings. Extensive simulation studies indicate that the model is quite robust with respect to the modifications of some parameters. (paper)

  11. Econophysics of a ranked demand and supply resource allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Avner; Tamir, Boaz

    2018-01-01

    We present a two sided resource allocation problem, between demands and supplies, where both parties are ranked. For example, in Big Data problems where a set of different computational tasks is divided between a set of computers each with its own resources, or between employees and employers where both parties are ranked, the employees by their fitness and the employers by their package benefits. The allocation process can be viewed as a repeated game where in each iteration the strategy is decided by a meta-rule, based on the ranks of both parties and the results of the previous games. We show the existence of a phase transition between an absorbing state, where all demands are satisfied, and an active one where part of the demands are always left unsatisfied. The phase transition is governed by the ratio between supplies and demand. In a job allocation problem we find positive correlation between the rank of the workers and the rank of the factories; higher rank workers are usually allocated to higher ranked factories. These all suggest global emergent properties stemming from local variables. To demonstrate the global versus local relations, we introduce a local inertial force that increases the rank of employees in proportion to their persistence time in the same factory. We show that such a local force induces non trivial global effects, mostly to benefit the lower ranked employees.

  12. Efficient Low Rank Tensor Ring Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenqi; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Aeron, Shuchin

    2017-01-01

    Using the matrix product state (MPS) representation of the recently proposed tensor ring decompositions, in this paper we propose a tensor completion algorithm, which is an alternating minimization algorithm that alternates over the factors in the MPS representation. This development is motivated in part by the success of matrix completion algorithms that alternate over the (low-rank) factors. In this paper, we propose a spectral initialization for the tensor ring completion algorithm and ana...

  13. The reflection component from Cygnus X-1 in the soft state measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Nowak, Michael A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Parker, Michael; Fabian, Andy C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Miller, Jon M.; King, Ashley L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A.; Forster, Karl; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ross, Randy R., E-mail: jtomsick@ssl.berkeley.edu [Physics Department, College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA 01610 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late 2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ∼1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power law, and reflection components along with absorption from highly ionized material in the system. The high throughput of NuSTAR allows for a very high quality measurement of the complex iron line region as well as the rest of the reflection component. The iron line is clearly broadened and is well described by a relativistic blurring model, providing an opportunity to constrain the black hole spin. Although the spin constraint depends somewhat on which continuum model is used, we obtain a {sub *} > 0.83 for all models that provide a good description of the spectrum. However, none of our spectral fits give a disk inclination that is consistent with the most recently reported binary values for Cyg X-1. This may indicate that there is a >13° misalignment between the orbital plane and the inner accretion disk (i.e., a warped accretion disk) or that there is missing physics in the spectral models.

  14. The reflection component from Cygnus X-1 in the soft state measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Nowak, Michael A.; Parker, Michael; Fabian, Andy C.; Miller, Jon M.; King, Ashley L.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Forster, Karl; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ross, Randy R.

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late 2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ∼1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power law, and reflection components along with absorption from highly ionized material in the system. The high throughput of NuSTAR allows for a very high quality measurement of the complex iron line region as well as the rest of the reflection component. The iron line is clearly broadened and is well described by a relativistic blurring model, providing an opportunity to constrain the black hole spin. Although the spin constraint depends somewhat on which continuum model is used, we obtain a * > 0.83 for all models that provide a good description of the spectrum. However, none of our spectral fits give a disk inclination that is consistent with the most recently reported binary values for Cyg X-1. This may indicate that there is a >13° misalignment between the orbital plane and the inner accretion disk (i.e., a warped accretion disk) or that there is missing physics in the spectral models.

  15. Academic Media Ranking and the Configurations of Values in Higher Education: A Sociotechnical History of a Co-Production in France between the Media, State and Higher Education (1976-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Before the 2000s and the buzz surrounding global rankings, many countries witnessed the emergence and development, starting in the 1970s, of academic media rankings produced primarily by press organisations. This domestic, media-based production, despite the relative lack of attention paid by the social sciences, has been progressively integrated…

  16. Band gap and defect states of MgO thin films investigated using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Heo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The band gap and defect states of MgO thin films were investigated by using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS and high-energy resolution REELS (HR-REELS. HR-REELS with a primary electron energy of 0.3 keV revealed that the surface F center (FS energy was located at approximately 4.2 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM and the surface band gap width (EgS was approximately 6.3 eV. The bulk F center (FB energy was located approximately 4.9 eV above the VBM and the bulk band gap width was about 7.8 eV, when measured by REELS with 3 keV primary electrons. From a first-principles calculation, we confirmed that the 4.2 eV and 4.9 eV peaks were FS and FB, induced by oxygen vacancies. We also experimentally demonstrated that the HR-REELS peak height increases with increasing number of oxygen vacancies. Finally, we calculated the secondary electron emission yields (γ for various noble gases. He and Ne were not influenced by the defect states owing to their higher ionization energies, but Ar, Kr, and Xe exhibited a stronger dependence on the defect states owing to their small ionization energies.

  17. PageRank of integers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, K M; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We up a directed network tracing links from a given integer to its divisors and analyze the properties of the Google matrix of this network. The PageRank vector of this matrix is computed numerically and it is shown that its probability is approximately inversely proportional to the PageRank index thus being similar to the Zipf law and the dependence established for the World Wide Web. The spectrum of the Google matrix of integers is characterized by a large gap and a relatively small number of nonzero eigenvalues. A simple semi-analytical expression for the PageRank of integers is derived that allows us to find this vector for matrices of billion size. This network provides a new PageRank order of integers. (paper)

  18. Ranking Queries on Uncertain Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Uncertain data is inherent in many important applications, such as environmental surveillance, market analysis, and quantitative economics research. Due to the importance of those applications and rapidly increasing amounts of uncertain data collected and accumulated, analyzing large collections of uncertain data has become an important task. Ranking queries (also known as top-k queries) are often natural and useful in analyzing uncertain data. Ranking Queries on Uncertain Data discusses the motivations/applications, challenging problems, the fundamental principles, and the evaluation algorith

  19. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  20. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  1. RANK and RANK ligand expression in primary human osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Branstetter

    2015-09-01

    Our results demonstrate RANKL expression was observed in the tumor element in 68% of human OS using IHC. However, the staining intensity was relatively low and only 37% (29/79 of samples exhibited≥10% RANKL positive tumor cells. RANK expression was not observed in OS tumor cells. In contrast, RANK expression was clearly observed in other cells within OS samples, including the myeloid osteoclast precursor compartment, osteoclasts and in giant osteoclast cells. The intensity and frequency of RANKL and RANK staining in OS samples were substantially less than that observed in GCTB samples. The observation that RANKL is expressed in OS cells themselves suggests that these tumors may mediate an osteoclastic response, and anti-RANKL therapy may potentially be protective against bone pathologies in OS. However, the absence of RANK expression in primary human OS cells suggests that any autocrine RANKL/RANK signaling in human OS tumor cells is not operative, and anti-RANKL therapy would not directly affect the tumor.

  2. Ranking structures and rank-rank correlations of countries: The FIFA and UEFA cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Cloots, Rudi; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2014-04-01

    Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures in both cases.

  3. Characterizing the hydration state of L-threonine in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huachuan; Liu, Qiao; Zhu, Liguo; Li, Zeren

    2018-01-01

    The hydration of biomolecules is closely related to the dynamic process of their functional expression, therefore, characterizing hydration phenomena is a subject of keen interest. However, direct measurements on the global hydration state of biomolecules couldn't have been acquired using traditional techniques such as thermodynamics, ultrasound, microwave spectroscopy or viscosity, etc. In order to realize global hydration characterization of amino acid such as L-threonine, terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (THz-TDS-ATR) was adopted in this paper. By measuring the complex permittivity of L-threonine solutions with various concentrations in the THz region, the hydration state and its concentration dependence were obtained, indicating that the number of hydrous water decreased with the increase of concentration. The hydration number was evaluated to be 17.8 when the molar concentration of L-threonine was 0.34 mol/L, and dropped to 13.2 when the molar concentration increased to 0.84 mol/L, when global hydration was taken into account. According to the proposed direct measurements, it is believed that the THz-TDS-ATR technique is a powerful tool for studying the picosecond molecular dynamics of amino acid solutions.

  4. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Ranking species in mutualistic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic ``nested'' structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm -similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity- here we propose a method which -by exploiting their nested architecture- allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.

  6. Ranking Theory and Conditional Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard-Olsen, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Ranking theory is a formal epistemology that has been developed in over 600 pages in Spohn's recent book The Laws of Belief, which aims to provide a normative account of the dynamics of beliefs that presents an alternative to current probabilistic approaches. It has long been received in the AI community, but it has not yet found application in experimental psychology. The purpose of this paper is to derive clear, quantitative predictions by exploiting a parallel between ranking theory and a statistical model called logistic regression. This approach is illustrated by the development of a model for the conditional inference task using Spohn's (2013) ranking theoretic approach to conditionals. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. University rankings in computer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehret, Philip; Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Gipp, Bela

    2017-01-01

    This is a research-in-progress paper concerning two types of institutional rankings, the Leiden and QS World ranking, and their relationship to a list of universities’ ‘geo-based’ impact scores, and Computing Research and Education Conference (CORE) participation scores in the field of computer...... science. A ‘geo-based’ impact measure examines the geographical distribution of incoming citations to a particular university’s journal articles for a specific period of time. It takes into account both the number of citations and the geographical variability in these citations. The CORE participation...... score is calculated on the basis of the number of weighted proceedings papers that a university has contributed to either an A*, A, B, or C conference as ranked by the Computing Research and Education Association of Australasia. In addition to calculating the correlations between the distinct university...

  8. Subtracting a best rank-1 approximation may increase tensor rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Alwin; Comon, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that a best rank-R approximation of an order-k tensor may not exist when R >= 2 and k >= 3. This poses a serious problem to data analysts using tensor decompositions it has been observed numerically that, generally, this issue cannot be solved by consecutively computing and

  9. Rank-based model selection for multiple ions quantum tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guţă, Mădălin; Kypraios, Theodore; Dryden, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of measurement data has become a key component of many quantum engineering experiments. As standard full state tomography becomes unfeasible for large dimensional quantum systems, one needs to exploit prior information and the ‘sparsity’ properties of the experimental state in order to reduce the dimensionality of the estimation problem. In this paper we propose model selection as a general principle for finding the simplest, or most parsimonious explanation of the data, by fitting different models and choosing the estimator with the best trade-off between likelihood fit and model complexity. We apply two well established model selection methods—the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC)—two models consisting of states of fixed rank and datasets such as are currently produced in multiple ions experiments. We test the performance of AIC and BIC on randomly chosen low rank states of four ions, and study the dependence of the selected rank with the number of measurement repetitions for one ion states. We then apply the methods to real data from a four ions experiment aimed at creating a Smolin state of rank 4. By applying the two methods together with the Pearson χ 2 test we conclude that the data can be suitably described with a model whose rank is between 7 and 9. Additionally we find that the mean square error of the maximum likelihood estimator for pure states is close to that of the optimal over all possible measurements. (paper)

  10. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...... variance in out-of-sample evaluations rather than the squared return. We derive the theoretical results in a general framework that is not specific to the comparison of volatility models. Similar problems can arise in comparisons of forecasting models whenever the predicted variable is a latent variable....

  11. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  12. Respiration-to-DNA ratio reflects physiological state of microorganisms in root-free and rhizosphere soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, E.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) content in soil can serve as a measure of microbial biomass under near steady-state conditions and quantitatively reflect the exponential microbial growth initiated by substrate addition. The yield of respired CO2 per microbial biomass unit (expressed as DNA content) could be a valuable physiological indicator reflecting state of soil microbial community. Therefore, investigations combining both analyses of DNA content and respiration of soil microorganisms under steady-state and during periods of rapid growth are needed. We studied the relationship between CO2 evolution and microbial dsDNA content in native and glucose-amended samples of root-free and rhizosphere soil under Beta vulgaris (Cambisol, loamy sand from the field experiment of the Institute of Agroecology FAL, Braunschweig, Germany). Quantity of dsDNA was determined by direct DNA isolation from soil with mechanic and enzymatic disruption of microbial cell walls with following spectrofluorimetric detection with PicoGreen (Blagodatskaya et al., 2003). Microbial biomass and the kinetic parameters of microbial growth were estimated by dynamics of the CO2 emission from soil amended with glucose and nutrients (Blagodatsky et al., 2000). The CO2 production rate was measured hourly at 22оС using an automated infrared-gas analyzer system. The overall increase in microbial biomass, DNA content, maximal specific growth rate and therefore, in the fraction of microorganisms with r-strategy were observed in rhizosphere as compared to bulk soil. The rhizosphere effect for microbial respiration, biomass and specific growth rate was more pronounced for plots with half-rate of N fertilizer compared to full N addition. The DNA content was significantly lower in bulk compared to rhizosphere soil both before and during microbial growth initiated by glucose amendment. Addition of glucose to the soil strongly increased the amount of CO2 respired per DNA unit. Without substrate addition the

  13. Let Us Rank Journalism Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unlike law, business, and medical schools, as well as universities in general, journalism schools and journalism programs have rarely been ranked. Publishers such as "U.S. News & World Report," "Forbes," "Bloomberg Businessweek," and "Washington Monthly" do not pay them much mind. What is the best…

  14. On Rank Driven Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J. J. P.; Prieto, F. J.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate a class of models related to the Bak-Sneppen (BS) model, initially proposed to study evolution. The BS model is extremely simple and yet captures some forms of "complex behavior" such as self-organized criticality that is often observed in physical and biological systems. In this model, random fitnesses in are associated to agents located at the vertices of a graph . Their fitnesses are ranked from worst (0) to best (1). At every time-step the agent with the worst fitness and some others with a priori given rank probabilities are replaced by new agents with random fitnesses. We consider two cases: The exogenous case where the new fitnesses are taken from an a priori fixed distribution, and the endogenous case where the new fitnesses are taken from the current distribution as it evolves. We approximate the dynamics by making a simplifying independence assumption. We use Order Statistics and Dynamical Systems to define a rank-driven dynamical system that approximates the evolution of the distribution of the fitnesses in these rank-driven models, as well as in the BS model. For this simplified model we can find the limiting marginal distribution as a function of the initial conditions. Agreement with experimental results of the BS model is excellent.

  15. PageRank (II): Mathematics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maths/stats

    ... GAUSS SEIDEL'S. NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS IN PAGE RANK ANALYSIS. ... The convergence is guaranteed, if the absolute value of the largest eigen ... improved Gauss-Seidel iteration algorithm, based on the decomposition. U. L. D. M. +. +. = ..... This corresponds to determine the eigen vector of T with eigen value 1.

  16. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  17. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105... Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of... preference will be included in this final ranking in accordance with applicable regulations. ...

  19. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-11-19

    Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  20. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  1. A Survey on PageRank Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhin, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    This survey reviews the research related to PageRank computing. Components of a PageRank vector serve as authority weights for web pages independent of their textual content, solely based on the hyperlink structure of the web. PageRank is typically used as a web search ranking component. This defines the importance of the model and the data structures that underly PageRank processing. Computing even a single PageRank is a difficult computational task. Computing many PageRanks is a much mor...

  2. Time evolution of Wikipedia network ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Frahm, Klaus M.; Benczúr, András; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-12-01

    We study the time evolution of ranking and spectral properties of the Google matrix of English Wikipedia hyperlink network during years 2003-2011. The statistical properties of ranking of Wikipedia articles via PageRank and CheiRank probabilities, as well as the matrix spectrum, are shown to be stabilized for 2007-2011. A special emphasis is done on ranking of Wikipedia personalities and universities. We show that PageRank selection is dominated by politicians while 2DRank, which combines PageRank and CheiRank, gives more accent on personalities of arts. The Wikipedia PageRank of universities recovers 80% of top universities of Shanghai ranking during the considered time period.

  3. Zeolite facies and regional rank of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisch, H J

    1966-01-01

    The author has correlated diagnostic analcime-, heulandite-, and laumontite-bearing mineral assemblages from four areas in the Upper Carboniferous and the Permian of New South Wales with the rank of the associated coals, represented by the carbon content of vitrinite. The results show that lowest-grade regional metamorphism of the zeolite facies reflects at least in part the same physical conditions of metamorphism as the increase in degree of coalification (rank) in the bituminous coal range. Degree of coalification is probably independent of partial pressures of H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/: it is controlled mainly by maximum depth of burial, its duration, and the geothermal gradient.

  4. Drug-target interaction prediction: A Bayesian ranking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peska, Ladislav; Buza, Krisztian; Koller, Júlia

    2017-12-01

    In silico prediction of drug-target interactions (DTI) could provide valuable information and speed-up the process of drug repositioning - finding novel usage for existing drugs. In our work, we focus on machine learning algorithms supporting drug-centric repositioning approach, which aims to find novel usage for existing or abandoned drugs. We aim at proposing a per-drug ranking-based method, which reflects the needs of drug-centric repositioning research better than conventional drug-target prediction approaches. We propose Bayesian Ranking Prediction of Drug-Target Interactions (BRDTI). The method is based on Bayesian Personalized Ranking matrix factorization (BPR) which has been shown to be an excellent approach for various preference learning tasks, however, it has not been used for DTI prediction previously. In order to successfully deal with DTI challenges, we extended BPR by proposing: (i) the incorporation of target bias, (ii) a technique to handle new drugs and (iii) content alignment to take structural similarities of drugs and targets into account. Evaluation on five benchmark datasets shows that BRDTI outperforms several state-of-the-art approaches in terms of per-drug nDCG and AUC. BRDTI results w.r.t. nDCG are 0.929, 0.953, 0.948, 0.897 and 0.690 for G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR), Ion Channels (IC), Nuclear Receptors (NR), Enzymes (E) and Kinase (K) datasets respectively. Additionally, BRDTI significantly outperformed other methods (BLM-NII, WNN-GIP, NetLapRLS and CMF) w.r.t. nDCG in 17 out of 20 cases. Furthermore, BRDTI was also shown to be able to predict novel drug-target interactions not contained in the original datasets. The average recall at top-10 predicted targets for each drug was 0.762, 0.560, 1.000 and 0.404 for GPCR, IC, NR, and E datasets respectively. Based on the evaluation, we can conclude that BRDTI is an appropriate choice for researchers looking for an in silico DTI prediction technique to be used in drug

  5. How Can Polarization States of Reflected Light from Snow Surfaces Inform Us on Surface Normals and Ultimately Snow Grain Size Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.; Yang, P.; Yi, B.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Snow Grain Size and Pollution (SGSP) algorithm is a method applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data to estimate snow grain size from space-borne measurements. Previous studies validate and quantify potential sources of error in this method, but because it assumes flat snow surfaces, however, large scale variations in surface normals can cause biases in its estimates due to its dependence on solar and observation zenith angles. To address these variations, we apply the Monte Carlo method for photon transport using data containing the single scattering properties of different ice crystals to calculate polarization states of reflected monochromatic light at 1500nm from modeled snow surfaces. We evaluate the dependence of these polarization states on solar and observation geometry at 1500nm because multiple scattering is generally a mechanism for depolarization and the ice crystals are relatively absorptive at this wavelength. Using 1500nm thus results in a higher number of reflected photons undergoing fewer scattering events, increasing the likelihood of reflected light having higher degrees of polarization. In evaluating the validity of the model, we find agreement with previous studies pertaining to near-infrared spectral directional hemispherical reflectance (i.e. black-sky albedo) and similarities in measured bidirectional reflectance factors, but few studies exist modeling polarization states of reflected light from snow surfaces. Here, we present novel results pertaining to calculated polarization states and compare dependences on solar and observation geometry for different idealized snow surfaces. If these dependencies are consistent across different ice particle shapes and sizes, then these findings could inform the SGSP algorithm by providing useful relationships between measurable physical quantities and solar and observation geometry to better understand variations in snow surface normals from remote sensing observations.

  6. Validating rankings in soccer championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibal Parracho Sant'Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The final ranking of a championship is determined by quality attributes combined with other factors which should be filtered out of any decision on relegation or draft for upper level tournaments. Factors like referees' mistakes and difficulty of certain matches due to its accidental importance to the opponents should have their influence reduced. This work tests approaches to combine classification rules considering the imprecision of the number of points as a measure of quality and of the variables that provide reliable explanation for it. Two home-advantage variables are tested and shown to be apt to enter as explanatory variables. Independence between the criteria is checked against the hypothesis of maximal correlation. The importance of factors and of composition rules is evaluated on the basis of correlation between rank vectors, number of classes and number of clubs in tail classes. Data from five years of the Brazilian Soccer Championship are analyzed.

  7. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  8. Minkowski metrics in creating universal ranking algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ameljańczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a general procedure for creating the rankings of a set of objects, while the relation of preference based on any ranking function. The analysis was possible to use the ranking functions began by showing the fundamental drawbacks of commonly used functions in the form of a weighted sum. As a special case of the ranking procedure in the space of a relation, the procedure based on the notion of an ideal element and generalized Minkowski distance from the element was proposed. This procedure, presented as universal ranking algorithm, eliminates most of the disadvantages of ranking functions in the form of a weighted sum.[b]Keywords[/b]: ranking functions, preference relation, ranking clusters, categories, ideal point, universal ranking algorithm

  9. Functional Multiplex PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-10-01

    Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.

  10. Low rank magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Gal; Weizman, Lior; Tal, Assaf; Eldar, Yonina C

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a relatively new approach that provides quantitative MRI using randomized acquisition. Extraction of physical quantitative tissue values is preformed off-line, based on acquisition with varying parameters and a dictionary generated according to the Bloch equations. MRF uses hundreds of radio frequency (RF) excitation pulses for acquisition, and therefore high under-sampling ratio in the sampling domain (k-space) is required. This under-sampling causes spatial artifacts that hamper the ability to accurately estimate the quantitative tissue values. In this work, we introduce a new approach for quantitative MRI using MRF, called Low Rank MRF. We exploit the low rank property of the temporal domain, on top of the well-known sparsity of the MRF signal in the generated dictionary domain. We present an iterative scheme that consists of a gradient step followed by a low rank projection using the singular value decomposition. Experiments on real MRI data demonstrate superior results compared to conventional implementation of compressed sensing for MRF at 15% sampling ratio.

  11. First rank symptoms for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Weiser, Karla; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna; Davenport, Clare; Kirkham, Amanda J; Grabowski, Sarah; Adams, Clive E

    2015-01-25

    (5515 were included in the analysis). Studies were conducted from 1974 to 2011, with 80% of the studies conducted in the 1970's, 1980's or 1990's. Most studies did not report study methods sufficiently and many had high applicability concerns. In 20 studies, FRS differentiated schizophrenia from all other diagnoses with a sensitivity of 57% (50.4% to 63.3%), and a specificity of 81.4% (74% to 87.1%) In seven studies, FRS differentiated schizophrenia from non-psychotic mental health disorders with a sensitivity of 61.8% (51.7% to 71%) and a specificity of 94.1% (88% to 97.2%). In sixteen studies, FRS differentiated schizophrenia from other types of psychosis with a sensitivity of 58% (50.3% to 65.3%) and a specificity of 74.7% (65.2% to 82.3%). The synthesis of old studies of limited quality in this review indicates that FRS correctly identifies people with schizophrenia 75% to 95% of the time. The use of FRS to diagnose schizophrenia in triage will incorrectly diagnose around five to 19 people in every 100 who have FRS as having schizophrenia and specialists will not agree with this diagnosis. These people will still merit specialist assessment and help due to the severity of disturbance in their behaviour and mental state. Again, with a sensitivity of FRS of 60%, reliance on FRS to diagnose schizophrenia in triage will not correctly diagnose around 40% of people that specialists will consider to have schizophrenia. Some of these people may experience a delay in getting appropriate treatment. Others, whom specialists will consider to have schizophrenia, could be prematurely discharged from care, if triage relies on the presence of FRS to diagnose schizophrenia. Empathetic, considerate use of FRS as a diagnostic aid - with known limitations - should avoid a good proportion of these errors.We hope that newer tests - to be included in future Cochrane reviews - will show better results. However, symptoms of first rank can still be helpful where newer tests are not available

  12. The LAILAPS Search Engine: Relevance Ranking in Life Science Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Matthias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Search engines and retrieval systems are popular tools at a life science desktop. The manual inspection of hundreds of database entries, that reflect a life science concept or fact, is a time intensive daily work. Hereby, not the number of query results matters, but the relevance does. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS search engine for life science databases. The concept is to combine a novel feature model for relevance ranking, a machine learning approach to model user relevance profiles, ranking improvement by user feedback tracking and an intuitive and slim web user interface, that estimates relevance rank by tracking user interactions. Queries are formulated as simple keyword lists and will be expanded by synonyms. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, LAILAPS can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases.

  13. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Liu

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1 First Author, (2 Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3 Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or

  14. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  15. Measurement of reflectance of coal macerals: its automation and significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.

    1978-06-01

    A prime objective of the Pennsylvania State University's DOE program is the characterization of 1,300 samples of U.S. coals. Reflectance determination plays a major role in meeting this objective, because it is used as an accurate rank index both to select coals for testing and to investigate property-behavior interrelationships using the Penn State/DOE Coal Data Base. Reflectances of coal macerals are related to their refractive and absorptive indices by the Beer equation; the refractive index of the medium and the wavelength of light need to be specified. Determinations usually are made in immersion oil at 546 nm. Properties of vitrinite make it the most suitable maceral for these measurements, but the variety of vitrinite selected may depend upon the intended application. Vitrinite reflectance is considered to be dependent upon the degree of aromatization of its structural units. Although some of the earlier investigators believed that the reflectance of coals increased in a discontinuous, stepped manner as their rank increased, the bulk of assembled data suggests that the change is continuous. Some recent results indicate that there may be more than one coalification track for coals with different geological histories, resulting in displacement from the general trend. Several techniques have been employed to determine the optical properties of coal constituents. Usual comparative method involves the use of a microscope photometer to compare the intensity of light reflected by particles within a polished pellet of coal to that of a glass or synthetic mineral standard. Because coal is anisotropic it is common to measure either maximum reflectance in polarized light or random reflectance in non-polarized light. Various eqipment modifications and accessories have been used to improve the ease of measuring maximum reflectance.

  16. Rank Two Affine Manifolds in Genus 3

    OpenAIRE

    Aulicino, David; Nguyen, Duc-Manh

    2016-01-01

    We complete the classification of rank two affine manifolds in the moduli space of translation surfaces in genus three. Combined with a recent result of Mirzakhani and Wright, this completes the classification of higher rank affine manifolds in genus three.

