The average number of critical rank-one approximations to a tensor
Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.
2014-01-01
Motivated by the many potential applications of low-rank multi-way tensor approximations, we set out to count the rank-one tensors that are critical points of the distance function to a general tensor v. As this count depends on v, we average over v drawn from a Gaussian distribution, and find
Deep Multimodal Distance Metric Learning Using Click Constraints for Image Ranking.
Yu, Jun; Yang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fei; Tao, Dacheng
2017-12-01
How do we retrieve images accurately? Also, how do we rank a group of images precisely and efficiently for specific queries? These problems are critical for researchers and engineers to generate a novel image searching engine. First, it is important to obtain an appropriate description that effectively represent the images. In this paper, multimodal features are considered for describing images. The images unique properties are reflected by visual features, which are correlated to each other. However, semantic gaps always exist between images visual features and semantics. Therefore, we utilize click feature to reduce the semantic gap. The second key issue is learning an appropriate distance metric to combine these multimodal features. This paper develops a novel deep multimodal distance metric learning (Deep-MDML) method. A structured ranking model is adopted to utilize both visual and click features in distance metric learning (DML). Specifically, images and their related ranking results are first collected to form the training set. Multimodal features, including click and visual features, are collected with these images. Next, a group of autoencoders is applied to obtain initially a distance metric in different visual spaces, and an MDML method is used to assign optimal weights for different modalities. Next, we conduct alternating optimization to train the ranking model, which is used for the ranking of new queries with click features. Compared with existing image ranking methods, the proposed method adopts a new ranking model to use multimodal features, including click features and visual features in DML. We operated experiments to analyze the proposed Deep-MDML in two benchmark data sets, and the results validate the effects of the method.
Critical Points in Distance Learning System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Airina Savickaitė
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose – This article presents the results of distance learning system analysis, i.e. the critical elements of the distance learning system. The critical points of distance learning are a part of distance education online environment interactivity/community process model. The most important is the fact that the critical point is associated with distance learning participants. Design/methodology/approach – Comparative review of articles and analysis of distance learning module. Findings – A modern man is a lifelong learner and distance learning is a way to be a modern person. The focus on a learner and feedback is the most important thing of learning distance system. Also, attention should be paid to the lecture-appropriate knowledge and ability to convey information. Distance system adaptation is the way to improve the learner’s learning outcomes. Research limitations/implications – Different learning disciplines and learning methods may have different critical points. Practical implications – The information of analysis could be important for both lecturers and students, who studies distance education systems. There are familiar critical points which may deteriorate the quality of learning. Originality/value – The study sought to develop remote systems for applications in order to improve the quality of knowledge. Keywords: distance learning, process model, critical points. Research type: review of literature and general overview.
Optimally Fortifying Logic Reliability through Criticality Ranking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Bai
2015-02-01
Full Text Available With CMOS technology aggressively scaling towards the 22-nm node, modern FPGA devices face tremendous aging-induced reliability challenges due to bias temperature instability (BTI and hot carrier injection (HCI. This paper presents a novel anti-aging technique at the logic level that is both scalable and applicable for VLSI digital circuits implemented with FPGA devices. The key idea is to prolong the lifetime of FPGA-mapped designs by strategically elevating the VDD values of some LUTs based on their modular criticality values. Although the idea of scaling VDD in order to improve either energy efficiency or circuit reliability has been explored extensively, our study distinguishes itself by approaching this challenge through an analytical procedure, therefore being able to maximize the overall reliability of the target FPGA design by rigorously modeling the BTI-induced device reliability and optimally solving the VDD assignment problem. Specifically, we first develop a systematic framework to analytically model the reliability of an FPGA LUT (look-up table, which consists of both RAM memory bits and associated switching circuit. We also, for the first time, establish the relationship between signal transition density and a LUT’s reliability in an analytical way. This key observation further motivates us to define the modular criticality as the product of signal transition density and the logic observability of each LUT. Finally, we analytically prove, for the first time, that the optimal way to improve the overall reliability of a whole FPGA device is to fortify individual LUTs according to their modular criticality. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to draw such a conclusion.
A study of metrics of distance and correlation between ranked lists for compositionality detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lioma, Christina; Hansen, Niels Dalum
2017-01-01
affects the measurement of semantic similarity. We propose a new compositionality detection method that represents phrases as ranked lists of term weights. Our method approximates the semantic similarity between two ranked list representations using a range of well-known distance and correlation metrics...... of compositionality using any of the distance and correlation metrics considered....
The effect of uncertainties in distance-based ranking methods for multi-criteria decision making
Jaini, Nor I.; Utyuzhnikov, Sergei V.
2017-08-01
Data in the multi-criteria decision making are often imprecise and changeable. Therefore, it is important to carry out sensitivity analysis test for the multi-criteria decision making problem. The paper aims to present a sensitivity analysis for some ranking techniques based on the distance measures in multi-criteria decision making. Two types of uncertainties are considered for the sensitivity analysis test. The first uncertainty is related to the input data, while the second uncertainty is towards the Decision Maker preferences (weights). The ranking techniques considered in this study are TOPSIS, the relative distance and trade-off ranking methods. TOPSIS and the relative distance method measure a distance from an alternative to the ideal and antiideal solutions. In turn, the trade-off ranking calculates a distance of an alternative to the extreme solutions and other alternatives. Several test cases are considered to study the performance of each ranking technique in both types of uncertainties.
Distance matters! Cumulative proximity expansions for ranking documents
J.B.P. Vuurens (Jeroen); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)
2014-01-01
htmlabstractIn the information retrieval process, functions that rank documents according to their estimated relevance to a query typically regard query terms as being independent. However, it is often the joint presence of query terms that is of interest to the user, which is overlooked when
A novel three-stage distance-based consensus ranking method
Aghayi, Nazila; Tavana, Madjid
2018-05-01
In this study, we propose a three-stage weighted sum method for identifying the group ranks of alternatives. In the first stage, a rank matrix, similar to the cross-efficiency matrix, is obtained by computing the individual rank position of each alternative based on importance weights. In the second stage, a secondary goal is defined to limit the vector of weights since the vector of weights obtained in the first stage is not unique. Finally, in the third stage, the group rank position of alternatives is obtained based on a distance of individual rank positions. The third stage determines a consensus solution for the group so that the ranks obtained have a minimum distance from the ranks acquired by each alternative in the previous stage. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability and exhibit the efficacy of the proposed method and algorithms.
QV modal distance displacement - a criterion for contingency ranking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rios, M.A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Zapata, C.J. [Universidad de Los Andes (Colombia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: mrios@uniandes.edu.co, josesan@uniandes.edu.co, cjzapata@utp.edu.co
2009-07-01
This paper proposes a new methodology using concepts of fast decoupled load flow, modal analysis and ranking of contingencies, where the impact of each contingency is measured hourly taking into account the influence of each contingency over the mathematical model of the system, i.e. the Jacobian Matrix. This method computes the displacement of the reduced Jacobian Matrix eigenvalues used in voltage stability analysis, as a criterion of contingency ranking, considering the fact that the lowest eigenvalue in the normal operation condition is not the same lowest eigenvalue in N-1 contingency condition. It is made using all branches in the system and specific branches according to the IBPF index. The test system used is the IEEE 118 nodes. (author)
Automatic Generation and Ranking of Questions for Critical Review
Liu, Ming; Calvo, Rafael A.; Rus, Vasile
2014-01-01
Critical review skill is one important aspect of academic writing. Generic trigger questions have been widely used to support this activity. When students have a concrete topic in mind, trigger questions are less effective if they are too general. This article presents a learning-to-rank based system which automatically generates specific trigger…
Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents
Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.
2014-01-01
An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.
A Hybrid Distance-Based Ideal-Seeking Consensus Ranking Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madjid Tavana
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Ordinal consensus ranking problems have received much attention in the management science literature. A problem arises in situations where a group of k decision makers (DMs is asked to rank order n alternatives. The question is how to combine the DM rankings into one consensus ranking. Several different approaches have been suggested to aggregate DM responses into a compromise or consensus ranking; however, the similarity of consensus rankings generated by the different algorithms is largely unknown. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid distance-based ideal-seeking consensus ranking model (DCM. The proposed hybrid model combines parts of the two commonly used consensus ranking techniques of Beck and Lin (1983 and Cook and Kress (1985 into an intuitive and computationally simple model. We illustrate our method and then run a Monte Carlo simulation across a range of k and n to compare the similarity of the consensus rankings generated by our method with the best-known method of Borda and Kendall (Kendall 1962 and the two methods proposed by Beck and Lin (1983 and Cook and Kress (1985. DCM and Beck and Lin's method yielded the most similar consensus rankings, whereas the Cook-Kress method and the Borda-Kendall method yielded the least similar consensus rankings.
Mathur, Sunil; Sadana, Ajit
2015-12-01
We present a rank-based test statistic for the identification of differentially expressed genes using a distance measure. The proposed test statistic is highly robust against extreme values and does not assume the distribution of parent population. Simulation studies show that the proposed test is more powerful than some of the commonly used methods, such as paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and significance analysis of microarray (SAM) under certain non-normal distributions. The asymptotic distribution of the test statistic, and the p-value function are discussed. The application of proposed method is shown using a real-life data set. © The Author(s) 2011.
Traveling salesman problems with PageRank Distance on complex networks reveal community structure
Jiang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai
2016-12-01
In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for community detection problems (CDPs) based on traveling salesman problems (TSPs), labeled as TSP-CDA. Since TSPs need to find a tour with minimum cost, cities close to each other are usually clustered in the tour. This inspired us to model CDPs as TSPs by taking each vertex as a city. Then, in the final tour, the vertices in the same community tend to cluster together, and the community structure can be obtained by cutting the tour into a couple of paths. There are two challenges. The first is to define a suitable distance between each pair of vertices which can reflect the probability that they belong to the same community. The second is to design a suitable strategy to cut the final tour into paths which can form communities. In TSP-CDA, we deal with these two challenges by defining a PageRank Distance and an automatic threshold-based cutting strategy. The PageRank Distance is designed with the intrinsic properties of CDPs in mind, and can be calculated efficiently. In the experiments, benchmark networks with 1000-10,000 nodes and varying structures are used to test the performance of TSP-CDA. A comparison is also made between TSP-CDA and two well-established community detection algorithms. The results show that TSP-CDA can find accurate community structure efficiently and outperforms the two existing algorithms.
Development of critical thinking skills through distance learning in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Interpersonal contact between the lecturers and students improves the development of critical thinking skills. The process is hampered by the geographical distance between the lecturers and the students in the case of distance education and learning. In many cases distance learning is, however, the only option.
Distance-Ranked Fault Identification of Reconfigurable Hardware Bitstreams via Functional Input
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naveed Imran
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Distance-Ranked Fault Identification (DRFI is a dynamic reconfiguration technique which employs runtime inputs to conduct online functional testing of fielded FPGA logic and interconnect resources without test vectors. At design time, a diverse set of functionally identical bitstream configurations are created which utilize alternate hardware resources in the FPGA fabric. An ordering is imposed on the configuration pool as updated by the PageRank indexing precedence. The configurations which utilize permanently damaged resources and hence manifest discrepant outputs, receive lower rank are thus less preferred for instantiation on the FPGA. Results indicate accurate identification of fault-free configurations in a pool of pregenerated bitstreams with a low number of reconfigurations and input evaluations. For MCNC benchmark circuits, the observed reduction in input evaluations is up to 75% when comparing the DRFI technique to unguided evaluation. The DRFI diagnosis method is seen to isolate all 14 healthy configurations from a pool of 100 pregenerated configurations, and thereby offering a 100% isolation accuracy provided the fault-free configurations exist in the design pool. When a complete recovery is not feasible, graceful degradation may be realized which is demonstrated by the PSNR improvement of images processed in a video encoder case study.
Effects of successive critical distances in heavy ion fusion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.M.; Nakagawa, T.; Matsuse, T.
1984-01-01
The concept of Successive Critical Distances is presented. It appears that whether the fusion cross section is limited by compound nucleus or entrance channel properties depends on the degree of asymmetry of the fusing nuclei. Only in the near to symmetry case does the Statistical Yrast Line emerge as a limiting factor. Otherwise, the critical angular momentum for fusion is restricted by a critical distance
Rankings in education: history and critical analysis of rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bebenina Ekaterina
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The history of rankings, mechanisms of their appearing and reasons of their popularity are little scrutinized yet although they are widely spread in the modern information flow, they are widely used during the evaluation for organizations of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia and the Russian Academy of Science as key indices.
Ranking and selection of commercial off-the-shelf using fuzzy distance based approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakesh Garg
2015-06-01
Full Text Available There is a tremendous growth of the use of the component based software engineering (CBSE approach for the development of software systems. The selection of the best suited COTS components which fulfils the necessary requirement for the development of software(s has become a major challenge for the software developers. The complexity of the optimal selection problem increases with an increase in alternative potential COTS components and the corresponding selection criteria. In this research paper, the problem of ranking and selection of Data Base Management Systems (DBMS components is modeled as a multi-criteria decision making problem. A ‘Fuzzy Distance Based Approach (FDBA’ method is proposed for the optimal ranking and selection of DBMS COTS components of an e-payment system based on 14 selection criteria grouped under three major categories i.e. ‘Vendor Capabilities’, ‘Business Issues’ and ‘Cost’. The results of this method are compared with other Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP which is termed as a typical multi-criteria decision making approach. The proposed methodology is explained with an illustrated example.
Semantic distance as a critical factor in icon design for in-car infotainment systems.
Silvennoinen, Johanna M; Kujala, Tuomo; Jokinen, Jussi P P
2017-11-01
In-car infotainment systems require icons that enable fluent cognitive information processing and safe interaction while driving. An important issue is how to find an optimised set of icons for different functions in terms of semantic distance. In an optimised icon set, every icon needs to be semantically as close as possible to the function it visually represents and semantically as far as possible from the other functions represented concurrently. In three experiments (N = 21 each), semantic distances of 19 icons to four menu functions were studied with preference rankings, verbal protocols, and the primed product comparisons method. The results show that the primed product comparisons method can be efficiently utilised for finding an optimised set of icons for time-critical applications out of a larger set of icons. The findings indicate the benefits of the novel methodological perspective into the icon design for safety-critical contexts in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Phani Bushan Rao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Ranking fuzzy numbers are an important aspect of decision making in a fuzzy environment. Since their inception in 1965, many authors have proposed different methods for ranking fuzzy numbers. However, there is no method which gives a satisfactory result to all situations. Most of the methods proposed so far are nondiscriminating and counterintuitive. This paper proposes a new method for ranking fuzzy numbers based on the Circumcenter of Centroids and uses an index of optimism to reflect the decision maker's optimistic attitude and also an index of modality that represents the neutrality of the decision maker. This method ranks various types of fuzzy numbers which include normal, generalized trapezoidal, and triangular fuzzy numbers along with crisp numbers with the particularity that crisp numbers are to be considered particular cases of fuzzy numbers.
Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove
of "reference" welds are made and compared to sheets with the edges shear cut. The gap distance is precisely controlled by inserting spacers between the sheets. In the tests the gap is set at 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 mm. Mild steel (St 1203) with thickness? of 0.75 and 1.25 mm with and without zinc......When butt-welding metal sheets with high power lasers the gap distance between the sheets determine the final quality of the seam. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads is identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number...... coating were analysed. A total of 120 welds are made at different welding speeds.As quality norm DIN 8563 is used to divide the welds into quality classes. Since this norm only deals with surface defects a number of welds are also x-ray photographed.According to DIN 8563 the welds have classes of either B...
Fu, Linda Y.; Zook, Kathleen; Spoehr-Labutta, Zachary; Hu, Pamela; Joseph, Jill G.
2015-01-01
Purpose Online information can influence attitudes toward vaccination. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic evaluation of the search engine ranking, quality, and content of webpages that are critical versus noncritical of HPV vaccination. Methods We identified HPV vaccine-related webpages with the Google search engine by entering 20 terms. We then assessed each webpage for critical versus noncritical bias as well as for the following quality indicators: authorship disclosure, source disclosure, attribution of at least one reference, currency, exclusion of testimonial accounts, and readability level less than 9th grade. We also determined webpage comprehensiveness in terms of mention of 14 HPV vaccine relevant topics. Results Twenty searches yielded 116 unique webpages. HPV vaccine-critical webpages comprised roughly a third of the top, top 5 and top 10-ranking webpages. The prevalence of HPV vaccine-critical webpages was higher for queries that included term modifiers in addition to root terms. Compared with noncritical webpages, webpages critical of HPV vaccine overall had a lower quality score than those with a noncritical bias (psearch engine queries despite being of lower quality and less comprehensive than noncritical webpages. PMID:26559742
Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove
1999-01-01
In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads in laser butt welding is sought identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number of "reference" welds are made and compared to the sheets with shear cut edges. In the tests the gap...... was set at 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 mm. Mild steel (St 1203) with a thickness of 0.75 and 1.25 mm with and without zinc coating were analysed. A total of 120 welds were made at different welding speeds.As quality norm DIN 8563 was used to divide the welds into quality classes. A number of welds...... were also x-ray photographed.Of the weld combinations analysed 80 % were of high quality and 17 % of a non-acceptable quality. 90 % of the bad welds had a gap distance larger than 0.05 mm. The results showed that 85 % of the bad welds were shear cut and only 15 % grinded. Two third of the bad welds...
Identification and Ranking of Critical Assets within an Electrical Grid under Threat of Cyber Attack
Boyer, Blake R.
This paper examines the ranking of critical assets within an electrical grid under threat of cyber attack.1 Critical to this analysis is the assumption of zero hour exploits namely, the threat of an immediate attack as soon as a vulnerability is discovered. Modeling shows that over time load fluctuations as well as other system variations will change the importance of each asset in the delivery of bulk power. As opposed to classic stability studies where risk can be shown to be greatest during high load periods, the zero hour exploit-cyber-risk assumes that vulnerabilities will be attacked as soon as they are discovered. The probability of attacks is made uniform over time to include any and all possible attacks. Examining the impact of an attack and how the grid reacts immediately following an attack will identify and determine the criticality of each asset. This work endeavors to fulfill the NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection Requirements CIP-001-1 through CIP-009-2, cyber security requirements for the reliable supply of bulk power to customers throughout North America. 1Critical assets will here refer to facilities, systems, and equipment, which, if destroyed, degraded, or otherwise rendered unavailable, would affect the reliability or operability of the Bulk Electric System, NERC Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards, 2009
Critical review of methods for risk ranking of food related hazards, based on risks for human health
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; van Asselt, E. D.; Raley, M.
2018-01-01
This study aimed to critically review methods for ranking risks related to food safety and dietary hazards on the basis of their anticipated human health impacts. A literature review was performed to identify and characterize methods for risk ranking from the fields of food, environmental science......, and the risk ranking method characterized. The methods were then clustered - based on their characteristics - into eleven method categories. These categories included: risk assessment, comparative risk assessment, risk ratio method, scoring method, cost of illness, health adjusted life years, multi......-criteria decision analysis, risk matrix, flow charts/decision trees, stated preference techniques and expert synthesis. Method categories were described by their characteristics, weaknesses and strengths, data resources, and fields of applications. It was concluded there is no single best method for risk ranking...
Hattendorf, Lynn C.
1987-01-01
This annotated bibliography of recent articles and books on academic rankings updates an article in the Spring 1986 "RQ." Items are listed by subject and ranking in general; individual guides; subject areas including accounting, advertising, biogeography, business, communications, data communications, economics, music, publishing,…
Sparse structure regularized ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse
A Critical Interpersonal Distance Switches between Two Coordination Modes in Kendo Matches
Okumura, Motoki; Kijima, Akifumi; Kadota, Koji; Yokoyama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hiroo; Yamamoto, Yuji
2012-01-01
In many competitive sports, players need to quickly and continuously execute movements that co-adapt to various movements executed by their opponents and physical objects. In a martial art such as kendo, players must be able to skillfully change interpersonal distance in order to win. However, very little information about the task and expertise properties of the maneuvers affecting interpersonal distance is available. This study investigated behavioral dynamics underlying opponent tasks by analyzing changes in interpersonal distance made by expert players in kendo matches. Analysis of preferred interpersonal distances indicated that players tended to step toward and away from their opponents based on two distances. The most preferred distance enabled the players to execute both striking and defensive movements immediately. The relative phase analysis of the velocities at which players executed steps toward and away revealed that players developed anti-phase synchronizations at near distances to maintain safe distances from their opponents. Alternatively, players shifted to in-phase synchronization to approach their opponents from far distances. This abrupt phase-transition phenomenon constitutes a characteristic bifurcation dynamics that regularly and instantaneously occurs between in- and anti-phase synchronizations at a critical interpersonal distance. These dynamics are profoundly affected by the task constraints of kendo and the physical constraints of the players. Thus, the current study identifies the clear behavioral dynamics that emerge in a sport setting. PMID:23284799
Wilkinson, Nicholas M; Van Duc, Luong
2017-06-01
There has been much recent interest in using local knowledge and expert opinion for conservation planning, particularly for hard-to-detect species. Although it is possible to ask for direct estimation of quantities such as population size, relative abundance is easier to estimate. However, an expert's knowledge is often geographically restricted relative to the area of interest. Combining (or aggregating) experts' assessments of relative abundance is difficult when each expert only knows a part of the area of interest. We used Google's PageRank algorithm to aggregate ranked abundance scores elicited from local experts through a rapid rural-appraisal method. We applied this technique to conservation planning for the saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a poorly known bovid. Near a priority landscape for the species, composed of 3 contiguous protected areas, we asked groups of local people to indicate relative abundances of saola and other species by placing beans on community maps. For each village, we used this information to rank areas within the knowledge area of that village for saola abundance. We used simulations to compare alternative methods to aggregate the rankings from the different villages. The best-performing method was then used to produce a single map of relative abundance across the entire landscape, an area larger than that known to any one village. This map has informed prioritization of surveys and conservation action in the continued absence of direct information about the saola. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.
Fu, Linda Y; Zook, Kathleen; Spoehr-Labutta, Zachary; Hu, Pamela; Joseph, Jill G
2016-01-01
Online information can influence attitudes toward vaccination. The aim of the present study was to provide a systematic evaluation of the search engine ranking, quality, and content of Web pages that are critical versus noncritical of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We identified HPV vaccine-related Web pages with the Google search engine by entering 20 terms. We then assessed each Web page for critical versus noncritical bias and for the following quality indicators: authorship disclosure, source disclosure, attribution of at least one reference, currency, exclusion of testimonial accounts, and readability level less than ninth grade. We also determined Web page comprehensiveness in terms of mention of 14 HPV vaccine-relevant topics. Twenty searches yielded 116 unique Web pages. HPV vaccine-critical Web pages comprised roughly a third of the top, top 5- and top 10-ranking Web pages. The prevalence of HPV vaccine-critical Web pages was higher for queries that included term modifiers in addition to root terms. Compared with noncritical Web pages, Web pages critical of HPV vaccine overall had a lower quality score than those with a noncritical bias (p engine queries despite being of lower quality and less comprehensive than noncritical Web pages. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Van Asselt, E D; Raley, M; Poulsen, M; Korsgaard, H; Bredsdorff, L; Nauta, M; D'agostino, M; Coles, D; Marvin, H J P; Frewer, L J
2018-01-22
This study aimed to critically review methods for ranking risks related to food safety and dietary hazards on the basis of their anticipated human health impacts. A literature review was performed to identify and characterize methods for risk ranking from the fields of food, environmental science and socio-economic sciences. The review used a predefined search protocol, and covered the bibliographic databases Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Web of Sciences, and PubMed over the period 1993-2013. All references deemed relevant, on the basis of predefined evaluation criteria, were included in the review, and the risk ranking method characterized. The methods were then clustered-based on their characteristics-into eleven method categories. These categories included: risk assessment, comparative risk assessment, risk ratio method, scoring method, cost of illness, health adjusted life years (HALY), multi-criteria decision analysis, risk matrix, flow charts/decision trees, stated preference techniques and expert synthesis. Method categories were described by their characteristics, weaknesses and strengths, data resources, and fields of applications. It was concluded there is no single best method for risk ranking. The method to be used should be selected on the basis of risk manager/assessor requirements, data availability, and the characteristics of the method. Recommendations for future use and application are provided.
Critical influences on succession management for non-commissioned ranks within Victoria police
Owbridge, Lynne Michelle
2017-01-01
This thesis examines issues affecting succession management within noncommissioned ranks (NCRs) of policing services. Using Victoria Police (VicPol) as a case study, this research explored the organisation's capacity to build individual and organisational capability through adequate recruitment of new police, professional learning, and retaining talent within NCRs. A grounded theory approach was used to explore VicPol's recruitment, foundation training, transfer, promotion, ...
Naderinejad, Marjan; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar; Poorebrahimi, Alireza
2014-01-01
Business Intelligence, not as a tool of a product but as a new approach is propounded in organizations to make tough decisions in business as shortly as possible. Hospital managers often need business intelligence in their fiscal, operational, and clinical reports and indices. The main goal of recognition and ranking CSF is implementation of a business intelligent system in hospitals to increase success factor of application of business intelligence in health and treatment sector. This paper ...
