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Sample records for rank states reflect

  1. Ranking Baltic States Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using the h-index and the total number of citations, the best 10 Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian researchers from several disciplines are ranked. The list may be formed based on the h-index and the total number of citations, given in Web of Science, Scopus, Publish or Perish Program and Google Scholar database. Data for the first 10 researchers are presented. Google Scholar is the most complete. Therefore, to define a single indicator, h-index calculated by Google Scholar may be a good and simple one. The author chooses the Google Scholar database as it is the broadest one.

  2. State Online College Job Market: Ranking the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony; Jayasundera, Tamara; Repnikov, Dmitri; Gulish, Artem

    2015-01-01

    "State Online College Job Market: Ranking the States" analyzes the online college labor market on a state-by-state basis. We examine the geographic distribution of online job ads for college graduates within industries and occupational clusters, and compare the relative strength of the online college labor market across states. We…

  3. Rank evaluation of the Neyveli lignite deposit on the basis of reflectance parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Singh, B.D. (Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India))

    1994-10-01

    The Neyveli field is well known for Tertiary lignite deposits in India. The reflectance of organic constituents (huminite macerals) has been measured to find out organic maturation level (rank) of the main lignite seam lying either at same time level or at different time levels in space. The deposits are of sub-bituminous C stage (ASTM) with the mean reflectance (R[sub o,max.] in oil) range from 0.34 to 0.42% (average 0.39%). Evidence from rank study indicates that the quality of lignite deteriorates towards southern part of the field

  4. 10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy conservation potential, on a savings percentage basis, of the building as determined in the energy... basis, several buildings may be ranked as a single building if the application proposes a single energy... State Plan; (3) The types of energy sources to which conversion is proposed, including renewable energy...

  5. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    in the overall schooling distribution both over time and among population groups defined by race and gender.METHODS & DATA: To analyze educational rank mobility, I use quantile transition matrices known from studies on intergenerational income mobility. However, because schooling distributions are quite lumpy......BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational...... performance of historically disadvantaged groups. To reconcile these diverging trends, I propose examining educational mobility in terms of percentile ranks in the respective schooling distributions of parents and offspring. Using a novel estimator of educational rank, I compare patterns of mobility...

  6. Some Health States Are Better Than Others: Using Health State Rank Order to Improve Probabilistic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Jalal, Hawre J

    2016-11-01

    Probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) may lead policy makers to take nonoptimal actions due to misestimates of decision uncertainty caused by ignoring correlations. We developed a method to establish joint uncertainty distributions of quality-of-life (QoL) weights exploiting ordinal preferences over health states. Our method takes as inputs independent, univariate marginal distributions for each QoL weight and a preference ordering. It establishes a correlation matrix between QoL weights intended to preserve the ordering. It samples QoL weight values from their distributions, ordering them with the correlation matrix. It calculates the proportion of samples violating the ordering, iteratively adjusting the correlation matrix until this proportion is below an arbitrarily small threshold. We compare our method with the uncorrelated method and other methods for preserving rank ordering in terms of violation proportions and fidelity to the specified marginal distributions along with PSA and expected value of partial perfect information (EVPPI) estimates, using 2 models: 1) a decision tree with 2 decision alternatives and 2) a chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) Markov model with 3 alternatives. All methods make tradeoffs between violating preference orderings and altering marginal distributions. For both models, our method simultaneously performed best, with largest performance advantages when distributions reflected wider uncertainty. For PSA, larger changes to the marginal distributions induced by existing methods resulted in differing conclusions about which strategy was most likely optimal. For EVPPI, both preference order violations and altered marginal distributions caused existing methods to misestimate the maximum value of seeking additional information, sometimes concluding that there was no value. Analysts can characterize the joint uncertainty in QoL weights to improve PSA and value-of-information estimates using Open Source implementations of our method.

  7. Modeling Ranking, Time Trade-Off and Visual Analogue Scale Values for EQ-5D Health States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Benjamin M.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is rising interest in eliciting health state valuations using rankings. Due to their relative simplicity, ordinal measurement methods may offer an attractive practical alternative to cardinal methods, such as time trade-off (TTO) and visual analog scale (VAS). In this paper, we explore alternative models for estimating cardinal health state values from rank responses in a unique multi-country database. We highlight an estimation challenge pertaining to health states just below perfect health (the ‘non-optimal gap’) and propose an analytic solution to ameliorate this problem. Methods Using rank, a standardized protocol developed by the EuroQol Group, TTO and VAS responses were collected for 43 health states in eight countries: Slovenia, Argentina, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States, yielding a sample of 179,431 state responses from 11,483 subjects. States were described using the EQ-5D system, which allows for three different possible levels on five different dimensions of health. We estimated conditional logit and probit regression models for rank responses. The regressions included 17 health-state attribute variables reflecting specific levels on each dimension and counts of different levels across dimensions. This flexible specification accommodates previously published valuation models, such as models applied in the United Kingdom and United States. In addition to fitting standard conditional logit and probit models, which assume equal variance across health states (homoskedasticity), we examined a heteroskedastic probit model that assumes no variance for the two points anchoring the scale (“optimal health” and “dead”) and relaxes the equal-variance assumption for all other states. Rank-based predictions for the 243 unique states defined by the EQ-5D system were compared to predictions from conventional linear models fitted to TTO and VAS responses. Results By construction, the TTO and VAS models

  8. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  9. Measuring and Ranking Efficiency of Major Airports in the United States Using Data Envelopmentanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myunghyun

    2004-01-01

    An airport is an important piece of infrastructure in air transportation system. This project focuses on measuring and ranking the efficiency of airports in the United States using the basic DEA, Ranking DEA, Goal programming and DEA and TOPSIS. In general, airport authorities of relatively inefficient airports are trying to benchmark the operational strategies of efficient airports. This project focuses on evaluating hub airports in the United States. ATL, LAX, and MEM airports are ...

  10. Phases with modular ground states for symmetry breaking by rank 3 and rank 2 antisymmetric tensor scalars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Adler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Working with explicit examples given by the 56 representation in SU(8, and the 10 representation in SU(5, we show that symmetry breaking of a group G⊃G1×G2 by a scalar in a rank three or two antisymmetric tensor representation leads to a number of distinct modular ground states. For these broken symmetry phases, the ground state is periodic in an integer divisor p of N, where N>0 is the absolute value of the nonzero U(1 generator of the scalar component Φ that is a singlet under the simple subgroups G1 and G2. Ground state expectations of fractional powers Φp/N provide order parameters that distinguish the different phases. For the case of period p=1, this reduces to the usual Higgs mechanism, but for divisors N≥p>1 of N it leads to a modular ground state with periodicity p, implementing a discrete Abelian symmetry group U(1/Zp. This observation may allow new approaches to grand unification and family unification.

  11. US News and World Report cancer hospital rankings: do they reflect measures of research productivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Prasad

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Prior research has faulted the US News and World Report hospital specialty rankings for excessive reliance on reputation, a subjective measure of a hospital's performance. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether and to what extent reputation correlates with objective measures of research productivity among cancer hospitals. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. SETTING: Automated search of NIH Reporter, BioEntrez, BioMedline and Clinicaltrials.gov databases. PARTICIPANTS: The 50 highest ranked cancer hospitals in 2013's US News and World Report Rankings. EXPOSURE: We ascertained the number of NCI funded grants, and the cumulative funds received by each cancer center. Additionally, we identified the number of phase I, phase II, and phase III studies published and indexed in MEDLINE, and registered at clinicaltrials.gov. All counts were over the preceding 5 years. For published articles, we summed the impact factor of the journals in which they appeared. Trials were attributed to centers on the basis of the affiliation of the lead author or study principal investigator. MAIN OUTCOME: Correlation coefficients from simple and multiple linear regressions for measures of research productivity and a center's reputation. RESULTS: All measures of research productivity demonstrated robust correlation with reputation (mean r-squared  = 0.65, median r-squared = 0.68, minimum r-squared = .41, maximum r-squared = 0.80. A multivariable model showed that 93% of the variation in reputation is explained by objective measures. CONCLUSION: Contrary to prior criticism, the majority of reputation, used in US News and World Rankings, can be explained by objective measures of research productivity among cancer hospitals.

  12. Variation in Elderly Friendliness across the U.S. States: Operationalization, Rankings, and Selected Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Lockhart; Jean Giles-Sims

    2005-01-01

    The United States faces a rapidly growing population of elderly citizens. To learn more about their prospects, we engage in three tasks. First, we develop and operationalize a five-dimensional concept, “state elderly friendliness,” that facilitates assessing various political, economic, and social aspects of state environments that influence the well-being of elderly persons. Second, we rank states on the five dimensions of this concept. We find large differences both within states across var...

  13. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep K. Permana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite, are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quartz, and carbonates can be seen under the optical microscope. The mineral matter occurs in association with vitrinite and inertinite macerals as syngenetic and epigenetic mineral phases. The irregular pattern of the vitrinite reflectance profile from the top to the bottom of the seam may represent a response in the organic matter to an uneven heat distribution from such hydrothermal influence. Examination of the maceral and vitrinite reflectance characteristics suggest that the mineralogical variation within the coal seam at South Walker Creek may have been controlled by various geological processes, including sediment input into the peat swamp during deposition, mineralogical changes associated with the rank advance process or metamorphism, and/or hydrothermal effects due to post depositional fluid migration through the coal seam.

  14. Keep it simple: ranking health states yields values similar to cardinal measurement approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Craig (Benjamin); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); J.A. Salomon (Joshua)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between ordinal and cardinal valuation of health states. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We analyzed rank, visual analog scale (VAS), and time trade-off (TTO) responses for 52 health states defined using the EQ-5D classification system

  15. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  16. Entropic Movement Complexity Reflects Subjective Creativity Rankings of Visualized Hand Motion Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that human motion trajectories can be characterized by translating continuous trajectories into symbol sequences with well-defined complexity measures. Here we test the hypothesis that the motion complexity individuals generate in their movements might be correlated to the degree of creativity assigned by a human observer to the visualized motion trajectories. We asked participants to generate 55 novel hand movement patterns in virtual reality, where each pattern had to be repeated 10 times in a row to ensure reproducibility. This allowed us to estimate a probability distribution over trajectories for each pattern. We assessed motion complexity not only by the previously proposed complexity measures on symbolic sequences, but we also propose two novel complexity measures that can be directly applied to the distributions over trajectories based on the frameworks of Gaussian Processes and Probabilistic Movement Primitives. In contrast to previous studies, these new methods allow computing complexities of individual motion patterns from very few sample trajectories. We compared the different complexity measures to how a group of independent jurors rank ordered the recorded motion trajectories according to their personal creativity judgment. We found three entropic complexity measures that correlate significantly with human creativity judgment and discuss differences between the measures. We also test whether these complexity measures correlate with individual creativity in divergent thinking tasks, but do not find any consistent correlation. Our results suggest that entropic complexity measures of hand motion may reveal domain-specific individual differences in kinesthetic creativity. PMID:26733896

  17. Entropic movement complexity reflects subjective creativity rankings of visualized hand motion trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen ePeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we have shown that human motion trajectories can be characterized by translating continuous trajectories into symbol sequences with well-defined complexity measures. Here we test the hypothesis that the motion complexity individuals generate in their movements might be correlated to the degree of creativity assigned by a human observer to the visualized motion trajectories. We asked participants to generate fifty-five novel hand movement patterns in virtual reality, where each pattern had to be repeated ten times in a row to ensure reproducibility. This allowed us to estimate a probability distribution over trajectories for each pattern. We assessed motion complexity not only by the previously proposed complexity measures on symbolic sequences, but we also propose two novel complexity measures that can be directly applied to the distributions over trajectories based on the frameworks of Gaussian Processes and Probabilistic Movement Primitives. In contrast to previous studies, these new methods allow computing complexities of individual motion patterns from very few sample trajectories. We compared the different complexity measures to how a group of independent jurors rank ordered the recorded motion trajectories according to their personal creativity judgment. We found three entropic complexity measures that correlate significantly with human creativity judgment and discuss differences between the measures. We also test whether these complexity measures correlate with individual creativity in divergent thinking tasks, but do not find any consistent correlation. Our results suggest that entropic complexity measures of hand motion may reveal domain-specific individual differences in kinesthetic creativity.

  18. Behind international rankings of infant mortality: how the United States compares with Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Mathews, T J

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the United States ranked 30th in the world in infant mortality. Infant mortality rates for preterm (infants are lower in the United States than in most European countries; however, infant mortality rates for infants born at 37 or more weeks of gestation are higher in the United States than in most European countries. One in 8 births in the United States were preterm in 2005, compared with 1 in 18 births in Ireland and Finland, and 1 in 16 in France and Sweden. If the United States had Sweden's distribution of births by gestational age, nearly 8,000 infant deaths in the United States would be averted each year, and the U.S. infant mortality rate would be one-third lower. The main cause of the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with Europe is the very high percentage of preterm births in the United States, the period when infant mortality is greatest.

  19. Health Risk Ranking of Lead Contaminated Sites in Bagega Community, Zamfara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaba Olanreaju Clement

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The release of lead dust during the processing of lead-gold ore has become an environmental threat. Therefore the protection of miners’ health and their environment required remediation which can be achieved by ranking the risk posed by lead in order to prioritize the allocation of resources during remediation. Methods: Soil and water samples were collected at BRC, BRG, BVC, BPA and BFA; BWE, BBH and BPO using stratified random and grab sampling methods. Lead concentrations in the samples were determined using AAS while health risk index (HRI via ingestion was estimated using USEPA equations. The ranking of HRI was done using Detailed Quantitative Risk Assessment while the difference between the HRI and USEPA standard were determined using one sample t test. Results: The result showed that BRC/10, BRG/03, BVC/11, BPA/02 and BFA/08 were ranked highest in soil samples, while BWE/02, BBH/09 and BPO/04 were ranked highest in water samples as they posed elevated health risk effects to miners. One sample t test established that the BRC, BPA, BFA and BPO were significantly different from United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA standard. Conclusion: The study discovered that the users of both the lead contaminated soil and water were seriously exposed to potential health risk. It therefore suggested that decision makers should give priority in allocating resources to those sites with elevated lead concentrations during the remediation.

  20. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States:Differences by Race and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational performance of historically disadvantaged groups. To reconcile these diverging trends, I propose examining educational mobility in terms of percentile ranks in the respective schooling distributions of pare...

  1. [How to rank if you must? Reflections on the book of Amy N. Langville and Carl D. Meyer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András

    2015-08-09

    More than ever, our life is permeated by rankings. This is true also in the world of scientific research. The responsibility of the producers of such rankings is significant, since their results may influence decisions determining human fates and careers. The reviewed book - in a rather special area of ranking only - exemplifies how a set of methodologies can be systematically compiled, and how various methods can be combined into comprehensive, multidimensional rating and ranking systems.

  2. Input and state estimation for linear systems with a rank-deficient direct feedthrough matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haokun; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Zuhua; Shao, Zhijiang

    2015-07-01

    The problem of joint input and state estimation for linear stochastic systems with a rank-deficient direct feedthrough matrix is discussed in this paper. Results from previous studies only solve the state estimation problem; globally optimal estimation of the unknown input is not provided. Based on linear minimum-variance unbiased estimation, a five-step recursive filter with global optimality is proposed to estimate both the unknown input and the state. The relationship between the proposed filter and the existing results is addressed. We show that the unbiased input estimation does not require any new information or additional constraints. Both the state and the unknown input can be estimated under the same unbiasedness condition. Global optimalities of both the state estimator and the unknown input estimator are proven in the minimum-variance unbiased sense. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and ranking of the risk factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of processing and storage technologies and the success of the Internet have made computing resources cheaper, more powerful and more available than before. This technological trend has enabled the realization of a new computing model called cloud computing. Recently, the State-Owned organizations have begun to utilize cloud computing architectures, platforms, and applications to deliver services and meet constituents’ needs. Despite all of the advantages and opportunities of cloud computing technology, there are so many risks that State-Owned organizations need to know about before their migration to cloud environment. The purpose of this study is to identify and rank the risks factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations by making use of IT experts’ opinion. Firstly, by reviewing key articles, a comprehensive list of risks factors were extracted and classified into two categories: tangible and intangible. Then, six experts were interviewed about these risks and their classifications, and 10 risks were identified. After that, process of ranking the risks was done by seeking help from 52 experts and by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. The results show that experts have identified intangible risks as the most important risks in cloud computing usage by State-Owned organizations. As the results indicate, "data confidentiality" risk has the highest place among the other risks.

  4. Low-rank Kalman filtering for efficient state estimation of subsurface advective contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2012-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of the movement of contaminants in porous media is essential to track their trajectory and later extract them from the aquifer. A two-dimensional flow model is implemented and then applied on a linear contaminant transport model in the same porous medium. Because of different sources of uncertainties, this coupled model might not be able to accurately track the contaminant state. Incorporating observations through the process of data assimilation can guide the model toward the true trajectory of the system. The Kalman filter (KF), or its nonlinear invariants, can be used to tackle this problem. To overcome the prohibitive computational cost of the KF, the singular evolutive Kalman filter (SEKF) and the singular fixed Kalman filter (SFKF) are used, which are variants of the KF operating with low-rank covariance matrices. Experimental results suggest that under perfect and imperfect model setups, the low-rank filters can provide estimates as accurate as the full KF but at much lower computational effort. Low-rank filters are demonstrated to significantly reduce the computational effort of the KF to almost 3%. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  5. Modeling ranking, time trade-off, and visual analog scale values for EQ-5D health states: a review and comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Benjamin M; Busschbach, Jan J V; Salomon, Joshua A

    2009-06-01

    There is rising interest in eliciting health state valuations using rankings. Due to their relative simplicity, ordinal measurement methods may offer an attractive practical alternative to cardinal methods, such as time trade-off (TTO) and visual analog scale (VAS). In this article, we explore alternative models for estimating cardinal health state values from rank responses in a unique multicountry database. We highlight an estimation challenge pertaining to health states just below perfect health (the "nonoptimal gap") and propose an analytic solution to ameliorate this problem. Using a standardized protocol developed by the EuroQol Group, rank, VAS, and TTO responses were collected for 43 health states in 8 countries: Slovenia, Argentina, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States, yielding a sample of 179,431 state responses from 11,483 subjects. States were described using the EQ-5D system, which allows for 3 different possible levels on 5 different dimensions of health. We estimated conditional logit and probit regression models for rank responses. The regressions included 17 health state attribute variables reflecting specific levels on each dimension and counts of different levels across dimensions. This flexible specification accommodates previously published valuation models, such as models applied in the United Kingdom and United States. In addition to fitting standard conditional logit and probit models, which assume equal variance across health states (homoscedasticity), we examined a heteroscedastic probit model that assumes no variance for the 2 points anchoring the scale ("optimal health" and "dead") and relaxes the equal-variance assumption for all other states. Rank-based predictions for the 243 unique states defined by the EQ-5D system were compared with predictions from conventional linear models fitted to TTO and VAS responses. By construction, the TTO and VAS models assume no variance around the anchoring states of

  6. Reconsidering the use of rankings in the valuation of health states: a model for estimating cardinal values from ordinal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Joshua A

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In survey studies on health-state valuations, ordinal ranking exercises often are used as precursors to other elicitation methods such as the time trade-off (TTO or standard gamble, but the ranking data have not been used in deriving cardinal valuations. This study reconsiders the role of ordinal ranks in valuing health and introduces a new approach to estimate interval-scaled valuations based on aggregate ranking data. Methods Analyses were undertaken on data from a previously published general population survey study in the United Kingdom that included rankings and TTO values for hypothetical states described using the EQ-5D classification system. The EQ-5D includes five domains (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression with three possible levels on each. Rank data were analysed using a random utility model, operationalized through conditional logit regression. In the statistical model, probabilities of observed rankings were related to the latent utilities of different health states, modeled as a linear function of EQ-5D domain scores, as in previously reported EQ-5D valuation functions. Predicted valuations based on the conditional logit model were compared to observed TTO values for the 42 states in the study and to predictions based on a model estimated directly from the TTO values. Models were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between predictions and mean observations, and the root mean squared error of predictions at the individual level. Results Agreement between predicted valuations from the rank model and observed TTO values was very high, with an ICC of 0.97, only marginally lower than for predictions based on the model estimated directly from TTO values (ICC = 0.99. Individual-level errors were also comparable in the two models, with root mean squared errors of 0.503 and 0.496 for the rank-based and TTO-based predictions, respectively. Conclusions

  7. Comparing percentages and ranks of adolescent weight-related outcomes among U.S. states: Implications for intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; Liu, Benmei; Zhu, Li

    2017-12-01

    Understanding statistical differences in states' percentages and ranks of adolescents meeting health behavior guidelines can guide policymaking. Data came from 531,777 adolescents (grades 9-12) who completed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey in 2011, 2013, or 2015. We measured the percentage of adolescents in each state that met guidelines for physical activity, fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption, and healthy weight status. Then we ranked states and calculated the ranks' 95% CI's using a Monte Carlo method with 100,000 simulations. We repeated these analyses stratified by sex (female or male) or race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic/Latino, or other). Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients examined consistency in the percentages and ranks (respectively) across behaviors and subgroups. Meeting the physical activity and F&V consumption guidelines was relatively rare among adolescents (25.8% [95% CI=25.2%-26.4%] and 8.0% [95% CI=7.6%-8.3%], respectively), while meeting the healthy weight guideline was common (71.5% [95% CI=70.7%-72.3%]). At the state level, percentages of adolescents meeting these guidelines were statistically similar; states' ranks had wide CI's, resulting in considerable overlap (i.e., statistical equivalence). For each behavior, states' percentages and ranks were moderately to highly correlated across adolescent subgroups (Pearson's r=0.33-0.96; Spearman's r=0.42-0.96), but across behaviors, only F&V consumption and healthy weight were correlated (Pearson's r=0.34; Spearman's r=0.37). Adolescents in all states could benefit from initiatives to support cancer prevention behaviors, especially physical activity and F&V consumption. Programs in states that ranked highly on all assessed health behaviors could be adapted for dissemination in lower-performing states. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Reflective self-awareness and conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Nowak, Markus; Lou, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown precuneus, angular gyri, anterior cingulate gyri, and adjacent structures to be highly metabolically active in support of resting consciousness. We hypothesize that these regions constitute a functional network of reflective self-awareness thought to be a core fun...

  9. An Evaluation and Ranking of Children's Hospital Websites in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Ford, Eric W

    2016-08-22

    Children's hospitals are faced with the rising need for technological innovation. Their prospective health care consumers, who increasingly depend on the Web and social media for communication and consumer engagement, drive this need. As patients and family members navigate the Web presence of hospitals, it is important for these specialized organizations to present themselves and their services efficiently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the website content of children's hospitals in order to identify opportunities to improve website design and create benchmarks to judge improvement. All websites associated with a children's hospital were identified using a census list of all children's hospitals in the United States. In March of 2014, each website and its social media were evaluated using a Web crawler that provided a 5-dimensional assessment that included website accessibility, marketing, content, technology, and usability. The 5-dimensional assessment was scored on a scale ranging from 0 to 10 with positive findings rated higher on the scale. Websites were ranked by individual dimensions as well as according to their average ranking across all dimensions. Mean scores of 153 websites ranged from 5.05 to 8.23 across all 5 dimensions. Results revealed that no website scored a perfect 10 on any dimension and that room exists for meaningful improvement. Study findings allow for the establishment of baseline benchmarks for tracking future website and social media improvements and display the need for enhanced Web-based consumer engagement for children's hospitals.

  10. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  11. States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

  12. Hospital Website Rankings in the United States: Expanding Benchmarks and Standards for Effective Consumer Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Jennifer L; Ford, Eric W; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-01-01

    .19) and 6.49 (SD 0.96). Based on these scores, rank order calculations for the top 100 websites are presented. Additionally, a link to raw data, including AHA ID, is provided to enable researchers and practitioners the ability to further explore relationships to other dynamics in health care. Conclusions This census assessment of US hospitals and their health systems provides a clear indication of the state of the sector. While stakeholder engagement is core to most discussions of the role that hospitals must play in relation to communities, management of an online presence has not been recognized as a core competency fundamental to care delivery. Yet, social media management and network engagement are skills that exist at the confluence of marketing and technical prowess. This paper presents performance guidelines evaluated against best-demonstrated practice or independent standards to facilitate improvement of the sector’s use of websites and social media. PMID:24568892

  13. Hospital website rankings in the United States: expanding benchmarks and standards for effective consumer engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Hefner, Jennifer L; Ford, Eric W; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-02-25

    these scores, rank order calculations for the top 100 websites are presented. Additionally, a link to raw data, including AHA ID, is provided to enable researchers and practitioners the ability to further explore relationships to other dynamics in health care. This census assessment of US hospitals and their health systems provides a clear indication of the state of the sector. While stakeholder engagement is core to most discussions of the role that hospitals must play in relation to communities, management of an online presence has not been recognized as a core competency fundamental to care delivery. Yet, social media management and network engagement are skills that exist at the confluence of marketing and technical prowess. This paper presents performance guidelines evaluated against best-demonstrated practice or independent standards to facilitate improvement of the sector's use of websites and social media.

  14. Probabilistic low-rank factorization accelerates tensor network simulations of critical quantum many-body ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Lucas; Tschirsich, Ferdinand; Keck, Maximilian; Plenio, Martin B.; Tamascelli, Dario; Montangero, Simone

    2018-01-01

    We provide evidence that randomized low-rank factorization is a powerful tool for the determination of the ground-state properties of low-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians through tensor network techniques. In particular, we show that randomized matrix factorization outperforms truncated singular value decomposition based on state-of-the-art deterministic routines in time-evolving block decimation (TEBD)- and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG)-style simulations, even when the system under study gets close to a phase transition: We report linear speedups in the bond or local dimension of up to 24 times in quasi-two-dimensional cylindrical systems.

  15. Tensor Rank

    OpenAIRE

    Erdtman, Elias; Jönsson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    This master's thesis addresses numerical methods of computing the typical ranks of tensors over the real numbers and explores some properties of tensors over finite fields. We present three numerical methods to compute typical tensor rank. Two of these have already been published and can be used to calculate the lowest typical ranks of tensors and an approximate percentage of how many tensors have the lowest typical ranks (for some tensor formats), respectively. The third method was developed...

  16. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  17. Rank Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Carlos

    Studies of rank distributions have been popular for decades, especially since the work of Zipf. For example, if we rank words of a given language by use frequency (most used word in English is 'the', rank 1; second most common word is 'of', rank 2), the distribution can be approximated roughly with a power law. The same applies for cities (most populated city in a country ranks first), earthquakes, metabolism, the Internet, and dozens of other phenomena. We recently proposed ``rank diversity'' to measure how ranks change in time, using the Google Books Ngram dataset. Studying six languages between 1800 and 2009, we found that the rank diversity curves of languages are universal, adjusted with a sigmoid on log-normal scale. We are studying several other datasets (sports, economies, social systems, urban systems, earthquakes, artificial life). Rank diversity seems to be universal, independently of the shape of the rank distribution. I will present our work in progress towards a general description of the features of rank change in time, along with simple models which reproduce it

  18. Sex Differences in Faculty Rank Among Academic Surgeons in the United States in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bergmark, Regan W; Raol, Nikhila; Bohnen, Jordan D; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Gray, Stacey T

    2018-01-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sex differences in full professorship among a comprehensive, contemporary cohort of US academic surgeons. Previous work demonstrates that women are less likely than men to be full professors in academic medicine, and in certain surgical subspecialties. Whether sex differences in academic rank exist across all surgical fields, and after adjustment for confounders, is not known. A comprehensive list of surgeons with faculty appointments at US medical schools in 2014 was obtained from Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) faculty roster and linked to a comprehensive physician database from Doximity, an online physician networking website, which contained the following data for all physicians: sex, age, years since residency, publication number (total and first/last author), clinical trials participation, National Institutes of Health grants, and surgical subspecialty. A 20% sample of 2013 Medicare payments for care was added to this dataset. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate sex differences in full professorship, adjusting for these variables and medical school-specific fixed effects. Among 11,549 surgeon faculty at US medical schools in 2014, 1692 (14.7%) were women. Women comprised 19.4% of assistant professors (1072/5538), 13.8% of associate professors (404/2931), and 7.0% of full professors (216/3080). After multivariable analysis, women were less likely to be full professors than men (adjusted odds ratio: 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.6-0.9). Among surgical faculty at US medical schools in 2014, women were less likely than men to be full professors after adjustment for multiple factors known to impact faculty rank.

  19. Necessary and Sufficient Product Criteria for Quantum States via the Rank of Realignment Matrix of Density Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2017-11-01

    We present a necessary and sufficient product criterion for bipartite quantum states based on the rank of realignment matrix of density matrix. Then, this approach is generalized to multipartite systems. We first introduce the concept of semiproduct in a similar manner to the semiseparable and prove that semiproduct is equivalent to fully product. Therefore, a quantum state is bipartite product with respect to all possible partitions implies fully product which is different from the case of separability. For pure states, it can easily be seen that several necessary and sufficient separability criteria for multipartite systems are derived as a special case of our results. Several specific examples illustrate that our criteria are convenient and operational.

  20. A Study of the Effects of Rank and Gender on Officers' Club Membership and Club Usage at U.S. Air Force Bases in the Continental United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, C

    1999-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between both officer rank and officer gender and both club membership and member usage at Air Force officers' clubs in the Continental United States (CONUS...

  1. Reflections on the United States military 1941-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandels, Mary; Eveleigh, Douglas E

    2009-09-01

    This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol). This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis.Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did. In particular was her love

  2. Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveleigh Douglas E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol. This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis. Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did

  3. Multiplex PageRank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Halu

    Full Text Available Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  4. Multiplex PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  5. What Predicts Performance? A Multicenter Study Examining the Association Between Resident Performance, Rank List Position, and United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan G; Schneberk, Todd; Zobrist, Marissa; Hern, H Gene; Jordan, Jamie; Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Menchine, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Each application cycle, emergency medicine (EM) residency programs attempt to predict which applicants will be most successful in residency and rank them accordingly on their program's Rank Order List (ROL). Determine if ROL position, participation in a medical student rotation at their respective program, or United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 rank within a class is predictive of residency performance. All full-time EM faculty at Los Angeles County + University of Southern California (LAC + USC), Harbor-UCLA (Harbor), Alameda Health System-Highland (Highland), and the University of California-Irvine (UCI) ranked each resident in the classes of 2013 and 2014 at time of graduation. From these anonymous surveys, a graduation ROL was created, and using Spearman's rho, was compared with the program's adjusted ROL, USMLE Step 1 rank, and whether the resident participated in a medical student rotation. A total of 93 residents were evaluated. Graduation ROL position did not correlate with adjusted ROL position (Rho = 0.14, p = 0.19) or USMLE Step 1 rank (Rho = 0.15, p = 0.14). Interestingly, among the subgroup of residents who rotated as medical students, adjusted ROL position demonstrated significant correlation with final ranking on graduation ROL (Rho = 0.31, p = 0.03). USMLE Step 1 score rank and adjusted ROL position did not predict resident performance at time of graduation. However, adjusted ROL position was predictive of future residency success in the subgroup of residents who had completed a sub-internship at their respective programs. These findings should guide the future selection of EM residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Modeling Ranking, Time Trade-Off and Visual Analogue Scale Values for EQ-5D Health States : A Review and Comparison of Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Craig (Benjamin); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); J.A. Salomon (Joshua)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: There is rising interest in eliciting health state valuations using rankings. Due to their relative simplicity, ordinal measurement methods may offer an attractive practical alternative to cardinal methods, such as time trade-off (TTO) and visual analog scale (VAS).

  8. Testing University Rankings Statistically: Why this Perhaps is not such a Good Idea after All. Some Reflections on Statistical Power, Effect Size, Random Sampling and Imaginary Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and question the use of statistical significance tests in relation to university rankings as recently suggested. We outline the assumptions behind and interpretations of statistical significance tests and relate this to examples from the recent SCImago Institutions Rankin...

  9. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    REFLECTIONS. A freer life and independent work made of the quiet, dreamy boy a happy, outgoing, universally liked young man. He also began to familiarize himself with classical German literature. Though at first he was acquainted only with Milan and Pavia, Italy made a great impression on him even with this limitation.

  10. Bipolar mood state reflected in cortico-amygdala resting state connectivity: A cohort and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Roscoe O; Margolis, Allison; Masters, Grace A; Keshavan, Matcheri; Öngür, Dost

    2017-08-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we previously compared cohorts of bipolar I subjects in a manic state to those in a euthymic state to identify mood state-specific patterns of cortico-amygdala connectivity. Our results suggested that mania is reflected in the disruption of emotion regulation circuits. We sought to replicate this finding in a group of subjects with bipolar disorder imaged longitudinally across states of mania and euthymia METHODS: We divided our subjects into three groups: 26 subjects imaged in a manic state, 21 subjects imaged in a euthymic state, and 10 subjects imaged longitudinally across both mood states. We measured differences in amygdala connectivity between the mania and euthymia cohorts. We then used these regions of altered connectivity to examine connectivity in the longitudinal bipolar group using a within-subjects design. Our findings in the mania vs euthymia cohort comparison were replicated in the longitudinal analysis. Bipolar mania was differentiated from euthymia by decreased connectivity between the amygdala and pre-genual anterior cingulate cortex. Mania was also characterized by increased connectivity between amygdala and the supplemental motor area, a region normally anti-correlated to the amygdala in emotion regulation tasks. Stringent controls for movement effects limited the number of subjects in the longitudinal sample. In this first report of rsfMRI conducted longitudinally across mood states, we find that previously observed between-group differences in amygdala connectivity are also found longitudinally within subjects. These results suggest resting state cortico-amygdala connectivity is a biomarker of mood state in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nyerere's Political Reflections on the Individual, the State and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was the period when the commoners in Europe were struggling for liberty, democracy and the establishment of political parties from the autocratic feudal Kings. Nyerere's ideas reflect the same struggle for the independence of Tanganyika and the establishment of liberty and democracy by using a political party.

  12. Quantification of Material State using Reflectance FTIR Spectroscopy (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-08

    more computationally intensive than carrying out the OLS procedure. WLS estimates the quality of the data separately from the model parameters. The...ω j; q) + ε j (1) Var(ε j) = σ2 (2) Cov(εi, ε j) = 0 for i , j. (3) The full data model is given by equation 1 with observed data Y j. The...this work, the mathematical model f (ω j; q) is given by the reflectance model described in [5] ( equation 9). The estimated parameters are a

  13. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Zander, Thorsten O.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    2015-01-01

    What can we learn from spontaneously occurring brain and other physiological signals about an individual’s cognitive and affective state and how can we make use of this information? One line of research that is actively involved with this question is Passive Brain-Computer-Interfaces (BCI). To date

  14. Blasphemy in a secular state: some reflections | Fikre | Mizan Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... prohibition of hate speech rather than laws of blasphemy. This relocates the role of the state to its proper perspective in the context of its role in promoting interfaith dialogue, harmony and tolerance. Keywords: Blasphemy, Secular, Human Rights, Freedom of Expression, Defamation of Religion MIZAN LAW REVIEW Vol.

  15. Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This symposium was very special. It was topical: Some of the most outstanding problems in Nuclear Physics were discussed: Superheavy elements; extremely neutron rich elements, as well as nuclei with strangeness and their possible creation in the cosmos and on earth; the nuclear equation of state has to be identified within strongly compressed and hot nuclear matter as it appears in nucleus-nucleus encounters; giant nuclear systems which are short lived (˜ 10-19 - 10-20 seconds) and extremely important for identifying the vacuum decay in overcritical electric fields (this is a very fundamental process - the most fundamental one in Quantum Electrodynamics!); astrophysical centers of extreme high density around which magnificent sun-like objects are Kepler-orbiting are discovered in our Galaxy by R. Genzel and colleagues (these centers are no black holes those don't exist at all because repulsive gravitational forces may play an important role - the pseudocomplex general relativity eliminates the Schwarzschild singularity); network physics for distributing energy (nuclear, wind, sun, tides,...) all over Europe (and over the world) is basic for energy consumption now and even more so in future. We heard wonderful talks and I am grateful to all the friends and speakers (from Russia, America, Europe and India) for coming to Goa. It was a great symposium! Particular thanks go to Professor Bikash Sinha and especially to Professor Debades Bandyopadhyay from Calcutta who had the idea for and organized this Goa-symposium....

  16. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  17. 20 CFR 641.330 - How should the State Plan reflect community service needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM The State Senior Employment Services Coordination Plan § 641.330 How should the State Plan reflect community service needs? The Governor must ensure that the State Plan identifies the types of community services that are...

  18. Os rankings na educação superior brasileira: políticas de governo ou de estado? Los rankings en la educación superior brasileña: ¿políticas de gobierno de estado? The rankings in Brazilian higher education: policies of government or state?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ignacio Calderón

    2011-12-01

    los grupos políticos que se alternaron en el poder.This article, of a theoretical approach, examines how the rankings work in the policies of Higher Education of Brazilian State, taking as a parameter four presidential terms: two mandates of the government Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995-2002, marked by the implementation of neoliberal reforms, and the other two of the government Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010, an alternative to the democratic left in Latin America in face of the neoliberal expansion. It is supported the hypothesis that after four terms and two different presidents that represent theoretically opposing political projects, the rankings, considered as strategies for stimulating competition to improve the quality of Higher Education gained technical consensus and legitimacy within the government, ceasing to be policies of specific governments to become long-term policies of the Brazilian State, above the interests of political groups that alternated in power.

  19. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

  20. Ranking library materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses ranking factors suitable for library materials and shows that ranking in general is a complex process and that ranking for library materials requires a variety of techniques. Design/methodology/approach: The relevant literature is reviewed to provide a systematic overview of suitable ranking factors. The discussion is based on an overview of ranking factors used in Web search engines. Findings: While there are a wide variety of ranking factors appl...

  1. The effect of new links on Google PageRank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Litvak, Nelli

    2004-01-01

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. We study the effect of newly created links on Google PageRank. We discuss to

  2. Andreev reflection properties in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jin-Tao; Han, Yu [Physics Department, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Gong, Wei-Jiang, E-mail: gwj@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-03-15

    We investigate the Andreev reflection in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that in such a structure, the Andreev current can be manipulated in a highly efficient way, by the adjustment of bias voltage, dot levels, inter-MBS coupling, and the applied magnetic flux. Besides, the dot-MBS coupling manner is an important factor to modulate the Andreev current, because it influences the period of the conductance oscillation. By discussing the underlying quantum interference mechanism, the Andreev-reflection property is explained in detail. We believe that all the results can assist to understand the nontrivial role of the MBSs in driving the Andreev reflection.

  3. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky M Oelze

    Full Text Available Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation. These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet and lactation (high energy diet, which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment.

  4. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  5. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating e...... eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We give a number of different applications to regression and time series analysis, and show how the reduced rank regression estimator can be derived as a Gaussian maximum likelihood estimator. We briefly mention asymptotic results......The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  6. The state of open data: reflecting on its role for sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The state of open data: reflecting on its role for sustainable development. Releasing freely accessible, standardized, and easily readable data — open data — can increase transparency and accountability for governments, build new businesses and services for citizens, and increase participation in addressing key ...

  7. Forging Ahead! Teachers Reflect on the Early Adopter Program to Implement the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Erin; Houghtby, Beth; Izard, Patrice; Schuler, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This "water cooler" column features e-mail conversations between Erin Koning and three teachers--Beth, Jenna, and Patrice--and is a reflection of their participation in a Chicago Public School (CPS), professional development series designed to support the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in grades K-12. At the…

  8. Andreev reflection and bound states in topological insulator based planar and step Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Tarun; Deo, Nivedita

    2017-01-01

    A superconductor-topological insulator-superconductor (S/TI/S) junction having normal region at angle θ is studied theoretically to investigate the junction angle dependency of the Andreev reflection and the formation of the Andreev bound states in the step and planar S/TI/S structures. It is found that the Andreev reflection becomes θ dependent only in the presence of the potential barrier at the TI/S interface. In particular, the step and planar TI/S junction have totally different conductive behavior with bias voltage and potential barrier in the regime of retro and specular Andreev reflection. Interestingly, we find that the elliptical cross section of Dirac cone, an important feature of topological insulator with step surface defect, affects the Fabry-Perot resonance of the Andreev reflection induced Andreev bound states (which become Majorana zero energy states at low chemical potential) in the step S/TI/S structure. Unlike the usual planar S/TI/S structures, we find these ellipticity affected Andreev bound states lead to non-monotonic Josephson super-current in the step S/TI/S structure whose non-monotonicity can be controlled with the use of the potential barrier, which may find applications in nanoelectronics.

  9. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...

  10. Preparing Teachers for Special Education in the United States: A Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Ugwuanyi, L.; Obiyo, N. O.; Udaya, J.