  17. LogDet Rank Minimization with Application to Subspace Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-rank matrix is desired in many machine learning and computer vision problems. Most of the recent studies use the nuclear norm as a convex surrogate of the rank operator. However, all singular values are simply added together by the nuclear norm, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practical problems. In this paper, we propose using a log-determinant (LogDet function as a smooth and closer, though nonconvex, approximation to rank for obtaining a low-rank representation in subspace clustering. Augmented Lagrange multipliers strategy is applied to iteratively optimize the LogDet-based nonconvex objective function on potentially large-scale data. By making use of the angular information of principal directions of the resultant low-rank representation, an affinity graph matrix is constructed for spectral clustering. Experimental results on motion segmentation and face clustering data demonstrate that the proposed method often outperforms state-of-the-art subspace clustering algorithms.

  18. Bayesian CP Factorization of Incomplete Tensors with Automatic Rank Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qibin; Zhang, Liqing; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization of incomplete data is a powerful technique for tensor completion through explicitly capturing the multilinear latent factors. The existing CP algorithms require the tensor rank to be manually specified, however, the determination of tensor rank remains a challenging problem especially for CP rank . In addition, existing approaches do not take into account uncertainty information of latent factors, as well as missing entries. To address these issues, we formulate CP factorization using a hierarchical probabilistic model and employ a fully Bayesian treatment by incorporating a sparsity-inducing prior over multiple latent factors and the appropriate hyperpriors over all hyperparameters, resulting in automatic rank determination. To learn the model, we develop an efficient deterministic Bayesian inference algorithm, which scales linearly with data size. Our method is characterized as a tuning parameter-free approach, which can effectively infer underlying multilinear factors with a low-rank constraint, while also providing predictive distributions over missing entries. Extensive simulations on synthetic data illustrate the intrinsic capability of our method to recover the ground-truth of CP rank and prevent the overfitting problem, even when a large amount of entries are missing. Moreover, the results from real-world applications, including image inpainting and facial image synthesis, demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for both tensor factorization and tensor completion in terms of predictive performance.

  19. Using Power-Law Degree Distribution to Accelerate PageRank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyan Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The PageRank vector of a network is very important, for it can reflect the importance of a Web page in the World Wide Web, or of a people in a social network. However, with the growth of the World Wide Web and social networks, it needs more and more time to compute the PageRank vector of a network. In many real-world applications, the degree and PageRank distributions of these complex networks conform to the Power-Law distribution. This paper utilizes the degree distribution of a network to initialize its PageRank vector, and presents a Power-Law degree distribution accelerating algorithm of PageRank computation. Experiments on four real-world datasets show that the proposed algorithm converges more quickly than the original PageRank algorithm.

  20. Detecting genuine multipartite correlations in terms of the rank of coefficient matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Fan Heng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method to detect genuine quantum correlation for arbitrary quantum states in terms of the rank of coefficient matrices associated with the pure state. We then derive a necessary and sufficient condition for a quantum state to possess genuine correlation, namely that all corresponding coefficient matrices have rank larger than 1. We demonstrate an approach to decompose the genuine quantum correlated state with high rank coefficient matrix into the form of product states with no genuine quantum correlation for a pure state. (paper)

  1. The Privilege of Ranking: Google Plays Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of ranking systems used in various settings, including college football and academic admissions, focuses on the Google search engine. Explains the PageRank mathematical formula that scores Web pages by connecting the number of links; limitations, including authenticity and accuracy of ranked Web pages; relevancy; adjusting algorithms;…

  2. A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

  3. Rank hypocrisies the insult of the REF

    CERN Document Server

    Sayer, Derek

    2015-01-01

    "The REF is right out of Havel's and Kundera's Eastern Europe: a state-administered exercise to rank academic research like hotel chains dependent on the active collaboration of the UK professoriate. In crystalline text steeped in cold rage, Sayer takes aim at the REF's central claim, that it is a legitimate process of expert peer review. He critiques university and national-level REF processes against actual practices of scholarly review as found in academic journals, university presses, and North American tenure procedures. His analysis is damning. If the REF fails as scholarly review, how can academics and universities continue to participate? And how can government use its rankings as a basis for public policy?" - Tarak Barkawi, Reader in the Department of International Relations, London School of Economics "Many academics across the world have come to see the REF as an arrogant attempt to raise national research standards that has resulted in a variety of self-inflicted wounds to UK higher education. Der...

  4. Self-Help v State Intervention: The 1850 Public Libraries Act as a Reflection of Mid-Victorian Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charing, Sarah

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the passage in the United Kingdom of the Public Libraries Act of 1850 and its reflections of social and political attitudes prevalent at the time, particularly laissez-faire and utilitarianism. Individualism, national education, and middle class concern for the poor are discussed. (60 references) (LRW)

  5. Complete hazard ranking to analyze right-censored data: An ALS survival study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengnan Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis represents an important outcome measure in clinical research and clinical trials; further, survival ranking may offer additional advantages in clinical trials. In this study, we developed GuanRank, a non-parametric ranking-based technique to transform patients' survival data into a linear space of hazard ranks. The transformation enables the utilization of machine learning base-learners including Gaussian process regression, Lasso, and random forest on survival data. The method was submitted to the DREAM Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS Stratification Challenge. Ranked first place, the model gave more accurate ranking predictions on the PRO-ACT ALS dataset in comparison to Cox proportional hazard model. By utilizing right-censored data in its training process, the method demonstrated its state-of-the-art predictive power in ALS survival ranking. Its feature selection identified multiple important factors, some of which conflicts with previous studies.

  6. Complete hazard ranking to analyze right-censored data: An ALS survival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengnan; Zhang, Hongjiu; Boss, Jonathan; Goutman, Stephen A; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Dinov, Ivo D; Guan, Yuanfang

    2017-12-01

    Survival analysis represents an important outcome measure in clinical research and clinical trials; further, survival ranking may offer additional advantages in clinical trials. In this study, we developed GuanRank, a non-parametric ranking-based technique to transform patients' survival data into a linear space of hazard ranks. The transformation enables the utilization of machine learning base-learners including Gaussian process regression, Lasso, and random forest on survival data. The method was submitted to the DREAM Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Stratification Challenge. Ranked first place, the model gave more accurate ranking predictions on the PRO-ACT ALS dataset in comparison to Cox proportional hazard model. By utilizing right-censored data in its training process, the method demonstrated its state-of-the-art predictive power in ALS survival ranking. Its feature selection identified multiple important factors, some of which conflicts with previous studies.

  7. Low-Rank Sparse Coding for Image Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu; Ghanem, Bernard; Liu, Si; Xu, Changsheng; Ahuja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a low-rank sparse coding (LRSC) method that exploits local structure information among features in an image for the purpose of image-level classification. LRSC represents densely sampled SIFT descriptors, in a spatial neighborhood, collectively as low-rank, sparse linear combinations of code words. As such, it casts the feature coding problem as a low-rank matrix learning problem, which is different from previous methods that encode features independently. This LRSC has a number of attractive properties. (1) It encourages sparsity in feature codes, locality in codebook construction, and low-rankness for spatial consistency. (2) LRSC encodes local features jointly by considering their low-rank structure information, and is computationally attractive. We evaluate the LRSC by comparing its performance on a set of challenging benchmarks with that of 7 popular coding and other state-of-the-art methods. Our experiments show that by representing local features jointly, LRSC not only outperforms the state-of-the-art in classification accuracy but also improves the time complexity of methods that use a similar sparse linear representation model for feature coding.

  8. Low-Rank Sparse Coding for Image Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a low-rank sparse coding (LRSC) method that exploits local structure information among features in an image for the purpose of image-level classification. LRSC represents densely sampled SIFT descriptors, in a spatial neighborhood, collectively as low-rank, sparse linear combinations of code words. As such, it casts the feature coding problem as a low-rank matrix learning problem, which is different from previous methods that encode features independently. This LRSC has a number of attractive properties. (1) It encourages sparsity in feature codes, locality in codebook construction, and low-rankness for spatial consistency. (2) LRSC encodes local features jointly by considering their low-rank structure information, and is computationally attractive. We evaluate the LRSC by comparing its performance on a set of challenging benchmarks with that of 7 popular coding and other state-of-the-art methods. Our experiments show that by representing local features jointly, LRSC not only outperforms the state-of-the-art in classification accuracy but also improves the time complexity of methods that use a similar sparse linear representation model for feature coding.

  9. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  10. Fuzzy-set based contingency ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.; Kuo, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed for contingency ranking of Taiwan power system. To examine whether a power system can remain in a secure and reliable operating state under contingency conditions, those contingency cases that will result in loss-of-load, loss-of generation, or islanding are first identified. Then 1P-1Q iteration of fast decoupled load flow is preformed to estimate post-contingent quantities (line flows, bus voltages) for other contingency cases. Based on system operators' past experience, each post-contingent quantity is assigned a degree of severity according to the potential damage that could be imposed on the power system by the quantity, should the contingency occurs. An approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed to deal with the imprecision of linguistic terms

  11. 24 CFR 599.401 - Ranking of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ranking of applications. 599.401... Communities § 599.401 Ranking of applications. (a) Ranking order. Rural and urban applications will be ranked... applications ranked first. (b) Separate ranking categories. After initial ranking, both rural and urban...

  12. Agro-tourism and ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioca, L. I.; Giurea, R.; Precazzini, I.; Ragazzi, M.; Achim, M. I.; Schiavon, M.; Rada, E. C.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays the global tourism growth has caused a significant interest in research focused on the impact of the tourism on environment and community. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new ranking for the classification of tourist accommodation establishments with the functions of agro-tourism boarding house type by examining the sector of agro-tourism based on a research aimed to improve the economic, socio-cultural and environmental performance of agrotourism structures. This paper links the criteria for the classification of agro-tourism boarding houses (ABHs) to the impact of agro-tourism activities on the environment, enhancing an eco-friendly approach on agro-tourism activities by increasing the quality reputation of the agro-tourism products and services. Taking into account the impact on the environment, agrotourism can play an important role by protecting and conserving it.

  13. Robust Visual Tracking Via Consistent Low-Rank Sparse Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu; Liu, Si; Ahuja, Narendra; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Ghanem, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    and the low-rank minimization problem for learning joint sparse representations can be efficiently solved by a sequence of closed form update operations. We evaluate the proposed CLRST algorithm against 14 state-of-the-art tracking methods on a set of 25

  14. The Reflection of Social Values in Public School Reading Textbooks in the United States: A Critical Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the recently published Common Core State Standards Initiative, public school curriculum has once again come under scrutiny. While curriculum debates have taken place since the very beginnings of public schooling in the United States, too few have taken more than a passing notice of the textbooks that, in many cases, comprise the…

  15. Systematic differences in signal emitting and receiving revealed by PageRank analysis of a human protein interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglei Du

    Full Text Available Most protein PageRank studies do not use signal flow direction information in protein interactions because this information was not readily available in large protein databases until recently. Therefore, four questions have yet to be answered: A What is the general difference between signal emitting and receiving in a protein interactome? B Which proteins are among the top ranked in directional ranking? C Are high ranked proteins more evolutionarily conserved than low ranked ones? D Do proteins with similar ranking tend to have similar subcellular locations? In this study, we address these questions using the forward, reverse, and non-directional PageRank approaches to rank an information-directional network of human proteins and study their evolutionary conservation. The forward ranking gives credit to information receivers, reverse ranking to information emitters, and non-directional ranking mainly to the number of interactions. The protein lists generated by the forward and non-directional rankings are highly correlated, but those by the reverse and non-directional rankings are not. The results suggest that the signal emitting/receiving system is characterized by key-emittings and relatively even receivings in the human protein interactome. Signaling pathway proteins are frequent in top ranked ones. Eight proteins are both informational top emitters and top receivers. Top ranked proteins, except a few species-related novel-function ones, are evolutionarily well conserved. Protein-subunit ranking position reflects subunit function. These results demonstrate the usefulness of different PageRank approaches in characterizing protein networks and provide insights to protein interaction in the cell.

  16. Systematic differences in signal emitting and receiving revealed by PageRank analysis of a human protein interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Donglei; Lee, Connie F; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Most protein PageRank studies do not use signal flow direction information in protein interactions because this information was not readily available in large protein databases until recently. Therefore, four questions have yet to be answered: A) What is the general difference between signal emitting and receiving in a protein interactome? B) Which proteins are among the top ranked in directional ranking? C) Are high ranked proteins more evolutionarily conserved than low ranked ones? D) Do proteins with similar ranking tend to have similar subcellular locations? In this study, we address these questions using the forward, reverse, and non-directional PageRank approaches to rank an information-directional network of human proteins and study their evolutionary conservation. The forward ranking gives credit to information receivers, reverse ranking to information emitters, and non-directional ranking mainly to the number of interactions. The protein lists generated by the forward and non-directional rankings are highly correlated, but those by the reverse and non-directional rankings are not. The results suggest that the signal emitting/receiving system is characterized by key-emittings and relatively even receivings in the human protein interactome. Signaling pathway proteins are frequent in top ranked ones. Eight proteins are both informational top emitters and top receivers. Top ranked proteins, except a few species-related novel-function ones, are evolutionarily well conserved. Protein-subunit ranking position reflects subunit function. These results demonstrate the usefulness of different PageRank approaches in characterizing protein networks and provide insights to protein interaction in the cell.

  17. The Charge State of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons across a Reflection Nebula, an H II Region, and a Planetary Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2018-05-01

    Low-resolution Spitzer-IRS spectral map data of a reflection nebula (NGC 7023), H II region (M17), and planetary nebula (NGC 40), totaling 1417 spectra, are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission is broken down into PAH charge and size subclass contributions using a database-fitting approach. The resulting charge breakdown results are combined with those derived using the traditional PAH band strength ratio approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for PAH charge. Here the 6.2/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio is successfully calibrated against its database equivalent: the {n}PAH}+}/{n}PAH}0} ratio. In turn, this ratio is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates it to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature, and electron density. Population diagrams are used to derive the {{{H}}}2 density and temperature. The bifurcated plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μm PAH band strength for the northwest photo dissociation region in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the {n}PAH}+}/{n}PAH}0} ratio in all three objects. Template spectra for the PAH charge and size subclasses are determined for each object and shown to favorably compare. Using the determined template spectra from NGC 7023 to fit the emission in all three objects yields, upon inspection of the Structure SIMilarity maps, satisfactory results. The choice of extinction curve proves to be critical. Concluding, the distinctly different astronomical environments of a reflection nebula, H II region, and planetary nebula are reflected in their PAH emission spectra.

  18. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  19. State and Training Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain Networks Reflect Neuronal Mechanisms of Its Antidepressant Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Chih Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of investigating how mindfulness meditation training can have antidepressant effects via plastic changes in both resting state and meditation state brain activity is important in the rapidly emerging field of neuroplasticity. In the present study, we used a longitudinal design investigating resting state fMRI both before and after 40 days of meditation training in 13 novices. After training, we compared differences in network connectivity between rest and meditation using common resting state functional connectivity methods. Interregional methods were paired with local measures such as Regional Homogeneity. As expected, significant differences in functional connectivity both between states (rest versus meditation and between time points (before versus after training were observed. During meditation, the internal consistency in the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction increased, while the internal consistency of frontal brain regions decreased. A follow-up analysis of regional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex further revealed reduced connectivity with anterior insula during meditation. After meditation training, reduced resting state functional connectivity between the pregenual anterior cingulate and dorsal medical prefrontal cortex was observed. Most importantly, significantly reduced depression/anxiety scores were observed after training. Hence, these findings suggest that mindfulness meditation might be of therapeutic use by inducing plasticity related network changes altering the neuronal basis of affective disorders such as depression.

  20. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-06-01

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  1. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  2. Reflection Spectra of the Black Hole Binary Candidate MAXI J1535-571 in the Hard State Observed by NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanjun; Harrison, Fiona A.; García, Javier A.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fürst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Miller, Jon M.; Parker, Michael L.; Tomsick, John A.; Walton, Dominic J.

    2018-01-01

    We report on a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the recently discovered bright black hole candidate MAXI J1535-571. NuSTAR observed the source on MJD 58003 (five days after the outburst was reported). The spectrum is characteristic of a black hole binary in the hard state. We observe clear disk reflection features, including a broad Fe Kα line and a Compton hump peaking around 30 keV. Detailed spectral modeling reveals a narrow Fe Kα line complex centered around 6.5 keV on top of the strong relativistically broadened Fe Kα line. The narrow component is consistent with distant reflection from moderately ionized material. The spectral continuum is well described by a combination of cool thermal disk photons and a Comptonized plasma with the electron temperature {{kT}}{{e}}=19.7+/- 0.4 keV. An adequate fit can be achieved for the disk reflection features with a self-consistent relativistic reflection model that assumes a lamp-post geometry for the coronal illuminating source. The spectral fitting measures a black hole spin a> 0.84, inner disk radius {R}{in}lamp-post height h={7.2}-2.0+0.8 {r}{{g}} (statistical errors, 90% confidence), indicating no significant disk truncation and a compact corona. Although the distance and mass of this source are not currently known, this suggests the source was likely in the brighter phases of the hard state during this NuSTAR observation.

  3. Citation graph based ranking in Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    Marian, Ludmila; Rajman, Martin; Vesely, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Invenio is the web-based integrated digital library system developed at CERN. Within this framework, we present four types of ranking models based on the citation graph that complement the simple approach based on citation counts: time-dependent citation counts, a relevancy ranking which extends the PageRank model, a time-dependent ranking which combines the freshness of citations with PageRank and a ranking that takes into consideration the external citations. We present our analysis and results obtained on two main data sets: Inspire and CERN Document Server. Our main contributions are: (i) a study of the currently available ranking methods based on the citation graph; (ii) the development of new ranking methods that correct some of the identified limitations of the current methods such as treating all citations of equal importance, not taking time into account or considering the citation graph complete; (iii) a detailed study of the key parameters for these ranking methods. (The original publication is ava...

  4. Communities in Large Networks: Identification and Ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying and ranking the members of a community in a very large network with link analysis only, given a set of representatives of the community. We define the concept of a community justified by a formal analysis of a simple model of the evolution of a directed graph. ...... and its immediate surroundings. The members are ranked with a “local” variant of the PageRank algorithm. Results are reported from successful experiments on identifying and ranking Danish Computer Science sites and Danish Chess pages using only a few representatives....

  5. Ranking Entities in Networks via Lefschetz Duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    then be ranked according to how essential their positions are in the network by considering the effect of their respective absences. Defining a ranking of a network which takes the individual position of each entity into account has the purpose of assigning different roles to the entities, e.g. agents......, in the network. In this paper it is shown that the topology of a given network induces a ranking of the entities in the network. Further, it is demonstrated how to calculate this ranking and thus how to identify weak sub-networks in any given network....

  6. Global cities rankings. A research agenda or a neoliberal urban planning tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándida Gago García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a theoretical reflection about the methodology and meaning given to the global city rankings. There is a very large academic production about the role that some cities have in global territorial processes, which has been related to the concept of global city. Many recent contributions from the mass media, advertising and consulting services must be considered also in the analysis. All of them have included new indicators in order to show the main role that cultural services have acquired in the urban economy. Also the city rankings are being used as a tool in neoliberal policies. These policies stress the position that cities have in the rankings, which are used in practices of city-branding and to justify the neoliberal decisions that are being taken. In fact, we think that rankings are used inappropriately and that it is necessary a deep and new reflection about them.

  7. State of the Art of Language Learning Design Using Mobile Technology: Sample Apps and Some Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Elena; Read, Timothy; Underwood, Joshua; Obari, Hiroyuki; Cojocnean, Diana; Koyama, Toshiko; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Calle, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Talaván, Noa; Ávila-Cabrera, José; Ibañez, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, María; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Rodríguez, Pilar; Castrillo, María Dolores; Kétyi, Andras; Selwood, Jaime; Gaved, Mark; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, experiences from different research groups illustrate the state-of-the-art of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) in formal and non-formal education. These research samples represent recent and on-going progress made in the field of MALL at an international level and offer encouragement for practitioners who are…

  8. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  9. Conservation threats and the phylogenetic utility of IUCN Red List rankings in Incilius toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachat, Sandra R; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Mendelson, Joseph R

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of extinction threat is an emerging tool in the field of conservation. However, there are problems with the methods and data as commonly used. Phylogenetic sampling usually extends to the level of family or genus, but International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) rankings are available only for individual species, and, although different species within a taxonomic group may have the same IUCN rank, the species may have been ranked as such for different reasons. Therefore, IUCN rank may not reflect evolutionary history and thus may not be appropriate for use in a phylogenetic context. To be used appropriately, threat-risk data should reflect the cause of extinction threat rather than the IUCN threat ranking. In a case study of the toad genus Incilius, with phylogenetic sampling at the species level (so that the resolution of the phylogeny matches character data from the IUCN Red List), we analyzed causes of decline and IUCN threat rankings by calculating metrics of phylogenetic signal (such as Fritz and Purvis' D). We also analyzed the extent to which cause of decline and threat ranking overlap by calculating phylogenetic correlation between these 2 types of character data. Incilius species varied greatly in both threat ranking and cause of decline; this variability would be lost at a coarser taxonomic resolution. We found far more phylogenetic signal, likely correlated with evolutionary history, for causes of decline than for IUCN threat ranking. Individual causes of decline and IUCN threat rankings were largely uncorrelated on the phylogeny. Our results demonstrate the importance of character selection and taxonomic resolution when extinction threat is analyzed in a phylogenetic context. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Advances in ranking and selection, multiple comparisons, and reliability methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Nagaraja, HN

    2007-01-01

    S. Panchapakesan has made significant contributions to ranking and selection and has published in many other areas of statistics, including order statistics, reliability theory, stochastic inequalities, and inference. Written in his honor, the twenty invited articles in this volume reflect recent advances in these areas and form a tribute to Panchapakesan's influence and impact on these areas. Thematically organized, the chapters cover a broad range of topics from: Inference; Ranking and Selection; Multiple Comparisons and Tests; Agreement Assessment; Reliability; and Biostatistics. Featuring

  11. Ranking important nodes in complex networks by simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yu; Yao Pei-Yang; Shen Jian; Zhong Yun; Wan Lu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, based on simulated annealing a new method to rank important nodes in complex networks is presented. First, the concept of an importance sequence (IS) to describe the relative importance of nodes in complex networks is defined. Then, a measure used to evaluate the reasonability of an IS is designed. By comparing an IS and the measure of its reasonability to a state of complex networks and the energy of the state, respectively, the method finds the ground state of complex networks by simulated annealing. In other words, the method can construct a most reasonable IS. The results of experiments on real and artificial networks show that this ranking method not only is effective but also can be applied to different kinds of complex networks. (paper)

  12. Steady-state metabolite concentrations reflect a balance between maximizing enzyme efficiency and minimizing total metabolite load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama Tepper

    Full Text Available Steady-state metabolite concentrations in a microorganism typically span several orders of magnitude. The underlying principles governing these concentrations remain poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that observed variation can be explained in terms of a compromise between factors that favor minimizing metabolite pool sizes (e.g. limited solvent capacity and the need to effectively utilize existing enzymes. The latter requires adequate thermodynamic driving force in metabolic reactions so that forward flux substantially exceeds reverse flux. To test this hypothesis, we developed a method, metabolic tug-of-war (mTOW, which computes steady-state metabolite concentrations in microorganisms on a genome-scale. mTOW is shown to explain up to 55% of the observed variation in measured metabolite concentrations in E. coli and C. acetobutylicum across various growth media. Our approach, based strictly on first thermodynamic principles, is the first method that successfully predicts high-throughput metabolite concentration data in bacteria across conditions.

  13. In the heat of the moment: The effect of impulsive and reflective states on sexual risk decisions

    OpenAIRE

    den Daas, C.

    2013-01-01

    Why do people behave in ways that are bad for them in the long term? People are bad at resisting temptations at the expense of their long-term goals, they for instance have unprotected sex despite their long term goal to stay healthy. Impulsivity is often coined as reason for these kinds of behavior. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate why impulsiveness leads to riskier decisions. We first investigated the intuitively appealing, but unlikely, notion that people in impulsive states ...

  14. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  16. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2014-10-01

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  17. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-10-17

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  18. Neural Ranking Models with Weak Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehghani, M.; Zamani, H.; Severyn, A.; Kamps, J.; Croft, W.B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the impressive improvements achieved by unsupervised deep neural networks in computer vision and NLP tasks, such improvements have not yet been observed in ranking for information retrieval. The reason may be the complexity of the ranking problem, as it is not obvious how to learn from

  19. A Rational Method for Ranking Engineering Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glower, Donald D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares two methods for ranking academic programs, the opinion poll v examination of career successes of the program's alumni. For the latter, "Who's Who in Engineering" and levels of research funding provided data. Tables display resulting data and compare rankings by the two methods for chemical engineering and civil engineering. (CS)

  20. Lerot: An Online Learning to Rank Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuth, A.; Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Online learning to rank methods for IR allow retrieval systems to optimize their own performance directly from interactions with users via click feedback. In the software package Lerot, presented in this paper, we have bundled all ingredients needed for experimenting with online learning to rank for

  1. Adaptive distributional extensions to DFR ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Casper; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2016-01-01

    -fitting distribution. We call this model Adaptive Distributional Ranking (ADR) because it adapts the ranking to the statistics of the specific dataset being processed each time. Experiments on TREC data show ADR to outperform DFR models (and their extensions) and be comparable in performance to a query likelihood...

  2. Contests with rank-order spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Baye (Michael); D. Kovenock (Dan); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a unified framework for characterizing symmetric equilibrium in simultaneous move, two-player, rank-order contests with complete information, in which each player's strategy generates direct or indirect affine "spillover" effects that depend on the rank-order of her

  3. Classification of rank 2 cluster varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandel, Travis

    We classify rank 2 cluster varieties (those whose corresponding skew-form has rank 2) according to the deformation type of a generic fiber U of their X-spaces, as defined by Fock and Goncharov. Our approach is based on the work of Gross, Hacking, and Keel for cluster varieties and log Calabi...

  4. Using centrality to rank web snippets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; Peters, C.; Jijkoun, V.; Mandl, T.; Müller, H.; Oard, D.W.; Peñas, A.; Petras, V.; Santos, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our participation in the WebCLEF 2007 task, targeted at snippet retrieval from web data. Our system ranks snippets based on a simple similarity-based centrality, inspired by the web page ranking algorithms. We experimented with retrieval units (sentences and paragraphs) and with the

  5. Mining Feedback in Ranking and Recommendation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziming

    2009-01-01

    The amount of online information has grown exponentially over the past few decades, and users become more and more dependent on ranking and recommendation systems to address their information seeking needs. The advance in information technologies has enabled users to provide feedback on the utilities of the underlying ranking and recommendation…

  6. Entity Ranking using Wikipedia as a Pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about

  7. Entity ranking using Wikipedia as a pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; de Vries, A.; Kamps, J.; Huang, X.J.; Jones, G.; Koudas, N.; Wu, X.; Collins-Thompson, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about these entities. Since

  8. Rank 2 fusion rings are complete intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections.......We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections....