García-Algarra, Javier; Pastor, Juan Manuel; Iriondo, José María; Galeano, Javier
2017-01-01
Network analysis has become a relevant approach to analyze cascading species extinctions resulting from perturbations on mutualistic interactions as a result of environmental change. In this context, it is essential to be able to point out key species, whose stability would prevent cascading extinctions, and the consequent loss of ecosystem function. In this study, we aim to explain how the k -core decomposition sheds light on the understanding the robustness of bipartite mutualistic networks. We defined three k -magnitudes based on the k -core decomposition: k -radius, k -degree, and k -risk. The first one, k -radius, quantifies the distance from a node to the innermost shell of the partner guild, while k -degree provides a measure of centrality in the k -shell based decomposition. k -risk is a way to measure the vulnerability of a network to the loss of a particular species. Using these magnitudes we analyzed 89 mutualistic networks involving plant pollinators or seed dispersers. Two static extinction procedures were implemented in which k -degree and k -risk were compared against other commonly used ranking indexes, as for example MusRank, explained in detail in Material and Methods. When extinctions take place in both guilds, k -risk is the best ranking index if the goal is to identify the key species to preserve the giant component. When species are removed only in the primary class and cascading extinctions are measured in the secondary class, the most effective ranking index to identify the key species to preserve the giant component is k -degree. However, MusRank index was more effective when the goal is to identify the key species to preserve the greatest species richness in the second class. The k -core decomposition offers a new topological view of the structure of mutualistic networks. The new k -radius, k -degree and k -risk magnitudes take advantage of its properties and provide new insight into the structure of mutualistic networks. The k -risk and k
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier García-Algarra
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Background Network analysis has become a relevant approach to analyze cascading species extinctions resulting from perturbations on mutualistic interactions as a result of environmental change. In this context, it is essential to be able to point out key species, whose stability would prevent cascading extinctions, and the consequent loss of ecosystem function. In this study, we aim to explain how the k-core decomposition sheds light on the understanding the robustness of bipartite mutualistic networks. Methods We defined three k-magnitudes based on the k-core decomposition: k-radius, k-degree, and k-risk. The first one, k-radius, quantifies the distance from a node to the innermost shell of the partner guild, while k-degree provides a measure of centrality in the k-shell based decomposition. k-risk is a way to measure the vulnerability of a network to the loss of a particular species. Using these magnitudes we analyzed 89 mutualistic networks involving plant pollinators or seed dispersers. Two static extinction procedures were implemented in which k-degree and k-risk were compared against other commonly used ranking indexes, as for example MusRank, explained in detail in Material and Methods. Results When extinctions take place in both guilds, k-risk is the best ranking index if the goal is to identify the key species to preserve the giant component. When species are removed only in the primary class and cascading extinctions are measured in the secondary class, the most effective ranking index to identify the key species to preserve the giant component is k-degree. However, MusRank index was more effective when the goal is to identify the key species to preserve the greatest species richness in the second class. Discussion The k-core decomposition offers a new topological view of the structure of mutualistic networks. The new k-radius, k-degree and k-risk magnitudes take advantage of its properties and provide new insight into the structure of
Ranking critical success factor in chaos management using BSC and AHP method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ehsan Khosravi Asil
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Managing an organization under chaos and uncertainty is often a concern of academic society. These days, we may face unpleasant natural, economical or even political incidents where mangers need to handle them, properly. This paper presents an empirical survey to investigate on an electromotor maker when it faces different chaos. The proposed study uses balanced scorecard in terms of four different perspectives including internal process, learning and growth, customer and financial performances. For each perspective, the proposed study uses analytical hierarchy process to rank different sub-criteria. Based on the results of our survey profit margin is the most important item followed by profit capability and brand name while productivity and sales force performance were the least important items.
Evaluation of notch effects in low cycle fatigue of alloy 718 using critical distances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eriksson Robert
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Gas turbine disks contain many notch-like features acting as stress raisers. The fatigue life based on the notch root stress may be overly conservative as the steep stress gradient in front of the notch may give rise to so-called notch support. In the current work, the theory of critical distances was applied to the prediction of the total fatigue life of low cycle fatigued, notched specimens made from alloy 718. The fatigue tests were performed at 450 °C and 550 °C. It was found that, for lives shorter than 5000–10000 cycles, the notched specimens had longer lives than would have been expected based on the notch root strain. For lives longer than 5000–10000 cycles, there were no notch support. The life prediction for notched specimens could be significantly improved by basing the prediction on the strain chosen some distance from the notch (the critical distance. An expression for calculating the critical distance based on the notch root strain was suggested.
Ding, Jian; Li, Li
2018-06-01
We initiate the study on chemical distances of percolation clusters for level sets of two-dimensional discrete Gaussian free fields as well as loop clusters generated by two-dimensional random walk loop soups. One of our results states that the chemical distance between two macroscopic annuli away from the boundary for the random walk loop soup at the critical intensity is of dimension 1 with positive probability. Our proof method is based on an interesting combination of a theorem of Makarov, isomorphism theory, and an entropic repulsion estimate for Gaussian free fields in the presence of a hard wall.
Adams, Bradley J; Aschheim, Kenneth W
2016-01-01
Comparison of antemortem and postmortem dental records is a leading method of victim identification, especially for incidents involving a large number of decedents. This process may be expedited with computer software that provides a ranked list of best possible matches. This study provides a comparison of the most commonly used conventional coding and sorting algorithms used in the United States (WinID3) with a simplified coding format that utilizes an optimized sorting algorithm. The simplified system consists of seven basic codes and utilizes an optimized algorithm based largely on the percentage of matches. To perform this research, a large reference database of approximately 50,000 antemortem and postmortem records was created. For most disaster scenarios, the proposed simplified codes, paired with the optimized algorithm, performed better than WinID3 which uses more complex codes. The detailed coding system does show better performance with extremely large numbers of records and/or significant body fragmentation. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
A simple rank-based Markov chain with self-organized criticality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Swart, Jan M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 87-102 ISSN 1024-2953 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08819S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : self-reinforcement * self-organized criticality * canyon Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.397, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/swart-0476009.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjisawas, Nicolas.
1982-01-01
After a critical study of the logical quantum mechanics formulations of Jauch and Piron, classical and quantum versions of statistical inference are studied. In order to do this, the significance of the Jaynes and Kulback principles (maximum likelihood, least squares principles) is revealed from the theorems established. In the quantum mechanics inference problem, a ''distance'' between states is defined. This concept is used to solve the quantum equivalent of the classical problem studied by Kulback. The ''projection postulate'' proposition is subsequently deduced [fr
Alharthi, Hana; Sultana, Nahid; Al-Amoudi, Amjaad; Basudan, Afrah
2015-01-01
Pharmacy barcode scanning is used to reduce errors during the medication dispensing process. However, this technology has rarely been used in hospital pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. This article describes the barriers to successful implementation of a barcode scanning system in Saudi Arabia. A literature review was conducted to identify the relevant critical success factors (CSFs) for a successful dispensing barcode system implementation. Twenty-eight pharmacists from a local hospital in Saudi Arabia were interviewed to obtain their perception of these CSFs. In this study, planning (process flow issues and training requirements), resistance (fear of change, communication issues, and negative perceptions about technology), and technology (software, hardware, and vendor support) were identified as the main barriers. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one of the most widely used tools for decision making in the presence of multiple criteria, was used to compare and rank these identified CSFs. The results of this study suggest that resistance barriers have a greater impact than planning and technology barriers. In particular, fear of change is the most critical factor, and training is the least critical factor.
The critical distance in laser-induced plasmas: an operative definition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Side, D. Delle; Giuffreda, E.; Nassisi, V.
2016-01-01
We propose a method to estimate a precise value for the critical distance L cr after which three-body recombination stops to produce charge losses in an expanding laser-induced plasma. We show in particular that the total charge collected has a ''reversed sigmoid'' shape as a function of the target-to-detector distance. Fitting the total charge data with a logistic related function, we could consider as L cr the intercept of the tangent to this curve in its inflection point. Furthermore, this value scales well with theoretical predictions. From the application point of view, this could be of great practical interest, since it provide a reliable way to precisely determine the geometry of the extraction system in Laser Ion Sources.
The critical distance in laser-induced plasmas: an operative definition
Delle Side, D.; Giuffreda, E.; Nassisi, V.
2016-05-01
We propose a method to estimate a precise value for the critical distance Lcr after which three-body recombination stops to produce charge losses in an expanding laser-induced plasma. We show in particular that the total charge collected has a ``reversed sigmoid'' shape as a function of the target-to-detector distance. Fitting the total charge data with a logistic related function, we could consider as Lcr the intercept of the tangent to this curve in its inflection point. Furthermore, this value scales well with theoretical predictions. From the application point of view, this could be of great practical interest, since it provide a reliable way to precisely determine the geometry of the extraction system in Laser Ion Sources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin, T.; Tyas, A.; Plekhov, O.; Terekhina, A.; Susmel, L.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The proposed method is successful in estimating dynamic strength of metals. • The critical distance varies as the loading/strain/displacement rate increases. • The reference strength varies as the loading/strain/displacement rate increases. • This method is recommended to be used with safety factors larger than 1.25. - Abstract: In the present study the linear-elastic Theory of Critical Distances (TCD) is reformulated to make it suitable for predicting the strength of notched metallic materials subjected to dynamic loading. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed reformulation of the TCD was checked against a number of experimental results generated by testing, under different loading/strain rates, notched cylindrical samples of aluminium alloy 6063-T5, titanium alloy Ti–6Al–4V, aluminium alloy AlMg6, and an AlMn alloy. To further validate the proposed design method also different data sets taken from the literature were considered. Such an extensive validation exercise allowed us to prove that the proposed reformulation of the TCD is successful in predicting the dynamic strength of notched metallic materials, this approach proving to be capable of estimates falling within an error interval of ±20%. Such a high level of accuracy is certainly remarkable, especially in light of the fact that it was reached without the need for explicitly modelling the stress vs. strain dynamic behaviour of the investigated ductile metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; van Asselt, E. D.; Raley, M.
, an overarching framework was developed for selection of the appropriate method(s) that could be used for risk ranking of feed and food related hazards, on the basis of human health impact. This framework has the format of a decision tool, with which – given the characteristics of the risk ranking question...... at hand - the most appropriate method(s) can be selected. Application of this overall framework to several case studies showed it can be a useful tool for risk managers/assessors to select the most suitable method for risk ranking of feed/food and diet related hazards, on the basis of expected human......This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies...
Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.; Raley, M.; Poulsen, M.; Korsgaard, H.; Bredsdorff, L.; Nauta, M.; Flari, V.; Agostino, D' M.; Coles, D.G.; Frewer, L.J.
2015-01-01
This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies for
A CRITICAL REVIEW OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROCESS OF DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ajmal CHAUDRY
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU. It was survey study. Population of the study consisted of 120 academicians of different academic department of AIOU. Survey was conducted through questionnaire for academic staff. It was revealed that need assessment is not done before conceiving the outlines of a course. Also the course did not contain sufficient activities, picture and illustrations. It was also found that did not confirm the course objectives. The study recommended that proper of the course writers for distance learning may be arranged.
The theory of critical distances applied to problems in fracture and fatigue of bone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emma Brazel
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The theory of critical distances (TCD has been applied to predict notch-based fracture and fatigue in a wide range of materials and components. The present paper describes a series of projects in which we applied this approach to human bone. Using experimental data from the literature, combined with finite element analysis, we showed that the TCD was able to predict the effect of notches and holes on the strength of bone failing in brittle fracture due to monotonic loading, in different loading regimes. Bone also displays short crack effects, leading to R-curve data for both fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation thresholds; we showed that the TCD could predict this data. This analysis raised a number of questions for discussion, such as the significance of the L value itself in this and other materials. Finally, we applied the TCD to a practical problem in orthopaedic surgery: the management of bone defects, showing that predictions could be made which would enable surgeons to decide on whether a bone graft material would be needed to repair a defect, and to specify what mechanical properties this material should have.
Sparse structure regularized ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-04-17
Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zouhar, Michal; Hutař, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Ševčík, Martin; Knésl, Zdeněk
2012-01-01
Roč. 19, 2/3 (2012), s. 155-164 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/10/0361; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1560 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : stability criterion * critical distance * bi-material interface Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics
Leitner, Jordan B; Ayduk, Ozlem; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Magerman, Adam; Amey, Rachel; Kross, Ethan; Forbes, Chad E
2017-04-01
Previous research suggests that people show increased self-referential processing when they provide criticism to others, and that this self-referential processing can have negative effects on interpersonal perceptions and behavior. The current research hypothesized that adopting a self-distanced perspective (i.e. thinking about a situation from a non-first person point of view), as compared with a typical self-immersed perspective (i.e. thinking about a situation from a first-person point of view), would reduce self-referential processing during the provision of criticism, and in turn improve interpersonal perceptions and behavior. We tested this hypothesis in an interracial context since research suggests that self-referential processing plays a role in damaging interracial relations. White participants prepared for mentorship from a self-immersed or self-distanced perspective. They then conveyed negative and positive evaluations to a Black mentee while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Source analysis revealed that priming a self-distanced (vs self-immersed) perspective predicted decreased activity in regions linked to self-referential processing (medial prefrontal cortex; MPFC) when providing negative evaluations. This decreased MPFC activity during negative evaluations, in turn, predicted verbal feedback that was perceived to be more positive, warm and helpful. Results suggest that self-distancing can improve interpersonal perceptions and behavior by decreasing self-referential processing during the provision of criticism. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Kohn, Lucas; Tschirsich, Ferdinand; Keck, Maximilian; Plenio, Martin B.; Tamascelli, Dario; Montangero, Simone
2018-01-01
We provide evidence that randomized low-rank factorization is a powerful tool for the determination of the ground-state properties of low-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians through tensor network techniques. In particular, we show that randomized matrix factorization outperforms truncated singular value decomposition based on state-of-the-art deterministic routines in time-evolving block decimation (TEBD)- and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG)-style simulations, even when the system under study gets close to a phase transition: We report linear speedups in the bond or local dimension of up to 24 times in quasi-two-dimensional cylindrical systems.
Gershenson, Carlos
Studies of rank distributions have been popular for decades, especially since the work of Zipf. For example, if we rank words of a given language by use frequency (most used word in English is 'the', rank 1; second most common word is 'of', rank 2), the distribution can be approximated roughly with a power law. The same applies for cities (most populated city in a country ranks first), earthquakes, metabolism, the Internet, and dozens of other phenomena. We recently proposed ``rank diversity'' to measure how ranks change in time, using the Google Books Ngram dataset. Studying six languages between 1800 and 2009, we found that the rank diversity curves of languages are universal, adjusted with a sigmoid on log-normal scale. We are studying several other datasets (sports, economies, social systems, urban systems, earthquakes, artificial life). Rank diversity seems to be universal, independently of the shape of the rank distribution. I will present our work in progress towards a general description of the features of rank change in time, along with simple models which reproduce it
Skórnik-Pokarowska, Urszula; Orłowski, Arkadiusz
2004-12-01
We calculate the ultrametric distance between the pairs of stocks that belong to the same portfolio. The ultrametric distance allows us to distinguish groups of shares that are related. In this way, we can construct a portfolio taxonomy that can be used for constructing an efficient portfolio. We also construct a portfolio taxonomy based not only on stock prices but also on economic indices such as liquidity ratio, debt ratio and sales profitability ratio. We show that a good investment strategy can be obtained by applying to the portfolio chosen by the taxonomy method the so-called Constant Rebalanced Portfolio.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Mohaghar
2014-02-01
Based on the information accessible for the researchers, this is one of the first works which evaluates the key factors of successful knowledge management through fuzzy quality function deployment approach. It is expected that the proposed method would represent appropriate tools for enterprises which have decided to implement knowledge management because it prioritizes the critical success factors based on the knowledge management outcomes.
Diaz-Balteiro, L; Belavenutti, P; Ezquerro, M; González-Pachón, J; Ribeiro Nobre, S; Romero, C
2018-05-15
There is an important body of literature using multi-criteria distance function methods for the aggregation of a battery of sustainability indicators in order to obtain a composite index. This index is considered to be a proxy of the sustainability goodness of a natural system. Although this approach has been profusely used in the literature, it is not exempt from difficulties and potential pitfalls. Thus, in this paper, a significant number of critical issues have been identified showing different procedures capable of avoiding, or at least of mitigating, the inherent potential pitfalls associated with each one. The recommendations made in the paper could increase the theoretical soundness of the multi-criteria distance function methods when this type of approach is applied in the sustainability field, thus increasing the accuracy and realism of the sustainability measurements obtained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Critical Review of Instructional Design Process of Distance Learning System
Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; ur-Rahman, Fazal
2010-01-01
Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University…
Statistical methods for ranking data
Alvo, Mayer
2014-01-01
This book introduces advanced undergraduate, graduate students and practitioners to statistical methods for ranking data. An important aspect of nonparametric statistics is oriented towards the use of ranking data. Rank correlation is defined through the notion of distance functions and the notion of compatibility is introduced to deal with incomplete data. Ranking data are also modeled using a variety of modern tools such as CART, MCMC, EM algorithm and factor analysis. This book deals with statistical methods used for analyzing such data and provides a novel and unifying approach for hypotheses testing. The techniques described in the book are illustrated with examples and the statistical software is provided on the authors’ website.
College Rankings. ERIC Digest.
Holub, Tamara
The popularity of college ranking surveys published by "U.S. News and World Report" and other magazines is indisputable, but the methodologies used to measure the quality of higher education institutions have come under fire by scholars and college officials. Criticisms have focused on methodological flaws, such as failure to consider…
University Rankings: The Web Ranking
Aguillo, Isidro F.
2012-01-01
The publication in 2003 of the Ranking of Universities by Jiao Tong University of Shanghai has revolutionized not only academic studies on Higher Education, but has also had an important impact on the national policies and the individual strategies of the sector. The work gathers the main characteristics of this and other global university…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Collignon, P.; Powers, J. H.; Chiller, T. M.
2009-01-01
stakeholders can use this ranking when developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals. The ranking allows stakeholders to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine and, thus, need to be addressed......The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans through the food supply. Improved management of the use of antimicrobials in food animals, particularly reducing the usage of those that are "critically important...
Minkowski metrics in creating universal ranking algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrzej Ameljańczyk
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a general procedure for creating the rankings of a set of objects, while the relation of preference based on any ranking function. The analysis was possible to use the ranking functions began by showing the fundamental drawbacks of commonly used functions in the form of a weighted sum. As a special case of the ranking procedure in the space of a relation, the procedure based on the notion of an ideal element and generalized Minkowski distance from the element was proposed. This procedure, presented as universal ranking algorithm, eliminates most of the disadvantages of ranking functions in the form of a weighted sum.[b]Keywords[/b]: ranking functions, preference relation, ranking clusters, categories, ideal point, universal ranking algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alves, A.S.M., E-mail: asergi@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear – Eletronuclear S.A. , Rua da Candelária 65, 7° andar, GSN.T, 20091-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e, E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Graduate Program of Nuclear Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horácio Macedo 2030, Bloco G, sala 206, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Passos, E.M., E-mail: epassos@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear – Eletronuclear S.A. , Rua da Candelária 65, 7° andar, GSN.T, 20091-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontes, G.S., E-mail: gsfontes@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia – IME, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2015-06-15
Highlights: • The water infiltration scenario is evaluated for a near surface repository. • The main objective is the determination of the critical distance of the repository. • The column liquid height in the repository is governed by an Ito stochastic equation. • Practical results are obtained for the Abadia de Goiás repository in Brazil. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the stochastic and deterministic models developed for the evaluation of the critical distance of a near surface repository for the disposal of intermediate (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The critical distance of a repository is defined as the distance between the repository and a well in which the water activity concentration is able to cause a radiological dose to a member of the public equal to the dose limit set by the regulatory body. The mathematical models are developed based on the Richards equation for the liquid flow in the porous media and on the solute transport equation in this medium. The release of radioactive material from the repository to the environment is considered through its base and its flow is determined by Darcy's Law. The deterministic model is obtained from the stochastic approach by neglecting the influence of the Gaussian white noise on the rainfall and the equations are solved analytically with the help of conventional calculus (non-stochastic calculus). The equations of the stochastic model are solved analytically based on the Ito stochastic calculus and numerically by using the Euler–Maruyama method. The impact on the value of the critical distance of the Abadia de Goiás repository is analyzed, taken as a study case, when the deterministic methodology is replaced by the stochastic one, considered more appropriate for modeling rainfall as a stochastic process.
Representing distance, consuming distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunvor Riber
Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...
Convolutional Codes with Maximum Column Sum Rank for Network Streaming
Mahmood, Rafid; Badr, Ahmed; Khisti, Ashish
2015-01-01
The column Hamming distance of a convolutional code determines the error correction capability when streaming over a class of packet erasure channels. We introduce a metric known as the column sum rank, that parallels column Hamming distance when streaming over a network with link failures. We prove rank analogues of several known column Hamming distance properties and introduce a new family of convolutional codes that maximize the column sum rank up to the code memory. Our construction invol...
2011-01-01
OPEN Pasture /Hay SEGAP810 OPEN Row Crop SEGAP820 OPEN Atlantic Coastal Plain Blackwater Stream Floodplain Forest - Forest Modifier CES203.247a HARD... genetic connectivity. One possible explanation is that the model evaluates jumping for every gap encountered, making movement over long distances across
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren
2008-01-01
The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...
Most, S.; Nowak, W.; Bijeljic, B.
2014-12-01
Transport processes in porous media are frequently simulated as particle movement. This process can be formulated as a stochastic process of particle position increments. At the pore scale, the geometry and micro-heterogeneities prohibit the commonly made assumption of independent and normally distributed increments to represent dispersion. Many recent particle methods seek to loosen this assumption. Recent experimental data suggest that we have not yet reached the end of the need to generalize, because particle increments show statistical dependency beyond linear correlation and over many time steps. The goal of this work is to better understand the validity regions of commonly made assumptions. We are investigating after what transport distances can we observe: A statistical dependence between increments, that can be modelled as an order-k Markov process, boils down to order 1. This would be the Markovian distance for the process, where the validity of yet-unexplored non-Gaussian-but-Markovian random walks would start. A bivariate statistical dependence that simplifies to a multi-Gaussian dependence based on simple linear correlation (validity of correlated PTRW). Complete absence of statistical dependence (validity of classical PTRW/CTRW). The approach is to derive a statistical model for pore-scale transport from a powerful experimental data set via copula analysis. The model is formulated as a non-Gaussian, mutually dependent Markov process of higher order, which allows us to investigate the validity ranges of simpler models.
Ranking in evolving complex networks
Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang
2017-05-01
Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.
Butcher, John; Rose-Adams, John
2015-01-01
In this article, we argue that, if open learning seeks to (re)assert a social justice mission, issues of openness and flexibility are more critical than ever. Drawing on qualitative data from a National Union of Students Wales/Open University study, which explored, in the voices of Welsh students, the identity, motivation and barriers faced by…
Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Agerso, Yvonne; Andremont, Antoine; Collignon, Peter; Conly, John; Dang Ninh, Tran; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Fedorka-Cray, Paula; Fernandez, Heriberto; Galas, Marcelo; Irwin, Rebecca; Karp, Beth; Matar, Gassan; McDermott, Patrick; McEwen, Scott; Mitema, Eric; Reid-Smith, Richard; Scott, H Morgan; Singh, Ruby; DeWaal, Caroline Smith; Stelling, John; Toleman, Mark; Watanabe, Haruo; Woo, Gun-Jo
2016-10-15
Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.
Fractional cointegration rank estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lasak, Katarzyna; Velasco, Carlos
the parameters of the model under the null hypothesis of the cointegration rank r = 1, 2, ..., p-1. This step provides consistent estimates of the cointegration degree, the cointegration vectors, the speed of adjustment to the equilibrium parameters and the common trends. In the second step we carry out a sup......-likelihood ratio test of no-cointegration on the estimated p - r common trends that are not cointegrated under the null. The cointegration degree is re-estimated in the second step to allow for new cointegration relationships with different memory. We augment the error correction model in the second step...... to control for stochastic trend estimation effects from the first step. The critical values of the tests proposed depend only on the number of common trends under the null, p - r, and on the interval of the cointegration degrees b allowed, but not on the true cointegration degree b0. Hence, no additional...
Duarte, Cristiana; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José
2016-04-01
This study examined the similarities and differences in eating psychopathology symptoms, overvaluation of body shape, weight and eating, general psychopathology, social comparison, self-criticism and shame, between AN, BN and BED patients. Also, the mediator effect of self-criticism and social comparison on the association between overvaluation and shame, was tested. Participants were 119 patients (34 AN, 34 BN and 51 BED) diagnosed through the Eating Disorder Examination. Results indicated that BED patients are older and present higher BMI. The groups differed regarding eating disorders' symptomatology, but no significant differences were observed in overvaluation, self-criticism, shame and overall psychopathology symptoms. The path model confirmed that overvaluation has a significant indirect association with shame, which is mediated by severe self-criticism and negative social comparisons. The model was fond to be invariant between the clinical groups. These findings contribute for the understanding of the common processes that feed the perpetual cycle of eating psychopathology. Thus, these data have potential implications for transdiagnostic approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Model of Decision Making through Consensus in Ranking Case
Tarigan, Gim; Darnius, Open
2018-01-01
The basic problem to determine ranking consensus is a problem to combine some rankings those are decided by two or more Decision Maker (DM) into ranking consensus. DM is frequently asked to present their preferences over a group of objects in terms of ranks, for example to determine a new project, new product, a candidate in a election, and so on. The problem in ranking can be classified into two major categories; namely, cardinal and ordinal rankings. The objective of the study is to obtin the ranking consensus by appying some algorithms and methods. The algorithms and methods used in this study were partial algorithm, optimal ranking consensus, BAK (Borde-Kendal)Model. A method proposed as an alternative in ranking conssensus is a Weighted Distance Forward-Backward (WDFB) method, which gave a little difference i ranking consensus result compare to the result oethe example solved by Cook, et.al (2005).
Ranking Operations Management conferences
Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U
2007-01-01
Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences
Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Sturmfels, B.; Thomas, R.R.; Zhi, L.; Watt, M.
2014-01-01
The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low rank matrices, the Eckart-Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest
On Rank Driven Dynamical Systems
Veerman, J. J. P.; Prieto, F. J.
2014-08-01
We investigate a class of models related to the Bak-Sneppen (BS) model, initially proposed to study evolution. The BS model is extremely simple and yet captures some forms of "complex behavior" such as self-organized criticality that is often observed in physical and biological systems. In this model, random fitnesses in are associated to agents located at the vertices of a graph . Their fitnesses are ranked from worst (0) to best (1). At every time-step the agent with the worst fitness and some others with a priori given rank probabilities are replaced by new agents with random fitnesses. We consider two cases: The exogenous case where the new fitnesses are taken from an a priori fixed distribution, and the endogenous case where the new fitnesses are taken from the current distribution as it evolves. We approximate the dynamics by making a simplifying independence assumption. We use Order Statistics and Dynamical Systems to define a rank-driven dynamical system that approximates the evolution of the distribution of the fitnesses in these rank-driven models, as well as in the BS model. For this simplified model we can find the limiting marginal distribution as a function of the initial conditions. Agreement with experimental results of the BS model is excellent.
Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W
2016-01-01
There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68-0.84 Spearman's ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows.
Hoede, C.
In this paper the concept of page rank for the world wide web is discussed. The possibility of describing the distribution of page rank by an exponential law is considered. It is shown that the concept is essentially equal to that of status score, a centrality measure discussed already in 1953 by
Dobbs, David E.
2012-01-01
This note explains how Emil Artin's proof that row rank equals column rank for a matrix with entries in a field leads naturally to the formula for the nullity of a matrix and also to an algorithm for solving any system of linear equations in any number of variables. This material could be used in any course on matrix theory or linear algebra.
Chapman, David W.
2008-01-01
Recently, Samford University was ranked 27th in the nation in a report released by "Forbes" magazine. In this article, the author relates how the people working at Samford University were surprised at its ranking. Although Samford is the largest privately institution in Alabama, its distinguished academic achievements aren't even…
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Braddock, Joseph
1997-01-01
A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...