    2012-01-01

    Preparing teachers for special education in the United States is a reflection that is not merely another attempt to reinvent the wheel. Rather, it is an investigation to learn from the past, use applications today in order to secure concrete and measurable goals in the diversified future of special education in America. Several historical figures…

  11. Ranking Operations Management conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U

    2007-01-01

    Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences

  12. Ranking of Sustainability Indicators for Assessment of the New Housing Development Projects: Case of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tupenaite

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is inconceivable without healthy real estate market. A housing project can be regarded as sustainable only when all the dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, and social are dealt with. There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of the new development projects. Although international literature is rich in sustainability assessments, there are no tools developed for assessment of new residential projects in the specific context of the Baltic States. Therefore, the aim of this article is to fill this gap and to propose an integrated, hierarchically structured system of sustainability indicators to be used for assessment of the new housing development projects. This aim is achieved through accomplishing three objectives. First, based on a review of literature related to assessing building project performance and sustainable development in construction, the paper proposes an original hierarchically structured system of sustainability indicators suitable for the Baltic context. Second, based on a survey of experts, significances of criteria are estimated by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method. Finally, paper proposes recommendations to government authorities and real estate developers as to how to enhance the performance of new residential projects according to the principles of sustainability.

  13. Open-boundary reflection of quantum well states at Pb(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Néel, N.; Crampin, S.; Kröger, J.

    2017-11-01

    Using a scanning tunneling microscope, confined electron states are studied that exist above subsurface nanometer-sized voids at Pb(111), where potential barriers at the parallel vacuum-Pb(111) and Pb(111)-void interfaces establish a principal series of quantum well states that are further confined laterally by strong reflection at the open boundaries at the edges of the void. The influence of the size, depth, and shape of the voids on the effectiveness of the lateral confinement is discussed. Standing wave patterns observed in differential conductance maps unravel the dispersion of the relevant underlying Pb electron states.

  14. Maximum Waring ranks of monomials

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Erik; Plummer, Paul; Siegert, Jeremy; Teitler, Zach

    2013-01-01

    We show that monomials and sums of pairwise coprime monomials in four or more variables have Waring rank less than the generic rank, with a short list of exceptions. We asymptotically compare their ranks with the generic rank.

  15. Spatial mapping of electronic states in κ-(BEDT-TTF2X using infrared reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Sasaki and Naoki Yoneyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We review our recent work on spatial inhomogeneity of the electronic states in the strongly correlated molecular conductors κ-(BEDT-TTF2X. Spatial mapping of infrared spectra (SMIS is used for imaging the distribution of the local electronic states. In molecular materials, the infrared response of the specific molecular vibration mode with a strong electron–molecular vibration coupling can reflect the electronic states via the change in the vibration frequency. By spatially mapping the frequency shift of the molecular vibration mode, an electronic phase separation has been visualized near the first-order Mott transition in the bandwidth-controlled organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br. In addition to reviewing SMIS of the phase separation, we briefly mention the electronic and optical properties of κ-(BEDT-TTF2X.

  16. How to Rank Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W

    2016-01-01

    There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68-0.84 Spearman's ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows.

  17. Academic rankings: an approach to a Portuguese ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino, Pedro; Marques,Rui

    2009-01-01

    The academic rankings are a controversial subject in higher education. However, despite all the criticism, academic rankings are here to stay and more and more different stakeholders use rankings to obtain information about the institutions’ performance. The two most well-known rankings, The Times and the Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings have different methodologies. The Times ranking is based on peer review, whereas the Shanghai ranking has only quantitative indicators and is mainly ba...

  18. Common Sense in Gramsci’s State Theory. Reflections upon the South American Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Nosetto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Confronted with the recent changes in South American politics, this article aims at providing a critical reflection upon the relation between state and common sense. To this effect the work of Antonio Gramsci gains particular relevance. In fact, the intellectual and moral reform promoted by Gramsci supposes the critic of common sense. This critic consists not of a massive refusal, but of a dialectical work, aimed at overcoming the tensions inherent to the phenomenon. This article identifies these tensions with three distinguishable but nonetheless articulated problems: the disarrangement of theory and practice, the dissociation of the high and the low, and the confusion of the old and the new. This analytical approach to the Gramscian conception of common sense allows to clarify the task of an intellectual and moral reform aimed at providing the ethical foundation of the state. On this basis, the article ends with some reflections on the use of the notions of "populism" and of the "national-popular" in current South American public debate.

  19. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...

  20. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  1. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

  2. Social rank affects the haematologic profile in red deer hinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés J

    2018-01-26

    We studied the effects of social rank on the haematologic profile in a herd of 24 female Iberian red deer hinds. Social rank hierarchy was determined and blood samples were taken and analysed. After adjusting for age and body mass, dominance ranking showed a significant negative effect (ie, lower values in dominant hinds) on white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Our results are similar to those reported for stressed individuals due to physical immobilisation, but do not support the predicted enhanced erythropoiesis due to higher levels of androgens. The results for WBC numbers may also reflect that subordinate hinds must allocate a higher amount of resources to immunity as a result of injuries incurred from dominant hinds, while simultaneously facing restricted access to food sources. For red blood cell (RBC) counts, the results may be due to subordinate hinds likely needing increased haematocrit and haemoglobin levels for fast flight responses. Our data show that social rank influences haematologic profile, and thus it should be considered when correctly interpreting blood analyses in social cervid species. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state:Six recommendations to avoid common pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eBrouwer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating cognitive or affective state from neurophysiological signals and designing applications that make use of this information requires expertise in many disciplines such as neurophysiology, machine learning, experimental psychology and human factors. This makes it difficult to perform research that is strong in all its aspects as well as to judge a study or application on its merits. On the occasion of the special topic ‘Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state’ we here summarize often occurring pitfalls and recommendations on how to avoid them, both for authors (researchers and readers. They relate to defining the state of interest, the neurophysiological processes that are expected to be involved in the state of interest, confounding factors, inadvertently ‘cheating’ with classification analyses, insight on what underlies successful state estimation, and finally, the added value of neurophysiological measures in the context of an application. We hope that this paper will support the community in producing high quality studies and well-validated, useful applications.

  4. Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-06-08

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in "q-sampling" protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.

  5. Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm for Search Engine Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2012-06-01

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log⁡(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in “q-sampling” protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.

  6. Ranking the risk of wildlife species hazardous to military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, E.J.; Bissonette, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions between birds and aircraft (birdstrikes) pose a major threat to aviation safety. Different species pose different levels of threat; thus, identification of the most hazardous species can help managers identify the level of hazard and prioritize mitigation efforts. Dolbeer et al. (2000) assessed the hazard posed by birds to civilian aircraft by analyzing data from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wildlife Strike Database to rank the hazardous species and species groups. A similar analysis has not been done for the military but would be useful and necessary. Military flight characteristics differ from those of civilian flights. During the period 1985-1998, birdstrikes cost the United States Air Force (USAF) an average of $35 million/year in damage. Using the USAF Birdstrike Database, we selected and evaluated each species or species group by the number of strikes recorded in each of 3 damage categories. We weighted damage categories to reflect extent and cost of damage. The USAF Birdstrike Database contained 25,519 records of wildlife strikes in the United States. During the period 1985-1998, 22 (mean = 1.6/year) Class-A birdstrikes (>$1,000,000 damage, loss of aircraft, loss of life, or permanent total disability) were sustained, accounting for 80% of total monetary losses caused by birds. Vultures (Cathartes aura, Coragyps atratus, Caracara cheriway) were ranked the most hazardous species group (Hazard Index Rank [HIR] = 127) to USAF aircraft, followed by geese (Branta canadensis, Chen caerulescens, HIR = 76), pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, P. occidentalis, HIR = 47), and buteos (Buteo sp., HIR = 30). Of the smaller flocking birds, blackbirds and starlings (mostly Agelaius phoeniceus, Euphagus cyanocephalus, Molothrus ater, Sturnus vulgaris, HIR = 46), horned larks (Eremophila alpestris, HIR = 24), and swallows (Families Hirundinidae, Apodidae, HIR = 23) were species groups ranked highest. Coupling these results with local bird census

  7. ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven C.; Steckl, Andrew J.

    2007-06-01

    A phosphor-converted light-emitting diode (pcLED) luminaire featuring enhanced light extraction by internal reflection (ELiXIR) with efficacy of 60 lm/W producing 18 lumens of yellowish green light at 100 mA is presented. The luminaire consists of a commercial blue high power LED, a polymer hemispherical shell lens with interior phosphor coating, and planar aluminized reflector. High extraction efficiency of the phosphor-converted light is achieved by separating the phosphor from the LED and using internal reflection to steer the light away from lossy reflectors and the LED package and out of the device. At 10 and 500 mA, the luminaire produces 2.1 and 66 lumens with efficacies of 80 and 37 lm/W, respectively. Technological improvements over existing commercial LEDs, such as more efficient pcLED packages or, alternatively, higher efficiency green or yellow for color mixing, will be essential to achieving 150 200 lm/W solid-state lighting. Advances in both areas are demonstrated.

  8. Asset ranking manager (ranking index of components)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, S.M.; Engle, A.M.; Morgan, T.A. [Applied Reliability, Maracor Software and Engineering (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The Ranking Index of Components (RIC) is an Asset Reliability Manager (ARM), which itself is a Web Enabled front end where plant database information fields from several disparate databases are combined. That information is used to create a specific weighted number (Ranking Index) relating to that components health and risk to the site. The higher the number, the higher priority that any work associated with that component receives. ARM provides site Engineering, Maintenance and Work Control personnel with a composite real time - (current condition) look at the components 'risk of not working' to the plant. Information is extracted from the existing Computerized Maintenance management System (CMMS) and specific site applications and processed nightly. ARM helps to ensure that the most important work is placed into the workweeks and the non value added work is either deferred, frequency changed or deleted. This information is on the web, updated each night, and available for all employees to use. This effort assists the work management specialist when allocating limited resources to the most important work. The use of this tool has maximized resource usage, performing the most critical work with available resources. The ARM numbers are valued inputs into work scoping for the workweek managers. System and Component Engineers are using ARM to identify the components that are at 'risk of failure' and therefore should be placed into the appropriate work week schedule.

  9. Biased recognition of facial affect in patients with major depressive disorder reflects clinical state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Münkler

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories of depression posit that perception is negatively biased in depressive disorder. Previous studies have provided empirical evidence for this notion, but left open the question whether the negative perceptual bias reflects a stable trait or the current depressive state. Here we investigated the stability of negatively biased perception over time. Emotion perception was examined in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy control participants in two experiments. In the first experiment subjective biases in the recognition of facial emotional expressions were assessed. Participants were presented with faces that were morphed between sad and neutral and happy expressions and had to decide whether the face was sad or happy. The second experiment assessed automatic emotion processing by measuring the potency of emotional faces to gain access to awareness using interocular suppression. A follow-up investigation using the same tests was performed three months later. In the emotion recognition task, patients with major depression showed a shift in the criterion for the differentiation between sad and happy faces: In comparison to healthy controls, patients with MDD required a greater intensity of the happy expression to recognize a face as happy. After three months, this negative perceptual bias was reduced in comparison to the control group. The reduction in negative perceptual bias correlated with the reduction of depressive symptoms. In contrast to previous work, we found no evidence for preferential access to awareness of sad vs. happy faces. Taken together, our results indicate that MDD-related perceptual biases in emotion recognition reflect the current clinical state rather than a stable depressive trait.

  10. Biased recognition of facial affect in patients with major depressive disorder reflects clinical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münkler, Paula; Rothkirch, Marcus; Dalati, Yasmin; Schmack, Katharina; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression posit that perception is negatively biased in depressive disorder. Previous studies have provided empirical evidence for this notion, but left open the question whether the negative perceptual bias reflects a stable trait or the current depressive state. Here we investigated the stability of negatively biased perception over time. Emotion perception was examined in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy control participants in two experiments. In the first experiment subjective biases in the recognition of facial emotional expressions were assessed. Participants were presented with faces that were morphed between sad and neutral and happy expressions and had to decide whether the face was sad or happy. The second experiment assessed automatic emotion processing by measuring the potency of emotional faces to gain access to awareness using interocular suppression. A follow-up investigation using the same tests was performed three months later. In the emotion recognition task, patients with major depression showed a shift in the criterion for the differentiation between sad and happy faces: In comparison to healthy controls, patients with MDD required a greater intensity of the happy expression to recognize a face as happy. After three months, this negative perceptual bias was reduced in comparison to the control group. The reduction in negative perceptual bias correlated with the reduction of depressive symptoms. In contrast to previous work, we found no evidence for preferential access to awareness of sad vs. happy faces. Taken together, our results indicate that MDD-related perceptual biases in emotion recognition reflect the current clinical state rather than a stable depressive trait.

  11. Ranking of Rankings: Benchmarking Twenty-Five Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Ingo; Hendel, Darwin D.; Horn, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ranking practices of 25 European higher education ranking systems (HERSs). Ranking practices were assessed with 14 quantitative measures derived from the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutions (BPs). HERSs were then ranked according to their degree of congruence with the BPs.…

  12. From rankings to mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Darrell G; Prescott, John E

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1980s, school ranking systems have been a topic of discussion among leaders of higher education. Various ranking systems are based on inadequate data that fail to illustrate the complex nature and special contributions of the institutions they purport to rank, including U.S. medical schools, each of which contributes uniquely to meeting national health care needs. A study by Tancredi and colleagues in this issue of Academic Medicine illustrates the limitations of rankings specific to primary care training programs. This commentary discusses, first, how each school's mission and strengths, as well as the impact it has on the community it serves, are distinct, and, second, how these schools, which are each unique, are poorly represented by overly subjective ranking methodologies. Because academic leaders need data that are more objective to guide institutional development, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has been developing tools to provide valid data that are applicable to each medical school. Specifically, the AAMC's Medical School Admissions Requirements and its Missions Management Tool each provide a comprehensive assessment of medical schools that leaders are using to drive institutional capacity building. This commentary affirms the importance of mission while challenging the leaders of medical schools, teaching hospitals, and universities to use reliable data to continually improve the quality of their training programs to improve the health of all.

  13. Electron tomographic analysis reveals ultrastructural features of mitochondrial cristae architecture which reflect energetic state and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Fan; Lin, Shao-Syuan; Chen, Jing-Min; Tsai, Han-Zen; Hsieh, Tao-Shih; Fu, Chi-Yu

    2017-03-30

    Within mitochondria, the ability to produce energy relies upon the architectural hallmarks of double membranes and cristae invaginations. Herein, we describe novel features of mitochondrial cristae structure, which correspond to the energetic state of the organelle. In concordance with high-energy demand, mitochondria of Drosophila indirect flight muscle exhibited extensive intra-mitochondrial membrane switches between densely packed lamellar cristae that resulted in a spiral-like cristae network and allowed for bidirectional matrix confluency. This highly interconnected architecture is expected to allow rapid equilibration of membrane potential and biomolecules across integrated regions. In addition, mutant flies with mtDNA replication defect and an accelerated aging phenotype accumulated mitochondria that contained subsections of swirling membrane alongside normal cristae. The swirling membrane had impaired energy production capacity as measured by protein composition and function. Furthermore, mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics were affected in the prematurely aged flies. Interestingly, the normal cristae that remained in the mitochondria with swirling membranes maintained acceptable function that camouflaged them from quality control elimination. Overall, structural features of mitochondrial cristae were described in three-dimension from serial section electron tomographic analysis which reflect energetic state and mtDNA-mediated aging.

  14. Mood states of soccer players in the english leagues: reflections of an increasing workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Thatcher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the demands of the modern English competitive soccer season would be reflected in the mood states of professional soccer players. Sixty-nine male participants either activity competing in English soccer leagues or resident in England were recruited and grouped accordingly as professional soccer players, university level soccer players, Sunday league soccer players, or non-sporting controls. On three separate occasions; at the beginning, at the middle, and finally towards the end of the English soccer season, participants completed both the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire as well as a questionnaire related to their teams’ performance in addition to their perceived life stress. Results showed the POMS scores to differ over the season in relation to the groups’ standard of competition. ANOVAs demonstrated this pattern to be significant for the dependent measures of tension, depression, and confusion with significant group by time interactions (95% level of confidence. At the outset of the season professionals had the most positive POMS profile, however, as the season progressed they showed the greatest change towards a negative profile. These results indicate that English soccer is placing professional players at a predisposition of demonstrating POMS commensurate with negative adaptation to training, having important implications for their long-term performance and health.

  15. Monte Carlo methods in PageRank computation: When one iteration is sufficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli; Nemirovsky, D.; Osipova, N.

    2005-01-01

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. Google computes the PageRank using the power iteration method which requires

  16. Monte Carlo methods in PageRank computation: When one iteration is sufficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli; Nemirovsky, D.; Osipova, N.

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer, and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. Google computes the PageRank using the power iteration method, which requires

  17. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  18. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  19. Diversifying customer review rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima

    2015-06-01

    E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. OutRank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Steinhausen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Outlier detection is an important data mining task for consistency checks, fraud detection, etc. Binary decision making on whether or not an object is an outlier is not appropriate in many applications and moreover hard to parametrize. Thus, recently, methods for outlier ranking have been proposed...

  1. Do changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect trait or state changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) has become an important and commonly used instrument to assess personality functioning. Several studies report significant changes on MCMI personality disorder scales after psychological treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre......-post-treatment changes in 39-session psychodynamic group psychotherapy as measured with the MCMI reflect real personality change or primarily reflect symptomatic state changes. Pre-post-treatment design included 236 psychotherapy outpatients. Personality changes were measured on the MCMI-II and symptomatic state changes......-term psychotherapy reflect change in symptomatic state. The MCMI-II Base Rate cut-off points probably include too many patients, justifying the introduction of new scoring procedures in the MCMI-III....

  2. Reflection states in Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and brane-web for D-type quiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgine, J.-E.; Fukuda, M.; Matsuo, Y.; Zhu, R.-D.

    2017-12-01

    Reflection states are introduced in the vertical and horizontal modules of the Ding-Iohara-Miki (DIM) algebra (quantum toroidal gl_1 ). Webs of DIM representations are in correspondence with ( p, q)-web diagrams of type IIB string theory, under the identification of the algebraic intertwiner of Awata, Feigin and Shiraishi with the refined topological vertex. Extending the correspondence to the vertical reflection states, it is possible to engineer the N=1 quiver gauge theory of D-type (with unitary gauge groups). In this way, the Nekrasov instanton partition function is reproduced from the evaluation of expectation values of intertwiners. This computation leads to the identification of the vertical reflection state with the orientifold plane of string theory. We also provide a translation of this construction in the Iqbal-Kozcaz-Vafa refined topological vertex formalism.

  3. REFLECTIONS ON BEHAVIORAL CRISES PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland PAULAUSKAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of civilization made crises an inseparable part of our lives. Crises manifest themselves in almost all social areas and organizations, including educational institutions. The goals of the article are to present a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behaviors, and discuss the psycho-social characteristics of emotionally disturbed adolescents situated in a residential special education school in the United States. The article also gives an analysis of their most prevalent behavioral crises, escalation stages, as well as nonviolent crisis prevention and intervention strategies. The methods that were used include scientific literature review, analysis of statistical information supplied from different government sources, review and analysis of student records, as well as the author’s analytical reflections in working with emotionally disturbed youngsters in residential special education schools in the United States.The results of the study indicate that scientists from different fields use different terminology to describe socially nonconforming behaviors. The author presents a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behavior that could enhance better understanding and identification of high risk situations and conduct leading to serious crises. The analysis of student records revealed that most of the adolescents situated in special education residential schools are diagnosed with a number of mental health problems. This suggests that the currently prevailing care and education paradigm in the special education residential schools should shift to a more comprehensive treatment paradigm. The article also discusses the pros and cons of nonviolent crisis intervention. It is the author’s opinion that all special education schools serving children with emotional disorders should adopt one of the nonviolent crisis intervention models and develop and implement crisis management policies, plans and procedures.

  4. Improving Ranking Using Quantum Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Melucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows that ranking information units by quantum probability differs from ranking them by classical probability provided the same data used for parameter estimation. As probability of detection (also known as recall or power) and probability of false alarm (also known as fallout or size) measure the quality of ranking, we point out and show that ranking by quantum probability yields higher probability of detection than ranking by classical probability provided a given probability of ...

  5. The redox states of basic and silicic magmas: a reflection of their source regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Ian S. E.

    1991-01-01

    At present the best estimates of the oxygen fugacity of spinel-lherzolites that could be the source material of basic magmas is about five log units below the Ni-NiO buffer to one above it. However partially glassy basic lavas, ranging from MORBs to minettes, all with olivine on their liquidus, cover a wider range, and may have oxygen fugacities that extend to four log units above NNO. Surprisingly the range of oxygen fugacities observed in silicic lavas and ashflows with quartz phenocrysts is smaller, despite a crustal dominated evolution. The peralkaline silicic lava type pantellerite is the most reduced, equivalent to MORBs, whereas the large volume ashflows with phenocrysts of hornblende and/or sphene are the most oxidised. As the concentration of water in the basic lavas is correlated with increase in their redox state, it would seem that water could be the agent of this increase. That this is unlikely is seen in the behavior of silicic ashflows and lavas, particularly those of Yellowstone. Here the silicic magmas of the last 2Ma contain about 2 wt% FeO(total), and typically phenocrysts of fayalite, quartz and Fe-Ti oxides. Despite extensive exchange of the 18O of the magma with meteoric water after caldera collapse (Hildreth et al. 1984), there is no displacement of the redox equilibria. Thus the thermal dissociation of molecular H2O to H2, and its subsequent diffusive loss to cause oxidation must have been minimal. This could only be so if the activity of water was small, as it would be if H2O reacted with the silicate liquid to form OH groups (Stolper 1982). The conclusion is that silicic magmas with small amounts of iron and large amounts of water do not have their redox states reset, which in turn presumably reflect their generation. By analogy basic magmas with large amounts of iron and far less water are even less likely to have their redox equilibria disturbed, so that their oxygen fugacities will also reflect their source regions. The effect of

  6. Overall and class-specific scores of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables as a tool to rank intake of pesticide residues in United States: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Chiu, Yu-Han; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend vegetables (p for trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  8. Fractional cointegration rank estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasak, Katarzyna; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating the parame......We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating...... to control for stochastic trend estimation effects from the first step. The critical values of the tests proposed depend only on the number of common trends under the null, p - r, and on the interval of the cointegration degrees b allowed, but not on the true cointegration degree b0. Hence, no additional...

  9. Ranking the disease burden of 14 pathogens in food sources in the United States using attribution data from outbreak investigations and expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batz, Michael B; Hoffmann, Sandra; Morris, J Glenn

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the relative public health impact of major microbiological hazards across the food supply is critical for a risk-based national food safety system. This study was conducted to estimate the U.S. health burden of 14 major pathogens in 12 broad categories of food and to then rank the resulting 168 pathogen-food combinations. These pathogens examined were Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, norovirus, Salmonella enterica, Toxoplasma gondii, and all other FoodNet pathogens. The health burden associated with each pathogen was measured using new estimates of the cost of illness and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from acute and chronic illness and mortality. A new method for attributing illness to foods was developed that relies on both outbreak data and expert elicitation. This method assumes that empirical data are generally preferable to expert judgment; thus, outbreak data were used for attribution except where evidence suggests that these data are considered not representative of food attribution. Based on evaluation of outbreak data, expert elicitation, and published scientific literature, outbreak-based attribution estimates for Campylobacter, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Yersinia were determined not representative; therefore, expert-based attribution were included for these four pathogens. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the effect of attribution data assumptions on rankings. Disease burden was concentrated among a relatively small number of pathogen-food combinations. The top 10 pairs were responsible for losses of over $8 billion and 36,000 QALYs, or more than 50 % of the total across all pairs. Across all 14 pathogens, poultry, pork, produce, and complex foods were responsible for nearly 60 % of the total cost of illness and loss of QALYs.

  10. Graded Reflectivity Mirror for the Solid State Heat Capacity Laser Final Report CRADA No. TC-2085-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This was a collaborative effort between The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Boeing Company, to develop a Graded Reflectivity Mirror (GRM) to achieve improved near field fill and higher brightness in the far field output of LLNL’s Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL).

  11. The Reflection Component from Cygnus X-1 in the Soft State Measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomsick, John A.; Nowak, Michael A.; Parker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late-2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ~1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power-law, and reflection components along...

  12. Reflecting on the State of U.S. Doctoral PETE Programs . . . "Houston, We've Had a Problem."

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mars, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This theme issue of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" constitutes the first concentrated effort to reflect on critical dimensions and issues related to the quality of doctoral programs in Sport Pedagogy/Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) in the United States (hereafter referred to as D-PETE programs). For a number of years now,…

  13. Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bydlon, Torre M.; Nachabé, Rami; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a rapidly growing technology in the biophotonics community where it has shown promise in its ability to classify different tissues. In the steady-state domain a wide spectrum of clinical applications is supported with this technology ranging from diagnostic to

  14. Multidimensional ranking the design and development of U-Multirank

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegele, Frank

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades ranking has become one of the most controversial issues in higher education and research. It is widely recognized now that, although some of the current rankings can be severely criticized, they seem to be here to stay. In addition, rankings appear to have a great impact on decision-makers at all levels of higher education and research systems worldwide, including in universities. Rankings reflect a growing international competition among universities for talent and resources; at the same time they reinforce competition by their very results. Yet major concerns remain a

  15. Can College Rankings Be Believed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Davis

    Full Text Available The article summarizes literature on college and university rankings worldwide and the strategies used by various ranking organizations, including those of government and popular media. It traces the history of national and global rankings, indicators used by ranking systems, and the effect of rankings on academic programs and their institutions. Although ranking systems employ diverse criteria and most weight certain indicators over others, there is considerable skepticism that most actually measure educational quality. At the same time, students and their families increasingly consult these evaluations when making college decisions, and sponsors of faculty research consider reputation when forming academic partnerships. While there are serious concerns regarding the validity of ranking institutions when so little data can support differences between one institution and another, college rankings appear to be here to stay.

  16. Sync-rank: Robust Ranking, Constrained Ranking and Rank Aggregation via Eigenvector and SDP Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    eigenvector of the associated Laplacian matrix (i.e., the Fiedler vector) matches that of the variables. In other words, this approach (reminiscent of...S1), i.e., Dii = ∑n j=1Gi,j is the degree of node i in the measurement graph G. 3: Compute the Fiedler vector of S (eigenvector corresponding to the...smallest nonzero eigenvalue of LS). 4: Output the ranking induced by sorting the Fiedler vector of S, with the global ordering (increasing or decreasing

  17. Rankings from Fuzzy Pairwise Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.; Mohammadian, M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new method for deriving rankings from fuzzy pairwise comparisons. It is based on the observation that quantification of the uncertainty of the pairwise comparisons should be used to obtain a better crisp ranking, instead of a fuzzified version of the ranking obtained from crisp pairwise

  18. PageRank (II): Mathematics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maths/stats

    INTRODUCTION. PageRank is Google's system for ranking web pages. A page with a higher PageRank is deemed more important and is more likely to be listed above a ... Felix U. Ogban, Department of Mathematics/Statistics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of ..... probability, 2004, 41, (3): 721-734.

  19. University Rankings and Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  20. Sequential rank agreement methods for comparison of ranked lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jensen, Andreas Kryger

    2015-01-01

    The comparison of alternative rankings of a set of items is a general and prominent task in applied statistics. Predictor variables are ranked according to magnitude of association with an outcome, prediction models rank subjects according to the personalized risk of an event, and genetic studies...... are illustrated using gene rankings, and using data from two Danish ovarian cancer studies where we assess the within and between agreement of different statistical classification methods.......The comparison of alternative rankings of a set of items is a general and prominent task in applied statistics. Predictor variables are ranked according to magnitude of association with an outcome, prediction models rank subjects according to the personalized risk of an event, and genetic studies...

  1. The high frequency characteristics of laser reflection and visible light during solid state disk laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangdong; You, Deyong; Katayama, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    Optical properties are related to weld quality during laser welding. Visible light radiation generated from optical-induced plasma and laser reflection is considered a key element reflecting weld quality. An in-depth analysis of the high-frequency component of optical signals is conducted. A combination of a photoelectric sensor and an optical filter helped to obtain visible light reflection and laser reflection in the welding process. Two groups of optical signals were sampled at a high sampling rate (250 kHz) using an oscilloscope. Frequencies in the ranges 1-10 kHz and 10-125 kHz were investigated respectively. Experimental results showed that there was an obvious correlation between the high-frequency signal and the laser power, while the high-frequency signal was not sensitive to changes in welding speed. In particular, when the defocus position was changed, only a high frequency of the visible light signal was observed, while the high frequency of the laser reflection signal remained unchanged. The basic correlation between optical features and welding status during the laser welding process is specified, which helps to provide a new research focus for investigating the stability of welding status.

  2. Reflections of an Exiting Editor: The State of JASH and Its Crucial Role in TASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, James W.

    1996-01-01

    The outgoing editor of the "Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps" (JASH) reflects on his tenure and provides data on the journal's impact compared to that of related journals, trends in JASH submissions, the editorial review process, and trends in editorial decisions. (DB)

  3. Equal-Spin Andreev Reflection on Junctions of Spin-Resolved Quantum Hall Bulk State and Spin-Singlet Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Sadashige; Ueda, Kento; Baba, Shoji; Kamata, Hiroshi; Tateno, Mizuki; Shabani, Javad; Palmstrøm, Christopher J; Tarucha, Seigo

    2018-02-22

    The recent development of superconducting spintronics has revealed the spin-triplet superconducting proximity effect from a spin-singlet superconductor into a spin-polarized normal metal. In addition recently superconducting junctions using semiconductors are in demand for highly controlled experiments to engineer topological superconductivity. Here we report experimental observation of Andreev reflection in junctions of spin-resolved quantum Hall (QH) states in an InAs quantum well and the spin-singlet superconductor NbTi. The measured conductance indicates a sub-gap feature and two peaks on the outer side of the sub-gap feature in the QH plateau-transition regime increases. The observed structures can be explained by considering transport with Andreev reflection from two channels, one originating from equal-spin Andreev reflection intermediated by spin-flip processes and second arising from normal Andreev reflection. This result indicates the possibility to induce the superconducting proximity gap in the the QH bulk state, and the possibility for the development of superconducting spintronics in semiconductor devices.

  4. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-10

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  5. Do changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect trait or state changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) has become an important and commonly used instrument to assess personality functioning. Several studies report significant changes on MCMI personality disorder scales after psychological treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-post-treatment changes in 39-session psychodynamic group psychotherapy as measured with the MCMI reflect real personality change or primarily reflect symptomatic state changes. Pre-post-treatment design included 236 psychotherapy outpatients. Personality changes were measured on the MCMI-II and symptomatic state changes on the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The MCMI Schizoid, Avoidant, Self-defeating, and severe personality disorder scales revealed substantial changes, which could be predicted from changes on SCL-90-R global symptomatology (GSI) and on the SCL-90-R Depression scale. The MCMI Dependent personality score was the only MCMI personality scale showing significant change when the SCL-90-R Depression change score was included as a covariate. Splitting patients into those with and without personality disorders did not change the results. Observed changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect change in symptomatic state. The MCMI-II Base Rate cut-off points probably include too many patients, justifying the introduction of new scoring procedures in the MCMI-III.

  6. Neophilia Ranking of Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packalen, Mikko; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The ranking of scientific journals is important because of the signal it sends to scientists about what is considered most vital for scientific progress. Existing ranking systems focus on measuring the influence of a scientific paper (citations)—these rankings do not reward journals for publishing innovative work that builds on new ideas. We propose an alternative ranking based on the proclivity of journals to publish papers that build on new ideas, and we implement this ranking via a text-based analysis of all published biomedical papers dating back to 1946. In addition, we compare our neophilia ranking to citation-based (impact factor) rankings; this comparison shows that the two ranking approaches are distinct. Prior theoretical work suggests an active role for our neophilia index in science policy. Absent an explicit incentive to pursue novel science, scientists underinvest in innovative work because of a coordination problem: for work on a new idea to flourish, many scientists must decide to adopt it in their work. Rankings that are based purely on influence thus do not provide sufficient incentives for publishing innovative work. By contrast, adoption of the neophilia index as part of journal-ranking procedures by funding agencies and university administrators would provide an explicit incentive for journals to publish innovative work and thus help solve the coordination problem by increasing scientists' incentives to pursue innovative work. PMID:28713181

  7. Reflections on Race: Affirmative Action Policies Influencing Higher Education in France and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Saran

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Although frequently associated with the United States, affirmative action is not a uniquely American social policy. Indeed, 2003 witnessed review and revision of affirmative action policies affecting higher education institutions in both France and the United States. Using critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical lens, this…

  8. Rank diversity of languages: generic behavior in computational linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocho, Germinal; Flores, Jorge; Gershenson, Carlos; Pineda, Carlos; Sánchez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Statistical studies of languages have focused on the rank-frequency distribution of words. Instead, we introduce here a measure of how word ranks change in time and call this distribution rank diversity. We calculate this diversity for books published in six European languages since 1800, and find that it follows a universal lognormal distribution. Based on the mean and standard deviation associated with the lognormal distribution, we define three different word regimes of languages: "heads" consist of words which almost do not change their rank in time, "bodies" are words of general use, while "tails" are comprised by context-specific words and vary their rank considerably in time. The heads and bodies reflect the size of language cores identified by linguists for basic communication. We propose a Gaussian random walk model which reproduces the rank variation of words in time and thus the diversity. Rank diversity of words can be understood as the result of random variations in rank, where the size of the variation depends on the rank itself. We find that the core size is similar for all languages studied.

  9. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  10. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  11. Severe language effect in university rankings: particularly Germany and France are wronged in citation-based rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J; van Leeuwen, Thed N; Visser, Martijn S

    2011-08-01

    We applied a set of standard bibliometric indicators to monitor the scientific state-of-arte of 500 universities worldwide and constructed a ranking on the basis of these indicators (Leiden Ranking 2010). We find a dramatic and hitherto largely underestimated language effect in the bibliometric, citation-based measurements of research performance when comparing the ranking based on all Web of Science (WoS) covered publications and on only English WoS covered publications, particularly for Germany and France.

  12. Apparent NAC effect in chorismate mutase reflects electrostatic transition state stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajbl, Marek; Shurki, Avital; Kato, Mitsunori; Warshel, Arieh

    2003-08-27

    The catalytic reaction of chorismate mutase (CM) has been the subject of major current attention. Nevertheless, the origin of the catalytic power of CM remains an open question. In particular, it has not been clear whether the enzyme works by providing electrostatic transition state stabilization (TSS), by applying steric strain, or by populating near attack conformation (NAC). The present work explores this issue by a systematic quantitative analysis. The overall catalytic effect is reproduced by the empirical valence bond (EVB) method. In addition, the binding free energy of the ground state and the transition state is evaluated, demonstrating that the enzyme works by TSS. Furthermore, the evaluation of the electrostatic contribution to the reduction of the activation energy establishes that the TSS results from electrostatic effects. It is also found that the apparent NAC effect is not the reason for the catalytic effect but the result of the TSS. It is concluded that in CM as in other enzymes the key catalytic effect is electrostatic TSS. However, since the charge distribution of the transition state and the reactant state is similar, the stabilization of the transition state leads to reduction in the distance between the reacting atoms in the reactant state.

  13. Reflections on moral care when conducting qualitative research about suicide in the United States military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Marcela; Mancías, Saraí; LeFeber, Tirzah

    2017-09-01

    Critical suicidology (White, Marsh, Kral, & Morris, 2016 ) offers a critique of positivism as the mainstream rhetoric of scientific research. In this article, the authors add a critique to the moral detachment of scientific inquiry (Wilkinson & Kleinman, 2016 ) in suicidology. They provide a discussion at the intersection of theory and research when considering moral care of all stakeholders in the implementation of suicide research toward the development of more humanitarian policies and program alternatives. The authors reflect upon their experience of conducting an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Finlay, 2011 ) on suicide in the U.S. military.

  14. Statistical methods for ranking data

    CERN Document Server

    Alvo, Mayer

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces advanced undergraduate, graduate students and practitioners to statistical methods for ranking data. An important aspect of nonparametric statistics is oriented towards the use of ranking data. Rank correlation is defined through the notion of distance functions and the notion of compatibility is introduced to deal with incomplete data. Ranking data are also modeled using a variety of modern tools such as CART, MCMC, EM algorithm and factor analysis. This book deals with statistical methods used for analyzing such data and provides a novel and unifying approach for hypotheses testing. The techniques described in the book are illustrated with examples and the statistical software is provided on the authors’ website.

  15. Resting‐state connectivity of pre‐motor cortex reflects disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Soelberg Sørensen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the relationship between motor resting-state connectivity of the dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and methods A total of 27 patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RR-MS) and 15 patients with secondary...... progressive MS (SP-MS) underwent functional resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Independent component analysis was used to characterize motor resting-state connectivity. Multiple regression analysis was performed in SPM8...... of left PMd showed a positive linear relation with clinical disability in patients with MS. This effect was stronger when considering the group of patients with RR-MS alone, whereas patients with SP-MS showed no increase in coupling strength between left PMd and the motor resting-state network...

  16. Bott periodicity for the topological classification of gapped states of matter with reflection symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunovic, Luka; Brouwer, Piet

    2017-11-01

    Using a dimensional reduction scheme based on scattering theory, we show that the classification tables for topological insulators and superconductors with reflection symmetry can be organized in two period-2 and four period-8 cycles, similar to the Bott periodicity found for topological insulators and superconductors without spatial symmetries. With the help of the dimensional reduction scheme, the classification in arbitrary dimensions d ≥1 can be obtained from the classification in one dimension, for which we present a derivation based on relative homotopy groups and exact sequences to classify one-dimensional insulators and superconductors with reflection symmetry. The resulting classification is fully consistent with a comprehensive classification obtained recently by Shiozaki and Sato [Phys. Rev. B 90, 165114 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.165114]. The use of a scattering-matrix-inspired method allows us to address the second descendant Z2 phase, for which the topological nontrivial phase was previously reported to be vulnerable to perturbations that break translation symmetry.

  17. VNIR reflectance spectroscopy of glassy igneous material with variable oxidation states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Cristian; Di Genova, Danilo; Roush, Ted L.; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    Silicate glasses with igneous compositions may represent an abundant component of planetary surface material via effusive volcanism or impact cratering processes. Several planetary surfaces are mapped with hyper-spectrometers in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR). In this spectral range, crystal field (C.F.) absorptions are useful to discriminate iron-bearing silicate components. At the same time, in the VNIR reflectance spectroscopy iron bearing glasses may exhibit a C.F. absorption at ˜1.1 μm. A weak C.F. absorption is also present at ˜1.9 μm. These absorptions can be therefore diagnostic for glassy component and can also affect the C.F. absorptions of mafic minerals when mixed in the regolith. So far, few studies investigated the spectral properties of systematic glasses compositions and at different oxygen fucacity. For these reasons studying glassy materials, and their optical constants, represents an important effort to document and to interpret, spectral features of Solar System silicate crusts where glasses are present, but may be difficult to map. In previous work Carli et al. (2016) considered the composition of glassy igneous materials produced in Earth-like atmospheric conditions (i.e. oxidized conditions). Here, we expand on that effort by including glasses formed under more reducing condition. In this study, glasses were produced at -9.3 log fO2 and 1400 ˚ C for a duration of 4 h at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Munich using a gas-mixing furnace. The major element composition, sample homogeneity, and the Fe3+/Fetot. ratio of run products were analytically determined. Moreover, Raman spectra of the same samples were also acquired. Afterwards, powders were produced with nine-grain size from 250-224 μm to 50-20 μm and measured in bidirectional reflectance at Spectroscopy LABoratory (IAPS-INAF, Rome). Reflectance spectra were acquired from 0.35 to 2.5 μm with a Field-Pro Spectrometer mounted on a

  18. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  19. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  20. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  1. Extreme learning machine for ranking: generalization analysis and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Peng, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yicong; Li, Luoqing; Pan, Zhibin

    2014-05-01

    The extreme learning machine (ELM) has attracted increasing attention recently with its successful applications in classification and regression. In this paper, we investigate the generalization performance of ELM-based ranking. A new regularized ranking algorithm is proposed based on the combinations of activation functions in ELM. The generalization analysis is established for the ELM-based ranking (ELMRank) in terms of the covering numbers of hypothesis space. Empirical results on the benchmark datasets show the competitive performance of the ELMRank over the state-of-the-art ranking methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synaptic Dynamics and Neuronal Network Connectivity are reflected in the Distribution of Times in Up states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh eDao Duc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of neuronal networks connected by synaptic dynamics can sustain long periods of depolarization that can last for hundreds of milliseconds such as Up states recorded during sleep or anesthesia. Yet the underlying mechanism driving these periods remain unclear. We show here within a mean-field model that the residence times of the neuronal membrane potential in cortical Up states does not follow a Poissonian law, but presents several peaks. Furthermore, the present modeling approach allows extracting some information about the neuronal network connectivity from the time distribution histogram. Based on a synaptic-depression model, we find that these peaks, that can be observed in histograms of patch-clamp recordings are not artifacts of electrophysiological measurements, but rather are an inherent property of the network dynamics. Analysis of the equations reveals a stable focus located close to the unstable limit cycle, delimiting a region that defines the Up state. The model further shows that the peaks observed in the Up state time distribution are due to winding around the focus before escaping from the basin of attraction. Finally, we use in vivo recordings of intracellular membrane potential and we recover from the peak distribution, some information about the network connectivity. We conclude that it is possible to recover the network connectivity from the distribution of times that the neuronal membrane voltage spends in Up states.