  9. A Ranking Method for Evaluating Constructed Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparative judgment approach for holistically scored constructed response tasks. In this approach, the grader rank orders (rather than rate) the quality of a small set of responses. A prior automated evaluation of responses guides both set formation and scaling of rankings. Sets are formed to have similar prior scores and…

  10. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...

  11. Ranking of Unwarranted Variations in Healthcare Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Herry; Brekelmans, Ruud; Hamers, Herbert; Hasaart, F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a framework designed to identify and rank possible unwarranted variation of treatments in healthcare. The innovative aspect of this framework is a ranking procedure that aims to identify healthcare institutions where unwarranted variation is most severe, and diagnosis

  12. The Rankings Game: Who's Playing Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This summer, Forbes magazine published its new rankings of "America's Best Colleges," implying that it had developed a methodology that would give the public the information that it needed to choose a college wisely. "U.S. News & World Report," which in 1983 published the first annual ranking, just announced its latest ratings last week--including…

  13. Dynamic collective entity representations for entity ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, D.; Tsagkias, M.; Weerkamp, W.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Entity ranking, i.e., successfully positioning a relevant entity at the top of the ranking for a given query, is inherently difficult due to the potential mismatch between the entity's description in a knowledge base, and the way people refer to the entity when searching for it. To counter this

  14. Child Care: Recent State Policy Changes Affecting the Availability of Assistance for Low-Income Families. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    At Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined states choices for providing child care assistance to families and states' proposed changes to child care assistance programs for fiscal year 2004. Information was obtained through a survey of child care administrators of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Findings revealed…

  15. Comparing classical and quantum PageRanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, T.; Tang, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Small, M.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Following recent developments in quantum PageRanking, we present a comparative analysis of discrete-time and continuous-time quantum-walk-based PageRank algorithms. Relative to classical PageRank and to different extents, the quantum measures better highlight secondary hubs and resolve ranking degeneracy among peripheral nodes for all networks we studied in this paper. For the discrete-time case, we investigated the periodic nature of the walker's probability distribution for a wide range of networks and found that the dominant period does not grow with the size of these networks. Based on this observation, we introduce a new quantum measure using the maximum probabilities of the associated walker during the first couple of periods. This is particularly important, since it leads to a quantum PageRanking scheme that is scalable with respect to network size.

  16. Universal emergence of PageRank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahm, K M; Georgeot, B; Shepelyansky, D L, E-mail: frahm@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr, E-mail: georgeot@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr, E-mail: dima@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-18

    The PageRank algorithm enables us to rank the nodes of a network through a specific eigenvector of the Google matrix, using a damping parameter {alpha} Element-Of ]0, 1[. Using extensive numerical simulations of large web networks, with a special accent on British University networks, we determine numerically and analytically the universal features of the PageRank vector at its emergence when {alpha} {yields} 1. The whole network can be divided into a core part and a group of invariant subspaces. For {alpha} {yields} 1, PageRank converges to a universal power-law distribution on the invariant subspaces whose size distribution also follows a universal power law. The convergence of PageRank at {alpha} {yields} 1 is controlled by eigenvalues of the core part of the Google matrix, which are extremely close to unity, leading to large relaxation times as, for example, in spin glasses. (paper)

  17. Universal emergence of PageRank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, K M; Georgeot, B; Shepelyansky, D L

    2011-01-01

    The PageRank algorithm enables us to rank the nodes of a network through a specific eigenvector of the Google matrix, using a damping parameter α ∈ ]0, 1[. Using extensive numerical simulations of large web networks, with a special accent on British University networks, we determine numerically and analytically the universal features of the PageRank vector at its emergence when α → 1. The whole network can be divided into a core part and a group of invariant subspaces. For α → 1, PageRank converges to a universal power-law distribution on the invariant subspaces whose size distribution also follows a universal power law. The convergence of PageRank at α → 1 is controlled by eigenvalues of the core part of the Google matrix, which are extremely close to unity, leading to large relaxation times as, for example, in spin glasses. (paper)

  18. Expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 reflects the state of villus architecture in human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gassler, Nikolaus; Kopitz, Jürgen; Tehrani, Arman

    2004-01-01

    Several disorders of the small intestine are associated with disturbances in villus architecture. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the differentiation of villi represents an important step in the improvement of the understanding of small intestinal pathology......-CoA synthetase 5 pattern correlate with conversion of intestinal epithelial cells to a gastric phenotype. These results suggest that deranged acyl-CoA synthetase 5 expression, synthesis, and activity are closely related to the state of villus architecture and epithelial homeostasis in human small intestine....

  19. PageRank and rank-reversal dependence on the damping factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.-W.; Christensen, C.; Grassberger, P.; Paczuski, M.

    2012-12-01

    PageRank (PR) is an algorithm originally developed by Google to evaluate the importance of web pages. Considering how deeply rooted Google's PR algorithm is to gathering relevant information or to the success of modern businesses, the question of rank stability and choice of the damping factor (a parameter in the algorithm) is clearly important. We investigate PR as a function of the damping factor d on a network obtained from a domain of the World Wide Web, finding that rank reversal happens frequently over a broad range of PR (and of d). We use three different correlation measures, Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, to study rank reversal as d changes, and we show that the correlation of PR vectors drops rapidly as d changes from its frequently cited value, d0=0.85. Rank reversal is also observed by measuring the Spearman and Kendall rank correlation, which evaluate relative ranks rather than absolute PR. Rank reversal happens not only in directed networks containing rank sinks but also in a single strongly connected component, which by definition does not contain any sinks. We relate rank reversals to rank pockets and bottlenecks in the directed network structure. For the network studied, the relative rank is more stable by our measures around d=0.65 than at d=d0.

  20. PageRank and rank-reversal dependence on the damping factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S-W; Christensen, C; Grassberger, P; Paczuski, M

    2012-12-01

    PageRank (PR) is an algorithm originally developed by Google to evaluate the importance of web pages. Considering how deeply rooted Google's PR algorithm is to gathering relevant information or to the success of modern businesses, the question of rank stability and choice of the damping factor (a parameter in the algorithm) is clearly important. We investigate PR as a function of the damping factor d on a network obtained from a domain of the World Wide Web, finding that rank reversal happens frequently over a broad range of PR (and of d). We use three different correlation measures, Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, to study rank reversal as d changes, and we show that the correlation of PR vectors drops rapidly as d changes from its frequently cited value, d_{0}=0.85. Rank reversal is also observed by measuring the Spearman and Kendall rank correlation, which evaluate relative ranks rather than absolute PR. Rank reversal happens not only in directed networks containing rank sinks but also in a single strongly connected component, which by definition does not contain any sinks. We relate rank reversals to rank pockets and bottlenecks in the directed network structure. For the network studied, the relative rank is more stable by our measures around d=0.65 than at d=d_{0}.

  1. A tilting approach to ranking influence

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-12-01

    We suggest a new approach, which is applicable for general statistics computed from random samples of univariate or vector-valued or functional data, to assessing the influence that individual data have on the value of a statistic, and to ranking the data in terms of that influence. Our method is based on, first, perturbing the value of the statistic by ‘tilting’, or reweighting, each data value, where the total amount of tilt is constrained to be the least possible, subject to achieving a given small perturbation of the statistic, and, then, taking the ranking of the influence of data values to be that which corresponds to ranking the changes in data weights. It is shown, both theoretically and numerically, that this ranking does not depend on the size of the perturbation, provided that the perturbation is sufficiently small. That simple result leads directly to an elegant geometric interpretation of the ranks; they are the ranks of the lengths of projections of the weights onto a ‘line’ determined by the first empirical principal component function in a generalized measure of covariance. To illustrate the generality of the method we introduce and explore it in the case of functional data, where (for example) it leads to generalized boxplots. The method has the advantage of providing an interpretable ranking that depends on the statistic under consideration. For example, the ranking of data, in terms of their influence on the value of a statistic, is different for a measure of location and for a measure of scale. This is as it should be; a ranking of data in terms of their influence should depend on the manner in which the data are used. Additionally, the ranking recognizes, rather than ignores, sign, and in particular can identify left- and right-hand ‘tails’ of the distribution of a random function or vector.

  2. Dominance-based ranking functions for interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan; Tu, Chien-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    The ranking of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IvIFSs) is difficult since they include the interval values of membership and nonmembership. This paper proposes ranking functions for IvIFSs based on the dominance concept. The proposed ranking functions consider the degree to which an IvIFS dominates and is not dominated by other IvIFSs. Based on the bivariate framework and the dominance concept, the functions incorporate not only the boundary values of membership and nonmembership, but also the relative relations among IvIFSs in comparisons. The dominance-based ranking functions include bipolar evaluations with a parameter that allows the decision-maker to reflect his actual attitude in allocating the various kinds of dominance. The relationship for two IvIFSs that satisfy the dual couple is defined based on four proposed ranking functions. Importantly, the proposed ranking functions can achieve a full ranking for all IvIFSs. Two examples are used to demonstrate the applicability and distinctiveness of the proposed ranking functions.

  3. Copy number variations of genes involved in stress responses reflect the redox state and DNA damage in brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Natkanska, Urszula; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Panek, Anita; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The yeast strains of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex involved in beer production are a heterogeneous group whose genetic and genomic features are not adequately determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a genetic characterization of selected group of commercially available brewing yeasts both ale top-fermenting and lager bottom-fermenting strains. Molecular karyotyping revealed that the diversity of chromosome patterns and four strains with the most accented genetic variabilities were selected and subjected to genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. The differences in the gene copy number were found in five functional gene categories: (1) maltose metabolism and transport, (2) response to toxin, (3) siderophore transport, (4) cellular aldehyde metabolic process, and (5) L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase activity (p < 0.05). In the Saflager W-34/70 strain (Fermentis) with the most affected array-CGH profile, loss of aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) gene dosage correlated with an imbalanced redox state, oxidative DNA damage and breaks, lower levels of nucleolar proteins Nop1 and Fob1, and diminished tolerance to fermentation-associated stress stimuli compared to other strains. We suggest that compromised stress response may not only promote oxidant-based changes in the nucleolus state that may affect fermentation performance but also provide novel directions for future strain improvement.

  4. Warfare and Socio-political hierarchies: reflections on non-State societies of the predynastic Nile Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayubas, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article, anthropologist Robert L. Carneiro reassessed his most debated hypothesis about the emergence of chiefdoms and the State as a result of environmental or social circumscription, theorized for a series of historical contexts including that of the Predynastic Nile Valley. The problem of the origin of the State is beyond our scope, but regarding the emergence of institutionalized leadership and chiefdoms in the Nile Valley, Carneiro’s ideas about warfare as a main factor in the process of social change remain interesting, even when his insistence in circumscription is still debatable. The aim of the present paper is to briefly review the available archaeological evidence of warfare among non-State societies of the Predynastic Nile Valley, and to evaluate its possible relation to the emergence of socio-political hierarchies, in turn refering to and criticizing some of Carneiro’s recent ideas about the issue.En un artículo reciente, Robert L. Carneiro presentó una reconsideración de su muy debatida hipótesis acerca de la emergencia de sociedades de jefatura y del Estado como resultado de un contexto de circunscripción ambiental, teorizada para una serie de situaciones históricas, entre ellas el valle del Nilo predinástico. El problema del origen del Estado excede las posibilidades de este trabajo, pero en lo que respecta al surgimiento de jefaturas, consideramos que las ideas de Carneiro acerca de la guerra como factor de importancia en el proceso revisten cierto interés, aun cuando su insistencia en la circunscripción continúa siendo discutible. El objetivo del presente artículo es considerar la evidencia arqueológica de guerra disponible para las sociedades no estatales del valle del Nilo predinástico y evaluar la posible relación entre dichos testimonios y la emergencia de jerarquías sociopolíticas, refiriendo y criticando algunas de las ideas recientes de Carneiro sobre el problema.

  5. On the dimension of subspaces with bounded Schmidt rank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubitt, Toby; Montanaro, Ashley; Winter, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We consider the question of how large a subspace of a given bipartite quantum system can be when the subspace contains only highly entangled states. This is motivated in part by results of Hayden et al. [e-print arXiv:quant-ph/0407049; Commun. Math. Phys., 265, 95 (2006)], which show that in large dxd-dimensional systems there exist random subspaces of dimension almost d 2 , all of whose states have entropy of entanglement at least log d-O(1). It is also a generalization of results on the dimension of completely entangled subspaces, which have connections with the construction of unextendible product bases. Here we take as entanglement measure the Schmidt rank, and determine, for every pair of local dimensions d A and d B , and every r, the largest dimension of a subspace consisting only of entangled states of Schmidt rank r or larger. This exact answer is a significant improvement on the best bounds that can be obtained using the random subspace techniques in Hayden et al. We also determine the converse: the largest dimension of a subspace with an upper bound on the Schmidt rank. Finally, we discuss the question of subspaces containing only states with Schmidt equal to r

  6. Social science and the public agenda: reflections on the relation of knowledge to policy in the United States and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilensky, H L

    1997-10-01

    It is tempting to oversell the practical value of applied research. A hard look at the effects of U.S. social science on public policy in areas such as active labor market policies (training, job creation, placement, etc.), crime prevention, fiscal policy, poverty reduction, and health care reform suggests an inverse relationship between social science consensus and policy and budgetary decisions. Fragmented and decentralized political economies (e.g., the United States) foster policy segmentation and isolated, short-run single-issue research--often politicized and misleading. More corporatist democracies (such as Sweden, Norway, Austria, and Germany) evidence a tighter relation between knowledge and power in which a wider range of issues is connected, longer-range effects are sometimes considered, and research is more often actually used for planning and implementation. Even in less hospitable societies, however, social science does make its way in the long run. Favorable conditions and examples are discussed.

  7. Searches for violation of the combined space reflection (P) and time reversal (T) symmetry in solid state experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkov, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electric dipole moment (EDM) of an elementary particle is a manifestation of the violation of the fundamental TP-symmetry. Because of the CRT-theorem TP-violation is related to CP-violation. Present experimental limitations on electron and neutron EDM as well as limitations on nuclear Schiff moments impose important constrains on physics beyond the standard model. Unfortunately the standard approaches for search of EDM in atomic, molecular, and neutron experiments are close to their sensitivity limit. There are novel suggestions for searches of the fundamental TP-violation in solid state experiments. Two groups lead by Lamoreaux (Los Alamos) and Hunter (Amherst college) are preparing these experiments. We calculate the expected effect. The improvement of sensitivity compared to the present level can reach 6-8 orders of magnitude!

  8. Ranking Highlights in Personal Videos by Analyzing Edited Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Farhadi, Ali; Chen, Tseng-Hung; Seitz, Steve

    2016-11-01

    We present a fully automatic system for ranking domain-specific highlights in unconstrained personal videos by analyzing online edited videos. A novel latent linear ranking model is proposed to handle noisy training data harvested online. Specifically, given a targeted domain such as "surfing," our system mines the YouTube database to find pairs of raw and their corresponding edited videos. Leveraging the assumption that an edited video is more likely to contain highlights than the trimmed parts of the raw video, we obtain pair-wise ranking constraints to train our model. The learning task is challenging due to the amount of noise and variation in the mined data. Hence, a latent loss function is incorporated to mitigate the issues caused by the noise. We efficiently learn the latent model on a large number of videos (about 870 min in total) using a novel EM-like procedure. Our latent ranking model outperforms its classification counterpart and is fairly competitive compared with a fully supervised ranking system that requires labels from Amazon Mechanical Turk. We further show that a state-of-the-art audio feature mel-frequency cepstral coefficients is inferior to a state-of-the-art visual feature. By combining both audio-visual features, we obtain the best performance in dog activity, surfing, skating, and viral video domains. Finally, we show that impressive highlights can be detected without additional human supervision for seven domains (i.e., skating, surfing, skiing, gymnastics, parkour, dog activity, and viral video) in unconstrained personal videos.

  9. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf

    2015-03-23

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective: The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods: We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results: There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions: ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  10. Ranking adverse drug reactions with crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Altman, Russ B

    2015-03-23

    There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  11. Connectivity ranking of heterogeneous random conductivity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, C. B.; de Barros, F.

    2017-12-01

    To overcome the challenges associated with hydrogeological data scarcity, the hydraulic conductivity (K) field is often represented by a spatial random process. The state-of-the-art provides several methods to generate 2D or 3D random K-fields, such as the classic multi-Gaussian fields or non-Gaussian fields, training image-based fields and object-based fields. We provide a systematic comparison of these models based on their connectivity. We use the minimum hydraulic resistance as a connectivity measure, which it has been found to be strictly correlated with early time arrival of dissolved contaminants. A computationally efficient graph-based algorithm is employed, allowing a stochastic treatment of the minimum hydraulic resistance through a Monte-Carlo approach and therefore enabling the computation of its uncertainty. The results show the impact of geostatistical parameters on the connectivity for each group of random fields, being able to rank the fields according to their minimum hydraulic resistance.

  12. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  13. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  14. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  15. RankExplorer: Visualization of Ranking Changes in Large Time Series Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Conglei; Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Xu, Panpan; Chen, Wei; Qu, Huamin

    2012-12-01

    For many applications involving time series data, people are often interested in the changes of item values over time as well as their ranking changes. For example, people search many words via search engines like Google and Bing every day. Analysts are interested in both the absolute searching number for each word as well as their relative rankings. Both sets of statistics may change over time. For very large time series data with thousands of items, how to visually present ranking changes is an interesting challenge. In this paper, we propose RankExplorer, a novel visualization method based on ThemeRiver to reveal the ranking changes. Our method consists of four major components: 1) a segmentation method which partitions a large set of time series curves into a manageable number of ranking categories; 2) an extended ThemeRiver view with embedded color bars and changing glyphs to show the evolution of aggregation values related to each ranking category over time as well as the content changes in each ranking category; 3) a trend curve to show the degree of ranking changes over time; 4) rich user interactions to support interactive exploration of ranking changes. We have applied our method to some real time series data and the case studies demonstrate that our method can reveal the underlying patterns related to ranking changes which might otherwise be obscured in traditional visualizations.

  16. Reflections on attitudes, experiences, and vulnerability of intimate partner violence among Southeast Asian college women living in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Buseh, Aaron; Arunothong, Wachiraporn

    2015-12-01

    To provide culturally sensitive intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs for ethnic groups, a basic foundational understanding of Southeast Asian (SEA) women living in the United States is vital. The purpose of this study was to describe SEA college women's perceptions of IPV and how the women recognize their vulnerability to such violent situations. Qualitative methods using focus group discussions were employed to elicit participants' perceptions. Participants included 18 SEA college women, ages 18-34 (Mean=22; SD=7.22). Transcriptions were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged: recognition of IPV; perception of individual vulnerability to IPV; experience and responses to IPV; help seeking and support system; and strategies used for prevention of IPV. Findings yielded an understanding of intertwined issues of cultural norms associated with IPV, social and economic disparities, and challenges for IPV prevention in SEA communities. Culturally sensitive prevention programs will be more effective by reforming cultural values, while at the same time promoting non-violent relationships and increasing access to services. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Improve Biomedical Information Retrieval using Modified Learning to Rank Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Lin, Hongfei; Lin, Yuan; Ma, Yunlong; Yang, Liang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhihao

    2016-06-14

    In these years, the number of biomedical articles has increased exponentially, which becomes a problem for biologists to capture all the needed information manually. Information retrieval technologies, as the core of search engines, can deal with the problem automatically, providing users with the needed information. However, it is a great challenge to apply these technologies directly for biomedical retrieval, because of the abundance of domain specific terminologies. To enhance biomedical retrieval, we propose a novel framework based on learning to rank. Learning to rank is a series of state-of-the-art information retrieval techniques, and has been proved effective in many information retrieval tasks. In the proposed framework, we attempt to tackle the problem of the abundance of terminologies by constructing ranking models, which focus on not only retrieving the most relevant documents, but also diversifying the searching results to increase the completeness of the resulting list for a given query. In the model training, we propose two novel document labeling strategies, and combine several traditional retrieval models as learning features. Besides, we also investigate the usefulness of different learning to rank approaches in our framework. Experimental results on TREC Genomics datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework for biomedical information retrieval.

  19. Leveraging Multiactions to Improve Medical Personalized Ranking for Collaborative Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, providing high-quality recommendation services to users is an essential component in web applications, including shopping, making friends, and healthcare. This can be regarded either as a problem of estimating users’ preference by exploiting explicit feedbacks (numerical ratings, or as a problem of collaborative ranking with implicit feedback (e.g., purchases, views, and clicks. Previous works for solving this issue include pointwise regression methods and pairwise ranking methods. The emerging healthcare websites and online medical databases impose a new challenge for medical service recommendation. In this paper, we develop a model, MBPR (Medical Bayesian Personalized Ranking over multiple users’ actions, based on the simple observation that users tend to assign higher ranks to some kind of healthcare services that are meanwhile preferred in users’ other actions. Experimental results on the real-world datasets demonstrate that MBPR achieves more accurate recommendations than several state-of-the-art methods and shows its generality and scalability via experiments on the datasets from one mobile shopping app.

  20. Leveraging Multiactions to Improve Medical Personalized Ranking for Collaborative Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Guo, Guibing; Li, Runzhi; Wang, Zongmin

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, providing high-quality recommendation services to users is an essential component in web applications, including shopping, making friends, and healthcare. This can be regarded either as a problem of estimating users' preference by exploiting explicit feedbacks (numerical ratings), or as a problem of collaborative ranking with implicit feedback (e.g., purchases, views, and clicks). Previous works for solving this issue include pointwise regression methods and pairwise ranking methods. The emerging healthcare websites and online medical databases impose a new challenge for medical service recommendation. In this paper, we develop a model, MBPR (Medical Bayesian Personalized Ranking over multiple users' actions), based on the simple observation that users tend to assign higher ranks to some kind of healthcare services that are meanwhile preferred in users' other actions. Experimental results on the real-world datasets demonstrate that MBPR achieves more accurate recommendations than several state-of-the-art methods and shows its generality and scalability via experiments on the datasets from one mobile shopping app.

  1. Low-rank sparse learning for robust visual tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new particle-filter based tracking algorithm that exploits the relationship between particles (candidate targets). By representing particles as sparse linear combinations of dictionary templates, this algorithm capitalizes on the inherent low-rank structure of particle representations that are learned jointly. As such, it casts the tracking problem as a low-rank matrix learning problem. This low-rank sparse tracker (LRST) has a number of attractive properties. (1) Since LRST adaptively updates dictionary templates, it can handle significant changes in appearance due to variations in illumination, pose, scale, etc. (2) The linear representation in LRST explicitly incorporates background templates in the dictionary and a sparse error term, which enables LRST to address the tracking drift problem and to be robust against occlusion respectively. (3) LRST is computationally attractive, since the low-rank learning problem can be efficiently solved as a sequence of closed form update operations, which yield a time complexity that is linear in the number of particles and the template size. We evaluate the performance of LRST by applying it to a set of challenging video sequences and comparing it to 6 popular tracking methods. Our experiments show that by representing particles jointly, LRST not only outperforms the state-of-the-art in tracking accuracy but also significantly improves the time complexity of methods that use a similar sparse linear representation model for particles [1]. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Discriminative Multi-View Interactive Image Re-Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Xu, Chang; Yang, Wankou; Sun, Changyin; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-07-01

    Given an unreliable visual patterns and insufficient query information, content-based image retrieval is often suboptimal and requires image re-ranking using auxiliary information. In this paper, we propose a discriminative multi-view interactive image re-ranking (DMINTIR), which integrates user relevance feedback capturing users' intentions and multiple features that sufficiently describe the images. In DMINTIR, heterogeneous property features are incorporated in the multi-view learning scheme to exploit their complementarities. In addition, a discriminatively learned weight vector is obtained to reassign updated scores and target images for re-ranking. Compared with other multi-view learning techniques, our scheme not only generates a compact representation in the latent space from the redundant multi-view features but also maximally preserves the discriminative information in feature encoding by the large-margin principle. Furthermore, the generalization error bound of the proposed algorithm is theoretically analyzed and shown to be improved by the interactions between the latent space and discriminant function learning. Experimental results on two benchmark data sets demonstrate that our approach boosts baseline retrieval quality and is competitive with the other state-of-the-art re-ranking strategies.

  3. Time-Aware Service Ranking Prediction in the Internet of Things Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuze; Huang, Jiwei; Cheng, Bo; He, Shuqing; Chen, Junliang

    2017-04-27

    With the rapid development of the Internet of things (IoT), building IoT systems with high quality of service (QoS) has become an urgent requirement in both academia and industry. During the procedures of building IoT systems, QoS-aware service selection is an important concern, which requires the ranking of a set of functionally similar services according to their QoS values. In reality, however, it is quite expensive and even impractical to evaluate all geographically-dispersed IoT services at a single client to obtain such a ranking. Nevertheless, distributed measurement and ranking aggregation have to deal with the high dynamics of QoS values and the inconsistency of partial rankings. To address these challenges, we propose a time-aware service ranking prediction approach named TSRPred for obtaining the global ranking from the collection of partial rankings. Specifically, a pairwise comparison model is constructed to describe the relationships between different services, where the partial rankings are obtained by time series forecasting on QoS values. The comparisons of IoT services are formulated by random walks, and thus, the global ranking can be obtained by sorting the steady-state probabilities of the underlying Markov chain. Finally, the efficacy of TSRPred is validated by simulation experiments based on large-scale real-world datasets.

  4. Time-Aware Service Ranking Prediction in the Internet of Things Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuze Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet of things (IoT, building IoT systems with high quality of service (QoS has become an urgent requirement in both academia and industry. During the procedures of building IoT systems, QoS-aware service selection is an important concern, which requires the ranking of a set of functionally similar services according to their QoS values. In reality, however, it is quite expensive and even impractical to evaluate all geographically-dispersed IoT services at a single client to obtain such a ranking. Nevertheless, distributed measurement and ranking aggregation have to deal with the high dynamics of QoS values and the inconsistency of partial rankings. To address these challenges, we propose a time-aware service ranking prediction approach named TSRPred for obtaining the global ranking from the collection of partial rankings. Specifically, a pairwise comparison model is constructed to describe the relationships between different services, where the partial rankings are obtained by time series forecasting on QoS values. The comparisons of IoT services are formulated by random walks, and thus, the global ranking can be obtained by sorting the steady-state probabilities of the underlying Markov chain. Finally, the efficacy of TSRPred is validated by simulation experiments based on large-scale real-world datasets.

  5. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  6. Communities in Large Networks: Identification and Ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    show that the problem of deciding whether a non trivial community exists is NP complete. Nevertheless, experiments show that a very simple greedy approach can identify members of a community in the Danish part of the web graph with time complexity only dependent on the size of the found community...... and its immediate surroundings. The members are ranked with a “local” variant of the PageRank algorithm. Results are reported from successful experiments on identifying and ranking Danish Computer Science sites and Danish Chess pages using only a few representatives....