Commonwealth of Learning, 2004
2004-01-01
Both of these "Surveys of policy and practice" were conducted on behalf of COL by the South African Institute for Distance Education (SAIDE) as part of COL's partnership agreement with the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) Working Group on Distance Education and Open Learning. The first report identifies…
Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods
Hajjari, Tayebeh
2012-11-01
With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.
Ranking as parameter estimation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine
2009-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 2 (2009), s. 142-158 ISSN 1745-7645 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2C06001; GA AV ČR 1ET100750401; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : ranking * Bayesian estimation * negotiation * modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/karny- ranking as parameter estimation.pdf
Hierarchical partial order ranking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsen, Lars
2008-01-01
Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, Peng; Wei, Xiantao; Yin, Min; Chen, Yonghu, E-mail: yhuchen@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhou, Shaoshuai [Key Laboratory of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China)
2016-09-07
A series of Pr{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 3+} doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} or simply YAG) phosphors were synthesized to investigate the energy transfer between Pr{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} for their potential application in a white light-emitting diode and quantum information storage and processing. The excitation and emission spectra of YAG:Pr{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 3+} were measured and analyzed, and it revealed that the reabsorption between Pr{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} was so weak that it can be ignored, and the energy transfer from Pr{sup 3+} (5d) to Ce{sup 3+} (5d) and Ce{sup 3+} (5d) to Pr{sup 3+} ({sup 1}D{sub 2}) did occur. By analyzing the excitation and the emission spectra, the energy transfer from Pr{sup 3+} (5d) to Ce{sup 3+} (5d) and Ce{sup 3+} (5d) to Pr{sup 3+} ({sup 1}D{sub 2}) was examined in detail with an original strategy deduced from fluorescence dynamics and the Dexter energy transfer theory, and the critical distances of energy transfer were derived to be 7.9 Å and 4.0 Å for Pr{sup 3+} (5d) to Ce{sup 3+} (5d) and Ce{sup 3+} (5d) to Pr{sup 3+} ({sup 1}D{sub 2}), respectively. The energy transfer rates of the two processes of various concentrations were discussed and evaluated. Furthermore, for the purpose of sensing a single Pr{sup 3+} state with a Ce{sup 3+} ion, the optimal distance of Ce{sup 3+} from Pr{sup 3+} was evaluated as 5.60 Å, where the probability of success reaches its maximum value of 78.66%, and meanwhile the probabilities were evaluated for a series of Y{sup 3+} sites in a YAG lattice. These results will be of valuable reference for achievement of the optimal energy transfer efficiency in Pr{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 3+} doped YAG and other similar systems.
An R package for analyzing and modeling ranking data.
Lee, Paul H; Yu, Philip L H
2013-05-14
In medical informatics, psychology, market research and many other fields, researchers often need to analyze and model ranking data. However, there is no statistical software that provides tools for the comprehensive analysis of ranking data. Here, we present pmr, an R package for analyzing and modeling ranking data with a bundle of tools. The pmr package enables descriptive statistics (mean rank, pairwise frequencies, and marginal matrix), Analytic Hierarchy Process models (with Saaty's and Koczkodaj's inconsistencies), probability models (Luce model, distance-based model, and rank-ordered logit model), and the visualization of ranking data with multidimensional preference analysis. Examples of the use of package pmr are given using a real ranking dataset from medical informatics, in which 566 Hong Kong physicians ranked the top five incentives (1: competitive pressures; 2: increased savings; 3: government regulation; 4: improved efficiency; 5: improved quality care; 6: patient demand; 7: financial incentives) to the computerization of clinical practice. The mean rank showed that item 4 is the most preferred item and item 3 is the least preferred item, and significance difference was found between physicians' preferences with respect to their monthly income. A multidimensional preference analysis identified two dimensions that explain 42% of the total variance. The first can be interpreted as the overall preference of the seven items (labeled as "internal/external"), and the second dimension can be interpreted as their overall variance of (labeled as "push/pull factors"). Various statistical models were fitted, and the best were found to be weighted distance-based models with Spearman's footrule distance. In this paper, we presented the R package pmr, the first package for analyzing and modeling ranking data. The package provides insight to users through descriptive statistics of ranking data. Users can also visualize ranking data by applying a thought
Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra
2013-01-01
Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arda Halu
Full Text Available Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.
Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook
Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.
Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Dahlan
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.
Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Dahlan
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.
Groundwater contaminant plume ranking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-08-01
Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs
Singh, Gurmit
2013-01-01
Effective professional distance education is urgently needed to develop a well-trained workforce and improve impact on healthcare. However, distance education initiatives have had mixed results in improving practice. Often, successful implementation fails to leverage insights on the social and emergent nature of learning in networks. This paper…
Schultz, Richard B.
2012-01-01
Differences between student audiences are an important aspect not only of traditional learning in higher education, but also in the distance learning environment. Facilitators of distance learning coursework must be cognizant of the differences which adult students bring to the classroom and their varying expectations and reasons for learning.…
Ranking economic history journals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis
2010-01-01
This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....
Ranking Economic History Journals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis
This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands
2009-01-01
We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....
Data envelopment analysis of randomized ranks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sant'Anna Annibal P.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Probabilities and odds, derived from vectors of ranks, are here compared as measures of efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs. These measures are computed with the goal of providing preliminary information before starting a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA or the application of any other evaluation or composition of preferences methodology. Preferences, quality and productivity evaluations are usually measured with errors or subject to influence of other random disturbances. Reducing evaluations to ranks and treating the ranks as estimates of location parameters of random variables, we are able to compute the probability of each DMU being classified as the best according to the consumption of each input and the production of each output. Employing the probabilities of being the best as efficiency measures, we stretch distances between the most efficient units. We combine these partial probabilities in a global efficiency score determined in terms of proximity to the efficiency frontier.
A Case-Based Reasoning Method with Rank Aggregation
Sun, Jinhua; Du, Jiao; Hu, Jian
2018-03-01
In order to improve the accuracy of case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper addresses a new CBR framework with the basic principle of rank aggregation. First, the ranking methods are put forward in each attribute subspace of case. The ordering relation between cases on each attribute is got between cases. Then, a sorting matrix is got. Second, the similar case retrieval process from ranking matrix is transformed into a rank aggregation optimal problem, which uses the Kemeny optimal. On the basis, a rank aggregation case-based reasoning algorithm, named RA-CBR, is designed. The experiment result on UCI data sets shows that case retrieval accuracy of RA-CBR algorithm is higher than euclidean distance CBR and mahalanobis distance CBR testing.So we can get the conclusion that RA-CBR method can increase the performance and efficiency of CBR.
Distance Education Programs: The Technical Support to Be Successful.
McNew, Ryan E; Gordon, Jeffry S; Weiner, Elizabeth E; Trangenstein, Patricia
2016-01-01
Academic success requires support on a variety of levels as well as access to contemporary tools and services. Supporting students enrolled in a successful higher education distance learning program, requires a strong, properly trained IT support staff in addition to a stable IT environment. Our distance education program began with a regional market but has grown significantly over the past few years. This is primarily due to the success of our distance education tools and support which have contributed to achieving a ranking of eleventh of best graduate schools in nursing according to the U.S. News and World Report. The entire student population is "Bring Your Own Devices" (BYOD). Critical to this support is the initial configuration and loading of needed software during the first week of orientation. All of this success requires a robust team of members prepared in a range of skill sets from networking to instructional design.
Diversifying customer review rankings.
Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima
2015-06-01
E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Steinhausen, Uwe
2008-01-01
Outlier detection is an important data mining task for consistency checks, fraud detection, etc. Binary decision making on whether or not an object is an outlier is not appropriate in many applications and moreover hard to parametrize. Thus, recently, methods for outlier ranking have been proposed...
Improving Ranking Using Quantum Probability
Melucci, Massimo
2011-01-01
The paper shows that ranking information units by quantum probability differs from ranking them by classical probability provided the same data used for parameter estimation. As probability of detection (also known as recall or power) and probability of false alarm (also known as fallout or size) measure the quality of ranking, we point out and show that ranking by quantum probability yields higher probability of detection than ranking by classical probability provided a given probability of ...
Global network centrality of university rankings
Guo, Weisi; Del Vecchio, Marco; Pogrebna, Ganna
2017-10-01
Universities and higher education institutions form an integral part of the national infrastructure and prestige. As academic research benefits increasingly from international exchange and cooperation, many universities have increased investment in improving and enabling their global connectivity. Yet, the relationship of university performance and its global physical connectedness has not been explored in detail. We conduct, to our knowledge, the first large-scale data-driven analysis into whether there is a correlation between university relative ranking performance and its global connectivity via the air transport network. The results show that local access to global hubs (as measured by air transport network betweenness) strongly and positively correlates with the ranking growth (statistical significance in different models ranges between 5% and 1% level). We also found that the local airport's aggregate flight paths (degree) and capacity (weighted degree) has no effect on university ranking, further showing that global connectivity distance is more important than the capacity of flight connections. We also examined the effect of local city economic development as a confounding variable and no effect was observed suggesting that access to global transportation hubs outweighs economic performance as a determinant of university ranking. The impact of this research is that we have determined the importance of the centrality of global connectivity and, hence, established initial evidence for further exploring potential connections between university ranking and regional investment policies on improving global connectivity.
1991 Acceptance priority ranking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-12-01
The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High- Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) that the Department of Energy (DOE) has executed with the owners and generators of civilian spent nuclear fuel requires annual publication of the Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR). The 1991 APR details the order in which DOE will allocate Federal waste acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the ranking is based on the age of permanently discharged spent nuclear fuel (SNF), with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. the 1991 APR will be the basis for the annual allocation of waste acceptance capacity to the Purchasers in the 1991 Annual Capacity Report (ACR), to be issued later this year. This document is based on SNF discharges as of December 31, 1990, and reflects Purchaser comments and corrections, as appropriate, to the draft APR issued on May 15, 1991
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert F. Love
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Distance predicting functions may be used in a variety of applications for estimating travel distances between points. To evaluate the accuracy of a distance predicting function and to determine its parameters, a goodness-of-fit criteria is employed. AD (Absolute Deviations, SD (Squared Deviations and NAD (Normalized Absolute Deviations are the three criteria that are mostly employed in practice. In the literature some assumptions have been made about the properties of each criterion. In this paper, we present statistical analyses performed to compare the three criteria from different perspectives. For this purpose, we employ the ℓkpθ-norm as the distance predicting function, and statistically compare the three criteria by using normalized absolute prediction error distributions in seventeen geographical regions. We find that there exist no significant differences between the criteria. However, since the criterion SD has desirable properties in terms of distance modelling procedures, we suggest its use in practice.
Cointegration rank testing under conditional heteroskedasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders Christian; Taylor, Robert M.
2010-01-01
We analyze the properties of the conventional Gaussian-based cointegrating rank tests of Johansen (1996, Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models) in the case where the vector of series under test is driven by globally stationary, conditionally heteroskedastic......, relative to tests based on the asymptotic critical values or the i.i.d. bootstrap, the wild bootstrap rank tests perform very well in small samples under a variety of conditionally heteroskedastic innovation processes. An empirical application to the term structure of interest rates is given....
Barron, Gary R. S.
2017-01-01
University rankings have been widely criticized and examined in terms of the environment they create for universities. In this paper, I reverse the question by examining how ranking organizations have responded to criticisms. I contrast ranking values and evaluation with those practiced by academic communities. I argue that the business of ranking…
Robustness of Distance-to-Default
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David
2013-01-01
Distance-to-default is a remarkably robust measure for ranking firms according to their risk of default. The ranking seems to work despite the fact that the Merton model from which the measure is derived produces default probabilities that are far too small when applied to real data. We use...... simulations to investigate the robustness of the distance-to-default measure to different model specifications. Overall we find distance-to-default to be robust to a number of deviations from the simple Merton model that involve different asset value dynamics and different default triggering mechanisms....... A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin Alves, A.S. de; Passos, E.M. dos [NUCLEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1995-12-31
An alternative calculation of the ingestion dose rate critical distance due to a hypothetical release of Cs-137 from the structure of the Repository of Abadia de Goias is presented. The release pathway considers the repository - groundwater region - well - and food chain. The main adopted modification comparing to the previous work is the inclusion of the convective and molecular diffusion terms in the radionuclide transport equation in addition to the radioactive decay term. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab.
Ranking Baltic States Researchers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gyula Mester
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this article, using the h-index and the total number of citations, the best 10 Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian researchers from several disciplines are ranked. The list may be formed based on the h-index and the total number of citations, given in Web of Science, Scopus, Publish or Perish Program and Google Scholar database. Data for the first 10 researchers are presented. Google Scholar is the most complete. Therefore, to define a single indicator, h-index calculated by Google Scholar may be a good and simple one. The author chooses the Google Scholar database as it is the broadest one.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marrakchi, A.E.L.; Tapia, V.
1992-05-01
Some cosmological implications of the recently proposed fourth-rank theory of gravitation are studied. The model exhibits the possibility of being free from the horizon and flatness problems at the price of introducing a negative pressure. The field equations we obtain are compatible with k obs =0 and Ω obs t clas approx. 10 20 t Planck approx. 10 -23 s. When interpreted at the light of General Relativity the treatment is shown to be almost equivalent to that of the standard model of cosmology combined with the inflationary scenario. Hence, an interpretation of the negative pressure hypothesis is provided. (author). 8 refs
University Rankings and Social Science
Marginson, S.
2014-01-01
University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real outputs are of no common value. It is necessary that rankings be soundly based in scientific terms if a virtuous relationship between performance and...
University Rankings and Social Science
Marginson, Simon
2014-01-01
University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…
Multidimensional ranking the design and development of U-Multirank
Ziegele, Frank
2012-01-01
During the last decades ranking has become one of the most controversial issues in higher education and research. It is widely recognized now that, although some of the current rankings can be severely criticized, they seem to be here to stay. In addition, rankings appear to have a great impact on decision-makers at all levels of higher education and research systems worldwide, including in universities. Rankings reflect a growing international competition among universities for talent and resources; at the same time they reinforce competition by their very results. Yet major concerns remain a
Robustness of Distance-to-Default
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David
2013-01-01
. A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...
Co-integration Rank Testing under Conditional Heteroskedasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert
null distributions of the rank statistics coincide with those derived by previous authors who assume either i.i.d. or (strict and covariance) stationary martingale difference innovations. We then propose wild bootstrap implementations of the co-integrating rank tests and demonstrate that the associated...... bootstrap rank statistics replicate the first-order asymptotic null distributions of the rank statistics. We show the same is also true of the corresponding rank tests based on the i.i.d. bootstrap of Swensen (2006). The wild bootstrap, however, has the important property that, unlike the i.i.d. bootstrap......, it preserves in the re-sampled data the pattern of heteroskedasticity present in the original shocks. Consistent with this, numerical evidence sug- gests that, relative to tests based on the asymptotic critical values or the i.i.d. bootstrap, the wild bootstrap rank tests perform very well in small samples un...
Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando
2016-01-01
The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (psoccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer.
Low-rank quadratic semidefinite programming
Yuan, Ganzhao
2013-04-01
Low rank matrix approximation is an attractive model in large scale machine learning problems, because it can not only reduce the memory and runtime complexity, but also provide a natural way to regularize parameters while preserving learning accuracy. In this paper, we address a special class of nonconvex quadratic matrix optimization problems, which require a low rank positive semidefinite solution. Despite their non-convexity, we exploit the structure of these problems to derive an efficient solver that converges to their local optima. Furthermore, we show that the proposed solution is capable of dramatically enhancing the efficiency and scalability of a variety of concrete problems, which are of significant interest to the machine learning community. These problems include the Top-k Eigenvalue problem, Distance learning and Kernel learning. Extensive experiments on UCI benchmarks have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method. © 2012.
Low-rank quadratic semidefinite programming
Yuan, Ganzhao; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ghanem, Bernard; Hao, Zhifeng
2013-01-01
Low rank matrix approximation is an attractive model in large scale machine learning problems, because it can not only reduce the memory and runtime complexity, but also provide a natural way to regularize parameters while preserving learning accuracy. In this paper, we address a special class of nonconvex quadratic matrix optimization problems, which require a low rank positive semidefinite solution. Despite their non-convexity, we exploit the structure of these problems to derive an efficient solver that converges to their local optima. Furthermore, we show that the proposed solution is capable of dramatically enhancing the efficiency and scalability of a variety of concrete problems, which are of significant interest to the machine learning community. These problems include the Top-k Eigenvalue problem, Distance learning and Kernel learning. Extensive experiments on UCI benchmarks have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method. © 2012.
Rankings, creatividad y urbanismo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JOAQUÍN SABATÉ
2008-08-01
Full Text Available La competencia entre ciudades constituye uno de los factores impulsores de procesos de renovación urbana y los rankings han devenido instrumentos de medida de la calidad de las ciudades. Nos detendremos en el caso de un antiguo barrio industrial hoy en vías de transformación en distrito "creativo" por medio de una intervención urbanística de gran escala. Su análisis nos descubre tres claves críticas. En primer lugar, nos obliga a plantearnos la definición de innovación urbana y cómo se integran el pasado, la identidad y la memoria en la construcción del futuro. Nos lleva a comprender que la innovación y el conocimiento no se "dan" casualmente, sino que son el fruto de una larga y compleja red en la que participan saberes, espacios, actores e instituciones diversas en naturaleza, escala y magnitud. Por último nos obliga a reflexionar sobre el valor que se le otorga a lo local en los procesos de renovación urbana.Competition among cities constitutes one ofthe main factors o furban renewal, and rankings have become instruments to indícate cities quality. Studying the transformation of an old industrial quarter into a "creative district" by the means ofa large scale urban project we highlight three main conclusions. First, itasks us to reconsider the notion ofurban innovation and hoto past, identity and memory should intégrate the future development. Second, it shows that innovation and knowledge doesn't yield per chance, but are the result ofa large and complex grid of diverse knowledges, spaces, agents and institutions. Finally itforces us to reflect about the valué attributed to the "local" in urban renewalprocesses.
Social Media Impact on Website Ranking
Vaghela, Dushyant
2014-01-01
Internet is fast becoming critically important to commerce, industry and individuals. Search Engine (SE) is the most vital component for communication network and also used for discover information for users or people. Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process that is mostly used to increasing traffic from free, organic or natural listings on search engines and also helps to increase website ranking. It includes techniques like link building, directory submission, classified submission ...
Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.
Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2015-11-10
PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.
Neophilia Ranking of Scientific Journals.
Packalen, Mikko; Bhattacharya, Jay
2017-01-01
The ranking of scientific journals is important because of the signal it sends to scientists about what is considered most vital for scientific progress. Existing ranking systems focus on measuring the influence of a scientific paper (citations)-these rankings do not reward journals for publishing innovative work that builds on new ideas. We propose an alternative ranking based on the proclivity of journals to publish papers that build on new ideas, and we implement this ranking via a text-based analysis of all published biomedical papers dating back to 1946. In addition, we compare our neophilia ranking to citation-based (impact factor) rankings; this comparison shows that the two ranking approaches are distinct. Prior theoretical work suggests an active role for our neophilia index in science policy. Absent an explicit incentive to pursue novel science, scientists underinvest in innovative work because of a coordination problem: for work on a new idea to flourish, many scientists must decide to adopt it in their work. Rankings that are based purely on influence thus do not provide sufficient incentives for publishing innovative work. By contrast, adoption of the neophilia index as part of journal-ranking procedures by funding agencies and university administrators would provide an explicit incentive for journals to publish innovative work and thus help solve the coordination problem by increasing scientists' incentives to pursue innovative work.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.
1989-01-01
This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).
Ranking Specific Sets of Objects.
Maly, Jan; Woltran, Stefan
2017-01-01
Ranking sets of objects based on an order between the single elements has been thoroughly studied in the literature. In particular, it has been shown that it is in general impossible to find a total ranking - jointly satisfying properties as dominance and independence - on the whole power set of objects. However, in many applications certain elements from the entire power set might not be required and can be neglected in the ranking process. For instance, certain sets might be ruled out due to hard constraints or are not satisfying some background theory. In this paper, we treat the computational problem whether an order on a given subset of the power set of elements satisfying different variants of dominance and independence can be found, given a ranking on the elements. We show that this problem is tractable for partial rankings and NP-complete for total rankings.
Wikipedia ranking of world universities
Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2016-03-01
We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarina Pucelj
2006-12-01
Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.
Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails
Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2015-11-01
PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kolbæk, Raymond
2017-01-01
of intersectorial collaboration. The premises of intersectorial collaboration are maintained through a specific presentation of actors leaving little room for discussion, where professionals are constructed as actors who are expected to develop ways of collaborating according to the Triple Aim approach in order...... policies as powerful actors and explores how effects of a concrete policy are adapted for intersectorial collaboration in Danish healthcare. The paper is based on a critical discourse analysis of a central policy document in Danish health-care known as the ‘Health Agreements’. Using Fairclough’s three......-dimensional model for discourse analysis, we explored the document to clarify the construction of actors participating in intersectorial collaboration. The analysis revealed the Health Agreement as a ‘negotiated text’, appearing as an overriding document legitimising one possible discourse regarding the premises...
PageRank tracker: from ranking to tracking.
Gong, Chen; Fu, Keren; Loza, Artur; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Jie
2014-06-01
Video object tracking is widely used in many real-world applications, and it has been extensively studied for over two decades. However, tracking robustness is still an issue in most existing methods, due to the difficulties with adaptation to environmental or target changes. In order to improve adaptability, this paper formulates the tracking process as a ranking problem, and the PageRank algorithm, which is a well-known webpage ranking algorithm used by Google, is applied. Labeled and unlabeled samples in tracking application are analogous to query webpages and the webpages to be ranked, respectively. Therefore, determining the target is equivalent to finding the unlabeled sample that is the most associated with existing labeled set. We modify the conventional PageRank algorithm in three aspects for tracking application, including graph construction, PageRank vector acquisition and target filtering. Our simulations with the use of various challenging public-domain video sequences reveal that the proposed PageRank tracker outperforms mean-shift tracker, co-tracker, semiboosting and beyond semiboosting trackers in terms of accuracy, robustness and stability.
The THE-QS World University Rankings, 2004 – 2009
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Holmes
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the origin, development and demise of the Times Higher Education Supplement (now Times Higher Education – QS Quacquarelli Symonds (QS World University Rankings between 2004 and 2009. It describes the structure and methodology of the rankings, their public impact and various criticisms that have been made. It also analyses changes that were introduced between 2005 and 2009 and concludes by noting the development of two distinct ranking systems by the magazine Times Higher Education (THE and by its former partner, the consulting company Quacquarelli Symonds.
Universal scaling in sports ranking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Weibing; Li Wei; Cai Xu; Bulou, Alain; Wang Qiuping A
2012-01-01
Ranking is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human society. On the web pages of Forbes, one may find all kinds of rankings, such as the world's most powerful people, the world's richest people, the highest-earning tennis players, and so on and so forth. Herewith, we study a specific kind—sports ranking systems in which players' scores and/or prize money are accrued based on their performances in different matches. By investigating 40 data samples which span 12 different sports, we find that the distributions of scores and/or prize money follow universal power laws, with exponents nearly identical for most sports. In order to understand the origin of this universal scaling we focus on the tennis ranking systems. By checking the data we find that, for any pair of players, the probability that the higher-ranked player tops the lower-ranked opponent is proportional to the rank difference between the pair. Such a dependence can be well fitted to a sigmoidal function. By using this feature, we propose a simple toy model which can simulate the competition of players in different matches. The simulations yield results consistent with the empirical findings. Extensive simulation studies indicate that the model is quite robust with respect to the modifications of some parameters. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frahm, K M; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D
2012-01-01
We up a directed network tracing links from a given integer to its divisors and analyze the properties of the Google matrix of this network. The PageRank vector of this matrix is computed numerically and it is shown that its probability is approximately inversely proportional to the PageRank index thus being similar to the Zipf law and the dependence established for the World Wide Web. The spectrum of the Google matrix of integers is characterized by a large gap and a relatively small number of nonzero eigenvalues. A simple semi-analytical expression for the PageRank of integers is derived that allows us to find this vector for matrices of billion size. This network provides a new PageRank order of integers. (paper)
Freudenthal ranks: GHZ versus W
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsten, L
2013-01-01
The Hilbert space of three-qubit pure states may be identified with a Freudenthal triple system. Every state has an unique Freudenthal rank ranging from 1 to 4, which is determined by a set of automorphism group covariants. It is shown here that the optimal success rates for winning a three-player non-local game, varying over all local strategies, are strictly ordered by the Freudenthal rank of the shared three-qubit resource. (paper)
Ranking Queries on Uncertain Data
Hua, Ming
2011-01-01
Uncertain data is inherent in many important applications, such as environmental surveillance, market analysis, and quantitative economics research. Due to the importance of those applications and rapidly increasing amounts of uncertain data collected and accumulated, analyzing large collections of uncertain data has become an important task. Ranking queries (also known as top-k queries) are often natural and useful in analyzing uncertain data. Ranking Queries on Uncertain Data discusses the motivations/applications, challenging problems, the fundamental principles, and the evaluation algorith
RANK and RANK ligand expression in primary human osteosarcoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Branstetter
2015-09-01
Our results demonstrate RANKL expression was observed in the tumor element in 68% of human OS using IHC. However, the staining intensity was relatively low and only 37% (29/79 of samples exhibited≥10% RANKL positive tumor cells. RANK expression was not observed in OS tumor cells. In contrast, RANK expression was clearly observed in other cells within OS samples, including the myeloid osteoclast precursor compartment, osteoclasts and in giant osteoclast cells. The intensity and frequency of RANKL and RANK staining in OS samples were substantially less than that observed in GCTB samples. The observation that RANKL is expressed in OS cells themselves suggests that these tumors may mediate an osteoclastic response, and anti-RANKL therapy may potentially be protective against bone pathologies in OS. However, the absence of RANK expression in primary human OS cells suggests that any autocrine RANKL/RANK signaling in human OS tumor cells is not operative, and anti-RANKL therapy would not directly affect the tumor.
Ranking structures and rank-rank correlations of countries: The FIFA and UEFA cases
Ausloos, Marcel; Cloots, Rudi; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K.
2014-04-01
Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures in both cases.
Implementing Distance Education: Issues Impacting Administration
Schauer, Jolene; Rockwell, S. Kay; Fritz, Susan M.; Marx, Dave B.
2005-01-01
Through a modified Delphi study, an expert panel identified 62 concepts organized in eight issue categories that impact administrative decisions as higher education institutions commit to implementing distance education courses and programs. Using a mail survey, 62 department chairs in Colleges of Agriculture in Land-Grant Universities ranked the…
Ranking species in mutualistic networks
Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A.
2015-02-01
Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic ``nested'' structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm -similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity- here we propose a method which -by exploiting their nested architecture- allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.
Ranking Theory and Conditional Reasoning.