  3. UP-DOWN cortical dynamics reflect state transitions in a bistable network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxin, Alex; Barthó, Peter; Luczak, Artur

    2017-01-01

    In the idling brain, neuronal circuits transition between periods of sustained firing (UP state) and quiescence (DOWN state), a pattern the mechanisms of which remain unclear. Here we analyzed spontaneous cortical population activity from anesthetized rats and found that UP and DOWN durations were highly variable and that population rates showed no significant decay during UP periods. We built a network rate model with excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) populations exhibiting a novel bistable regime between a quiescent and an inhibition-stabilized state of arbitrarily low rate. Fluctuations triggered state transitions, while adaptation in E cells paradoxically caused a marginal decay of E-rate but a marked decay of I-rate in UP periods, a prediction that we validated experimentally. A spiking network implementation further predicted that DOWN-to-UP transitions must be caused by synchronous high-amplitude events. Our findings provide evidence of bistable cortical networks that exhibit non-rhythmic state transitions when the brain rests. PMID:28826485

  4. LogDet Rank Minimization with Application to Subspace Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhao; Peng, Chong; Cheng, Jie; Cheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Low-rank matrix is desired in many machine learning and computer vision problems. Most of the recent studies use the nuclear norm as a convex surrogate of the rank operator. However, all singular values are simply added together by the nuclear norm, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practical problems. In this paper, we propose using a log-determinant (LogDet) function as a smooth and closer, though nonconvex, approximation to rank for obtaining a low-rank representation in subspace clustering. Augmented Lagrange multipliers strategy is applied to iteratively optimize the LogDet-based nonconvex objective function on potentially large-scale data. By making use of the angular information of principal directions of the resultant low-rank representation, an affinity graph matrix is constructed for spectral clustering. Experimental results on motion segmentation and face clustering data demonstrate that the proposed method often outperforms state-of-the-art subspace clustering algorithms.

  5. Informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state reflected in prefrontal cortex activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichiro eWatanabe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS.We also observed that the verbal WM task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC activity accompanied by working memory (WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS.

  6. Reflections on the Evolution of Educational Leadership Preparation Programs in the United States and Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this legacy paper is to review leadership preparation over time in the United States and addresses challenges ahead. It is hoped that the US developments will be instructive to an international audience interested in strengthening the preparation of school leaders. Design/methodology/approach: The paper synthesizes research…

  7. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  8. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  9. PageRank tracker: from ranking to tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Fu, Keren; Loza, Artur; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Video object tracking is widely used in many real-world applications, and it has been extensively studied for over two decades. However, tracking robustness is still an issue in most existing methods, due to the difficulties with adaptation to environmental or target changes. In order to improve adaptability, this paper formulates the tracking process as a ranking problem, and the PageRank algorithm, which is a well-known webpage ranking algorithm used by Google, is applied. Labeled and unlabeled samples in tracking application are analogous to query webpages and the webpages to be ranked, respectively. Therefore, determining the target is equivalent to finding the unlabeled sample that is the most associated with existing labeled set. We modify the conventional PageRank algorithm in three aspects for tracking application, including graph construction, PageRank vector acquisition and target filtering. Our simulations with the use of various challenging public-domain video sequences reveal that the proposed PageRank tracker outperforms mean-shift tracker, co-tracker, semiboosting and beyond semiboosting trackers in terms of accuracy, robustness and stability.

  10. The Dilemmas of Museification. Reflections on Two State Initiatives for Building Collective Memory in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Jaramillo Marín

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article goes back to museification as a particular way of construction and legitimation of collective memory. Museification generally refers to political and cultural actions deployed by institutions and civil servants that are aimed at selecting and placing an "object"—whether cultural or natural, as well as individuals or communities— within lines of reasoning and speeches that "petrify" the historical and cultural meanings of these objects. In this paper, we understand museums as institutional places par excellence in which memorial state activities tend to converge. In particular, the article explores two cases in which the museification process can be clearly identified. First, the controversy surrounding the proposal of including the towel of the recognized guerrilla leader Manuel Marulanda Vélez, (Tirjofijo, in the collections of the National Museum of Colombia in early 2001.Secondly, the article explores the case of some indigenous communities located in the country's southern jungles, in which the state lines of reasoning of the territorial control seem to conceive indigenous people and their lands as analogous to "eco-museums". We try to argue how state initiatives on social memory are essentially a field of paradoxes and social struggles. To do this, we rely on a theoretical discussion about memory studies and their relation to specific categories of the museological theory.

  11. CNN-based ranking for biomedical entity normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haodi; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Hua; Wang, Baohua; Huang, Dong

    2017-10-03

    Most state-of-the-art biomedical entity normalization systems, such as rule-based systems, merely rely on morphological information of entity mentions, but rarely consider their semantic information. In this paper, we introduce a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem and benefits from semantic information of biomedical entities. The CNN-based ranking method first generates candidates using handcrafted rules, and then ranks the candidates according to their semantic information modeled by CNN as well as their morphological information. Experiments on two benchmark datasets for biomedical entity normalization show that our proposed CNN-based ranking method outperforms traditional rule-based method with state-of-the-art performance. We propose a CNN architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem. Comparison results show that semantic information is beneficial to biomedical entity normalization and can be well combined with morphological information in our CNN architecture for further improvement.

  12. Further reflections on the "watched" play state and the role of "watched play" in analytic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Susan P

    2004-01-01

    This paper expands upon the concept of "watched play," a play state in which the mother silently but attentively watches her child play. The regulatory presence of the "watching mother" is introjected and internalized through the child's development of mental representations of mother's latently interactive presence, contributing to the development of self-regulatory mechanisms. By contrast, the consequences of failed "watched play" are disorganizing play disruptions which foster ambivalence and affect disregulation. The introjection of the "watching mother" during play contributes to the child's growing capacity to mentalize others' behaviors. Finally, "watched play" is consistent with the paradigm of the passive, albeit attentive analyst in both the adult and child analytic modes.

  13. Universal scaling in sports ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weibing; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu; Bulou, Alain; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2012-09-01

    Ranking is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human society. On the web pages of Forbes, one may find all kinds of rankings, such as the world's most powerful people, the world's richest people, the highest-earning tennis players, and so on and so forth. Herewith, we study a specific kind—sports ranking systems in which players' scores and/or prize money are accrued based on their performances in different matches. By investigating 40 data samples which span 12 different sports, we find that the distributions of scores and/or prize money follow universal power laws, with exponents nearly identical for most sports. In order to understand the origin of this universal scaling we focus on the tennis ranking systems. By checking the data we find that, for any pair of players, the probability that the higher-ranked player tops the lower-ranked opponent is proportional to the rank difference between the pair. Such a dependence can be well fitted to a sigmoidal function. By using this feature, we propose a simple toy model which can simulate the competition of players in different matches. The simulations yield results consistent with the empirical findings. Extensive simulation studies indicate that the model is quite robust with respect to the modifications of some parameters.

  14. Universal scaling in sports ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Weibing; Cai, Xu; Bulou, Alain; Wang, Qiuping A

    2011-01-01

    Ranking is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the human society. By clicking the web pages of Forbes, you may find all kinds of rankings, such as world's most powerful people, world's richest people, top-paid tennis stars, and so on and so forth. Herewith, we study a specific kind, sports ranking systems in which players' scores and prize money are calculated based on their performances in attending various tournaments. A typical example is tennis. It is found that the distributions of both scores and prize money follow universal power laws, with exponents nearly identical for most sports fields. In order to understand the origin of this universal scaling we focus on the tennis ranking systems. By checking the data we find that, for any pair of players, the probability that the higher-ranked player will top the lower-ranked opponent is proportional to the rank difference between the pair. Such a dependence can be well fitted to a sigmoidal function. By using this feature, we propose a simple toy model which can simul...

  15. Breast Cancer Stem Cells Transition between Epithelial and Mesenchymal States Reflective of their Normal Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suling Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs mediate metastasis, are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and contribute to relapse. Although several BCSC markers have been described, it is unclear whether these markers identify the same or independent BCSCs. Here, we show that BCSCs exist in distinct mesenchymal-like (epithelial-mesenchymal transition [EMT] and epithelial-like (mesenchymal-epithelial transition [MET] states. Mesenchymal-like BCSCs characterized as CD24−CD44+ are primarily quiescent and localized at the tumor invasive front, whereas epithelial-like BCSCs express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, are proliferative, and are located more centrally. The gene-expression profiles of mesenchymal-like and epithelial-like BCSCs are remarkably similar across different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and resemble those of distinct basal and luminal stem cells found in the normal breast. We propose that the plasticity of BCSCs that allows them to transition between EMT- and MET-like states endows these cells with the capacity for tissue invasion, dissemination, and growth at metastatic sites.

  16. Econophysics of a ranked demand and supply resource allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Avner; Tamir, Boaz

    2018-01-01

    We present a two sided resource allocation problem, between demands and supplies, where both parties are ranked. For example, in Big Data problems where a set of different computational tasks is divided between a set of computers each with its own resources, or between employees and employers where both parties are ranked, the employees by their fitness and the employers by their package benefits. The allocation process can be viewed as a repeated game where in each iteration the strategy is decided by a meta-rule, based on the ranks of both parties and the results of the previous games. We show the existence of a phase transition between an absorbing state, where all demands are satisfied, and an active one where part of the demands are always left unsatisfied. The phase transition is governed by the ratio between supplies and demand. In a job allocation problem we find positive correlation between the rank of the workers and the rank of the factories; higher rank workers are usually allocated to higher ranked factories. These all suggest global emergent properties stemming from local variables. To demonstrate the global versus local relations, we introduce a local inertial force that increases the rank of employees in proportion to their persistence time in the same factory. We show that such a local force induces non trivial global effects, mostly to benefit the lower ranked employees.

  17. Ecology, Planning, and River Management in the United States: Some Historical Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reuss

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available River ecologists are also river-basin planners. However, their role in planning has developed slowly over the decades since the beginning of the 20th century. Three major factors explain this phenomenon. First, ecologists focused on plant and animal communities rather than on broader policy issues related to land settlement and water development. Second, the federal government, and most state and local governments as well, used mainly economic criteria to justify projects. Intangible benefits, including the value of species or an aesthetically pleasing landscape, drew relatively little attention. Third, the public generally favored development, especially during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Only after World War II did the public's position shift in favor of more preservation, as ecologists developed the concept of the ecosystem, large dam projects forced basin inhabitants from their homes, and chemical and nuclear pollutants threatened the environment. Also, urbanization increased support for the preservation of recreation sites and of streams undisturbed by human intervention. Meanwhile, partly through important advances in geomorphology and hydrology, ecologists acquired new tools to understand the land-water relationship within river basins. Neverthless, benefit-cost analysis continued to dominate federal water-resources planning, and organizational culture and competing or overlapping bureaucracies hampered rational water resources administration. Environmental groups and physical, natural, and even social scientists began to promote alternative ways to develop rivers. Today, the ideas of integrated water resources management, sustainable development, and comprehensive river-basin management dominate much of the thinking about the future course of river planning in the United States. Any future planning must include ecologists who can help their planning colleagues choose from among rational choices that balance ecological and human

  18. State Handbook for Industrial Arts: A Comparison of Content with Judgments of Leaders and an Examination of Trends Reflected in These Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Delton Lee

    The purpose of this study were to: (1) determine the extent to which state industrial arts publications reflect the thinking of contemporary leaders, (2) identify curricular trends in state publications, and (3) provide guidelines for the preparation of state industrial arts handbooks. Data were obtained by a word count documentary analysis of 78…

  19. Pathological Corporate Governance Deficiencies in South Africa's State-Owned Companies: A Critical Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, states use state-owned companies (SOCs or public corporations to provide public goods, limit private and foreign control of the domestic economy, generate public funds for the fiscus, increase service delivery and encourage economic development and industrialisation. Particularly given its unique socio-political and economic dynamics, a country such as South Africa clearly needs this type of strategic enterprise. Yet, that does not mean that everything at our SOCs is as it should be. The beleaguered South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC has recently seen the resignation of board members, shareholder interference in its operational affairs, and a high turnover of chief accounting officers and other executive management members. Due to non-performance, it has also received several cash injections from its shareholder to enable it to continue to deliver its services. In addition, the shareholder minister took it upon herself to amend the SABC's memorandum of incorporation, conferring upon herself the authority to appoint, suspend or even dismiss key executive members. South African Airways (SAA, in turn, has had seven CEOs in less than four years, has had to be bailed out at a cost of R550 million, and has in addition been granted a R5 billion guarantee by the shareholder for a restructuring exercise. Other SOCs such as Eskom, the Post Office and Telkom have also experienced high board and executive management turnover, perennial underperformance necessitating regular bailouts, and challenges regarding the division of power between their boards and the various shareholder ministers. Another issue that seems to plague South Africa's SOCs is the appointment of board members and executive officials with questionable qualifications. By critically examining the corporate governance challenges besetting the SABC, SAA and Eskom in particular, this article seeks to explore the root causes of the corporate governance deficiencies of SOCs

  20. Academic Media Ranking and the Configurations of Values in Higher Education: A Sociotechnical History of a Co-Production in France between the Media, State and Higher Education (1976-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Before the 2000s and the buzz surrounding global rankings, many countries witnessed the emergence and development, starting in the 1970s, of academic media rankings produced primarily by press organisations. This domestic, media-based production, despite the relative lack of attention paid by the social sciences, has been progressively integrated…

  1. Does the Budyko curve reflect a maximum-power state of hydrological systems? A backward analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, M.; Zehe, E.; Archambeau, P.; Dewals, B.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all catchments plot within a small envelope around the Budyko curve. This apparent behaviour suggests that organizing principles may play a role in the evolution of catchments. In this paper we applied the thermodynamic principle of maximum power as the organizing principle. In a top-down approach we derived mathematical formulations of the relation between relative wetness and gradients driving run-off and evaporation for a simple one-box model. We did this in an inverse manner such that, when the conductances are optimized with the maximum-power principle, the steady-state behaviour of the model leads exactly to a point on the asymptotes of the Budyko curve. Subsequently, we added dynamics in forcing and actual evaporation, causing the Budyko curve to deviate from the asymptotes. Despite the simplicity of the model, catchment observations compare reasonably well with the Budyko curves subject to observed dynamics in rainfall and actual evaporation. Thus by constraining the model that has been optimized with the maximum-power principle with the asymptotes of the Budyko curve, we were able to derive more realistic values of the aridity and evaporation index without any parameter calibration. Future work should focus on better representing the boundary conditions of real catchments and eventually adding more complexity to the model.

  2. [Antecedents of and reflections on immigration policy in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez Flores, R

    1994-01-01

    The background and determinants of US migration policy regarding Mexico are analyzed. Examination of migration policy through World War II demonstrates the coexistence of efforts to assure an adequate labor force by stimulating immigration with xenophobic fears and efforts to restrict immigration of specific groups. More recent policy measures--the 1952 McCarran-Walter Act prohibiting work in the US without migration documents, the 1954 "Operation Wetback" program to deport illegal immigrants, and the 1986 Simpson-Rodino law sanctioning employers who hire illegal immigrants--represented juridical and political responses to an essentially economic and social problem. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of the early 1990s largely ignored the difficult issue of illegal immigration, missing an opportunity for bilateral consideration of the problem. In early 1994, the US government increased the budget for border surveillance and initiated other actions to curb illegal immigration. Three states with large undocumented Mexican immigrant populations sued the Federal government for reimbursement of their expenditures, and California's Proposition 187 called for denying educational and medical services to family members of illegal immigrants. US migration policy has always attempted to stop the flow of illegal immigrants. The large numbers still present demonstrate that blockades, deportations, and other measures have been only partially successful.

  3. Human adipose cells in vitro are either refractory or responsive to insulin, reflecting host metabolic state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Lizunov

    Full Text Available While intercellular communication processes are frequently characterized by switch-like transitions, the endocrine system, including the adipose tissue response to insulin, has been characterized by graded responses. Yet here individual cells from adipose tissue biopsies are best described by a switch-like transition between the basal and insulin-stimulated states for the trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Two statistically-defined populations best describe the observed cellular heterogeneity, representing the fractions of refractive and responsive adipose cells. Furthermore, subjects exhibiting high systemic insulin sensitivity indices (SI have high fractions of responsive adipose cells in vitro, while subjects exhibiting decreasing SI have increasing fractions of refractory cells in vitro. Thus, a two-component model best describes the relationship between cellular refractory fraction and subject SI. Since isolated cells exhibit these different response characteristics in the presence of constant culture conditions and milieu, we suggest that a physiological switching mechanism at the adipose cellular level ultimately drives systemic SI.

  4. PageRank of integers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, K. M.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-10-01

    We up a directed network tracing links from a given integer to its divisors and analyze the properties of the Google matrix of this network. The PageRank vector of this matrix is computed numerically and it is shown that its probability is approximately inversely proportional to the PageRank index thus being similar to the Zipf law and the dependence established for the World Wide Web. The spectrum of the Google matrix of integers is characterized by a large gap and a relatively small number of nonzero eigenvalues. A simple semi-analytical expression for the PageRank of integers is derived that allows us to find this vector for matrices of billion size. This network provides a new PageRank order of integers.

  5. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  6. Determination of glucose concentration in tissue-like material using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Pär; Thennadil, Suresh N.

    2008-02-01

    An important parameter in medical diagnostic and one of the most frequently determined analyte in the hospitals is blood glucose. Fast and accurate methods of measuring blood glucose concentrations could therefore be significant. We will in this paper investigate the feasibility of using a spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the wavelength region 1000-1700nm, where glucose has two absorption peaks at around 1250nm and 1600nm, to quickly determine the concentration of glucose in tissue-like material. This method could later be transferred to estimate the amount of glucose in blood both in vivo e.g. the forearm and in vitro e.g. on blood samples. The novel spatially resolved system that is used for this study is based around a 2D InGaAs detector and a fibre probe with 10 fibres, one as a source and 9 to collect the diffuse reflected light at distances between 0.3-2.7mm from the source. An inversion method using Monte Carlo generated diffuse reflectance profiles is used to estimate the absolute absorption coefficient (μ a) and reduced scattering coefficient (μ s') which could be used to estimate the glucose concentration in the tissue-like phantoms. The method was investigated by performing spatially resolved measurements on turbid gelatin phantoms containing mixtures of water and D IIO as absorbers, Intralipid as a scatterer and glucose. The phantoms were made with four different glucose concentrations spanning the range of 0-5000 mg/dl.

  7. Reported cholera in the United States, 1992-1994: a reflection of global changes in cholera epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, B E; Mintz, E D; Greene, K D; Wells, J G; Tauxe, R V

    To describe US cholera surveillance data from 1992 to 1994 and the domestic impact of the epidemics of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Latin America and V cholerae O139 in Asia. Retrospective review of surveillance data from all cases of cholera reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1994, in the United States and its territories. Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory surveillance data. From 1992 through 1994, 160 cases of cholera were reported to CDC by 20 states and 1 territory. This is a marked increase: only 136 cases were reported from 1965 through 1991. Outbreaks affecting 75 passengers on an airplane from Latin America and 5 passengers on a cruise ship in Southeast Asia accounted for 50 percent of cases. Vibrio cholerae O139 caused 6 cases (4 percent). The proportion of V cholerae O1 isolates resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent rose from 3 percent in 1992 to 93 percent in 1994. Of 158 patients whose location of exposure was known, 151 (96 percent) acquired infection abroad (125 in Latin America, 26 in Asia). Of 105 persons whose reason for travel was known, 31 (30 percent) were US residents who had returned to their country of origin to visit family or friends, and 65 (62 percent) were non-US residents visiting the United States from cholera-affected countries. The cholera rate among persons arriving in the United States from cholera-affected regions was 0.27 case per 100000 air travelers, not substantially increased from earlier estimates. Cholera has increased in the United States since 1991, reflecting global changes in cholera epidemiology, and is now primarily travel associated and antimicrobial resistant. Most travelers were not traditional tourists; reaching them with prevention measures may be difficult. The risk of cholera to the individual traveler remains extremely low.

  8. Band gap and defect states of MgO thin films investigated using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Heo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The band gap and defect states of MgO thin films were investigated by using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS and high-energy resolution REELS (HR-REELS. HR-REELS with a primary electron energy of 0.3 keV revealed that the surface F center (FS energy was located at approximately 4.2 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM and the surface band gap width (EgS was approximately 6.3 eV. The bulk F center (FB energy was located approximately 4.9 eV above the VBM and the bulk band gap width was about 7.8 eV, when measured by REELS with 3 keV primary electrons. From a first-principles calculation, we confirmed that the 4.2 eV and 4.9 eV peaks were FS and FB, induced by oxygen vacancies. We also experimentally demonstrated that the HR-REELS peak height increases with increasing number of oxygen vacancies. Finally, we calculated the secondary electron emission yields (γ for various noble gases. He and Ne were not influenced by the defect states owing to their higher ionization energies, but Ar, Kr, and Xe exhibited a stronger dependence on the defect states owing to their small ionization energies.

  9. RANK and RANK ligand expression in primary human osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Branstetter

    2015-09-01

    Our results demonstrate RANKL expression was observed in the tumor element in 68% of human OS using IHC. However, the staining intensity was relatively low and only 37% (29/79 of samples exhibited≥10% RANKL positive tumor cells. RANK expression was not observed in OS tumor cells. In contrast, RANK expression was clearly observed in other cells within OS samples, including the myeloid osteoclast precursor compartment, osteoclasts and in giant osteoclast cells. The intensity and frequency of RANKL and RANK staining in OS samples were substantially less than that observed in GCTB samples. The observation that RANKL is expressed in OS cells themselves suggests that these tumors may mediate an osteoclastic response, and anti-RANKL therapy may potentially be protective against bone pathologies in OS. However, the absence of RANK expression in primary human OS cells suggests that any autocrine RANKL/RANK signaling in human OS tumor cells is not operative, and anti-RANKL therapy would not directly affect the tumor.

  10. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Reflection has moved from the margins to the mainstream in supervision. Notions of reflection have become well established since the late 1980s. These notions have provided useful framing devices to help conceptualize some important processes in guidance and counseling. However, some applications...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...

  11. Ranking structures and Rank-Rank Correlations of Countries. The FIFA and UEFA cases

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2014-01-01

    Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures, in both cases.

  12. Ranking structures and rank-rank correlations of countries: The FIFA and UEFA cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Cloots, Rudi; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2014-04-01

    Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures in both cases.

  13. Health ranking of the largest US counties using the Community Health Status Indicators peer strata and database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarek, Norma; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Stanley, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Using the structure of the Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) report, we embarked on analysis of population health data with the aim to validate the CHSI modules as overarching themes and to rank county health within peer strata. Ranking was conducted for the largest (>100 000), nonfrontier counties (county aggregates) (N = 508) in the United States for many aspects of population health. Factor analysis was used to assess CHSI modularity and analyses of variance confirmed peer strata homogeneity. Ten factors were identified. They were life stage, injury, cancer, adult behaviors, preventive services, environment-food, and health care access. Because they did not contribute to a factor, 4 CHSI summary health measures (all-cause mortality, average life expectancy, health status, and unhealthy days) were also ranked. No single factor emerged as reflecting overall county health. Further summary of county health will be challenging. We present the ranks for CHSI peer strata #1, local jurisdictions of 1 million or greater population. County factor content and data availability may differ when counties of smaller size are considered. Ranking may be utilized by community leaders for community health assessment and local priority setting, and ultimately incorporated into CHSI Web-based reports.

  14. University Ranking Systems; Criteria and Critiques

    OpenAIRE

    Saka, Yavuz; YAMAN, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore international university ranking systems. As a compilation study this paper provides specific criteria that each ranking system uses and main critiques regarding these ranking systems. Since there are many ranking systems in this area of research, this study focused on only most cited and referred ranking systems. As there is no consensus in terms of the criteria that these systems use, this paper has no intention of identifying the best ranking system ...

  15. Parameter ranking of stock market dynamics: a comparative study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our parameter ranking or sensitivity analysis permits us to make realistic conclusions about the relative importance of individual parameters. Our approach also permits us to gain some useful insights into the ability of the model to reflect what is obtainable within the stock markets. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, competition ...

  16. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Ranking species in mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2015-02-02

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm--similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity--here we propose a method which--by exploiting their nested architecture--allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.

  18. University rankings in computer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehret, Philip; Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Gipp, Bela

    2017-01-01

    This is a research-in-progress paper concerning two types of institutional rankings, the Leiden and QS World ranking, and their relationship to a list of universities’ ‘geo-based’ impact scores, and Computing Research and Education Conference (CORE) participation scores in the field of computer...... science. A ‘geo-based’ impact measure examines the geographical distribution of incoming citations to a particular university’s journal articles for a specific period of time. It takes into account both the number of citations and the geographical variability in these citations. The CORE participation...... score is calculated on the basis of the number of weighted proceedings papers that a university has contributed to either an A*, A, B, or C conference as ranked by the Computing Research and Education Association of Australasia. In addition to calculating the correlations between the distinct university...

  19. International infant mortality rankings: A look behind the numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Korbin; Moon, Marilyn; Sulvetta, Margaret; Chawla, Juhi

    1992-01-01

    The very unfavorable infant mortality ranking of the United States in international comparisons is often used to question the quality of health care there. Infant mortality rates, however, implicitly capture a complicated story, measuring much more than differences in health care across countries. This article examines reasons behind international infant mortality rate rankings, including variations in the measurement of vital events, and differences in risk factors across countries. Its goal...

  20. Rank distributions: Frequency vs. magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationship between two different types of ranked data, frequencies and magnitudes. We consider data that can be sorted out either way, through numbers of occurrences or size of the measures, as it is the case, say, of moon craters, earthquakes, billionaires, etc. We indicate that these two types of distributions are functional inverses of each other, and specify this link, first in terms of the assumed parent probability distribution that generates the data samples, and then in terms of an analog (deterministic) nonlinear iterated map that reproduces them. For the particular case of hyperbolic decay with rank the distributions are identical, that is, the classical Zipf plot, a pure power law. But their difference is largest when one displays logarithmic decay and its counterpart shows the inverse exponential decay, as it is the case of Benford law, or viceversa. For all intermediate decay rates generic differences appear not only between the power-law exponents for the midway rank decline but also for small and large rank. We extend the theoretical framework to include thermodynamic and statistical-mechanical concepts, such as entropies and configuration.

  1. Rankings Methodology Hurts Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Werf, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In the 1980s, when the "U.S. News & World Report" rankings of colleges were based solely on reputation, the nation's public universities were well represented at the top. However, as soon as the magazine began including its "measures of excellence," statistics intended to define quality, public universities nearly disappeared from the top. As the…

  2. Let Us Rank Journalism Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unlike law, business, and medical schools, as well as universities in general, journalism schools and journalism programs have rarely been ranked. Publishers such as "U.S. News & World Report," "Forbes," "Bloomberg Businessweek," and "Washington Monthly" do not pay them much mind. What is the best…

  3. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  4. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. The Globalization of College and University Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, accountability, and benchmarking, university rankings have achieved a kind of iconic status. The major ones--the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU, or the "Shanghai rankings"), the QS (Quacquarelli Symonds Limited) World University Rankings, and the "Times Higher Education" World…

  6. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  7. Respiration-to-DNA ratio reflects physiological state of microorganisms in root-free and rhizosphere soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, E.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) content in soil can serve as a measure of microbial biomass under near steady-state conditions and quantitatively reflect the exponential microbial growth initiated by substrate addition. The yield of respired CO2 per microbial biomass unit (expressed as DNA content) could be a valuable physiological indicator reflecting state of soil microbial community. Therefore, investigations combining both analyses of DNA content and respiration of soil microorganisms under steady-state and during periods of rapid growth are needed. We studied the relationship between CO2 evolution and microbial dsDNA content in native and glucose-amended samples of root-free and rhizosphere soil under Beta vulgaris (Cambisol, loamy sand from the field experiment of the Institute of Agroecology FAL, Braunschweig, Germany). Quantity of dsDNA was determined by direct DNA isolation from soil with mechanic and enzymatic disruption of microbial cell walls with following spectrofluorimetric detection with PicoGreen (Blagodatskaya et al., 2003). Microbial biomass and the kinetic parameters of microbial growth were estimated by dynamics of the CO2 emission from soil amended with glucose and nutrients (Blagodatsky et al., 2000). The CO2 production rate was measured hourly at 22оС using an automated infrared-gas analyzer system. The overall increase in microbial biomass, DNA content, maximal specific growth rate and therefore, in the fraction of microorganisms with r-strategy were observed in rhizosphere as compared to bulk soil. The rhizosphere effect for microbial respiration, biomass and specific growth rate was more pronounced for plots with half-rate of N fertilizer compared to full N addition. The DNA content was significantly lower in bulk compared to rhizosphere soil both before and during microbial growth initiated by glucose amendment. Addition of glucose to the soil strongly increased the amount of CO2 respired per DNA unit. Without substrate addition the

  8. Time evolution of Wikipedia network ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Frahm, Klaus M.; Benczúr, András; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-12-01

    We study the time evolution of ranking and spectral properties of the Google matrix of English Wikipedia hyperlink network during years 2003-2011. The statistical properties of ranking of Wikipedia articles via PageRank and CheiRank probabilities, as well as the matrix spectrum, are shown to be stabilized for 2007-2011. A special emphasis is done on ranking of Wikipedia personalities and universities. We show that PageRank selection is dominated by politicians while 2DRank, which combines PageRank and CheiRank, gives more accent on personalities of arts. The Wikipedia PageRank of universities recovers 80% of top universities of Shanghai ranking during the considered time period.

  9. Fuzzy Multicriteria Ranking of Aluminium Coating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with multicriteria ranking of aluminium coating methods. The alternatives used are: sulfuric acid anodization, A1; oxalic acid anodization, A2; chromic acid anodization, A3; phosphoric acid anodization, A4; integral color anodizing, A5; chemical conversion coating, A6; electrostatic powder deposition, A7. The criteria used are: cost of production, f1; environmental friendliness of production process, f2; appearance (texture), f3; reflectivity, f4; response to coloring, f5; corrosion resistance, f6; abrasion resistance, f7; fatigue resistance, f8. Five experts coming from relevant industrial units set grades to the criteria vector and the preference matrix according to a properly modified Delphi method. Sensitivity analysis of the ranked first alternative A1 against the `second best', which was A3 at low and A7 at high resolution levels proved that the solution is robust. The dependence of anodized products quality on upstream processes is presented and the impact of energy price increase on industrial cost is discussed.

  10. Student Practices, Learning, and Attitudes When Using Computerized Ranking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin M.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Ranking Tasks are a novel type of conceptual exercise based on a technique called rule assessment. Ranking Tasks present students with a series of four to eight icons that describe slightly different variations of a basic physical situation. Students are then asked to identify the order, or ranking, of the various situations based on some physical outcome or result. The structure of Ranking Tasks makes it difficult for students to rely strictly on memorized answers and mechanical substitution of formulae. In addition, by changing the presentation of the different scenarios (e.g., photographs, line diagrams, graphs, tables, etc.) we find that Ranking Tasks require students to develop mental schema that are more flexible and robust. Ranking tasks may be implemented on the computer which requires students to order the icons through drag-and-drop. Computer implementation allows the incorporation of background material, grading with feedback, and providing additional similar versions of the task through randomization so that students can build expertise through practice. This poster will summarize the results of a study of student usage of computerized ranking tasks. We will investigate 1) student practices (How do they make use of these tools?), 2) knowledge and skill building (Do student scores improve with iteration and are there diminishing returns?), and 3) student attitudes toward using computerized Ranking Tasks (Do they like using them?). This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  11. UNIVERSITY RANKING IMPROVING TOOLS IN MODERN INFORMATION EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilous

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ranking criteria of national and international levels are the instruments of university ranking increasing. Ratings provide a balanced measure of quality in higher educational institutions. Determining the level of university research influences the position of the university in various rankings. We can separate the main aggregates that are considered when ranking international higher education institutions. The results of university ranking allows the identification of its strengths and weaknesses in order to develop strategies for success and excellence based on the achievements of other universities at the regional, national and international levels. In article, we can see strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of Kherson State University (SWOT-analysis. The main goals of Kherson State University are self-promotion in the media space, raising the prestige of KSU and integration with the world science community, development of an effective technological corridor: «School - University – Labor» market, increasing the number of students, improving the ranking of academic staff in scientometric databases, and gaining international recognition.

  12. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.

  13. The Rank-Ferenczi relationship, as seen from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugrin, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Seen from France, where Rank's "American" work is not well known, the Rank-Ferenczi relationship does not allow to state that the two learned colleagues were the best friends. Rank met Ferenczi in 1908, but their most valuable and fruitful working relationship is limited to the 1922-1924 time period. Their working relationship must be read in light of the unique transference links of each to Freud, and in light of the tormented history of the analytic movement, especially after the First World War. The sensible reader will not forget that after the fast extinction of their short collaboration they continued their own works in their own ways, Otto Rank in Paris and in America and Sándor Ferenczi in Budapest. No more friends, nor enemies, but both, in a different style, brave and creative analysts.

  14. Validating rankings in soccer championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibal Parracho Sant'Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The final ranking of a championship is determined by quality attributes combined with other factors which should be filtered out of any decision on relegation or draft for upper level tournaments. Factors like referees' mistakes and difficulty of certain matches due to its accidental importance to the opponents should have their influence reduced. This work tests approaches to combine classification rules considering the imprecision of the number of points as a measure of quality and of the variables that provide reliable explanation for it. Two home-advantage variables are tested and shown to be apt to enter as explanatory variables. Independence between the criteria is checked against the hypothesis of maximal correlation. The importance of factors and of composition rules is evaluated on the basis of correlation between rank vectors, number of classes and number of clubs in tail classes. Data from five years of the Brazilian Soccer Championship are analyzed.

  15. Minkowski metrics in creating universal ranking algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ameljańczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a general procedure for creating the rankings of a set of objects, while the relation of preference based on any ranking function. The analysis was possible to use the ranking functions began by showing the fundamental drawbacks of commonly used functions in the form of a weighted sum. As a special case of the ranking procedure in the space of a relation, the procedure based on the notion of an ideal element and generalized Minkowski distance from the element was proposed. This procedure, presented as universal ranking algorithm, eliminates most of the disadvantages of ranking functions in the form of a weighted sum.[b]Keywords[/b]: ranking functions, preference relation, ranking clusters, categories, ideal point, universal ranking algorithm

  16. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  17. Functional Multiplex PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-10-01

    Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.

  18. The reflective learning continuum: reflecting on reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier, J; Hay, A.; Drago, W

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research which considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This paper describes the use of an instrument which can be used to measure four identified levels of a reflection hierarchy: habitual action, understanding, reflection and intensive reflection and two conditions for reflection: instructor to student interacti...

  19. Publication Anxiety, Quality, and Journal Rankings: Researcher Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Coulthard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Journal ranking systems are increasingly used to measure research performance of academics and universities. A growing number of academic commentators have voiced concerns of possible undesirable outcomes such as increased publication anxiety and an increase in safe and conforming research, but there have been few empirical studies on the possible effects. To address this gap, we surveyed Information Systems (IS academics who published in one of three key IS conferences in 2013, to gather their views of the effects of journal ranking systems. Overall, we found that the concerns in the literature were strongly reflected in the views of those surveyed. Academics believe the system has greatly increased their publication anxiety. While most believed that the quality of published research had improved, researchers believe the ranking systems inhibit innovative, risky research, and encourages safe, conforming, mainstream research.

  20. Implicit Block Diagonal Low-Rank Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xingyu; Guo, Xianglin; Liu, Guangcan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    While current block diagonal constrained subspace clustering methods are performed explicitly on the original data space, in practice it is often more desirable to embed the block diagonal prior into the reproducing kernel Hilbert feature space by kernelization techniques, as the underlying data structure in reality is usually nonlinear. However, it is still unknown how to carry out the embedding and kernelization in the models with block diagonal constraints. In this work, we shall take a step in this direction. First, we establish a novel model termed Implicit Block Diagonal Low-Rank Representation (IBDLR), by incorporating the implicit feature representation and block diagonal prior into the prevalent Low-Rank Representation (LRR) method. Second, mostly important, we show that the model in IBDLR could be kernelized by making use of a smoothed dual representation and the specifics of a proximal gradient based optimization algorithm. Finally, we provide some theoretical analyses for the convergence of our optimization algorithm. Comprehensive experiments on synthetic and realworld datasets demonstrate the superiorities of our IBDLR over state-of-the-art methods.While current block diagonal constrained subspace clustering methods are performed explicitly on the original data space, in practice it is often more desirable to embed the block diagonal prior into the reproducing kernel Hilbert feature space by kernelization techniques, as the underlying data structure in reality is usually nonlinear. However, it is still unknown how to carry out the embedding and kernelization in the models with block diagonal constraints. In this work, we shall take a step in this direction. First, we establish a novel model termed Implicit Block Diagonal Low-Rank Representation (IBDLR), by incorporating the implicit feature representation and block diagonal prior into the prevalent Low-Rank Representation (LRR) method. Second, mostly important, we show that the model in IBDLR could be

  1. Image Registration based on Low Rank Matrix: Rank-Regularized SSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Aboozar; Fatemizadeh, Emad

    2017-08-25

    Similarity measure is a main core of image registration algorithms. Spatially varying intensity distortion is an important challenge which affects the performance of similarity measures. Correlation among pixels is the main characteristic of this distortion. Similarity measures such as sum-of-squareddifferences (SSD) and mutual information (MI) ignore this correlation; Hence, perfect registration cannot be achieved in the presence of this distortion. In this paper, we model this correlation with the aid of the low rank matrix theory. Based on this model, we compensate this distortion analytically and introduce Rank-Regularized SSD (RRSSD). This new similarity measure is a modified SSD based on singular values of difference image in mono-modal imaging. In fact, image registration and distortion correction are performed simultaneously in the proposed model. Based on our experiments, the RRSSD similarity measure achieves clinically acceptable registration results, and outperforms other state-of-the-art similarity measures such as the well-known method of residual complexity.

  2. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  3. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Liu

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1 First Author, (2 Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3 Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or

  4. A computer-aided diagnosis system of nuclear cataract via ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Huiqi; Chan, Kap Luk; Lim, Joo Hwee; Liu, Jiang; Wong, Tien Yin

    2009-01-01

    A novel computer-aided diagnosis system of nuclear cataract via ranking is firstly proposed in this paper. The grade of nuclear cataract in a slit-lamp image is predicted based on its neighboring labeled images in a ranked images list, which is achieved using an optimal ranking function. A new ranking evaluation measure is proposed for learning the optimal ranking function via direct optimization. Our system has been tested by a large dataset composed of 1000 slit-lamp images from 1000 different cases. Both experimental results and comparison with several state-of-the-art methods indicate the superiority of our system.

  5. LogDet Rank Minimization with Application to Subspace Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-rank matrix is desired in many machine learning and computer vision problems. Most of the recent studies use the nuclear norm as a convex surrogate of the rank operator. However, all singular values are simply added together by the nuclear norm, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practical problems. In this paper, we propose using a log-determinant (LogDet function as a smooth and closer, though nonconvex, approximation to rank for obtaining a low-rank representation in subspace clustering. Augmented Lagrange multipliers strategy is applied to iteratively optimize the LogDet-based nonconvex objective function on potentially large-scale data. By making use of the angular information of principal directions of the resultant low-rank representation, an affinity graph matrix is constructed for spectral clustering. Experimental results on motion segmentation and face clustering data demonstrate that the proposed method often outperforms state-of-the-art subspace clustering algorithms.

  6. Using Power-Law Degree Distribution to Accelerate PageRank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyan Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The PageRank vector of a network is very important, for it can reflect the importance of a Web page in the World Wide Web, or of a people in a social network. However, with the growth of the World Wide Web and social networks, it needs more and more time to compute the PageRank vector of a network. In many real-world applications, the degree and PageRank distributions of these complex networks conform to the Power-Law distribution. This paper utilizes the degree distribution of a network to initialize its PageRank vector, and presents a Power-Law degree distribution accelerating algorithm of PageRank computation. Experiments on four real-world datasets show that the proposed algorithm converges more quickly than the original PageRank algorithm.

  7. Rank hypocrisies the insult of the REF

    CERN Document Server

    Sayer, Derek

    2015-01-01

    "The REF is right out of Havel's and Kundera's Eastern Europe: a state-administered exercise to rank academic research like hotel chains dependent on the active collaboration of the UK professoriate. In crystalline text steeped in cold rage, Sayer takes aim at the REF's central claim, that it is a legitimate process of expert peer review. He critiques university and national-level REF processes against actual practices of scholarly review as found in academic journals, university presses, and North American tenure procedures. His analysis is damning. If the REF fails as scholarly review, how can academics and universities continue to participate? And how can government use its rankings as a basis for public policy?" - Tarak Barkawi, Reader in the Department of International Relations, London School of Economics "Many academics across the world have come to see the REF as an arrogant attempt to raise national research standards that has resulted in a variety of self-inflicted wounds to UK higher education. Der...

  8. The Privilege of Ranking: Google Plays Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of ranking systems used in various settings, including college football and academic admissions, focuses on the Google search engine. Explains the PageRank mathematical formula that scores Web pages by connecting the number of links; limitations, including authenticity and accuracy of ranked Web pages; relevancy; adjusting algorithms;…

  9. Methodology, Meaning and Usefulness of Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ross

    2008-01-01

    University rankings are having a profound effect on both higher education systems and individual universities. In this paper we outline these effects, discuss the desirable characteristics of a good ranking methodology and document existing practice, with an emphasis on the two main international rankings (Shanghai Jiao Tong and THES-QS). We take…

  10. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  11. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novack, Steven David; Marshall, Frances Mc Clellan; Stromberg, Howard Merion; Grant, Gary Michael

    1999-06-01

    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEELs lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  12. Measurement of reflectance of coal macerals: its automation and significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.