  7. A Universal Rank-Size Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A mere hyperbolic law, like the Zipf’s law power function, is often inadequate to describe rank-size relationships. An alternative theoretical distribution is proposed based on theoretical physics arguments starting from the Yule-Simon distribution. A modeling is proposed leading to a universal form. A theoretical suggestion for the “best (or optimal) distribution”, is provided through an entropy argument. The ranking of areas through the number of cities in various countries and some sport competition ranking serves for the present illustrations. PMID:27812192

  8. Does resident ranking during recruitment accurately predict subsequent performance as a surgical resident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Jonathan P; Corcoran, Noreen; George, Brian; Wang, Ed; Darosa, Debra

    2012-01-01

    While the primary goal of ranking applicants for surgical residency training positions is to identify the candidates who will subsequently perform best as surgical residents, the effectiveness of the ranking process has not been adequately studied. We evaluated our general surgery resident recruitment process between 2001 and 2011 inclusive, to determine if our recruitment ranking parameters effectively predicted subsequent resident performance. We identified 3 candidate ranking parameters (United States Medical Licensing Examination [USMLE] Step 1 score, unadjusted ranking score [URS], and final adjusted ranking [FAR]), and 4 resident performance parameters (American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination [ABSITE] score, PGY1 resident evaluation grade [REG], overall REG, and independent faculty rating ranking [IFRR]), and assessed whether the former were predictive of the latter. Analyses utilized Spearman correlation coefficient. We found that the URS, which is based on objective and criterion based parameters, was a better predictor of subsequent performance than the FAR, which is a modification of the URS based on subsequent determinations of the resident selection committee. USMLE score was a reliable predictor of ABSITE scores only. However, when we compared our worst residence performances with the performances of the other residents in this evaluation, the data did not produce convincing evidence that poor resident performances could be reliably predicted by any of the recruitment ranking parameters. Finally, stratifying candidates based on their rank range did not effectively define a ranking cut-off beyond which resident performance would drop off. Based on these findings, we recommend surgery programs may be better served by utilizing a more structured resident ranking process and that subsequent adjustments to the rank list generated by this process should be undertaken with caution. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery

  9. Focus group reflections on the current and future state of cognitive assessment tools in geriatric health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead JC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jocelyne C Whitehead,1 Sara A Gambino,1 Jeffrey D Richter,2 Jennifer D Ryan1,3,41Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, 2Independent Human Factors Consultant, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: This study provides insight into the thoughts and opinions of geriatric health-care professionals toward cognitive assessments and the use of emerging technologies, such as eye-tracking, to supplement current tools.Methods: Two focus group sessions were conducted with nurses and physicians who routinely administer neurocognitive assessments to geriatric populations. Video recordings of the focus group sessions were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed.Results: Participants reported the need for assessment and diagnostic tools that are accessible and efficient, and that are capable of accommodating the rapid growth in the aging population. The prevalence of more complex ailments experienced by older adults has had repercussions in the quality of care that the clients receive, and has contributed to lengthy wait times and resource shortages. Health-care professionals stated that they are hampered by the disjointed structure of the health-care system and that they would benefit from a more efficient allocation of responsibilities made possible through tools that did not require extensive training or certification. Eyetracking-based cognitive assessments were thought to strongly complement this system, yet it was thought that difficulty would be faced in gaining the support and increased uptake by health-care professionals due to the nonintuitive relationship between eyetracking and cognition.Conclusion: The findings suggest that health-care professionals are receptive to the use of eyetracking technology to assess for cognitive health as it would conserve resources by allowing frontline staff to administer assessments with minimal training

  10. The protonation state around TyrD/TyrD• in photosystem II is reflected in its biphasic oxidation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöholm, Johannes; Ho, Felix; Ahmadova, Nigar; Brinkert, Katharina; Hammarström, Leif; Mamedov, Fikret; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2017-02-01

    The tyrosine residue D2-Tyr160 (Tyr D ) in photosystem II (PSII) can be oxidized through charge equilibrium with the oxygen evolving complex in PSII. The kinetics of the electron transfer from Tyr D has been followed using time-resolved EPR spectroscopy after triggering the oxidation of pre-reduced Tyr D by a short laser flash. After its oxidation Tyr D is observed as a neutral radical (Tyr D • ) indicating that the oxidation is coupled to a deprotonation event. The redox state of Tyr D was reported to be determined by the two water positions identified in the crystal structure of PSII [Saito et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 7690]. To assess the mechanism of the proton coupled electron transfer of Tyr D the oxidation kinetics has been followed in the presence of deuterated buffers, thereby resolving the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of Tyr D oxidation at different H/D concentrations. Two kinetic phases of Tyr D oxidation - the fast phase (msec-sec time range) and the slow phase (tens of seconds time range) were resolved as was previously reported [Vass and Styring (1991) Biochemistry 30, 830]. In the presence of deuterated buffers the kinetics was significantly slower compared to normal buffers. Furthermore, although the kinetics were faster at both high pH and pD values the observed KIE was found to be similar (~2.4) over the whole pL range investigated. We assign the fast and slow oxidation phases to two populations of PSII centers with different water positions, proximal and distal respectively, and discuss possible deprotonation events in the vicinity of Tyr D . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Is spectral reflectance of the face a reliable biometric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzair, Muhammad; Mahmood, Arif; Shafait, Faisal; Nansen, Christian; Mian, Ajmal

    2015-06-15

    Over a decade ago, Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] performed face recognition using only the spectral reflectance of the face at six points and reported around 95% recognition rate. Since their database is private, no one has been able to replicate these results. Moreover, due to the unavailability of public datasets, there has been no detailed study in the literature on the viability of facial spectral reflectance for person identification. In this study, we introduce a new public database of facial spectral reflectance profiles measured with a high precision spectrometer. For each of the 40 subjects, spectral reflectance was measured at the same six points as Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] in multiple sessions and with time lapse. Furthermore, we sample the facial spectral reflectance from two public hyperspectral face image datasets and analyzed the data using state of the art face classification techniques. The best performing classifier achieved the maximum rank-1 identification rate of 53.8%. We conclude that facial spectral reflectance alone is not a reliable biometric for unconstrained face recognition.

  12. Robust Visual Tracking Via Consistent Low-Rank Sparse Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-06-19

    Object tracking is the process of determining the states of a target in consecutive video frames based on properties of motion and appearance consistency. In this paper, we propose a consistent low-rank sparse tracker (CLRST) that builds upon the particle filter framework for tracking. By exploiting temporal consistency, the proposed CLRST algorithm adaptively prunes and selects candidate particles. By using linear sparse combinations of dictionary templates, the proposed method learns the sparse representations of image regions corresponding to candidate particles jointly by exploiting the underlying low-rank constraints. In addition, the proposed CLRST algorithm is computationally attractive since temporal consistency property helps prune particles and the low-rank minimization problem for learning joint sparse representations can be efficiently solved by a sequence of closed form update operations. We evaluate the proposed CLRST algorithm against 14 state-of-the-art tracking methods on a set of 25 challenging image sequences. Experimental results show that the CLRST algorithm performs favorably against state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  13. Iris small break loca phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, T.K.; Moody, F.J.; Wilson, G.E.; Brown, W.L.; Frepoli, C.; Hartz, J.; Woods, B.G.; Oriani, L.

    2007-01-01

    The international reactor innovative and secure (IRIS) is a modular pressurized water reactor with an integral configuration (all primary system components - reactor core, internals, pumps, steam generators, pressurizer, and control rod drive mechanisms - are inside the reactor vessel). The IRIS plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is currently underway. The pre-application licensing process with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) started in October 2002. The first line of defense in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage. If it is not possible to eliminate certain accidents altogether, then the design inherently reduces their consequences and/or decreases their probability of occurring. One of the most obvious advantages of the IRIS Safety-by-Design TM approach is the elimination of large break loss-of-coolant accidents (LBLOCAs), since no large primary penetrations of the reactor vessel or large loop piping exist. While the IRIS Safety-by-Design TM approach is a logical step in the effort to produce advanced reactors, the desired advances in safety must still be demonstrated in the licensing arena. With the elimination of LBLOCA, an important next consideration is to show the IRIS design fulfills the promise of increased safety also for small break LOCAs (SBLOCAs). Accordingly, the SBLOCA phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) project was established. The primary objective of the IRIS SBLOCA PIRT project was to identify the relative importance of phenomena in the IRIS response to SBLOCAs. This relative importance, coupled with the current relative state of knowledge for the phenomena, provides a framework for the planning of the continued experimental and analytical efforts. To satisfy the SBLOCA PIRT project objectives, Westinghouse organized an expert panel whose members were carefully selected to insure that the PIRT results reflect internationally

  14. Scalable Faceted Ranking in Tagging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicki, José I.; Alvarez-Hamelin, J. Ignacio; Fierens, Pablo I.

    Nowadays, web collaborative tagging systems which allow users to upload, comment on and recommend contents, are growing. Such systems can be represented as graphs where nodes correspond to users and tagged-links to recommendations. In this paper we analyze the problem of computing a ranking of users with respect to a facet described as a set of tags. A straightforward solution is to compute a PageRank-like algorithm on a facet-related graph, but it is not feasible for online computation. We propose an alternative: (i) a ranking for each tag is computed offline on the basis of tag-related subgraphs; (ii) a faceted order is generated online by merging rankings corresponding to all the tags in the facet. Based on the graph analysis of YouTube and Flickr, we show that step (i) is scalable. We also present efficient algorithms for step (ii), which are evaluated by comparing their results with two gold standards.

  15. Evaluation of treatment effects by ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, U; Kristensen, K

    2008-01-01

    In crop experiments measurements are often made by a judge evaluating the crops' conditions after treatment. In the present paper an analysis is proposed for experiments where plots of crops treated differently are mutually ranked. In the experimental layout the crops are treated on consecutive...... plots usually placed side by side in one or more rows. In the proposed method a judge ranks several neighbouring plots, say three, by ranking them from best to worst. For the next observation the judge moves on by no more than two plots, such that up to two plots will be re-evaluated again...... in a comparison with the new plot(s). Data from studies using this set-up were analysed by a Thurstonian random utility model, which assumed that the judge's rankings were obtained by comparing latent continuous utilities or treatment effects. For the latent utilities a variance component model was considered...

  16. Superfund Hazard Ranking System Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) training course is a four and ½ day, intermediate-level course designed for personnel who are required to compile, draft, and review preliminary assessments (PAs), site inspections (SIs), and HRS documentation records/packag

  17. Who's bigger? where historical figures really rank

    CERN Document Server

    Skiena, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Is Hitler bigger than Napoleon? Washington bigger than Lincoln? Picasso bigger than Einstein? Quantitative analysts are rapidly finding homes in social and cultural domains, from finance to politics. What about history? In this fascinating book, Steve Skiena and Charles Ward bring quantitative analysis to bear on ranking and comparing historical reputations. They evaluate each person by aggregating the traces of millions of opinions, just as Google ranks webpages. The book includes a technical discussion for readers interested in the details of the methods, but no mathematical or computational background is necessary to understand the rankings or conclusions. Along the way, the authors present the rankings of more than one thousand of history's most significant people in science, politics, entertainment, and all areas of human endeavor. Anyone interested in history or biography can see where their favorite figures place in the grand scheme of things.

  18. Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy

    1976-01-01

    Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.

  19. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  20. Altered Behavioral and Autonomic Pain Responses in Alzheimer’s Disease Are Associated with Dysfunctional Affective, Self-Reflective and Salience Network Resting-State Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Beach

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While pain behaviors are increased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients compared to healthy seniors (HS across multiple disease stages, autonomic responses are reduced with advancing AD. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying these phenomena, we undertook a controlled cross-sectional study examining behavioral (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia, PAINAD scores and autonomic (heart rate, HR pain responses in 24 HS and 20 AD subjects using acute pressure stimuli. Resting-state fMRI was utilized to investigate how group connectivity differences were related to altered pain responses. Pain behaviors (slope of PAINAD score change and mean PAINAD score were increased in patients vs. controls. Autonomic measures (HR change intercept and mean HR change were reduced in severe vs. mildly affected AD patients. Group functional connectivity differences associated with greater pain behavior reactivity in patients included: connectivity within a temporal limbic network (TLN and between the TLN and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC; between default mode network (DMN subcomponents; between the DMN and ventral salience network (vSN. Reduced HR responses within the AD group were associated with connectivity changes within the DMN and vSN—specifically the precuneus and vmPFC. Discriminant classification indicated HR-related connectivity within the vSN to the vmPFC best distinguished AD severity. Thus, altered behavioral and autonomic pain responses in AD reflects dysfunction of networks and structures subserving affective, self-reflective, salience and autonomic regulation.

  1. Block models and personalized PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloumann, Isabel M; Ugander, Johan; Kleinberg, Jon

    2017-01-03

    Methods for ranking the importance of nodes in a network have a rich history in machine learning and across domains that analyze structured data. Recent work has evaluated these methods through the "seed set expansion problem": given a subset [Formula: see text] of nodes from a community of interest in an underlying graph, can we reliably identify the rest of the community? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate in the space of "landing probabilities" of a random walk rooted at the seed set, ranking nodes according to weighted sums of landing probabilities of different length walks. Both schemes, however, lack an a priori relationship to the seed set objective. In this work, we develop a principled framework for evaluating ranking methods by studying seed set expansion applied to the stochastic block model. We derive the optimal gradient for separating the landing probabilities of two classes in a stochastic block model and find, surprisingly, that under reasonable assumptions the gradient is asymptotically equivalent to personalized PageRank for a specific choice of the PageRank parameter [Formula: see text] that depends on the block model parameters. This connection provides a formal motivation for the success of personalized PageRank in seed set expansion and node ranking generally. We use this connection to propose more advanced techniques incorporating higher moments of landing probabilities; our advanced methods exhibit greatly improved performance, despite being simple linear classification rules, and are even competitive with belief propagation.

  2. Block models and personalized PageRank

    OpenAIRE

    Kloumann, Isabel M.; Ugander, Johan; Kleinberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Methods for ranking the importance of nodes in a network have a rich history in machine learning and across domains that analyze structured data. Recent work has evaluated these methods though the seed set expansion problem: given a subset $S$ of nodes from a community of interest in an underlying graph, can we reliably identify the rest of the community? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate...

  3. Evaluation of the osteoclastogenic process associated with RANK / RANK-L / OPG in odontogenic myxomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galván, María del Carmen; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Setien-Olarra, Amaia; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Aguirre-Urizar, José-Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Background Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign intraosseous neoplasm that exhibits local aggressiveness and high recurrence rates. Osteoclastogenesis is an important phenomenon in the tumor growth of maxillary neoplasms. RANK (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κappa B) is the signaling receptor of RANK-L (Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand) that activates the osteoclasts. OPG (osteoprotegerin) is a decoy receptor for RANK-L that inhibits pro-osteoclastogenesis. The RANK / RANKL / OPG system participates in the regulation of osteolytic activity under normal conditions, and its alteration has been associated with greater bone destruction, and also with tumor growth. Objectives To analyze the immunohistochemical expression of OPG, RANK and RANK-L proteins in odontogenic myxomas (OMs) and their relationship with the tumor size. Material and Methods Eighteen OMs, 4 small ( 3cm) and 18 dental follicles (DF) that were included as control were studied by means of standard immunohistochemical procedure with RANK, RANKL and OPG antibodies. For the evaluation, 5 fields (40x) of representative areas of OM and DF were selected where the expression of each antibody was determined. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed with the obtained data. Results There are significant differences in the expression of RANK in OM samples as compared to DF (p = 0.022) and among the OMSs and OMLs (p = 0.032). Also a strong association is recognized in the expression of RANK-L and OPG in OM samples. Conclusions Activation of the RANK / RANK-L / OPG triad seems to be involved in the mechanisms of bone balance and destruction, as well as associated with tumor growth in odontogenic myxomas. Key words:Odontogenic myxoma, dental follicle, RANK, RANK-L, OPG, osteoclastogenesis. PMID:29680857

  4. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  5. Fair ranking of researchers and research teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2018-01-01

    The main drawback of ranking of researchers by the number of papers, citations or by the Hirsch index is ignoring the problem of distributing authorship among authors in multi-author publications. So far, the single-author or multi-author publications contribute to the publication record of a researcher equally. This full counting scheme is apparently unfair and causes unjust disproportions, in particular, if ranked researchers have distinctly different collaboration profiles. These disproportions are removed by less common fractional or authorship-weighted counting schemes, which can distribute the authorship credit more properly and suppress a tendency to unjustified inflation of co-authors. The urgent need of widely adopting a fair ranking scheme in practise is exemplified by analysing citation profiles of several highly-cited astronomers and astrophysicists. While the full counting scheme often leads to completely incorrect and misleading ranking, the fractional or authorship-weighted schemes are more accurate and applicable to ranking of researchers as well as research teams. In addition, they suppress differences in ranking among scientific disciplines. These more appropriate schemes should urgently be adopted by scientific publication databases as the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) or the Scopus (Elsevier).

  6. Partial Correlation-Based Retinotopically Organized Resting-State Functional Connectivity Within and Between Areas of the Visual Cortex Reflects More Than Cortical Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Debra Ann; Lam, Jack; Lewis, Lindsay B; Carbonell, Felix; Mendola, Janine D; Shmuel, Amir

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between cortical areas. Recent evidence suggests that synchronous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI reflect functional organization at a scale finer than that of visual areas. In this study, we investigated whether RSFCs within and between lower visual areas are retinotopically organized and whether retinotopically organized RSFC merely reflects cortical distance. Subjects underwent retinotopic mapping and separately resting-state fMRI. Visual areas V1, V2, and V3, were subdivided into regions of interest (ROIs) according to quadrants and visual field eccentricity. Functional connectivity (FC) was computed based on Pearson's linear correlation (correlation), and Pearson's linear partial correlation (correlation between two time courses after the time courses from all other regions in the network are regressed out). Within a quadrant, within visual areas, all correlation and nearly all partial correlation FC measures showed statistical significance. Consistently in V1, V2, and to a lesser extent in V3, correlation decreased with increasing eccentricity separation. Consistent with previously reported monkey anatomical connectivity, correlation/partial correlation values between regions from adjacent areas (V1-V2 and V2-V3) were higher than those between nonadjacent areas (V1-V3). Within a quadrant, partial correlation showed consistent significance between regions from two different areas with the same or adjacent eccentricities. Pairs of ROIs with similar eccentricity showed higher correlation/partial correlation than pairs distant in eccentricity. Between dorsal and ventral quadrants, partial correlation between common and adjacent eccentricity regions within a visual area showed statistical significance; this extended to more distant eccentricity regions in V1. Within and between quadrants, correlation decreased

  7. Ranking Fuzzy Numbers with a Distance Method using Circumcenter of Centroids and an Index of Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Phani Bushan Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ranking fuzzy numbers are an important aspect of decision making in a fuzzy environment. Since their inception in 1965, many authors have proposed different methods for ranking fuzzy numbers. However, there is no method which gives a satisfactory result to all situations. Most of the methods proposed so far are nondiscriminating and counterintuitive. This paper proposes a new method for ranking fuzzy numbers based on the Circumcenter of Centroids and uses an index of optimism to reflect the decision maker's optimistic attitude and also an index of modality that represents the neutrality of the decision maker. This method ranks various types of fuzzy numbers which include normal, generalized trapezoidal, and triangular fuzzy numbers along with crisp numbers with the particularity that crisp numbers are to be considered particular cases of fuzzy numbers.

  8. PageRank as a method to rank biomedical literature by importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Elliot J; Dixon, Louise C

    2015-01-01

    Optimal ranking of literature importance is vital in overcoming article overload. Existing ranking methods are typically based on raw citation counts, giving a sum of 'inbound' links with no consideration of citation importance. PageRank, an algorithm originally developed for ranking webpages at the search engine, Google, could potentially be adapted to bibliometrics to quantify the relative importance weightings of a citation network. This article seeks to validate such an approach on the freely available, PubMed Central open access subset (PMC-OAS) of biomedical literature. On-demand cloud computing infrastructure was used to extract a citation network from over 600,000 full-text PMC-OAS articles. PageRanks and citation counts were calculated for each node in this network. PageRank is highly correlated with citation count (R = 0.905, P PageRank can be trivially computed on commodity cluster hardware and is linearly correlated with citation count. Given its putative benefits in quantifying relative importance, we suggest it may enrich the citation network, thereby overcoming the existing inadequacy of citation counts alone. We thus suggest PageRank as a feasible supplement to, or replacement of, existing bibliometric ranking methods.

  9. RANK/RANK-Ligand/OPG: Ein neuer Therapieansatz in der Osteoporosebehandlung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Erforschung der Kopplungsmechanismen zur Osteoklastogenese, Knochenresorption und Remodellierung eröffnete neue mögliche Therapieansätze in der Behandlung der Osteoporose. Eine Schlüsselrolle beim Knochenabbau spielt der RANK- ("receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF- κB"- Ligand (RANKL. Durch die Bindung von RANKL an den Rezeptor RANK wird die Knochenresorption eingeleitet. OPG (Osteoprotegerin sowie der für den klinischen Gebrauch entwickelte humane monoklonale Antikörper (IgG2 Denosumab blockieren die Bindung von RANK-Ligand an RANK und verhindern den Knochenabbau.

  10. Forward projections of energy market competitiveness rankings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    By July 2007, the provisions of the second Internal Market Directives for Electricity and Gas had been implemented in the majority of EU Member States. These fundamental changes in market opening, ownership structures and network access conditions, together with the increasing maturity of liberalised trading and retail markets, can be expected to affect the behaviour of existing and potential market participants, consequently affecting the energy market competitiveness of alternative countries. While the UK was the most competitive of the EU and G7 energy markets in 2006, the dynamic effect of the liberalisation programme across Continental Europe may challenge that position in the future. This report assesses how competitiveness rankings may evolve in the future, identifying changes that could take place in the UK and the rest of the EU from 2007 to 201 1. It goes on to explore the potential risk that the competitiveness of the UK's energy markets will decline relative to those of other countries in the EU and G7, to the extent that the PSA target will not be met. A detailed analysis of the potential changes in the UK markets is undertaken, including the development of upside and downside scenarios showing the positive and negative effects of changes in market structure and behaviour on the UK's competitiveness score. Changes in market structures required for energy markets in both the 2006 comparator group and the rest of the EU to become as competitive as the UK are then assessed, along with the plausibility of these changes given the current and future market, legislative and regulatory environments

  11. Shall we really say goodbye to first rank symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, A; Voss, M; Lawrie, S M; Mishara, A; Bauer, M; Gallinat, J; Juckel, G; Lang, U; Rapp, M; Falkai, P; Strik, W; Krystal, J; Abi-Dargham, A; Galderisi, S

    2016-09-01

    First rank symptoms (FRS) of schizophrenia have been used for decades for diagnostic purposes. In the new version of the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has abolished any further reference to FRS of schizophrenia and treats them like any other "criterion A" symptom (e.g. any kind of hallucination or delusion) with regard to their diagnostic implication. The ICD-10 is currently under revision and may follow suit. In this review, we discuss central points of criticism that are directed against the continuous use of first rank symptoms (FRS) to diagnose schizophrenia. We describe the specific circumstances in which Schneider articulated his approach to schizophrenia diagnosis and discuss the relevance of his approach today. Further, we discuss anthropological and phenomenological aspects of FRS and highlight the importance of self-disorder (as part of FRS) for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Finally, we will conclude by suggesting that the theory and rationale behind the definition of FRS is still important for psychopathological as well as neurobiological approaches today. Results of a pivotal meta-analysis and other studies show relatively poor sensitivity, yet relatively high specificity for FRS as diagnostic marker for schizophrenia. Several methodological issues impede a systematic assessment of the usefulness of FRS in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. However, there is good evidence that FRS may still be useful to differentiate schizophrenia from somatic causes of psychotic states. This may be particularly important in countries or situations with little access to other diagnostic tests. FRS may thus still represent a useful aid for clinicians in the diagnostic process. In conclusion, we suggest to continue a tradition of careful clinical observation and fine-grained psychopathological assessment, including a focus on symptoms regarding self-disorders, which reflects a key aspect of psychosis. We suggest that the importance of FRS may indeed be

  12. Country-specific determinants of world university rankings

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrucha, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines country-specific factors that affect the three most influential world university rankings (the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Ranking, and the Times Higher Education World University Ranking). We run a cross sectional regression that covers 42–71 countries (depending on the ranking and data availability). We show that the position of universities from a country in the ranking is determined by the following country-specific variables: econom...

  13. RANWAR: rank-based weighted association rule mining from gene expression and methylation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Ranking of association rules is currently an interesting topic in data mining and bioinformatics. The huge number of evolved rules of items (or, genes) by association rule mining (ARM) algorithms makes confusion to the decision maker. In this article, we propose a weighted rule-mining technique (say, RANWAR or rank-based weighted association rule-mining) to rank the rules using two novel rule-interestingness measures, viz., rank-based weighted condensed support (wcs) and weighted condensed confidence (wcc) measures to bypass the problem. These measures are basically depended on the rank of items (genes). Using the rank, we assign weight to each item. RANWAR generates much less number of frequent itemsets than the state-of-the-art association rule mining algorithms. Thus, it saves time of execution of the algorithm. We run RANWAR on gene expression and methylation datasets. The genes of the top rules are biologically validated by Gene Ontologies (GOs) and KEGG pathway analyses. Many top ranked rules extracted from RANWAR that hold poor ranks in traditional Apriori, are highly biologically significant to the related diseases. Finally, the top rules evolved from RANWAR, that are not in Apriori, are reported.

  14. Blind Reduced-Rank MMSE Detector for DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Cai

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We first develop a reduced-rank minimum mean squared error (MMSE detector for direct-sequence (DS code division multiple access (CDMA by forcing the linear MMSE detector to lie in a signal subspace of a reduced dimension. While a reduced-rank MMSE detector has lower complexity, it cannot outperform the full-rank MMSE detector. We then concentrate on the blind reduced-rank MMSE detector which is obtained from an estimated covariance matrix. Our analysis and simulation results show that when the desired user′s signal is in a low-dimensional subspace, there exists an optimal subspace so that the blind reduced-rank MMSE detector lying in this subspace has the best performance. By properly choosing a subsspace, we guarantee that the optimal blind reduced-rank MMSE detector is obtained. An adaptive blind reduced-rank MMSE detector, based on a subspace tracking algorithm, is developed. The adaptive blind reduced-rank MMSE detector exhibits superior steady-state performance and fast convergence speed.