Skovgaard-Olsen, Niels
2016-05-01
Ranking theory is a formal epistemology that has been developed in over 600 pages in Spohn's recent book The Laws of Belief, which aims to provide a normative account of the dynamics of beliefs that presents an alternative to current probabilistic approaches. It has long been received in the AI community, but it has not yet found application in experimental psychology. The purpose of this paper is to derive clear, quantitative predictions by exploiting a parallel between ranking theory and a statistical model called logistic regression. This approach is illustrated by the development of a model for the conditional inference task using Spohn's (2013) ranking theoretic approach to conditionals. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
University rankings in computer science
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ehret, Philip; Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Gipp, Bela
2017-01-01
This is a research-in-progress paper concerning two types of institutional rankings, the Leiden and QS World ranking, and their relationship to a list of universities’ ‘geo-based’ impact scores, and Computing Research and Education Conference (CORE) participation scores in the field of computer...... science. A ‘geo-based’ impact measure examines the geographical distribution of incoming citations to a particular university’s journal articles for a specific period of time. It takes into account both the number of citations and the geographical variability in these citations. The CORE participation...... score is calculated on the basis of the number of weighted proceedings papers that a university has contributed to either an A*, A, B, or C conference as ranked by the Computing Research and Education Association of Australasia. In addition to calculating the correlations between the distinct university...
Subtracting a best rank-1 approximation may increase tensor rank
Stegeman, Alwin; Comon, Pierre
2010-01-01
It has been shown that a best rank-R approximation of an order-k tensor may not exist when R >= 2 and k >= 3. This poses a serious problem to data analysts using tensor decompositions it has been observed numerically that, generally, this issue cannot be solved by consecutively computing and
Consistent ranking of volatility models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger
2006-01-01
We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...... variance in out-of-sample evaluations rather than the squared return. We derive the theoretical results in a general framework that is not specific to the comparison of volatility models. Similar problems can arise in comparisons of forecasting models whenever the predicted variable is a latent variable....
Let Us Rank Journalism Programs
Weber, Joseph
2014-01-01
Unlike law, business, and medical schools, as well as universities in general, journalism schools and journalism programs have rarely been ranked. Publishers such as "U.S. News & World Report," "Forbes," "Bloomberg Businessweek," and "Washington Monthly" do not pay them much mind. What is the best…
African Journals Online (AJOL)
maths/stats
... GAUSS SEIDEL'S. NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS IN PAGE RANK ANALYSIS. ... The convergence is guaranteed, if the absolute value of the largest eigen ... improved Gauss-Seidel iteration algorithm, based on the decomposition. U. L. D. M. +. +. = ..... This corresponds to determine the eigen vector of T with eigen value 1.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2012-11-19
Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin
2012-01-01
Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105... Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of... preference will be included in this final ranking in accordance with applicable regulations. ...
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin
2012-11-19
Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Jim
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.
The "U.S. News" Rankings Roll On
Hoover, Eric
2007-01-01
As usual, "U.S. News & World Report's" annual college rankings offered a heavy dose of deja vu when they arrived last August. In this article, the author discusses the response rate to the magazine's controversial reputational survey. The overall response rate plunged to its lowest level ever, a possible sign that organized criticism of the…
A Survey on PageRank Computing
Berkhin, Pavel
2005-01-01
This survey reviews the research related to PageRank computing. Components of a PageRank vector serve as authority weights for web pages independent of their textual content, solely based on the hyperlink structure of the web. PageRank is typically used as a web search ranking component. This defines the importance of the model and the data structures that underly PageRank processing. Computing even a single PageRank is a difficult computational task. Computing many PageRanks is a much mor...
Time evolution of Wikipedia network ranking
Eom, Young-Ho; Frahm, Klaus M.; Benczúr, András; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2013-12-01
We study the time evolution of ranking and spectral properties of the Google matrix of English Wikipedia hyperlink network during years 2003-2011. The statistical properties of ranking of Wikipedia articles via PageRank and CheiRank probabilities, as well as the matrix spectrum, are shown to be stabilized for 2007-2011. A special emphasis is done on ranking of Wikipedia personalities and universities. We show that PageRank selection is dominated by politicians while 2DRank, which combines PageRank and CheiRank, gives more accent on personalities of arts. The Wikipedia PageRank of universities recovers 80% of top universities of Shanghai ranking during the considered time period.
Escaping the repugnant conclusion: rank-discounted utilitarianism with variable population
Asheim, Geir Bjarne; Zuber, Stéphane
2014-01-01
We contribute to population ethics by proposing and axiomatizing rank-discounted critical-level generalized utilitarianism (RDCLU). Population ethics is needed for evaluation of policies, e.g., concerning climate change, where population size depends on the chosen policy. We show that critical-level generalized utilitarianism and (a version of) critical-level leximin are the limits of RDCLU for extreme values of the rank utility discount factor. Moreover, we establish how RDCLU avoids serious...
Sparse Contextual Activation for Efficient Visual Re-Ranking.
Bai, Song; Bai, Xiang
2016-03-01
In this paper, we propose an extremely efficient algorithm for visual re-ranking. By considering the original pairwise distance in the contextual space, we develop a feature vector called sparse contextual activation (SCA) that encodes the local distribution of an image. Hence, re-ranking task can be simply accomplished by vector comparison under the generalized Jaccard metric, which has its theoretical meaning in the fuzzy set theory. In order to improve the time efficiency of re-ranking procedure, inverted index is successfully introduced to speed up the computation of generalized Jaccard metric. As a result, the average time cost of re-ranking for a certain query can be controlled within 1 ms. Furthermore, inspired by query expansion, we also develop an additional method called local consistency enhancement on the proposed SCA to improve the retrieval performance in an unsupervised manner. On the other hand, the retrieval performance using a single feature may not be satisfactory enough, which inspires us to fuse multiple complementary features for accurate retrieval. Based on SCA, a robust feature fusion algorithm is exploited that also preserves the characteristic of high time efficiency. We assess our proposed method in various visual re-ranking tasks. Experimental results on Princeton shape benchmark (3D object), WM-SRHEC07 (3D competition), YAEL data set B (face), MPEG-7 data set (shape), and Ukbench data set (image) manifest the effectiveness and efficiency of SCA.
Geodesic distance in planar graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.
2003-01-01
We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy
Validating rankings in soccer championships
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annibal Parracho Sant'Anna
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The final ranking of a championship is determined by quality attributes combined with other factors which should be filtered out of any decision on relegation or draft for upper level tournaments. Factors like referees' mistakes and difficulty of certain matches due to its accidental importance to the opponents should have their influence reduced. This work tests approaches to combine classification rules considering the imprecision of the number of points as a measure of quality and of the variables that provide reliable explanation for it. Two home-advantage variables are tested and shown to be apt to enter as explanatory variables. Independence between the criteria is checked against the hypothesis of maximal correlation. The importance of factors and of composition rules is evaluated on the basis of correlation between rank vectors, number of classes and number of clubs in tail classes. Data from five years of the Brazilian Soccer Championship are analyzed.
Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra
2016-10-01
Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.
Low rank magnetic resonance fingerprinting.
Mazor, Gal; Weizman, Lior; Tal, Assaf; Eldar, Yonina C
2016-08-01
Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a relatively new approach that provides quantitative MRI using randomized acquisition. Extraction of physical quantitative tissue values is preformed off-line, based on acquisition with varying parameters and a dictionary generated according to the Bloch equations. MRF uses hundreds of radio frequency (RF) excitation pulses for acquisition, and therefore high under-sampling ratio in the sampling domain (k-space) is required. This under-sampling causes spatial artifacts that hamper the ability to accurately estimate the quantitative tissue values. In this work, we introduce a new approach for quantitative MRI using MRF, called Low Rank MRF. We exploit the low rank property of the temporal domain, on top of the well-known sparsity of the MRF signal in the generated dictionary domain. We present an iterative scheme that consists of a gradient step followed by a low rank projection using the singular value decomposition. Experiments on real MRI data demonstrate superior results compared to conventional implementation of compressed sensing for MRF at 15% sampling ratio.
Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.
Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.
Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi
2017-01-01
Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.
SibRank: Signed bipartite network analysis for neighbor-based collaborative ranking
Shams, Bita; Haratizadeh, Saman
2016-09-01
Collaborative ranking is an emerging field of recommender systems that utilizes users' preference data rather than rating values. Unfortunately, neighbor-based collaborative ranking has gained little attention despite its more flexibility and justifiability. This paper proposes a novel framework, called SibRank that seeks to improve the state of the art neighbor-based collaborative ranking methods. SibRank represents users' preferences as a signed bipartite network, and finds similar users, through a novel personalized ranking algorithm in signed networks.
Analytic processing of distance.
Dopkins, Stephen; Galyer, Darin
2018-01-01
How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame? To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rank Two Affine Manifolds in Genus 3
Aulicino, David; Nguyen, Duc-Manh
2016-01-01
We complete the classification of rank two affine manifolds in the moduli space of translation surfaces in genus three. Combined with a recent result of Mirzakhani and Wright, this completes the classification of higher rank affine manifolds in genus three.
Deza, Michel Marie
2016-01-01
This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...
Positioning for Effectiveness: Applying Marketing Concepts to Distance Education.
Levenburg, Nancy
1997-01-01
Demonstrates how colleges can use distance education to attract and retain a "critical mass" of learners for distance programs. Explores alternative ways to view distance education market opportunities and determine which avenues to pursue. Suggests how to be more effective in all aspects of distance education programs. (13 citations) (YKH)
The Privilege of Ranking: Google Plays Ball.
Wiggins, Richard
2003-01-01
Discussion of ranking systems used in various settings, including college football and academic admissions, focuses on the Google search engine. Explains the PageRank mathematical formula that scores Web pages by connecting the number of links; limitations, including authenticity and accuracy of ranked Web pages; relevancy; adjusting algorithms;…
A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings
Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…
Training for Distance Teaching through Distance Learning.
Cadorath, Jill; Harris, Simon; Encinas, Fatima
2002-01-01
Describes a mixed-mode bachelor degree course in English language teaching at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico) that was designed to help practicing teachers write appropriate distance education materials by giving them the experience of being distance students. Includes a course outline and results of a course evaluation. (Author/LRW)
The Distance Standard Deviation
Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel
2017-01-01
The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
24 CFR 599.401 - Ranking of applications.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ranking of applications. 599.401... Communities § 599.401 Ranking of applications. (a) Ranking order. Rural and urban applications will be ranked... applications ranked first. (b) Separate ranking categories. After initial ranking, both rural and urban...
Cioca, L. I.; Giurea, R.; Precazzini, I.; Ragazzi, M.; Achim, M. I.; Schiavon, M.; Rada, E. C.
2018-05-01
Nowadays the global tourism growth has caused a significant interest in research focused on the impact of the tourism on environment and community. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new ranking for the classification of tourist accommodation establishments with the functions of agro-tourism boarding house type by examining the sector of agro-tourism based on a research aimed to improve the economic, socio-cultural and environmental performance of agrotourism structures. This paper links the criteria for the classification of agro-tourism boarding houses (ABHs) to the impact of agro-tourism activities on the environment, enhancing an eco-friendly approach on agro-tourism activities by increasing the quality reputation of the agro-tourism products and services. Taking into account the impact on the environment, agrotourism can play an important role by protecting and conserving it.
Deza, Michel Marie
2014-01-01
This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...
Evaluating intergenerational risks: Probabillity adjusted rank-discounted utilitarianism
Asheim, Geir B.; Zuber, Stéphane
2015-01-01
Climate policies have stochastic consequences that involve a great number of generations. This calls for evaluating social risk (what kind of societies will future people be born into) rather than individual risk (what will happen to people during their own lifetimes). As a response we propose and axiomatize probability adjusted rank-discounted critical-level generalized utilitarianism (PARDCLU), through a key axiom that requires that the social welfare order both be ethical and satisfy first...
Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.
2010-01-01
Distance correlation is a new class of multivariate dependence coefficients applicable to random vectors of arbitrary and not necessarily equal dimension. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but generalize and extend these classical bivariate measures of dependence. Distance correlation characterizes independence: it is zero if and only if the random vectors are independent. The notion of covariance with...
Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.
Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan
2013-06-01
Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.
van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime
2016-01-01
This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,
Methodology for ranking restoration options
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedemann Jensen, Per
1999-04-01
The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)
Citation graph based ranking in Invenio
Marian, Ludmila; Rajman, Martin; Vesely, Martin
2010-01-01
Invenio is the web-based integrated digital library system developed at CERN. Within this framework, we present four types of ranking models based on the citation graph that complement the simple approach based on citation counts: time-dependent citation counts, a relevancy ranking which extends the PageRank model, a time-dependent ranking which combines the freshness of citations with PageRank and a ranking that takes into consideration the external citations. We present our analysis and results obtained on two main data sets: Inspire and CERN Document Server. Our main contributions are: (i) a study of the currently available ranking methods based on the citation graph; (ii) the development of new ranking methods that correct some of the identified limitations of the current methods such as treating all citations of equal importance, not taking time into account or considering the citation graph complete; (iii) a detailed study of the key parameters for these ranking methods. (The original publication is ava...
Communities in Large Networks: Identification and Ranking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Martin
2008-01-01
We study the problem of identifying and ranking the members of a community in a very large network with link analysis only, given a set of representatives of the community. We define the concept of a community justified by a formal analysis of a simple model of the evolution of a directed graph. ...... and its immediate surroundings. The members are ranked with a “local” variant of the PageRank algorithm. Results are reported from successful experiments on identifying and ranking Danish Computer Science sites and Danish Chess pages using only a few representatives....
Ranking Entities in Networks via Lefschetz Duality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Poulsen, Bjarne
2014-01-01
then be ranked according to how essential their positions are in the network by considering the effect of their respective absences. Defining a ranking of a network which takes the individual position of each entity into account has the purpose of assigning different roles to the entities, e.g. agents......, in the network. In this paper it is shown that the topology of a given network induces a ranking of the entities in the network. Further, it is demonstrated how to calculate this ranking and thus how to identify weak sub-networks in any given network....
Integrated inventory ranking system for oilfield equipment industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jalel Ben Hmida
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This case study is motivated by the subcontracting problem in an oilfield equipment and service company where the management needs to decide which parts to manufacture in-house when the capacity is not enough to make all required parts. Currently the company is making subcontracting decisions based on management’s experience. Design/methodology/approach: Working with the management, a decision support system (DSS is developed to rank parts by integrating three inventory classification methods considering both quantitative factors such as cost and demand, and qualitative factors such as functionality, efficiency, and quality. The proposed integrated inventory ranking procedure will make use of three classification methods: ABC, FSN, and VED. Findings: An integration mechanism using weights is developed to rank the parts based on the total priority scores. The ranked list generated by the system helps management to identify about 50 critical parts to manufacture in-house. Originality/value: The integration of all three inventory classification techniques into a single system is a unique feature of this research. This is important as it provides a more inclusive, big picture view of the DSS for management’s use in making business decisions.
The hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 regulates RANK gene expression in myeloid progenitors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Oh Hyung; Lee, Chong-Kil; Lee, Young Ik; Paik, Sang-Gi; Lee, Hyun-Jun
2005-01-01
Osteoclasts are bone resorbing cells of hematopoietic origin. The hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 is critical for osteoclastogenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms of PU.1-regulated osteoclastogenesis have not been explored. Here, we present evidence that the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) gene that has been shown to be crucial for osteoclastogenesis is a transcriptional target of PU.1. The PU.1 -/- progenitor cells failed to express the RANK gene and reconstitution of PU.1 in these cells induced RANK expression. Treatment of the PU.1 reconstituted cells with M-CSF and RANKL further augmented the RANK gene expression. To explore the regulatory mechanism of the RANK gene expression by PU.1, we have cloned the human RANK promoter. Transient transfection assays have revealed that the 2.2-kb RANK promoter was functional in a monocyte line RAW264.7, whereas co-transfection of PU.1 transactivated the RANK promoter in HeLa cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PU.1 regulates the RANK gene transcription and this may represent one of the key roles of PU.1 in osteoclast differentiation
Haptic Discrimination of Distance
van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.
2014-01-01
While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638
Haptic discrimination of distance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Femke E van Beek
Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.
Interface Simulation Distances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavol Černý
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunvor Riber
The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...
Model assessment using a multi-metric ranking technique
Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Lau, Y.; Alaka, G.; Marks, F.
2017-12-01
Validation comparisons of multiple models presents challenges when skill levels are similar, especially in regimes dominated by the climatological mean. Assessing skill separation will require advanced validation metrics and identifying adeptness in extreme events, but maintain simplicity for management decisions. Flexibility for operations is also an asset. This work postulates a weighted tally and consolidation technique which ranks results by multiple types of metrics. Variables include absolute error, bias, acceptable absolute error percentages, outlier metrics, model efficiency, Pearson correlation, Kendall's Tau, reliability Index, multiplicative gross error, and root mean squared differences. Other metrics, such as root mean square difference and rank correlation were also explored, but removed when the information was discovered to be generally duplicative to other metrics. While equal weights are applied, weights could be altered depending for preferred metrics. Two examples are shown comparing ocean models' currents and tropical cyclone products, including experimental products. The importance of using magnitude and direction for tropical cyclone track forecasts instead of distance, along-track, and cross-track are discussed. Tropical cyclone intensity and structure prediction are also assessed. Vector correlations are not included in the ranking process, but found useful in an independent context, and will be briefly reported.
Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity
Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru
2014-10-01
Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.
Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity.
Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru
2014-10-17
Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.
Neural Ranking Models with Weak Supervision
Dehghani, M.; Zamani, H.; Severyn, A.; Kamps, J.; Croft, W.B.
2017-01-01
Despite the impressive improvements achieved by unsupervised deep neural networks in computer vision and NLP tasks, such improvements have not yet been observed in ranking for information retrieval. The reason may be the complexity of the ranking problem, as it is not obvious how to learn from
A Rational Method for Ranking Engineering Programs.
Glower, Donald D.
1980-01-01
Compares two methods for ranking academic programs, the opinion poll v examination of career successes of the program's alumni. For the latter, "Who's Who in Engineering" and levels of research funding provided data. Tables display resulting data and compare rankings by the two methods for chemical engineering and civil engineering. (CS)
Lerot: An Online Learning to Rank Framework
Schuth, A.; Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.
2013-01-01
Online learning to rank methods for IR allow retrieval systems to optimize their own performance directly from interactions with users via click feedback. In the software package Lerot, presented in this paper, we have bundled all ingredients needed for experimenting with online learning to rank for
Adaptive distributional extensions to DFR ranking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Casper; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Järvelin, Kalervo
2016-01-01
-fitting distribution. We call this model Adaptive Distributional Ranking (ADR) because it adapts the ranking to the statistics of the specific dataset being processed each time. Experiments on TREC data show ADR to outperform DFR models (and their extensions) and be comparable in performance to a query likelihood...
Contests with rank-order spillovers
M.R. Baye (Michael); D. Kovenock (Dan); C.G. de Vries (Casper)
2012-01-01
textabstractThis paper presents a unified framework for characterizing symmetric equilibrium in simultaneous move, two-player, rank-order contests with complete information, in which each player's strategy generates direct or indirect affine "spillover" effects that depend on the rank-order of her
Classification of rank 2 cluster varieties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mandel, Travis
We classify rank 2 cluster varieties (those whose corresponding skew-form has rank 2) according to the deformation type of a generic fiber U of their X-spaces, as defined by Fock and Goncharov. Our approach is based on the work of Gross, Hacking, and Keel for cluster varieties and log Calabi...
Using centrality to rank web snippets
Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; Peters, C.; Jijkoun, V.; Mandl, T.; Müller, H.; Oard, D.W.; Peñas, A.; Petras, V.; Santos, D.
2008-01-01
We describe our participation in the WebCLEF 2007 task, targeted at snippet retrieval from web data. Our system ranks snippets based on a simple similarity-based centrality, inspired by the web page ranking algorithms. We experimented with retrieval units (sentences and paragraphs) and with the
Mining Feedback in Ranking and Recommendation Systems
Zhuang, Ziming
2009-01-01
The amount of online information has grown exponentially over the past few decades, and users become more and more dependent on ranking and recommendation systems to address their information seeking needs. The advance in information technologies has enabled users to provide feedback on the utilities of the underlying ranking and recommendation…
Entity Ranking using Wikipedia as a Pivot
R. Kaptein; P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); J. Kamps
2010-01-01
htmlabstractIn this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about
Entity ranking using Wikipedia as a pivot
Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; de Vries, A.; Kamps, J.; Huang, X.J.; Jones, G.; Koudas, N.; Wu, X.; Collins-Thompson, K.
2010-01-01
In this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about these entities. Since
Rank 2 fusion rings are complete intersections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Troels Bak
We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections.......We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections....
A Ranking Method for Evaluating Constructed Responses
Attali, Yigal
2014-01-01
This article presents a comparative judgment approach for holistically scored constructed response tasks. In this approach, the grader rank orders (rather than rate) the quality of a small set of responses. A prior automated evaluation of responses guides both set formation and scaling of rankings. Sets are formed to have similar prior scores and…
Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard
2008-01-01
Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...
Ranking of Unwarranted Variations in Healthcare Treatments
Moes, Herry; Brekelmans, Ruud; Hamers, Herbert; Hasaart, F.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a framework designed to identify and rank possible unwarranted variation of treatments in healthcare. The innovative aspect of this framework is a ranking procedure that aims to identify healthcare institutions where unwarranted variation is most severe, and diagnosis
The Rankings Game: Who's Playing Whom?
Burness, John F.
2008-01-01
This summer, Forbes magazine published its new rankings of "America's Best Colleges," implying that it had developed a methodology that would give the public the information that it needed to choose a college wisely. "U.S. News & World Report," which in 1983 published the first annual ranking, just announced its latest ratings last week--including…
Dynamic collective entity representations for entity ranking
Graus, D.; Tsagkias, M.; Weerkamp, W.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.
2016-01-01
Entity ranking, i.e., successfully positioning a relevant entity at the top of the ranking for a given query, is inherently difficult due to the potential mismatch between the entity's description in a knowledge base, and the way people refer to the entity when searching for it. To counter this
Nonnegative Matrix Factorization with Rank Regularization and Hard Constraint.
Shang, Ronghua; Liu, Chiyang; Meng, Yang; Jiao, Licheng; Stolkin, Rustam
2017-09-01
Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is well known to be an effective tool for dimensionality reduction in problems involving big data. For this reason, it frequently appears in many areas of scientific and engineering literature. This letter proposes a novel semisupervised NMF algorithm for overcoming a variety of problems associated with NMF algorithms, including poor use of prior information, negative impact on manifold structure of the sparse constraint, and inaccurate graph construction. Our proposed algorithm, nonnegative matrix factorization with rank regularization and hard constraint (NMFRC), incorporates label information into data representation as a hard constraint, which makes full use of prior information. NMFRC also measures pairwise similarity according to geodesic distance rather than Euclidean distance. This results in more accurate measurement of pairwise relationships, resulting in more effective manifold information. Furthermore, NMFRC adopts rank constraint instead of norm constraints for regularization to balance the sparseness and smoothness of data. In this way, the new data representation is more representative and has better interpretability. Experiments on real data sets suggest that NMFRC outperforms four other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of clustering accuracy.
Comparing classical and quantum PageRanks
Loke, T.; Tang, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Small, M.; Wang, J. B.
2017-01-01
Following recent developments in quantum PageRanking, we present a comparative analysis of discrete-time and continuous-time quantum-walk-based PageRank algorithms. Relative to classical PageRank and to different extents, the quantum measures better highlight secondary hubs and resolve ranking degeneracy among peripheral nodes for all networks we studied in this paper. For the discrete-time case, we investigated the periodic nature of the walker's probability distribution for a wide range of networks and found that the dominant period does not grow with the size of these networks. Based on this observation, we introduce a new quantum measure using the maximum probabilities of the associated walker during the first couple of periods. This is particularly important, since it leads to a quantum PageRanking scheme that is scalable with respect to network size.
Universal emergence of PageRank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frahm, K M; Georgeot, B; Shepelyansky, D L, E-mail: frahm@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr, E-mail: georgeot@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr, E-mail: dima@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, 31062 Toulouse (France)
2011-11-18
The PageRank algorithm enables us to rank the nodes of a network through a specific eigenvector of the Google matrix, using a damping parameter {alpha} Element-Of ]0, 1[. Using extensive numerical simulations of large web networks, with a special accent on British University networks, we determine numerically and analytically the universal features of the PageRank vector at its emergence when {alpha} {yields} 1. The whole network can be divided into a core part and a group of invariant subspaces. For {alpha} {yields} 1, PageRank converges to a universal power-law distribution on the invariant subspaces whose size distribution also follows a universal power law. The convergence of PageRank at {alpha} {yields} 1 is controlled by eigenvalues of the core part of the Google matrix, which are extremely close to unity, leading to large relaxation times as, for example, in spin glasses. (paper)
Universal emergence of PageRank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frahm, K M; Georgeot, B; Shepelyansky, D L
2011-01-01
The PageRank algorithm enables us to rank the nodes of a network through a specific eigenvector of the Google matrix, using a damping parameter α ∈ ]0, 1[. Using extensive numerical simulations of large web networks, with a special accent on British University networks, we determine numerically and analytically the universal features of the PageRank vector at its emergence when α → 1. The whole network can be divided into a core part and a group of invariant subspaces. For α → 1, PageRank converges to a universal power-law distribution on the invariant subspaces whose size distribution also follows a universal power law. The convergence of PageRank at α → 1 is controlled by eigenvalues of the core part of the Google matrix, which are extremely close to unity, leading to large relaxation times as, for example, in spin glasses. (paper)
Design of a fuzzy ranking system for admission processes in higher ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
specific knowledge, as well as the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts and reasons with ... In this paper we introduced fuzzy harming distance function into candidates ranking and implemented it with Java Netbean IDE 6.0.
Monte Carlo methods for top-k personalized PageRank lists and name disambiguation
Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Litvak, Nelli; Nemirovsky, Danil; Smirnova, Elena; Sokol, Marina
We study a problem of quick detection of top-k Personalized PageRank lists. This problem has a number of important applications such as finding local cuts in large graphs, estimation of similarity distance and name disambiguation. In particular, we apply our results to construct efficient algorithms
PageRank and rank-reversal dependence on the damping factor
Son, S.-W.; Christensen, C.; Grassberger, P.; Paczuski, M.
2012-12-01
PageRank (PR) is an algorithm originally developed by Google to evaluate the importance of web pages. Considering how deeply rooted Google's PR algorithm is to gathering relevant information or to the success of modern businesses, the question of rank stability and choice of the damping factor (a parameter in the algorithm) is clearly important. We investigate PR as a function of the damping factor d on a network obtained from a domain of the World Wide Web, finding that rank reversal happens frequently over a broad range of PR (and of d). We use three different correlation measures, Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, to study rank reversal as d changes, and we show that the correlation of PR vectors drops rapidly as d changes from its frequently cited value, d0=0.85. Rank reversal is also observed by measuring the Spearman and Kendall rank correlation, which evaluate relative ranks rather than absolute PR. Rank reversal happens not only in directed networks containing rank sinks but also in a single strongly connected component, which by definition does not contain any sinks. We relate rank reversals to rank pockets and bottlenecks in the directed network structure. For the network studied, the relative rank is more stable by our measures around d=0.65 than at d=d0.