    1978-06-01

    A prime objective of the Pennsylvania State University's DOE program is the characterization of 1,300 samples of U.S. coals. Reflectance determination plays a major role in meeting this objective, because it is used as an accurate rank index both to select coals for testing and to investigate property-behavior interrelationships using the Penn State/DOE Coal Data Base. Reflectances of coal macerals are related to their refractive and absorptive indices by the Beer equation; the refractive index of the medium and the wavelength of light need to be specified. Determinations usually are made in immersion oil at 546 nm. Properties of vitrinite make it the most suitable maceral for these measurements, but the variety of vitrinite selected may depend upon the intended application. Vitrinite reflectance is considered to be dependent upon the degree of aromatization of its structural units. Although some of the earlier investigators believed that the reflectance of coals increased in a discontinuous, stepped manner as their rank increased, the bulk of assembled data suggests that the change is continuous. Some recent results indicate that there may be more than one coalification track for coals with different geological histories, resulting in displacement from the general trend. Several techniques have been employed to determine the optical properties of coal constituents. Usual comparative method involves the use of a microscope photometer to compare the intensity of light reflected by particles within a polished pellet of coal to that of a glass or synthetic mineral standard. Because coal is anisotropic it is common to measure either maximum reflectance in polarized light or random reflectance in non-polarized light. Various eqipment modifications and accessories have been used to improve the ease of measuring maximum reflectance.

  13. Complete hazard ranking to analyze right-censored data: An ALS survival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengnan; Zhang, Hongjiu; Boss, Jonathan; Goutman, Stephen A; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Dinov, Ivo D; Guan, Yuanfang

    2017-12-01

    Survival analysis represents an important outcome measure in clinical research and clinical trials; further, survival ranking may offer additional advantages in clinical trials. In this study, we developed GuanRank, a non-parametric ranking-based technique to transform patients' survival data into a linear space of hazard ranks. The transformation enables the utilization of machine learning base-learners including Gaussian process regression, Lasso, and random forest on survival data. The method was submitted to the DREAM Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Stratification Challenge. Ranked first place, the model gave more accurate ranking predictions on the PRO-ACT ALS dataset in comparison to Cox proportional hazard model. By utilizing right-censored data in its training process, the method demonstrated its state-of-the-art predictive power in ALS survival ranking. Its feature selection identified multiple important factors, some of which conflicts with previous studies.

  14. Complete hazard ranking to analyze right-censored data: An ALS survival study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengnan Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis represents an important outcome measure in clinical research and clinical trials; further, survival ranking may offer additional advantages in clinical trials. In this study, we developed GuanRank, a non-parametric ranking-based technique to transform patients' survival data into a linear space of hazard ranks. The transformation enables the utilization of machine learning base-learners including Gaussian process regression, Lasso, and random forest on survival data. The method was submitted to the DREAM Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS Stratification Challenge. Ranked first place, the model gave more accurate ranking predictions on the PRO-ACT ALS dataset in comparison to Cox proportional hazard model. By utilizing right-censored data in its training process, the method demonstrated its state-of-the-art predictive power in ALS survival ranking. Its feature selection identified multiple important factors, some of which conflicts with previous studies.

  15. Low-Rank Sparse Coding for Image Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a low-rank sparse coding (LRSC) method that exploits local structure information among features in an image for the purpose of image-level classification. LRSC represents densely sampled SIFT descriptors, in a spatial neighborhood, collectively as low-rank, sparse linear combinations of code words. As such, it casts the feature coding problem as a low-rank matrix learning problem, which is different from previous methods that encode features independently. This LRSC has a number of attractive properties. (1) It encourages sparsity in feature codes, locality in codebook construction, and low-rankness for spatial consistency. (2) LRSC encodes local features jointly by considering their low-rank structure information, and is computationally attractive. We evaluate the LRSC by comparing its performance on a set of challenging benchmarks with that of 7 popular coding and other state-of-the-art methods. Our experiments show that by representing local features jointly, LRSC not only outperforms the state-of-the-art in classification accuracy but also improves the time complexity of methods that use a similar sparse linear representation model for feature coding.

  16. Petrographic and Vitrinite Reflectance Analyses of a Suite of High Volatile Bituminous Coal Samples from the United States and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents vitrinite reflectance and detailed organic composition data for nine high volatile bituminous coal samples. These samples were selected to provide a single, internally consistent set of reflectance and composition analyses to facilitate the study of linkages among coal composition, bitumen generation during thermal maturation, and geochemical characteristics of generated hydrocarbons. Understanding these linkages is important for addressing several issues, including: the role of coal as a source rock within a petroleum system, the potential for conversion of coal resources to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and the interactions between coal and carbon dioxide during enhanced coalbed methane recovery and(or) carbon dioxide sequestration in coal beds.

  17. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    a contribution to the discussions about the role of reflection in design work and in learning situations at large. By engaging with the dialogic reflection, which is one of the four essential types of reflection, (the three others being descriptive writing, descriptive reflection and critical reflection...

  18. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  19. Evaluating journalism through popular culture : HBO’s The Newsroom and public reflections on the state of the news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Chris

    2015-01-01

    While HBO’s The Newsroom presents itself as fictional television, its narrative is driven by critiquing American cable news culture and contemporary journalism ethics. This article analyses popular reflections on the programme to identify what these discourses reveal about public evaluations of the

  20. Self-Help v State Intervention: The 1850 Public Libraries Act as a Reflection of Mid-Victorian Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charing, Sarah

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the passage in the United Kingdom of the Public Libraries Act of 1850 and its reflections of social and political attitudes prevalent at the time, particularly laissez-faire and utilitarianism. Individualism, national education, and middle class concern for the poor are discussed. (60 references) (LRW)

  1. Evaluating journalism through popular culture : HBO's The Newsroom and public reflections on the state of the news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Chris

    While HBO's The Newsroom presents itself as fictional television, its narrative is driven by critiquing American cable news culture and contemporary journalism ethics. This article analyses popular reflections on the programme to identify what these discourses reveal about public evaluations of the

  2. Reflection Spectra of the Black Hole Binary Candidate MAXI J1535-571 in the Hard State Observed by NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanjun; Harrison, Fiona A.; García, Javier A.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fürst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Miller, Jon M.; Parker, Michael L.; Tomsick, John A.; Walton, Dominic J.

    2018-01-01

    We report on a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the recently discovered bright black hole candidate MAXI J1535-571. NuSTAR observed the source on MJD 58003 (five days after the outburst was reported). The spectrum is characteristic of a black hole binary in the hard state. We observe clear disk reflection features, including a broad Fe Kα line and a Compton hump peaking around 30 keV. Detailed spectral modeling reveals a narrow Fe Kα line complex centered around 6.5 keV on top of the strong relativistically broadened Fe Kα line. The narrow component is consistent with distant reflection from moderately ionized material. The spectral continuum is well described by a combination of cool thermal disk photons and a Comptonized plasma with the electron temperature {{kT}}{{e}}=19.7+/- 0.4 keV. An adequate fit can be achieved for the disk reflection features with a self-consistent relativistic reflection model that assumes a lamp-post geometry for the coronal illuminating source. The spectral fitting measures a black hole spin a> 0.84, inner disk radius {R}{in}confidence), indicating no significant disk truncation and a compact corona. Although the distance and mass of this source are not currently known, this suggests the source was likely in the brighter phases of the hard state during this NuSTAR observation.

  3. Systematic differences in signal emitting and receiving revealed by PageRank analysis of a human protein interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Donglei; Lee, Connie F; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Most protein PageRank studies do not use signal flow direction information in protein interactions because this information was not readily available in large protein databases until recently. Therefore, four questions have yet to be answered: A) What is the general difference between signal emitting and receiving in a protein interactome? B) Which proteins are among the top ranked in directional ranking? C) Are high ranked proteins more evolutionarily conserved than low ranked ones? D) Do proteins with similar ranking tend to have similar subcellular locations? In this study, we address these questions using the forward, reverse, and non-directional PageRank approaches to rank an information-directional network of human proteins and study their evolutionary conservation. The forward ranking gives credit to information receivers, reverse ranking to information emitters, and non-directional ranking mainly to the number of interactions. The protein lists generated by the forward and non-directional rankings are highly correlated, but those by the reverse and non-directional rankings are not. The results suggest that the signal emitting/receiving system is characterized by key-emittings and relatively even receivings in the human protein interactome. Signaling pathway proteins are frequent in top ranked ones. Eight proteins are both informational top emitters and top receivers. Top ranked proteins, except a few species-related novel-function ones, are evolutionarily well conserved. Protein-subunit ranking position reflects subunit function. These results demonstrate the usefulness of different PageRank approaches in characterizing protein networks and provide insights to protein interaction in the cell.

  4. Systematic differences in signal emitting and receiving revealed by PageRank analysis of a human protein interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglei Du

    Full Text Available Most protein PageRank studies do not use signal flow direction information in protein interactions because this information was not readily available in large protein databases until recently. Therefore, four questions have yet to be answered: A What is the general difference between signal emitting and receiving in a protein interactome? B Which proteins are among the top ranked in directional ranking? C Are high ranked proteins more evolutionarily conserved than low ranked ones? D Do proteins with similar ranking tend to have similar subcellular locations? In this study, we address these questions using the forward, reverse, and non-directional PageRank approaches to rank an information-directional network of human proteins and study their evolutionary conservation. The forward ranking gives credit to information receivers, reverse ranking to information emitters, and non-directional ranking mainly to the number of interactions. The protein lists generated by the forward and non-directional rankings are highly correlated, but those by the reverse and non-directional rankings are not. The results suggest that the signal emitting/receiving system is characterized by key-emittings and relatively even receivings in the human protein interactome. Signaling pathway proteins are frequent in top ranked ones. Eight proteins are both informational top emitters and top receivers. Top ranked proteins, except a few species-related novel-function ones, are evolutionarily well conserved. Protein-subunit ranking position reflects subunit function. These results demonstrate the usefulness of different PageRank approaches in characterizing protein networks and provide insights to protein interaction in the cell.

  5. Systematic Differences in Signal Emitting and Receiving Revealed by PageRank Analysis of a Human Protein Interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Most protein PageRank studies do not use signal flow direction information in protein interactions because this information was not readily available in large protein databases until recently. Therefore, four questions have yet to be answered: A) What is the general difference between signal emitting and receiving in a protein interactome? B) Which proteins are among the top ranked in directional ranking? C) Are high ranked proteins more evolutionarily conserved than low ranked ones? D) Do proteins with similar ranking tend to have similar subcellular locations? In this study, we address these questions using the forward, reverse, and non-directional PageRank approaches to rank an information-directional network of human proteins and study their evolutionary conservation. The forward ranking gives credit to information receivers, reverse ranking to information emitters, and non-directional ranking mainly to the number of interactions. The protein lists generated by the forward and non-directional rankings are highly correlated, but those by the reverse and non-directional rankings are not. The results suggest that the signal emitting/receiving system is characterized by key-emittings and relatively even receivings in the human protein interactome. Signaling pathway proteins are frequent in top ranked ones. Eight proteins are both informational top emitters and top receivers. Top ranked proteins, except a few species-related novel-function ones, are evolutionarily well conserved. Protein-subunit ranking position reflects subunit function. These results demonstrate the usefulness of different PageRank approaches in characterizing protein networks and provide insights to protein interaction in the cell. PMID:23028653

  6. The LAILAPS search engine: relevance ranking in life science databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Spies, Karl; Bargsten, Joachim; Haberhauer, Gregor; Klapperstück, Matthias; Leps, Michael; Weinel, Christian; Wünschiers, Röbbe; Weissbach, Mandy; Stein, Jens; Scholz, Uwe

    2010-01-15

    Search engines and retrieval systems are popular tools at a life science desktop. The manual inspection of hundreds of database entries, that reflect a life science concept or fact, is a time intensive daily work. Hereby, not the number of query results matters, but the relevance does. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS search engine for life science databases. The concept is to combine a novel feature model for relevance ranking, a machine learning approach to model user relevance profiles, ranking improvement by user feedback tracking and an intuitive and slim web user interface, that estimates relevance rank by tracking user interactions. Queries are formulated as simple keyword lists and will be expanded by synonyms. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, LAILAPS can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases. With a set of features, extracted from each database hit in combination with user relevance preferences, a neural network predicts user specific relevance scores. Using expert knowledge as training data for a predefined neural network or using users own relevance training sets, a reliable relevance ranking of database hits has been implemented. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS system, the concepts, benchmarks and use cases. LAILAPS is public available for SWISSPROT data at http://lailaps.ipk-gatersleben.de.

  7. Rank Modulation for Translocation Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Farnoud, Farzad; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2012-01-01

    We consider rank modulation codes for flash memories that allow for handling arbitrary charge drop errors. Unlike classical rank modulation codes used for correcting errors that manifest themselves as swaps of two adjacently ranked elements, the proposed \\emph{translocation rank codes} account for more general forms of errors that arise in storage systems. Translocations represent a natural extension of the notion of adjacent transpositions and as such may be analyzed using related concepts in combinatorics and rank modulation coding. Our results include tight bounds on the capacity of translocation rank codes, construction techniques for asymptotically good codes, as well as simple decoding methods for one class of structured codes. As part of our exposition, we also highlight the close connections between the new code family and permutations with short common subsequences, deletion and insertion error-correcting codes for permutations and permutation arrays.

  8. Dynamics of Ranking Processes in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumm, Nicholas; Ghoshal, Gourab; Forró, Zalán; Schich, Maximilian; Bianconi, Ginestra; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-09-01

    The world is addicted to ranking: everything, from the reputation of scientists, journals, and universities to purchasing decisions is driven by measured or perceived differences between them. Here, we analyze empirical data capturing real time ranking in a number of systems, helping to identify the universal characteristics of ranking dynamics. We develop a continuum theory that not only predicts the stability of the ranking process, but shows that a noise-induced phase transition is at the heart of the observed differences in ranking regimes. The key parameters of the continuum theory can be explicitly measured from data, allowing us to predict and experimentally document the existence of three phases that govern ranking stability.

  9. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-06-01

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  10. Ranking in Swiss system chess team tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Csató, László

    2015-01-01

    The paper uses paired comparison-based scoring procedures for ranking the participants of a Swiss system chess team tournament. We present the main challenges of ranking in Swiss system, the features of individual and team competitions as well as the failures of official lexicographical orders. The tournament is represented as a ranking problem, our model is discussed with respect to the properties of the score, generalized row sum and least squares methods. The proposed procedure is illustra...

  11. A universal rank-size law

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    A mere hyperbolic law, like the Zipf's law power function, is often inadequate to describe rank-size relationships. An alternative theoretical distribution is proposed based on theoretical physics arguments starting from the Yule-Simon distribution. A modeling is proposed leading to a universal form. A theoretical suggestion for the "best (or optimal) distribution", is provided through an entropy argument. The ranking of areas through the number of cities in various countries and some sport competition ranking serves for the present illustrations.

  12. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  13. Ranking documents with a thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, R; Bicknell, E

    1989-09-01

    This article reports on exploratory experiments in evaluating and improving a thesaurus through studying its effect on retrieval. A formula called DISTANCE was developed to measure the conceptual distance between queries and documents encoded as sets of thesaurus terms. DISTANCE references MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and assesses the degree of match between a MeSH-encoded query and document. The performance of DISTANCE on MeSH is compared to the performance of people in the assessment of conceptual distance between queries and documents, and is found to simulate with surprising accuracy the human performance. The power of the computer simulation stems both from the tendency of people to rely heavily on broader-than (BT) relations in making decisions about conceptual distance and from the thousands of accurate BT relations in MeSH. One source for discrepancy between the algorithms' measurement of closeness between query and document and people's measurement of closeness between query and document is occasional inconsistency in the BT relations. Our experiments with adding non-BT relations to MeSH showed how these non-BT non-BT relations to MeSH showed how these non-BT relations could improve document ranking, if DISTANCE were also appropriately revised to treat these relations differently from BT relations.

  14. Expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 reflects the state of villus architecture in human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gassler, Nikolaus; Kopitz, Jürgen; Tehrani, Arman

    2004-01-01

    . Screening of antibodies from a hybridoma library led to the identification of an acyl-CoA synthetase 5-specific monoclonal antibody. Protein synthesis, mRNA expression, and the enzyme activity of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 were studied by several methods in human small intestinal tissues with Crohn's disease...... or coeliac disease, respectively. Acyl-CoA synthetase 5 mRNA and protein levels were substantially reduced in injured small intestinal mucosa. Moreover, impaired synthesis of the acyl-CoA synthetase 5 protein was reflected by a decrease in intramucosal enzyme activity. Subtle changes of the acyl...

  15. Resting state low-frequency fluctuations in prefrontal cortex reflect degrees of harm avoidance and novelty seeking: An exploratory NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eNakao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Harm avoidance (HA and novelty seeking (NS are temperament dimensions defined by Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, respectively reflecting a heritable bias for intense response to aversive stimuli or for excitement in response to novel stimuli. High HA is regarded as a risk factor for major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. In contrast, higher NS is linked to increased risk for substance abuse and pathological gambling disorder. A growing body of evidence suggests that patients with these disorders show abnormality in the power of slow oscillations of resting-state brain activity. It is particularly interesting that previous studies have demonstrated that resting state activities in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC are associated with HA or NS scores, although the relation between the power of resting state slow oscillations and these temperament dimensions remains poorly elucidated. This preliminary study investigated the biological bases of these temperament traits by particularly addressing the resting state low-frequency fluctuations in MPFC. Regional hemodynamic changes in channels covering MPFC during 5-min resting states were measured from 22 healthy participants using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. These data were used for correlation analyses. Results show that the power of slow oscillations during resting state around the dorsal part of MPFC is negatively correlated with the HA score. In contrast, NS was positively correlated with the power of resting state slow oscillations around the ventral part of MPFC. These results suggest that the powers of slow oscillation at rest in dorsal or ventral MPFC respectively reflect the degrees of HA and NS. This exploratory study therefore uncovers novel neural bases of HA and NS. We discuss a neural mechanism underlying aversion-related and reward-related processing based on results obtained from this study.

  16. Communities in Large Networks: Identification and Ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying and ranking the members of a community in a very large network with link analysis only, given a set of representatives of the community. We define the concept of a community justified by a formal analysis of a simple model of the evolution of a directed graph. ...... and its immediate surroundings. The members are ranked with a “local” variant of the PageRank algorithm. Results are reported from successful experiments on identifying and ranking Danish Computer Science sites and Danish Chess pages using only a few representatives....

  17. Citation graph based ranking in Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    Marian, Ludmila; Rajman, Martin; Vesely, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Invenio is the web-based integrated digital library system developed at CERN. Within this framework, we present four types of ranking models based on the citation graph that complement the simple approach based on citation counts: time-dependent citation counts, a relevancy ranking which extends the PageRank model, a time-dependent ranking which combines the freshness of citations with PageRank and a ranking that takes into consideration the external citations. We present our analysis and results obtained on two main data sets: Inspire and CERN Document Server. Our main contributions are: (i) a study of the currently available ranking methods based on the citation graph; (ii) the development of new ranking methods that correct some of the identified limitations of the current methods such as treating all citations of equal importance, not taking time into account or considering the citation graph complete; (iii) a detailed study of the key parameters for these ranking methods. (The original publication is ava...

  18. State and Training Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain Networks Reflect Neuronal Mechanisms of Its Antidepressant Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Chih; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pinazo, Daniel; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Borchardt, Viola; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Balaguer, Raúl; Ávila, César; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The topic of investigating how mindfulness meditation training can have antidepressant effects via plastic changes in both resting state and meditation state brain activity is important in the rapidly emerging field of neuroplasticity. In the present study, we used a longitudinal design investigating resting state fMRI both before and after 40 days of meditation training in 13 novices. After training, we compared differences in network connectivity between rest and meditation using common resting state functional connectivity methods. Interregional methods were paired with local measures such as Regional Homogeneity. As expected, significant differences in functional connectivity both between states (rest versus meditation) and between time points (before versus after training) were observed. During meditation, the internal consistency in the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction increased, while the internal consistency of frontal brain regions decreased. A follow-up analysis of regional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex further revealed reduced connectivity with anterior insula during meditation. After meditation training, reduced resting state functional connectivity between the pregenual anterior cingulate and dorsal medical prefrontal cortex was observed. Most importantly, significantly reduced depression/anxiety scores were observed after training. Hence, these findings suggest that mindfulness meditation might be of therapeutic use by inducing plasticity related network changes altering the neuronal basis of affective disorders such as depression.

  19. State and Training Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain Networks Reflect Neuronal Mechanisms of Its Antidepressant Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Chih; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pinazo, Daniel; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Borchardt, Viola; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Balaguer, Raúl; Ávila, César; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The topic of investigating how mindfulness meditation training can have antidepressant effects via plastic changes in both resting state and meditation state brain activity is important in the rapidly emerging field of neuroplasticity. In the present study, we used a longitudinal design investigating resting state fMRI both before and after 40 days of meditation training in 13 novices. After training, we compared differences in network connectivity between rest and meditation using common resting state functional connectivity methods. Interregional methods were paired with local measures such as Regional Homogeneity. As expected, significant differences in functional connectivity both between states (rest versus meditation) and between time points (before versus after training) were observed. During meditation, the internal consistency in the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction increased, while the internal consistency of frontal brain regions decreased. A follow-up analysis of regional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex further revealed reduced connectivity with anterior insula during meditation. After meditation training, reduced resting state functional connectivity between the pregenual anterior cingulate and dorsal medical prefrontal cortex was observed. Most importantly, significantly reduced depression/anxiety scores were observed after training. Hence, these findings suggest that mindfulness meditation might be of therapeutic use by inducing plasticity related network changes altering the neuronal basis of affective disorders such as depression. PMID:26998365

  20. State and Training Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain Networks Reflect Neuronal Mechanisms of Its Antidepressant Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Chih Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of investigating how mindfulness meditation training can have antidepressant effects via plastic changes in both resting state and meditation state brain activity is important in the rapidly emerging field of neuroplasticity. In the present study, we used a longitudinal design investigating resting state fMRI both before and after 40 days of meditation training in 13 novices. After training, we compared differences in network connectivity between rest and meditation using common resting state functional connectivity methods. Interregional methods were paired with local measures such as Regional Homogeneity. As expected, significant differences in functional connectivity both between states (rest versus meditation and between time points (before versus after training were observed. During meditation, the internal consistency in the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction increased, while the internal consistency of frontal brain regions decreased. A follow-up analysis of regional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex further revealed reduced connectivity with anterior insula during meditation. After meditation training, reduced resting state functional connectivity between the pregenual anterior cingulate and dorsal medical prefrontal cortex was observed. Most importantly, significantly reduced depression/anxiety scores were observed after training. Hence, these findings suggest that mindfulness meditation might be of therapeutic use by inducing plasticity related network changes altering the neuronal basis of affective disorders such as depression.

  1. NuSTAR and Swift joint view of neutron star X-ray binary 4U 1728-34: disc reflection in the island and lower banana states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Pahari, Mayukh; Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2017-04-01

    We analyse two simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift data of the Atoll-type neutron star (NS) X-ray binary 4U 1728-34 observed on 2013 October 1 and 3. We infer that the first and the second observations belong to the island state and the lower banana state, respectively. During island state, four type-I X-ray bursts are observed within 60 ks exposure. From the time-resolved spectral analysis of each burst with NuSTAR, the blackbody temperature kTbb are found to vary between 1.3 and 3.0 keV, while the blackbody normalizations (km/10 kpc)2 vary in the range 20-200, which translates to blackbody radii of 3.5-7.4 km for an assumed distance of 5 kpc. The persistent, joint energy spectra from Swift and NuSTAR for both observations in the energy band 1-79 keV are well described with thermal emission from the NS surface (kTbb ≃ 1-2.5 keV), Comptonized emission of thermal seed photons from the hot boundary layer/corona and the strong reflection component from the accretion disc. We detect a broad iron line in the 5-8 keV band and reflection hump in the 15-30 keV band modelled by the relxill reflection model. Joint spectral fitting constrains the inclination angle of the binary system and inner disc radius to be 22°-40° and (2.0-4.3) × RISCO, respectively. We estimate the magnetic field to be (1.8-6.5) × 108 G. The X-ray luminosity of the source during the island and lower banana states are found to be LX = 1.1 and 1.6 × 1037 erg s-1, respectively, which correspond to ˜6 per cent and ˜9 per cent of the Eddington luminosity.

  2. Global cities rankings. A research agenda or a neoliberal urban planning tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándida Gago García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a theoretical reflection about the methodology and meaning given to the global city rankings. There is a very large academic production about the role that some cities have in global territorial processes, which has been related to the concept of global city. Many recent contributions from the mass media, advertising and consulting services must be considered also in the analysis. All of them have included new indicators in order to show the main role that cultural services have acquired in the urban economy. Also the city rankings are being used as a tool in neoliberal policies. These policies stress the position that cities have in the rankings, which are used in practices of city-branding and to justify the neoliberal decisions that are being taken. In fact, we think that rankings are used inappropriately and that it is necessary a deep and new reflection about them.

  3. The influence of occupational rank on organizational commitment of faculty members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of rank on organizational commitment and explores the individual relationships between affective, normative and continuance commitment. The study comprised a sample of 505 academic staff from 28 privately-owned technical institutes in Haryana state, India. Three way ANOVA results reveal that overall organizational commitment increases progressively with rank. Results further show that rank does not have a positive influence on affective, continuance and normative commitment. Female faculty found more committed than their male counterparts. The findings have been thoroughly discussed in terms of the influential role of rank on organizational commitments for faculty members.

  4. Advances in ranking and selection, multiple comparisons, and reliability methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Nagaraja, HN

    2007-01-01

    S. Panchapakesan has made significant contributions to ranking and selection and has published in many other areas of statistics, including order statistics, reliability theory, stochastic inequalities, and inference. Written in his honor, the twenty invited articles in this volume reflect recent advances in these areas and form a tribute to Panchapakesan's influence and impact on these areas. Thematically organized, the chapters cover a broad range of topics from: Inference; Ranking and Selection; Multiple Comparisons and Tests; Agreement Assessment; Reliability; and Biostatistics. Featuring

  5. Ranked Conservation Opportunity Areas for Region 7 (ECO_RES.RANKED_OAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RANKED_OAS are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP that have subsequently been ranked by patch size, landform representation, and the...

  6. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  8. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-10-17

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  9. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2014-10-01

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  10. Entity Ranking using Wikipedia as a Pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about

  11. Entity ranking using Wikipedia as a pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; de Vries, A.; Kamps, J.; Huang, X.J.; Jones, G.; Koudas, N.; Wu, X.; Collins-Thompson, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about these entities. Since

  12. Biplots in Reduced-Rank Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Looman, C.W.N.

    1994-01-01

    Regression problems with a number of related response variables are typically analyzed by separate multiple regressions. This paper shows how these regressions can be visualized jointly in a biplot based on reduced-rank regression. Reduced-rank regression combines multiple regression and principal

  13. Mining Feedback in Ranking and Recommendation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziming

    2009-01-01

    The amount of online information has grown exponentially over the past few decades, and users become more and more dependent on ranking and recommendation systems to address their information seeking needs. The advance in information technologies has enabled users to provide feedback on the utilities of the underlying ranking and recommendation…

  14. Using centrality to rank web snippets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; Peters, C.; Jijkoun, V.; Mandl, T.; Müller, H.; Oard, D.W.; Peñas, A.; Petras, V.; Santos, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our participation in the WebCLEF 2007 task, targeted at snippet retrieval from web data. Our system ranks snippets based on a simple similarity-based centrality, inspired by the web page ranking algorithms. We experimented with retrieval units (sentences and paragraphs) and with the

  15. Generating and ranking of Dyck words

    CERN Document Server

    Kasa, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    A new algorithm to generate all Dyck words is presented, which is used in ranking and unranking Dyck words. We emphasize the importance of using Dyck words in encoding objects related to Catalan numbers. As a consequence of formulas used in the ranking algorithm we can obtain a recursive formula for the nth Catalan number.

  16. State of the Art of Language Learning Design Using Mobile Technology: Sample Apps and Some Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Elena; Read, Timothy; Underwood, Joshua; Obari, Hiroyuki; Cojocnean, Diana; Koyama, Toshiko; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Calle, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Talaván, Noa; Ávila-Cabrera, José; Ibañez, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, María; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Rodríguez, Pilar; Castrillo, María Dolores; Kétyi, Andras; Selwood, Jaime; Gaved, Mark; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, experiences from different research groups illustrate the state-of-the-art of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) in formal and non-formal education. These research samples represent recent and on-going progress made in the field of MALL at an international level and offer encouragement for practitioners who are…

  17. University ranking methodologies. An interview with Ben Sowter about the Quacquarelli Symonds World University Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Baccini; Antono Banfi; Giuseppe De Nicolao; Paola Galimberti

    2015-01-01

    University rankings represent a controversial issue in the debate about higher education policy. One of the best known university ranking is the Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings (QS), published annually since 2004 by Quacquarelli Symonds ltd, a company founded in 1990 and headquartered in London. QS provides a ranking based on a score calculated by weighting six different indicators. The 2015 edition, published in October 2015, introduced major methodological innovations and, as...

  18. Universal emergence of PageRank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahm, K M; Georgeot, B; Shepelyansky, D L, E-mail: frahm@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr, E-mail: georgeot@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr, E-mail: dima@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-18

    The PageRank algorithm enables us to rank the nodes of a network through a specific eigenvector of the Google matrix, using a damping parameter {alpha} Element-Of ]0, 1[. Using extensive numerical simulations of large web networks, with a special accent on British University networks, we determine numerically and analytically the universal features of the PageRank vector at its emergence when {alpha} {yields} 1. The whole network can be divided into a core part and a group of invariant subspaces. For {alpha} {yields} 1, PageRank converges to a universal power-law distribution on the invariant subspaces whose size distribution also follows a universal power law. The convergence of PageRank at {alpha} {yields} 1 is controlled by eigenvalues of the core part of the Google matrix, which are extremely close to unity, leading to large relaxation times as, for example, in spin glasses. (paper)

  19. Comparing classical and quantum PageRanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, T.; Tang, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Small, M.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Following recent developments in quantum PageRanking, we present a comparative analysis of discrete-time and continuous-time quantum-walk-based PageRank algorithms. Relative to classical PageRank and to different extents, the quantum measures better highlight secondary hubs and resolve ranking degeneracy among peripheral nodes for all networks we studied in this paper. For the discrete-time case, we investigated the periodic nature of the walker's probability distribution for a wide range of networks and found that the dominant period does not grow with the size of these networks. Based on this observation, we introduce a new quantum measure using the maximum probabilities of the associated walker during the first couple of periods. This is particularly important, since it leads to a quantum PageRanking scheme that is scalable with respect to network size.

  20. Reliability of journal impact factor rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Darren C

    2007-01-01

    Background Journal impact factors and their ranks are used widely by journals, researchers, and research assessment exercises. Methods Based on citations to journals in research and experimental medicine in 2005, Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the uncertainty associated with these journal performance indicators. Results Intervals representing plausible ranges of values for journal impact factor ranks indicated that most journals cannot be ranked with great precision. Only the top and bottom few journals could place any confidence in their rank position. Intervals were wider and overlapping for most journals. Conclusion Decisions placed on journal impact factors are potentially misleading where the uncertainty associated with the measure is ignored. This article proposes that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of journal impact factors and their ranks, and specifically that a measure of uncertainty should be routinely presented alongside the point estimate. PMID:18005435

  1. Reliability of journal impact factor rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Darren C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal impact factors and their ranks are used widely by journals, researchers, and research assessment exercises. Methods Based on citations to journals in research and experimental medicine in 2005, Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the uncertainty associated with these journal performance indicators. Results Intervals representing plausible ranges of values for journal impact factor ranks indicated that most journals cannot be ranked with great precision. Only the top and bottom few journals could place any confidence in their rank position. Intervals were wider and overlapping for most journals. Conclusion Decisions placed on journal impact factors are potentially misleading where the uncertainty associated with the measure is ignored. This article proposes that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of journal impact factors and their ranks, and specifically that a measure of uncertainty should be routinely presented alongside the point estimate.

  2. Cointegration rank testing under conditional heteroskedasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders Christian; Taylor, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    (martingale difference) innovations. We first demonstrate that the limiting null distributions of the rank statistics coincide with those derived by previous authors who assume either independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) or (strict and covariance) stationary martingale difference innovations. We...... then propose wild bootstrap implementations of the cointegrating rank tests and demonstrate that the associated bootstrap rank statistics replicate the first-order asymptotic null distributions of the rank statistics. We show that the same is also true of the corresponding rank tests based on the i.......i.d. bootstrap of Swensen (2006, Econometrica 74, 1699-1714). The wild bootstrap, however, has the important property that, unlike the i.i.d. bootstrap, it preserves in the resampled data the pattern of heteroskedasticity present in the original shocks. Consistent with this, numerical evidence suggests that...

  3. PageRank and rank-reversal dependence on the damping factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.-W.; Christensen, C.; Grassberger, P.; Paczuski, M.

    2012-12-01

    PageRank (PR) is an algorithm originally developed by Google to evaluate the importance of web pages. Considering how deeply rooted Google's PR algorithm is to gathering relevant information or to the success of modern businesses, the question of rank stability and choice of the damping factor (a parameter in the algorithm) is clearly important. We investigate PR as a function of the damping factor d on a network obtained from a domain of the World Wide Web, finding that rank reversal happens frequently over a broad range of PR (and of d). We use three different correlation measures, Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, to study rank reversal as d changes, and we show that the correlation of PR vectors drops rapidly as d changes from its frequently cited value, d0=0.85. Rank reversal is also observed by measuring the Spearman and Kendall rank correlation, which evaluate relative ranks rather than absolute PR. Rank reversal happens not only in directed networks containing rank sinks but also in a single strongly connected component, which by definition does not contain any sinks. We relate rank reversals to rank pockets and bottlenecks in the directed network structure. For the network studied, the relative rank is more stable by our measures around d=0.65 than at d=d0.

  4. PageRank and rank-reversal dependence on the damping factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S-W; Christensen, C; Grassberger, P; Paczuski, M

    2012-12-01

    PageRank (PR) is an algorithm originally developed by Google to evaluate the importance of web pages. Considering how deeply rooted Google's PR algorithm is to gathering relevant information or to the success of modern businesses, the question of rank stability and choice of the damping factor (a parameter in the algorithm) is clearly important. We investigate PR as a function of the damping factor d on a network obtained from a domain of the World Wide Web, finding that rank reversal happens frequently over a broad range of PR (and of d). We use three different correlation measures, Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, to study rank reversal as d changes, and we show that the correlation of PR vectors drops rapidly as d changes from its frequently cited value, d_{0}=0.85. Rank reversal is also observed by measuring the Spearman and Kendall rank correlation, which evaluate relative ranks rather than absolute PR. Rank reversal happens not only in directed networks containing rank sinks but also in a single strongly connected component, which by definition does not contain any sinks. We relate rank reversals to rank pockets and bottlenecks in the directed network structure. For the network studied, the relative rank is more stable by our measures around d=0.65 than at d=d_{0}.

  5. A tilting approach to ranking influence

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-12-01

    We suggest a new approach, which is applicable for general statistics computed from random samples of univariate or vector-valued or functional data, to assessing the influence that individual data have on the value of a statistic, and to ranking the data in terms of that influence. Our method is based on, first, perturbing the value of the statistic by ‘tilting’, or reweighting, each data value, where the total amount of tilt is constrained to be the least possible, subject to achieving a given small perturbation of the statistic, and, then, taking the ranking of the influence of data values to be that which corresponds to ranking the changes in data weights. It is shown, both theoretically and numerically, that this ranking does not depend on the size of the perturbation, provided that the perturbation is sufficiently small. That simple result leads directly to an elegant geometric interpretation of the ranks; they are the ranks of the lengths of projections of the weights onto a ‘line’ determined by the first empirical principal component function in a generalized measure of covariance. To illustrate the generality of the method we introduce and explore it in the case of functional data, where (for example) it leads to generalized boxplots. The method has the advantage of providing an interpretable ranking that depends on the statistic under consideration. For example, the ranking of data, in terms of their influence on the value of a statistic, is different for a measure of location and for a measure of scale. This is as it should be; a ranking of data in terms of their influence should depend on the manner in which the data are used. Additionally, the ranking recognizes, rather than ignores, sign, and in particular can identify left- and right-hand ‘tails’ of the distribution of a random function or vector.

  6. Modeling the reflection of Photosynthetically active radiation in a monodominant floodable forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State using multivariate statistics and neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONE F.A. CURADO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study of radiation entrance and exit dynamics and energy consumption in a system is important for understanding the environmental processes that rule the biosphere-atmosphere interactions of all ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of the interaction of energy in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR in the Pantanal, a Brazilian wetland forest, by studying the variation of PAR reflectance and its interaction with local rainfall. The study site is located in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, where the vegetation is a monodominant forest of Vochysia divergens Phol. The results showed a high correlation between the reflection of visible radiation and rainfall; however, the behavior was not the same at the three heights studied. An analysis of the hourly variation of the reflected waves also showed the seasonality of these phenomena in relation to the dry and rainy seasons. A predictive model for PAR was developed with a neural network that has a hidden layer, and it showed a determination coefficient of 0.938. This model showed that the Julian day and time of measurements had an inverse association with the wind profile and a direct association with the relative humidity profile.

  7. Modeling the reflection of Photosynthetically active radiation in a monodominant floodable forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State using multivariate statistics and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, Leone F A; Musis, Carlo R DE; Cunha, Cristiano R DA; Rodrigues, Thiago R; Pereira, Vinicius M R; Nogueira, José S; Sanches, Luciana

    2016-09-01

    The study of radiation entrance and exit dynamics and energy consumption in a system is important for understanding the environmental processes that rule the biosphere-atmosphere interactions of all ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of the interaction of energy in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Pantanal, a Brazilian wetland forest, by studying the variation of PAR reflectance and its interaction with local rainfall. The study site is located in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, where the vegetation is a monodominant forest of Vochysia divergens Phol. The results showed a high correlation between the reflection of visible radiation and rainfall; however, the behavior was not the same at the three heights studied. An analysis of the hourly variation of the reflected waves also showed the seasonality of these phenomena in relation to the dry and rainy seasons. A predictive model for PAR was developed with a neural network that has a hidden layer, and it showed a determination coefficient of 0.938. This model showed that the Julian day and time of measurements had an inverse association with the wind profile and a direct association with the relative humidity profile.

  8. Compression in the Superintendent Ranks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saron, Bradford G.; Birchbauer, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    Sadly, the fiscal condition of school systems now not only is troublesome, but in some cases has surpassed all expectations for the worst-case scenario. Among the states, one common response is to drop funding for public education to inadequate levels, leading to permanent program cuts, school closures, staff layoffs, district dissolutions and…

  9. University ranking methodologies. An interview with Ben Sowter about the Quacquarelli Symonds World University Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Baccini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available University rankings represent a controversial issue in the debate about higher education policy. One of the best known university ranking is the Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings (QS, published annually since 2004 by Quacquarelli Symonds ltd, a company founded in 1990 and headquartered in London. QS provides a ranking based on a score calculated by weighting six different indicators. The 2015 edition, published in October 2015, introduced major methodological innovations and, as a consequence, many universities worldwide underwent major changes of their scores and ranks. Ben Sowter, head of division of intelligence unit of Quacquarelli Symonds, responds to 15 questions about the new QS methodology.

  10. On a common generalization of Shelah's 2-rank, dp-rank, and o-minimal dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Guingona, Vincent; Hill, Cameron Donnay

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we build a dimension theory related to Shelah's 2-rank, dp-rank, and o-minimal dimension. We call this dimension op-dimension. We exhibit the notion of the n-multi-order property, generalizing the order property, and use this to create op-rank, which generalizes 2-rank. From this we build op-dimension. We show that op-dimension bounds dp-rank, that op-dimension is sub-additive, and op-dimension generalizes o-minimal dimension in o-minimal theories.

  11. Academic rankings: an approach to rank portuguese universities Rankings académicos: un abordaje para clasificar las universidades portuguesas Rankings acadêmicos: uma abordagem ao ranking das universidades portuguesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bernardino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The academic rankings are a controversial subject in higher education. However, despite all the criticism, academic rankings are here to stay and more and more different stakeholders use rankings to obtain information about the institutions' performance. The two most well-known rankings, The Times and the Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings have different methodologies. The Times ranking is based on peer review, whereas the Shanghai ranking has only quantitative indicators and is mainly based on research outputs. In Germany, the CHE ranking uses a different methodology from the traditional rankings, allowing the users to choose criteria and weights. The Portuguese higher education institutions are performing below their European peers, and the Government believes that an academic ranking could improve both performance and competitiveness between institutions. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the advantages and problems of academic rankings and provide guidance to a new Portuguese ranking.Los rankings académicos son un tema muy contradictorio en la enseñanza superior. Todavía, además de todas las críticas los rankings están para quedarse entre nosotros. Y cada vez más, diferentes stakeholders utilizan los rankings para obtener información sobre el desempeño de las instituciones. Dos de los rankings más conocidos, el The Times y el ranking de la universidad de Shangai Jiao Tong tienen métodos distintos. El The Times se basa en la opinión de expertos mientras el ranking de la universidad de Shangai presenta solamente indicadores cuantitativos y mayoritariamente basados en los resultados de actividades de investigación. En Alemania el ranking CHE usa un método distinto permitiendo al utilizador elegir los criterios y su importancia. Las instituciones de enseñanza superior portuguesas tienen un desempeño abajo de las europeas y el gobierno cree que un ranking académico podría contribuir para mejorar su desempeño y

  12. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf

    2015-03-23

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective: The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods: We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results: There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions: ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  13. Ranking adverse drug reactions with crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Altman, Russ B

    2015-03-23

    There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  14. Chemical state analysis of trace-level alkali metals sorbed in micaceous oxide by total reflection X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Y., E-mail: baba.yuji@jaea.go.jp; Shimoyama, I.; Hirao, N.