  15. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  16. Direct transitions among atomic states of negative reflection symmetry in the scattering plane: Li(2p0,3p0,3d±1)-He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.E.; Andersen, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports coupled channel model calculations of direct transitions in Li-He collisions among excited Li-states of negative reflection symmetry in the scattering plane. Using the natural coordinate frame, transition probabilities and orientation and alignment parameters are predicted as functions of impact energy and impact parameter for various initial states. It is found that for geometrical reasons transition probabilities are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than for corresponding states with positive reflection symmetry. Some experimental consequences of this finding are pointed out. (orig.)

  17. Global network centrality of university rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weisi; Del Vecchio, Marco; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2017-10-01

    Universities and higher education institutions form an integral part of the national infrastructure and prestige. As academic research benefits increasingly from international exchange and cooperation, many universities have increased investment in improving and enabling their global connectivity. Yet, the relationship of university performance and its global physical connectedness has not been explored in detail. We conduct, to our knowledge, the first large-scale data-driven analysis into whether there is a correlation between university relative ranking performance and its global connectivity via the air transport network. The results show that local access to global hubs (as measured by air transport network betweenness) strongly and positively correlates with the ranking growth (statistical significance in different models ranges between 5% and 1% level). We also found that the local airport's aggregate flight paths (degree) and capacity (weighted degree) has no effect on university ranking, further showing that global connectivity distance is more important than the capacity of flight connections. We also examined the effect of local city economic development as a confounding variable and no effect was observed suggesting that access to global transportation hubs outweighs economic performance as a determinant of university ranking. The impact of this research is that we have determined the importance of the centrality of global connectivity and, hence, established initial evidence for further exploring potential connections between university ranking and regional investment policies on improving global connectivity.

  18. Diversity rankings among bacterial lineages in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2009-03-01

    We used rarefaction curve analysis and diversity ordering-based approaches to rank the 11 most frequently encountered bacterial lineages in soil according to diversity in 5 previously reported 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from agricultural, undisturbed tall grass prairie and forest soils (n=26,140, 28 328, 31 818, 13 001 and 53 533). The Planctomycetes, Firmicutes and the delta-Proteobacteria were consistently ranked among the most diverse lineages in all data sets, whereas the Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes and beta-Proteobacteria were consistently ranked among the least diverse. On the other hand, the rankings of alpha-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi varied widely in different soil clone libraries. In general, lineages exhibiting largest differences in diversity rankings also exhibited the largest difference in relative abundance in the data sets examined. Within these lineages, a positive correlation between relative abundance and diversity was observed within the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi, and a negative diversity-abundance correlation was observed within the Bacteroidetes. The ecological and evolutionary implications of these results are discussed.

  19. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  20. RANK und RANKL - Vom Knochen zum Mammakarzinom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigl V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RANK („Receptor Activator of NF-κB“ und sein Ligand RANKL sind Schlüsselmoleküle im Knochenmetabolismus und spielen eine essenzielle Rolle in der Entstehung von pathologischen Knochenveränderungen. Die Deregulation des RANK/RANKL-Systems ist zum Beispiel ein Hauptgrund für das Auftreten von postmenopausaler Osteoporose bei Frauen. Eine weitere wesentliche Funktion von RANK und RANKL liegt in der Entwicklung von milchsekretierenden Drüsen während der Schwangerschaft. Dabei regulieren Sexualhormone, wie zum Beispiel Progesteron, die Expression von RANKL und induzieren dadurch die Proliferation von epithelialen Zellen der Brust. Seit Längerem war schon bekannt, dass RANK und RANKL in der Metastasenbildung von Brustkrebszellen im Knochengewebe beteiligt sind. Wir konnten nun das RANK/RANKLSystem auch als essenziellen Mechanismus in der Entstehung von hormonellem Brustkrebs identifizieren. In diesem Beitrag werden wir daher den neuesten Erkenntnissen besondere Aufmerksamkeit schenken und diese kritisch in Bezug auf Brustkrebsentwicklung betrachten.

  1. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  2. Fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) MRI to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within dural reflections of posterior fossa cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, David J; Scoffings, Daniel; Ajithkumar, Thankamma; Williams, Michael V; Jefferies, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    There is no consensus approach to covering skull base meningeal reflections-and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) therein-of the posterior fossa cranial nerves (CNs VII-XII) when planning radiotherapy (RT) for medulloblastoma and ependymoma. We sought to determine whether MRI and specifically fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences can answer this anatomical question and guide RT planning. 96 posterior fossa FIESTA sequences were reviewed. Following exclusions, measurements were made on the following scans for each foramen respectively (left, right); internal acoustic meatus (IAM) (86, 84), jugular foramen (JF) (83, 85) and hypoglossal canal (HC) (42, 45). A protocol describes measurement procedure. Two observers measured distances for five cases and agreement was assessed. One observer measured all the remaining cases. IAM and JF measurement interobserver variability was compared. Mean measurement difference between observers was -0.275 mm (standard deviation 0.557). IAM and JF measurements were normally distributed. Mean IAM distance was 12.2 mm [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8-15.6]; JF was 7.3 mm (95% CI 4.0-10.6). The HC was difficult to visualize on many images and data followed a bimodal distribution. Dural reflections of posterior fossa CNs are well demonstrated by FIESTA MRI. Measuring CSF extension into these structures is feasible and robust; mean CSF extension into IAM and JF was measured. We plan further work to assess coverage of these structures with photon and proton RT plans. Advances in knowledge: We have described CSF extension beyond the internal table of the skull into the IAM, JF and HC. Oncologists planning RT for patients with medulloblastoma and ependymoma may use these data to guide contouring.

  3. Low Rank Approximation Algorithms, Implementation, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Markovsky, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Matrix low-rank approximation is intimately related to data modelling; a problem that arises frequently in many different fields. Low Rank Approximation: Algorithms, Implementation, Applications is a comprehensive exposition of the theory, algorithms, and applications of structured low-rank approximation. Local optimization methods and effective suboptimal convex relaxations for Toeplitz, Hankel, and Sylvester structured problems are presented. A major part of the text is devoted to application of the theory. Applications described include: system and control theory: approximate realization, model reduction, output error, and errors-in-variables identification; signal processing: harmonic retrieval, sum-of-damped exponentials, finite impulse response modeling, and array processing; machine learning: multidimensional scaling and recommender system; computer vision: algebraic curve fitting and fundamental matrix estimation; bioinformatics for microarray data analysis; chemometrics for multivariate calibration; ...

  4. Resolution of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimises a score function, termed agony. This function penalises the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the resolution of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Ranked Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterise the resolution threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit. PMID:29394278

  5. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  6. Data envelopment analysis of randomized ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant'Anna Annibal P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilities and odds, derived from vectors of ranks, are here compared as measures of efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs. These measures are computed with the goal of providing preliminary information before starting a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA or the application of any other evaluation or composition of preferences methodology. Preferences, quality and productivity evaluations are usually measured with errors or subject to influence of other random disturbances. Reducing evaluations to ranks and treating the ranks as estimates of location parameters of random variables, we are able to compute the probability of each DMU being classified as the best according to the consumption of each input and the production of each output. Employing the probabilities of being the best as efficiency measures, we stretch distances between the most efficient units. We combine these partial probabilities in a global efficiency score determined in terms of proximity to the efficiency frontier.

  7. Ranking spreaders by decomposing complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, An; Zhang, Cheng-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Ranking the nodes' ability of spreading in networks is crucial for designing efficient strategies to hinder spreading in the case of diseases or accelerate spreading in the case of information dissemination. In the well-known k-shell method, nodes are ranked only according to the links between the remaining nodes (residual links) while the links connecting to the removed nodes (exhausted links) are entirely ignored. In this Letter, we propose a mixed degree decomposition (MDD) procedure in which both the residual degree and the exhausted degree are considered. By simulating the epidemic spreading process on real networks, we show that the MDD method can outperform the k-shell and degree methods in ranking spreaders.

  8. Sign rank versus Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, N.; Moran, Sh; Yehudayoff, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work studies the maximum possible sign rank of sign (N × N)-matrices with a given Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension d. For d=1, this maximum is three. For d=2, this maximum is \\widetilde{\\Theta}(N1/2). For d >2, similar but slightly less accurate statements hold. The lower bounds improve on previous ones by Ben-David et al., and the upper bounds are novel. The lower bounds are obtained by probabilistic constructions, using a theorem of Warren in real algebraic topology. The upper bounds are obtained using a result of Welzl about spanning trees with low stabbing number, and using the moment curve. The upper bound technique is also used to: (i) provide estimates on the number of classes of a given Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension, and the number of maximum classes of a given Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension--answering a question of Frankl from 1989, and (ii) design an efficient algorithm that provides an O(N/log(N)) multiplicative approximation for the sign rank. We also observe a general connection between sign rank and spectral gaps which is based on Forster's argument. Consider the adjacency (N × N)-matrix of a Δ-regular graph with a second eigenvalue of absolute value λ and Δ ≤ N/2. We show that the sign rank of the signed version of this matrix is at least Δ/λ. We use this connection to prove the existence of a maximum class C\\subseteq\\{+/- 1\\}^N with Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension 2 and sign rank \\widetilde{\\Theta}(N1/2). This answers a question of Ben-David et al. regarding the sign rank of large Vapnik-Chervonenkis classes. We also describe limitations of this approach, in the spirit of the Alon-Boppana theorem. We further describe connections to communication complexity, geometry, learning theory, and combinatorics. Bibliography: 69 titles.

  9. RankProdIt: A web-interactive Rank Products analysis tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laing Emma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first objective of a DNA microarray experiment is typically to generate a list of genes or probes that are found to be differentially expressed or represented (in the case of comparative genomic hybridizations and/or copy number variation between two conditions or strains. Rank Products analysis comprises a robust algorithm for deriving such lists from microarray experiments that comprise small numbers of replicates, for example, less than the number required for the commonly used t-test. Currently, users wishing to apply Rank Products analysis to their own microarray data sets have been restricted to the use of command line-based software which can limit its usage within the biological community. Findings Here we have developed a web interface to existing Rank Products analysis tools allowing users to quickly process their data in an intuitive and step-wise manner to obtain the respective Rank Product or Rank Sum, probability of false prediction and p-values in a downloadable file. Conclusions The online interactive Rank Products analysis tool RankProdIt, for analysis of any data set containing measurements for multiple replicated conditions, is available at: http://strep-microarray.sbs.surrey.ac.uk/RankProducts

  10. Rank-based Tests of the Cointegrating Rank in Semiparametric Error Correction Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; van den Akker, R.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper introduces rank-based tests for the cointegrating rank in an Error Correction Model with i.i.d. elliptical innovations. The tests are asymptotically distribution-free, and their validity does not depend on the actual distribution of the innovations. This result holds despite the

  11. When sparse coding meets ranking: a joint framework for learning sparse codes and ranking scores

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2017-06-28

    Sparse coding, which represents a data point as a sparse reconstruction code with regard to a dictionary, has been a popular data representation method. Meanwhile, in database retrieval problems, learning the ranking scores from data points plays an important role. Up to now, these two problems have always been considered separately, assuming that data coding and ranking are two independent and irrelevant problems. However, is there any internal relationship between sparse coding and ranking score learning? If yes, how to explore and make use of this internal relationship? In this paper, we try to answer these questions by developing the first joint sparse coding and ranking score learning algorithm. To explore the local distribution in the sparse code space, and also to bridge coding and ranking problems, we assume that in the neighborhood of each data point, the ranking scores can be approximated from the corresponding sparse codes by a local linear function. By considering the local approximation error of ranking scores, the reconstruction error and sparsity of sparse coding, and the query information provided by the user, we construct a unified objective function for learning of sparse codes, the dictionary and ranking scores. We further develop an iterative algorithm to solve this optimization problem.

  12. Synfuels from low-rank coals at the Great Plains Gasification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the use of low rank coals to form synfuels. A worldwide abundance of low rank coals exists. Large deposits in the United States are located in Texas and North Dakota. Low rank coal deposits are also found in Europe, India and Australia. Because of the high moisture content of lignite ranging from 30% to 60% or higher, it is usually utilized in mine mouth applications. Lignite is generally very reactive and contains varying amounts of ash and sulfur. Typical uses for lignite are listed. A commercial application using lignite as feedstock to a synfuels plant, Dakota Gasification Company's Great Plains Gasification Plant, is discussed

  13. Learning to rank for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Due to the fast growth of the Web and the difficulties in finding desired information, efficient and effective information retrieval systems have become more important than ever, and the search engine has become an essential tool for many people. The ranker, a central component in every search engine, is responsible for the matching between processed queries and indexed documents. Because of its central role, great attention has been paid to the research and development of ranking technologies. In addition, ranking is also pivotal for many other information retrieval applications, such as coll

  14. Cointegration rank testing under conditional heteroskedasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders Christian; Taylor, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the properties of the conventional Gaussian-based cointegrating rank tests of Johansen (1996, Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models) in the case where the vector of series under test is driven by globally stationary, conditionally heteroskedastic......, relative to tests based on the asymptotic critical values or the i.i.d. bootstrap, the wild bootstrap rank tests perform very well in small samples under a variety of conditionally heteroskedastic innovation processes. An empirical application to the term structure of interest rates is given....

  15. Ranking health between countries in international comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions and docum......Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions...

  16. Preference Learning and Ranking by Pairwise Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    This chapter provides an overview of recent work on preference learning and ranking via pairwise classification. The learning by pairwise comparison (LPC) paradigm is the natural machine learning counterpart to the relational approach to preference modeling and decision making. From a machine learning point of view, LPC is especially appealing as it decomposes a possibly complex prediction problem into a certain number of learning problems of the simplest type, namely binary classification. We explain how to approach different preference learning problems, such as label and instance ranking, within the framework of LPC. We primarily focus on methodological aspects, but also address theoretical questions as well as algorithmic and complexity issues.

  17. Compressed Sensing with Rank Deficient Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    In compressed sensing it is generally assumed that the dictionary matrix constitutes a (possibly overcomplete) basis of the signal space. In this paper we consider dictionaries that do not span the signal space, i.e. rank deficient dictionaries. We show that in this case the signal-to-noise ratio...... (SNR) in the compressed samples can be increased by selecting the rows of the measurement matrix from the column space of the dictionary. As an example application of compressed sensing with a rank deficient dictionary, we present a case study of compressed sensing applied to the Coarse Acquisition (C...

  18. Ranking mutual funds using Sortino method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Faghani Makrani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on most business activities is to determine an efficient method for ranking mutual funds. This paper performs an empirical investigation to rank 42 mutual funds listed on Tehran Stock Exchange using Sortino method over the period 2011-2012. The results of survey have been compared with market return and the results have confirmed that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between Sortino return and market return. In addition, there were some positive and meaningful relationship between two Sortino methods.

  19. Research of Subgraph Estimation Page Rank Algorithm for Web Page Rank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Lan-yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional PageRank algorithm can not efficiently perform large data Webpage scheduling problem. This paper proposes an accelerated algorithm named topK-Rank,which is based on PageRank on the MapReduce platform. It can find top k nodes efficiently for a given graph without sacrificing accuracy. In order to identify top k nodes,topK-Rank algorithm prunes unnecessary nodes and edges in each iteration to dynamically construct subgraphs,and iteratively estimates lower/upper bounds of PageRank scores through subgraphs. Theoretical analysis shows that this method guarantees result exactness. Experiments show that topK-Rank algorithm can find k nodes much faster than the existing approaches.

  20. Discrepancies between multicriteria decision analysis-based ranking and intuitive ranking for pharmaceutical benefit-risk profiles in a hypothetical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, K; Ono, S

    2017-02-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been generally considered a promising decision-making methodology for the assessment of drug benefit-risk profiles. There have been many discussions in both public and private sectors on its feasibility and applicability, but it has not been employed in official decision-makings. For the purpose of examining to what extent MCDA would reflect the first-hand, intuitive preference of evaluators in practical pharmaceutical assessments, we conducted a questionnaire survey involving the participation of employees of pharmaceutical companies. Showing profiles of the efficacy and safety of four hypothetical drugs, each respondent was asked to rank them following the standard MCDA process and then to rank them intuitively (i.e. without applying any analytical framework). These two approaches resulted in substantially different ranking patterns from the same individuals, and the concordance rate was surprisingly low (17%). Although many respondents intuitively showed a preference for mild, balanced risk-benefit profiles over profiles with a conspicuous advantage in either risk or benefit, the ranking orders based on MCDA scores did not reflect the intuitive preference. Observed discrepancies between the rankings seemed to be primarily attributed to the structural characteristics of MCDA, which assumes that evaluation on each benefit and risk component should have monotonic impact on final scores. It would be difficult for MCDA to reflect commonly observed non-monotonic preferences for risk and benefit profiles. Possible drawbacks of MCDA should be further investigated prior to the real-world application of its benefit-risk assessment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Enhancing collaborative filtering by user interest expansion via personalized ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Enhong; Xiong, Hui; Ding, Chris H Q; Chen, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Recommender systems suggest a few items from many possible choices to the users by understanding their past behaviors. In these systems, the user behaviors are influenced by the hidden interests of the users. Learning to leverage the information about user interests is often critical for making better recommendations. However, existing collaborative-filtering-based recommender systems are usually focused on exploiting the information about the user's interaction with the systems; the information about latent user interests is largely underexplored. To that end, inspired by the topic models, in this paper, we propose a novel collaborative-filtering-based recommender system by user interest expansion via personalized ranking, named iExpand. The goal is to build an item-oriented model-based collaborative-filtering framework. The iExpand method introduces a three-layer, user-interests-item, representation scheme, which leads to more accurate ranking recommendation results with less computation cost and helps the understanding of the interactions among users, items, and user interests. Moreover, iExpand strategically deals with many issues that exist in traditional collaborative-filtering approaches, such as the overspecialization problem and the cold-start problem. Finally, we evaluate iExpand on three benchmark data sets, and experimental results show that iExpand can lead to better ranking performance than state-of-the-art methods with a significant margin.

  2. Linear Subspace Ranking Hashing for Cross-Modal Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Qi, Guo-Jun; Ye, Jun; Hua, Kien A

    2017-09-01

    Hashing has attracted a great deal of research in recent years due to its effectiveness for the retrieval and indexing of large-scale high-dimensional multimedia data. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking-based hashing framework that maps data from different modalities into a common Hamming space where the cross-modal similarity can be measured using Hamming distance. Unlike existing cross-modal hashing algorithms where the learned hash functions are binary space partitioning functions, such as the sign and threshold function, the proposed hashing scheme takes advantage of a new class of hash functions closely related to rank correlation measures which are known to be scale-invariant, numerically stable, and highly nonlinear. Specifically, we jointly learn two groups of linear subspaces, one for each modality, so that features' ranking orders in different linear subspaces maximally preserve the cross-modal similarities. We show that the ranking-based hash function has a natural probabilistic approximation which transforms the original highly discontinuous optimization problem into one that can be efficiently solved using simple gradient descent algorithms. The proposed hashing framework is also flexible in the sense that the optimization procedures are not tied up to any specific form of loss function, which is typical for existing cross-modal hashing methods, but rather we can flexibly accommodate different loss functions with minimal changes to the learning steps. We demonstrate through extensive experiments on four widely-used real-world multimodal datasets that the proposed cross-modal hashing method can achieve competitive performance against several state-of-the-arts with only moderate training and testing time.

  3. Multi-dimensional Rankings, Program Termination, and Complexity Bounds of Flowchart Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Alias , Christophe; Darte , Alain; Feautrier , Paul; Gonnord , Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Proving the termination of a flowchart program can be done by exhibiting a ranking function, i.e., a function from the program states to a well-founded set, which strictly decreases at each program step. A standard method to automatically generate such a function is to compute invariants for each program point and to search for a ranking in a restricted class of functions that can be handled with linear programming techniques. Previous algorithms based on affine rankin...

  4. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  5. From the coliseum to the convention centre: a reflection on the current state of medical education conferences and conference-goers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rebecca D; Engle, Deborah L; Howley, Lisa D; Whicker, Shari A; Nagler, Alisa

    2016-12-01

    The advancement of knowledge and development of policy in the field of medical education require critical academic discourse among the most intelligent medical educators; and critical academic discourse requires coffee. In this essay, we reflect on the state of professional development conferences in the field of medical education and the rituals that surround their success. Having begun in ancient Greece, symposia were ripe with debauchery. Today, sedated by the light brown walls of hotel conference centres, symposia are more serious endeavours, engaging men and women in the sometimes turbulent waters of epistemological debate. The abstract submission process (summed up by: 'Yay! It was accepted for presentation' [Deep breath] 'Oh no…it was accepted for presentation'), the 'juggling act' of parent attendees, the acting prowess of abstract presenters and the unapologetic approach to buffet eating are all by-products of the collision of true intellects among medical education scholars. We hold these rituals in high regard and argue that they are required to advance the field of medical education. These rituals bind the walls supporting true progressive thought and innovative research, all fuelled by the glass of wine purchased with that one coveted drink ticket. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  6. Iguanas and Salmonella marina infection in children: a reflection of the increasing incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, J; Hoar, B; Angulo, F J

    1997-03-01

    To investigate clinical aspects and risk factors for Salmonella serotype Marina infection in the United States. We identified all isolates of S Marina reported in 1994 to the National Salmonella Surveillance System. Patients were interviewed about demographic information, clinical course, diet, travel history, and contact with reptiles before illness. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 patients were infants (iguana exposure, only 4 (14%) touched the reptile, and only 12 respondents (43%) realized that it might have been the source of infection. Seven (32%) of 22 families who owned an iguana at the time of illness continued to own an iguana when contacted a median of 28 weeks later. Persons who thought that the iguana was the source of infection were more likely to have given away or sold the pet than those who did not. Four isolates (13%) were from blood. Bacteremia was associated with taking antibiotics during the 30 days before S Marina infection (odds ratio: 24; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-1309). S Marina infection is a potentially serious illness associated with iguana exposure, and it reflects the larger problem of reptile-associated salmonellosis. Many parents do not know that owning an iguana puts their children at risk for Salmonella infection. Pediatricians, veterinarians, and pet store owners should inform their patients and customers of the potential risks of owning reptiles and provide appropriate preventive education.

  7. Consumer preference in ranking walking function utilizing the walking index for spinal cord injury II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M; Ditunno, P; Ditunno, J F; Marino, R J; Scivoletto, G; Lam, T; Loffree, J; Tamburella, F; Leiby, B

    2011-12-01

    Blinded rank ordering. To determine consumer preference in walking function utilizing the walking Index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)from the Canada, the Italy and the United States of America. In all, 42 consumers with incomplete SCI (25 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar) from Canada (12/42), Italy (14/42) and the United States of America (16/42) ranked the 20 levels of the WISCI II scale by their individual preference for walking. Subjects were blinded to the original ranking of the WISCI II scale by clinical scientists. Photographs of each WISCI II level used in a previous pilot study were randomly shuffled and rank ordered. Percentile, conjoint/cluster and graphic analyses were performed. All three analyses illustrated consumer ranking followed a bimodal distribution. Ranking for two levels with physical assistance and two levels with a walker were bimodal with a difference of five to six ranks between consumer subgroups (quartile analysis). The larger cluster (N=20) showed preference for walking with assistance over the smaller cluster (N=12), whose preference was walking without assistance and more devices. In all, 64% (27/42) of consumers ranked WISCI II level with no devices or braces and 1 person assistance higher than multiple levels of the WISCI II requiring no assistance. These results were unexpected, as the hypothesis was that consumers would rank independent walking higher than walking with assistance. Consumer preference for walking function should be considered in addition to objective measures in designing SCI trials that use significant improvement in walking function as an outcome measure.

  8. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK as a determinant of peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Peri-implantitis presents inflammatory process that affects soft and hard supporting tissues of osseointegrated implant based on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK concentrations in peri-implant crevicular fluid could be associated with clinical parameters that reflect inflammatory nature of peri-implantitis. Methods. The study included 67 patients, 22 with diagnosed peri-implantitis, 22 persons with healthy peri-implant tissues and 23 patients with periodontitis. Clinical parameters from each patient were recorded and samples of peri-implant/gingival crevicular fluid were collected for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis. Results. RANK concentration was significantly increased in samples from the patients with periimplantitis when compared to healthy implants (p < 0.0001, where the average levels were 9 times higher. At the same time RANK concentration was significantly higher in periimplantitis than in periodontitis sites (p < 0.0001. In implant patients pocket depths and bleeding on probing values were positively associated with high RANK concentrations (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. These results revealed association of increased RANK concentration in samples of periimplant/ gingival crevicular fluid with peri-implant inflammation and suggests that RANK could be a pathologic determinant of peri-implantitis, thereby a potential parameter in assessment of peri-implant tissue inflammation and a potential target in designing treatment strategies.

  9. Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)

  10. Rank reduction of correlation matrices by majorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a novel method is developed for the problem of finding a low-rank correlation matrix nearest to a given correlation matrix. The method is based on majorization and therefore it is globally convergent. The method is computationally efficient, is straightforward to implement,

  11. Ranking related entities: components and analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, M.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Related entity finding is the task of returning a ranked list of homepages of relevant entities of a specified type that need to engage in a given relationship with a given source entity. We propose a framework for addressing this task and perform a detailed analysis of four core components;

  12. Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaragoza, Hugo; Rode, H.; Mika, Peter; Atserias, Jordi; Ciaramita, Massimiliano; Attardi, Guiseppe

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine

  13. On the Dirac groups of rank n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.; Alcaras, J.A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The group theoretical properties of the Dirac groups of rank n are discussed together with the properties and construction of their IR's. The cases n even and n odd show distinct features. Furthermore, for n odd, the cases n=4K+1 and n=4K+3 exhibit some different properties too. (Author) [pt

  14. On rank 2 Seiberg-Witten equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massamba, F.; Thompson, G.

    2004-02-01

    We introduce and study a set of rank 2 Seiberg-Witten equations. We show that the moduli space of solutions is a compact, orientational and smooth manifold. For minimal surfaces of general type we are able to determine the basic classes. (author)

  15. A tilting approach to ranking influence

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.; Hall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a new approach, which is applicable for general statistics computed from random samples of univariate or vector-valued or functional data, to assessing the influence that individual data have on the value of a statistic, and to ranking

  16. Texture Repairing by Unified Low Rank Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Liang; Xiang Ren; Zhengdong Zhang; Yi Ma

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to harness both low-rank and sparse structures in regular or near-regular textures for image completion. Our method is based on a unified formulation for both random and contiguous corruption. In addition to the low rank property of texture, the algorithm also uses the sparse assumption of the natural image: because the natural image is piecewise smooth, it is sparse in certain transformed domain (such as Fourier or wavelet transform). We combine low-rank and sparsity properties of the texture image together in the proposed algorithm. Our algorithm based on convex optimization can automatically and correctly repair the global structure of a corrupted texture, even without precise information about the regions to be completed. This algorithm integrates texture rectification and repairing into one optimization problem. Through extensive simulations, we show our method can complete and repair textures corrupted by errors with both random and contiguous supports better than existing low-rank matrix recovery methods. Our method demonstrates significant advantage over local patch based texture synthesis techniques in dealing with large corruption, non-uniform texture, and large perspective deformation.