PageRank and rank-reversal dependence on the damping factor.
Son, S-W; Christensen, C; Grassberger, P; Paczuski, M
2012-12-01
PageRank (PR) is an algorithm originally developed by Google to evaluate the importance of web pages. Considering how deeply rooted Google's PR algorithm is to gathering relevant information or to the success of modern businesses, the question of rank stability and choice of the damping factor (a parameter in the algorithm) is clearly important. We investigate PR as a function of the damping factor d on a network obtained from a domain of the World Wide Web, finding that rank reversal happens frequently over a broad range of PR (and of d). We use three different correlation measures, Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, to study rank reversal as d changes, and we show that the correlation of PR vectors drops rapidly as d changes from its frequently cited value, d_{0}=0.85. Rank reversal is also observed by measuring the Spearman and Kendall rank correlation, which evaluate relative ranks rather than absolute PR. Rank reversal happens not only in directed networks containing rank sinks but also in a single strongly connected component, which by definition does not contain any sinks. We relate rank reversals to rank pockets and bottlenecks in the directed network structure. For the network studied, the relative rank is more stable by our measures around d=0.65 than at d=d_{0}.
A tilting approach to ranking influence
Genton, Marc G.
2014-12-01
We suggest a new approach, which is applicable for general statistics computed from random samples of univariate or vector-valued or functional data, to assessing the influence that individual data have on the value of a statistic, and to ranking the data in terms of that influence. Our method is based on, first, perturbing the value of the statistic by ‘tilting’, or reweighting, each data value, where the total amount of tilt is constrained to be the least possible, subject to achieving a given small perturbation of the statistic, and, then, taking the ranking of the influence of data values to be that which corresponds to ranking the changes in data weights. It is shown, both theoretically and numerically, that this ranking does not depend on the size of the perturbation, provided that the perturbation is sufficiently small. That simple result leads directly to an elegant geometric interpretation of the ranks; they are the ranks of the lengths of projections of the weights onto a ‘line’ determined by the first empirical principal component function in a generalized measure of covariance. To illustrate the generality of the method we introduce and explore it in the case of functional data, where (for example) it leads to generalized boxplots. The method has the advantage of providing an interpretable ranking that depends on the statistic under consideration. For example, the ranking of data, in terms of their influence on the value of a statistic, is different for a measure of location and for a measure of scale. This is as it should be; a ranking of data in terms of their influence should depend on the manner in which the data are used. Additionally, the ranking recognizes, rather than ignores, sign, and in particular can identify left- and right-hand ‘tails’ of the distribution of a random function or vector.
A Ranking Approach to Genomic Selection.
Blondel, Mathieu; Onogi, Akio; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ueda, Naonori
2015-01-01
Genomic selection (GS) is a recent selective breeding method which uses predictive models based on whole-genome molecular markers. Until now, existing studies formulated GS as the problem of modeling an individual's breeding value for a particular trait of interest, i.e., as a regression problem. To assess predictive accuracy of the model, the Pearson correlation between observed and predicted trait values was used. In this paper, we propose to formulate GS as the problem of ranking individuals according to their breeding value. Our proposed framework allows us to employ machine learning methods for ranking which had previously not been considered in the GS literature. To assess ranking accuracy of a model, we introduce a new measure originating from the information retrieval literature called normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG). NDCG rewards more strongly models which assign a high rank to individuals with high breeding value. Therefore, NDCG reflects a prerequisite objective in selective breeding: accurate selection of individuals with high breeding value. We conducted a comparison of 10 existing regression methods and 3 new ranking methods on 6 datasets, consisting of 4 plant species and 25 traits. Our experimental results suggest that tree-based ensemble methods including McRank, Random Forests and Gradient Boosting Regression Trees achieve excellent ranking accuracy. RKHS regression and RankSVM also achieve good accuracy when used with an RBF kernel. Traditional regression methods such as Bayesian lasso, wBSR and BayesC were found less suitable for ranking. Pearson correlation was found to correlate poorly with NDCG. Our study suggests two important messages. First, ranking methods are a promising research direction in GS. Second, NDCG can be a useful evaluation measure for GS.
Traversing psychological distance.
Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov
2014-07-01
Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linear Subspace Ranking Hashing for Cross-Modal Retrieval.
Li, Kai; Qi, Guo-Jun; Ye, Jun; Hua, Kien A
2017-09-01
Hashing has attracted a great deal of research in recent years due to its effectiveness for the retrieval and indexing of large-scale high-dimensional multimedia data. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking-based hashing framework that maps data from different modalities into a common Hamming space where the cross-modal similarity can be measured using Hamming distance. Unlike existing cross-modal hashing algorithms where the learned hash functions are binary space partitioning functions, such as the sign and threshold function, the proposed hashing scheme takes advantage of a new class of hash functions closely related to rank correlation measures which are known to be scale-invariant, numerically stable, and highly nonlinear. Specifically, we jointly learn two groups of linear subspaces, one for each modality, so that features' ranking orders in different linear subspaces maximally preserve the cross-modal similarities. We show that the ranking-based hash function has a natural probabilistic approximation which transforms the original highly discontinuous optimization problem into one that can be efficiently solved using simple gradient descent algorithms. The proposed hashing framework is also flexible in the sense that the optimization procedures are not tied up to any specific form of loss function, which is typical for existing cross-modal hashing methods, but rather we can flexibly accommodate different loss functions with minimal changes to the learning steps. We demonstrate through extensive experiments on four widely-used real-world multimodal datasets that the proposed cross-modal hashing method can achieve competitive performance against several state-of-the-arts with only moderate training and testing time.
First rank symptoms for schizophrenia.
Soares-Weiser, Karla; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna; Davenport, Clare; Kirkham, Amanda J; Grabowski, Sarah; Adams, Clive E
2015-01-25
Early and accurate diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia may have long-term advantages for the patient; the longer psychosis goes untreated the more severe the repercussions for relapse and recovery. If the correct diagnosis is not schizophrenia, but another psychotic disorder with some symptoms similar to schizophrenia, appropriate treatment might be delayed, with possible severe repercussions for the person involved and their family. There is widespread uncertainty about the diagnostic accuracy of First Rank Symptoms (FRS); we examined whether they are a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of one or multiple FRS for diagnosing schizophrenia, verified by clinical history and examination by a qualified professional (e.g. psychiatrists, nurses, social workers), with or without the use of operational criteria and checklists, in people thought to have non-organic psychotic symptoms. We conducted searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using OvidSP in April, June, July 2011 and December 2012. We also searched MEDION in December 2013. We selected studies that consecutively enrolled or randomly selected adults and adolescents with symptoms of psychosis, and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of FRS for schizophrenia compared to history and clinical examination performed by a qualified professional, which may or may not involve the use of symptom checklists or based on operational criteria such as ICD and DSM. Two review authors independently screened all references for inclusion. Risk of bias in included studies were assessed using the QUADAS-2 instrument. We recorded the number of true positives (TP), true negatives (TN), false positives (FP), and false negatives (FN) for constructing a 2 x 2 table for each study or derived 2 x 2 data from reported summary statistics such as sensitivity, specificity, and/or likelihood ratios. We included 21 studies with a total of 6253 participants
A Strategic Planning Process Model for Distance Education
Pisel, Kenneth P.
2008-01-01
As more institutions seek to implement or expand distance learning programs, it becomes critical to integrate distance learning programs into broader strategic visions and plans. Using the informed opinion from a panel of peer-nominated experts via iterative Delphi questionnaires, a 10-phased strategic planning process model for distance education…
Ziegler, Gerhard
2011-01-01
Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s
The Euclidean distance degree of an algebraic variety
Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Sturmfels, B.; Thomas, R.R.
2013-01-01
The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low rank matrices, the Eckart-Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest
The Euclidean distance degree of an algebraic variety
Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Sturmfels, B.; Thomas, R.R.
The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low-rank matrices, the Eckart–Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest
Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking.
Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A
2012-06-08
We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in "q-sampling" protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.
Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing
Gottlieb, Assaf
2015-03-23
Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective: The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods: We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results: There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions: ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.
Ranking adverse drug reactions with crowdsourcing.
Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Altman, Russ B
2015-03-23
There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.
RankExplorer: Visualization of Ranking Changes in Large Time Series Data.
Shi, Conglei; Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Xu, Panpan; Chen, Wei; Qu, Huamin
2012-12-01
For many applications involving time series data, people are often interested in the changes of item values over time as well as their ranking changes. For example, people search many words via search engines like Google and Bing every day. Analysts are interested in both the absolute searching number for each word as well as their relative rankings. Both sets of statistics may change over time. For very large time series data with thousands of items, how to visually present ranking changes is an interesting challenge. In this paper, we propose RankExplorer, a novel visualization method based on ThemeRiver to reveal the ranking changes. Our method consists of four major components: 1) a segmentation method which partitions a large set of time series curves into a manageable number of ranking categories; 2) an extended ThemeRiver view with embedded color bars and changing glyphs to show the evolution of aggregation values related to each ranking category over time as well as the content changes in each ranking category; 3) a trend curve to show the degree of ranking changes over time; 4) rich user interactions to support interactive exploration of ranking changes. We have applied our method to some real time series data and the case studies demonstrate that our method can reveal the underlying patterns related to ranking changes which might otherwise be obscured in traditional visualizations.
Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.
Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel
2016-01-01
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Communities in Large Networks: Identification and Ranking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Martin
2008-01-01
show that the problem of deciding whether a non trivial community exists is NP complete. Nevertheless, experiments show that a very simple greedy approach can identify members of a community in the Danish part of the web graph with time complexity only dependent on the size of the found community...... and its immediate surroundings. The members are ranked with a “local” variant of the PageRank algorithm. Results are reported from successful experiments on identifying and ranking Danish Computer Science sites and Danish Chess pages using only a few representatives....
2016-01-01
A mere hyperbolic law, like the Zipf’s law power function, is often inadequate to describe rank-size relationships. An alternative theoretical distribution is proposed based on theoretical physics arguments starting from the Yule-Simon distribution. A modeling is proposed leading to a universal form. A theoretical suggestion for the “best (or optimal) distribution”, is provided through an entropy argument. The ranking of areas through the number of cities in various countries and some sport competition ranking serves for the present illustrations. PMID:27812192
ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN
2008-01-01
The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.
Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.
2004-01-01
In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite
Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.
German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).
Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…
Deza, Michel Marie
2009-01-01
Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.
Scalable Faceted Ranking in Tagging Systems
Orlicki, José I.; Alvarez-Hamelin, J. Ignacio; Fierens, Pablo I.
Nowadays, web collaborative tagging systems which allow users to upload, comment on and recommend contents, are growing. Such systems can be represented as graphs where nodes correspond to users and tagged-links to recommendations. In this paper we analyze the problem of computing a ranking of users with respect to a facet described as a set of tags. A straightforward solution is to compute a PageRank-like algorithm on a facet-related graph, but it is not feasible for online computation. We propose an alternative: (i) a ranking for each tag is computed offline on the basis of tag-related subgraphs; (ii) a faceted order is generated online by merging rankings corresponding to all the tags in the facet. Based on the graph analysis of YouTube and Flickr, we show that step (i) is scalable. We also present efficient algorithms for step (ii), which are evaluated by comparing their results with two gold standards.
Evaluation of treatment effects by ranking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halekoh, U; Kristensen, K
2008-01-01
In crop experiments measurements are often made by a judge evaluating the crops' conditions after treatment. In the present paper an analysis is proposed for experiments where plots of crops treated differently are mutually ranked. In the experimental layout the crops are treated on consecutive...... plots usually placed side by side in one or more rows. In the proposed method a judge ranks several neighbouring plots, say three, by ranking them from best to worst. For the next observation the judge moves on by no more than two plots, such that up to two plots will be re-evaluated again...... in a comparison with the new plot(s). Data from studies using this set-up were analysed by a Thurstonian random utility model, which assumed that the judge's rankings were obtained by comparing latent continuous utilities or treatment effects. For the latent utilities a variance component model was considered...
Superfund Hazard Ranking System Training Course
The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) training course is a four and ½ day, intermediate-level course designed for personnel who are required to compile, draft, and review preliminary assessments (PAs), site inspections (SIs), and HRS documentation records/packag
Who's bigger? where historical figures really rank
Skiena, Steven
2014-01-01
Is Hitler bigger than Napoleon? Washington bigger than Lincoln? Picasso bigger than Einstein? Quantitative analysts are rapidly finding homes in social and cultural domains, from finance to politics. What about history? In this fascinating book, Steve Skiena and Charles Ward bring quantitative analysis to bear on ranking and comparing historical reputations. They evaluate each person by aggregating the traces of millions of opinions, just as Google ranks webpages. The book includes a technical discussion for readers interested in the details of the methods, but no mathematical or computational background is necessary to understand the rankings or conclusions. Along the way, the authors present the rankings of more than one thousand of history's most significant people in science, politics, entertainment, and all areas of human endeavor. Anyone interested in history or biography can see where their favorite figures place in the grand scheme of things.
Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming
Paul A. Murphy
1976-01-01
Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.
Block models and personalized PageRank.
Kloumann, Isabel M; Ugander, Johan; Kleinberg, Jon
2017-01-03
Methods for ranking the importance of nodes in a network have a rich history in machine learning and across domains that analyze structured data. Recent work has evaluated these methods through the "seed set expansion problem": given a subset [Formula: see text] of nodes from a community of interest in an underlying graph, can we reliably identify the rest of the community? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate in the space of "landing probabilities" of a random walk rooted at the seed set, ranking nodes according to weighted sums of landing probabilities of different length walks. Both schemes, however, lack an a priori relationship to the seed set objective. In this work, we develop a principled framework for evaluating ranking methods by studying seed set expansion applied to the stochastic block model. We derive the optimal gradient for separating the landing probabilities of two classes in a stochastic block model and find, surprisingly, that under reasonable assumptions the gradient is asymptotically equivalent to personalized PageRank for a specific choice of the PageRank parameter [Formula: see text] that depends on the block model parameters. This connection provides a formal motivation for the success of personalized PageRank in seed set expansion and node ranking generally. We use this connection to propose more advanced techniques incorporating higher moments of landing probabilities; our advanced methods exhibit greatly improved performance, despite being simple linear classification rules, and are even competitive with belief propagation.
Block models and personalized PageRank
Kloumann, Isabel M.; Ugander, Johan; Kleinberg, Jon
2016-01-01
Methods for ranking the importance of nodes in a network have a rich history in machine learning and across domains that analyze structured data. Recent work has evaluated these methods though the seed set expansion problem: given a subset $S$ of nodes from a community of interest in an underlying graph, can we reliably identify the rest of the community? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate...
González-Galván, María del Carmen; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Setien-Olarra, Amaia; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Aguirre-Urizar, José-Manuel
2018-01-01
Background Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign intraosseous neoplasm that exhibits local aggressiveness and high recurrence rates. Osteoclastogenesis is an important phenomenon in the tumor growth of maxillary neoplasms. RANK (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κappa B) is the signaling receptor of RANK-L (Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand) that activates the osteoclasts. OPG (osteoprotegerin) is a decoy receptor for RANK-L that inhibits pro-osteoclastogenesis. The RANK / RANKL / OPG system participates in the regulation of osteolytic activity under normal conditions, and its alteration has been associated with greater bone destruction, and also with tumor growth. Objectives To analyze the immunohistochemical expression of OPG, RANK and RANK-L proteins in odontogenic myxomas (OMs) and their relationship with the tumor size. Material and Methods Eighteen OMs, 4 small ( 3cm) and 18 dental follicles (DF) that were included as control were studied by means of standard immunohistochemical procedure with RANK, RANKL and OPG antibodies. For the evaluation, 5 fields (40x) of representative areas of OM and DF were selected where the expression of each antibody was determined. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed with the obtained data. Results There are significant differences in the expression of RANK in OM samples as compared to DF (p = 0.022) and among the OMSs and OMLs (p = 0.032). Also a strong association is recognized in the expression of RANK-L and OPG in OM samples. Conclusions Activation of the RANK / RANK-L / OPG triad seems to be involved in the mechanisms of bone balance and destruction, as well as associated with tumor growth in odontogenic myxomas. Key words:Odontogenic myxoma, dental follicle, RANK, RANK-L, OPG, osteoclastogenesis. PMID:29680857
How Many Alternatives Can Be Ranked? A Comparison of the Paired Comparison and Ranking Methods.
Ock, Minsu; Yi, Nari; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Jo, Min-Woo
2016-01-01
To determine the feasibility of converting ranking data into paired comparison (PC) data and suggest the number of alternatives that can be ranked by comparing a PC and a ranking method. Using a total of 222 health states, a household survey was conducted in a sample of 300 individuals from the general population. Each respondent performed a PC 15 times and a ranking method 6 times (two attempts of ranking three, four, and five health states, respectively). The health states of the PC and the ranking method were constructed to overlap each other. We converted the ranked data into PC data and examined the consistency of the response rate. Applying probit regression, we obtained the predicted probability of each method. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between the predicted probabilities of those methods. The mean absolute error was also assessed between the observed and the predicted values. The overall consistency of the response rate was 82.8%. The Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.789, 0.852, and 0.893 for ranking three, four, and five health states, respectively. The lowest mean absolute error was 0.082 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.090) in ranking five health states, followed by 0.123 (95% CI 0.111-0.135) in ranking four health states and 0.126 (95% CI 0.113-0.138) in ranking three health states. After empirically examining the consistency of the response rate between a PC and a ranking method, we suggest that using five alternatives in the ranking method may be superior to using three or four alternatives. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fair ranking of researchers and research teams.
Vavryčuk, Václav
2018-01-01
The main drawback of ranking of researchers by the number of papers, citations or by the Hirsch index is ignoring the problem of distributing authorship among authors in multi-author publications. So far, the single-author or multi-author publications contribute to the publication record of a researcher equally. This full counting scheme is apparently unfair and causes unjust disproportions, in particular, if ranked researchers have distinctly different collaboration profiles. These disproportions are removed by less common fractional or authorship-weighted counting schemes, which can distribute the authorship credit more properly and suppress a tendency to unjustified inflation of co-authors. The urgent need of widely adopting a fair ranking scheme in practise is exemplified by analysing citation profiles of several highly-cited astronomers and astrophysicists. While the full counting scheme often leads to completely incorrect and misleading ranking, the fractional or authorship-weighted schemes are more accurate and applicable to ranking of researchers as well as research teams. In addition, they suppress differences in ranking among scientific disciplines. These more appropriate schemes should urgently be adopted by scientific publication databases as the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) or the Scopus (Elsevier).
Enhancing collaborative filtering by user interest expansion via personalized ranking.
Liu, Qi; Chen, Enhong; Xiong, Hui; Ding, Chris H Q; Chen, Jian
2012-02-01
Recommender systems suggest a few items from many possible choices to the users by understanding their past behaviors. In these systems, the user behaviors are influenced by the hidden interests of the users. Learning to leverage the information about user interests is often critical for making better recommendations. However, existing collaborative-filtering-based recommender systems are usually focused on exploiting the information about the user's interaction with the systems; the information about latent user interests is largely underexplored. To that end, inspired by the topic models, in this paper, we propose a novel collaborative-filtering-based recommender system by user interest expansion via personalized ranking, named iExpand. The goal is to build an item-oriented model-based collaborative-filtering framework. The iExpand method introduces a three-layer, user-interests-item, representation scheme, which leads to more accurate ranking recommendation results with less computation cost and helps the understanding of the interactions among users, items, and user interests. Moreover, iExpand strategically deals with many issues that exist in traditional collaborative-filtering approaches, such as the overspecialization problem and the cold-start problem. Finally, we evaluate iExpand on three benchmark data sets, and experimental results show that iExpand can lead to better ranking performance than state-of-the-art methods with a significant margin.
Social Feedback and the Emergence of Rank in Animal Society.
Hobson, Elizabeth A; DeDeo, Simon
2015-09-01
Dominance hierarchies are group-level properties that emerge from the aggression of individuals. Although individuals can gain critical benefits from their position in a hierarchy, we do not understand how real-world hierarchies form. Nor do we understand what signals and decision-rules individuals use to construct and maintain hierarchies in the absence of simple cues such as size or spatial location. A study of conflict in two groups of captive monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) found that a transition to large-scale order in aggression occurred in newly-formed groups after one week, with individuals thereafter preferring to direct aggression more frequently against those nearby in rank. We consider two cognitive mechanisms underlying the emergence of this order: inference based on overall levels of aggression, or on subsets of the aggression network. Both mechanisms were predictive of individual decisions to aggress, but observed patterns were better explained by rank inference through subsets of the aggression network. Based on these results, we present a new theory, of a feedback loop between knowledge of rank and consequent behavior. This loop explains the transition to strategic aggression and the formation and persistence of dominance hierarchies in groups capable of both social memory and inference.
Ranking metrics in gene set enrichment analysis: do they matter?
Zyla, Joanna; Marczyk, Michal; Weiner, January; Polanska, Joanna
2017-05-12
There exist many methods for describing the complex relation between changes of gene expression in molecular pathways or gene ontologies under different experimental conditions. Among them, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis seems to be one of the most commonly used (over 10,000 citations). An important parameter, which could affect the final result, is the choice of a metric for the ranking of genes. Applying a default ranking metric may lead to poor results. In this work 28 benchmark data sets were used to evaluate the sensitivity and false positive rate of gene set analysis for 16 different ranking metrics including new proposals. Furthermore, the robustness of the chosen methods to sample size was tested. Using k-means clustering algorithm a group of four metrics with the highest performance in terms of overall sensitivity, overall false positive rate and computational load was established i.e. absolute value of Moderated Welch Test statistic, Minimum Significant Difference, absolute value of Signal-To-Noise ratio and Baumgartner-Weiss-Schindler test statistic. In case of false positive rate estimation, all selected ranking metrics were robust with respect to sample size. In case of sensitivity, the absolute value of Moderated Welch Test statistic and absolute value of Signal-To-Noise ratio gave stable results, while Baumgartner-Weiss-Schindler and Minimum Significant Difference showed better results for larger sample size. Finally, the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis method with all tested ranking metrics was parallelised and implemented in MATLAB, and is available at https://github.com/ZAEDPolSl/MrGSEA . Choosing a ranking metric in Gene Set Enrichment Analysis has critical impact on results of pathway enrichment analysis. The absolute value of Moderated Welch Test has the best overall sensitivity and Minimum Significant Difference has the best overall specificity of gene set analysis. When the number of non-normally distributed genes is high, using Baumgartner
Motivation in Distance Leaming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Brečko
1996-12-01
Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of participants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and participants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lambourne, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)
2005-11-01
This paper examines the challenges and rewards that can arise when the teaching of Einsteinian physics has to be accomplished by means of distance education. The discussion is mainly based on experiences gathered over the past 35 years at the UK Open University, where special and general relativity, relativistic cosmology and other aspects of Einsteinian physics, have been taught at a variety of levels, and using a range of techniques, to students studying at a distance.
Long distance quantum teleportation
Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2018-01-01
Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.
Transformational leadership in the local police in Spain: a leader-follower distance approach.
Álvarez, Octavio; Lila, Marisol; Tomás, Inés; Castillo, Isabel
2014-01-01
Based on the transformational leadership theory (Bass, 1985), the aim of the present study was to analyze the differences in leadership styles according to the various leading ranks and the organizational follower-leader distance reported by a representative sample of 975 local police members (828 male and 147 female) from Valencian Community (Spain). Results showed differences by rank (p leadership in all the variables examined (transformational-leadership behaviors, transactional-leadership behaviors, laissez-faire behaviors, satisfaction with the leader, extra effort by follower, and perceived leadership effectiveness). By contrast, the least optimal profiles were presented by intendents. Finally, the maximum distance (five ranks) generally yielded the most optimal profiles, whereas the 3-rank distance generally produced the least optimal profiles for all variables examined. Outcomes and practical implications for the workforce dimensioning are also discussed.
PageRank as a method to rank biomedical literature by importance.
Yates, Elliot J; Dixon, Louise C
2015-01-01
Optimal ranking of literature importance is vital in overcoming article overload. Existing ranking methods are typically based on raw citation counts, giving a sum of 'inbound' links with no consideration of citation importance. PageRank, an algorithm originally developed for ranking webpages at the search engine, Google, could potentially be adapted to bibliometrics to quantify the relative importance weightings of a citation network. This article seeks to validate such an approach on the freely available, PubMed Central open access subset (PMC-OAS) of biomedical literature. On-demand cloud computing infrastructure was used to extract a citation network from over 600,000 full-text PMC-OAS articles. PageRanks and citation counts were calculated for each node in this network. PageRank is highly correlated with citation count (R = 0.905, P PageRank can be trivially computed on commodity cluster hardware and is linearly correlated with citation count. Given its putative benefits in quantifying relative importance, we suggest it may enrich the citation network, thereby overcoming the existing inadequacy of citation counts alone. We thus suggest PageRank as a feasible supplement to, or replacement of, existing bibliometric ranking methods.
RANK/RANK-Ligand/OPG: Ein neuer Therapieansatz in der Osteoporosebehandlung
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preisinger E
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Die Erforschung der Kopplungsmechanismen zur Osteoklastogenese, Knochenresorption und Remodellierung eröffnete neue mögliche Therapieansätze in der Behandlung der Osteoporose. Eine Schlüsselrolle beim Knochenabbau spielt der RANK- ("receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF- κB"- Ligand (RANKL. Durch die Bindung von RANKL an den Rezeptor RANK wird die Knochenresorption eingeleitet. OPG (Osteoprotegerin sowie der für den klinischen Gebrauch entwickelte humane monoklonale Antikörper (IgG2 Denosumab blockieren die Bindung von RANK-Ligand an RANK und verhindern den Knochenabbau.
Wicke, Kristina; Fischer, Mareike
2017-10-07
The Shapley Value and the Fair Proportion Index of phylogenetic trees have been frequently discussed as prioritization tools in conservation biology. Both indices rank species according to their contribution to total phylogenetic diversity, allowing for a simple conservation criterion. While both indices have their specific advantages and drawbacks, it has recently been shown that both values are closely related. However, as different authors use different definitions of the Shapley Value, the specific degree of relatedness depends on the specific version of the Shapley Value - it ranges from a high correlation index to equality of the indices. In this note, we first give an overview of the different indices. Then we turn our attention to the mere ranking order provided by either of the indices. We compare the rankings obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value for a phylogenetic tree of European amphibians and illustrate their differences. We then undertake further analyses on simulated data and show that even though the chance of two rankings being exactly identical (when obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value) decreases with an increasing number of taxa, the distance between the two rankings converges to zero, i.e., the rankings are becoming more and more alike. Moreover, we introduce our freely available software package FairShapley, which was implemented in Perl and with which all calculations have been performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
RANKL/RANK: from bone loss to the prevention of breast cancer.