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Total-reflection XPS for Na, Rb, and Cs on micaceous oxide were measured. • Detection limit of 100 pg cm{sup −2} was achieved in Cs, corresponding to 200 Bq of {sup 137}Cs (t{sub 1/2} = 30.2 y). • Cs sorbed in micaceous oxides is found ionically bonded with oxygen atoms. - Abstract: In order to determine the chemical states of radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs or {sup 134}Cs) sorbed in clay minerals, chemical states of cesium as well as the other alkali metals (sodium and rubidium) sorbed in micaceous oxides have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Since the number of atoms in radioactive cesium is extremely small, we specially focused on chemical states of trace-level alkali metals. For this purpose, we have measured XPS under X-ray total reflection (TR) condition. For cesium, it was shown that ultra-trace amount of cesium down to about 100 pg cm{sup −2} can be detected by TR-XPS. This amount corresponds to about 200 Bq of {sup 137}Cs (t{sub 1/2} = 30.2 y). It was demonstrated that ultra-trace amount of cesium corresponding to radioactive cesium level can be measured by TR-XPS. As to the chemical states, it was found that core-level binding energy in TR-XPS for trace-level cesium shifted to lower-energy side compared with that for thicker layer. A reverse tendency is observed in sodium. Based on charge transfer within a simple point-charge model, it is concluded that chemical bond between alkali metal and micaceous oxide for ultra-thin layer is more polarized that for thick layer.

  15. Leveraging Multiactions to Improve Medical Personalized Ranking for Collaborative Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Guo, Guibing; Li, Runzhi; Wang, Zongmin

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, providing high-quality recommendation services to users is an essential component in web applications, including shopping, making friends, and healthcare. This can be regarded either as a problem of estimating users' preference by exploiting explicit feedbacks (numerical ratings), or as a problem of collaborative ranking with implicit feedback (e.g., purchases, views, and clicks). Previous works for solving this issue include pointwise regression methods and pairwise ranking methods. The emerging healthcare websites and online medical databases impose a new challenge for medical service recommendation. In this paper, we develop a model, MBPR (Medical Bayesian Personalized Ranking over multiple users' actions), based on the simple observation that users tend to assign higher ranks to some kind of healthcare services that are meanwhile preferred in users' other actions. Experimental results on the real-world datasets demonstrate that MBPR achieves more accurate recommendations than several state-of-the-art methods and shows its generality and scalability via experiments on the datasets from one mobile shopping app.

  16. Leveraging Multiactions to Improve Medical Personalized Ranking for Collaborative Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, providing high-quality recommendation services to users is an essential component in web applications, including shopping, making friends, and healthcare. This can be regarded either as a problem of estimating users’ preference by exploiting explicit feedbacks (numerical ratings, or as a problem of collaborative ranking with implicit feedback (e.g., purchases, views, and clicks. Previous works for solving this issue include pointwise regression methods and pairwise ranking methods. The emerging healthcare websites and online medical databases impose a new challenge for medical service recommendation. In this paper, we develop a model, MBPR (Medical Bayesian Personalized Ranking over multiple users’ actions, based on the simple observation that users tend to assign higher ranks to some kind of healthcare services that are meanwhile preferred in users’ other actions. Experimental results on the real-world datasets demonstrate that MBPR achieves more accurate recommendations than several state-of-the-art methods and shows its generality and scalability via experiments on the datasets from one mobile shopping app.

  17. Low-rank sparse learning for robust visual tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new particle-filter based tracking algorithm that exploits the relationship between particles (candidate targets). By representing particles as sparse linear combinations of dictionary templates, this algorithm capitalizes on the inherent low-rank structure of particle representations that are learned jointly. As such, it casts the tracking problem as a low-rank matrix learning problem. This low-rank sparse tracker (LRST) has a number of attractive properties. (1) Since LRST adaptively updates dictionary templates, it can handle significant changes in appearance due to variations in illumination, pose, scale, etc. (2) The linear representation in LRST explicitly incorporates background templates in the dictionary and a sparse error term, which enables LRST to address the tracking drift problem and to be robust against occlusion respectively. (3) LRST is computationally attractive, since the low-rank learning problem can be efficiently solved as a sequence of closed form update operations, which yield a time complexity that is linear in the number of particles and the template size. We evaluate the performance of LRST by applying it to a set of challenging video sequences and comparing it to 6 popular tracking methods. Our experiments show that by representing particles jointly, LRST not only outperforms the state-of-the-art in tracking accuracy but also significantly improves the time complexity of methods that use a similar sparse linear representation model for particles [1]. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Point scoring system to rank traffic calming projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Rahman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The installation of calming measures on a road network is systematically planned way in general to reduce driving speeds, but also reduces the volume of through traffic on local and residential streets. When the demands of traffic calming exceed city resources, there is a need to prioritize or rank them. Asian countries, like Japan, Korea, Bangladesh and etc., do not have a prioritization system to apply in such cases. The objective of this research is to develop a point ranking system to prioritize traffic calming projects. Firstly paired comparison method was employed to obtain residents' opinions about the streets severity and needs of traffic calming treatment. A binary logistic regression model was developed to identify the factors of selecting streets for traffic calming. This model also explored the weight of variables during developing the point ranking system. The weights used in the point ranking system include vehicle speed, pedestrian generation, sidewalk condition and hourly vehicle volume per width (m of street. Results suggest that the severity of street largely depends on the absence of sidewalks, which has a weight of 45%, and high hourly vehicle volume of traffic per width (m of street, which has a weight of 38%. These outcomes are significant to develop the state of traffic safety in Japan and other Asian countries.

  19. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. State and Local Governments: Fiscal Pressures Could Have Implications for Future Delivery of Intergovernmental Programs. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives. GAO-10-899

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    State and local governments work in partnership with the federal government to implement numerous intergovernmental programs. Fiscal pressures for state and local governments may exist when spending is expected to outpace revenues for the long term. GAO (Government Accountability Office) was asked to examine (1) the long-term fiscal pressures…

  1. Ranking Secondary Channels for Restoration Using an Index Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    multicriteria decision analysis to rank the habitat significance of 220 restoration projects (excluding boat ramps and a few other minor categories...video. Therefore, the total number used in this analysis represents all of the side channels identified by state biologists with the exceptions noted...92 channels existed. For their analysis , a secondary channel was defined as “existing” if there were wetted channel areas and volumes 10 ft above

  2. Time-Aware Service Ranking Prediction in the Internet of Things Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuze Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet of things (IoT, building IoT systems with high quality of service (QoS has become an urgent requirement in both academia and industry. During the procedures of building IoT systems, QoS-aware service selection is an important concern, which requires the ranking of a set of functionally similar services according to their QoS values. In reality, however, it is quite expensive and even impractical to evaluate all geographically-dispersed IoT services at a single client to obtain such a ranking. Nevertheless, distributed measurement and ranking aggregation have to deal with the high dynamics of QoS values and the inconsistency of partial rankings. To address these challenges, we propose a time-aware service ranking prediction approach named TSRPred for obtaining the global ranking from the collection of partial rankings. Specifically, a pairwise comparison model is constructed to describe the relationships between different services, where the partial rankings are obtained by time series forecasting on QoS values. The comparisons of IoT services are formulated by random walks, and thus, the global ranking can be obtained by sorting the steady-state probabilities of the underlying Markov chain. Finally, the efficacy of TSRPred is validated by simulation experiments based on large-scale real-world datasets.

  3. Time-Aware Service Ranking Prediction in the Internet of Things Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuze; Huang, Jiwei; Cheng, Bo; He, Shuqing; Chen, Junliang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet of things (IoT), building IoT systems with high quality of service (QoS) has become an urgent requirement in both academia and industry. During the procedures of building IoT systems, QoS-aware service selection is an important concern, which requires the ranking of a set of functionally similar services according to their QoS values. In reality, however, it is quite expensive and even impractical to evaluate all geographically-dispersed IoT services at a single client to obtain such a ranking. Nevertheless, distributed measurement and ranking aggregation have to deal with the high dynamics of QoS values and the inconsistency of partial rankings. To address these challenges, we propose a time-aware service ranking prediction approach named TSRPred for obtaining the global ranking from the collection of partial rankings. Specifically, a pairwise comparison model is constructed to describe the relationships between different services, where the partial rankings are obtained by time series forecasting on QoS values. The comparisons of IoT services are formulated by random walks, and thus, the global ranking can be obtained by sorting the steady-state probabilities of the underlying Markov chain. Finally, the efficacy of TSRPred is validated by simulation experiments based on large-scale real-world datasets. PMID:28448451

  4. Time-Aware Service Ranking Prediction in the Internet of Things Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuze; Huang, Jiwei; Cheng, Bo; He, Shuqing; Chen, Junliang

    2017-04-27

    With the rapid development of the Internet of things (IoT), building IoT systems with high quality of service (QoS) has become an urgent requirement in both academia and industry. During the procedures of building IoT systems, QoS-aware service selection is an important concern, which requires the ranking of a set of functionally similar services according to their QoS values. In reality, however, it is quite expensive and even impractical to evaluate all geographically-dispersed IoT services at a single client to obtain such a ranking. Nevertheless, distributed measurement and ranking aggregation have to deal with the high dynamics of QoS values and the inconsistency of partial rankings. To address these challenges, we propose a time-aware service ranking prediction approach named TSRPred for obtaining the global ranking from the collection of partial rankings. Specifically, a pairwise comparison model is constructed to describe the relationships between different services, where the partial rankings are obtained by time series forecasting on QoS values. The comparisons of IoT services are formulated by random walks, and thus, the global ranking can be obtained by sorting the steady-state probabilities of the underlying Markov chain. Finally, the efficacy of TSRPred is validated by simulation experiments based on large-scale real-world datasets.

  5. Evaluation of treatment effects by ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, U; Kristensen, K

    2008-01-01

    In crop experiments measurements are often made by a judge evaluating the crops' conditions after treatment. In the present paper an analysis is proposed for experiments where plots of crops treated differently are mutually ranked. In the experimental layout the crops are treated on consecutive...... plots usually placed side by side in one or more rows. In the proposed method a judge ranks several neighbouring plots, say three, by ranking them from best to worst. For the next observation the judge moves on by no more than two plots, such that up to two plots will be re-evaluated again...

  6. Warfare and Socio-political hierarchies: reflections on non-State societies of the predynastic Nile Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayubas, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article, anthropologist Robert L. Carneiro reassessed his most debated hypothesis about the emergence of chiefdoms and the State as a result of environmental or social circumscription, theorized for a series of historical contexts including that of the Predynastic Nile Valley. The problem of the origin of the State is beyond our scope, but regarding the emergence of institutionalized leadership and chiefdoms in the Nile Valley, Carneiro’s ideas about warfare as a main factor in the process of social change remain interesting, even when his insistence in circumscription is still debatable. The aim of the present paper is to briefly review the available archaeological evidence of warfare among non-State societies of the Predynastic Nile Valley, and to evaluate its possible relation to the emergence of socio-political hierarchies, in turn refering to and criticizing some of Carneiro’s recent ideas about the issue.En un artículo reciente, Robert L. Carneiro presentó una reconsideración de su muy debatida hipótesis acerca de la emergencia de sociedades de jefatura y del Estado como resultado de un contexto de circunscripción ambiental, teorizada para una serie de situaciones históricas, entre ellas el valle del Nilo predinástico. El problema del origen del Estado excede las posibilidades de este trabajo, pero en lo que respecta al surgimiento de jefaturas, consideramos que las ideas de Carneiro acerca de la guerra como factor de importancia en el proceso revisten cierto interés, aun cuando su insistencia en la circunscripción continúa siendo discutible. El objetivo del presente artículo es considerar la evidencia arqueológica de guerra disponible para las sociedades no estatales del valle del Nilo predinástico y evaluar la posible relación entre dichos testimonios y la emergencia de jerarquías sociopolíticas, refiriendo y criticando algunas de las ideas recientes de Carneiro sobre el problema.

  7. Improving the environmental quality component of the County Health Rankings model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendryx, Michael; Ahern, Melissa M; Zullig, Keith J

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association between environmental quality measures and health outcomes by using the County Health Rankings data, and tested whether a revised environmental quality measure for 1 state...

  8. Constrained low-rank gamut completion for robust illumination estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianshen; Yuan, Jiazheng; Liu, Hongzhe

    2017-02-01

    Illumination estimation is an important component of color constancy and automatic white balancing. According to recent survey and evaluation work, the supervised methods with a learning phase are competitive for illumination estimation. However, the robustness and performance of any supervised algorithm suffer from an incomplete gamut in training image sets because of limited reflectance surfaces in a scene. In order to address this problem, we present a constrained low-rank gamut completion algorithm, which can replenish gamut from limited surfaces in an image, for robust illumination estimation. In the proposed algorithm, we first discuss why the gamut completion is actually a low-rank matrix completion problem. Then a constrained low-rank matrix completion framework is proposed by adding illumination similarities among the training images as an additional constraint. An optimization algorithm is also given out by extending the augmented Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the completed gamut based on the proposed algorithm is fed into the support vector regression (SVR)-based illumination estimation method to evaluate the effect of gamut completion. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world image sets show that the proposed gamut completion model not only can effectively improve the performance of the original SVR method but is also robust to the surface insufficiency in training samples.

  9. Robust Visual Tracking Via Consistent Low-Rank Sparse Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-06-19

    Object tracking is the process of determining the states of a target in consecutive video frames based on properties of motion and appearance consistency. In this paper, we propose a consistent low-rank sparse tracker (CLRST) that builds upon the particle filter framework for tracking. By exploiting temporal consistency, the proposed CLRST algorithm adaptively prunes and selects candidate particles. By using linear sparse combinations of dictionary templates, the proposed method learns the sparse representations of image regions corresponding to candidate particles jointly by exploiting the underlying low-rank constraints. In addition, the proposed CLRST algorithm is computationally attractive since temporal consistency property helps prune particles and the low-rank minimization problem for learning joint sparse representations can be efficiently solved by a sequence of closed form update operations. We evaluate the proposed CLRST algorithm against 14 state-of-the-art tracking methods on a set of 25 challenging image sequences. Experimental results show that the CLRST algorithm performs favorably against state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  10. Discriminant Context Information Analysis for Post-Ranking Person Re-Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge; Martinel, Niki; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Existing approaches for person re-identification are mainly based on creating distinctive representations or on learning optimal metrics. The achieved results are then provided in the form of a list of ranked matching persons. It often happens that the true match is not ranked first but it is in the first positions. This is mostly due to the visual ambiguities shared between the true match and other "similar" persons. At the current state, there is a lack of a study of such visual ambiguities which limit the re-identification performance within the first ranks. We believe that an analysis of the similar appearances of the first ranks can be helpful in detecting, hence removing, such visual ambiguities. We propose to achieve such a goal by introducing an unsupervised post-ranking framework. Once the initial ranking is available, content and context sets are extracted. Then, these are exploited to remove the visual ambiguities and to obtain the discriminant feature space which is finally exploited to compute the new ranking. An in-depth analysis of the performance achieved on three public benchmark data sets support our believes. For every data set, the proposed method remarkably improves the first ranks results and outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches.

  11. Block models and personalized PageRank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kloumann, Isabel M; Ugander, Johan; Kleinberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    ...? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate in the space of "landing probabilities" of a random walk...

  12. Who's bigger? where historical figures really rank

    CERN Document Server

    Skiena, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Is Hitler bigger than Napoleon? Washington bigger than Lincoln? Picasso bigger than Einstein? Quantitative analysts are rapidly finding homes in social and cultural domains, from finance to politics. What about history? In this fascinating book, Steve Skiena and Charles Ward bring quantitative analysis to bear on ranking and comparing historical reputations. They evaluate each person by aggregating the traces of millions of opinions, just as Google ranks webpages. The book includes a technical discussion for readers interested in the details of the methods, but no mathematical or computational background is necessary to understand the rankings or conclusions. Along the way, the authors present the rankings of more than one thousand of history's most significant people in science, politics, entertainment, and all areas of human endeavor. Anyone interested in history or biography can see where their favorite figures place in the grand scheme of things.

  13. Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy

    1976-01-01

    Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.

  14. Superfund Hazard Ranking System Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) training course is a four and ½ day, intermediate-level course designed for personnel who are required to compile, draft, and review preliminary assessments (PAs), site inspections (SIs), and HRS documentation records/packag

  15. A cognitive model for aggregating people's rankings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Michael D; Steyvers, Mark; Miller, Brent

    2014-01-01

    .... Applications of the model to 23 data sets, dealing with general knowledge and prediction tasks, show that the model performs well in producing an aggregate ranking that is often close to the ground...

  16. The Reflection of the Current Crisis on the Economic Growth in the European Union New Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the economic growth evolution in the European Unionnew member states, being part of a more comprehensive research regarding the euro adoptionchallenges, taking as benchmark Slovakia and Slovenia, countries that already entered the euro zone.The research underlines the fact that, starting with the mid-September 2008, the macroeconomiclandscape of the analyzed countries changed radically, registering a decrease of the economicactivities determined both by a diminished export activity and by a reduced internal demand, witheffects on the firms’ profitability and on the deterioration of the labour market situation. The resultsshow that the severity of the financial global crisis effects was different in the analyzed countries, as aresponse to various “paths” of economic development, with less or more important vulnerabilities,with differences in the extent to which the economies are based on external demand and on creditactivity induced from abroad. The countries that are suffering the deepest recessions are those thatregistered not only a decline of exports, but also a collapse of the internal demand, as a result ofstopping the credit activities that were a support for the internal demand.

  17. Preliminary report on seismic-reflection studies of crustal structure in the western, central, and southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, J.C.; Strozier, O.P.; Jackson, W.H.; Healy, J.H.

    1963-01-01

    During 1963 the U.S. Geological Survey, with the assistance of United ElectroDynamics, Inc., recorded five separate reversed seismic profiles. In addition to these profiles, the U.S. Geological Survey participated in a seismic-calibration program for the DRIBBLE experiment at Tatum Dome, Mississippi, a 20,000-pound shot near Dexter, Missouri, and in a cooperative seismic experiment in the Lake Superior region. This work is a continuation of the program started in 1961; however, the emphasis has shifted from a detailed study of the earth's crust in the western United States to a study of crustal structure in various geologic environments including the Wyoming thrust belt, Colorado Plateau, Central Lowlands, the Gulf Coastal Plain, and the southern part of the Canadian Shield. The U.S. Geological Survey has now completed reversed seismic-refraction profiles in nine different geologic provinces. These data present a promising indication that it may be possible to predict the crustal structure in unexplored areas by considering the regional geologic and physiographic environment. The following Pn velocities have been determined: 8.2 km/sec in the Wyoming thrust belt, 7.9 km/sec in the Colorado Plateau, 8.1 km/sec in the Central Lowlands, and about 8.2 km/sec in the Gulf Coastal Plain. The data from the Lake Superior region have not yet been interpreted.

  18. Focus group reflections on the current and future state of cognitive assessment tools in geriatric health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Jocelyne C; Gambino, Sara A; Richter, Jeffrey D; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2015-01-01

    This study provides insight into the thoughts and opinions of geriatric health-care professionals toward cognitive assessments and the use of emerging technologies, such as eye-tracking, to supplement current tools. Two focus group sessions were conducted with nurses and physicians who routinely administer neurocognitive assessments to geriatric populations. Video recordings of the focus group sessions were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed. Participants reported the need for assessment and diagnostic tools that are accessible and efficient, and that are capable of accommodating the rapid growth in the aging population. The prevalence of more complex ailments experienced by older adults has had repercussions in the quality of care that the clients receive, and has contributed to lengthy wait times and resource shortages. Health-care professionals stated that they are hampered by the disjointed structure of the health-care system and that they would benefit from a more efficient allocation of responsibilities made possible through tools that did not require extensive training or certification. Eyetracking-based cognitive assessments were thought to strongly complement this system, yet it was thought that difficulty would be faced in gaining the support and increased uptake by health-care professionals due to the nonintuitive relationship between eyetracking and cognition. The findings suggest that health-care professionals are receptive to the use of eyetracking technology to assess for cognitive health as it would conserve resources by allowing frontline staff to administer assessments with minimal training.

  19. Reflections on attitudes, experiences, and vulnerability of intimate partner violence among Southeast Asian college women living in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Buseh, Aaron; Arunothong, Wachiraporn

    2015-12-01

    To provide culturally sensitive intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs for ethnic groups, a basic foundational understanding of Southeast Asian (SEA) women living in the United States is vital. The purpose of this study was to describe SEA college women's perceptions of IPV and how the women recognize their vulnerability to such violent situations. Qualitative methods using focus group discussions were employed to elicit participants' perceptions. Participants included 18 SEA college women, ages 18-34 (Mean=22; SD=7.22). Transcriptions were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged: recognition of IPV; perception of individual vulnerability to IPV; experience and responses to IPV; help seeking and support system; and strategies used for prevention of IPV. Findings yielded an understanding of intertwined issues of cultural norms associated with IPV, social and economic disparities, and challenges for IPV prevention in SEA communities. Culturally sensitive prevention programs will be more effective by reforming cultural values, while at the same time promoting non-violent relationships and increasing access to services. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Block models and personalized PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloumann, Isabel M; Ugander, Johan; Kleinberg, Jon

    2017-01-03

    Methods for ranking the importance of nodes in a network have a rich history in machine learning and across domains that analyze structured data. Recent work has evaluated these methods through the "seed set expansion problem": given a subset [Formula: see text] of nodes from a community of interest in an underlying graph, can we reliably identify the rest of the community? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate in the space of "landing probabilities" of a random walk rooted at the seed set, ranking nodes according to weighted sums of landing probabilities of different length walks. Both schemes, however, lack an a priori relationship to the seed set objective. In this work, we develop a principled framework for evaluating ranking methods by studying seed set expansion applied to the stochastic block model. We derive the optimal gradient for separating the landing probabilities of two classes in a stochastic block model and find, surprisingly, that under reasonable assumptions the gradient is asymptotically equivalent to personalized PageRank for a specific choice of the PageRank parameter [Formula: see text] that depends on the block model parameters. This connection provides a formal motivation for the success of personalized PageRank in seed set expansion and node ranking generally. We use this connection to propose more advanced techniques incorporating higher moments of landing probabilities; our advanced methods exhibit greatly improved performance, despite being simple linear classification rules, and are even competitive with belief propagation.

  1. Rank rigidity for CAT(0) cube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Caprace, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sageev, Michah

    2010-01-01

    We prove that any group acting essentially without a fixed point at infinity on an irreducible finite-dimensional CAT(0) cube complex contains a rank one isometry. This implies that the Rank Rigidity Conjecture holds for CAT(0) cube complexes. We derive a number of other consequences for CAT(0) cube complexes, including a purely geometric proof of the Tits Alternative, an existence result for regular elements in (possibly non-uniform) lattices acting on cube complexes, and a characterization ...

  2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS RANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Григорян, Анна Сергеевна; Тигран Георгиевич ГРИГОРЯН; Квасневский, Евгений Анатольевич

    2013-01-01

    The ranking nuclear power plants safety improvement projects is the most important task for ensuring the efficiency of NPP project management office work. Total amount of projects in NPP portfolio may reach more than 400. Features of the nuclear power plants safety improvement projects ranking in NPP portfolio determine the choice of the decision verbal analysis as a method of decision-making, as it allows to quickly compare the number of alternatives that are not available at the time of con...

  3. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...... the relevance and importance of music. The proposed method may support users with diverse needs when searching for music....

  4. Ranking candidate genes in rat models of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståhl Fredrik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rat models are frequently used to find genomic regions that contribute to complex diseases, so called quantitative trait loci (QTLs. In general, the genomic regions found to be associated with a quantitative trait are rather large, covering hundreds of genes. To help selecting appropriate candidate genes from QTLs associated with type 2 diabetes models in rat, we have developed a web tool called Candidate Gene Capture (CGC, specifically adopted for this disorder. Methods CGC combines diabetes-related genomic regions in rat with rat/human homology data, textual descriptions of gene effects and an array of 789 keywords. Each keyword is assigned values that reflect its co-occurrence with 24 different reference terms describing sub-phenotypes of type 2 diabetes (for example "insulin resistance". The genes are then ranked based on the occurrences of keywords in the describing texts. Results CGC includes QTLs from type 2 diabetes models in rat. When comparing gene rankings from CGC based on one sub-phenotype, with manual gene ratings for four QTLs, very similar results were obtained. In total, 24 different sub-phenotypes are available as reference terms in the application and based on differences in gene ranking, they fall into separate clusters. Conclusion The very good agreement between the CGC gene ranking and the manual rating confirms that CGC is as a reliable tool for interpreting textual information. This, together with the possibility to select many different sub-phenotypes, makes CGC a versatile tool for finding candidate genes. CGC is publicly available at http://ratmap.org/CGC.

  5. Hierarchical Rank Aggregation with Applications to Nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Trina; Telesca, Donatello; Rallo, Robert; George, Saji; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2013-06-01

    The development of high throughput screening (HTS) assays in the field of nanotoxicology provide new opportunities for the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). It is often necessary to rank lists of materials based on multiple risk assessment parameters, often aggregated across several measures of toxicity and possibly spanning an array of experimental platforms. Bayesian models coupled with the optimization of loss functions have been shown to provide an effective framework for conducting inference on ranks. In this article we present various loss-function-based ranking approaches for comparing ENM within experiments and toxicity parameters. Additionally, we propose a framework for the aggregation of ranks across different sources of evidence while allowing for differential weighting of this evidence based on its reliability and importance in risk ranking. We apply these methods to high throughput toxicity data on two human cell-lines, exposed to eight different nanomaterials, and measured in relation to four cytotoxicity outcomes. This article has supplementary material online.

  6. The protonation state around TyrD/TyrD(•) in photosystem II is reflected in its biphasic oxidation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöholm, Johannes; Ho, Felix; Ahmadova, Nigar; Brinkert, Katharina; Hammarström, Leif; Mamedov, Fikret; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2017-02-01

    The tyrosine residue D2-Tyr160 (TyrD) in photosystem II (PSII) can be oxidized through charge equilibrium with the oxygen evolving complex in PSII. The kinetics of the electron transfer from TyrD has been followed using time-resolved EPR spectroscopy after triggering the oxidation of pre-reduced TyrD by a short laser flash. After its oxidation TyrD is observed as a neutral radical (TyrD(•)) indicating that the oxidation is coupled to a deprotonation event. The redox state of TyrD was reported to be determined by the two water positions identified in the crystal structure of PSII [Saito et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 7690]. To assess the mechanism of the proton coupled electron transfer of TyrD the oxidation kinetics has been followed in the presence of deuterated buffers, thereby resolving the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of TyrD oxidation at different H/D concentrations. Two kinetic phases of TyrD oxidation - the fast phase (msec-sec time range) and the slow phase (tens of seconds time range) were resolved as was previously reported [Vass and Styring (1991) Biochemistry 30, 830]. In the presence of deuterated buffers the kinetics was significantly slower compared to normal buffers. Furthermore, although the kinetics were faster at both high pH and pD values the observed KIE was found to be similar (~2.4) over the whole pL range investigated. We assign the fast and slow oxidation phases to two populations of PSII centers with different water positions, proximal and distal respectively, and discuss possible deprotonation events in the vicinity of TyrD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Focus group reflections on the current and future state of cognitive assessment tools in geriatric health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead JC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jocelyne C Whitehead,1 Sara A Gambino,1 Jeffrey D Richter,2 Jennifer D Ryan1,3,41Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, 2Independent Human Factors Consultant, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: This study provides insight into the thoughts and opinions of geriatric health-care professionals toward cognitive assessments and the use of emerging technologies, such as eye-tracking, to supplement current tools.Methods: Two focus group sessions were conducted with nurses and physicians who routinely administer neurocognitive assessments to geriatric populations. Video recordings of the focus group sessions were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed.Results: Participants reported the need for assessment and diagnostic tools that are accessible and efficient, and that are capable of accommodating the rapid growth in the aging population. The prevalence of more complex ailments experienced by older adults has had repercussions in the quality of care that the clients receive, and has contributed to lengthy wait times and resource shortages. Health-care professionals stated that they are hampered by the disjointed structure of the health-care system and that they would benefit from a more efficient allocation of responsibilities made possible through tools that did not require extensive training or certification. Eyetracking-based cognitive assessments were thought to strongly complement this system, yet it was thought that difficulty would be faced in gaining the support and increased uptake by health-care professionals due to the nonintuitive relationship between eyetracking and cognition.Conclusion: The findings suggest that health-care professionals are receptive to the use of eyetracking technology to assess for cognitive health as it would conserve resources by allowing frontline staff to administer assessments with minimal training

  8. Is spectral reflectance of the face a reliable biometric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzair, Muhammad; Mahmood, Arif; Shafait, Faisal; Nansen, Christian; Mian, Ajmal

    2015-06-15

    Over a decade ago, Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] performed face recognition using only the spectral reflectance of the face at six points and reported around 95% recognition rate. Since their database is private, no one has been able to replicate these results. Moreover, due to the unavailability of public datasets, there has been no detailed study in the literature on the viability of facial spectral reflectance for person identification. In this study, we introduce a new public database of facial spectral reflectance profiles measured with a high precision spectrometer. For each of the 40 subjects, spectral reflectance was measured at the same six points as Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] in multiple sessions and with time lapse. Furthermore, we sample the facial spectral reflectance from two public hyperspectral face image datasets and analyzed the data using state of the art face classification techniques. The best performing classifier achieved the maximum rank-1 identification rate of 53.8%. We conclude that facial spectral reflectance alone is not a reliable biometric for unconstrained face recognition.

  9. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning...

  10. ARWU vs. Alternative ARWU Ranking: What are the Consequences for Lower Ranked Universities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Maričić

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ARWU ranking has been a source of academic debate since its development in 2003, but the same does not account for the Alternative ARWU ranking. Namely, the Alternative ARWU ranking attempts to reduce the influence of the prestigious indicators Alumni and Award which are based on the number of received Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals by alumni or university staff. However, the consequences of the reduction of the two indicators have not been scrutinized in detail. Therefore, we propose a statistical approach to the comparison of the two rankings and an in-depth analysis of the Alternative ARWU groups. The obtained results, which are based on the official data, can provide new insights into the nature of the Alternative ARWU ranking. The presented approach might initiate further research on the Alternative ARWU ranking and on the impact of university ranking’s list length. JEL Classification: C10, C38, I23

  11. Ranking Fuzzy Numbers with a Distance Method using Circumcenter of Centroids and an Index of Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Phani Bushan Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ranking fuzzy numbers are an important aspect of decision making in a fuzzy environment. Since their inception in 1965, many authors have proposed different methods for ranking fuzzy numbers. However, there is no method which gives a satisfactory result to all situations. Most of the methods proposed so far are nondiscriminating and counterintuitive. This paper proposes a new method for ranking fuzzy numbers based on the Circumcenter of Centroids and uses an index of optimism to reflect the decision maker's optimistic attitude and also an index of modality that represents the neutrality of the decision maker. This method ranks various types of fuzzy numbers which include normal, generalized trapezoidal, and triangular fuzzy numbers along with crisp numbers with the particularity that crisp numbers are to be considered particular cases of fuzzy numbers.

  12. Altered Behavioral and Autonomic Pain Responses in Alzheimer’s Disease Are Associated with Dysfunctional Affective, Self-Reflective and Salience Network Resting-State Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Beach

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While pain behaviors are increased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients compared to healthy seniors (HS across multiple disease stages, autonomic responses are reduced with advancing AD. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying these phenomena, we undertook a controlled cross-sectional study examining behavioral (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia, PAINAD scores and autonomic (heart rate, HR pain responses in 24 HS and 20 AD subjects using acute pressure stimuli. Resting-state fMRI was utilized to investigate how group connectivity differences were related to altered pain responses. Pain behaviors (slope of PAINAD score change and mean PAINAD score were increased in patients vs. controls. Autonomic measures (HR change intercept and mean HR change were reduced in severe vs. mildly affected AD patients. Group functional connectivity differences associated with greater pain behavior reactivity in patients included: connectivity within a temporal limbic network (TLN and between the TLN and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC; between default mode network (DMN subcomponents; between the DMN and ventral salience network (vSN. Reduced HR responses within the AD group were associated with connectivity changes within the DMN and vSN—specifically the precuneus and vmPFC. Discriminant classification indicated HR-related connectivity within the vSN to the vmPFC best distinguished AD severity. Thus, altered behavioral and autonomic pain responses in AD reflects dysfunction of networks and structures subserving affective, self-reflective, salience and autonomic regulation.

  13. Multifeature Extreme Ordinal Ranking Machine for Facial Age Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the state-of-the-art facial age estimation methods are almost originated from solving complicated mathematical optimization problems and thus consume huge quantities of time in the training process. To refrain from such algorithm complexity while maintaining a high estimation accuracy, we propose a multifeature extreme ordinal ranking machine (MFEORM for facial age estimation. Experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed approach can sharply reduce the runtime (even up to nearly one hundred times faster while achieving comparable or better estimation performances than the state-of-the-art approaches. The inner properties of MFEORM are further explored with more advantages.

  14. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  15. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  16. Access, Rank, and Select in Grammar-compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belazzougui, Djamal; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Puglisi, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    S[i,j]), rank c (S,i) (return the number of occurrences of symbol c before position i in S), and select c (S,i) (return the position of the ith occurrence of c in S). Our main result for access is a method that requires \\O(nlogN) bits of space and \\O(logN+m/logσN) time to extract m = j − i + 1...... consecutive symbols from S. Alternatively, we can achieve \\O(logτN+m/logσN) query time using \\O(nτlogτ(N/n)logN) bits of space, matching a lower bound stated by Verbin and Yu for strings where N is polynomially related to n when τ = log ε N. For rank and select we describe data structures of size \\O...

  17. Efficient Top-k Search for PageRank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Nakatsuji, Makoto; Shiokawa, Hiroaki; Mishima, Takeshi; Onizuka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

      In AI communities, many applications utilize PageRank. To obtain high PageRank score nodes, the original approach iteratively computes the PageRank score of each node until convergence from the whole graph...

  18. PageRank as a method to rank biomedical literature by importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Elliot J; Dixon, Louise C

    2015-01-01

    Optimal ranking of literature importance is vital in overcoming article overload. Existing ranking methods are typically based on raw citation counts, giving a sum of 'inbound' links with no consideration of citation importance. PageRank, an algorithm originally developed for ranking webpages at the search engine, Google, could potentially be adapted to bibliometrics to quantify the relative importance weightings of a citation network. This article seeks to validate such an approach on the freely available, PubMed Central open access subset (PMC-OAS) of biomedical literature. On-demand cloud computing infrastructure was used to extract a citation network from over 600,000 full-text PMC-OAS articles. PageRanks and citation counts were calculated for each node in this network. PageRank is highly correlated with citation count (R = 0.905, P PageRank can be trivially computed on commodity cluster hardware and is linearly correlated with citation count. Given its putative benefits in quantifying relative importance, we suggest it may enrich the citation network, thereby overcoming the existing inadequacy of citation counts alone. We thus suggest PageRank as a feasible supplement to, or replacement of, existing bibliometric ranking methods.

  19. RANK/RANK-Ligand/OPG: Ein neuer Therapieansatz in der Osteoporosebehandlung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Erforschung der Kopplungsmechanismen zur Osteoklastogenese, Knochenresorption und Remodellierung eröffnete neue mögliche Therapieansätze in der Behandlung der Osteoporose. Eine Schlüsselrolle beim Knochenabbau spielt der RANK- ("receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF- κB"- Ligand (RANKL. Durch die Bindung von RANKL an den Rezeptor RANK wird die Knochenresorption eingeleitet. OPG (Osteoprotegerin sowie der für den klinischen Gebrauch entwickelte humane monoklonale Antikörper (IgG2 Denosumab blockieren die Bindung von RANK-Ligand an RANK und verhindern den Knochenabbau.

  20. Shall we really say goodbye to first rank symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, A; Voss, M; Lawrie, S M; Mishara, A; Bauer, M; Gallinat, J; Juckel, G; Lang, U; Rapp, M; Falkai, P; Strik, W; Krystal, J; Abi-Dargham, A; Galderisi, S

    2016-09-01

    First rank symptoms (FRS) of schizophrenia have been used for decades for diagnostic purposes. In the new version of the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has abolished any further reference to FRS of schizophrenia and treats them like any other "criterion A" symptom (e.g. any kind of hallucination or delusion) with regard to their diagnostic implication. The ICD-10 is currently under revision and may follow suit. In this review, we discuss central points of criticism that are directed against the continuous use of first rank symptoms (FRS) to diagnose schizophrenia. We describe the specific circumstances in which Schneider articulated his approach to schizophrenia diagnosis and discuss the relevance of his approach today. Further, we discuss anthropological and phenomenological aspects of FRS and highlight the importance of self-disorder (as part of FRS) for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Finally, we will conclude by suggesting that the theory and rationale behind the definition of FRS is still important for psychopathological as well as neurobiological approaches today. Results of a pivotal meta-analysis and other studies show relatively poor sensitivity, yet relatively high specificity for FRS as diagnostic marker for schizophrenia. Several methodological issues impede a systematic assessment of the usefulness of FRS in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. However, there is good evidence that FRS may still be useful to differentiate schizophrenia from somatic causes of psychotic states. This may be particularly important in countries or situations with little access to other diagnostic tests. FRS may thus still represent a useful aid for clinicians in the diagnostic process. In conclusion, we suggest to continue a tradition of careful clinical observation and fine-grained psychopathological assessment, including a focus on symptoms regarding self-disorders, which reflects a key aspect of psychosis. We suggest that the importance of FRS may indeed be

  1. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...... and analyze the security properties of different families of coupling permutations. Finally, we concentrate on the case of reflection block ciphers and, as an illustration, we provide concrete examples of key schedules corresponding to several coupling permutations, which lead to new variants of the block...

  2. Ranking Fuzzy Numbers and Its Application to Products Attributes Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Lazim; Fauzee, Nor Nashrah Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ranking is one of the widely used methods in fuzzy decision making environment. The recent ranking fuzzy numbers proposed by Wang and Li is claimed to be the improved version in ranking. However, the method was never been simplified and tested in real life application. This paper presents a four-step computation of ranking fuzzy numbers and its application in ranking attributes of selected chocolate products. The four steps algorithm was formulated to rank fuzzy numbers and followed by a tes...

  3. RANWAR: rank-based weighted association rule mining from gene expression and methylation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Ranking of association rules is currently an interesting topic in data mining and bioinformatics. The huge number of evolved rules of items (or, genes) by association rule mining (ARM) algorithms makes confusion to the decision maker. In this article, we propose a weighted rule-mining technique (say, RANWAR or rank-based weighted association rule-mining) to rank the rules using two novel rule-interestingness measures, viz., rank-based weighted condensed support (wcs) and weighted condensed confidence (wcc) measures to bypass the problem. These measures are basically depended on the rank of items (genes). Using the rank, we assign weight to each item. RANWAR generates much less number of frequent itemsets than the state-of-the-art association rule mining algorithms. Thus, it saves time of execution of the algorithm. We run RANWAR on gene expression and methylation datasets. The genes of the top rules are biologically validated by Gene Ontologies (GOs) and KEGG pathway analyses. Many top ranked rules extracted from RANWAR that hold poor ranks in traditional Apriori, are highly biologically significant to the related diseases. Finally, the top rules evolved from RANWAR, that are not in Apriori, are reported.

  4. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  5. A network-based dynamical ranking system

    CERN Document Server

    Motegi, Shun

    2012-01-01

    Ranking players or teams in sports is of practical interests. From the viewpoint of networks, a ranking system is equivalent a centrality measure for sports networks, whereby a directed link represents the result of a single game. Previously proposed network-based ranking systems are derived from static networks, i.e., aggregation of the results of games over time. However, the score (i.e., strength) of a player, for example, depends on time. Defeating a renowned player in the peak performance is intuitively more rewarding than defeating the same player in other periods. To account for this factor, we propose a dynamic variant of such a network-based ranking system and apply it to professional men's tennis data. Our ranking system, also interpreted as a centrality measure for directed temporal networks, has two parameters. One parameter represents the exponential decay rate of the past score, and the other parameter controls the effect of indirect wins on the score. We derive a set of linear online update equ...