  17. Semantic association ranking schemes for information retrieval ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    retrieval applications using term association graph representation ... Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Government College of ... Introduction ... leads to poor precision, e.g., model, python, and chip. ...... The approaches proposed in this paper focuses on the query-centric re-ranking of search results.

  18. Efficient Rank Reduction of Correlation Matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grubisic (Igor); R. Pietersz (Raoul)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractGeometric optimisation algorithms are developed that efficiently find the nearest low-rank correlation matrix. We show, in numerical tests, that our methods compare favourably to the existing methods in the literature. The connection with the Lagrange multiplier method is established,

  19. Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barioli, F.; Barrett, W.; Fallat, S.M.; Hall, H.T.; Hogben, L.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity/minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero

  20. A note on ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...

  1. Language Games: University Responses to Ranking Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Troy A.; Heffernan, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    League tables of universities that measure performance in various ways are now commonplace, with numerous bodies providing their own rankings of how institutions throughout the world are seen to be performing on a range of metrics. This paper uses Lyotard's notion of language games to theorise that universities are regaining some power over being…

  2. Ranking Thinning Potential of Lodgepole Pine Stands

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents models for predicting edge-response of dominant and codominant trees to clearing. Procedures are given for converting predictions to a thinning response index, for ranking stands for thinning priority. Data requirements, sampling suggestions, examples of application, and suggestions for management use are included to facilitate use as a field guide.

  3. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other

  4. Biomechanics Scholar Citations across Academic Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudson Duane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: citations to the publications of a scholar have been used as a measure of the quality or influence of their research record. A world-wide descriptive study of the citations to the publications of biomechanics scholars of various academic ranks was conducted.

  5. An algorithm for ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...... technique. Computational results for the new algorithm are presented...

  6. Ranking Workplace Competencies: Student and Graduate Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsbury, Elizabeth; Hodges, Dave; Burchell, Noel; Lay, Mark

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand business students and graduates made similar rankings of the five most important workplace competencies: computer literacy, customer service orientation, teamwork and cooperation, self-confidence, and willingness to learn. Graduates placed greater importance on most of the 24 competencies, resulting in a statistically significant…

  7. Comparing survival curves using rank tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1990-01-01

    Survival times of patients can be compared using rank tests in various experimental setups, including the two-sample case and the case of paired data. Attention is focussed on two frequently occurring complications in medical applications: censoring and tail alternatives. A review is given of the

  8. A generalization of Friedman's rank statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, de J.; Laan, van der P.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper a very natural generalization of the two·way analysis of variance rank statistic of FRIEDMAN is given. The general distribution-free test procedure based on this statistic for the effect of J treatments in a random block design can be applied in general two-way layouts without

  9. Towards an Efficient Artificial Neural Network Pruning and Feature Ranking Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are known to be among the most effective and expressive machine learning models. Their impressive abilities to learn have been reflected in many broad application domains such as image recognition, medical diagnosis, online banking, robotics, dynamic systems, and many others. ANNs with multiple layers of complex non-linear transformations (a.k.a Deep ANNs) have shown recently successful results in the area of computer vision and speech recognition. ANNs are parametric models that approximate unknown functions in which parameter values (weights) are adapted during training. ANN’s weights can be large in number and thus render the trained model more complex with chances for “overfitting” training data. In this study, we explore the effects of network pruning on performance of ANNs and ranking of features that describe the data. Simplified ANN model results in fewer parameters, less computation and faster training. We investigate the use of Hessian-based pruning algorithms as well as simpler ones (i.e. non Hessian-based) on nine datasets with varying number of input features and ANN parameters. The Hessian-based Optimal Brain Surgeon algorithm (OBS) is robust but slow. Therefore a faster parallel Hessian- approximation is provided. An additional speedup is provided using a variant we name ‘Simple n Optimal Brain Surgeon’ (SNOBS), which represents a good compromise between robustness and time efficiency. For some of the datasets, the ANN pruning experiments show on average 91% reduction in the number of ANN parameters and about 60% - 90% in the number of ANN input features, while maintaining comparable or better accuracy to the case when no pruning is applied. Finally, we show through a comprehensive comparison with seven state-of-the art feature filtering methods that the feature selection and ranking obtained as a byproduct of the ANN pruning is comparable in accuracy to these methods.

  10. Towards an Efficient Artificial Neural Network Pruning and Feature Ranking Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona

    2015-05-24

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are known to be among the most effective and expressive machine learning models. Their impressive abilities to learn have been reflected in many broad application domains such as image recognition, medical diagnosis, online banking, robotics, dynamic systems, and many others. ANNs with multiple layers of complex non-linear transformations (a.k.a Deep ANNs) have shown recently successful results in the area of computer vision and speech recognition. ANNs are parametric models that approximate unknown functions in which parameter values (weights) are adapted during training. ANN’s weights can be large in number and thus render the trained model more complex with chances for “overfitting” training data. In this study, we explore the effects of network pruning on performance of ANNs and ranking of features that describe the data. Simplified ANN model results in fewer parameters, less computation and faster training. We investigate the use of Hessian-based pruning algorithms as well as simpler ones (i.e. non Hessian-based) on nine datasets with varying number of input features and ANN parameters. The Hessian-based Optimal Brain Surgeon algorithm (OBS) is robust but slow. Therefore a faster parallel Hessian- approximation is provided. An additional speedup is provided using a variant we name ‘Simple n Optimal Brain Surgeon’ (SNOBS), which represents a good compromise between robustness and time efficiency. For some of the datasets, the ANN pruning experiments show on average 91% reduction in the number of ANN parameters and about 60% - 90% in the number of ANN input features, while maintaining comparable or better accuracy to the case when no pruning is applied. Finally, we show through a comprehensive comparison with seven state-of-the art feature filtering methods that the feature selection and ranking obtained as a byproduct of the ANN pruning is comparable in accuracy to these methods.

  11. Probabilistic relation between In-Degree and PageRank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stochastic model that explains the relation between power laws of In-Degree and PageRank. PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. We model the relation between PageRank and In-Degree through a stochastic equation, which is inspired by the

  12. Generalized reduced rank tests using the singular value decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Paap, R.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel statistic to test the rank of a matrix. The rank statistic overcomes deficiencies of existing rank statistics, like: necessity of a Kronecker covariance matrix for the canonical correlation rank statistic of Anderson (1951), sensitivity to the ordering of the variables for the LDU

  13. Nominal versus Attained Weights in Universitas 21 Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2014-01-01

    Universitas 21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems (U21 Ranking) is one of the three new ranking systems appearing in 2012. In contrast with the other systems, U21 Ranking uses countries as the unit of analysis. It has several features which lend it with greater trustworthiness, but it also shared some methodological issues with the other…

  14. Generalized Reduced Rank Tests using the Singular Value Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. Kleibergen (Frank); R. Paap (Richard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a novel statistic to test the rank of a matrix. The rank statistic overcomes deficiencies of existing rank statistics, like: necessity of a Kronecker covariance matrix for the canonical correlation rank statistic of Anderson (1951), sensitivity to the ordering of the variables

  15. VaRank: a simple and powerful tool for ranking genetic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Geoffroy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most genetic disorders are caused by single nucleotide variations (SNVs or small insertion/deletions (indels. High throughput sequencing has broadened the catalogue of human variation, including common polymorphisms, rare variations or disease causing mutations. However, identifying one variation among hundreds or thousands of others is still a complex task for biologists, geneticists and clinicians.Results. We have developed VaRank, a command-line tool for the ranking of genetic variants detected by high-throughput sequencing. VaRank scores and prioritizes variants annotated either by Alamut Batch or SnpEff. A barcode allows users to quickly view the presence/absence of variants (with homozygote/heterozygote status in analyzed samples. VaRank supports the commonly used VCF input format for variants analysis thus allowing it to be easily integrated into NGS bioinformatics analysis pipelines. VaRank has been successfully applied to disease-gene identification as well as to molecular diagnostics setup for several hundred patients.Conclusions. VaRank is implemented in Tcl/Tk, a scripting language which is platform-independent but has been tested only on Unix environment. The source code is available under the GNU GPL, and together with sample data and detailed documentation can be downloaded from http://www.lbgi.fr/VaRank/.

  16. Model of Decision Making through Consensus in Ranking Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Gim; Darnius, Open

    2018-01-01

    The basic problem to determine ranking consensus is a problem to combine some rankings those are decided by two or more Decision Maker (DM) into ranking consensus. DM is frequently asked to present their preferences over a group of objects in terms of ranks, for example to determine a new project, new product, a candidate in a election, and so on. The problem in ranking can be classified into two major categories; namely, cardinal and ordinal rankings. The objective of the study is to obtin the ranking consensus by appying some algorithms and methods. The algorithms and methods used in this study were partial algorithm, optimal ranking consensus, BAK (Borde-Kendal)Model. A method proposed as an alternative in ranking conssensus is a Weighted Distance Forward-Backward (WDFB) method, which gave a little difference i ranking consensus result compare to the result oethe example solved by Cook, et.al (2005).

  17. Statistical Optimality in Multipartite Ranking and Ordinal Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Kazuki; Lee, Yoonkyung

    2015-05-01

    Statistical optimality in multipartite ranking is investigated as an extension of bipartite ranking. We consider the optimality of ranking algorithms through minimization of the theoretical risk which combines pairwise ranking errors of ordinal categories with differential ranking costs. The extension shows that for a certain class of convex loss functions including exponential loss, the optimal ranking function can be represented as a ratio of weighted conditional probability of upper categories to lower categories, where the weights are given by the misranking costs. This result also bridges traditional ranking methods such as proportional odds model in statistics with various ranking algorithms in machine learning. Further, the analysis of multipartite ranking with different costs provides a new perspective on non-smooth list-wise ranking measures such as the discounted cumulative gain and preference learning. We illustrate our findings with simulation study and real data analysis.

  18. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  19. Variable importance analysis based on rank aggregation with applications in metabolomics for biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Ting; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2016-03-10

    Biomarker discovery is one important goal in metabolomics, which is typically modeled as selecting the most discriminating metabolites for classification and often referred to as variable importance analysis or variable selection. Until now, a number of variable importance analysis methods to discover biomarkers in the metabolomics studies have been proposed. However, different methods are mostly likely to generate different variable ranking results due to their different principles. Each method generates a variable ranking list just as an expert presents an opinion. The problem of inconsistency between different variable ranking methods is often ignored. To address this problem, a simple and ideal solution is that every ranking should be taken into account. In this study, a strategy, called rank aggregation, was employed. It is an indispensable tool for merging individual ranking lists into a single "super"-list reflective of the overall preference or importance within the population. This "super"-list is regarded as the final ranking for biomarker discovery. Finally, it was used for biomarkers discovery and selecting the best variable subset with the highest predictive classification accuracy. Nine methods were used, including three univariate filtering and six multivariate methods. When applied to two metabolic datasets (Childhood overweight dataset and Tubulointerstitial lesions dataset), the results show that the performance of rank aggregation has improved greatly with higher prediction accuracy compared with using all variables. Moreover, it is also better than penalized method, least absolute shrinkage and selectionator operator (LASSO), with higher prediction accuracy or less number of selected variables which are more interpretable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential invariants for higher-rank tensors. A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapial, V.

    2004-07-01

    We outline the construction of differential invariants for higher-rank tensors. In section 2 we outline the general method for the construction of differential invariants. A first result is that the simplest tensor differential invariant contains derivatives of the same order as the rank of the tensor. In section 3 we review the construction for the first-rank tensors (vectors) and second-rank tensors (metrics). In section 4 we outline the same construction for higher-rank tensors. (author)

  1. Beyond Low Rank: A Data-Adaptive Tensor Completion Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Wei, Wei; Shi, Qinfeng; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den; Zhang, Yanning

    2017-01-01

    Low rank tensor representation underpins much of recent progress in tensor completion. In real applications, however, this approach is confronted with two challenging problems, namely (1) tensor rank determination; (2) handling real tensor data which only approximately fulfils the low-rank requirement. To address these two issues, we develop a data-adaptive tensor completion model which explicitly represents both the low-rank and non-low-rank structures in a latent tensor. Representing the no...

  2. Multi-dimensional Rankings, Program Termination, and Complexity Bounds of Flowchart Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Christophe; Darte, Alain; Feautrier, Paul; Gonnord, Laure

    Proving the termination of a flowchart program can be done by exhibiting a ranking function, i.e., a function from the program states to a well-founded set, which strictly decreases at each program step. A standard method to automatically generate such a function is to compute invariants for each program point and to search for a ranking in a restricted class of functions that can be handled with linear programming techniques. Previous algorithms based on affine rankings either are applicable only to simple loops (i.e., single-node flowcharts) and rely on enumeration, or are not complete in the sense that they are not guaranteed to find a ranking in the class of functions they consider, if one exists. Our first contribution is to propose an efficient algorithm to compute ranking functions: It can handle flowcharts of arbitrary structure, the class of candidate rankings it explores is larger, and our method, although greedy, is provably complete. Our second contribution is to show how to use the ranking functions we generate to get upper bounds for the computational complexity (number of transitions) of the source program. This estimate is a polynomial, which means that we can handle programs with more than linear complexity. We applied the method on a collection of test cases from the literature. We also show the links and differences with previous techniques based on the insertion of counters.

  3. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  4. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  5. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  6. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  7. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  8. When sparse coding meets ranking: a joint framework for learning sparse codes and ranking scores

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Cui, Xuefeng; Yu, Ge; Guo, Lili; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Sparse coding, which represents a data point as a sparse reconstruction code with regard to a dictionary, has been a popular data representation method. Meanwhile, in database retrieval problems, learning the ranking scores from data points plays

  9. Individual variation in intentionality in the mind-wandering state is reflected in the integration of the default-mode, fronto-parietal, and limbic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchert, Johannes; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Seli, Paul; Huntenburg, Julia M; Liem, Franziskus; Lauckner, Mark E; Oligschläger, Sabine; Bernhardt, Boris C; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-02-01

    Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as well the apparently alternative view that control can facilitate the expression of self-generated mental content. We assessed whether this apparent contradiction arises because of a failure to consider differences in the types of thoughts that occur during mind-wandering, and in particular, the associated level of intentionality. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we examined the cortical organisation that underlies inter-individual differences in descriptions of the spontaneous or deliberate nature of mind-wandering. Cortical thickness, as well as functional connectivity analyses, implicated regions relevant to cognitive control and regions of the default-mode network for individuals who reported high rates of deliberate mind-wandering. In contrast, higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering were associated with cortical thinning in parietal and posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (which are important in the control of cognition and attention) as well as heightened connectivity between the intraparietal sulcus and a region that spanned limbic and default-mode regions in the ventral inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, we observed a dissociation in the thickness of the retrosplenial cortex/lingual gyrus, with higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering being associated with thickening in the left hemisphere, and higher repots of deliberate mind-wandering with thinning in the right hemisphere. These results suggest that the intentionality of the mind-wandering state depends on integration between the control and default-mode networks, with more deliberation being associated with greater integration between these systems. We conclude that one reason why mind-wandering has a controversial relationship

  10. Fourth-rank gravity. A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia, V.

    1992-04-01

    We consider the consequences of describing the metric properties of space-time through a quartic line element. The associated ''metric'' is a fourth-rank tensor. After developing some fundamentals for such geometry, we construct a field theory for the gravitational field. This theory coincides with General Relativity in the vacuum case. Departures from General Relativity are obtained only in the presence of matter. We develop a simple cosmological model which is not in contradiction with the observed value Ω approx. 0.2-0.3 for the energy density parameter. A further application concerns conformal field theory. We are able to prove that a conformal field theory possesses an infinite-dimensional symmetry group only if the dimension of space-time is equal to the rank of the metric. In this case we are able to construct an integrable conformal field theory in four dimensions. The model is renormalisable by power counting. (author). 9 refs

  11. Low-rank quadratic semidefinite programming

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2013-04-01

    Low rank matrix approximation is an attractive model in large scale machine learning problems, because it can not only reduce the memory and runtime complexity, but also provide a natural way to regularize parameters while preserving learning accuracy. In this paper, we address a special class of nonconvex quadratic matrix optimization problems, which require a low rank positive semidefinite solution. Despite their non-convexity, we exploit the structure of these problems to derive an efficient solver that converges to their local optima. Furthermore, we show that the proposed solution is capable of dramatically enhancing the efficiency and scalability of a variety of concrete problems, which are of significant interest to the machine learning community. These problems include the Top-k Eigenvalue problem, Distance learning and Kernel learning. Extensive experiments on UCI benchmarks have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method. © 2012.

  12. Ranking oil sands bitumen recovery techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, A.; Nobes, D.S.; Lipsett, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The preference ranking organization method (PROMETHEE) was used to assess and rank 3 techniques for in situ bitumen recovery: (1) steam assisted gravity drainage; (2) vapour extraction (VAPEX); and (3) toe-to-heel air injection (THAI). The study used a business scenario where management-type indicators included potential production rates; estimated overall operating costs; energy consumption; facilities requirement; recovery efficiency; and energy loss. Amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were also considered, as well as the production depth, formation thickness, and API gravity of the produced bitumen. The study showed that THAI recovery methods had the most beneficial criteria weighting of the 3 processes, while SAGD was the least favourable choice. However, SAGD processes are the most widely used of the 3 processes, while THAI has only been demonstrated on a limited scale. It was concluded that the maturity of a technology should be weighted more heavily when using the PROMETHEE method. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Low-rank quadratic semidefinite programming

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ghanem, Bernard; Hao, Zhifeng

    2013-01-01

    Low rank matrix approximation is an attractive model in large scale machine learning problems, because it can not only reduce the memory and runtime complexity, but also provide a natural way to regularize parameters while preserving learning accuracy. In this paper, we address a special class of nonconvex quadratic matrix optimization problems, which require a low rank positive semidefinite solution. Despite their non-convexity, we exploit the structure of these problems to derive an efficient solver that converges to their local optima. Furthermore, we show that the proposed solution is capable of dramatically enhancing the efficiency and scalability of a variety of concrete problems, which are of significant interest to the machine learning community. These problems include the Top-k Eigenvalue problem, Distance learning and Kernel learning. Extensive experiments on UCI benchmarks have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method. © 2012.

  14. Implementing Relative Ranking Evaluation Framework at Department of Energy (DOE) installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.; Williamson, D.; Treichel, L.C.; James, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) has developed the Relative Ranking Evaluation Framework (RREF) to help categorize release sites, facilities and buildings requiring restoration or decommissioning. Based on this framework, a computer tool, the Relative Rank Evaluation Program (RREP) has been developed to evaluate release sites, facilities and buildings, and to manage information pertaining to relative ranking evaluations. The relative ranking information is being used by both Headquarters and field project managers, and other environmental personnel responsible for planning, executing and evaluation environmental restoration activities at DOE installations. External stakeholders, such as representatives of federal and state regulatory agencies, local governments and communities in the vicinity of current and formerly used DOE installations may use this data to review proposed and planned activities

  15. Discovering urban mobility patterns with PageRank based traffic modeling and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjie; Yang, Su; Sun, Yi; Gao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Urban transportation system can be viewed as complex network with time-varying traffic flows as links to connect adjacent regions as networked nodes. By computing urban traffic evolution on such temporal complex network with PageRank, it is found that for most regions, there exists a linear relation between the traffic congestion measure at present time and the PageRank value of the last time. Since the PageRank measure of a region does result from the mutual interactions of the whole network, it implies that the traffic state of a local region does not evolve independently but is affected by the evolution of the whole network. As a result, the PageRank values can act as signatures in predicting upcoming traffic congestions. We observe the aforementioned laws experimentally based on the trajectory data of 12000 taxies in Beijing city for one month.

  16. Social Media Impact on Website Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Vaghela, Dushyant

    2014-01-01

    Internet is fast becoming critically important to commerce, industry and individuals. Search Engine (SE) is the most vital component for communication network and also used for discover information for users or people. Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process that is mostly used to increasing traffic from free, organic or natural listings on search engines and also helps to increase website ranking. It includes techniques like link building, directory submission, classified submission ...

  17. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016

  18. Probabilistic real-time contingency ranking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijuskovic, N.A.; Stojnic, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time contingency method based on a probabilistic index-expected energy not supplied. This way it is possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the electric power system equipment outages. This approach enables more comprehensive ranking of contingencies and it is possible to form reliability cost values that can form the basis for hourly spot price calculations. The electric power system of Serbia is used as an example for the method proposed. (author)

  19. Returns to Tenure: Time or Rank?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian

    -specific investment, efficiency-wages or adverse-selection models. However, rent extracting arguments as suggested by the theory of internal labor markets, indicate that the relative position of the worker in the seniority hierarchy of the firm, her 'seniority rank', may also explain part of the observed returns...... relative to their peer workers), as predicted by theories on unionized and insider-outsider markets....

  20. Citation ranking versus peer evaluation of senior faculty research performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meho, Lokman I.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between citation ranking and peer evaluation in assessing senior faculty research performance. Other studies typically derive their peer evaluation data directly from referees, often in the form of ranking. This study uses two additional...... indicator of research performance of senior faculty members? Citation data, book reviews, and peer ranking were compiled and examined for faculty members specializing in Kurdish studies. Analysis shows that normalized citation ranking and citation content analysis data yield identical ranking results....... Analysis also shows that normalized citation ranking and citation content analysis, book reviews, and peer ranking perform similarly (i.e., are highly correlated) for high-ranked and low-ranked senior scholars. Additional evaluation methods and measures that take into account the context and content...

  1. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Job Rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Moradi, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    The occupation of the people can influence the development of metabolic syndrome. To determine the association between metabolic syndrome and its determinants with the job rank in workers of a large car factory in Iran. 3989 male workers at a large car manufacturing company were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric data of the participants, including age, height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken to measure lipid profile and blood glucose level. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in each participant based on ATPIII 2001 criteria. The workers were categorized based on their job rank into 3 groups of (1) office workers, (2) workers with physical exertion, and (3) workers with chemical exposure. The study characteristics, particularly the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its determinants were compared among the study groups. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study was 7.7% (95% CI 6.9 to 8.5). HDL levels were significantly lower in those who had chemical exposure (p=0.045). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those who had mechanical exertion (p=0.026). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the office workers, workers with physical exertion, and workers with chemical exposure was 7.3%, 7.9%, and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.836). Seemingly, there is no association between metabolic syndrome and job rank.

  2. Fourth-rank gravity and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrakchi, A.L.; Tapia, V.

    1992-07-01

    We consider the consequences of describing the metric properties of space-time through a quartic line element. The associated ''metric'' is a fourth-rank tensor G μυλπ . In order to recover a Riemannian behaviour of the geometry it is necessary to have G μυλπ = g (μυ g λπ) . We construct a theory for the gravitational field based on the fourth-rank metric G μυλπ . In the absence of matter the fourth-rank metric becomes separable and the theory coincides with General Relativity. In the presence of matter we can maintain Riemmanianicity, but now gravitation couples, as compared to General Relativity, in a different way to matter. We develop a simple cosmological model based on a FRW metric with matter described by a perfect fluid. For the present time the field equations are compatible with k OBS = O and Ω OBS t CLAS approx. 10 20 t PLANCK approx. 10 -23 s. Our final and most important result is the fact that the entropy is an increasing function of time. When interpreted at the light of General Relativity the treatment is shown to be almost equivalent to that of the standard model of cosmology combined with the inflationary scenario. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig

  3. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  4. Estimation of rank correlation for clustered data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Glynn, Robert J

    2017-06-30

    It is well known that the sample correlation coefficient (R xy ) is the maximum likelihood estimator of the Pearson correlation (ρ xy ) for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) bivariate normal data. However, this is not true for ophthalmologic data where X (e.g., visual acuity) and Y (e.g., visual field) are available for each eye and there is positive intraclass correlation for both X and Y in fellow eyes. In this paper, we provide a regression-based approach for obtaining the maximum likelihood estimator of ρ xy for clustered data, which can be implemented using standard mixed effects model software. This method is also extended to allow for estimation of partial correlation by controlling both X and Y for a vector U_ of other covariates. In addition, these methods can be extended to allow for estimation of rank correlation for clustered data by (i) converting ranks of both X and Y to the probit scale, (ii) estimating the Pearson correlation between probit scores for X and Y, and (iii) using the relationship between Pearson and rank correlation for bivariate normally distributed data. The validity of the methods in finite-sized samples is supported by simulation studies. Finally, two examples from ophthalmology and analgesic abuse are used to illustrate the methods. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ranking environmental liabilities at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new computer model is available to allow the management of a petroleum refinery to prioritize environmental action and construct a holistic approach to remediation. A large refinery may have numerous solid waste management units regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as well as process units that emit hazardous chemicals into the environment. These sources can impact several environmental media, potentially including the air, the soil, the groundwater, the unsaturated zone water, and surface water. The number of chemicals of concern may be large. The new model is able to rank the sources by considering the impact of each chemical in each medium from each source in terms of concentration, release rate, and a weighted index based on toxicity. In addition to environmental impact, the sources can be ranked in three other ways: (1) by cost to remediate, (2) by environmental risk reduction caused by the remediation in terms of the decreases in release rate, concentration, and weighted index, and (3) by cost-benefit, which is the environmental risk reduction for each source divided by the cost of the remedy. Ranking each unit in the refinery allows management to use its limited environmental resources in a pro-active strategic manner that produces long-term results, rather than in reactive, narrowly focused, costly, regulatory-driven campaigns that produce only short-term results

  6. Iris Template Protection Based on Local Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.

  7. Fuzzy Approach in Ranking of Banks according to Financial Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Jakšić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating bank performance on a yearly basis and making comparison among banks in certain time intervals provide an insight into general financial state of banks and their relative position with respect to the environment (creditors, investors, and stakeholders. The aim of this study is to propose a new fuzzy multicriteria model to evaluate banks respecting relative importance of financial performances and their values. The relative importance of each pair of financial performance groups is assessed linguistic expressions which are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchical Process (FAHP is applied to determine relative weights of the financial performances. In order to rank the treated banks, new model based on Fuzzy Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS is deployed. The proposed model is illustrated by an example giving real life data from 12 banks having 80% share of the Serbian market. In order to verify the proposed FTOPSIS different measures of separation are used. The presented solution enables the ranking of banks, gives an insight of bank’s state to stakeholders, and provides base for successful improvement in a field of strategy quality in bank business.