Sigl, Verena; Jones, Laundette P; Penninger, Josef M
2016-11-01
RANK and RANKL, a receptor ligand pair belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family, are the critical regulators of osteoclast development and bone metabolism. Besides their essential function in bone, RANK and RANKL have also been identified as the key factors for the formation of a lactating mammary gland in pregnancy. Mechanistically, RANK and RANKL link the sex hormone progesterone with stem cell expansion and proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Based on their normal physiology, RANKL/RANK control the onset of hormone-induced breast cancer through the expansion of mammary progenitor cells. Recently, we and others were able to show that RANK and RANKL are also critical regulators of BRCA1-mutation-driven breast cancer. Currently, the preventive strategy for BRCA1-mutation carriers includes preventive mastectomy, associated with wide-ranging risks and psychosocial effects. The search for an alternative non-invasive prevention strategy is therefore of paramount importance. As our work strongly implicates RANK and RANKL as key molecules involved in the initiation of BRCA1-associated breast cancer, we propose that anti-RANKL therapy could be a feasible preventive strategy for women carrying BRCA1 mutations, and by extension to other women with high risk of breast cancer. © 2016 The Authors.
Country-specific determinants of world university rankings
Pietrucha, Jacek
2017-01-01
This paper examines country-specific factors that affect the three most influential world university rankings (the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Ranking, and the Times Higher Education World University Ranking). We run a cross sectional regression that covers 42–71 countries (depending on the ranking and data availability). We show that the position of universities from a country in the ranking is determined by the following country-specific variables: econom...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A.
2009-01-01
Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)
2009-01-15
Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle. (author)
Risk-informed ranking of engineering projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jyrkama, M.; Pandey, M.
2011-01-01
Refurbishment planning requires prudent investment decisions with respect to the various systems and components at the station. These decisions are influenced by many factors, including engineering, safety, regulatory, economic, and political constraints. From an engineering perspective, the concept of cost-benefit analysis is a common way to allocate capital among various projects. Naturally, the 'best' or optimal project should have the lowest cost and the highest benefit. In the context of risk-informed decision making (RIDM), a process that has been widely embraced by the global nuclear community, the costs and benefits must further be 'weighted' by probabilities to estimate the underlying risk associated with the various planning alternatives. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate how risk and reliability information can be integrated into the refurbishment planning process to facilitate more objective and transparent investment decisions. The methodology is based on the concept of generation risk assessment (GRA) which provides a systematic approach for balancing investment costs with the reduction in overall financial risk. In addition to reliability predictions, the model provides estimates for the level of risk reduction associated with each system/project and also the break-even point for investment. This information is vital for project ranking, and helps to address the key question of whether capital investment should be made in the most risk critical systems, or in systems that reduce the overall risk the most. The application of the proposed methodology requires only basic information regarding the current reliability of each engineering system, which should be readily available from plant records and routine condition assessments. Because the methodology can be readily implemented in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, all plausible (e.g., bounding) planning scenarios, with or without investment, can also be generated quickly and easily, while
Diversity rankings among bacterial lineages in soil.
Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S
2009-03-01
We used rarefaction curve analysis and diversity ordering-based approaches to rank the 11 most frequently encountered bacterial lineages in soil according to diversity in 5 previously reported 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from agricultural, undisturbed tall grass prairie and forest soils (n=26,140, 28 328, 31 818, 13 001 and 53 533). The Planctomycetes, Firmicutes and the delta-Proteobacteria were consistently ranked among the most diverse lineages in all data sets, whereas the Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes and beta-Proteobacteria were consistently ranked among the least diverse. On the other hand, the rankings of alpha-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi varied widely in different soil clone libraries. In general, lineages exhibiting largest differences in diversity rankings also exhibited the largest difference in relative abundance in the data sets examined. Within these lineages, a positive correlation between relative abundance and diversity was observed within the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi, and a negative diversity-abundance correlation was observed within the Bacteroidetes. The ecological and evolutionary implications of these results are discussed.
Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.
Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher
2013-08-01
Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.
RANK und RANKL - Vom Knochen zum Mammakarzinom
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sigl V
2012-01-01
Full Text Available RANK (Receptor Activator of NF-κB und sein Ligand RANKL sind Schlüsselmoleküle im Knochenmetabolismus und spielen eine essenzielle Rolle in der Entstehung von pathologischen Knochenveränderungen. Die Deregulation des RANK/RANKL-Systems ist zum Beispiel ein Hauptgrund für das Auftreten von postmenopausaler Osteoporose bei Frauen. Eine weitere wesentliche Funktion von RANK und RANKL liegt in der Entwicklung von milchsekretierenden Drüsen während der Schwangerschaft. Dabei regulieren Sexualhormone, wie zum Beispiel Progesteron, die Expression von RANKL und induzieren dadurch die Proliferation von epithelialen Zellen der Brust. Seit Längerem war schon bekannt, dass RANK und RANKL in der Metastasenbildung von Brustkrebszellen im Knochengewebe beteiligt sind. Wir konnten nun das RANK/RANKLSystem auch als essenziellen Mechanismus in der Entstehung von hormonellem Brustkrebs identifizieren. In diesem Beitrag werden wir daher den neuesten Erkenntnissen besondere Aufmerksamkeit schenken und diese kritisch in Bezug auf Brustkrebsentwicklung betrachten.
Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation
Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao
2017-08-01
In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.
Low Rank Approximation Algorithms, Implementation, Applications
Markovsky, Ivan
2012-01-01
Matrix low-rank approximation is intimately related to data modelling; a problem that arises frequently in many different fields. Low Rank Approximation: Algorithms, Implementation, Applications is a comprehensive exposition of the theory, algorithms, and applications of structured low-rank approximation. Local optimization methods and effective suboptimal convex relaxations for Toeplitz, Hankel, and Sylvester structured problems are presented. A major part of the text is devoted to application of the theory. Applications described include: system and control theory: approximate realization, model reduction, output error, and errors-in-variables identification; signal processing: harmonic retrieval, sum-of-damped exponentials, finite impulse response modeling, and array processing; machine learning: multidimensional scaling and recommender system; computer vision: algebraic curve fitting and fundamental matrix estimation; bioinformatics for microarray data analysis; chemometrics for multivariate calibration; ...
Resolution of ranking hierarchies in directed networks
Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio
2018-01-01
Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimises a score function, termed agony. This function penalises the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the resolution of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Ranked Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterise the resolution threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit. PMID:29394278
Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel
2010-01-01
One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...
Ranking spreaders by decomposing complex networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, An; Zhang, Cheng-Jun
2013-01-01
Ranking the nodes' ability of spreading in networks is crucial for designing efficient strategies to hinder spreading in the case of diseases or accelerate spreading in the case of information dissemination. In the well-known k-shell method, nodes are ranked only according to the links between the remaining nodes (residual links) while the links connecting to the removed nodes (exhausted links) are entirely ignored. In this Letter, we propose a mixed degree decomposition (MDD) procedure in which both the residual degree and the exhausted degree are considered. By simulating the epidemic spreading process on real networks, we show that the MDD method can outperform the k-shell and degree methods in ranking spreaders.
Sign rank versus Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension
Alon, N.; Moran, Sh; Yehudayoff, A.
2017-12-01
This work studies the maximum possible sign rank of sign (N × N)-matrices with a given Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension d. For d=1, this maximum is three. For d=2, this maximum is \\widetilde{\\Theta}(N1/2). For d >2, similar but slightly less accurate statements hold. The lower bounds improve on previous ones by Ben-David et al., and the upper bounds are novel. The lower bounds are obtained by probabilistic constructions, using a theorem of Warren in real algebraic topology. The upper bounds are obtained using a result of Welzl about spanning trees with low stabbing number, and using the moment curve. The upper bound technique is also used to: (i) provide estimates on the number of classes of a given Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension, and the number of maximum classes of a given Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension--answering a question of Frankl from 1989, and (ii) design an efficient algorithm that provides an O(N/log(N)) multiplicative approximation for the sign rank. We also observe a general connection between sign rank and spectral gaps which is based on Forster's argument. Consider the adjacency (N × N)-matrix of a Δ-regular graph with a second eigenvalue of absolute value λ and Δ ≤ N/2. We show that the sign rank of the signed version of this matrix is at least Δ/λ. We use this connection to prove the existence of a maximum class C\\subseteq\\{+/- 1\\}^N with Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension 2 and sign rank \\widetilde{\\Theta}(N1/2). This answers a question of Ben-David et al. regarding the sign rank of large Vapnik-Chervonenkis classes. We also describe limitations of this approach, in the spirit of the Alon-Boppana theorem. We further describe connections to communication complexity, geometry, learning theory, and combinatorics. Bibliography: 69 titles.
RankProdIt: A web-interactive Rank Products analysis tool
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laing Emma
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The first objective of a DNA microarray experiment is typically to generate a list of genes or probes that are found to be differentially expressed or represented (in the case of comparative genomic hybridizations and/or copy number variation between two conditions or strains. Rank Products analysis comprises a robust algorithm for deriving such lists from microarray experiments that comprise small numbers of replicates, for example, less than the number required for the commonly used t-test. Currently, users wishing to apply Rank Products analysis to their own microarray data sets have been restricted to the use of command line-based software which can limit its usage within the biological community. Findings Here we have developed a web interface to existing Rank Products analysis tools allowing users to quickly process their data in an intuitive and step-wise manner to obtain the respective Rank Product or Rank Sum, probability of false prediction and p-values in a downloadable file. Conclusions The online interactive Rank Products analysis tool RankProdIt, for analysis of any data set containing measurements for multiple replicated conditions, is available at: http://strep-microarray.sbs.surrey.ac.uk/RankProducts
Rank-based Tests of the Cointegrating Rank in Semiparametric Error Correction Models
Hallin, M.; van den Akker, R.; Werker, B.J.M.
2012-01-01
Abstract: This paper introduces rank-based tests for the cointegrating rank in an Error Correction Model with i.i.d. elliptical innovations. The tests are asymptotically distribution-free, and their validity does not depend on the actual distribution of the innovations. This result holds despite the
When sparse coding meets ranking: a joint framework for learning sparse codes and ranking scores
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2017-06-28
Sparse coding, which represents a data point as a sparse reconstruction code with regard to a dictionary, has been a popular data representation method. Meanwhile, in database retrieval problems, learning the ranking scores from data points plays an important role. Up to now, these two problems have always been considered separately, assuming that data coding and ranking are two independent and irrelevant problems. However, is there any internal relationship between sparse coding and ranking score learning? If yes, how to explore and make use of this internal relationship? In this paper, we try to answer these questions by developing the first joint sparse coding and ranking score learning algorithm. To explore the local distribution in the sparse code space, and also to bridge coding and ranking problems, we assume that in the neighborhood of each data point, the ranking scores can be approximated from the corresponding sparse codes by a local linear function. By considering the local approximation error of ranking scores, the reconstruction error and sparsity of sparse coding, and the query information provided by the user, we construct a unified objective function for learning of sparse codes, the dictionary and ranking scores. We further develop an iterative algorithm to solve this optimization problem.
Learning to rank for information retrieval
Liu, Tie-Yan
2011-01-01
Due to the fast growth of the Web and the difficulties in finding desired information, efficient and effective information retrieval systems have become more important than ever, and the search engine has become an essential tool for many people. The ranker, a central component in every search engine, is responsible for the matching between processed queries and indexed documents. Because of its central role, great attention has been paid to the research and development of ranking technologies. In addition, ranking is also pivotal for many other information retrieval applications, such as coll
Ranking health between countries in international comparisons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
2014-01-01
Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions and docum......Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions...
Preference Learning and Ranking by Pairwise Comparison
Fürnkranz, Johannes; Hüllermeier, Eyke
This chapter provides an overview of recent work on preference learning and ranking via pairwise classification. The learning by pairwise comparison (LPC) paradigm is the natural machine learning counterpart to the relational approach to preference modeling and decision making. From a machine learning point of view, LPC is especially appealing as it decomposes a possibly complex prediction problem into a certain number of learning problems of the simplest type, namely binary classification. We explain how to approach different preference learning problems, such as label and instance ranking, within the framework of LPC. We primarily focus on methodological aspects, but also address theoretical questions as well as algorithmic and complexity issues.
Compressed Sensing with Rank Deficient Dictionaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn
2012-01-01
In compressed sensing it is generally assumed that the dictionary matrix constitutes a (possibly overcomplete) basis of the signal space. In this paper we consider dictionaries that do not span the signal space, i.e. rank deficient dictionaries. We show that in this case the signal-to-noise ratio...... (SNR) in the compressed samples can be increased by selecting the rows of the measurement matrix from the column space of the dictionary. As an example application of compressed sensing with a rank deficient dictionary, we present a case study of compressed sensing applied to the Coarse Acquisition (C...
Ranking mutual funds using Sortino method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khosro Faghani Makrani
2014-04-01
Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on most business activities is to determine an efficient method for ranking mutual funds. This paper performs an empirical investigation to rank 42 mutual funds listed on Tehran Stock Exchange using Sortino method over the period 2011-2012. The results of survey have been compared with market return and the results have confirmed that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between Sortino return and market return. In addition, there were some positive and meaningful relationship between two Sortino methods.
Research of Subgraph Estimation Page Rank Algorithm for Web Page Rank
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Lan-yin
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The traditional PageRank algorithm can not efficiently perform large data Webpage scheduling problem. This paper proposes an accelerated algorithm named topK-Rank，which is based on PageRank on the MapReduce platform. It can find top k nodes efficiently for a given graph without sacrificing accuracy. In order to identify top k nodes，topK-Rank algorithm prunes unnecessary nodes and edges in each iteration to dynamically construct subgraphs，and iteratively estimates lower/upper bounds of PageRank scores through subgraphs. Theoretical analysis shows that this method guarantees result exactness. Experiments show that topK-Rank algorithm can find k nodes much faster than the existing approaches.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian
2001-01-01
The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...
Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.
Keegan, Desmond, Ed.
This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeremy D Coplan
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Background: Chronic stress may conceivably require plasticity of maternal physiology and behavior to cope with the conflicting primary demands of infant rearing and foraging for food. In addition, social rank may play a pivotal role in mandating divergent homeostatic adaptations in cohesive social groups. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oxytocin (OT levels and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis regulation in the context of maternal social stress and assessed the contribution of social rank to dyadic-distance as reflective of distraction from normative maternal-infant interaction. Methods: Twelve socially-housed mother-infant bonnet macaque dyads were studied after variable foraging demand (VFD exposure compared to 11 unstressed dyads. Dyadic-distance was determined by behavioral observation. Social ranking was performed blindly by two observers. Post-VFD maternal plasma cortisol and CSF OT were compared to corresponding measures in non-VFD exposed mothers. Results: High social rank was associated with increased dyadic-distance only in VFD-exposed dyads and not in control dyads. In mothers unexposed to VFD, social rank was not related to maternal cortisol levels whereas VFD-exposed dominant versus subordinate mothers exhibited increased plasma cortisol. Maternal CSF OT directly predicted maternal cortisol only in VFD-exposed mothers. CSF OT was higher in dominant versus subordinate mothers. VFD-exposed mothers with high cortisol specifically exhibited CSF OT elevations in comparison to control groups. Conclusions: Pairing of maternal social rank to dyadic-distance in VFD presumably reduces maternal contingent responsivity, with ensuing long-term sequelae. VFD-exposure dichotomizes maternal HPA axis response as a function of social rank with relatively reduced cortisol in subordinates. OT may serve as a homeostatic buffer during maternal stress exposure.
Fast Computing for Distance Covariance
Huo, Xiaoming; Szekely, Gabor J.
2014-01-01
Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O($n^2$) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be...
Planning with Reachable Distances
Tang, Xinyu; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.
2009-01-01
reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot's number of degrees of freedom. In addition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja
2016-01-01
De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...
Electromagnetic distance measurement
1967-01-01
This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.
Determining average yarding distance.
Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann
1979-01-01
Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...
Rahman, Monsurur; Karim, Reza; Byramjee, Framarz
2015-01-01
Many educational institutions in the United States are currently offering programs through distance learning, and that trend is rising. In almost all spheres of education a developing country like Bangladesh needs to make available the expertise of the most qualified faculty to her distant people. But the fundamental question remains as to whether…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen
1999-01-01
A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...
Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.
Thelwall, Mike
2002-01-01
Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)
Rank reduction of correlation matrices by majorization
R. Pietersz (Raoul); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)
2004-01-01
textabstractIn this paper a novel method is developed for the problem of finding a low-rank correlation matrix nearest to a given correlation matrix. The method is based on majorization and therefore it is globally convergent. The method is computationally efficient, is straightforward to implement,
Ranking related entities: components and analyses
Bron, M.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.
2010-01-01
Related entity finding is the task of returning a ranked list of homepages of relevant entities of a specified type that need to engage in a given relationship with a given source entity. We propose a framework for addressing this task and perform a detailed analysis of four core components;
Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia
Zaragoza, Hugo; Rode, H.; Mika, Peter; Atserias, Jordi; Ciaramita, Massimiliano; Attardi, Guiseppe
2007-01-01
We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, P.L.; Alcaras, J.A.C.
1980-01-01
The group theoretical properties of the Dirac groups of rank n are discussed together with the properties and construction of their IR's. The cases n even and n odd show distinct features. Furthermore, for n odd, the cases n=4K+1 and n=4K+3 exhibit some different properties too. (Author) [pt
On rank 2 Seiberg-Witten equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massamba, F.; Thompson, G.
2004-02-01
We introduce and study a set of rank 2 Seiberg-Witten equations. We show that the moduli space of solutions is a compact, orientational and smooth manifold. For minimal surfaces of general type we are able to determine the basic classes. (author)
A tilting approach to ranking influence
Genton, Marc G.; Hall, Peter
2014-01-01
We suggest a new approach, which is applicable for general statistics computed from random samples of univariate or vector-valued or functional data, to assessing the influence that individual data have on the value of a statistic, and to ranking
Texture Repairing by Unified Low Rank Optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Liang; Xiang Ren; Zhengdong Zhang; Yi Ma
2016-01-01
In this paper, we show how to harness both low-rank and sparse structures in regular or near-regular textures for image completion. Our method is based on a unified formulation for both random and contiguous corruption. In addition to the low rank property of texture, the algorithm also uses the sparse assumption of the natural image: because the natural image is piecewise smooth, it is sparse in certain transformed domain (such as Fourier or wavelet transform). We combine low-rank and sparsity properties of the texture image together in the proposed algorithm. Our algorithm based on convex optimization can automatically and correctly repair the global structure of a corrupted texture, even without precise information about the regions to be completed. This algorithm integrates texture rectification and repairing into one optimization problem. Through extensive simulations, we show our method can complete and repair textures corrupted by errors with both random and contiguous supports better than existing low-rank matrix recovery methods. Our method demonstrates significant advantage over local patch based texture synthesis techniques in dealing with large corruption, non-uniform texture, and large perspective deformation.
Semantic association ranking schemes for information retrieval ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
retrieval applications using term association graph representation ... Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Government College of ... Introduction ... leads to poor precision, e.g., model, python, and chip. ...... The approaches proposed in this paper focuses on the query-centric re-ranking of search results.
Efficient Rank Reduction of Correlation Matrices
I. Grubisic (Igor); R. Pietersz (Raoul)
2005-01-01
textabstractGeometric optimisation algorithms are developed that efficiently find the nearest low-rank correlation matrix. We show, in numerical tests, that our methods compare favourably to the existing methods in the literature. The connection with the Lagrange multiplier method is established,
Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems
Barioli, F.; Barrett, W.; Fallat, S.M.; Hall, H.T.; Hogben, L.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.
2010-01-01
The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity/minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero
A note on ranking assignments using reoptimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.
2005-01-01
We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...
Language Games: University Responses to Ranking Metrics
Heffernan, Troy A.; Heffernan, Amanda
2018-01-01
League tables of universities that measure performance in various ways are now commonplace, with numerous bodies providing their own rankings of how institutions throughout the world are seen to be performing on a range of metrics. This paper uses Lyotard's notion of language games to theorise that universities are regaining some power over being…
Ranking Thinning Potential of Lodgepole Pine Stands
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
1987-01-01
This paper presents models for predicting edge-response of dominant and codominant trees to clearing. Procedures are given for converting predictions to a thinning response index, for ranking stands for thinning priority. Data requirements, sampling suggestions, examples of application, and suggestions for management use are included to facilitate use as a field guide.
Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank
Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.
2001-01-01
Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other
Biomechanics Scholar Citations across Academic Ranks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knudson Duane
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Study aim: citations to the publications of a scholar have been used as a measure of the quality or influence of their research record. A world-wide descriptive study of the citations to the publications of biomechanics scholars of various academic ranks was conducted.
An algorithm for ranking assignments using reoptimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...... technique. Computational results for the new algorithm are presented...
Ranking Workplace Competencies: Student and Graduate Perceptions.
Rainsbury, Elizabeth; Hodges, Dave; Burchell, Noel; Lay, Mark
2002-01-01
New Zealand business students and graduates made similar rankings of the five most important workplace competencies: computer literacy, customer service orientation, teamwork and cooperation, self-confidence, and willingness to learn. Graduates placed greater importance on most of the 24 competencies, resulting in a statistically significant…
Comparing survival curves using rank tests
Albers, Willem/Wim
1990-01-01
Survival times of patients can be compared using rank tests in various experimental setups, including the two-sample case and the case of paired data. Attention is focussed on two frequently occurring complications in medical applications: censoring and tail alternatives. A review is given of the
A generalization of Friedman's rank statistic
Kroon, de J.; Laan, van der P.
1983-01-01
In this paper a very natural generalization of the two·way analysis of variance rank statistic of FRIEDMAN is given. The general distribution-free test procedure based on this statistic for the effect of J treatments in a random block design can be applied in general two-way layouts without
Probabilistic relation between In-Degree and PageRank
Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a novel stochastic model that explains the relation between power laws of In-Degree and PageRank. PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. We model the relation between PageRank and In-Degree through a stochastic equation, which is inspired by the
Generalized reduced rank tests using the singular value decomposition
Kleibergen, F.R.; Paap, R.
2002-01-01
We propose a novel statistic to test the rank of a matrix. The rank statistic overcomes deficiencies of existing rank statistics, like: necessity of a Kronecker covariance matrix for the canonical correlation rank statistic of Anderson (1951), sensitivity to the ordering of the variables for the LDU
Nominal versus Attained Weights in Universitas 21 Ranking
Soh, Kaycheng
2014-01-01
Universitas 21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems (U21 Ranking) is one of the three new ranking systems appearing in 2012. In contrast with the other systems, U21 Ranking uses countries as the unit of analysis. It has several features which lend it with greater trustworthiness, but it also shared some methodological issues with the other…
The effect of new links on Google PageRank
Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Litvak, Nelli
2004-01-01
PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. We study the effect of newly created links on Google PageRank. We discuss to
Generalized Reduced Rank Tests using the Singular Value Decomposition
F.R. Kleibergen (Frank); R. Paap (Richard)
2003-01-01
textabstractWe propose a novel statistic to test the rank of a matrix. The rank statistic overcomes deficiencies of existing rank statistics, like: necessity of a Kronecker covariance matrix for the canonical correlation rank statistic of Anderson (1951), sensitivity to the ordering of the variables
VaRank: a simple and powerful tool for ranking genetic variants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Véronique Geoffroy
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Background. Most genetic disorders are caused by single nucleotide variations (SNVs or small insertion/deletions (indels. High throughput sequencing has broadened the catalogue of human variation, including common polymorphisms, rare variations or disease causing mutations. However, identifying one variation among hundreds or thousands of others is still a complex task for biologists, geneticists and clinicians.Results. We have developed VaRank, a command-line tool for the ranking of genetic variants detected by high-throughput sequencing. VaRank scores and prioritizes variants annotated either by Alamut Batch or SnpEff. A barcode allows users to quickly view the presence/absence of variants (with homozygote/heterozygote status in analyzed samples. VaRank supports the commonly used VCF input format for variants analysis thus allowing it to be easily integrated into NGS bioinformatics analysis pipelines. VaRank has been successfully applied to disease-gene identification as well as to molecular diagnostics setup for several hundred patients.Conclusions. VaRank is implemented in Tcl/Tk, a scripting language which is platform-independent but has been tested only on Unix environment. The source code is available under the GNU GPL, and together with sample data and detailed documentation can be downloaded from http://www.lbgi.fr/VaRank/.
TWO MEASURES OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PREFERENTIAL RANKINGS ON CATEGORICAL VARIABLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lissowski Grzegorz
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a general methodology for constructing statistical methods, which is based on decision theory, to give a statistical description of preferential rankings, with a focus on the rankings’ dependence on categorical variables. In the paper, I use functions of description errors that are based on the Kemeny and Hamming distances between preferential orderings, but the proposed methodology can also be applied to other methods of estimating description errors.
Statistical Optimality in Multipartite Ranking and Ordinal Regression.
Uematsu, Kazuki; Lee, Yoonkyung
2015-05-01
Statistical optimality in multipartite ranking is investigated as an extension of bipartite ranking. We consider the optimality of ranking algorithms through minimization of the theoretical risk which combines pairwise ranking errors of ordinal categories with differential ranking costs. The extension shows that for a certain class of convex loss functions including exponential loss, the optimal ranking function can be represented as a ratio of weighted conditional probability of upper categories to lower categories, where the weights are given by the misranking costs. This result also bridges traditional ranking methods such as proportional odds model in statistics with various ranking algorithms in machine learning. Further, the analysis of multipartite ranking with different costs provides a new perspective on non-smooth list-wise ranking measures such as the discounted cumulative gain and preference learning. We illustrate our findings with simulation study and real data analysis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David
2014-01-01
. Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...
Differential invariants for higher-rank tensors. A progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tapial, V.
2004-07-01
We outline the construction of differential invariants for higher-rank tensors. In section 2 we outline the general method for the construction of differential invariants. A first result is that the simplest tensor differential invariant contains derivatives of the same order as the rank of the tensor. In section 3 we review the construction for the first-rank tensors (vectors) and second-rank tensors (metrics). In section 4 we outline the same construction for higher-rank tensors. (author)
Beyond Low Rank: A Data-Adaptive Tensor Completion Method
Zhang, Lei; Wei, Wei; Shi, Qinfeng; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den; Zhang, Yanning
2017-01-01
Low rank tensor representation underpins much of recent progress in tensor completion. In real applications, however, this approach is confronted with two challenging problems, namely (1) tensor rank determination; (2) handling real tensor data which only approximately fulfils the low-rank requirement. To address these two issues, we develop a data-adaptive tensor completion model which explicitly represents both the low-rank and non-low-rank structures in a latent tensor. Representing the no...