  6. Global network centrality of university rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weisi; Del Vecchio, Marco; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2017-10-01

    Universities and higher education institutions form an integral part of the national infrastructure and prestige. As academic research benefits increasingly from international exchange and cooperation, many universities have increased investment in improving and enabling their global connectivity. Yet, the relationship of university performance and its global physical connectedness has not been explored in detail. We conduct, to our knowledge, the first large-scale data-driven analysis into whether there is a correlation between university relative ranking performance and its global connectivity via the air transport network. The results show that local access to global hubs (as measured by air transport network betweenness) strongly and positively correlates with the ranking growth (statistical significance in different models ranges between 5% and 1% level). We also found that the local airport's aggregate flight paths (degree) and capacity (weighted degree) has no effect on university ranking, further showing that global connectivity distance is more important than the capacity of flight connections. We also examined the effect of local city economic development as a confounding variable and no effect was observed suggesting that access to global transportation hubs outweighs economic performance as a determinant of university ranking. The impact of this research is that we have determined the importance of the centrality of global connectivity and, hence, established initial evidence for further exploring potential connections between university ranking and regional investment policies on improving global connectivity.

  7. A Cognitive Model for Aggregating People's Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D.; Steyvers, Mark; Miller, Brent

    2014-01-01

    We develop a cognitive modeling approach, motivated by classic theories of knowledge representation and judgment from psychology, for combining people's rankings of items. The model makes simple assumptions about how individual differences in knowledge lead to observed ranking data in behavioral tasks. We implement the cognitive model as a Bayesian graphical model, and use computational sampling to infer an aggregate ranking and measures of the individual expertise. Applications of the model to 23 data sets, dealing with general knowledge and prediction tasks, show that the model performs well in producing an aggregate ranking that is often close to the ground truth and, as in the “wisdom of the crowd” effect, usually performs better than most of individuals. We also present some evidence that the model outperforms the traditional statistical Borda count method, and that the model is able to infer people's relative expertise surprisingly well without knowing the ground truth. We discuss the advantages of the cognitive modeling approach to combining ranking data, and in wisdom of the crowd research generally, as well as highlighting a number of potential directions for future model development. PMID:24816733

  8. A Review of Outcomes of Seven World University Ranking Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi; Neda Zeraatkar

    2012-01-01

    There are many national and international ranking systems rank the universities and higher education institutions of the world, nationally or internationally, based on the same or different criteria...

  9. Ranking schools on external knowledge tests results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Cankar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of external knowledge test results for school ranking and the implicit effect of such ranking. A question of validity is raised and a review of research literature and main known problems are presented. In many western countries publication of school results is a common practice and a similar trend can be observed in Slovenia. Experiences of other countries help to predict positive and negative aspects of such publication. Results of external knowledge tests produce very limited information about school quality—if we use other sources of information our ranking of schools can be very different. Nevertheless, external knowledge tests can yield useful information. If we want to improve quality in schools, we must allow schools to use this information themselves and improve from within. Broad public scrutiny is unnecessary and problematic—it moves the focus of school efforts from real improvement of quality to mere improvement of the school public image.

  10. Resolution of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimises a score function, termed agony. This function penalises the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the resolution of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Ranked Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterise the resolution threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit. PMID:29394278

  11. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  12. Low Rank Approximation Algorithms, Implementation, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Markovsky, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Matrix low-rank approximation is intimately related to data modelling; a problem that arises frequently in many different fields. Low Rank Approximation: Algorithms, Implementation, Applications is a comprehensive exposition of the theory, algorithms, and applications of structured low-rank approximation. Local optimization methods and effective suboptimal convex relaxations for Toeplitz, Hankel, and Sylvester structured problems are presented. A major part of the text is devoted to application of the theory. Applications described include: system and control theory: approximate realization, model reduction, output error, and errors-in-variables identification; signal processing: harmonic retrieval, sum-of-damped exponentials, finite impulse response modeling, and array processing; machine learning: multidimensional scaling and recommender system; computer vision: algebraic curve fitting and fundamental matrix estimation; bioinformatics for microarray data analysis; chemometrics for multivariate calibration; ...

  13. Adaptive distributional extensions to DFR ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Casper; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2016-01-01

    Divergence From Randomness (DFR) ranking models assume that informative terms are distributed in a corpus differently than non-informative terms. Different statistical models (e.g. Poisson, geometric) are used to model the distribution of non-informative terms, producing different DFR models....... An informative term is then detected by measuring the divergence of its distribution from the distribution of non-informative terms. However, there is little empirical evidence that the distributions of non-informative terms used in DFR actually fit current datasets. Practically this risks providing a poor...... separation between informative and non-informative terms, thus compromising the discriminative power of the ranking model. We present a novel extension to DFR, which first detects the best-fitting distribution of non-informative terms in a collection, and then adapts the ranking computation to this best...

  14. Statistical analysis of compressive low rank tomography with random measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anirudh; Guţă, Mădălin

    2017-05-01

    We consider the statistical problem of ‘compressive’ estimation of low rank states (r\\ll d ) with random basis measurements, where r, d are the rank and dimension of the state respectively. We investigate whether for a fixed sample size N, the estimation error associated with a ‘compressive’ measurement setup is ‘close’ to that of the setting where a large number of bases are measured. We generalise and extend previous results, and show that the mean square error (MSE) associated with the Frobenius norm attains the optimal rate rd/N with only O(r log{d}) random basis measurements for all states. An important tool in the analysis is the concentration of the Fisher information matrix (FIM). We demonstrate that although a concentration of the MSE follows from a concentration of the FIM for most states, the FIM fails to concentrate for states with eigenvalues close to zero. We analyse this phenomenon in the case of a single qubit and demonstrate a concentration of the MSE about its optimal despite a lack of concentration of the FIM for states close to the boundary of the Bloch sphere. We also consider the estimation error in terms of a different metric-the quantum infidelity. We show that a concentration in the mean infidelity (MINF) does not exist uniformly over all states, highlighting the importance of loss function choice. Specifically, we show that for states that are nearly pure, the MINF scales as 1/\\sqrt{N} but the constant converges to zero as the number of settings is increased. This demonstrates a lack of ‘compressive’ recovery for nearly pure states in this metric.

  15. Sign rank versus Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, N.; Moran, Sh; Yehudayoff, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work studies the maximum possible sign rank of sign (N × N)-matrices with a given Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension d. For d=1, this maximum is three. For d=2, this maximum is \\widetilde{\\Theta}(N1/2). For d >2, similar but slightly less accurate statements hold. The lower bounds improve on previous ones by Ben-David et al., and the upper bounds are novel. The lower bounds are obtained by probabilistic constructions, using a theorem of Warren in real algebraic topology. The upper bounds are obtained using a result of Welzl about spanning trees with low stabbing number, and using the moment curve. The upper bound technique is also used to: (i) provide estimates on the number of classes of a given Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension, and the number of maximum classes of a given Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension--answering a question of Frankl from 1989, and (ii) design an efficient algorithm that provides an O(N/log(N)) multiplicative approximation for the sign rank. We also observe a general connection between sign rank and spectral gaps which is based on Forster's argument. Consider the adjacency (N × N)-matrix of a Δ-regular graph with a second eigenvalue of absolute value λ and Δ ≤ N/2. We show that the sign rank of the signed version of this matrix is at least Δ/λ. We use this connection to prove the existence of a maximum class C\\subseteq\\{+/- 1\\}^N with Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension 2 and sign rank \\widetilde{\\Theta}(N1/2). This answers a question of Ben-David et al. regarding the sign rank of large Vapnik-Chervonenkis classes. We also describe limitations of this approach, in the spirit of the Alon-Boppana theorem. We further describe connections to communication complexity, geometry, learning theory, and combinatorics. Bibliography: 69 titles.

  16. Pulling Rank: A Plan to Help Students with College Choice in an Age of Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Lloyd

    2008-01-01

    Colleges and universities are "ranksteering"--driving under the influence of popular college rankings systems like "U.S. News and World Report's" Best Colleges. This article examines the criticisms of college rankings and describes how a group of education leaders is honing a plan to end the tyranny of the ratings game and better help students and…

  17. When sparse coding meets ranking: a joint framework for learning sparse codes and ranking scores

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2017-06-28

    Sparse coding, which represents a data point as a sparse reconstruction code with regard to a dictionary, has been a popular data representation method. Meanwhile, in database retrieval problems, learning the ranking scores from data points plays an important role. Up to now, these two problems have always been considered separately, assuming that data coding and ranking are two independent and irrelevant problems. However, is there any internal relationship between sparse coding and ranking score learning? If yes, how to explore and make use of this internal relationship? In this paper, we try to answer these questions by developing the first joint sparse coding and ranking score learning algorithm. To explore the local distribution in the sparse code space, and also to bridge coding and ranking problems, we assume that in the neighborhood of each data point, the ranking scores can be approximated from the corresponding sparse codes by a local linear function. By considering the local approximation error of ranking scores, the reconstruction error and sparsity of sparse coding, and the query information provided by the user, we construct a unified objective function for learning of sparse codes, the dictionary and ranking scores. We further develop an iterative algorithm to solve this optimization problem.

  18. Ranking Entities in Networks via Lefschetz Duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of communication it is essential that agents are able to exchange information. This fact is closely related to the study of connected spaces in topology. A communication network may be modelled as a topological space such that agents can communicate if and only if they belong...... then be ranked according to how essential their positions are in the network by considering the effect of their respective absences. Defining a ranking of a network which takes the individual position of each entity into account has the purpose of assigning different roles to the entities, e.g. agents...

  19. Compressed Sensing with Rank Deficient Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    In compressed sensing it is generally assumed that the dictionary matrix constitutes a (possibly overcomplete) basis of the signal space. In this paper we consider dictionaries that do not span the signal space, i.e. rank deficient dictionaries. We show that in this case the signal-to-noise ratio...... (SNR) in the compressed samples can be increased by selecting the rows of the measurement matrix from the column space of the dictionary. As an example application of compressed sensing with a rank deficient dictionary, we present a case study of compressed sensing applied to the Coarse Acquisition (C...

  20. Research of Subgraph Estimation Page Rank Algorithm for Web Page Rank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Lan-yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional PageRank algorithm can not efficiently perform large data Webpage scheduling problem. This paper proposes an accelerated algorithm named topK-Rank,which is based on PageRank on the MapReduce platform. It can find top k nodes efficiently for a given graph without sacrificing accuracy. In order to identify top k nodes,topK-Rank algorithm prunes unnecessary nodes and edges in each iteration to dynamically construct subgraphs,and iteratively estimates lower/upper bounds of PageRank scores through subgraphs. Theoretical analysis shows that this method guarantees result exactness. Experiments show that topK-Rank algorithm can find k nodes much faster than the existing approaches.

  1. Enhancing collaborative filtering by user interest expansion via personalized ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Enhong; Xiong, Hui; Ding, Chris H Q; Chen, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Recommender systems suggest a few items from many possible choices to the users by understanding their past behaviors. In these systems, the user behaviors are influenced by the hidden interests of the users. Learning to leverage the information about user interests is often critical for making better recommendations. However, existing collaborative-filtering-based recommender systems are usually focused on exploiting the information about the user's interaction with the systems; the information about latent user interests is largely underexplored. To that end, inspired by the topic models, in this paper, we propose a novel collaborative-filtering-based recommender system by user interest expansion via personalized ranking, named iExpand. The goal is to build an item-oriented model-based collaborative-filtering framework. The iExpand method introduces a three-layer, user-interests-item, representation scheme, which leads to more accurate ranking recommendation results with less computation cost and helps the understanding of the interactions among users, items, and user interests. Moreover, iExpand strategically deals with many issues that exist in traditional collaborative-filtering approaches, such as the overspecialization problem and the cold-start problem. Finally, we evaluate iExpand on three benchmark data sets, and experimental results show that iExpand can lead to better ranking performance than state-of-the-art methods with a significant margin.

  2. Ranking competitors using degree-neutralized random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungkyu; Ahnert, Sebastian E; Park, Juyong

    2014-01-01

    Competition is ubiquitous in many complex biological, social, and technological systems, playing an integral role in the evolutionary dynamics of the systems. It is often useful to determine the dominance hierarchy or the rankings of the components of the system that compete for survival and success based on the outcomes of the competitions between them. Here we propose a ranking method based on the random walk on the network representing the competitors as nodes and competitions as directed edges with asymmetric weights. We use the edge weights and node degrees to define the gradient on each edge that guides the random walker towards the weaker (or the stronger) node, which enables us to interpret the steady-state occupancy as the measure of the node's weakness (or strength) that is free of unwarranted degree-induced bias. We apply our method to two real-world competition networks and explore the issues of ranking stabilization and prediction accuracy, finding that our method outperforms other methods including the baseline win-loss differential method in sparse networks.

  3. Ranking competitors using degree-neutralized random walks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkyu Shin

    Full Text Available Competition is ubiquitous in many complex biological, social, and technological systems, playing an integral role in the evolutionary dynamics of the systems. It is often useful to determine the dominance hierarchy or the rankings of the components of the system that compete for survival and success based on the outcomes of the competitions between them. Here we propose a ranking method based on the random walk on the network representing the competitors as nodes and competitions as directed edges with asymmetric weights. We use the edge weights and node degrees to define the gradient on each edge that guides the random walker towards the weaker (or the stronger node, which enables us to interpret the steady-state occupancy as the measure of the node's weakness (or strength that is free of unwarranted degree-induced bias. We apply our method to two real-world competition networks and explore the issues of ranking stabilization and prediction accuracy, finding that our method outperforms other methods including the baseline win-loss differential method in sparse networks.

  4. Fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) MRI to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within dural reflections of posterior fossa cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, David J; Scoffings, Daniel; Ajithkumar, Thankamma; Williams, Michael V; Jefferies, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    There is no consensus approach to covering skull base meningeal reflections-and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) therein-of the posterior fossa cranial nerves (CNs VII-XII) when planning radiotherapy (RT) for medulloblastoma and ependymoma. We sought to determine whether MRI and specifically fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences can answer this anatomical question and guide RT planning. 96 posterior fossa FIESTA sequences were reviewed. Following exclusions, measurements were made on the following scans for each foramen respectively (left, right); internal acoustic meatus (IAM) (86, 84), jugular foramen (JF) (83, 85) and hypoglossal canal (HC) (42, 45). A protocol describes measurement procedure. Two observers measured distances for five cases and agreement was assessed. One observer measured all the remaining cases. IAM and JF measurement interobserver variability was compared. Mean measurement difference between observers was -0.275 mm (standard deviation 0.557). IAM and JF measurements were normally distributed. Mean IAM distance was 12.2 mm [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8-15.6]; JF was 7.3 mm (95% CI 4.0-10.6). The HC was difficult to visualize on many images and data followed a bimodal distribution. Dural reflections of posterior fossa CNs are well demonstrated by FIESTA MRI. Measuring CSF extension into these structures is feasible and robust; mean CSF extension into IAM and JF was measured. We plan further work to assess coverage of these structures with photon and proton RT plans. Advances in knowledge: We have described CSF extension beyond the internal table of the skull into the IAM, JF and HC. Oncologists planning RT for patients with medulloblastoma and ependymoma may use these data to guide contouring.

  5. Discrepancies between multicriteria decision analysis-based ranking and intuitive ranking for pharmaceutical benefit-risk profiles in a hypothetical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, K; Ono, S

    2017-02-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been generally considered a promising decision-making methodology for the assessment of drug benefit-risk profiles. There have been many discussions in both public and private sectors on its feasibility and applicability, but it has not been employed in official decision-makings. For the purpose of examining to what extent MCDA would reflect the first-hand, intuitive preference of evaluators in practical pharmaceutical assessments, we conducted a questionnaire survey involving the participation of employees of pharmaceutical companies. Showing profiles of the efficacy and safety of four hypothetical drugs, each respondent was asked to rank them following the standard MCDA process and then to rank them intuitively (i.e. without applying any analytical framework). These two approaches resulted in substantially different ranking patterns from the same individuals, and the concordance rate was surprisingly low (17%). Although many respondents intuitively showed a preference for mild, balanced risk-benefit profiles over profiles with a conspicuous advantage in either risk or benefit, the ranking orders based on MCDA scores did not reflect the intuitive preference. Observed discrepancies between the rankings seemed to be primarily attributed to the structural characteristics of MCDA, which assumes that evaluation on each benefit and risk component should have monotonic impact on final scores. It would be difficult for MCDA to reflect commonly observed non-monotonic preferences for risk and benefit profiles. Possible drawbacks of MCDA should be further investigated prior to the real-world application of its benefit-risk assessment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Reflection of the State of Hunger in Impulse Activity of Nose Wing Muscles and Upper Esophageal Sphincter during Search behavior in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Dvoenko, E E; Zenina, O Yu

    2016-07-01

    Reflection of the state of hunger in impulse activity of nose wing muscles and upper esophageal sphincter muscles was studied in chronic experiments on rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the absence of locomotion and during search behavior. In the absence of apparent behavioral activity, including sniffing, alai nasi muscles of hungry rabbits constantly generated bursts of action potentials synchronous with breathing, while upper esophageal sphincter muscles exhibited regular aperiodic low-amplitude impulse activity of tonic type. Latent form of food motivation was reflected in the structure of temporal organization of impulse activity of alai nasi muscles in the form of bimodal distribution of interpulse intervals and in temporal structure of impulse activity of upper esophageal sphincter muscles in the form of monomodal distribution. The latent form of food motivation was manifested in the structure of temporal organization of periods of the action potentials burst-like rhythm, generated by alai nasi muscles, in the form of monomodal distribution, characterized by a high degree of dispersion of respiratory cycle periods. In the absence of physical activity hungry animals sporadically exhibited sniffing activity, manifested in the change from the burst-like impulse activity of alai nasi muscles to the single-burst activity type with bimodal distribution of interpulse intervals and monomodal distribution of the burst-like action potentials rhythm periods, the maximum of which was shifted towards lower values, which was the cause of increased respiratory rate. At the same time, the monomodal temporal structure of impulse activity of the upper esophageal sphincter muscles was not changed. With increasing food motivation in the process of search behavior temporal structure of periods of the burst-like action potentials rhythm, generated by alai nasi muscles, became similar to that observed during sniffing, not accompanied by animal's locomotion, which is

  7. Aerosol optical depth (AOD retrieval using simultaneous GOES-East and GOES-West reflected radiances over the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol optical depth (AOD in the western United States is observed independently by both the (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites GOES-East and GOES-West imagers. The GASP (GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm treats each satellite as a unique sensor and thus obtains two separate aerosol optical depth values at the same time for the same location. The TOA (the top of the atmosphere radiances and the associated derived optical depths can be quite different due to the different viewing geometries with large difference in solar-scattering angles. In order to fully exploit the simultaneous observations and generate consistent AOD retrievals from the two satellites, the authors develop a new "hybrid" aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm that uses data from both satellites. The algorithm uses both GOES-East and GOES-West visible channel TOA reflectance and daily average AOD from GOES Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (GOES-MAIAC on low AOD days (AOD less than 0.3, when diurnal variation of AOD is low, to retrieve surface BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function. The known BRDF shape is applied on subsequent days to retrieve BRDF and AOD. The algorithm is validated at three AERONET sites over the western US. The AOD retrieval accuracy from the "hybrid" technique using the two satellites is similar to that from one satellite over UCSB (University of California Santa Barbara and Railroad Valley, Nevada. Improvement of the accuracy is observed at Boulder, Colorado. The correlation coefficients between the GOES AOD and AERONET AOD are in the range of 0.67 to 0.81. More than 74% of AOD retrievals are within the error of ±(0.05 + 0.15 τ compared to AERONET AOD. The hybrid algorithm has more data coverage compared to the single satellite retrievals over surfaces with high surface reflectance. For single observation areas the number of valid AOD data increases from the use

  8. Linear Subspace Ranking Hashing for Cross-Modal Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Qi, Guo-Jun; Ye, Jun; Hua, Kien A

    2017-09-01

    Hashing has attracted a great deal of research in recent years due to its effectiveness for the retrieval and indexing of large-scale high-dimensional multimedia data. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking-based hashing framework that maps data from different modalities into a common Hamming space where the cross-modal similarity can be measured using Hamming distance. Unlike existing cross-modal hashing algorithms where the learned hash functions are binary space partitioning functions, such as the sign and threshold function, the proposed hashing scheme takes advantage of a new class of hash functions closely related to rank correlation measures which are known to be scale-invariant, numerically stable, and highly nonlinear. Specifically, we jointly learn two groups of linear subspaces, one for each modality, so that features' ranking orders in different linear subspaces maximally preserve the cross-modal similarities. We show that the ranking-based hash function has a natural probabilistic approximation which transforms the original highly discontinuous optimization problem into one that can be efficiently solved using simple gradient descent algorithms. The proposed hashing framework is also flexible in the sense that the optimization procedures are not tied up to any specific form of loss function, which is typical for existing cross-modal hashing methods, but rather we can flexibly accommodate different loss functions with minimal changes to the learning steps. We demonstrate through extensive experiments on four widely-used real-world multimodal datasets that the proposed cross-modal hashing method can achieve competitive performance against several state-of-the-arts with only moderate training and testing time.

  9. SOUTH AFRICAN ARMY RANKS AND INSIGNIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major, cap- tain, lieutenant;. Other Ranks : Warrant officer, staff sergeant, sergeant, corporal, lance-cor- poral, private.' We apparently had no need for second lieuten- ants at that time, and they were introduced only .... Army warrant officers can also hold the cmmon serv- ice posts of Sergeant-Major of Special Forces.

  10. Kinesiology Faculty Citations across Academic Rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…

  11. Biomechanics Scholar Citations across Academic Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudson Duane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: citations to the publications of a scholar have been used as a measure of the quality or influence of their research record. A world-wide descriptive study of the citations to the publications of biomechanics scholars of various academic ranks was conducted.

  12. Ranking Workplace Competencies: Student and Graduate Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsbury, Elizabeth; Hodges, Dave; Burchell, Noel; Lay, Mark

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand business students and graduates made similar rankings of the five most important workplace competencies: computer literacy, customer service orientation, teamwork and cooperation, self-confidence, and willingness to learn. Graduates placed greater importance on most of the 24 competencies, resulting in a statistically significant…

  13. Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)

  14. Ranking related entities: components and analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, M.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Related entity finding is the task of returning a ranked list of homepages of relevant entities of a specified type that need to engage in a given relationship with a given source entity. We propose a framework for addressing this task and perform a detailed analysis of four core components;

  15. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  16. An evaluation and critique of current rankings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federkeil, Gero; Westerheijden, Donald F.; van Vught, Franciscus A.; Ziegele, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter raises the question of whether university league tables deliver relevant information to one of their key target groups – students. It examines the inherent biases and weaknesses in the methodologies of the major rankings and argues that the concentration on a single indicator of

  17. World University Ranking Methodologies: Stability and Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Brian; Parsons, Christine

    2008-01-01

    There has been a steady growth in the number of national university league tables over the last 25 years. By contrast, "World University Rankings" are a more recent development and have received little serious academic scrutiny in peer-reviewed publications. Few researchers have evaluated the sources of data and the statistical…

  18. Alternative Class Ranks Using Z-Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip H.; Van Niel, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Grades at US colleges and universities have increased precipitously over the last 50 years, suggesting that their signalling power has become attenuated. Moreover, average grades have risen disproportionately in some departments, implying that weak students in departments with high grades may obtain better class ranks than strong students in…

  19. Statistical inference of Minimum Rank Factor Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, A; Ten Berge, JMF

    For any given number of factors, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis yields optimal communalities for an observed covariance matrix in the sense that the unexplained common variance with that number of factors is minimized, subject to the constraint that both the diagonal matrix of unique variances and the

  20. City Life: Rankings (Livability) versus Perceptions (Satisfaction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between the popular Mercer city ranking (livability) and survey data (satisfactions). Livability aims to capture "objective" quality of life such as infrastructure. Survey items capture "subjective" quality of life such as satisfaction with city. The relationship between objective measures of quality of life and…

  1. Matrices with high completely positive semidefinite rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, David; Gribling, Sander; Laurent, Monique

    2017-01-01

    A real symmetric matrix M is completely positive semidefinite if it admits a Gram representation by (Hermitian) positive semidefinite matrices of any size d. The smallest such d is called the (complex) completely positive semidefinite rank of M , and it is an open question whether there exists an

  2. Ranking health between countries in international comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions...

  3. Comparing survival curves using rank tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1990-01-01

    Survival times of patients can be compared using rank tests in various experimental setups, including the two-sample case and the case of paired data. Attention is focussed on two frequently occurring complications in medical applications: censoring and tail alternatives. A review is given of the

  4. Smooth rank one perturbations of selfadjoint operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassi, Seppo; Snoo, H.S.V. de; Willemsma, A.D.I.

    Let A be a selfadjoint operator in a Hilbert space aleph with inner product [.,.]. The rank one perturbations of A have the form A+tau [.,omega]omega, tau epsilon R, for some element omega epsilon aleph. In this paper we consider smooth perturbations, i.e. we consider omega epsilon dom \\A\\(k/2) for

  5. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other

  6. An algorithm for ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...... technique. Computational results for the new algorithm are presented...

  7. Ouderdom, omvang en citatiescores: rankings nader bekeken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Jules

    2017-01-01

    By comparing the Top-300 lists of four global university rankings (ARWU, THE, QS, Leiden), three hypotheses are tested: 1) position correlates with size in the ARWU more than in the THE and QS; 2) given their strong dependency on reputation scores, position will be correlated more with a

  8. Returns to Tenure: Time or Rank?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian

    -specific investment, efficiency-wages or adverse-selection models. However, rent extracting arguments as suggested by the theory of internal labor markets, indicate that the relative position of the worker in the seniority hierarchy of the firm, her 'seniority rank', may also explain part of the observed returns...

  9. Towards an Efficient Artificial Neural Network Pruning and Feature Ranking Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona

    2015-05-24

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are known to be among the most effective and expressive machine learning models. Their impressive abilities to learn have been reflected in many broad application domains such as image recognition, medical diagnosis, online banking, robotics, dynamic systems, and many others. ANNs with multiple layers of complex non-linear transformations (a.k.a Deep ANNs) have shown recently successful results in the area of computer vision and speech recognition. ANNs are parametric models that approximate unknown functions in which parameter values (weights) are adapted during training. ANN’s weights can be large in number and thus render the trained model more complex with chances for “overfitting” training data. In this study, we explore the effects of network pruning on performance of ANNs and ranking of features that describe the data. Simplified ANN model results in fewer parameters, less computation and faster training. We investigate the use of Hessian-based pruning algorithms as well as simpler ones (i.e. non Hessian-based) on nine datasets with varying number of input features and ANN parameters. The Hessian-based Optimal Brain Surgeon algorithm (OBS) is robust but slow. Therefore a faster parallel Hessian- approximation is provided. An additional speedup is provided using a variant we name ‘Simple n Optimal Brain Surgeon’ (SNOBS), which represents a good compromise between robustness and time efficiency. For some of the datasets, the ANN pruning experiments show on average 91% reduction in the number of ANN parameters and about 60% - 90% in the number of ANN input features, while maintaining comparable or better accuracy to the case when no pruning is applied. Finally, we show through a comprehensive comparison with seven state-of-the art feature filtering methods that the feature selection and ranking obtained as a byproduct of the ANN pruning is comparable in accuracy to these methods.

  10. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK as a determinant of peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Peri-implantitis presents inflammatory process that affects soft and hard supporting tissues of osseointegrated implant based on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK concentrations in peri-implant crevicular fluid could be associated with clinical parameters that reflect inflammatory nature of peri-implantitis. Methods. The study included 67 patients, 22 with diagnosed peri-implantitis, 22 persons with healthy peri-implant tissues and 23 patients with periodontitis. Clinical parameters from each patient were recorded and samples of peri-implant/gingival crevicular fluid were collected for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis. Results. RANK concentration was significantly increased in samples from the patients with periimplantitis when compared to healthy implants (p < 0.0001, where the average levels were 9 times higher. At the same time RANK concentration was significantly higher in periimplantitis than in periodontitis sites (p < 0.0001. In implant patients pocket depths and bleeding on probing values were positively associated with high RANK concentrations (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. These results revealed association of increased RANK concentration in samples of periimplant/ gingival crevicular fluid with peri-implant inflammation and suggests that RANK could be a pathologic determinant of peri-implantitis, thereby a potential parameter in assessment of peri-implant tissue inflammation and a potential target in designing treatment strategies.

  11. Probabilistic relation between In-Degree and PageRank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stochastic model that explains the relation between power laws of In-Degree and PageRank. PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. We model the relation between PageRank and In-Degree through a stochastic equation, which is inspired by the

  12. World University Rankings: Take with a Large Pinch of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Soh Kay

    2011-01-01

    Equating the unequal is misleading, and this happens consistently in comparing rankings from different university ranking systems, as the NUT saga shows. This article illustrates the problem by analyzing the 2011 rankings of the top 100 universities in the AWUR, QSWUR and THEWUR ranking results. It also discusses the reasons why the rankings…

  13. Generalized Reduced Rank Tests using the Singular Value Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Paap, R.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a novel statistic to test the rank of a matrix. The rank statistic overcomes deficiencies of existing rank statistics, like: a Kronecker covariance matrix for the canonical correlation rank statistic of Anderson [Annals of Mathematical Statistics (1951), 22, 327-351] sensitivity to the

  14. Some upper and lower bounds on PSD-rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. J. Lee (Troy); Z. Wei (Zhaohui); R. M. de Wolf (Ronald)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPositive semidefinite rank (PSD-rank) is a relatively new quantity with applications to combinatorial optimization and communication complexity. We first study several basic properties of PSD-rank, and then develop new techniques for showing lower bounds on the PSD-rank. All of these

  15. Some upper and lower bounds on PSD-rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, T.; Wei, Z.; de Wolf, R.

    Positive semidefinite rank (PSD-rank) is a relatively new complexity measure on matrices, with applications to combinatorial optimization and communication complexity. We first study several basic properties of PSD-rank, and then develop new techniques for showing lower bounds on the PSD-rank. All

  16. Biology of RANK, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Brendan F; Xing, Lianping

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system and its role in the regulation of bone resorption exemplifies how both serendipity and a logic-based approach can identify factors that regulate cell function. Before this discovery in the mid to late 1990s, it had long been recognized that osteoclast formation was regulated by factors expressed by osteoblast/stromal cells, but it had not been anticipated that members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands and receptors would be involved or that the factors involved would have extensive functions beyond bone remodeling. RANKL/RANK signaling regulates the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts from their precursors as well as their activation and survival in normal bone remodeling and in a variety of pathologic conditions. OPG protects the skeleton from excessive bone resorption by binding to RANKL and preventing it from binding to its receptor, RANK. Thus, RANKL/OPG ratio is an important determinant of bone mass and skeletal integrity. Genetic studies in mice indicate that RANKL/RANK signaling is also required for lymph node formation and mammary gland lactational hyperplasia, and that OPG also protects arteries from medial calcification. Thus, these tumor necrosis factor superfamily members have important functions outside bone. Although our understanding of the mechanisms whereby they regulate osteoclast formation has advanced rapidly during the past 10 years, many questions remain about their roles in health and disease. Here we review our current understanding of the role of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in bone and other tissues. PMID:17634140

  17. VaRank: a simple and powerful tool for ranking genetic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Geoffroy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most genetic disorders are caused by single nucleotide variations (SNVs or small insertion/deletions (indels. High throughput sequencing has broadened the catalogue of human variation, including common polymorphisms, rare variations or disease causing mutations. However, identifying one variation among hundreds or thousands of others is still a complex task for biologists, geneticists and clinicians.Results. We have developed VaRank, a command-line tool for the ranking of genetic variants detected by high-throughput sequencing. VaRank scores and prioritizes variants annotated either by Alamut Batch or SnpEff. A barcode allows users to quickly view the presence/absence of variants (with homozygote/heterozygote status in analyzed samples. VaRank supports the commonly used VCF input format for variants analysis thus allowing it to be easily integrated into NGS bioinformatics analysis pipelines. VaRank has been successfully applied to disease-gene identification as well as to molecular diagnostics setup for several hundred patients.Conclusions. VaRank is implemented in Tcl/Tk, a scripting language which is platform-independent but has been tested only on Unix environment. The source code is available under the GNU GPL, and together with sample data and detailed documentation can be downloaded from http://www.lbgi.fr/VaRank/.

  18. Reflective Learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    students who used learning log and those who did not especially for the course Pschopharmacology, but the mean scores did not show a significant difference for the course Psychology of Gender. The reflective reports of the students also roughly indicated that the students developed positive attitudes towards using ...

  19. PERSONAL REFLECTIONS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Resonance journal of science education. April 2015 Volume 20 Number 4. GENERALARTICLES ... Development of. Probability Theory. K B Athreya. Classroom. Tutorial on Phyloge- netic Inference –1. Felix Bast. 360. 346. 286. PERSONAL REFLECTIONS. 368 The Road to IISc. M L Munjal (Transcribed by Maneesh Kunte).

  20. Ranked Conservation Opportunity Areas for Region 7 (ECO_RES.RANKED_OAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RANKED_OAS are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP that have subsequently been ranked by patch size, landform representation, and the targeted land cover class (highest rank for conservation management = 1 [LFRANK_NOR]). The OAs designate areas with potential for forest or grassland conservation because they are areas of natural or semi-natural land cover that are at least 75 meters away from roads and away from patch edges. The OAs were modeled by creating distance grids using the National Land Cover Database and the Census Bureau's TIGER roads files.

  1. Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Motor Cortex-Cerebellum Network Reflect the Individual Variation in Masticatory Performance in Healthy Elderly People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Wu, Ching-Yi; Ko, Hsien-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have consistently identified brain activation in the motor area and the cerebellum during chewing. In this study, we further investigated the structural and functional brain signature associated with masticatory performance, which is a widely used index for evaluating overall masticatory function in the elderly. Twenty-five healthy elderly participants underwent oral examinations, masticatory performance tests, and behavioral assessments, including the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale. Masticatory performance was assessed with the validated colorimetric method, using color-changeable chewing gum. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state function MRI were performed. We analyzed alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between brain regions using the seed-based method. The structural and functional MRI analyses revealed the following findings: (1) the GMV change in the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (2) The rsFC between the cerebellum and the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (3) The GMV changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the rsFC between the cerebellum and the DLPFC, were positively correlated with masticatory performance. The findings showed that in the premotor cortex, a reduction of GMV and rsFC would reflect declined masticatory performance. The positive correlation between DLPFC connectivity and masticatory performance implies that masticatory ability is associated with cognitive function in the elderly. Our findings highlighted the role of the central nervous system in masticatory performance and increased our understanding of the structural and functional brain signature underlying individual variations in masticatory performance in the elderly.

  2. Grey matter volume and resting-state functional connectivity of the motor cortex-cerebellum network reflect the individual variation in masticatory performance in the healthy elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shu eLin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have consistently identified brain activation in the motor area and the cerebellum during chewing. In this study, we further investigated the structural and functional brain signature associated with masticatory performance, which is a widely used index for evaluating overall masticatory function in the elderly. Twenty-five healthy elderly participants underwent oral examinations, masticatory performance tests, and behavioral assessments, including the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale. Masticatory performance was assessed with the validated colorimetric method, using color-changeable chewing gum. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and resting-state function MRI were performed. We analyzed alterations in grey matter volume (GMV using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC between brain regions using the seed-based method. The structural and functional MRI analyses revealed the following findings: (1 the GMV change in the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (2 The rsFC between the cerebellum and the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (3 The GMV changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, as well as the rsFC between the cerebellum and the DLPFC, was positively correlated with masticatory performance. The findings showed that in the premotor cortex, a reduction of GMV and rsFC would reflect declined masticatory performance. The positive correlation between DLPFC connectivity and masticatory performance implies that masticatory ability is associated with cognitive function in the elderly. Our findings highlighted the role of the central nervous system in masticatory performance and increased our understanding of the structural and functional brain signature underlying individual variations in masticatory performance in the elderly.

  3. UNIVERSITY RANKINGS BY COST OF LIVING ADJUSTED FACULTY COMPENSATION

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance Jalbert; Mercedes Jalbert; Karla Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we rank 574 universities based on compensation paid to their faculty. The analysis examines universities both on a raw basis and on a cost of living adjusted basis. Rankings based on salary data and benefit data are presented. In addition rankings based on total compensation are presented. Separate rankings are provided for universities offering different degrees. The results indicate that rankings of universities based on raw and cost of living adjusted data are markedly differ...

  4. The steady-state response of the cerebral cortex to the beat of music reflects both the comprehension of music and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Benjamin; Reichenbach, Chagit S; Braiman, Chananel; Schiff, Nicholas D; Hudspeth, A J; Reichenbach, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The brain's analyses of speech and music share a range of neural resources and mechanisms. Music displays a temporal structure of complexity similar to that of speech, unfolds over comparable timescales, and elicits cognitive demands in tasks involving comprehension and attention. During speech processing, synchronized neural activity of the cerebral cortex in the delta and theta frequency bands tracks the envelope of a speech signal, and this neural activity is modulated by high-level cortical functions such as speech comprehension and attention. It remains unclear, however, whether the cortex also responds to the natural rhythmic structure of music and how the response, if present, is influenced by higher cognitive processes. Here we employ electroencephalography to show that the cortex responds to the beat of music and that this steady-state response reflects musical comprehension and attention. We show that the cortical response to the beat is weaker when subjects listen to a familiar tune than when they listen to an unfamiliar, non-sensical musical piece. Furthermore, we show that in a task of intermodal attention there is a larger neural response at the beat frequency when subjects attend to a musical stimulus than when they ignore the auditory signal and instead focus on a visual one. Our findings may be applied in clinical assessments of auditory processing and music cognition as well as in the construction of auditory brain-machine interfaces.

  5. Coal Rank and Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian Coal and Coaly Shale Samples, Young County, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.

  6. Improving the Rank Precision of Population Health Measures for Small Areas with Longitudinal and Joint Outcome Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Jessica K; Remington, Patrick L; Gangnon, Ronald E

    2015-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute has published the County Health Rankings since 2010. These rankings use population-based data to highlight health outcomes and the multiple determinants of these outcomes and to encourage in-depth health assessment for all United States counties. A significant methodological limitation, however, is the uncertainty of rank estimates, particularly for small counties. To address this challenge, we explore the use of longitudinal and pooled outcome data in hierarchical Bayesian models to generate county ranks with greater precision. In our models we used pooled outcome data for three measure groups: (1) Poor physical and poor mental health days; (2) percent of births with low birth weight and fair or poor health prevalence; and (3) age-specific mortality rates for nine age groups. We used the fixed and random effects components of these models to generate posterior samples of rates for each measure. We also used time-series data in longitudinal random effects models for age-specific mortality. Based on the posterior samples from these models, we estimate ranks and rank quartiles for each measure, as well as the probability of a county ranking in its assigned quartile. Rank quartile probabilities for univariate, joint outcome, and/or longitudinal models were compared to assess improvements in rank precision. The joint outcome model for poor physical and poor mental health days resulted in improved rank precision, as did the longitudinal model for age-specific mortality rates. Rank precision for low birth weight births and fair/poor health prevalence based on the univariate and joint outcome models were equivalent. Incorporating longitudinal or pooled outcome data may improve rank certainty, depending on characteristics of the measures selected. For measures with different determinants, joint modeling neither improved nor degraded rank precision. This approach suggests a simple way to use existing information to

  7. Kriging for Simulation Metamodeling: Experimental Design, Reduced Rank Kriging, and Omni-Rank Kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Michael Robert

    This dissertation improves an analyst's use of simulation by offering improvements in the utilization of kriging metamodels. There are three main contributions. First an analysis is performed of what comprises good experimental designs for practical (non-toy) problems when using a kriging metamodel. Second is an explanation and demonstration of how reduced rank decompositions can improve the performance of kriging, now referred to as reduced rank kriging. Third is the development of an extension of reduced rank kriging which solves an open question regarding the usage of reduced rank kriging in practice. This extension is called omni-rank kriging. Finally these results are demonstrated on two case studies. The first contribution focuses on experimental design. Sequential designs are generally known to be more efficient than "one shot" designs. However, sequential designs require some sort of pilot design from which the sequential stage can be based. We seek to find good initial designs for these pilot studies, as well as designs which will be effective if there is no following sequential stage. We test a wide variety of designs over a small set of test-bed problems. Our findings indicate that analysts should take advantage of any prior information they have about their problem's shape and/or their goals in metamodeling. In the event of a total lack of information we find that Latin hypercube designs are robust default choices. Our work is most distinguished by its attention to the higher levels of dimensionality. The second contribution introduces and explains an alternative method for kriging when there is noise in the data, which we call reduced rank kriging. Reduced rank kriging is based on using a reduced rank decomposition which artificially smoothes the kriging weights similar to a nugget effect. Our primary focus will be showing how the reduced rank decomposition propagates through kriging empirically. In addition, we show further evidence for our

  8. Pulling Rank: Military Rank Affects Hormone Levels and Fairness in an Allocation Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Siart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology however is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C and testosterone (T levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment. The rank groups were 1 warrant officers (High Rank, HR and 2 enlisted men (Low Rank, LR. One soldier from each rank group participated in every experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, one participant was assigned to start standing guard and the other participant at rest. The participant who started at rest could choose if and when to relieve his fellow soldier and therefore had control over the experiment. In order to trigger perception of unfair behavior, an additional experiment was conducted which was manipulated by the experimenter. In the manipulated version both soldiers started in the standing guard position and were never relieved, believing that their opponent was at rest, not relieving them. Our aim was to test whether unfair behavior causes a physiological reaction. Saliva samples for hormone analysis were collected at regular intervals throughout the experiment.We found that in the un-manipulated setup high-ranking soldiers spent less time standing guard than lower ranking individuals. Rank was a significant predictor for C but not for T levels during the experiment. C levels in the HR group were higher than in LR group. C levels were also elevated in the manipulated experiment compared to the un-manipulated experiment, especially in LR. We assume that the elevated C levels in HR were caused by HR feeling their status challenged by the situation of having to negotiate with an individual of lower military

  9. Pulling Rank: Military Rank Affects Hormone Levels and Fairness in an Allocation Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siart, Benjamin; Pflüger, Lena S; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment. The rank groups were (1) warrant officers (high rank, HR) and (2) enlisted men (low rank, LR). One soldier from each rank group participated in every experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, one participant was assigned to start standing guard and the other participant at rest. The participant who started at rest could choose if and when to relieve his fellow soldier and therefore had control over the experiment. In order to trigger perception of unfair behavior, an additional experiment was conducted which was manipulated by the experimenter. In the manipulated version both soldiers started in the standing guard position and were never relieved, believing that their opponent was at rest, not relieving them. Our aim was to test whether unfair behavior causes a physiological reaction. Saliva samples for hormone analysis were collected at regular intervals throughout the experiment. We found that in the un-manipulated setup high-ranking soldiers spent less time standing guard than lower ranking individuals. Rank was a significant predictor for C but not for T levels during the experiment. C levels in the HR group were higher than in the LR group. C levels were also elevated in the manipulated experiment compared to the un-manipulated experiment, especially in LR. We assume that the elevated C levels in HR were caused by HR feeling their status challenged by the situation of having to negotiate with an individual of lower military rank

  10. Discovering urban mobility patterns with PageRank based traffic modeling and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjie; Yang, Su; Sun, Yi; Gao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Urban transportation system can be viewed as complex network with time-varying traffic flows as links to connect adjacent regions as networked nodes. By computing urban traffic evolution on such temporal complex network with PageRank, it is found that for most regions, there exists a linear relation between the traffic congestion measure at present time and the PageRank value of the last time. Since the PageRank measure of a region does result from the mutual interactions of the whole network, it implies that the traffic state of a local region does not evolve independently but is affected by the evolution of the whole network. As a result, the PageRank values can act as signatures in predicting upcoming traffic congestions. We observe the aforementioned laws experimentally based on the trajectory data of 12000 taxies in Beijing city for one month.