  8. Tensor Factorization for Low-Rank Tensor Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pan; Lu, Canyi; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Recently, a tensor nuclear norm (TNN) based method was proposed to solve the tensor completion problem, which has achieved state-of-the-art performance on image and video inpainting tasks. However, it requires computing tensor singular value decomposition (t-SVD), which costs much computation and thus cannot efficiently handle tensor data, due to its natural large scale. Motivated by TNN, we propose a novel low-rank tensor factorization method for efficiently solving the 3-way tensor completion problem. Our method preserves the low-rank structure of a tensor by factorizing it into the product of two tensors of smaller sizes. In the optimization process, our method only needs to update two smaller tensors, which can be more efficiently conducted than computing t-SVD. Furthermore, we prove that the proposed alternating minimization algorithm can converge to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. Experimental results on the synthetic data recovery, image and video inpainting tasks clearly demonstrate the superior performance and efficiency of our developed method over state-of-the-arts including the TNN and matricization methods.

  9. Low-Rank Kalman Filtering in Subsurface Contaminant Transport Models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the geology and the hydrology of the subsurface is important to model the fluid flow and the behavior of the contaminant. It is essential to have an accurate knowledge of the movement of the contaminants in the porous media in order to track them and later extract them from the aquifer. A two-dimensional flow model is studied and then applied on a linear contaminant transport model in the same porous medium. Because of possible different sources of uncertainties, the deterministic model by itself cannot give exact estimations for the future contaminant state. Incorporating observations in the model can guide it to the true state. This is usually done using the Kalman filter (KF) when the system is linear and the extended Kalman filter (EKF) when the system is nonlinear. To overcome the high computational cost required by the KF, we use the singular evolutive Kalman filter (SEKF) and the singular evolutive extended Kalman filter (SEEKF) approximations of the KF operating with low-rank covariance matrices. The SEKF can be implemented on large dimensional contaminant problems while the usage of the KF is not possible. Experimental results show that with perfect and imperfect models, the low rank filters can provide as much accurate estimates as the full KF but at much less computational cost. Localization can help the filter analysis as long as there are enough neighborhood data to the point being analyzed. Estimating the permeabilities of the aquifer is successfully tackled using both the EKF and the SEEKF.

  10. Low-Rank Kalman Filtering in Subsurface Contaminant Transport Models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the geology and the hydrology of the subsurface is important to model the fluid flow and the behavior of the contaminant. It is essential to have an accurate knowledge of the movement of the contaminants in the porous media in order to track them and later extract them from the aquifer. A two-dimensional flow model is studied and then applied on a linear contaminant transport model in the same porous medium. Because of possible different sources of uncertainties, the deterministic model by itself cannot give exact estimations for the future contaminant state. Incorporating observations in the model can guide it to the true state. This is usually done using the Kalman filter (KF) when the system is linear and the extended Kalman filter (EKF) when the system is nonlinear. To overcome the high computational cost required by the KF, we use the singular evolutive Kalman filter (SEKF) and the singular evolutive extended Kalman filter (SEEKF) approximations of the KF operating with low-rank covariance matrices. The SEKF can be implemented on large dimensional contaminant problems while the usage of the KF is not possible. Experimental results show that with perfect and imperfect models, the low rank filters can provide as much accurate estimates as the full KF but at much less computational cost. Localization can help the filter analysis as long as there are enough neighborhood data to the point being analyzed. Estimating the permeabilities of the aquifer is successfully tackled using both the EKF and the SEEKF.

  11. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  12. Country-specific determinants of world university rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrucha, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines country-specific factors that affect the three most influential world university rankings (the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Ranking, and the Times Higher Education World University Ranking). We run a cross sectional regression that covers 42-71 countries (depending on the ranking and data availability). We show that the position of universities from a country in the ranking is determined by the following country-specific variables: economic potential of the country, research and development expenditure, long-term political stability (freedom from war, occupation, coups and major changes in the political system), and institutional variables, including government effectiveness.

  13. Deep Multimodal Distance Metric Learning Using Click Constraints for Image Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Yang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fei; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-12-01

    How do we retrieve images accurately? Also, how do we rank a group of images precisely and efficiently for specific queries? These problems are critical for researchers and engineers to generate a novel image searching engine. First, it is important to obtain an appropriate description that effectively represent the images. In this paper, multimodal features are considered for describing images. The images unique properties are reflected by visual features, which are correlated to each other. However, semantic gaps always exist between images visual features and semantics. Therefore, we utilize click feature to reduce the semantic gap. The second key issue is learning an appropriate distance metric to combine these multimodal features. This paper develops a novel deep multimodal distance metric learning (Deep-MDML) method. A structured ranking model is adopted to utilize both visual and click features in distance metric learning (DML). Specifically, images and their related ranking results are first collected to form the training set. Multimodal features, including click and visual features, are collected with these images. Next, a group of autoencoders is applied to obtain initially a distance metric in different visual spaces, and an MDML method is used to assign optimal weights for different modalities. Next, we conduct alternating optimization to train the ranking model, which is used for the ranking of new queries with click features. Compared with existing image ranking methods, the proposed method adopts a new ranking model to use multimodal features, including click features and visual features in DML. We operated experiments to analyze the proposed Deep-MDML in two benchmark data sets, and the results validate the effects of the method.

  14. Ranking U-Sapiens 2010-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Roberto Peña-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos de esta investigación son los siguientes: (1 que la comunidad científica nacional e internacional y la sociedad en general co-nozcan los resultados del Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia 2010_2, el cual clasifica a cada institución de educación superior colombiana según puntaje, posición y cuartil; (2 destacar los movimientos más importantes al comparar los resultados del ranking 2010_1 con los del 2010_2; (3 publicar las respuestas de algunos actores de la academia nacional con respecto a la dinámica de la investigación en el país; (4 reconocer algunas instituciones, medios de comunicación e investigadores que se han interesado a modo de reflexión, referenciación o citación por esta investigación; y (5 dar a conocer el «Sello Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia» para las IES clasificadas. El alcance de este estudio en cuanto a actores abordó todas y cada una de las IES nacionales (aunque solo algunas lograran entrar al ranking y en cuanto a tiempo, un periodo referido al primer semestre de 2010 con respecto a: (1 los resultados 2010-1 de revistas indexadas en Publindex, (2 los programas de maestrías y doctorados activos durante 2010-1 según el Ministerio de Educación Nacional, y (3 los resultados de grupos de investigación clasificados para 2010 según Colciencias. El método empleado para esta investigación es el mismo que para el ranking 2010_1, salvo por una especificación aún más detallada en uno de los pasos del modelo (las variables α, β, γ; es completamente cuantitativo y los datos de las variables que fundamentan sus resultados provienen de Colciencias y el Ministerio de Educación Nacional; y en esta ocasión se darán a conocer los resultados por variable para 2010_1 y 2010_2. Los resultados más relevantes son estos: (1 entraron 8 IES al ranking y salieron 3; (2 las 3 primeras IES son públicas; (3 en total hay 6 instituciones universitarias en el ranking; (4 7 de las 10 primeras IES son

  15. Single-Fiber Reflectance Spectroscopy of Isotropic-Scattering Medium: An Analytic Perspective to the Ratio-of-Remission in Steady-State Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqing Piao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent focused Monte Carlo and experimental studies on steady-state single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy (SfRS from a biologically relevant scattering medium have revealed that, as the dimensionless reduced scattering of the medium increases, the SfRS intensity increases monotonically until reaching a plateau. The SfRS signal is semi-empirically decomposed to the product of three contributing factors, including a ratio-of-remission (RoR term that refers to the ratio of photons remitting from the medium and crossing the fiber-medium interface over the total number of photons launched into the medium. The RoR is expressed with respect to the dimensionless reduced scattering parameter , where  is the reduced scattering coefficient of the medium and  is the diameter of the probing fiber. We develop in this work, under the assumption of an isotropic-scattering medium, a method of analytical treatment that will indicate the pattern of RoR as a function of the dimensionless reduced scattering of the medium. The RoR is derived in four cases, corresponding to in-medium (applied to interstitial probing of biological tissue or surface-based (applied to contact-probing of biological tissue SfRS measurements using straight-polished or angle-polished fiber. The analytically arrived surface-probing RoR corresponding to single-fiber probing using a 15° angle-polished fiber over the range of  agrees with previously reported similarly configured experimental measurement from a scattering medium that has a Henyey–Greenstein scattering phase function with an anisotropy factor of 0.8. In cases of a medium scattering light anisotropically, we propose how the treatment may be furthered to account for the scattering anisotropy using the result of a study of light scattering close to the point-of-entry by Vitkin et al. (Nat. Commun. 2011, doi:10.1038/ncomms1599.

  16. Frames for exact inversion of the rank order coder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Khaled; Antonini, Marc; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Our goal is to revisit rank order coding by proposing an original exact decoding procedure for it. Rank order coding was proposed by Thorpe et al. who stated that the order in which the retina cells are activated encodes for the visual stimulus. Based on this idea, the authors proposed in [1] a rank order coder/decoder associated to a retinal model. Though, it appeared that the decoding procedure employed yields reconstruction errors that limit the model bit-cost/quality performances when used as an image codec. The attempts made in the literature to overcome this issue are time consuming and alter the coding procedure, or are lacking mathematical support and feasibility for standard size images. Here we solve this problem in an original fashion by using the frames theory, where a frame of a vector space designates an extension for the notion of basis. Our contribution is twofold. First, we prove that the analyzing filter bank considered is a frame, and then we define the corresponding dual frame that is necessary for the exact image reconstruction. Second, to deal with the problem of memory overhead, we design a recursive out-of-core blockwise algorithm for the computation of this dual frame. Our work provides a mathematical formalism for the retinal model under study and defines a simple and exact reverse transform for it with over than 265 dB of increase in the peak signal-to-noise ratio quality compared to [1]. Furthermore, the framework presented here can be extended to several models of the visual cortical areas using redundant representations.

  17. Rank restriction for the variational calculation of two-electron reduced density matrices of many-electron atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naftchi-Ardebili, Kasra; Hau, Nathania W.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Variational minimization of the ground-state energy as a function of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM), constrained by necessary N-representability conditions, provides a polynomial-scaling approach to studying strongly correlated molecules without computing the many-electron wave function. Here we introduce a route to enhancing necessary conditions for N representability through rank restriction of the 2-RDM. Rather than adding computationally more expensive N-representability conditions, we directly enhance the accuracy of two-particle (2-positivity) conditions through rank restriction, which removes degrees of freedom in the 2-RDM that are not sufficiently constrained. We select the rank of the particle-hole 2-RDM by deriving the ranks associated with model wave functions, including both mean-field and antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave functions. Because the 2-positivity conditions are exact for quantum systems with AGP ground states, the rank of the particle-hole 2-RDM from the AGP ansatz provides a minimum for its value in variational 2-RDM calculations of general quantum systems. To implement the rank-restricted conditions, we extend a first-order algorithm for large-scale semidefinite programming. The rank-restricted conditions significantly improve the accuracy of the energies; for example, the percentages of correlation energies recovered for HF, CO, and N 2 improve from 115.2%, 121.7%, and 121.5% without rank restriction to 97.8%, 101.1%, and 100.0% with rank restriction. Similar results are found at both equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries. While more accurate, the rank-restricted N-representability conditions are less expensive computationally than the full-rank conditions.

  18. Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dahlan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.

  19. Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dahlan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.

  20. Algebraic and computational aspects of real tensor ranks

    CERN Document Server

    Sakata, Toshio; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive summaries of theoretical (algebraic) and computational aspects of tensor ranks, maximal ranks, and typical ranks, over the real number field. Although tensor ranks have been often argued in the complex number field, it should be emphasized that this book treats real tensor ranks, which have direct applications in statistics. The book provides several interesting ideas, including determinant polynomials, determinantal ideals, absolutely nonsingular tensors, absolutely full column rank tensors, and their connection to bilinear maps and Hurwitz-Radon numbers. In addition to reviews of methods to determine real tensor ranks in details, global theories such as the Jacobian method are also reviewed in details. The book includes as well an accessible and comprehensive introduction of mathematical backgrounds, with basics of positive polynomials and calculations by using the Groebner basis. Furthermore, this book provides insights into numerical methods of finding tensor ranks through...

  1. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. TIENKEN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries’ rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum’s Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI. The study investigated the existence of relationships between international test rankings from three different time periods during the last 50 years of U.S. education policy development (i.e., 1957–1982, 1983–2000, and 2001–2006 and 2006 GCI ranks. It extends previous research on the topic by investigating how GCI rankings in the top 50 percent and bottom 50 percent relate to rankings on international tests for the countries that participated in each test. The study found that the relationship between ranks on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic strength is stronger among nations with lower-performing economies. Nations with strong economies, such as the United States, demonstrate a weaker, nonsignificant relationship.

  2. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  3. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/kalina-0474065.pdf

  4. Motion in fourth-rank gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia, V.

    1992-04-01

    Recently we have explored the consequences of describing the metric properties of our universe through a quartic line element. In this geometry the natural object is a fourth-rank metric, i.e., a tensor with four indices. Based on this geometry we constructed a simple field theory for the gravitational field. The field equations coincide with the Einstein field equations in the vacuum case. This fact, however, does not guarantee the observational equivalence of both theories since one must still verify that, as a consequence of the field equations, test particles move along geodesics. This letter is aimed at establishing this result. (author). 7 refs

  5. Classical impurities associated to high rank algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: A.Doikou@hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Heriot–Watt University, EH14 4AS, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics, University of Patras, Patras GR-26500 (Greece)

    2014-07-15

    Classical integrable impurities associated with high rank (gl{sub N}) algebras are investigated. A particular prototype, i.e. the vector non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) model, is chosen as an example. A systematic construction of local integrals of motion as well as the time components of the corresponding Lax pairs is presented based on the underlying classical algebra. Suitable gluing conditions compatible with integrability are also extracted. The defect contribution is also examined in the case where non-trivial integrable conditions are implemented. It turns out that the integrable boundaries may drastically alter the bulk behavior, and in particular the defect contribution.

  6. Low-rank driving in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkey, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A new property of quantum systems called low-rank driving is introduced. Numerous simplifications in the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation are pointed out for systems having this property. These simplifications are in the areas of finding eigenvalues, taking the Laplace transform, converting Schroedinger's equation to an integral form, discretizing the continuum, generalizing the Weisskopf-Wigner approximation, band-diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, finding new exact solutions to Schroedinger's equation, and so forth. The principal physical application considered is the phenomenon of coherent populations-trapping in continuum-continuum interactions

  7. Classical impurities associated to high rank algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Classical integrable impurities associated with high rank (gl N ) algebras are investigated. A particular prototype, i.e. the vector non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) model, is chosen as an example. A systematic construction of local integrals of motion as well as the time components of the corresponding Lax pairs is presented based on the underlying classical algebra. Suitable gluing conditions compatible with integrability are also extracted. The defect contribution is also examined in the case where non-trivial integrable conditions are implemented. It turns out that the integrable boundaries may drastically alter the bulk behavior, and in particular the defect contribution

  8. Characterizing Microseismicity at the Newberry Volcano Geothermal Site using PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A. C.; Myers, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Newberry Volcano, within the Deschutes National Forest in Oregon, has been designated as a candidate site for the Department of Energy's Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) program. This site was stimulated using high-pressure fluid injection during the fall of 2012, which generated several hundred microseismic events. Exploring the spatial and temporal development of microseismicity is key to understanding how subsurface stimulation modifies stress, fractures rock, and increases permeability. We analyze Newberry seismicity using both surface and borehole seismometers from the AltaRock and LLNL seismic networks. For our analysis we adapt PageRank, Google's initial search algorithm, to evaluate microseismicity during the 2012 stimulation. PageRank is a measure of connectivity, where higher ranking represents highly connected windows. In seismic applications connectivity is measured by the cross correlation of 2 time windows recorded on a common seismic station and channel. Aguiar and Beroza (2014) used PageRank based on cross correlation to detect low-frequency earthquakes, which are highly repetitive but difficult to detect. We expand on this application by using PageRank to define signal-correlation topology for micro-earthquakes, including the identification of signals that are connected to the largest number of other signals. We then use this information to create signal families and compare PageRank families to the spatial and temporal proximity of associated earthquakes. Studying signal PageRank will potentially allow us to efficiently group earthquakes with similar physical characteristics, such as focal mechanisms and stress drop. Our ultimate goal is to determine whether changes in the state of stress and/or changes in the generation of subsurface fracture networks can be detected using PageRank topology. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  9. The BiPublishers ranking: Main results and methodological problems when constructing rankings of academic publishers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salinas, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the Bibliometric Indicators for Publishers project (also known as BiPublishers. This project represents the first attempt to systematically develop bibliometric publisher rankings. The data for this project was derived from the Book Citation Index and the study time period was 2009-2013. We have developed 42 rankings: 4 by fields and 38 by disciplines. We display six indicators for publishers divided into three types: output, impact and publisher’s profile. The aim is to capture different characteristics of the research performance of publishers. 254 publishers were processed and classified according to publisher type: commercial publishers and university presses. We present the main publishers by field and then discuss the principal challenges presented when developing this type of tool. The BiPublishers ranking is an on-going project which aims to develop and explore new data sources and indicators to better capture and define the research impact of publishers.Presentamos los resultados del proyecto Bibliometric Indicators for Publishers (BiPublishers. Es el primer proyecto que desarrolla de manera sistemática rankings bibliométricos de editoriales. La fuente de datos empleada es el Book Citation Index y el periodo de análisis 2009-2013. Se presentan 42 rankings: 4 por áreas y 38 por disciplinas. Mostramos seis indicadores por editorial divididos según su tipología: producción, impacto y características editoriales. Se procesaron 254 editoriales y se clasificaron según el tipo: comerciales y universitarias. Se presentan las principales editoriales por áreas. Después, se discuten los principales retos a superar en el desarrollo de este tipo de herramientas. El ranking Bipublishers es un proyecto en desarrollo que persigue analizar y explorar nuevas fuentes de datos e indicadores para captar y definir el impacto de las editoriales académicas.

  10. Generalized PageRank on Directed Configuration Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ningyuan; Litvak, Nelli; Olvera-Cravioto, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Note: formula is not displayed correctly. This paper studies the distribution of a family of rankings, which includes Google’s PageRank, on a directed configuration model. In particular, it is shown that the distribution of the rank of a randomly chosen node in the graph converges in distribution to

  11. PageRank in scale-free random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ningyuan; Litvak, Nelli; Olvera-Cravioto, Mariana; Bonata, Anthony; Chung, Fan; Pralat, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of PageRank on a directed configuration model and show that as the size of the graph grows to infinity, the PageRank of a randomly chosen node can be closely approximated by the PageRank of the root node of an appropriately constructed tree. This tree approximation is in

  12. Ranking Quality in Higher Education: Guiding or Misleading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergseth, Brita; Petocz, Peter; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    The study examines two different models of measuring, assessing and ranking quality in higher education. Do different systems of quality assessment lead to equivalent conclusions about the quality of education? This comparative study is based on the rankings of 24 Swedish higher education institutions. Two ranking actors have independently…

  13. Revisiting the Relationship between Institutional Rank and Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilvinskis, John; Louis Rocconi

    2018-01-01

    College rankings dominate the conversation regarding quality in postsecondary education. However, the criteria used to rank institutions often have nothing to do with the quality of education students receive. A decade ago, Pike (2004) demonstrated that institutional rank had little association with student involvement in educational activities.…

  14. Academic Ranking--From Its Genesis to Its International Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rosilene C.; Lima, Manolita C.

    2015-01-01

    Given the visibility and popularity of rankings that encompass the measurement of quality of post-graduate courses, for instance, the MBA (Master of Business Administration) or graduate studies program (MSc and PhD) as do global academic rankings--Academic Ranking of World Universities-ARWU, Times Higher/Thomson Reuters World University Ranking…

  15. Control by Numbers: New Managerialism and Ranking in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of rankings as an instrument of new managerialism. It shows how rankings are reconstituting the purpose of universities, the role of academics and the definition of what it is to be a student. The paper opens by examining the forces that have facilitated the emergence of the ranking industry and the ideologies…

  16. Paired comparisons analysis: an axiomatic approach to ranking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, J.; Hendrickx, Ruud; Lohmann, E.R.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an axiomatic analysis of several ranking methods for general tournaments. We find that the ranking method obtained by applying maximum likelihood to the (Zermelo-)Bradley-Terry model, the most common method in statistics and psychology, is one of the ranking methods that

  17. Extracting Rankings for Spatial Keyword Queries from GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keles, Ilkcan; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas

    2018-01-01

    Studies suggest that many search engine queries have local intent. We consider the evaluation of ranking functions important for such queries. The key challenge is to be able to determine the “best” ranking for a query, as this enables evaluation of the results of ranking functions. We propose...

  18. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  19. Variation in rank abundance replicate samples and impact of clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Calculating a single-sample rank abundance curve by using the negative-binomial distribution provides a way to investigate the variability within rank abundance replicate samples and yields a measure of the degree of heterogeneity of the sampled community. The calculation of the single-sample rank

  20. A Fast Algorithm for Generating Permutation Distribution of Ranks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... function of the distribution of the ranks. This further gives insight into the permutation distribution of a rank statistics. The algorithm is implemented with the aid of the computer algebra system Mathematica. Key words: Combinatorics, generating function, permutation distribution, rank statistics, partitions, computer algebra.

  1. Teletandem and the teaching of Portuguese as a Foreign Language: reflections of teachers from public schools in the State of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Moisés Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital communication concerning the web 2.0 modality has been transforming educational practices since it demands the development of additional knowledge besides the face-to-face classroom mode. This article concerns teacher's reflections in relation to Portuguese as a Foreign Language (PFL in virtual environments and in in-tandem contexts. The focus surrounds making explicit the reflections of in-service teachers as users of technological tools, with the consideration of linguistic issues that emerge in a virtual context as well as the possibilities of a differentiated interactive learning style regarding PFL.

  2. Text mixing shapes the anatomy of rank-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jake Ryland; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-05-01

    Natural languages are full of rules and exceptions. One of the most famous quantitative rules is Zipf's law, which states that the frequency of occurrence of a word is approximately inversely proportional to its rank. Though this "law" of ranks has been found to hold across disparate texts and forms of data, analyses of increasingly large corpora since the late 1990s have revealed the existence of two scaling regimes. These regimes have thus far been explained by a hypothesis suggesting a separability of languages into core and noncore lexica. Here we present and defend an alternative hypothesis that the two scaling regimes result from the act of aggregating texts. We observe that text mixing leads to an effective decay of word introduction, which we show provides accurate predictions of the location and severity of breaks in scaling. Upon examining large corpora from 10 languages in the Project Gutenberg eBooks collection, we find emphatic empirical support for the universality of our claim.

  3. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchang; Sun, Fuchun; Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from "BCI Competition III Dataset IVa" and "BCI Competition IV Database 2a." The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  4. DebtRank: A Microscopic Foundation for Shock Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoscia, Marco; Battiston, Stefano; Caccioli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The DebtRank algorithm has been increasingly investigated as a method to estimate the impact of shocks in financial networks, as it overcomes the limitations of the traditional default-cascade approaches. Here we formulate a dynamical “microscopic” theory of instability for financial networks by iterating balance sheet identities of individual banks and by assuming a simple rule for the transfer of shocks from borrowers to lenders. By doing so, we generalise the DebtRank formulation, both providing an interpretation of the effective dynamics in terms of basic accounting principles and preventing the underestimation of losses on certain network topologies. Depending on the structure of the interbank leverage matrix the dynamics is either stable, in which case the asymptotic state can be computed analytically, or unstable, meaning that at least one bank will default. We apply this framework to a dataset of the top listed European banks in the period 2008–2013. We find that network effects can generate an amplification of exogenous shocks of a factor ranging between three (in normal periods) and six (during the crisis) when we stress the system with a 0.5% shock on external (i.e. non-interbank) assets for all banks. PMID:26091013

  5. DebtRank: A Microscopic Foundation for Shock Propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bardoscia

    Full Text Available The DebtRank algorithm has been increasingly investigated as a method to estimate the impact of shocks in financial networks, as it overcomes the limitations of the traditional default-cascade approaches. Here we formulate a dynamical "microscopic" theory of instability for financial networks by iterating balance sheet identities of individual banks and by assuming a simple rule for the transfer of shocks from borrowers to lenders. By doing so, we generalise the DebtRank formulation, both providing an interpretation of the effective dynamics in terms of basic accounting principles and preventing the underestimation of losses on certain network topologies. Depending on the structure of the interbank leverage matrix the dynamics is either stable, in which case the asymptotic state can be computed analytically, or unstable, meaning that at least one bank will default. We apply this framework to a dataset of the top listed European banks in the period 2008-2013. We find that network effects can generate an amplification of exogenous shocks of a factor ranging between three (in normal periods and six (during the crisis when we stress the system with a 0.5% shock on external (i.e. non-interbank assets for all banks.

  6. DebtRank: A Microscopic Foundation for Shock Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoscia, Marco; Battiston, Stefano; Caccioli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The DebtRank algorithm has been increasingly investigated as a method to estimate the impact of shocks in financial networks, as it overcomes the limitations of the traditional default-cascade approaches. Here we formulate a dynamical "microscopic" theory of instability for financial networks by iterating balance sheet identities of individual banks and by assuming a simple rule for the transfer of shocks from borrowers to lenders. By doing so, we generalise the DebtRank formulation, both providing an interpretation of the effective dynamics in terms of basic accounting principles and preventing the underestimation of losses on certain network topologies. Depending on the structure of the interbank leverage matrix the dynamics is either stable, in which case the asymptotic state can be computed analytically, or unstable, meaning that at least one bank will default. We apply this framework to a dataset of the top listed European banks in the period 2008-2013. We find that network effects can generate an amplification of exogenous shocks of a factor ranging between three (in normal periods) and six (during the crisis) when we stress the system with a 0.5% shock on external (i.e. non-interbank) assets for all banks.

  7. Nonnegative Matrix Factorization with Rank Regularization and Hard Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ronghua; Liu, Chiyang; Meng, Yang; Jiao, Licheng; Stolkin, Rustam

    2017-09-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is well known to be an effective tool for dimensionality reduction in problems involving big data. For this reason, it frequently appears in many areas of scientific and engineering literature. This letter proposes a novel semisupervised NMF algorithm for overcoming a variety of problems associated with NMF algorithms, including poor use of prior information, negative impact on manifold structure of the sparse constraint, and inaccurate graph construction. Our proposed algorithm, nonnegative matrix factorization with rank regularization and hard constraint (NMFRC), incorporates label information into data representation as a hard constraint, which makes full use of prior information. NMFRC also measures pairwise similarity according to geodesic distance rather than Euclidean distance. This results in more accurate measurement of pairwise relationships, resulting in more effective manifold information. Furthermore, NMFRC adopts rank constraint instead of norm constraints for regularization to balance the sparseness and smoothness of data. In this way, the new data representation is more representative and has better interpretability. Experiments on real data sets suggest that NMFRC outperforms four other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of clustering accuracy.