Chin, Wei-Chien-Benny; Wen, Tzai-Hung
2015-01-01
A network approach, which simplifies geographic settings as a form of nodes and links, emphasizes the connectivity and relationships of spatial features. Topological networks of spatial features are used to explore geographical connectivity and structures. The PageRank algorithm, a network metric, is often used to help identify important locations where people or automobiles concentrate in the geographical literature. However, geographic considerations, including proximity and location attractiveness, are ignored in most network metrics. The objective of the present study is to propose two geographically modified PageRank algorithms-Distance-Decay PageRank (DDPR) and Geographical PageRank (GPR)-that incorporate geographic considerations into PageRank algorithms to identify the spatial concentration of human movement in a geospatial network. Our findings indicate that in both intercity and within-city settings the proposed algorithms more effectively capture the spatial locations where people reside than traditional commonly-used network metrics. In comparing location attractiveness and distance decay, we conclude that the concentration of human movement is largely determined by the distance decay. This implies that geographic proximity remains a key factor in human mobility.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Chien-Benny Chin
Full Text Available A network approach, which simplifies geographic settings as a form of nodes and links, emphasizes the connectivity and relationships of spatial features. Topological networks of spatial features are used to explore geographical connectivity and structures. The PageRank algorithm, a network metric, is often used to help identify important locations where people or automobiles concentrate in the geographical literature. However, geographic considerations, including proximity and location attractiveness, are ignored in most network metrics. The objective of the present study is to propose two geographically modified PageRank algorithms-Distance-Decay PageRank (DDPR and Geographical PageRank (GPR-that incorporate geographic considerations into PageRank algorithms to identify the spatial concentration of human movement in a geospatial network. Our findings indicate that in both intercity and within-city settings the proposed algorithms more effectively capture the spatial locations where people reside than traditional commonly-used network metrics. In comparing location attractiveness and distance decay, we conclude that the concentration of human movement is largely determined by the distance decay. This implies that geographic proximity remains a key factor in human mobility.
Akbudak, Kadir; Ltaief, Hatem; Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Keyes, David E.
2017-01-01
Covariance matrices are ubiquitous in computational science and engineering. In particular, large covariance matrices arise from multivariate spatial data sets, for instance, in climate/weather modeling applications to improve prediction using statistical methods and spatial data. One of the most time-consuming computational steps consists in calculating the Cholesky factorization of the symmetric, positive-definite covariance matrix problem. The structure of such covariance matrices is also often data-sparse, in other words, effectively of low rank, though formally dense. While not typically globally of low rank, covariance matrices in which correlation decays with distance are nearly always hierarchically of low rank. While symmetry and positive definiteness should be, and nearly always are, exploited for performance purposes, exploiting low rank character in this context is very recent, and will be a key to solving these challenging problems at large-scale dimensions. The authors design a new and flexible tile row rank Cholesky factorization and propose a high performance implementation using OpenMP task-based programming model on various leading-edge manycore architectures. Performance comparisons and memory footprint saving on up to 200K×200K covariance matrix size show a gain of more than an order of magnitude for both metrics, against state-of-the-art open-source and vendor optimized numerical libraries, while preserving the numerical accuracy fidelity of the original model. This research represents an important milestone in enabling large-scale simulations for covariance-based scientific applications.
Akbudak, Kadir
2017-05-11
Covariance matrices are ubiquitous in computational science and engineering. In particular, large covariance matrices arise from multivariate spatial data sets, for instance, in climate/weather modeling applications to improve prediction using statistical methods and spatial data. One of the most time-consuming computational steps consists in calculating the Cholesky factorization of the symmetric, positive-definite covariance matrix problem. The structure of such covariance matrices is also often data-sparse, in other words, effectively of low rank, though formally dense. While not typically globally of low rank, covariance matrices in which correlation decays with distance are nearly always hierarchically of low rank. While symmetry and positive definiteness should be, and nearly always are, exploited for performance purposes, exploiting low rank character in this context is very recent, and will be a key to solving these challenging problems at large-scale dimensions. The authors design a new and flexible tile row rank Cholesky factorization and propose a high performance implementation using OpenMP task-based programming model on various leading-edge manycore architectures. Performance comparisons and memory footprint saving on up to 200K×200K covariance matrix size show a gain of more than an order of magnitude for both metrics, against state-of-the-art open-source and vendor optimized numerical libraries, while preserving the numerical accuracy fidelity of the original model. This research represents an important milestone in enabling large-scale simulations for covariance-based scientific applications.
Gualtieri, J. A.; Le Moigne, J.; Packer, C. V.
1992-01-01
Comparing two binary images and assigning a quantitative measure to this comparison finds its purpose in such tasks as image recognition, image compression, and image browsing. This quantitative measurement may be computed by utilizing the Hausdorff distance of the images represented as two-dimensional point sets. In this paper, we review two algorithms that have been proposed to compute this distance, and we present a parallel implementation of one of them on the MasPar parallel processor. We study their complexity and the results obtained by these algorithms for two different types of images: a set of displaced pairs of images of Gaussian densities, and a comparison of a Canny edge image with several edge images from a hierarchical region growing code.
THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE DATABASE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.; Makarov, Dmitry I.
2009-01-01
A database can be accessed on the Web at http://edd.ifa.hawaii.edu that was developed to promote access to information related to galaxy distances. The database has three functional components. First, tables from many literature sources have been gathered and enhanced with links through a distinct galaxy naming convention. Second, comparisons of results both at the levels of parameters and of techniques have begun and are continuing, leading to increasing homogeneity and consistency of distance measurements. Third, new material is presented arising from ongoing observational programs at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, radio telescopes at Green Bank, Arecibo, and Parkes and with the Hubble Space Telescope. This new observational material is made available in tandem with related material drawn from archives and passed through common analysis pipelines.
Microseismic Event Relocation and Focal Mechanism Estimation Based on PageRank Linkage
Aguiar, A. C.; Myers, S. C.
2017-12-01
Microseismicity associated with enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is key in understanding how subsurface stimulation can modify stress, fracture rock, and increase permeability. Large numbers of microseismic events are commonly associated with hydroshearing an EGS, making data mining methods useful in their analysis. We focus on PageRank, originally developed as Google's search engine, and subsequently adapted for use in seismology to detect low-frequency earthquakes by linking events directly and indirectly through cross-correlation (Aguiar and Beroza, 2014). We expand on this application by using PageRank to define signal-correlation topology for micro-earthquakes from the Newberry Volcano EGS in Central Oregon, which has been stimulated two times using high-pressure fluid injection. We create PageRank signal families from both data sets and compare these to the spatial and temporal proximity of associated earthquakes. PageRank families are relocated using differential travel times measured by waveform cross-correlation (CC) and the Bayesloc approach (Myers et al., 2007). Prior to relocation events are loosely clustered with events at a distance from the cluster. After relocation, event families are found to be tightly clustered. Indirect linkage of signals using PageRank is a reliable way to increase the number of events confidently determined to be similar, suggesting an efficient and effective grouping of earthquakes with similar physical characteristics (ie. location, focal mechanism, stress drop). We further explore the possibility of using PageRank families to identify events with similar relative phase polarities and estimate focal mechanisms following Shelly et al. (2016) method, where CC measurements are used to determine individual polarities within event clusters. Given a positive result, PageRank might be a useful tool in adaptive approaches to enhance production at well-instrumented geothermal sites. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344
Capachi, Casey
2013-01-01
Distance to Cure A three-part television series by Casey Capachi www.distancetocure.com Abstract How far would you go for health care? This three-part television series, featuring two introductory segments between each piece, focuses on the physical, cultural, and political obstacles facing rural Native American patients and the potential of health technology to break down those barriers to care. Part one,Telemedici...
Ultrametric Distance in Syntax
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberts Mark D.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in taxonomy such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The ambiguity of which branching height to choose, is resolved by postulating that branching occurs at the lowest height available. An ultrametric produces a measure of the complexity of sentences: presumably the complexity of sentences increases as a language is acquired so that this can be tested. All ultrametric triangles are equilateral or isosceles. Here it is shown that X̅ structure implies that there are no equilateral triangles. Restricting attention to simple syntax a minimum ultrametric distance between lexical categories is calculated. A matrix constructed from this ultrametric distance is shown to be different than the matrix obtained from features. It is shown that the definition of C-COMMAND can be replaced by an equivalent ultrametric definition. The new definition invokes a minimum distance between nodes and this is more aesthetically satisfying than previous varieties of definitions. From the new definition of C-COMMAND follows a new definition of of the central notion in syntax namely GOVERNMENT.
A Model for Scaffolding Traditional Distance Learners in Africa for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
How can we solve the lull in uptake and usage of online learning amongst traditional distance learners in Africa? Several online learning initiatives are taking place in Africa, but a critical assessment of their impact in terms of increasing access to higher education through distance learning indicates, in most cases, lack of ...
When sparse coding meets ranking: a joint framework for learning sparse codes and ranking scores
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Cui, Xuefeng; Yu, Ge; Guo, Lili; Gao, Xin
2017-01-01
Sparse coding, which represents a data point as a sparse reconstruction code with regard to a dictionary, has been a popular data representation method. Meanwhile, in database retrieval problems, learning the ranking scores from data points plays
Fourth-rank gravity. A progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tapia, V.
1992-04-01
We consider the consequences of describing the metric properties of space-time through a quartic line element. The associated ''metric'' is a fourth-rank tensor. After developing some fundamentals for such geometry, we construct a field theory for the gravitational field. This theory coincides with General Relativity in the vacuum case. Departures from General Relativity are obtained only in the presence of matter. We develop a simple cosmological model which is not in contradiction with the observed value Ω approx. 0.2-0.3 for the energy density parameter. A further application concerns conformal field theory. We are able to prove that a conformal field theory possesses an infinite-dimensional symmetry group only if the dimension of space-time is equal to the rank of the metric. In this case we are able to construct an integrable conformal field theory in four dimensions. The model is renormalisable by power counting. (author). 9 refs
Ranking oil sands bitumen recovery techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lam, A.; Nobes, D.S.; Lipsett, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2009-07-01
The preference ranking organization method (PROMETHEE) was used to assess and rank 3 techniques for in situ bitumen recovery: (1) steam assisted gravity drainage; (2) vapour extraction (VAPEX); and (3) toe-to-heel air injection (THAI). The study used a business scenario where management-type indicators included potential production rates; estimated overall operating costs; energy consumption; facilities requirement; recovery efficiency; and energy loss. Amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were also considered, as well as the production depth, formation thickness, and API gravity of the produced bitumen. The study showed that THAI recovery methods had the most beneficial criteria weighting of the 3 processes, while SAGD was the least favourable choice. However, SAGD processes are the most widely used of the 3 processes, while THAI has only been demonstrated on a limited scale. It was concluded that the maturity of a technology should be weighted more heavily when using the PROMETHEE method. 8 refs., 2 tabs.
On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalina, Jan
2017-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016
Probabilistic real-time contingency ranking method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mijuskovic, N.A.; Stojnic, D.
2000-01-01
This paper describes a real-time contingency method based on a probabilistic index-expected energy not supplied. This way it is possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the electric power system equipment outages. This approach enables more comprehensive ranking of contingencies and it is possible to form reliability cost values that can form the basis for hourly spot price calculations. The electric power system of Serbia is used as an example for the method proposed. (author)
Returns to Tenure: Time or Rank?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buhai, Ioan Sebastian
-specific investment, efficiency-wages or adverse-selection models. However, rent extracting arguments as suggested by the theory of internal labor markets, indicate that the relative position of the worker in the seniority hierarchy of the firm, her 'seniority rank', may also explain part of the observed returns...... relative to their peer workers), as predicted by theories on unionized and insider-outsider markets....
Efficient Low Rank Tensor Ring Completion
Wang, Wenqi; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Aeron, Shuchin
2017-01-01
Using the matrix product state (MPS) representation of the recently proposed tensor ring decompositions, in this paper we propose a tensor completion algorithm, which is an alternating minimization algorithm that alternates over the factors in the MPS representation. This development is motivated in part by the success of matrix completion algorithms that alternate over the (low-rank) factors. In this paper, we propose a spectral initialization for the tensor ring completion algorithm and ana...
Citation ranking versus peer evaluation of senior faculty research performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meho, Lokman I.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between citation ranking and peer evaluation in assessing senior faculty research performance. Other studies typically derive their peer evaluation data directly from referees, often in the form of ranking. This study uses two additional...... indicator of research performance of senior faculty members? Citation data, book reviews, and peer ranking were compiled and examined for faculty members specializing in Kurdish studies. Analysis shows that normalized citation ranking and citation content analysis data yield identical ranking results....... Analysis also shows that normalized citation ranking and citation content analysis, book reviews, and peer ranking perform similarly (i.e., are highly correlated) for high-ranked and low-ranked senior scholars. Additional evaluation methods and measures that take into account the context and content...
Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Job Rank.
Mehrdad, Ramin; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Moradi, Mahboubeh
2018-01-01
The occupation of the people can influence the development of metabolic syndrome. To determine the association between metabolic syndrome and its determinants with the job rank in workers of a large car factory in Iran. 3989 male workers at a large car manufacturing company were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric data of the participants, including age, height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken to measure lipid profile and blood glucose level. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in each participant based on ATPIII 2001 criteria. The workers were categorized based on their job rank into 3 groups of (1) office workers, (2) workers with physical exertion, and (3) workers with chemical exposure. The study characteristics, particularly the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its determinants were compared among the study groups. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study was 7.7% (95% CI 6.9 to 8.5). HDL levels were significantly lower in those who had chemical exposure (p=0.045). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those who had mechanical exertion (p=0.026). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the office workers, workers with physical exertion, and workers with chemical exposure was 7.3%, 7.9%, and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.836). Seemingly, there is no association between metabolic syndrome and job rank.
Rank-dependant factorization of entanglement evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siomau, Michael
2016-01-01
Highlights: • In some cases the complex entanglement evolution can be factorized on simple terms. • We suggest factorization equations for multiqubit entanglement evolution. • The factorization is solely defined by the rank of the final state density matrices. • The factorization is independent on the local noisy channels and initial pure states. - Abstract: The description of the entanglement evolution of a complex quantum system can be significantly simplified due to the symmetries of the initial state and the quantum channels, which simultaneously affect parts of the system. Using concurrence as the entanglement measure, we study the entanglement evolution of few qubit systems, when each of the qubits is affected by a local unital channel independently on the others. We found that for low-rank density matrices of the final quantum state, such complex entanglement dynamics can be completely described by a combination of independent factors representing the evolution of entanglement of the initial state, when just one of the qubits is affected by a local channel. We suggest necessary conditions for the rank of the density matrices to represent the entanglement evolution through the factors. Our finding is supported with analytical examples and numerical simulations.
Fourth-rank gravity and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marrakchi, A.L.; Tapia, V.
1992-07-01
We consider the consequences of describing the metric properties of space-time through a quartic line element. The associated ''metric'' is a fourth-rank tensor G μυλπ . In order to recover a Riemannian behaviour of the geometry it is necessary to have G μυλπ = g (μυ g λπ) . We construct a theory for the gravitational field based on the fourth-rank metric G μυλπ . In the absence of matter the fourth-rank metric becomes separable and the theory coincides with General Relativity. In the presence of matter we can maintain Riemmanianicity, but now gravitation couples, as compared to General Relativity, in a different way to matter. We develop a simple cosmological model based on a FRW metric with matter described by a perfect fluid. For the present time the field equations are compatible with k OBS = O and Ω OBS t CLAS approx. 10 20 t PLANCK approx. 10 -23 s. Our final and most important result is the fact that the entropy is an increasing function of time. When interpreted at the light of General Relativity the treatment is shown to be almost equivalent to that of the standard model of cosmology combined with the inflationary scenario. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig
Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Abdi Talarposht
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.
Estimation of rank correlation for clustered data.
Rosner, Bernard; Glynn, Robert J
2017-06-30
It is well known that the sample correlation coefficient (R xy ) is the maximum likelihood estimator of the Pearson correlation (ρ xy ) for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) bivariate normal data. However, this is not true for ophthalmologic data where X (e.g., visual acuity) and Y (e.g., visual field) are available for each eye and there is positive intraclass correlation for both X and Y in fellow eyes. In this paper, we provide a regression-based approach for obtaining the maximum likelihood estimator of ρ xy for clustered data, which can be implemented using standard mixed effects model software. This method is also extended to allow for estimation of partial correlation by controlling both X and Y for a vector U_ of other covariates. In addition, these methods can be extended to allow for estimation of rank correlation for clustered data by (i) converting ranks of both X and Y to the probit scale, (ii) estimating the Pearson correlation between probit scores for X and Y, and (iii) using the relationship between Pearson and rank correlation for bivariate normally distributed data. The validity of the methods in finite-sized samples is supported by simulation studies. Finally, two examples from ophthalmology and analgesic abuse are used to illustrate the methods. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ranking environmental liabilities at a petroleum refinery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lupo, M.
1995-01-01
A new computer model is available to allow the management of a petroleum refinery to prioritize environmental action and construct a holistic approach to remediation. A large refinery may have numerous solid waste management units regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as well as process units that emit hazardous chemicals into the environment. These sources can impact several environmental media, potentially including the air, the soil, the groundwater, the unsaturated zone water, and surface water. The number of chemicals of concern may be large. The new model is able to rank the sources by considering the impact of each chemical in each medium from each source in terms of concentration, release rate, and a weighted index based on toxicity. In addition to environmental impact, the sources can be ranked in three other ways: (1) by cost to remediate, (2) by environmental risk reduction caused by the remediation in terms of the decreases in release rate, concentration, and weighted index, and (3) by cost-benefit, which is the environmental risk reduction for each source divided by the cost of the remedy. Ranking each unit in the refinery allows management to use its limited environmental resources in a pro-active strategic manner that produces long-term results, rather than in reactive, narrowly focused, costly, regulatory-driven campaigns that produce only short-term results
Iris Template Protection Based on Local Ranking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongdong Zhao
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.
Magnetic emission ranking of electrical appliances. A comprehensive market survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.; Lehofer, P.; Schmidpeter, U.; Rampetsreiter, M.
2008-01-01
Over the last decades emissions of magnetic fields from electric appliances have considerably changed. Based on a comprehensive market survey it could be shown that today magnetic emissions are usually characterised by complex frequency spectra while single-frequency emissions have become rare. Therefore, spectral assessment procedures play a critical role. Compared to frequency-weighted equivalent magnetic induction, rms values may underestimate emissions up to two orders of magnitudes. Therefore, rms measurements are not suitable and emission-ranking lists of devices need revision. Surface hot-spot measurements at nominal load conditions and 230 V/50 Hz supply involved 1146 new electrical devices of 166 different categories. High emissions were not rare. Magnetic emissions of devices of 73 different categories exceeded reference levels up to almost two orders of magnitudes above reference levels. Maximum values were higher than reported so far. Magnetic emissions were high enough to make even conformity with existing basic restrictions not self-evident. (authors)
A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.
Brookfield, Stephen D.
2003-01-01
Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)
Distance Magic-Type and Distance Antimagic-Type Labelings of Graphs
Freyberg, Bryan J.
Generally speaking, a distance magic-type labeling of a graph G of order n is a bijection l from the vertex set of the graph to the first n natural numbers or to the elements of a group of order n, with the property that the weight of each vertex is the same. The weight of a vertex x is defined as the sum (or appropriate group operation) of all the labels of vertices adjacent to x. If instead we require that all weights differ, then we refer to the labeling as a distance antimagic-type labeling. This idea can be generalized for directed graphs; the weight will take into consideration the direction of the arcs. In this manuscript, we provide new results for d-handicap labeling, a distance antimagic-type labeling, and introduce a new distance magic-type labeling called orientable Gamma-distance magic labeling. A d-handicap distance antimagic labeling (or just d-handicap labeling for short) of a graph G = ( V,E) of order n is a bijection l from V to the set {1,2,...,n} with induced weight function [special characters omitted]. such that l(xi) = i and the sequence of weights w(x 1),w(x2),...,w (xn) forms an arithmetic sequence with constant difference d at least 1. If a graph G admits a d-handicap labeling, we say G is a d-handicap graph. A d-handicap incomplete tournament, H(n,k,d ) is an incomplete tournament of n teams ranked with the first n natural numbers such that each team plays exactly k games and the strength of schedule of the ith ranked team is d more than the i + 1st ranked team. That is, strength of schedule increases arithmetically with strength of team. Constructing an H(n,k,d) is equivalent to finding a d-handicap labeling of a k-regular graph of order n.. In Chapter 2 we provide general constructions for every d for large classes of both n and k, providing breadfth and depth to the catalog of known H(n,k,d)'s. In Chapters 3 - 6, we introduce a new type of labeling called orientable Gamma-distance magic labeling. Let Gamma be an abelian group of order
Population based ranking of frameless CT-MRI registration methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Opposits, Gabor; Kis, Sandor A.; Tron, Lajos; Emri, Miklos [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Berenyi, Ervin [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biomedical Laboratory and Imaging Science; Takacs, Endre [Rotating Gamma Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Dobai, Jozsef G.; Bognar, Laszlo [Debrecen Univ., Medical Center (Hungary). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Szuecs, Bernadett [ScanoMed Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary)
2015-07-01
Clinical practice often requires simultaneous information obtained by two different imaging modalities. Registration algorithms are commonly used for this purpose. Automated procedures are very helpful in cases when the same kind of registration has to be performed on images of a high number of subjects. Radiotherapists would prefer to use the best automated method to assist therapy planning, however there are not accepted procedures for ranking the different registration algorithms. We were interested in developing a method to measure the population level performance of CT-MRI registration algorithms by a parameter of values in the [0,1] interval. Pairs of CT and MRI images were collected from 1051 subjects. Results of an automated registration were corrected manually until a radiologist and a neurosurgeon expert both accepted the result as good. This way 1051 registered MRI images were produced by the same pair of experts to be used as gold standards for the evaluation of the performance of other registration algorithms. Pearson correlation coefficient, mutual information, normalized mutual information, Kullback-Leibler divergence, L{sub 1} norm and square L{sub 2} norm (dis)similarity measures were tested for sensitivity to indicate the extent of (dis)similarity of a pair of individual mismatched images. The square Hellinger distance proved suitable to grade the performance of registration algorithms at population level providing the developers with a valuable tool to rank algorithms. The developed procedure provides an objective method to find the registration algorithm performing the best on the population level out of newly constructed or available preselected ones.
Assessment of low-rank (LRC) drying technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willson, W.G.; Young, B.C.; Irwinj, W.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that low-rank coals (LRCs), brown, lignitic, and subbituminous coals, represent nearly half of the estimated coal resources in the world. In many of the developing nations, LRCs are the only source of low-cost energy. LRCs are geologically younger than higher-rank bituminous coals and are typically present in thick seams with less cover (overburden) than bituminous coals, making them recoverable by low-cost strip mining. Current pit-head coal prices for LRCs range from a low of around $0.25 per MM Btus for subbituminous coals from the USA's Powder River Basin, to highs of around $1,00 for those that are more costly to mine. On the other hand, the pit-head price of bituminous coals in the USA range from a low of around $1 to over $2 per MM Btu. Unfortunately, this differential in favor of LRC is more than offset in distant markers where, until now, it has been considered a nuisance. Often less than half of its weight is combustible, the rest being water and ash. Thus the cost of hauling it any distance at all in its untreated dry bulk form is prohibitive. However, from a utilization aspect, LRCs have a lower fuel ration (fixed carbon to volatile matter) and are typically an order of magnitude more reactive than bituminous coals. Many LRCs, including the enormous reserves in Alaska, Australia, and Indonesia, also have extremely low sulfur contents of only a few tenths of a percent. Low mining costs, high reactivity, and extremely low sulfur content would make these coals premium fuel were it not for their high moisture levels, which range from around 25% w/w to over 60% w/w. High moisture creates a mistaken perception, among major coal importers, of inferior quality, and the many positive features of LRCs are overlooked
Country-specific determinants of world university rankings.
Pietrucha, Jacek
2018-01-01
This paper examines country-specific factors that affect the three most influential world university rankings (the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Ranking, and the Times Higher Education World University Ranking). We run a cross sectional regression that covers 42-71 countries (depending on the ranking and data availability). We show that the position of universities from a country in the ranking is determined by the following country-specific variables: economic potential of the country, research and development expenditure, long-term political stability (freedom from war, occupation, coups and major changes in the political system), and institutional variables, including government effectiveness.
Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1992-01-01
Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs
2016-03-02
whereBψ is any Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. From (Hall & Willett, 2015) we have: Theorem 1. G` = max θ∈Θ,`∈L ‖∇f(θ)‖ φmax = 1...Kullback-Liebler divergence between an initial guess of the matrix that parameterizes the Mahalanobis distance and a solution that satisfies a set of...Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. M̂0, µ̂0 are initialized to some initial value. In [18] a closed-form algorithm for solving
PERBANDINGAN EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE DENGAN CANBERRA DISTANCE PADA FACE RECOGNITION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sendhy Rachmat Wurdianarto
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Perkembangan ilmu pada dunia komputer sangatlah pesat. Salah satu yang menandai hal ini adalah ilmu komputer telah merambah pada dunia biometrik. Arti biometrik sendiri adalah karakter-karakter manusia yang dapat digunakan untuk membedakan antara orang yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Salah satu pemanfaatan karakter / organ tubuh pada setiap manusia yang digunakan untuk identifikasi (pengenalan adalah dengan memanfaatkan wajah. Dari permasalahan diatas dalam pengenalan lebih tentang aplikasi Matlab pada Face Recognation menggunakan metode Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Model pengembangan aplikasi yang digunakan adalah model waterfall. Model waterfall beriisi rangkaian aktivitas proses yang disajikan dalam proses analisa kebutuhan, desain menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language, inputan objek gambar diproses menggunakan Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah aplikasi face Recognation menggunakan metode euclidean Distance dan Canverra Distance terdapat kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing. Untuk kedepannya aplikasi tersebut dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan objek berupa video ataupun objek lainnya. Kata kunci : Euclidean Distance, Face Recognition, Biometrik, Canberra Distance
Son, Young Jun; Han, Jihye; Lee, Jae Yeon; Kim, HaHyung; Chun, Taehoon
2015-06-01
Soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B fusion immunoglobulin (hRANK-Ig) has been considered as one of the therapeutic agents to treat osteoporosis or diseases associated with bone destruction by blocking the interaction between RANK and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, no scientific record showing critical amino acid residues within the structural interface between the human RANKL and RANK complex is yet available. In this study, we produced several mutants of hRANK-Ig by replacement of amino acid residue(s) and tested whether the mutants had increased binding affinity to human RANKL. Based on the results from flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analyses, the replacement of E(125) with D(125), or E(125) and C(127) with D(125) and F(127) within loop 3 of cysteine-rich domain 3 of hRANK-Ig increases binding affinity to human RANKL over the wild-type hRANK-Ig. This result may provide the first example of improvement in the efficacy of hRANK-Ig by protein engineering and may give additional information to understand a more defined structural interface between hRANK and RANKL.