  11. Social Bookmarking Induced Active Page Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsubasa; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Keita

    Social bookmarking services have recently made it possible for us to register and share our own bookmarks on the web and are attracting attention. The services let us get structured data: (URL, Username, Timestamp, Tag Set). And these data represent user interest in web pages. The number of bookmarks is a barometer of web page value. Some web pages have many bookmarks, but most of those bookmarks may have been posted far in the past. Therefore, even if a web page has many bookmarks, their value is not guaranteed. If most of the bookmarks are very old, the page may be obsolete. In this paper, by focusing on the timestamp sequence of social bookmarkings on web pages, we model their activation levels representing current values. Further, we improve our previously proposed ranking method for web search by introducing the activation level concept. Finally, through experiments, we show effectiveness of the proposed ranking method.

  12. Regression Estimator Using Double Ranked Set Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani M. Samawi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a regression estimator based on the double ranked set sample (DRSS scheme, introduced by Al-Saleh and Al-Kadiri (2000, is investigated when the mean of the auxiliary variable X is unknown. Our primary analysis and simulation indicates that using the DRSS regression estimator for estimating the population mean substantially increases relative efficiency compared to using regression estimator based on simple random sampling (SRS or ranked set sampling (RSS (Yu and Lam, 1997 regression estimator.  Moreover, the regression estimator using DRSS is also more efficient than the naïve estimators of the population mean using SRS, RSS (when the correlation coefficient is at least 0.4 and DRSS for high correlation coefficient (at least 0.91. The theory is illustrated using a real data set of trees.

  13. Low-rank quadratic semidefinite programming

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2013-04-01

    Low rank matrix approximation is an attractive model in large scale machine learning problems, because it can not only reduce the memory and runtime complexity, but also provide a natural way to regularize parameters while preserving learning accuracy. In this paper, we address a special class of nonconvex quadratic matrix optimization problems, which require a low rank positive semidefinite solution. Despite their non-convexity, we exploit the structure of these problems to derive an efficient solver that converges to their local optima. Furthermore, we show that the proposed solution is capable of dramatically enhancing the efficiency and scalability of a variety of concrete problems, which are of significant interest to the machine learning community. These problems include the Top-k Eigenvalue problem, Distance learning and Kernel learning. Extensive experiments on UCI benchmarks have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method. © 2012.

  14. Classification of rank 2 cluster varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandel, Travis

    We classify rank 2 cluster varieties (those whose corresponding skew-form has rank 2) according to the deformation type of a generic fiber U of their X-spaces, as defined by Fock and Goncharov. Our approach is based on the work of Gross, Hacking, and Keel for cluster varieties and log Calabi......-Yau surfaces. We find, for example, that U is "positive" (i.e., nearly affine) and either finite-type or non-acyclic (in the cluster sense) if and only if the monodromy of the tropicalization of U is one of Kodaira's matrices for the monodromy of an ellpitic fibration. In the positive cases, we also describe...... the action of the cluster modular group on the tropicalization of U....

  15. Deep Impact: Unintended consequences of journal rank

    CERN Document Server

    Brembs, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Much has been said about the increasing bureaucracy in science, stifling innovation, hampering the creativity of researchers and incentivizing misconduct, even outright fraud. Many anecdotes have been recounted, observations described and conclusions drawn about the negative impact of impact assessment on scientists and science. However, few of these accounts have drawn their conclusions from data, and those that have typically relied on a few studies. In this review, we present the most recent and pertinent data on the consequences that our current scholarly communication system has had on various measures of scientific quality (such as utility/citations, methodological soundness, expert ratings and retractions). These data confirm previous suspicions: using journal rank as an assessment tool is bad scientific practice. Moreover, the data lead us to argue that any journal rank (not only the currently-favored Impact Factor) would have this negative impact. Therefore, we suggest that abandoning journals altoge...

  16. Probabilistic Low-Rank Multitask Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yu; Shao, Ming; Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2017-01-04

    In this paper, we consider the problem of learning multiple related tasks simultaneously with the goal of improving the generalization performance of individual tasks. The key challenge is to effectively exploit the shared information across multiple tasks as well as preserve the discriminative information for each individual task. To address this, we propose a novel probabilistic model for multitask learning (MTL) that can automatically balance between low-rank and sparsity constraints. The former assumes a low-rank structure of the underlying predictive hypothesis space to explicitly capture the relationship of different tasks and the latter learns the incoherent sparse patterns private to each task. We derive and perform inference via variational Bayesian methods. Experimental results on both regression and classification tasks on real-world applications demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in dealing with the MTL problems.

  17. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  18. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    M. Abdi Talarposht; GH. Mahmodi; MA. Jahani

    2017-01-01

    Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were sele...

  19. Ranking images based on aesthetic qualities.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaur, Aarushi

    2015-01-01

    The qualitative assessment of image content and aesthetic impression is affected by various image attributes and relations between the attributes. Modelling of such assessments in the form of objective rankings and learning image representations based on them is not a straightforward problem. The criteria can be varied with different levels of complexity for various applications. A highly-complex problem could involve a large number of interrelated attributes and features alongside varied rul...

  20. Homological characterisation of Lambda-ranks

    OpenAIRE

    Howson, Susan

    1999-01-01

    If G is a pro-p, p-adic, Lie group and if $\\Lambda(G)$ denotes the Iwasawa algebra of G then we present a formula for determining the $\\Lambda(G)$-rank of a finitely generated $\\Lambda(G)$-module. This is given in terms of the G homology groups of the module. We explore some consequences of this for the structure of $\\Lambda(G)$-modules.

  1. Citation ranking versus peer evaluation of senior faculty research performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meho, Lokman I.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2000-01-01

    indicator of research performance of senior faculty members? Citation data, book reviews, and peer ranking were compiled and examined for faculty members specializing in Kurdish studies. Analysis shows that normalized citation ranking and citation content analysis data yield identical ranking results....... Analysis also shows that normalized citation ranking and citation content analysis, book reviews, and peer ranking perform similarly (i.e., are highly correlated) for high-ranked and low-ranked senior scholars. Additional evaluation methods and measures that take into account the context and content......The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between citation ranking and peer evaluation in assessing senior faculty research performance. Other studies typically derive their peer evaluation data directly from referees, often in the form of ranking. This study uses two additional...

  2. Estimation of rank correlation for clustered data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Glynn, Robert J

    2017-06-30

    It is well known that the sample correlation coefficient (Rxy ) is the maximum likelihood estimator of the Pearson correlation (ρxy ) for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) bivariate normal data. However, this is not true for ophthalmologic data where X (e.g., visual acuity) and Y (e.g., visual field) are available for each eye and there is positive intraclass correlation for both X and Y in fellow eyes. In this paper, we provide a regression-based approach for obtaining the maximum likelihood estimator of ρxy for clustered data, which can be implemented using standard mixed effects model software. This method is also extended to allow for estimation of partial correlation by controlling both X and Y for a vector U_ of other covariates. In addition, these methods can be extended to allow for estimation of rank correlation for clustered data by (i) converting ranks of both X and Y to the probit scale, (ii) estimating the Pearson correlation between probit scores for X and Y, and (iii) using the relationship between Pearson and rank correlation for bivariate normally distributed data. The validity of the methods in finite-sized samples is supported by simulation studies. Finally, two examples from ophthalmology and analgesic abuse are used to illustrate the methods. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Higher-rank fields and currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfond, O.A. [Institute of System Research of Russian Academy of Sciences,Nakhimovsky prospect 36-1, 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.E.Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, M.A. [I.E.Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-13

    Sp(2M) invariant field equations in the space M{sub M} with symmetric matrix coordinates are classified. Analogous results are obtained for Minkowski-like subspaces of M{sub M} which include usual 4d Minkowski space as a particular case. The constructed equations are associated with the tensor products of the Fock (singleton) representation of Sp(2M) of any rank r. The infinite set of higher-spin conserved currents multilinear in rank-one fields in M{sub M} is found. The associated conserved charges are supported by (rM−((r(r−1))/2))-dimensional differential forms in M{sub M}, that are closed by virtue of the rank-2r field equations. The cohomology groups H{sup p}(σ{sub −}{sup r}) with all p and r, which determine the form of appropriate gauge fields and their field equations, are found both for M{sub M} and for its Minkowski-like subspace.

  4. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Job Rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Moradi, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    The occupation of the people can influence the development of metabolic syndrome. To determine the association between metabolic syndrome and its determinants with the job rank in workers of a large car factory in Iran. 3989 male workers at a large car manufacturing company were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric data of the participants, including age, height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken to measure lipid profile and blood glucose level. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in each participant based on ATPIII 2001 criteria. The workers were categorized based on their job rank into 3 groups of (1) office workers, (2) workers with physical exertion, and (3) workers with chemical exposure. The study characteristics, particularly the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its determinants were compared among the study groups. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study was 7.7% (95% CI 6.9 to 8.5). HDL levels were significantly lower in those who had chemical exposure (p=0.045). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those who had mechanical exertion (p=0.026). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the office workers, workers with physical exertion, and workers with chemical exposure was 7.3%, 7.9%, and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.836). Seemingly, there is no association between metabolic syndrome and job rank.

  5. [Ranke and modern surgery in Groningen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Hans Rudolph Ranke (1849-1887) studied medicine in Halle, located in the eastern part of Germany, where he also trained as a surgeon under Richard von Volkmann (1830-1889), during which time he became familiar with the new antiseptic technique that had been introduced by Joseph Lister (1827-1912). In 1878 he was appointed head of the department of surgery in Groningen, the Netherlands, where his predecessor had been chronically indisposed and developments were flagging. Within a few months, Ranke had introduced disinfection by using carbolic acid both before and during operations. For the disinfection of wound dressings, he replaced carbolic acid with thymol as this was less pungent and foul-smelling. The rate of postoperative infections dropped to a minimum despite the inadequate housing and living conditions of the patients with infectious diseases. In 1887, at the age of 37, Ranke died after a brief illness - possibly glomerulonephritis - only eight years after he had assumed office. A street in the city of Groningen near its present-day University Medical Centre has been named after him.

  6. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  7. Low-Rank Kalman Filtering in Subsurface Contaminant Transport Models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the geology and the hydrology of the subsurface is important to model the fluid flow and the behavior of the contaminant. It is essential to have an accurate knowledge of the movement of the contaminants in the porous media in order to track them and later extract them from the aquifer. A two-dimensional flow model is studied and then applied on a linear contaminant transport model in the same porous medium. Because of possible different sources of uncertainties, the deterministic model by itself cannot give exact estimations for the future contaminant state. Incorporating observations in the model can guide it to the true state. This is usually done using the Kalman filter (KF) when the system is linear and the extended Kalman filter (EKF) when the system is nonlinear. To overcome the high computational cost required by the KF, we use the singular evolutive Kalman filter (SEKF) and the singular evolutive extended Kalman filter (SEEKF) approximations of the KF operating with low-rank covariance matrices. The SEKF can be implemented on large dimensional contaminant problems while the usage of the KF is not possible. Experimental results show that with perfect and imperfect models, the low rank filters can provide as much accurate estimates as the full KF but at much less computational cost. Localization can help the filter analysis as long as there are enough neighborhood data to the point being analyzed. Estimating the permeabilities of the aquifer is successfully tackled using both the EKF and the SEEKF.

  8. Tensor Factorization for Low-Rank Tensor Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pan; Lu, Canyi; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Recently, a tensor nuclear norm (TNN) based method was proposed to solve the tensor completion problem, which has achieved state-of-the-art performance on image and video inpainting tasks. However, it requires computing tensor singular value decomposition (t-SVD), which costs much computation and thus cannot efficiently handle tensor data, due to its natural large scale. Motivated by TNN, we propose a novel low-rank tensor factorization method for efficiently solving the 3-way tensor completion problem. Our method preserves the low-rank structure of a tensor by factorizing it into the product of two tensors of smaller sizes. In the optimization process, our method only needs to update two smaller tensors, which can be more efficiently conducted than computing t-SVD. Furthermore, we prove that the proposed alternating minimization algorithm can converge to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. Experimental results on the synthetic data recovery, image and video inpainting tasks clearly demonstrate the superior performance and efficiency of our developed method over state-of-the-arts including the TNN and matricization methods.

  9. RRCRank: a fusion method using rank strategy for residue-residue contact prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoyang; Dong, Qiwen; Lu, Ruqian

    2017-09-02

    In structural biology area, protein residue-residue contacts play a crucial role in protein structure prediction. Some researchers have found that the predicted residue-residue contacts could effectively constrain the conformational search space, which is significant for de novo protein structure prediction. In the last few decades, related researchers have developed various methods to predict residue-residue contacts, especially, significant performance has been achieved by using fusion methods in recent years. In this work, a novel fusion method based on rank strategy has been proposed to predict contacts. Unlike the traditional regression or classification strategies, the contact prediction task is regarded as a ranking task. First, two kinds of features are extracted from correlated mutations methods and ensemble machine-learning classifiers, and then the proposed method uses the learning-to-rank algorithm to predict contact probability of each residue pair. First, we perform two benchmark tests for the proposed fusion method (RRCRank) on CASP11 dataset and CASP12 dataset respectively. The test results show that the RRCRank method outperforms other well-developed methods, especially for medium and short range contacts. Second, in order to verify the superiority of ranking strategy, we predict contacts by using the traditional regression and classification strategies based on the same features as ranking strategy. Compared with these two traditional strategies, the proposed ranking strategy shows better performance for three contact types, in particular for long range contacts. Third, the proposed RRCRank has been compared with several state-of-the-art methods in CASP11 and CASP12. The results show that the RRCRank could achieve comparable prediction precisions and is better than three methods in most assessment metrics. The learning-to-rank algorithm is introduced to develop a novel rank-based method for the residue-residue contact prediction of proteins, which

  10. The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R. M.; Lang, R.; Aalders, M. C.; Cross, F. W.; Sterenborg, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for measuring optical properties and deriving chromophore concentrations from diffuse reflection measurements at the surface of a turbid medium. The method uses a diffusion approximation model for the diffuse reflectance, in combination with models for the absorption and

  11. Low-rank coal study. Volume 5. RD and D program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    A national program is recommended for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of improved technologies for the enviromentally acceptable use of low-rank coals. RD and D project recommendations are outlined in all applicable technology areas, including extraction, transportation, preparation, handling and storage, conventional combustion and environmental control technology, fluidized bed combustion, gasification, liquefaction, and pyrolysis. Basic research topics are identified separately, as well as a series of crosscutting research activities addressing environmental, economic, and regulatory issues. The recommended RD and D activities are classified into Priority I and Priority II categories, reflecting their relative urgency and potential impact on the advancement of low-rank coal development. Summaries of ongoing research projects on low-rank coals in the US are presented in an Appendix, and the relationships of these ongoing efforts to the recommended RD and D program are discussed.

  12. Individual variation in intentionality in the mind-wandering state is reflected in the integration of the default-mode, fronto-parietal, and limbic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchert, Johannes; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Seli, Paul; Huntenburg, Julia M; Liem, Franziskus; Lauckner, Mark E; Oligschläger, Sabine; Bernhardt, Boris C; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-02-01

    Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as well the apparently alternative view that control can facilitate the expression of self-generated mental content. We assessed whether this apparent contradiction arises because of a failure to consider differences in the types of thoughts that occur during mind-wandering, and in particular, the associated level of intentionality. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we examined the cortical organisation that underlies inter-individual differences in descriptions of the spontaneous or deliberate nature of mind-wandering. Cortical thickness, as well as functional connectivity analyses, implicated regions relevant to cognitive control and regions of the default-mode network for individuals who reported high rates of deliberate mind-wandering. In contrast, higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering were associated with cortical thinning in parietal and posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (which are important in the control of cognition and attention) as well as heightened connectivity between the intraparietal sulcus and a region that spanned limbic and default-mode regions in the ventral inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, we observed a dissociation in the thickness of the retrosplenial cortex/lingual gyrus, with higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering being associated with thickening in the left hemisphere, and higher repots of deliberate mind-wandering with thinning in the right hemisphere. These results suggest that the intentionality of the mind-wandering state depends on integration between the control and default-mode networks, with more deliberation being associated with greater integration between these systems. We conclude that one reason why mind-wandering has a controversial relationship

  13. Ranking Fuzzy Numbers and Its Application to Products Attributes Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Lazim Abdullah; Nor Nashrah Ahmad Fauzee

    2011-01-01

    Ranking is one of the widely used methods in fuzzy decision making environment. The recent ranking fuzzy numbers proposed by Wang and Li is claimed to be the improved version in ranking. However, the method was never been simplified and tested in real life application. This paper presents a four-step computation of ranking fuzzy numbers and its application in ranking attributes of selected chocolate products.  The four steps algorithm was formulated to rank fuzzy numbers and followed by a tes...

  14. The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo Analysis for Various Land-Cover Types in the Midwestern United States for the Tempo Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bethany

    The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite, scheduled to be launched around the year 2020, is the first phase of NASA's next generation of missions that will study the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. TEMPO provides a new set of high-resolution ( 0.4 nm) spectral data in the ultraviolet and visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be used to measure atmospheric pollutants. Due to its high spectral resolution and hourly temporal resolution covering entire North America, TEMPO data can also be used along with the calculation of spectral indices using the bidirectional reflection distribution functions (BRDF) or albedo to improve crop growth and yield monitoring for regional food security. The objectives of this thesis research were to 1) characterize BRDF/albedo of various land-cover types in Midwestern United States that can be used to remove land surface competent from at-sensor TEMPO radiances for accurate estimation of atmospheric chemistry and 2) evaluation of TEMPO data for regional agro-ecosystem studies. To this end, we: (1) collected 461 upwelling and downwelling solar irradiances and spectral albedo of various land-cover types (e.g., grapevine, maize, soybean, tomato, rock, asphalt road and concrete pave way, clean and turbid waters) at 110 sites in the States of Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Colorado using a PSR-3500 hand-held Spectroradiometer; (2) conducted a field and manned aircraft data collection campaign in Maryland Heights, Missouri using the Geo-TASO flight instrument flown onboard the NASA HU-25C Falcon aircraft on August 13, 2014; and (3) utilized Ross-Li Kernel BRDF model and MODTRAN radiative transfer simulations to characterize BRDF/albedo of various land-cover types. TEMPO retrieval of atmospheric gases must account for the effects of surface BRDF/albedo. Since BRDF is an inherent optical properties of surface, this research will contribute to the TEMPO mission by providing high

  15. Ranking U-Sapiens 2010-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Roberto Peña-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos de esta investigación son los siguientes: (1 que la comunidad científica nacional e internacional y la sociedad en general co-nozcan los resultados del Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia 2010_2, el cual clasifica a cada institución de educación superior colombiana según puntaje, posición y cuartil; (2 destacar los movimientos más importantes al comparar los resultados del ranking 2010_1 con los del 2010_2; (3 publicar las respuestas de algunos actores de la academia nacional con respecto a la dinámica de la investigación en el país; (4 reconocer algunas instituciones, medios de comunicación e investigadores que se han interesado a modo de reflexión, referenciación o citación por esta investigación; y (5 dar a conocer el «Sello Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia» para las IES clasificadas. El alcance de este estudio en cuanto a actores abordó todas y cada una de las IES nacionales (aunque solo algunas lograran entrar al ranking y en cuanto a tiempo, un periodo referido al primer semestre de 2010 con respecto a: (1 los resultados 2010-1 de revistas indexadas en Publindex, (2 los programas de maestrías y doctorados activos durante 2010-1 según el Ministerio de Educación Nacional, y (3 los resultados de grupos de investigación clasificados para 2010 según Colciencias. El método empleado para esta investigación es el mismo que para el ranking 2010_1, salvo por una especificación aún más detallada en uno de los pasos del modelo (las variables α, β, γ; es completamente cuantitativo y los datos de las variables que fundamentan sus resultados provienen de Colciencias y el Ministerio de Educación Nacional; y en esta ocasión se darán a conocer los resultados por variable para 2010_1 y 2010_2. Los resultados más relevantes son estos: (1 entraron 8 IES al ranking y salieron 3; (2 las 3 primeras IES son públicas; (3 en total hay 6 instituciones universitarias en el ranking; (4 7 de las 10 primeras IES son

  16. Frames for exact inversion of the rank order coder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Khaled; Antonini, Marc; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Our goal is to revisit rank order coding by proposing an original exact decoding procedure for it. Rank order coding was proposed by Thorpe et al. who stated that the order in which the retina cells are activated encodes for the visual stimulus. Based on this idea, the authors proposed in [1] a rank order coder/decoder associated to a retinal model. Though, it appeared that the decoding procedure employed yields reconstruction errors that limit the model bit-cost/quality performances when used as an image codec. The attempts made in the literature to overcome this issue are time consuming and alter the coding procedure, or are lacking mathematical support and feasibility for standard size images. Here we solve this problem in an original fashion by using the frames theory, where a frame of a vector space designates an extension for the notion of basis. Our contribution is twofold. First, we prove that the analyzing filter bank considered is a frame, and then we define the corresponding dual frame that is necessary for the exact image reconstruction. Second, to deal with the problem of memory overhead, we design a recursive out-of-core blockwise algorithm for the computation of this dual frame. Our work provides a mathematical formalism for the retinal model under study and defines a simple and exact reverse transform for it with over than 265 dB of increase in the peak signal-to-noise ratio quality compared to [1]. Furthermore, the framework presented here can be extended to several models of the visual cortical areas using redundant representations.

  17. Moving object detection via low-rank total variation regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Chen, Qian; Shao, Na

    2016-09-01

    Moving object detection is a challenging task in video surveillance. Recently proposed Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) can recover the outlier patterns from the low-rank data under some mild conditions. However, the l-penalty in RPCA doesn't work well in moving object detection because the irrepresentable condition is often not satisfied. In this paper, a method based on total variation (TV) regularization scheme is proposed. In our model, image sequences captured with a static camera are highly related, which can be described using a low-rank matrix. Meanwhile, the low-rank matrix can absorb background motion, e.g. periodic and random perturbation. The foreground objects in the sequence are usually sparsely distributed and drifting continuously, and can be treated as group outliers from the highly-related background scenes. Instead of l-penalty, we exploit the total variation of the foreground. By minimizing the total variation energy, the outliers tend to collapse and finally converge to be the exact moving objects. The TV-penalty is superior to the l-penalty especially when the outlier is in the majority for some pixels, and our method can estimate the outlier explicitly with less bias but higher variance. To solve the problem, a joint optimization function is formulated and can be effectively solved through the inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (ALM) method. We evaluate our method along with several state-of-the-art approaches in MATLAB. Both qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that our proposed method works effectively on a large range of complex scenarios.

  18. Deep Multimodal Distance Metric Learning Using Click Constraints for Image Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Yang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fei; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-12-01

    How do we retrieve images accurately? Also, how do we rank a group of images precisely and efficiently for specific queries? These problems are critical for researchers and engineers to generate a novel image searching engine. First, it is important to obtain an appropriate description that effectively represent the images. In this paper, multimodal features are considered for describing images. The images unique properties are reflected by visual features, which are correlated to each other. However, semantic gaps always exist between images visual features and semantics. Therefore, we utilize click feature to reduce the semantic gap. The second key issue is learning an appropriate distance metric to combine these multimodal features. This paper develops a novel deep multimodal distance metric learning (Deep-MDML) method. A structured ranking model is adopted to utilize both visual and click features in distance metric learning (DML). Specifically, images and their related ranking results are first collected to form the training set. Multimodal features, including click and visual features, are collected with these images. Next, a group of autoencoders is applied to obtain initially a distance metric in different visual spaces, and an MDML method is used to assign optimal weights for different modalities. Next, we conduct alternating optimization to train the ranking model, which is used for the ranking of new queries with click features. Compared with existing image ranking methods, the proposed method adopts a new ranking model to use multimodal features, including click features and visual features in DML. We operated experiments to analyze the proposed Deep-MDML in two benchmark data sets, and the results validate the effects of the method.

  19. Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map...

  20. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how the concept of reflexivity is used in intercultural education. Reflexivity is often presented as a key learning goal in acquiring intercultural competence (ICC). Yet, reflexivity can be defined in different ways, and take different forms across time and space, depending...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...... in designing learning objectives in intercultural education and in devising ways to attain them. Greater attention is also needed in intercultural education to the ways in which selfhood, and hence also reflexivity and constructions of difference, differ across space and time....

  1. Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dahlan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.

  2. Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dahlan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.

  3. On the Nonnegative Rank of Euclidean Distance Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Matthew M; Chu, Moody T

    2010-09-01

    The Euclidean distance matrix for n distinct points in ℝ r is generically of rank r + 2. It is shown in this paper via a geometric argument that its nonnegative rank for the case r = 1 is generically n.

  4. Global Low-Rank Image Restoration With Gaussian Mixture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sibo; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Fang; Wang, Shuang

    2017-06-27

    Low-rank restoration has recently attracted a lot of attention in the research of computer vision. Empirical studies show that exploring the low-rank property of the patch groups can lead to superior restoration performance, however, there is limited achievement on the global low-rank restoration because the rank minimization at image level is too strong for the natural images which seldom match the low-rank condition. In this paper, we describe a flexible global low-rank restoration model which introduces the local statistical properties into the rank minimization. The proposed model can effectively recover the latent global low-rank structure via nuclear norm, as well as the fine details via Gaussian mixture model. An alternating scheme is developed to estimate the Gaussian parameters and the restored image, and it shows excellent convergence and stability. Besides, experiments on image and video sequence datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed method in image inpainting problems.

  5. Algebraic and computational aspects of real tensor ranks

    CERN Document Server

    Sakata, Toshio; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive summaries of theoretical (algebraic) and computational aspects of tensor ranks, maximal ranks, and typical ranks, over the real number field. Although tensor ranks have been often argued in the complex number field, it should be emphasized that this book treats real tensor ranks, which have direct applications in statistics. The book provides several interesting ideas, including determinant polynomials, determinantal ideals, absolutely nonsingular tensors, absolutely full column rank tensors, and their connection to bilinear maps and Hurwitz-Radon numbers. In addition to reviews of methods to determine real tensor ranks in details, global theories such as the Jacobian method are also reviewed in details. The book includes as well an accessible and comprehensive introduction of mathematical backgrounds, with basics of positive polynomials and calculations by using the Groebner basis. Furthermore, this book provides insights into numerical methods of finding tensor ranks through...

  6. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  7. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  8. GoDec+: Fast and Robust Low-Rank Matrix Decomposition Based on Maximum Correntropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kailing; Liu, Liu; Xu, Xiangmin; Xu, Dong; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-04-24

    GoDec is an efficient low-rank matrix decomposition algorithm. However, optimal performance depends on sparse errors and Gaussian noise. This paper aims to address the problem that a matrix is composed of a low-rank component and unknown corruptions. We introduce a robust local similarity measure called correntropy to describe the corruptions and, in doing so, obtain a more robust and faster low-rank decomposition algorithm: GoDec+. Based on half-quadratic optimization and greedy bilateral paradigm, we deliver a solution to the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC)-based low-rank decomposition problem. Experimental results show that GoDec+ is efficient and robust to different corruptions including Gaussian noise, Laplacian noise, salt & pepper noise, and occlusion on both synthetic and real vision data. We further apply GoDec+ to more general applications including classification and subspace clustering. For classification, we construct an ensemble subspace from the low-rank GoDec+ matrix and introduce an MCC-based classifier. For subspace clustering, we utilize GoDec+ values low-rank matrix for MCC-based self-expression and combine it with spectral clustering. Face recognition, motion segmentation, and face clustering experiments show that the proposed methods are effective and robust. In particular, we achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the Hopkins 155 data set and the first 10 subjects of extended Yale B for subspace clustering.

  9. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. TIENKEN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries’ rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum’s Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI. The study investigated the existence of relationships between international test rankings from three different time periods during the last 50 years of U.S. education policy development (i.e., 1957–1982, 1983–2000, and 2001–2006 and 2006 GCI ranks. It extends previous research on the topic by investigating how GCI rankings in the top 50 percent and bottom 50 percent relate to rankings on international tests for the countries that participated in each test. The study found that the relationship between ranks on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic strength is stronger among nations with lower-performing economies. Nations with strong economies, such as the United States, demonstrate a weaker, nonsignificant relationship.

  10. Adaptive low-rank subspace learning with online optimization for robust visual tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Risheng; Wang, Di; Han, Yuzhuo; Fan, Xin; Luo, Zhongxuan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, sparse and low-rank models have been widely used to formulate appearance subspace for visual tracking. However, most existing methods only consider the sparsity or low-rankness of the coefficients, which is not sufficient enough for appearance subspace learning on complex video sequences. Moreover, as both the low-rank and the column sparse measures are tightly related to all the samples in the sequences, it is challenging to incrementally solve optimization problems with both nuclear norm and column sparse norm on sequentially obtained video data. To address above limitations, this paper develops a novel low-rank subspace learning with adaptive penalization (LSAP) framework for subspace based robust visual tracking. Different from previous work, which often simply decomposes observations as low-rank features and sparse errors, LSAP simultaneously learns the subspace basis, low-rank coefficients and column sparse errors to formulate appearance subspace. Within LSAP framework, we introduce a Hadamard production based regularization to incorporate rich generative/discriminative structure constraints to adaptively penalize the coefficients for subspace learning. It is shown that such adaptive penalization can significantly improve the robustness of LSAP on severely corrupted dataset. To utilize LSAP for online visual tracking, we also develop an efficient incremental optimization scheme for nuclear norm and column sparse norm minimizations. Experiments on 50 challenging video sequences demonstrate that our tracker outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Patch-Based Image Inpainting via Two-Stage Low Rank Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Gao, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yin, Yilong; Zhang, Caiming

    2017-05-09

    To recover the corrupted pixels, traditional inpainting methods based on low-rank priors generally need to solve a convex optimization problem by an iterative singular value shrinkage algorithm. In this paper, we propose a simple method for image inpainting using low rank approximation, which avoids the time-consuming iterative shrinkage. Specifically, if similar patches of a corrupted image are identified and reshaped as vectors, then a patch matrix can be constructed by collecting these similar patch-vectors. Due to its columns being highly linearly correlated, this patch matrix is low-rank. Instead of using an iterative singular value shrinkage scheme, the proposed method utilizes low rank approximation with truncated singular values to derive a closed-form estimate for each patch matrix. Depending upon an observation that there exists a distinct gap in the singular spectrum of patch matrix, the rank of each patch matrix is empirically determined by a heuristic procedure. Inspired by the inpainting algorithms with component decomposition, a two-stage low rank approximation (TSLRA) scheme is designed to recover image structures and refine texture details of corrupted images. Experimental results on various inpainting tasks demonstrate that the proposed method is comparable and even superior to some state-of-the-art inpainting algorithms.

  12. Tecer sobe no ranking da Capes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surpresa ainda maior foi verificar que prosseguimos no rumo da consolidação, crescendo no ranking – chegando a B3 em alguns campos, como pode ser visto no portal de buscas do Qualis Capes http://qualis.capes.gov.br/webqualis/principal.seamhttp://qualis.capes.gov, que apresenta nossa classificação abaixo:   B3 ADMINISTRAÇÃO, CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS E TURISMO B4 CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS APLICADAS I B4 EDUCAÇÃO B4 INTERDISCIPLINAR B5 DIREITO B5 HISTÓRIA C CIÊNCIA DA COMPUTAÇÃO

  13. On Stein's unbiased risk estimate for reduced rank estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Richard

    2018-01-01

    Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) is considered for matrix valued observables with low rank means. It is shown that SURE is applicable to a class of spectral function estimators including the reduced rank estimator.......Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) is considered for matrix valued observables with low rank means. It is shown that SURE is applicable to a class of spectral function estimators including the reduced rank estimator....

  14. A study of serial ranks via random graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Haeusler, Erich; Mason, David M.; Turova, Tatyana S.

    2000-01-01

    Serial ranks have long been used as the basis for nonparametric tests of independence in time series analysis. We shall study the underlying graph structure of serial ranks. This will lead us to a basic martingale which will allow us to construct a weighted approximation to a serial rank process. To show the applicability of this approximation, we will use it to prove two very general central limit theorems for Wald-Wolfowitz-type serial rank statistics.

  15. Characterizing Microseismicity at the Newberry Volcano Geothermal Site using PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A. C.; Myers, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Newberry Volcano, within the Deschutes National Forest in Oregon, has been designated as a candidate site for the Department of Energy's Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) program. This site was stimulated using high-pressure fluid injection during the fall of 2012, which generated several hundred microseismic events. Exploring the spatial and temporal development of microseismicity is key to understanding how subsurface stimulation modifies stress, fractures rock, and increases permeability. We analyze Newberry seismicity using both surface and borehole seismometers from the AltaRock and LLNL seismic networks. For our analysis we adapt PageRank, Google's initial search algorithm, to evaluate microseismicity during the 2012 stimulation. PageRank is a measure of connectivity, where higher ranking represents highly connected windows. In seismic applications connectivity is measured by the cross correlation of 2 time windows recorded on a common seismic station and channel. Aguiar and Beroza (2014) used PageRank based on cross correlation to detect low-frequency earthquakes, which are highly repetitive but difficult to detect. We expand on this application by using PageRank to define signal-correlation topology for micro-earthquakes, including the identification of signals that are connected to the largest number of other signals. We then use this information to create signal families and compare PageRank families to the spatial and temporal proximity of associated earthquakes. Studying signal PageRank will potentially allow us to efficiently group earthquakes with similar physical characteristics, such as focal mechanisms and stress drop. Our ultimate goal is to determine whether changes in the state of stress and/or changes in the generation of subsurface fracture networks can be detected using PageRank topology. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  16. Do PageRank-based author rankings outperform simple citation counts?

    CERN Document Server

    Fiala, Dalibor; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The basic indicators of a researcher's productivity and impact are still the number of publications and their citation counts. These metrics are clear, straightforward, and easy to obtain. When a ranking of scholars is needed, for instance in grant, award, or promotion procedures, their use is the fastest and cheapest way of prioritizing some scientists over others. However, due to their nature, there is a danger of oversimplifying scientific achievements. Therefore, many other indicators have been proposed including the usage of the PageRank algorithm known for the ranking of webpages and its modifications suited to citation networks. Nevertheless, this recursive method is computationally expensive and even if it has the advantage of favouring prestige over popularity, its application should be well justified, particularly when compared to the standard citation counts. In this study, we analyze three large datasets of computer science papers in the categories of artificial intelligence, software engineering,...

  17. DebtRank: A Microscopic Foundation for Shock Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoscia, Marco; Battiston, Stefano; Caccioli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The DebtRank algorithm has been increasingly investigated as a method to estimate the impact of shocks in financial networks, as it overcomes the limitations of the traditional default-cascade approaches. Here we formulate a dynamical "microscopic" theory of instability for financial networks by iterating balance sheet identities of individual banks and by assuming a simple rule for the transfer of shocks from borrowers to lenders. By doing so, we generalise the DebtRank formulation, both providing an interpretation of the effective dynamics in terms of basic accounting principles and preventing the underestimation of losses on certain network topologies. Depending on the structure of the interbank leverage matrix the dynamics is either stable, in which case the asymptotic state can be computed analytically, or unstable, meaning that at least one bank will default. We apply this framework to a dataset of the top listed European banks in the period 2008-2013. We find that network effects can generate an amplification of exogenous shocks of a factor ranging between three (in normal periods) and six (during the crisis) when we stress the system with a 0.5% shock on external (i.e. non-interbank) assets for all banks.

  18. System for ranking relative threats of U.S. volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology to systematically rank volcanic threat was developed as the basis for prioritizing volcanoes for long-term hazards evaluations, monitoring, and mitigation activities. A ranking of 169 volcanoes in the United States and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (U.S. volcanoes) is presented based on scores assigned for various hazard and exposure factors. Fifteen factors define the hazard: Volcano type, maximum known eruptive explosivity, magnitude of recent explosivity within the past 500 and 5,000 years, average eruption-recurrence interval, presence or potential for a suite of hazardous phenomena (pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, tsunami, flank collapse, hydrothermal explosion, primary lahar), and deformation, seismic, or degassing unrest. Nine factors define exposure: a measure of ground-based human population in hazard zones, past fatalities and evacuations, a measure of airport exposure, a measure of human population on aircraft, the presence of power, transportation, and developed infrastructure, and whether or not the volcano forms a significant part of a populated island. The hazard score and exposure score for each volcano are multiplied to give its overall threat score. Once scored, the ordered list of volcanoes is divided into five overall threat categories from very high to very low. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  19. Text mixing shapes the anatomy of rank-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jake Ryland; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-05-01

    Natural languages are full of rules and exceptions. One of the most famous quantitative rules is Zipf's law, which states that the frequency of occurrence of a word is approximately inversely proportional to its rank. Though this "law" of ranks has been found to hold across disparate texts and forms of data, analyses of increasingly large corpora since the late 1990s have revealed the existence of two scaling regimes. These regimes have thus far been explained by a hypothesis suggesting a separability of languages into core and noncore lexica. Here we present and defend an alternative hypothesis that the two scaling regimes result from the act of aggregating texts. We observe that text mixing leads to an effective decay of word introduction, which we show provides accurate predictions of the location and severity of breaks in scaling. Upon examining large corpora from 10 languages in the Project Gutenberg eBooks collection, we find emphatic empirical support for the universality of our claim.

  20. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from “BCI Competition III Dataset IVa” and “BCI Competition IV Database 2a.” The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP. PMID:28096809

  1. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common spatial pattern (CSP and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from “BCI Competition III Dataset IVa” and “BCI Competition IV Database 2a.” The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  2. Node Importance Ranking of Complex Networks with Entropy Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Ai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous nature of a complex network determines the roles of each node in the network that are quite different. Mechanisms of complex networks such as spreading dynamics, cascading reactions, and network synchronization are highly affected by a tiny fraction of so-called important nodes. Node importance ranking is thus of great theoretical and practical significance. Network entropy is usually utilized to characterize the amount of information encoded in the network structure and to measure the structural complexity at the graph level. We find that entropy can also serve as a local level metric to quantify node importance. We propose an entropic metric, Entropy Variation, defining the node importance as the variation of network entropy before and after its removal, according to the assumption that the removal of a more important node is likely to cause more structural variation. Like other state-of-the-art methods for ranking node importance, the proposed entropic metric is also used to utilize structural information, but at the systematical level, not the local level. Empirical investigations on real life networks, the Snake Idioms Network, and several other well-known networks, demonstrate the superiority of the proposed entropic metric, notably outperforming other centrality metrics in identifying the top-k most important nodes.