  8. Petrography and rank of the Bhangtar coals, southeastern Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareek, H S [BH23, Meerut (India)

    1990-07-01

    In Bhutan, a potential coal deposit is exposed at Bhangtar in the 'landslide zone'. Nineteen coal seams are encountered in this area, and occur in the Lower Gondwana Supergroup preserved in between the Main Boundary Fault and the Thrust. The coal is low in moisture, {lt}1.76%, but the coal cores show moisture values of 3.16%. The ash content is up to 48.87% and increases substantially in the younger seams. The volatile content (on a pure coal basis) ranges from 23.38% to 41.02%. The sulphur content is less than 0.61%. The coals are non-coking. The amount of trace elements in the coal is quite low. The average petrographic composition of the Bhangtar coal is vitrinite - 31%, exinite - 2%, inertinite - 31%, and mineral and shaly matter - 36%, the vitrinite proportion decreases from the older to the younger seams, which are shaly. an age can be assigned to the Bhangtar coal. Based on oil reflectance, the rank of the coal is metalignitous to hypobituminous. The average microlithotype composition of the coal is vitrite - 30%, clarite - 1%, vitrinertite V - 14%, vitrinertite I - 11%, durite - 3%, fusite - 14%, and carbominerite - 27%. Vitrite decreases in proportion towards the younger seams, 'intermediates' show a concomitant increase, while durite and fusite remain constant. Carbonaceous shale contains fragmentary inertinite and vitrinite macerals and is interlayered with micro-bands of shaly coal which is characterised by abundant fragments of fusinite and vitrinite. The coal is very fragile and thus amenable to economic beneficiation. The coal is used as fuel in electric power plants. The Bhangtar coal is characteristically distinct from the Gondwana coals of India in petrography and rank, but correlates petrographically with the Kameng coals of Arunachal Pradesh, India. 18 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs., 3 plates.

  9. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  10. Generalization Performance of Regularized Ranking With Multiscale Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yicong; Chen, Hong; Lan, Rushi; Pan, Zhibin

    2016-05-01

    The regularized kernel method for the ranking problem has attracted increasing attentions in machine learning. The previous regularized ranking algorithms are usually based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces with a single kernel. In this paper, we go beyond this framework by investigating the generalization performance of the regularized ranking with multiscale kernels. A novel ranking algorithm with multiscale kernels is proposed and its representer theorem is proved. We establish the upper bound of the generalization error in terms of the complexity of hypothesis spaces. It shows that the multiscale ranking algorithm can achieve satisfactory learning rates under mild conditions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for drug discovery and recommendation tasks.

  11. Exact distributions of two-sample rank statistics and block rank statistics using computer algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de M.A.

    1998-01-01

    We derive generating functions for various rank statistics and we use computer algebra to compute the exact null distribution of these statistics. We present various techniques for reducing time and memory space used by the computations. We use the results to write Mathematica notebooks for

  12. Low ranks make the difference : How achievement goals and ranking information affect cooperation intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P. Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.

    This investigation tested the joint effect of achievement goals and ranking information on information exchange intentions with a commensurate exchange partner. Results showed that individuals with performance goals were less inclined to cooperate with an exchange partner when they had low or high

  13. Importance ranking of various aspects of offsite radiological emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockert, J.W.; Carter, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    Under contract to the Edison Electric Institute, IEAL developed a method to assess the relative importance of various aspects of offsite radiological emergency preparedness. The basic approach involved structuring the 35 objectives that the Federal Emergency Management Agency expects offsite emergency planners to demonstrate during nuclear power plant emergency preparedness exercises into a hierarchy based upon the emergency response capabilities they support. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed to derive the quantitative relative importance of each of the 35 objectives based upon its contribution to the overall capability of offsite agencies to assist in protecting public health and safety in the event of an emergency at a nuclear power plant. The judgments of a cross-section of state and local emergency planners, federal regulators, and intervenors were solicited to rank the 35 objectives

  14. Retrieving handwriting by combining word spotting and manifold ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Saldarriaga, Sebastián; Morin, Emmanuel; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Online handwritten data, produced with Tablet PCs or digital pens, consists in a sequence of points (x, y). As the amount of data available in this form increases, algorithms for retrieval of online data are needed. Word spotting is a common approach used for the retrieval of handwriting. However, from an information retrieval (IR) perspective, word spotting is a primitive keyword based matching and retrieval strategy. We propose a framework for handwriting retrieval where an arbitrary word spotting method is used, and then a manifold ranking algorithm is applied on the initial retrieval scores. Experimental results on a database of more than 2,000 handwritten newswires show that our method can improve the performances of a state-of-the-art word spotting system by more than 10%.

  15. Access, Rank, and Select in Grammar-compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belazzougui, Djamal; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Puglisi, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Given a string S of length N on a fixed alphabet of σ symbols, a grammar compressor produces a context-free grammar G of size n that generates S and only S. In this paper we describe data structures to support the following operations on a grammar-compressed string: access(S,i,j) (return substring...... consecutive symbols from S. Alternatively, we can achieve \\O(logτN+m/logσN) query time using \\O(nτlogτ(N/n)logN) bits of space, matching a lower bound stated by Verbin and Yu for strings where N is polynomially related to n when τ = log ε N. For rank and select we describe data structures of size \\O...

  16. Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices and Background Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra

    2018-04-15

    We primarily study a special a weighted low-rank approximation of matrices and then apply it to solve the background modeling problem. We propose two algorithms for this purpose: one operates in the batch mode on the entire data and the other one operates in the batch-incremental mode on the data and naturally captures more background variations and computationally more effective. Moreover, we propose a robust technique that learns the background frame indices from the data and does not require any training frames. We demonstrate through extensive experiments that by inserting a simple weight in the Frobenius norm, it can be made robust to the outliers similar to the $\\\\ell_1$ norm. Our methods match or outperform several state-of-the-art online and batch background modeling methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  17. Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices and Background Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra; Li, Xin; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We primarily study a special a weighted low-rank approximation of matrices and then apply it to solve the background modeling problem. We propose two algorithms for this purpose: one operates in the batch mode on the entire data and the other one operates in the batch-incremental mode on the data and naturally captures more background variations and computationally more effective. Moreover, we propose a robust technique that learns the background frame indices from the data and does not require any training frames. We demonstrate through extensive experiments that by inserting a simple weight in the Frobenius norm, it can be made robust to the outliers similar to the $\\ell_1$ norm. Our methods match or outperform several state-of-the-art online and batch background modeling methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  18. Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by RNA interference targeting RANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ruofan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoclasts and osteoblasts regulate bone resorption and formation to allow bone remodeling and homeostasis. The balance between bone resorption and formation is disturbed by abnormal recruitment of osteoclasts. Osteoclast differentiation is dependent on the receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-kappa B (RANK ligand (RANKL as well as the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. The RANKL/RANK system and RANK signaling induce osteoclast formation mediated by various cytokines. The RANK/RANKL pathway has been primarily implicated in metabolic, degenerative and neoplastic bone disorders or osteolysis. The central role of RANK/RANKL interaction in osteoclastogenesis makes RANK an attractive target for potential therapies in treatment of osteolysis. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibition of RANK expression in mouse bone marrow macrophages on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Methods Three pairs of short hairpin RNAs (shRNA targeting RANK were designed and synthesized. The optimal shRNA was selected among three pairs of shRNAs by RANK expression analyzed by Western blot and Real-time PCR. We investigated suppression of osteoclastogenesis of mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs using the optimal shRNA by targeting RANK. Results Among the three shRANKs examined, shRANK-3 significantly suppressed [88.3%] the RANK expression (p Conclusions These findings suggest that retrovirus-mediated shRNA targeting RANK inhibits osteoclast differentiation and osteolysis. It may appear an attractive target for preventing osteolysis in humans with a potential clinical application.

  19. Are university rankings useful to improve research? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Marlo M; Balas, E Andrew; Momani, Shaher

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about reproducibility and impact of research urge improvement initiatives. Current university ranking systems evaluate and compare universities on measures of academic and research performance. Although often useful for marketing purposes, the value of ranking systems when examining quality and outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate usefulness of ranking systems and identify opportunities to support research quality and performance improvement. A systematic review of university ranking systems was conducted to investigate research performance and academic quality measures. Eligibility requirements included: inclusion of at least 100 doctoral granting institutions, be currently produced on an ongoing basis and include both global and US universities, publish rank calculation methodology in English and independently calculate ranks. Ranking systems must also include some measures of research outcomes. Indicators were abstracted and contrasted with basic quality improvement requirements. Exploration of aggregation methods, validity of research and academic quality indicators, and suitability for quality improvement within ranking systems were also conducted. A total of 24 ranking systems were identified and 13 eligible ranking systems were evaluated. Six of the 13 rankings are 100% focused on research performance. For those reporting weighting, 76% of the total ranks are attributed to research indicators, with 24% attributed to academic or teaching quality. Seven systems rely on reputation surveys and/or faculty and alumni awards. Rankings influence academic choice yet research performance measures are the most weighted indicators. There are no generally accepted academic quality indicators in ranking systems. No single ranking system provides a comprehensive evaluation of research and academic quality. Utilizing a combined approach of the Leiden, Thomson Reuters Most Innovative Universities, and the SCImago ranking systems may provide

  20. CONCEPTUAL PRINCIPLES OF ATLAS GEOENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING OF GEOSPATIAL OBJECTS AND SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENT RANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk I.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses contemporary issues of digital atlas thematic mapping, which has been gaining momentum in recent decades. It shows that the atlas geoenvironmental mapping allows to perform high quality visualization of various spatial and temporal information in dynamic and static states, reflects the geoenvironmental state of objects that vary by rank, trends in its changes, and evaluates the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on it. Solution to this problem is possible with the correct choice of cartographic service, which can serve as the basis for creating a wide range of interactive digital atlases. Using the ArcGIS Online service allows you to use a larger range of cartographic imagery, which attracts users. At the same time, there are few examples of the creation of atlases of geoenvironmental issues both in paper and in digital form, so the article discusses actual problems in this area. The views of various scientists on the nature of geoenvironmental atlas are characterized. It is shown that atlases of geoenvironmental content should have in their structure basic maps of such subjects: physical geography (hypsometric, geological, tectonic, hydrogeological, geomorphological, soil, hydrological, meteorological, biogeographical, etc.; Socio-economic (demographic, labor resource potential, health, industry, agrogeography, forestry, water management, mining, recreation and tourism, etc.; Ecological (ecology-geomorphological, ecology-geological, hydroecological, soil-ecological, bioecological, landscape-ecological, air pollution, medical-ecological, sanitary-epidemiological, etc.; Applied maps (recommendations aimed at solving geoenvironmental problems, optimizing the use of natural resources and improving living conditions of the population and biota. The article considers the options of atlases classifications and thematic maps that are part of their composition, offered by domestic and foreign authors. The range of

  1. Asynchronous Gossip for Averaging and Spectral Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Vivek S.; Makhijani, Rahul; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2014-08-01

    We consider two variants of the classical gossip algorithm. The first variant is a version of asynchronous stochastic approximation. We highlight a fundamental difficulty associated with the classical asynchronous gossip scheme, viz., that it may not converge to a desired average, and suggest an alternative scheme based on reinforcement learning that has guaranteed convergence to the desired average. We then discuss a potential application to a wireless network setting with simultaneous link activation constraints. The second variant is a gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of a nonnegative matrix. While the first variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for an average cost controlled Markov decision problem, the second variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for risk-sensitive control. We then discuss potential applications of the second variant to ranking schemes, reputation networks, and principal component analysis.

  2. Motif discovery in ranked lists of sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Tataru, Paula; Madsen, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Motif analysis has long been an important method to characterize biological functionality and the current growth of sequencing-based genomics experiments further extends its potential. These diverse experiments often generate sequence lists ranked by some functional property. There is therefore...... advantage of the regular expression feature, including enrichments for combinations of different microRNA seed sites. The method is implemented and made publicly available as an R package and supports high parallelization on multi-core machinery....... a growing need for motif analysis methods that can exploit this coupled data structure and be tailored for specific biological questions. Here, we present an exploratory motif analysis tool, Regmex (REGular expression Motif EXplorer), which offers several methods to evaluate the correlation of motifs...

  3. Quantum instability in the kicked rotator with rank-one perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milek, B.; Seba, P.

    1990-03-01

    We show that the quasi-energy spectrum of the kicked quantum rotator with rank-one perturbation is singularly continous under certain conditions. The exotic quasi-energy eigenstates, given analytically within this model, are calculated in a basis of 2x10 6 rotator states and their self-similarity property is demonstrated. (orig.)

  4. Ranked retrieval of Computational Biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ron; Endler, Lukas; Peters, Andre; Le Novère, Nicolas; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2010-08-11

    The study of biological systems demands computational support. If targeting a biological problem, the reuse of existing computational models can save time and effort. Deciding for potentially suitable models, however, becomes more challenging with the increasing number of computational models available, and even more when considering the models' growing complexity. Firstly, among a set of potential model candidates it is difficult to decide for the model that best suits ones needs. Secondly, it is hard to grasp the nature of an unknown model listed in a search result set, and to judge how well it fits for the particular problem one has in mind. Here we present an improved search approach for computational models of biological processes. It is based on existing retrieval and ranking methods from Information Retrieval. The approach incorporates annotations suggested by MIRIAM, and additional meta-information. It is now part of the search engine of BioModels Database, a standard repository for computational models. The introduced concept and implementation are, to our knowledge, the first application of Information Retrieval techniques on model search in Computational Systems Biology. Using the example of BioModels Database, it was shown that the approach is feasible and extends the current possibilities to search for relevant models. The advantages of our system over existing solutions are that we incorporate a rich set of meta-information, and that we provide the user with a relevance ranking of the models found for a query. Better search capabilities in model databases are expected to have a positive effect on the reuse of existing models.

  5. Ranking and the Multiplication of Reputation: Reflections from the Frontier of Globalizing Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Francis L.; Park, Gil-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, enumeration has become a critical force in crafting the governmentalities of globalizing higher education. Whether in the glossy Web sites and documentation of the world's "top universities" or in more fine-tuned regional and subject guides, accreditation schemes, journal metrics or h-indexes, technologies for…

  6. Outlier Ranking via Subspace Analysis in Multiple Views of the Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Iglesias, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    , a novel outlier ranking concept. Outrank exploits subspace analysis to determine the degree of outlierness. It considers different subsets of the attributes as individual outlier properties. It compares clustered regions in arbitrary subspaces and derives an outlierness score for each object. Its...... principled integration of multiple views into an outlierness measure uncovers outliers that are not detectable in the full attribute space. Our experimental evaluation demonstrates that Outrank successfully determines a high quality outlier ranking, and outperforms state-of-the-art outlierness measures....

  7. Bounding the Computational Complexity of Flowchart Programs with Multi-dimensional Rankings

    OpenAIRE

    Alias , Christophe; Darte , Alain; Feautrier , Paul; Gonnord , Laure

    2010-01-01

    Proving the termination of a flowchart program can be done by exhibiting a ranking function, i.e., a function from the program states to a well-founded set, which strictly decreases at each program step. A standard method to automatically generate such a function is to compute invariants for each program point and to search for a ranking in a restricted class of functions that can be handled with linear programming techniques. Our first contribution is to propose an efficient algorithm to com...

  8. Just war and extraterritoriality: the popular geopolitics of the United States' war on Iraq as reflected in newspapers of the Arab World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falah, G.W.; Flint, C.; Mamadouh, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    As with all wars, the U.S. military invasion of Iraq in 2003 needed to be portrayed as a just war in an attempt to garner support and legitimacy, domestically and internationally. The United States was acting as hegemonic power in the international state-system and, in light of this role, had

  9. An R package for analyzing and modeling ranking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H; Yu, Philip L H

    2013-05-14

    In medical informatics, psychology, market research and many other fields, researchers often need to analyze and model ranking data. However, there is no statistical software that provides tools for the comprehensive analysis of ranking data. Here, we present pmr, an R package for analyzing and modeling ranking data with a bundle of tools. The pmr package enables descriptive statistics (mean rank, pairwise frequencies, and marginal matrix), Analytic Hierarchy Process models (with Saaty's and Koczkodaj's inconsistencies), probability models (Luce model, distance-based model, and rank-ordered logit model), and the visualization of ranking data with multidimensional preference analysis. Examples of the use of package pmr are given using a real ranking dataset from medical informatics, in which 566 Hong Kong physicians ranked the top five incentives (1: competitive pressures; 2: increased savings; 3: government regulation; 4: improved efficiency; 5: improved quality care; 6: patient demand; 7: financial incentives) to the computerization of clinical practice. The mean rank showed that item 4 is the most preferred item and item 3 is the least preferred item, and significance difference was found between physicians' preferences with respect to their monthly income. A multidimensional preference analysis identified two dimensions that explain 42% of the total variance. The first can be interpreted as the overall preference of the seven items (labeled as "internal/external"), and the second dimension can be interpreted as their overall variance of (labeled as "push/pull factors"). Various statistical models were fitted, and the best were found to be weighted distance-based models with Spearman's footrule distance. In this paper, we presented the R package pmr, the first package for analyzing and modeling ranking data. The package provides insight to users through descriptive statistics of ranking data. Users can also visualize ranking data by applying a thought

  10. Priority ranking for maintenance activities on embankment dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouinard, L.E.; Andersen, G.R.; Robichaud, J.G.; Blanchette, G.; Gervais, R.

    1998-01-01

    Operators of dams in Canada and the U.S. are steadily shifting from construction of new facilities to the maintenance and repairs of existing ones. This paper emphasized the importance of prioritizing maintenance activities on embankment dams whose maintenance needs vary from structure to structure. Two parallel procedures were developed, one for monitoring devices and the other for defense groups. Both procedures are intended to be used together to rate the condition of the embankment dams. The term 'defense groups' is used to refer to the collection of physical components on dams to prevent adverse conditions from occurring that would result in an uncontrolled release of the reservoir. The priority rankings and condition indices developed by means of this procedure reflects the judgment of a panel of engineers and geologists who implement them. They are not to be interpreted as an index of dam safety. While the process is sufficiently well developed to warrant wide-spread distribution, it is considered to be still in the developmental stage. Therefore, it should be used in conjunction with other parallel processes evaluating structural, mechanical and electrical features of the structure under consideration. 6 refs., 7 tabs

  11. Full implementation of rank-dependent prizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midjord, Rune

    2013-01-01

    A manager/mechanism designer must allocate a set of money prizes ($1,$2,…,$n) between n agents working in a team. The agents know the state, i.e., who contributed most, second most, etc. The agents’ preferences over prizes are state independent. We incorporate the possibility that the manager knows...... the state with a tiny probability and present a simple mechanism that uniquely awards prizes that respect the true state....

  12. Determination of ultra trace contaminants on silicon wafer surfaces using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence TXRF 'state-of-the-art'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, S.; Fabry, L.; Kotz, L.; Mantler, C.; Ehmann, T.

    2001-11-01

    In a well balanced system of highly motivated, well trained personnel and automated equipment, pure reagents and bulk media, cleanrooms and integrated data management, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) can and must contribute to quality assurance and process stability, support and canalize creative engineering by continuous learning about materials and processes. TXRF has the advantage of controlled one-point calibration, a linear dynamic range of three orders of magnitude, high grade of automation in operation and data management, high up-time, and a simple control of data plausibility.

  13. Collective frequency variation in network synchronization and reverse PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Taylor, Dane; Sun, Jie; Arenas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of natural and engineered phenomena rely on large networks of interacting units to reach a dynamical consensus state where the system collectively operates. Here we study the dynamics of self-organizing systems and show that for generic directed networks the collective frequency of the ensemble is not the same as the mean of the individuals' natural frequencies. Specifically, we show that the collective frequency equals a weighted average of the natural frequencies, where the weights are given by an outflow centrality measure that is equivalent to a reverse PageRank centrality. Our findings uncover an intricate dependence of the collective frequency on both the structural directedness and dynamical heterogeneity of the network, and also reveal an unexplored connection between synchronization and PageRank, which opens the possibility of applying PageRank optimization to synchronization. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of collective frequency variation in real-world networks by considering the UK and Scandinavian power grids.

  14. Collective frequency variation in network synchronization and reverse PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Taylor, Dane; Sun, Jie; Arenas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of natural and engineered phenomena rely on large networks of interacting units to reach a dynamical consensus state where the system collectively operates. Here we study the dynamics of self-organizing systems and show that for generic directed networks the collective frequency of the ensemble is not the same as the mean of the individuals' natural frequencies. Specifically, we show that the collective frequency equals a weighted average of the natural frequencies, where the weights are given by an outflow centrality measure that is equivalent to a reverse PageRank centrality. Our findings uncover an intricate dependence of the collective frequency on both the structural directedness and dynamical heterogeneity of the network, and also reveal an unexplored connection between synchronization and PageRank, which opens the possibility of applying PageRank optimization to synchronization. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of collective frequency variation in real-world networks by considering the UK and Scandinavian power grids.

  15. Tile Low Rank Cholesky Factorization for Climate/Weather Modeling Applications on Manycore Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Akbudak, Kadir; Ltaief, Hatem; Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Keyes, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Covariance matrices are ubiquitous in computational science and engineering. In particular, large covariance matrices arise from multivariate spatial data sets, for instance, in climate/weather modeling applications to improve prediction using statistical methods and spatial data. One of the most time-consuming computational steps consists in calculating the Cholesky factorization of the symmetric, positive-definite covariance matrix problem. The structure of such covariance matrices is also often data-sparse, in other words, effectively of low rank, though formally dense. While not typically globally of low rank, covariance matrices in which correlation decays with distance are nearly always hierarchically of low rank. While symmetry and positive definiteness should be, and nearly always are, exploited for performance purposes, exploiting low rank character in this context is very recent, and will be a key to solving these challenging problems at large-scale dimensions. The authors design a new and flexible tile row rank Cholesky factorization and propose a high performance implementation using OpenMP task-based programming model on various leading-edge manycore architectures. Performance comparisons and memory footprint saving on up to 200K×200K covariance matrix size show a gain of more than an order of magnitude for both metrics, against state-of-the-art open-source and vendor optimized numerical libraries, while preserving the numerical accuracy fidelity of the original model. This research represents an important milestone in enabling large-scale simulations for covariance-based scientific applications.

  16. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n=30. Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35. Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers’ motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  17. Tile Low Rank Cholesky Factorization for Climate/Weather Modeling Applications on Manycore Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Akbudak, Kadir

    2017-05-11

    Covariance matrices are ubiquitous in computational science and engineering. In particular, large covariance matrices arise from multivariate spatial data sets, for instance, in climate/weather modeling applications to improve prediction using statistical methods and spatial data. One of the most time-consuming computational steps consists in calculating the Cholesky factorization of the symmetric, positive-definite covariance matrix problem. The structure of such covariance matrices is also often data-sparse, in other words, effectively of low rank, though formally dense. While not typically globally of low rank, covariance matrices in which correlation decays with distance are nearly always hierarchically of low rank. While symmetry and positive definiteness should be, and nearly always are, exploited for performance purposes, exploiting low rank character in this context is very recent, and will be a key to solving these challenging problems at large-scale dimensions. The authors design a new and flexible tile row rank Cholesky factorization and propose a high performance implementation using OpenMP task-based programming model on various leading-edge manycore architectures. Performance comparisons and memory footprint saving on up to 200K×200K covariance matrix size show a gain of more than an order of magnitude for both metrics, against state-of-the-art open-source and vendor optimized numerical libraries, while preserving the numerical accuracy fidelity of the original model. This research represents an important milestone in enabling large-scale simulations for covariance-based scientific applications.

  18. Feature ranking and rank aggregation for automatic sleep stage classification: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdi, Shirin; Gharbali, Ali Abdollahi; Fonseca, José Manuel

    2017-08-18

    Nowadays, sleep quality is one of the most important measures of healthy life, especially considering the huge number of sleep-related disorders. Identifying sleep stages using polysomnographic (PSG) signals is the traditional way of assessing sleep quality. However, the manual process of sleep stage classification is time-consuming, subjective and costly. Therefore, in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the sleep stage classification, researchers have been trying to develop automatic classification algorithms. Automatic sleep stage classification mainly consists of three steps: pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. Since classification accuracy is deeply affected by the extracted features, a poor feature vector will adversely affect the classifier and eventually lead to low classification accuracy. Therefore, special attention should be given to the feature extraction and selection process. In this paper the performance of seven feature selection methods, as well as two feature rank aggregation methods, were compared. Pz-Oz EEG, horizontal EOG and submental chin EMG recordings of 22 healthy males and females were used. A comprehensive feature set including 49 features was extracted from these recordings. The extracted features are among the most common and effective features used in sleep stage classification from temporal, spectral, entropy-based and nonlinear categories. The feature selection methods were evaluated and compared using three criteria: classification accuracy, stability, and similarity. Simulation results show that MRMR-MID achieves the highest classification performance while Fisher method provides the most stable ranking. In our simulations, the performance of the aggregation methods was in the average level, although they are known to generate more stable results and better accuracy. The Borda and RRA rank aggregation methods could not outperform significantly the conventional feature ranking methods. Among

  19. Access is mainly a second-order process: SDT models whether phenomenally (first-order) conscious states are accessed by reflectively (second-order) conscious processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Michael; Kalaida, Natasha; Winer, E Samuel

    2009-06-01

    Access can either be first-order or second-order. First order access concerns whether contents achieve representation in phenomenal consciousness at all; second-order access concerns whether phenomenally conscious contents are selected for metacognitive, higher order processing by reflective consciousness. When the optional and flexible nature of second-order access is kept in mind, there remain strong reasons to believe that exclusion failure can indeed isolate phenomenally conscious stimuli that are not so accessed. Irvine's [Irvine, E. (2009). Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm and weak consciousness-Evidence for the access/phenomenal distinction? Consciousness and Cognition.] partial access argument fails because exclusion failure is indeed due to lack of second-order access, not insufficient phenomenally conscious information. Further, the enable account conforms with both qualitative differences and subjective report, and is simpler than the endow account. Finally, although first-order access may be a distinct and important process, second-order access arguably reflects the core meaning of access generally.

  20. Using incomplete citation data for MEDLINE results ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovic, Jorge R; Bernstam, Elmer V

    2005-01-01

    Information overload is a significant problem for modern medicine. Searching MEDLINE for common topics often retrieves more relevant documents than users can review. Therefore, we must identify documents that are not only relevant, but also important. Our system ranks articles using citation counts and the PageRank algorithm, incorporating data from the Science Citation Index. However, citation data is usually incomplete. Therefore, we explore the relationship between the quantity of citation information available to the system and the quality of the result ranking. Specifically, we test the ability of citation count and PageRank to identify "important articles" as defined by experts from large result sets with decreasing citation information. We found that PageRank performs better than simple citation counts, but both algorithms are surprisingly robust to information loss. We conclude that even an incomplete citation database is likely to be effective for importance ranking.