  3. Single-Fiber Reflectance Spectroscopy of Isotropic-Scattering Medium: An Analytic Perspective to the Ratio-of-Remission in Steady-State Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqing Piao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent focused Monte Carlo and experimental studies on steady-state single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy (SfRS from a biologically relevant scattering medium have revealed that, as the dimensionless reduced scattering of the medium increases, the SfRS intensity increases monotonically until reaching a plateau. The SfRS signal is semi-empirically decomposed to the product of three contributing factors, including a ratio-of-remission (RoR term that refers to the ratio of photons remitting from the medium and crossing the fiber-medium interface over the total number of photons launched into the medium. The RoR is expressed with respect to the dimensionless reduced scattering parameter , where  is the reduced scattering coefficient of the medium and  is the diameter of the probing fiber. We develop in this work, under the assumption of an isotropic-scattering medium, a method of analytical treatment that will indicate the pattern of RoR as a function of the dimensionless reduced scattering of the medium. The RoR is derived in four cases, corresponding to in-medium (applied to interstitial probing of biological tissue or surface-based (applied to contact-probing of biological tissue SfRS measurements using straight-polished or angle-polished fiber. The analytically arrived surface-probing RoR corresponding to single-fiber probing using a 15° angle-polished fiber over the range of  agrees with previously reported similarly configured experimental measurement from a scattering medium that has a Henyey–Greenstein scattering phase function with an anisotropy factor of 0.8. In cases of a medium scattering light anisotropically, we propose how the treatment may be furthered to account for the scattering anisotropy using the result of a study of light scattering close to the point-of-entry by Vitkin et al. (Nat. Commun. 2011, doi:10.1038/ncomms1599.

  4. an investigation into n investigation into index ranking technique for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The study shows that the utility of the ranking technique may be limited by em. Therefore users of the technique for ranking fuzzy numbers have to maker, risk attitude, critical path, total float ranking s usually faced with a ully managing projects. The th project management is vities in the project have the activity times in the.

  5. Variation in rank abundance replicate samples and impact of clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Calculating a single-sample rank abundance curve by using the negative-binomial distribution provides a way to investigate the variability within rank abundance replicate samples and yields a measure of the degree of heterogeneity of the sampled community. The calculation of the single-sample rank

  6. PageRank in scale-free random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ningyuan; Litvak, Nelli; Olvera-Cravioto, Mariana; Bonata, Anthony; Chung, Fan; Pralat, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of PageRank on a directed configuration model and show that as the size of the graph grows to infinity, the PageRank of a randomly chosen node can be closely approximated by the PageRank of the root node of an appropriately constructed tree. This tree approximation is in

  7. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  8. University Rankings 2.0: New Frontiers in Institutional Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The number of university rankings systems in use around the world has increased dramatically over the last decade. As they have spread, they have mutated; no longer are ranking systems simply clones of the original ranking systems such as "US News" and "World Report". A number of different types of "mutation" have occurred, so that there are now…

  9. Ranking Scholarly Publishers in Political Science: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, James C.; Giles, Micheal W.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has documented how political scientists evaluate and rank scholarly journals, but the evaluation and ranking of scholarly book publishers has drawn less attention. In this article, we use data from a survey of 603 American political scientists to generate a ranking of scholarly publishers in political science. We used open-ended…

  10. Ranking Quality in Higher Education: Guiding or Misleading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergseth, Brita; Petocz, Peter; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    The study examines two different models of measuring, assessing and ranking quality in higher education. Do different systems of quality assessment lead to equivalent conclusions about the quality of education? This comparative study is based on the rankings of 24 Swedish higher education institutions. Two ranking actors have independently…

  11. Cardinal priority ranking based decision making for economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To access the indifference band, interaction with the decision maker is obtained via cardinal priority ranking (CPR) of the objectives. The cardinal priority ranking is constructed in the functional space and then transformed into the decision space, so the cardinal priority ranking of objectives relate the decision maker's ...

  12. A Fast Algorithm for Generating Permutation Distribution of Ranks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... function of the distribution of the ranks. This further gives insight into the permutation distribution of a rank statistics. The algorithm is implemented with the aid of the computer algebra system Mathematica. Key words: Combinatorics, generating function, permutation distribution, rank statistics, partitions, computer algebra.

  13. Calibrating Canadian Universities: Rankings for Sale Once Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kenneth M.; Page, Stewart

    2007-01-01

    A summary and update on recent research by the authors and others concerning rankings of Canadian universities is presented. Some specific data are reported in regard to the 2005 and 2006 ranking data published by "Maclean's" magazine. Some criticisms and difficulties with the use of rank-based data are outlined with regard to the issues…

  14. Higher Education Ranking and Leagues Tables: Lessons Learned from Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Roland

    2007-01-01

    The paper intends to contribute to the debate on ranking and league tables by adopting a critical approach to ranking methodologies from the point of view of a university benchmarking exercise. The absence of a strict benchmarking exercise in the ranking process has been, in the opinion of the author, one of the major problems encountered in the…

  15. Synthesis of Partial Rankings of Points of Interest Using Crowdsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keles, Ilkcan; Saltenis, Simonas; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    to the query keywords and the query location. A key challenge in being able to make progress on the design of ranking functions is to be able to assess the quality of the results returned by ranking functions. We propose a model that synthesizes a ranking of points of interest from answers to crowdsourced...

  16. Petrography and rank of the Bhangtar coals, southeastern Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareek, H.S. (BH23, Meerut (India))

    1990-07-01

    In Bhutan, a potential coal deposit is exposed at Bhangtar in the 'landslide zone'. Nineteen coal seams are encountered in this area, and occur in the Lower Gondwana Supergroup preserved in between the Main Boundary Fault and the Thrust. The coal is low in moisture, {lt}1.76%, but the coal cores show moisture values of 3.16%. The ash content is up to 48.87% and increases substantially in the younger seams. The volatile content (on a pure coal basis) ranges from 23.38% to 41.02%. The sulphur content is less than 0.61%. The coals are non-coking. The amount of trace elements in the coal is quite low. The average petrographic composition of the Bhangtar coal is vitrinite - 31%, exinite - 2%, inertinite - 31%, and mineral and shaly matter - 36%, the vitrinite proportion decreases from the older to the younger seams, which are shaly. an age can be assigned to the Bhangtar coal. Based on oil reflectance, the rank of the coal is metalignitous to hypobituminous. The average microlithotype composition of the coal is vitrite - 30%, clarite - 1%, vitrinertite V - 14%, vitrinertite I - 11%, durite - 3%, fusite - 14%, and carbominerite - 27%. Vitrite decreases in proportion towards the younger seams, 'intermediates' show a concomitant increase, while durite and fusite remain constant. Carbonaceous shale contains fragmentary inertinite and vitrinite macerals and is interlayered with micro-bands of shaly coal which is characterised by abundant fragments of fusinite and vitrinite. The coal is very fragile and thus amenable to economic beneficiation. The coal is used as fuel in electric power plants. The Bhangtar coal is characteristically distinct from the Gondwana coals of India in petrography and rank, but correlates petrographically with the Kameng coals of Arunachal Pradesh, India. 18 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs., 3 plates.

  17. Rank order scaling of pictorial depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Andrea; Koenderink, Jan; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    We address the topic of "pictorial depth" in cases of pictures that are unlike photographic renderings. The most basic measure of "depth" is no doubt that of depth order. We establish depth order through the pairwise depth-comparison method, involving all pairs from a set of 49 fiducial points. The pictorial space for this study was evoked by a capriccio (imaginary landscape) by Francesco Guardi (1712-1793). In such a drawing pictorial space is suggested by the artist through a small set of conventional depth cues. As a result typical Western observers tend to agree largely in their visual awareness when looking at such art. We rank depths for locations that are not on a single surface and far apart in pictorial space. We find that observers resolve about 40 distinct depth layers and agree largely in this. From a previous experiment we have metrical data for the same observers. The rank correlations between the results are high. Perhaps surprisingly, we find no correlation between the number of distinct depth layers and the total metrical depth range. Thus, the relation between subjective magnitude and discrimination threshold fails to hold for pictorial depth.

  18. Condensing biomedical journal texts through paragraph ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Liu, Heng-Hui; Huang, Yi-Ting

    2011-04-15

    The growing availability of full-text scientific articles raises the important issue of how to most efficiently digest full-text content. Although article titles and abstracts provide accurate and concise information on an article's contents, their brevity inevitably entails the loss of detail. Full-text articles provide those details, but require more time to read. The primary goal of this study is to combine the advantages of concise abstracts and detail-rich full-texts to ease the burden of reading. We retrieved abstract-related paragraphs from full-text articles through shared keywords between the abstract and paragraphs from the main text. Significant paragraphs were then recommended by applying a proposed paragraph ranking approach. Finally, the user was provided with a condensed text consisting of these significant paragraphs, allowing the user to save time from perusing the whole article. We compared the performance of the proposed approach with a keyword counting approach and a PageRank-like approach. Evaluation was conducted in two aspects: the importance of each retrieved paragraph and the information coverage of a set of retrieved paragraphs. In both evaluations, the proposed approach outperformed the other approaches. jchiang@mail.ncku.edu.tw.

  19. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  20. Rank of coal beds of the Narragansett basin, Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Chase, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    Coal of the Narragansett basin generally has been considered to be anthracite and/or meta-anthracite. However, no single reliable method has been used to distinguish these two ranks in this basin. Three methods - chemical, X-ray, and petrographic - have been used with some degree of success on coal of the Narragansett basin, but too often the results are in conflict. Chemical methods have been limited by inadequate sampling on a coal-bed-by-coal-bed basis and by a lack of analyses made according to (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1974) standard specifications. In addition, when corrections are made by using the Parr formulas, as required by the ASTM (1974) procedures, the generally high to very high ash content of coal from the Narragansett basin causes the fixed-carbon content to appear higher than it actually is. X-ray methods using the degree of graphitization as a measure of rank are not reliable because some of the graphite is related to shearing and brecciation associated with folding and faulting. Petrographic methods using reflectance on vitrinite give results that are generally consistent with results from chemical determinations. However, it is not clear whether the mean maximum reflectance or mean bireflectance is a better indicator of similar rank of such high-rank coals that have been structurally deformed. Coal from the Cranston Mine, RI, is probably meta-anthracite and coal from the Portsmouth Mine is probably anthracite. These ranks are based on chemical,X-ray, and petrographic data and are supported by associated metamorphic mineral assemblages that indicate that the Cranston Mine is in a higher metamorphic zone than the zone containing the Porthmouth Mine. Interpretation of the rank of Mansfield, MA, coal on the basis of extant chemical data is difficult because it is an impure coal with an ash content of 33 to 50%. Reflectance data indicate that the Mansfield, Foxborough, and Plainville coals in the northern part of the Narragansett

  1. Partial Kernelization for Rank Aggregation: Theory and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler, Nadja; Bredereck, Robert; Niedermeier, Rolf

    Rank Aggregation is important in many areas ranging from web search over databases to bioinformatics. The underlying decision problem Kemeny Score is NP-complete even in case of four input rankings to be aggregated into a "median ranking". We study efficient polynomial-time data reduction rules that allow us to find optimal median rankings. On the theoretical side, we improve a result for a "partial problem kernel" from quadratic to linear size. On the practical side, we provide encouraging experimental results with data based on web search and sport competitions, e.g., computing optimal median rankings for real-world instances with more than 100 candidates within milliseconds.

  2. Teletandem and the teaching of Portuguese as a Foreign Language: reflections of teachers from public schools in the State of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Moisés Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital communication concerning the web 2.0 modality has been transforming educational practices since it demands the development of additional knowledge besides the face-to-face classroom mode. This article concerns teacher's reflections in relation to Portuguese as a Foreign Language (PFL in virtual environments and in in-tandem contexts. The focus surrounds making explicit the reflections of in-service teachers as users of technological tools, with the consideration of linguistic issues that emerge in a virtual context as well as the possibilities of a differentiated interactive learning style regarding PFL.

  3. Total Scanning Fluorescence Characteristics of Coals and Implication to Coal Rank Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjia Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Scanning Fluorescence (TSF, as a kind of new fluorescence technique, has great significance and wide application in identifying hydrocarbon inclusions of reservoirs, hydrocarbon migration pathways and palaeo-current oil-water interfaces. Total scanning fluorescence (TSF is characterized by high efficiency, requiring low sample amount and high accuracy. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro is one of significant parameters for determining coal ranks, it cannot only reflect coalification features, but also provide a favorable indicator for coal ranks. In order to establish a relationship between vitrinite reflectance (Ro and the characteristic parameters derived from total scanning fluorescence (TSF, fourteen coal samples (coal powder without separating macerals collected from Qinshui basin and Huaibei coalfield are tested by TSF technique and vitrinite reflectance (oil immersion, respectively. It shows that TSF parameters are related to vitrinite reflectance value, although TSF parameters and fluorescence intensity of coals differ in Qinshui basin and Huaibei coalfield. Research indicates that more factors should be taken into consideration for coal sample TSF testing in the future so as to obtain an empirical formula relationship between Ro and TSF parameters.

  4. Ranking de universidades chilenas: un análisis multivariado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firinguetti Limone, Luis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work a ranking of Chilean universities on the basis of publicly available information is developed. This ranking takes into account the multivariate character of these institutions. Also, it is noted that the results are consistent with those of a well-known international ranking that uses a different set of data, as well as with several multivariate analyses of the data considered in this study.En este trabajo se elabora un ranking de las universidades chilenas en base a información pública disponible. Dicho ranking toma en cuenta el carácter multivariado de estas instituciones. Además, se ha comprobado que los resultados del ranking son consistentes con un conocido ranking internacional construido a partir de un conjunto diferente de datos y con varios análisis multivariados realizados de la información tratada en este estudio.

  5. EU Country Rankings' Sensitivity to the Choice of Welfare Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    are particularly volatile for countries in the middle of the ranking distribution, while countries with either high or low welfare generally have lower volatility. A multidimensional poverty index has the highest correlation with the latent welfare measure. It is concluded that the observed rankings do not tell......Ranking of countries with respect to some welfare measure is highly popular and takes places with high frequency. Ranking of a country can change over time given the same welfare measure is applied. Rankings can also change depending on which welfare measure is applied in a given year. To what...... extent do we see ranking changes and which existing welfare measures best captures an unobserved, yet existing, notion of welfare in society? To investigate this we apply seven welfare indicators for fifteen EU countries covering the years from 2005 until 2011. The results indicate that rankings...

  6. Characterizing thermogenic coalbed gas from Polish coals of different ranks by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, M.J.; Lewan, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    To provide a better characterization of origin and volume of thermogenic gas generation from coals, hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at 360??C for 72 h on Polish coals ranging in rank from lignite (0.3% R r) to semi-anthracite (2.0% Rr). Under these conditions, the lignites attained a medium-volatile bituminous rank (1.5% Rr), high-volatile bituminous coals attained a low-volatile bituminous rank (1.7% Rr), and the semi-anthracite obtained an anthracite rank (4.0% R r). Hydrous pyrolysis of a coal, irrespective of rank, provides a diagnostic ??13C value for its thermogenic hydrocarbon gases. This value can be used quantitatively to interpret mixing of indigenous thermogenic gas with microbial methane or exogenous thermogenic gas from other sources. Thermogenic methane quantities range from 20 dm3/kg of lignite (0.3% Rr) to 0.35 dm3/kg of semi-anthracite (2.0% Rr). At a vitrinite reflectance of 1.7% Rr, approximately 75% of the maximum potential for a coal to generate thermogenic methane has been expended. At a vitrinite reflectance of 1.7% Rr, more than 90% of the maximum potential for a coal to generate CO2 has been expended. Assuming that these quantities of generated CO2 remain associated with a sourcing coal bed as uplift or erosion provide conditions conducive for microbial methanogenesis, the resulting quantities of microbial methane generated by complete CO2 reduction can exceed the quantities of thermogenic methane generated from the same coal bed by a factor of 2-5. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CONCEPTUAL PRINCIPLES OF ATLAS GEOENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING OF GEOSPATIAL OBJECTS AND SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENT RANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk I.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses contemporary issues of digital atlas thematic mapping, which has been gaining momentum in recent decades. It shows that the atlas geoenvironmental mapping allows to perform high quality visualization of various spatial and temporal information in dynamic and static states, reflects the geoenvironmental state of objects that vary by rank, trends in its changes, and evaluates the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on it. Solution to this problem is possible with the correct choice of cartographic service, which can serve as the basis for creating a wide range of interactive digital atlases. Using the ArcGIS Online service allows you to use a larger range of cartographic imagery, which attracts users. At the same time, there are few examples of the creation of atlases of geoenvironmental issues both in paper and in digital form, so the article discusses actual problems in this area. The views of various scientists on the nature of geoenvironmental atlas are characterized. It is shown that atlases of geoenvironmental content should have in their structure basic maps of such subjects: physical geography (hypsometric, geological, tectonic, hydrogeological, geomorphological, soil, hydrological, meteorological, biogeographical, etc.; Socio-economic (demographic, labor resource potential, health, industry, agrogeography, forestry, water management, mining, recreation and tourism, etc.; Ecological (ecology-geomorphological, ecology-geological, hydroecological, soil-ecological, bioecological, landscape-ecological, air pollution, medical-ecological, sanitary-epidemiological, etc.; Applied maps (recommendations aimed at solving geoenvironmental problems, optimizing the use of natural resources and improving living conditions of the population and biota. The article considers the options of atlases classifications and thematic maps that are part of their composition, offered by domestic and foreign authors. The range of

  8. Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by RNA interference targeting RANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ruofan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoclasts and osteoblasts regulate bone resorption and formation to allow bone remodeling and homeostasis. The balance between bone resorption and formation is disturbed by abnormal recruitment of osteoclasts. Osteoclast differentiation is dependent on the receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-kappa B (RANK ligand (RANKL as well as the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. The RANKL/RANK system and RANK signaling induce osteoclast formation mediated by various cytokines. The RANK/RANKL pathway has been primarily implicated in metabolic, degenerative and neoplastic bone disorders or osteolysis. The central role of RANK/RANKL interaction in osteoclastogenesis makes RANK an attractive target for potential therapies in treatment of osteolysis. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibition of RANK expression in mouse bone marrow macrophages on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Methods Three pairs of short hairpin RNAs (shRNA targeting RANK were designed and synthesized. The optimal shRNA was selected among three pairs of shRNAs by RANK expression analyzed by Western blot and Real-time PCR. We investigated suppression of osteoclastogenesis of mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs using the optimal shRNA by targeting RANK. Results Among the three shRANKs examined, shRANK-3 significantly suppressed [88.3%] the RANK expression (p Conclusions These findings suggest that retrovirus-mediated shRNA targeting RANK inhibits osteoclast differentiation and osteolysis. It may appear an attractive target for preventing osteolysis in humans with a potential clinical application.

  9. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical screening in the United States is often conducted using scoring and ranking methodologies. Linked models accounting for chemical fate, exposure, and toxicological effects are generally preferred in Europe and in product Life Cycle Assessment. For the first time, a compar...

  10. Pedagogy and Human Dignity--The Special Rank Teacher in China since 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Yuk; Adamson, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Teachers in China are regarded as vulnerable to sociopolitical changes. This paper, however, focuses on the resilience and innovativeness of state-selected expert teachers--the recipients of the Special Rank Teacher (SRT) award. This award was the product of a transitional period in the aftermath of the Cultural Revolution, and was an act of…

  11. Asynchronous Gossip for Averaging and Spectral Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Vivek S.; Makhijani, Rahul; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2014-08-01

    We consider two variants of the classical gossip algorithm. The first variant is a version of asynchronous stochastic approximation. We highlight a fundamental difficulty associated with the classical asynchronous gossip scheme, viz., that it may not converge to a desired average, and suggest an alternative scheme based on reinforcement learning that has guaranteed convergence to the desired average. We then discuss a potential application to a wireless network setting with simultaneous link activation constraints. The second variant is a gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of a nonnegative matrix. While the first variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for an average cost controlled Markov decision problem, the second variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for risk-sensitive control. We then discuss potential applications of the second variant to ranking schemes, reputation networks, and principal component analysis.

  12. Ranking Visualizations of Correlation Using Weber's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lane; Yang, Fumeng; Franconeri, Steven; Chang, Remco

    2014-12-01

    Despite years of research yielding systems and guidelines to aid visualization design, practitioners still face the challenge of identifying the best visualization for a given dataset and task. One promising approach to circumvent this problem is to leverage perceptual laws to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of a visualization design. Following previously established methodologies, we conduct a large scale (n=1687) crowdsourced experiment to investigate whether the perception of correlation in nine commonly used visualizations can be modeled using Weber's law. The results of this experiment contribute to our understanding of information visualization by establishing that: (1) for all tested visualizations, the precision of correlation judgment could be modeled by Weber's law, (2) correlation judgment precision showed striking variation between negatively and positively correlated data, and (3) Weber models provide a concise means to quantify, compare, and rank the perceptual precision afforded by a visualization.

  13. Motif discovery in ranked lists of sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Tataru, Paula; Madsen, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    . These features make Regmex well suited for a range of biological sequence analysis problems related to motif discovery, exemplified by microRNA seed enrichment, but also including enrichment problems involving complex motifs and combinations of motifs. We demonstrate a number of usage scenarios that take......Motif analysis has long been an important method to characterize biological functionality and the current growth of sequencing-based genomics experiments further extends its potential. These diverse experiments often generate sequence lists ranked by some functional property. There is therefore...... a growing need for motif analysis methods that can exploit this coupled data structure and be tailored for specific biological questions. Here, we present an exploratory motif analysis tool, Regmex (REGular expression Motif EXplorer), which offers several methods to evaluate the correlation of motifs...

  14. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

  15. The Pursuit of K: Reflections on the Current State-of-the-Art in Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Practical Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    CraigMcClung, R.; Lee, Yi-Der; Cardinal, Joseph W.; Guo, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    The elastic stress intensity factor (SIF, commonly denoted as K) is the foundation of practical fracture mechanics (FM) analysis for aircraft structures. This single parameter describes the first-order effects of stress magnitude and distribution as well as the geometry of both structure/component and crack. Hence, the calculation of K is often the most significant step in fatigue analysis based on FM. This presentation will provide several reflections on the current state-of-the-art in SIF solution methods used for practical aerospace applications, including a brief historical perspective, descriptions of some recent and ongoing advances, and comments on some remaining challenges. Newman and Raju made significant early contributions to practical structural analysis by developing closed-form SIF equations for surface and corner cracks in simplified geometries, often based on empirical fits of finite element (FE) solutions. Those solutions (and others like them) were sometimes revised as new analyses were conducted or limitations discovered. The foundational solutions have exhibited striking longevity, despite the relatively "coarse" FE models employed many decades ago. However, in recent years, the accumulation of different generations of solutions for the same nominal geometry has led to some confusion (which solution is correct?), and steady increases in computational capabilities have facilitated the discovery of inaccuracies in some (not all!) of the legacy solutions. Some examples of problems and solutions are presented and discussed, including the challenge of maintaining consistency with legacy design applications. As computational power has increased, the prospect of calculating large numbers of SIF solutions for specific complex geometries with advanced numerical methods has grown more attractive. Fawaz and Andersson, for example, have been generating literally millions of new SIF solutions for different combinations of multiple cracks under simplified

  16. Full implementation of rank-dependent prizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midjord, Rune

    2013-01-01

    A manager/mechanism designer must allocate a set of money prizes ($1,$2,…,$n) between n agents working in a team. The agents know the state, i.e., who contributed most, second most, etc. The agents’ preferences over prizes are state independent. We incorporate the possibility that the manager knows...... the state with a tiny probability and present a simple mechanism that uniquely awards prizes that respect the true state....

  17. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  18. Collective frequency variation in network synchronization and reverse PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Taylor, Dane; Sun, Jie; Arenas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of natural and engineered phenomena rely on large networks of interacting units to reach a dynamical consensus state where the system collectively operates. Here we study the dynamics of self-organizing systems and show that for generic directed networks the collective frequency of the ensemble is not the same as the mean of the individuals' natural frequencies. Specifically, we show that the collective frequency equals a weighted average of the natural frequencies, where the weights are given by an outflow centrality measure that is equivalent to a reverse PageRank centrality. Our findings uncover an intricate dependence of the collective frequency on both the structural directedness and dynamical heterogeneity of the network, and also reveal an unexplored connection between synchronization and PageRank, which opens the possibility of applying PageRank optimization to synchronization. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of collective frequency variation in real-world networks by considering the UK and Scandinavian power grids.

  19. Collective frequency variation in network synchronization and reverse PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Taylor, Dane; Sun, Jie; Arenas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of natural and engineered phenomena rely on large networks of interacting units to reach a dynamical consensus state where the system collectively operates. Here we study the dynamics of self-organizing systems and show that for generic directed networks the collective frequency of the ensemble is not the same as the mean of the individuals' natural frequencies. Specifically, we show that the collective frequency equals a weighted average of the natural frequencies, where the weights are given by an outflow centrality measure that is equivalent to a reverse PageRank centrality. Our findings uncover an intricate dependence of the collective frequency on both the structural directedness and dynamical heterogeneity of the network, and also reveal an unexplored connection between synchronization and PageRank, which opens the possibility of applying PageRank optimization to synchronization. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of collective frequency variation in real-world networks by considering the UK and Scandinavian power grids.

  20. Image restoration via patch orientation-based low-rank matrix approximation and nonlocal means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; He, Jiazhong; Du, Minghui

    2016-03-01

    Low-rank matrix approximation and nonlocal means (NLM) are two popular techniques for image restoration. Although the basic principle for applying these two techniques is the same, i.e., similar image patches are abundant in the image, previously published related algorithms use either low-rank matrix approximation or NLM because they manipulate the information of similar patches in different ways. We propose a method for image restoration by jointly using low-rank matrix approximation and NLM in a unified minimization framework. To improve the accuracy of determining similar patches, we also propose a patch similarity measurement based on curvelet transform. Extensive experiments on image deblurring and compressive sensing image recovery validate that the proposed method achieves better results than many state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both quantitative measures and visual perception.

  1. Immunoexpression of RANK, RANKL, OPG, VEGF, and vWF in radicular and dentigerous cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Maiara; de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; de Souza, Lélia Batista; de Almeida Freitas, Roseana; de Lisboa Lopes Costa, Antônio

    2013-07-01

    Radicular (RC) and dentigerous cysts (DC) can show a range from little to quite extensive primary/secondary inflammation and it is possible that the variation seen in the fibrous capsule of these cysts might reflect differences in the osteolytic activity. Moreover, the presence of hemorrhagic areas in the fibrous capsule of DC could also contribute to the increase in osteolytic activity. The aim of this study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor κappaB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenic index in RC and DC. These proteins were evaluated in 20 RC and DC by immunohistochemistry. Angiogenic index was determined by microvessel count (MVC) using anti-von Willebrand factor antibody. RANK and RANKL were higher in DC than RC in fibrous capsule. RC showed higher expression of VEGF in the epithelium and capsule. DC exhibited higher MVC than RC. Ours results suggest that RANK and RANKL play an important role in bone resorption in DC and the hemorrhagic areas in the capsule of DC could be explained by increased vessel's number. The higher VEGF expression in RC might be related to nature of these lesions, where the inflammatory process contributes significantly to these findings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Genetic Optimization for Associative Semantic Ranking Models of Satellite Images by Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Kilicay-Ergin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Associative methods for content-based image ranking by semantics are attractive due to the similarity of generated models to human models of understanding. Although they tend to return results that are better understood by image analysts, the induction of these models is difficult to build due to factors that affect training complexity, such as coexistence of visual patterns in same images, over-fitting or under-fitting and semantic representation differences among image analysts. This article proposes a methodology to reduce the complexity of ranking satellite images for associative methods. Our approach employs genetic operations to provide faster and more accurate models for ranking by semantic using low level features. The added accuracy is provided by a reduction in the likelihood to reach local minima or to overfit. The experiments show that, using genetic optimization, associative methods perform better or at similar levels as state-of-the-art ensemble methods for ranking. The mean average precision (MAP of ranking by semantic was improved by 14% over similar associative methods that use other optimization techniques while maintaining smaller size for each semantic model.

  3. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n=30. Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35. Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers’ motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  4. Tile Low Rank Cholesky Factorization for Climate/Weather Modeling Applications on Manycore Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Akbudak, Kadir

    2017-05-11

    Covariance matrices are ubiquitous in computational science and engineering. In particular, large covariance matrices arise from multivariate spatial data sets, for instance, in climate/weather modeling applications to improve prediction using statistical methods and spatial data. One of the most time-consuming computational steps consists in calculating the Cholesky factorization of the symmetric, positive-definite covariance matrix problem. The structure of such covariance matrices is also often data-sparse, in other words, effectively of low rank, though formally dense. While not typically globally of low rank, covariance matrices in which correlation decays with distance are nearly always hierarchically of low rank. While symmetry and positive definiteness should be, and nearly always are, exploited for performance purposes, exploiting low rank character in this context is very recent, and will be a key to solving these challenging problems at large-scale dimensions. The authors design a new and flexible tile row rank Cholesky factorization and propose a high performance implementation using OpenMP task-based programming model on various leading-edge manycore architectures. Performance comparisons and memory footprint saving on up to 200K×200K covariance matrix size show a gain of more than an order of magnitude for both metrics, against state-of-the-art open-source and vendor optimized numerical libraries, while preserving the numerical accuracy fidelity of the original model. This research represents an important milestone in enabling large-scale simulations for covariance-based scientific applications.

  5. Low-Rank Representation-Based Object Tracking Using Multitask Feature Learning with Joint Sparsity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuncheol Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address object tracking problem as a multitask feature learning process based on low-rank representation of features with joint sparsity. We first select features with low-rank representation within a number of initial frames to obtain subspace basis. Next, the features represented by the low-rank and sparse property are learned using a modified joint sparsity-based multitask feature learning framework. Both the features and sparse errors are then optimally updated using a novel incremental alternating direction method. The low-rank minimization problem for learning multitask features can be achieved by a few sequences of efficient closed form update process. Since the proposed method attempts to perform the feature learning problem in both multitask and low-rank manner, it can not only reduce the dimension but also improve the tracking performance without drift. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms existing state-of-the-art tracking methods for tracking objects in challenging image sequences.

  6. Person Re-Identification by Iterative Re-Weighted Sparse Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Giuseppe; Masi, Iacopo; Bagdanov, Andrew D; Del Bimbo, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a method for person re-identification based on discriminative, sparse basis expansions of targets in terms of a labeled gallery of known individuals. We propose an iterative extension to sparse discriminative classifiers capable of ranking many candidate targets. The approach makes use of soft- and hard- re-weighting to redistribute energy among the most relevant contributing elements and to ensure that the best candidates are ranked at each iteration. Our approach also leverages a novel visual descriptor which we show to be discriminative while remaining robust to pose and illumination variations. An extensive comparative evaluation is given demonstrating that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on single- and multi-shot person re-identification scenarios on the VIPeR, i-LIDS, ETHZ, and CAVIAR4REID datasets. The combination of our descriptor and iterative sparse basis expansion improves state-of-the-art rank-1 performance by six percentage points on VIPeR and by 20 on CAVIAR4REID compared to other methods with a single gallery image per person. With multiple gallery and probe images per person our approach improves by 17 percentage points the state-of-the-art on i-LIDS and by 72 on CAVIAR4REID at rank-1. The approach is also quite efficient, capable of single-shot person re-identification over galleries containing hundreds of individuals at about 30 re-identifications per second.

  7. Rankings matter: nurse graduates from higher-ranked institutions have higher productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakusheva, Olga; Weiss, Marianne

    2017-02-13

    Increasing demand for baccalaureate-prepared nurses has led to rapid growth in the number of baccalaureate-granting programs, and to concerns about educational quality and potential effects on productivity of the graduating nursing workforce. We examined the association of individual productivity of a baccalaureate-prepared nurse with the ranking of the degree-granting institution. For a sample of 691 nurses from general medical-surgical units at a large magnet urban hospital between 6/1/2011-12/31/2011, we conducted multivariate regression analysis of nurse productivity on the ranking of the degree-granting institution, adjusted for age, hospital tenure, gender, and unit-specific effects. Nurse productivity was coded as "top"/"average"/"bottom" based on a computation of individual nurse value-added to patient outcomes. Ranking of the baccalaureate-granting institution was derived from the US News and World Report Best Colleges Rankings' categorization of the nurse's institution as the "first tier" or the "second tier", with diploma or associate degree as the reference category. Relative to diploma or associate degree nurses, nurses who had attended first-tier universities had three-times the odds of being in the top productivity category (OR = 3.18, p productivity (OR = 1.73, p = 0.11). Being in the bottom productivity category was not associated with having a baccalaureate degree or the quality tier. The productivity boost from a nursing baccalaureate degree depends on the quality of the educational institution. Recognizing differences in educational outcomes, initiatives to build a baccalaureate-educated nursing workforce should be accompanied by improved access to high-quality educational institutions.

  8. Using incomplete citation data for MEDLINE results ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovic, Jorge R; Bernstam, Elmer V

    2005-01-01

    Information overload is a significant problem for modern medicine. Searching MEDLINE for common topics often retrieves more relevant documents than users can review. Therefore, we must identify documents that are not only relevant, but also important. Our system ranks articles using citation counts and the PageRank algorithm, incorporating data from the Science Citation Index. However, citation data is usually incomplete. Therefore, we explore the relationship between the quantity of citation information available to the system and the quality of the result ranking. Specifically, we test the ability of citation count and PageRank to identify "important articles" as defined by experts from large result sets with decreasing citation information. We found that PageRank performs better than simple citation counts, but both algorithms are surprisingly robust to information loss. We conclude that even an incomplete citation database is likely to be effective for importance ranking.

  9. Improving the Incoherence of a Learned Dictionary via Rank Shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaru, Shashanka; Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Saad, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    This letter considers the problem of dictionary learning for sparse signal representation whose atoms have low mutual coherence. To learn such dictionaries, at each step, we first update the dictionary using the method of optimal directions (MOD) and then apply a dictionary rank shrinkage step to decrease its mutual coherence. In the rank shrinkage step, we first compute a rank 1 decomposition of the column-normalized least squares estimate of the dictionary obtained from the MOD step. We then shrink the rank of this learned dictionary by transforming the problem of reducing the rank to a nonnegative garrotte estimation problem and solving it using a path-wise coordinate descent approach. We establish theoretical results that show that the rank shrinkage step included will reduce the coherence of the dictionary, which is further validated by experimental results. Numerical experiments illustrating the performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to various other well-known dictionary learning algorithms are also presented.

  10. RANK/RANK-L/OPG in Patients with Bone Metastases Treated with Anticancer Agents and Zoledronic Acid: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mercatali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with solid cancer frequently develop bone metastases (BM. Zoledronic acid (Zometa®, ZA, routinely used to treat patients with BM, acts on osteoclasts and also has antitumor properties. We aimed to assess the effect of ZA over time in novel bone turnover markers (RANK/receptor activator of nuclear factor-k B ligand (RANK-L/ Osteoprotegerin (OPG and to correlate these with serum N-terminal telopeptide (NTX. The study prospectively evaluated levels of RANK, RANK-L and OPG transcripts by real-time PCR and NTX expression by ELISA in the peripheral blood of 49 consecutive patients with advanced breast, lung or prostate cancer. All patients received the standard ZA schedule and were monitored for 12 months. Median baseline values of RANK, RANK-L and OPG were 78.28 (range 7.34–620.64, 319.06 (21.42–1884.41 and 1.52 (0.10–58.02, respectively. At 12 months, the median RANK-L value had decreased by 22% with respect to the baseline, whereas median OPG levels had increased by about 96%. Consequently, the RANK-L/OPG ratio decreased by 56% from the baseline. Median serum NTX levels decreased over the 12-month period, reaching statistical significance (p < 0.0001. Our results would seem to indicate that ZA modulates RANK, RANK-L and OPG expression, thus decreasing osteoclast activity.

  11. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signalization Implication in Periodontitis: New Evidence from a RANK Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Sojod

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases.

  12. Just war and extraterritoriality: the popular geopolitics of the United States' war on Iraq as reflected in newspapers of the Arab World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falah, G.W.; Flint, C.; Mamadouh, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    As with all wars, the U.S. military invasion of Iraq in 2003 needed to be portrayed as a just war in an attempt to garner support and legitimacy, domestically and internationally. The United States was acting as hegemonic power in the international state-system and, in light of this role, had

  13. Photo Aesthetics Ranking Network with Attributes and Content Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Shu; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Mech, Radomir; Fowlkes, Charless

    2016-01-01

    Real-world applications could benefit from the ability to automatically generate a fine-grained ranking of photo aesthetics. However, previous methods for image aesthetics analysis have primarily focused on the coarse, binary categorization of images into high- or low-aesthetic categories. In this work, we propose to learn a deep convolutional neural network to rank photo aesthetics in which the relative ranking of photo aesthetics are directly modeled in the loss function. Our model incorpor...

  14. A Review of Ranking Models in Data Envelopment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, F.; Jahanshahloo, G.R.; M. Khodabakhshi; Rostamy-Malkhlifeh, M.; Moghaddas, Z.; Vaez-Ghasemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of improving various abilities of data envelopment analysis (DEA) models, many investigations have been carried out for ranking decision-making units (DMUs). This is an important issue both in theory and practice. There exist a variety of papers which apply different ranking methods to a real data set. Here the ranking methods are divided into seven groups. As each of the existing methods can be viewed from different aspects, it is possible that somewhat these groups have an ove...

  15. International ranking systems for universities and institutions: a critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John PA; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Kavvoura, Fotini K; Tatsioni, Athina; Evangelou, Evangelos; Kouri, Ioanna; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G; Liberopoulos, George

    2007-01-01

    Background Ranking of universities and institutions has attracted wide attention recently. Several systems have been proposed that attempt to rank academic institutions worldwide. Methods We review the two most publicly visible ranking systems, the Shanghai Jiao Tong University 'Academic Ranking of World Universities' and the Times Higher Education Supplement 'World University Rankings' and also briefly review other ranking systems that use different criteria. We assess the construct validity for educational and research excellence and the measurement validity of each of the proposed ranking criteria, and try to identify generic challenges in international ranking of universities and institutions. Results None of the reviewed criteria for international ranking seems to have very good construct validity for both educational and research excellence, and most don't have very good construct validity even for just one of these two aspects of excellence. Measurement error for many items is also considerable or is not possible to determine due to lack of publication of the relevant data and methodology details. The concordance between the 2006 rankings by Shanghai and Times is modest at best, with only 133 universities shared in their top 200 lists. The examination of the existing international ranking systems suggests that generic challenges include adjustment for institutional size, definition of institutions, implications of average measurements of excellence versus measurements of extremes, adjustments for scientific field, time frame of measurement and allocation of credit for excellence. Conclusion Naïve lists of international institutional rankings that do not address these fundamental challenges with transparent methods are misleading and should be abandoned. We make some suggestions on how focused and standardized evaluations of excellence could be improved and placed in proper context. PMID:17961208

  16. Asian top universities in six world university ranking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi; Zahra Seif Kashani

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of ranking systems for universities throughout the different continents of the world. The majority of the world ranking systems have paid special attention toward evaluation of universities and higher education institutions at the national and international level. This paper tries to study the similarities and status of top Asian universities in the list of top 200 universities by these world ranking systems. Findings show that there are some parallelisms among the...

  17. International ranking systems for universities and institutions: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsioni Athina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ranking of universities and institutions has attracted wide attention recently. Several systems have been proposed that attempt to rank academic institutions worldwide. Methods We review the two most publicly visible ranking systems, the Shanghai Jiao Tong University 'Academic Ranking of World Universities' and the Times Higher Education Supplement 'World University Rankings' and also briefly review other ranking systems that use different criteria. We assess the construct validity for educational and research excellence and the measurement validity of each of the proposed ranking criteria, and try to identify generic challenges in international ranking of universities and institutions. Results None of the reviewed criteria for international ranking seems to have very good construct validity for both educational and research excellence, and most don't have very good construct validity even for just one of these two aspects of excellence. Measurement error for many items is also considerable or is not possible to determine due to lack of publication of the relevant data and methodology details. The concordance between the 2006 rankings by Shanghai and Times is modest at best, with only 133 universities shared in their top 200 lists. The examination of the existing international ranking systems suggests that generic challenges include adjustment for institutional size, definition of institutions, implications of average measurements of excellence versus measurements of extremes, adjustments for scientific field, time frame of measurement and allocation of credit for excellence. Conclusion Naïve lists of international institutional rankings that do not address these fundamental challenges with transparent methods are misleading and should be abandoned. We make some suggestions on how focused and standardized evaluations of excellence could be improved and placed in proper context.

  18. Ranking agricultural, environmental and natural resource economics journals: A note

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2012-01-01

    This paper by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) ranks for the first time Economics journals in the field of Agricultural, Environmental and Natural Resource. Specifically, by using one composite input and one composite output the paper ranks 32 journals. In addition for the first time three different quality ranking reports have been incorporated to the DEA modelling problem in order to classify the journals into four categories (‘A’ to ‘D’). The results reveal that the journals with t...

  19. Reduced Rank Adaptive Filtering in Impulsive Noise Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2014-01-06

    An impulsive noise environment is used in this paper. A new aspect of signal truncation is deployed to reduce the harmful effect of the impulsive noise to the signal. A full rank direct solution is derived followed by an iterative solution. The reduced rank adaptive filter is presented in this environment by using two methods for rank reduction. The minimized objective function is defined using the Lp norm. The results are presented and the efficiency of each algorithm is discussed.

  20. Diffusion of scientific credits and the ranking of scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Radicchi, Filippo; Fortunato, Santo; Markines, Benjamin; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the abundance of digital data enabled the implementation of graph based ranking algorithms that provide system level analysis for ranking publications and authors. Here we take advantage of the entire Physical Review publication archive (1893-2006) to construct authors' networks where weighted edges, as measured from opportunely normalized citation counts, define a proxy for the mechanism of scientific credit transfer. On this network we define a ranking method based on a diffusion ...