Distance collaborations with industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.
1998-06-01
The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos-Roberto Peña-Barrera
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Los principales objetivos de esta investigación son los siguientes: (1 que la comunidad científica nacional e internacional y la sociedad en general co-nozcan los resultados del Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia 2010_2, el cual clasifica a cada institución de educación superior colombiana según puntaje, posición y cuartil; (2 destacar los movimientos más importantes al comparar los resultados del ranking 2010_1 con los del 2010_2; (3 publicar las respuestas de algunos actores de la academia nacional con respecto a la dinámica de la investigación en el país; (4 reconocer algunas instituciones, medios de comunicación e investigadores que se han interesado a modo de reflexión, referenciación o citación por esta investigación; y (5 dar a conocer el «Sello Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia» para las IES clasificadas. El alcance de este estudio en cuanto a actores abordó todas y cada una de las IES nacionales (aunque solo algunas lograran entrar al ranking y en cuanto a tiempo, un periodo referido al primer semestre de 2010 con respecto a: (1 los resultados 2010-1 de revistas indexadas en Publindex, (2 los programas de maestrías y doctorados activos durante 2010-1 según el Ministerio de Educación Nacional, y (3 los resultados de grupos de investigación clasificados para 2010 según Colciencias. El método empleado para esta investigación es el mismo que para el ranking 2010_1, salvo por una especificación aún más detallada en uno de los pasos del modelo (las variables α, β, γ; es completamente cuantitativo y los datos de las variables que fundamentan sus resultados provienen de Colciencias y el Ministerio de Educación Nacional; y en esta ocasión se darán a conocer los resultados por variable para 2010_1 y 2010_2. Los resultados más relevantes son estos: (1 entraron 8 IES al ranking y salieron 3; (2 las 3 primeras IES son públicas; (3 en total hay 6 instituciones universitarias en el ranking; (4 7 de las 10 primeras IES son
Heimann, G; Neuhaus, G
1998-03-01
In the random censorship model, the log-rank test is often used for comparing a control group with different dose groups. If the number of tumors is small, so-called exact methods are often applied for computing critical values from a permutational distribution. Two of these exact methods are discussed and shown to be incorrect. The correct permutational distribution is derived and studied with respect to its behavior under unequal censoring in the light of recent results proving that the permutational version and the unconditional version of the log-rank test are asymptotically equivalent even under unequal censoring. The log-rank test is studied by simulations of a realistic scenario from a bioassay with small numbers of tumors.
Algebraic and computational aspects of real tensor ranks
Sakata, Toshio; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiro
2016-01-01
This book provides comprehensive summaries of theoretical (algebraic) and computational aspects of tensor ranks, maximal ranks, and typical ranks, over the real number field. Although tensor ranks have been often argued in the complex number field, it should be emphasized that this book treats real tensor ranks, which have direct applications in statistics. The book provides several interesting ideas, including determinant polynomials, determinantal ideals, absolutely nonsingular tensors, absolutely full column rank tensors, and their connection to bilinear maps and Hurwitz-Radon numbers. In addition to reviews of methods to determine real tensor ranks in details, global theories such as the Jacobian method are also reviewed in details. The book includes as well an accessible and comprehensive introduction of mathematical backgrounds, with basics of positive polynomials and calculations by using the Groebner basis. Furthermore, this book provides insights into numerical methods of finding tensor ranks through...
On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalina, Jan
2017-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/kalina-0474065.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tapia, V.
1992-04-01
Recently we have explored the consequences of describing the metric properties of our universe through a quartic line element. In this geometry the natural object is a fourth-rank metric, i.e., a tensor with four indices. Based on this geometry we constructed a simple field theory for the gravitational field. The field equations coincide with the Einstein field equations in the vacuum case. This fact, however, does not guarantee the observational equivalence of both theories since one must still verify that, as a consequence of the field equations, test particles move along geodesics. This letter is aimed at establishing this result. (author). 7 refs
Classical impurities associated to high rank algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: A.Doikou@hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Heriot–Watt University, EH14 4AS, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics, University of Patras, Patras GR-26500 (Greece)
2014-07-15
Classical integrable impurities associated with high rank (gl{sub N}) algebras are investigated. A particular prototype, i.e. the vector non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) model, is chosen as an example. A systematic construction of local integrals of motion as well as the time components of the corresponding Lax pairs is presented based on the underlying classical algebra. Suitable gluing conditions compatible with integrability are also extracted. The defect contribution is also examined in the case where non-trivial integrable conditions are implemented. It turns out that the integrable boundaries may drastically alter the bulk behavior, and in particular the defect contribution.
Low-rank driving in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkey, R.S.
1989-01-01
A new property of quantum systems called low-rank driving is introduced. Numerous simplifications in the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation are pointed out for systems having this property. These simplifications are in the areas of finding eigenvalues, taking the Laplace transform, converting Schroedinger's equation to an integral form, discretizing the continuum, generalizing the Weisskopf-Wigner approximation, band-diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, finding new exact solutions to Schroedinger's equation, and so forth. The principal physical application considered is the phenomenon of coherent populations-trapping in continuum-continuum interactions
Classical impurities associated to high rank algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2014-01-01
Classical integrable impurities associated with high rank (gl N ) algebras are investigated. A particular prototype, i.e. the vector non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) model, is chosen as an example. A systematic construction of local integrals of motion as well as the time components of the corresponding Lax pairs is presented based on the underlying classical algebra. Suitable gluing conditions compatible with integrability are also extracted. The defect contribution is also examined in the case where non-trivial integrable conditions are implemented. It turns out that the integrable boundaries may drastically alter the bulk behavior, and in particular the defect contribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Regan, P.J.
1996-01-01
The objective of the effort summarized in this paper is to support O and M cost reduction efforts by focusing resources on components and processes critical to plant performance. This effort will identify where resources on nonplant critical components and processes can be reduced or eliminated. This method will use a functional assessment as the basis for component-specific evaluations and ranking. This effort consists of two stages conducted in series. The first stage is to deterministically identify that set of plant components that are relevant from a plant performance perspective (i.e., safety, economics, reliability). The second stage probabilistically ranks that set of plant components from an importance perspective, where importance pertains to the particular application and is probabilistically weighted. The results of a pilot study identified that only a relatively small set of components are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. These results are consistent with work being conducted at other nuclear power plants, as well as other commercial facilities. Initial implementation of this effort is estimated to reduce O and M costs on the order of $1 million per year. Subsequent applications are anticipated to increase that savings to $4--$5 million per year
BridgeRank: A novel fast centrality measure based on local structure of the network
Salavati, Chiman; Abdollahpouri, Alireza; Manbari, Zhaleh
2018-04-01
Ranking nodes in complex networks have become an important task in many application domains. In a complex network, influential nodes are those that have the most spreading ability. Thus, identifying influential nodes based on their spreading ability is a fundamental task in different applications such as viral marketing. One of the most important centrality measures to ranking nodes is closeness centrality which is efficient but suffers from high computational complexity O(n3) . This paper tries to improve closeness centrality by utilizing the local structure of nodes and presents a new ranking algorithm, called BridgeRank centrality. The proposed method computes local centrality value for each node. For this purpose, at first, communities are detected and the relationship between communities is completely ignored. Then, by applying a centrality in each community, only one best critical node from each community is extracted. Finally, the nodes are ranked based on computing the sum of the shortest path length of nodes to obtained critical nodes. We have also modified the proposed method by weighting the original BridgeRank and selecting several nodes from each community based on the density of that community. Our method can find the best nodes with high spread ability and low time complexity, which make it applicable to large-scale networks. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we use the SIR diffusion model. Finally, experiments on real and artificial networks show that our method is able to identify influential nodes so efficiently, and achieves better performance compared to other recent methods.
The Nature of Practitioner Research: Critical Distance, Power and Ethics
Appleby, Michelle M.
2013-01-01
Researching within one's place of practice allows the researcher to have the unique position of knowing the participants and the research context. The relationship the participants have with the researcher will impact upon the disclosure of information differently than research conducted by someone outside the area of practice. This can be a…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samah Ibrahim Abdel Aal
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The concept of neutrosophic can provide a generalization of fuzzy set and intuitionistic fuzzy set that make it is the best fit in representing indeterminacy and uncertainty. Single Valued Triangular Numbers (SVTrN-numbers is a special case of neutrosophic set that can handle ill-known quantity very difficult problems. This work intended to introduce a framework with two types of ranking methods. The results indicated that each ranking method has its own advantage. In this perspective, the weighted value and ambiguity based method gives more attention to uncertainty in ranking and evaluating ISQ as well as it takes into account cut sets of SVTrN numbers that can reflect the information on Truth-membership-membership degree, false membership-membership degree and Indeterminacy-membership degree. The value index and ambiguity index method can reflect the decision maker's subjectivity attitude to the SVTrN- numbers.
Interactive Distance Learning in Connecticut.
Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.
This paper provides an overview of distance learning activities in Connecticut and addresses the feasibility of such activities. Distance education programs have evolved from the one dimensional electronic mail systems to the use of sophisticated digital fiber networks. The Middlesex Distance Learning Consortium has developed a long-range plan to…
Distance covariance for stochastic processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matsui, Muneya; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Samorodnitsky, Gennady
2017-01-01
The distance covariance of two random vectors is a measure of their dependence. The empirical distance covariance and correlation can be used as statistical tools for testing whether two random vectors are independent. We propose an analog of the distance covariance for two stochastic processes...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Torres-Salinas, Daniel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We present the results of the Bibliometric Indicators for Publishers project (also known as BiPublishers. This project represents the first attempt to systematically develop bibliometric publisher rankings. The data for this project was derived from the Book Citation Index and the study time period was 2009-2013. We have developed 42 rankings: 4 by fields and 38 by disciplines. We display six indicators for publishers divided into three types: output, impact and publisher’s profile. The aim is to capture different characteristics of the research performance of publishers. 254 publishers were processed and classified according to publisher type: commercial publishers and university presses. We present the main publishers by field and then discuss the principal challenges presented when developing this type of tool. The BiPublishers ranking is an on-going project which aims to develop and explore new data sources and indicators to better capture and define the research impact of publishers.Presentamos los resultados del proyecto Bibliometric Indicators for Publishers (BiPublishers. Es el primer proyecto que desarrolla de manera sistemática rankings bibliométricos de editoriales. La fuente de datos empleada es el Book Citation Index y el periodo de análisis 2009-2013. Se presentan 42 rankings: 4 por áreas y 38 por disciplinas. Mostramos seis indicadores por editorial divididos según su tipología: producción, impacto y características editoriales. Se procesaron 254 editoriales y se clasificaron según el tipo: comerciales y universitarias. Se presentan las principales editoriales por áreas. Después, se discuten los principales retos a superar en el desarrollo de este tipo de herramientas. El ranking Bipublishers es un proyecto en desarrollo que persigue analizar y explorar nuevas fuentes de datos e indicadores para captar y definir el impacto de las editoriales académicas.
Generalized PageRank on Directed Configuration Networks
Chen, Ningyuan; Litvak, Nelli; Olvera-Cravioto, Mariana
2017-01-01
Note: formula is not displayed correctly. This paper studies the distribution of a family of rankings, which includes Google’s PageRank, on a directed configuration model. In particular, it is shown that the distribution of the rank of a randomly chosen node in the graph converges in distribution to
PageRank in scale-free random graphs
Chen, Ningyuan; Litvak, Nelli; Olvera-Cravioto, Mariana; Bonata, Anthony; Chung, Fan; Pralat, Paweł
2014-01-01
We analyze the distribution of PageRank on a directed configuration model and show that as the size of the graph grows to infinity, the PageRank of a randomly chosen node can be closely approximated by the PageRank of the root node of an appropriately constructed tree. This tree approximation is in
Ranking Quality in Higher Education: Guiding or Misleading?
Bergseth, Brita; Petocz, Peter; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
2014-01-01
The study examines two different models of measuring, assessing and ranking quality in higher education. Do different systems of quality assessment lead to equivalent conclusions about the quality of education? This comparative study is based on the rankings of 24 Swedish higher education institutions. Two ranking actors have independently…
Revisiting the Relationship between Institutional Rank and Student Engagement
Zilvinskis, John; Louis Rocconi
2018-01-01
College rankings dominate the conversation regarding quality in postsecondary education. However, the criteria used to rank institutions often have nothing to do with the quality of education students receive. A decade ago, Pike (2004) demonstrated that institutional rank had little association with student involvement in educational activities.…
Academic Ranking--From Its Genesis to Its International Expansion
Vieira, Rosilene C.; Lima, Manolita C.
2015-01-01
Given the visibility and popularity of rankings that encompass the measurement of quality of post-graduate courses, for instance, the MBA (Master of Business Administration) or graduate studies program (MSc and PhD) as do global academic rankings--Academic Ranking of World Universities-ARWU, Times Higher/Thomson Reuters World University Ranking…
7 CFR 1491.6 - Ranking considerations and proposal selection.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ranking considerations and proposal selection. 1491.6... PROGRAM General Provisions § 1491.6 Ranking considerations and proposal selection. (a) Before the State.... The national ranking criteria will be established by the Chief and the State criteria will be...
46 CFR 282.11 - Ranking of flags.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ranking of flags. 282.11 Section 282.11 Shipping... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Foreign-Flag Competition § 282.11 Ranking of flags. The operators under each... priority of costs which are representative of the flag. For liner cargo vessels, the ranking of operators...
10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State ranking of grant applications. 455.131 Section 455... State ranking of grant applications. (a) Except as provided by § 455.92 of this part, all eligible... audit or energy use evaluation pursuant to § 455.20(k). Each State shall develop separate rankings for...
Control by Numbers: New Managerialism and Ranking in Higher Education
Lynch, Kathleen
2015-01-01
This paper analyses the role of rankings as an instrument of new managerialism. It shows how rankings are reconstituting the purpose of universities, the role of academics and the definition of what it is to be a student. The paper opens by examining the forces that have facilitated the emergence of the ranking industry and the ideologies…
Paired comparisons analysis: an axiomatic approach to ranking methods
Gonzalez-Diaz, J.; Hendrickx, Ruud; Lohmann, E.R.M.A.
2014-01-01
In this paper we present an axiomatic analysis of several ranking methods for general tournaments. We find that the ranking method obtained by applying maximum likelihood to the (Zermelo-)Bradley-Terry model, the most common method in statistics and psychology, is one of the ranking methods that
Extracting Rankings for Spatial Keyword Queries from GPS Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keles, Ilkcan; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas
2018-01-01
Studies suggest that many search engine queries have local intent. We consider the evaluation of ranking functions important for such queries. The key challenge is to be able to determine the “best” ranking for a query, as this enables evaluation of the results of ranking functions. We propose...
Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS
Baumgartner, Ted A.
2009-01-01
Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…
Variation in rank abundance replicate samples and impact of clustering
Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.
2005-01-01
Calculating a single-sample rank abundance curve by using the negative-binomial distribution provides a way to investigate the variability within rank abundance replicate samples and yields a measure of the degree of heterogeneity of the sampled community. The calculation of the single-sample rank
A Fast Algorithm for Generating Permutation Distribution of Ranks in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... function of the distribution of the ranks. This further gives insight into the permutation distribution of a rank statistics. The algorithm is implemented with the aid of the computer algebra system Mathematica. Key words: Combinatorics, generating function, permutation distribution, rank statistics, partitions, computer algebra.
DISTANCES TO DARK CLOUDS: COMPARING EXTINCTION DISTANCES TO MASER PARALLAX DISTANCES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Benjamin, Robert A.
2012-01-01
We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.
Gallant, Joseph
1999-04-01
One of the goals of physics education is to instill a sense of wonder in our students. We hope our natural curiosity will rub off on them and that they will apply the critical thinking skills we teach them to other aspects of their lives outside the classroom. As an example of this, consider the situation described in Milton's epic poem ``Paradise Lost''. Milton wrote that when the devil was cast out of heaven, he fell for nine days before landing in hell. In Milton's universe, hell is a separate place from Earth, but many people place hell at the center of the Earth. Based on these ideas, we can apply Newton's laws of motion to calculate the distance from heaven to Earth. This exercise is an example of the kind of intellectual exercise a physicist (or a physics student) might carry out when confronted with such information. We apply the basic principles of physics to a situation described in work of literature while making no attempt to validate or refute any philosophy, theology or ideology.
Rank hypocrisies the insult of the REF
Sayer, Derek
2015-01-01
"The REF is right out of Havel's and Kundera's Eastern Europe: a state-administered exercise to rank academic research like hotel chains dependent on the active collaboration of the UK professoriate. In crystalline text steeped in cold rage, Sayer takes aim at the REF's central claim, that it is a legitimate process of expert peer review. He critiques university and national-level REF processes against actual practices of scholarly review as found in academic journals, university presses, and North American tenure procedures. His analysis is damning. If the REF fails as scholarly review, how can academics and universities continue to participate? And how can government use its rankings as a basis for public policy?" - Tarak Barkawi, Reader in the Department of International Relations, London School of Economics "Many academics across the world have come to see the REF as an arrogant attempt to raise national research standards that has resulted in a variety of self-inflicted wounds to UK higher education. Der...
Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sluka N.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The relevance of the study lies in the acute need to modernise the tools for a more accurate and comparable reflection of the demographic reality of spatial objects of different scales. This article aims to test the methods of “demographic rankings” developed by Yermakov and Shmakov. The method is based on the principles of indirect standardisation of the major demographic coefficients relative to the age structure.The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic development trends and the persistence of wide territorial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country consolidation at the level of averaged values and mortality (polarisation rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background. The study confirmed the validity of the demographic ranking method, which can be instrumental in solving not only scientific but also practical tasks, including those in the field of demographic and social policy.
Generalization Performance of Regularized Ranking With Multiscale Kernels.
Zhou, Yicong; Chen, Hong; Lan, Rushi; Pan, Zhibin
2016-05-01
The regularized kernel method for the ranking problem has attracted increasing attentions in machine learning. The previous regularized ranking algorithms are usually based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces with a single kernel. In this paper, we go beyond this framework by investigating the generalization performance of the regularized ranking with multiscale kernels. A novel ranking algorithm with multiscale kernels is proposed and its representer theorem is proved. We establish the upper bound of the generalization error in terms of the complexity of hypothesis spaces. It shows that the multiscale ranking algorithm can achieve satisfactory learning rates under mild conditions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for drug discovery and recommendation tasks.
Exact distributions of two-sample rank statistics and block rank statistics using computer algebra
Wiel, van de M.A.
1998-01-01
We derive generating functions for various rank statistics and we use computer algebra to compute the exact null distribution of these statistics. We present various techniques for reducing time and memory space used by the computations. We use the results to write Mathematica notebooks for
Poortvliet, P. Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.
This investigation tested the joint effect of achievement goals and ranking information on information exchange intentions with a commensurate exchange partner. Results showed that individuals with performance goals were less inclined to cooperate with an exchange partner when they had low or high
Planning with Reachable Distances
Tang, Xinyu
2009-01-01
Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Quantified Risk Ranking Model for Condition-Based Risk and Reliability Centered Maintenance
Chattopadhyaya, Pradip Kumar; Basu, Sushil Kumar; Majumdar, Manik Chandra
2017-06-01
In the recent past, risk and reliability centered maintenance (RRCM) framework is introduced with a shift in the methodological focus from reliability and probabilities (expected values) to reliability, uncertainty and risk. In this paper authors explain a novel methodology for risk quantification and ranking the critical items for prioritizing the maintenance actions on the basis of condition-based risk and reliability centered maintenance (CBRRCM). The critical items are identified through criticality analysis of RPN values of items of a system and the maintenance significant precipitating factors (MSPF) of items are evaluated. The criticality of risk is assessed using three risk coefficients. The likelihood risk coefficient treats the probability as a fuzzy number. The abstract risk coefficient deduces risk influenced by uncertainty, sensitivity besides other factors. The third risk coefficient is called hazardous risk coefficient, which is due to anticipated hazards which may occur in the future and the risk is deduced from criteria of consequences on safety, environment, maintenance and economic risks with corresponding cost for consequences. The characteristic values of all the three risk coefficients are obtained with a particular test. With few more tests on the system, the values may change significantly within controlling range of each coefficient, hence `random number simulation' is resorted to obtain one distinctive value for each coefficient. The risk coefficients are statistically added to obtain final risk coefficient of each critical item and then the final rankings of critical items are estimated. The prioritization in ranking of critical items using the developed mathematical model for risk assessment shall be useful in optimization of financial losses and timing of maintenance actions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Okkyung Choi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.
Choi, Okkyung; Jung, Hanyoung; Moon, Seungbin
2014-01-01
With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.
Ramezan Ghorbani, Nahid; Fakour, Yousef; Nojoumi, Seyed Ali
2017-08-01
Researchers and academic institutions need assessment and rating to measure their performance. The criteria are designed to evaluate quality and adequacy of research and welcome by most universities as an international process to increase monitoring academic achievements. The study aimed to evaluate the increasing trend in global ranking of Iranian medical universities websites emphasizing on comparative approach. This is a cross-sectional study involving websites of Iranian medical universities. Sampling was conducted by census selecting universities affiliated to the Ministry of Health in webometrics rating system. Web sites of Iranian medical universities were investigated based on the webometrics indicators, global ranking as well as the process of changing their rating. Universities of medical sciences were associated with improved ratings in seven periods from Jan 2012 until Jan 2015. The highest rank was in Jan 2014. Tehran University of Medical Sciences ranked the first in all periods. The highest ratings were about impact factor in universities of medical sciences reflecting the low level of this index in university websites. The least ranking was observed in type 1 universities. Despite the criticisms and weaknesses of these webometrics criteria, they are critical to this equation and should be checked for authenticity and suitability of goals. Therefore, localizing these criteria by the advantages model, ranking systems features, continuous development and medical universities evaluation based on these indicators provide new opportunities for the development of the country especially through online media.
Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by RNA interference targeting RANK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Ruofan
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoclasts and osteoblasts regulate bone resorption and formation to allow bone remodeling and homeostasis. The balance between bone resorption and formation is disturbed by abnormal recruitment of osteoclasts. Osteoclast differentiation is dependent on the receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-kappa B (RANK ligand (RANKL as well as the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. The RANKL/RANK system and RANK signaling induce osteoclast formation mediated by various cytokines. The RANK/RANKL pathway has been primarily implicated in metabolic, degenerative and neoplastic bone disorders or osteolysis. The central role of RANK/RANKL interaction in osteoclastogenesis makes RANK an attractive target for potential therapies in treatment of osteolysis. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibition of RANK expression in mouse bone marrow macrophages on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Methods Three pairs of short hairpin RNAs (shRNA targeting RANK were designed and synthesized. The optimal shRNA was selected among three pairs of shRNAs by RANK expression analyzed by Western blot and Real-time PCR. We investigated suppression of osteoclastogenesis of mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs using the optimal shRNA by targeting RANK. Results Among the three shRANKs examined, shRANK-3 significantly suppressed [88.3%] the RANK expression (p Conclusions These findings suggest that retrovirus-mediated shRNA targeting RANK inhibits osteoclast differentiation and osteolysis. It may appear an attractive target for preventing osteolysis in humans with a potential clinical application.
Are university rankings useful to improve research? A systematic review.
Vernon, Marlo M; Balas, E Andrew; Momani, Shaher
2018-01-01
Concerns about reproducibility and impact of research urge improvement initiatives. Current university ranking systems evaluate and compare universities on measures of academic and research performance. Although often useful for marketing purposes, the value of ranking systems when examining quality and outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate usefulness of ranking systems and identify opportunities to support research quality and performance improvement. A systematic review of university ranking systems was conducted to investigate research performance and academic quality measures. Eligibility requirements included: inclusion of at least 100 doctoral granting institutions, be currently produced on an ongoing basis and include both global and US universities, publish rank calculation methodology in English and independently calculate ranks. Ranking systems must also include some measures of research outcomes. Indicators were abstracted and contrasted with basic quality improvement requirements. Exploration of aggregation methods, validity of research and academic quality indicators, and suitability for quality improvement within ranking systems were also conducted. A total of 24 ranking systems were identified and 13 eligible ranking systems were evaluated. Six of the 13 rankings are 100% focused on research performance. For those reporting weighting, 76% of the total ranks are attributed to research indicators, with 24% attributed to academic or teaching quality. Seven systems rely on reputation surveys and/or faculty and alumni awards. Rankings influence academic choice yet research performance measures are the most weighted indicators. There are no generally accepted academic quality indicators in ranking systems. No single ranking system provides a comprehensive evaluation of research and academic quality. Utilizing a combined approach of the Leiden, Thomson Reuters Most Innovative Universities, and the SCImago ranking systems may provide
Asynchronous Gossip for Averaging and Spectral Ranking
Borkar, Vivek S.; Makhijani, Rahul; Sundaresan, Rajesh
2014-08-01
We consider two variants of the classical gossip algorithm. The first variant is a version of asynchronous stochastic approximation. We highlight a fundamental difficulty associated with the classical asynchronous gossip scheme, viz., that it may not converge to a desired average, and suggest an alternative scheme based on reinforcement learning that has guaranteed convergence to the desired average. We then discuss a potential application to a wireless network setting with simultaneous link activation constraints. The second variant is a gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of a nonnegative matrix. While the first variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for an average cost controlled Markov decision problem, the second variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for risk-sensitive control. We then discuss potential applications of the second variant to ranking schemes, reputation networks, and principal component analysis.
Fuzzy-set based contingency ranking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Y.Y.; Kuo, H.C.
1992-01-01
In this paper, a new approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed for contingency ranking of Taiwan power system. To examine whether a power system can remain in a secure and reliable operating state under contingency conditions, those contingency cases that will result in loss-of-load, loss-of generation, or islanding are first identified. Then 1P-1Q iteration of fast decoupled load flow is preformed to estimate post-contingent quantities (line flows, bus voltages) for other contingency cases. Based on system operators' past experience, each post-contingent quantity is assigned a degree of severity according to the potential damage that could be imposed on the power system by the quantity, should the contingency occurs. An approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed to deal with the imprecision of linguistic terms
Motif discovery in ranked lists of sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Tataru, Paula; Madsen, Tobias
2016-01-01
Motif analysis has long been an important method to characterize biological functionality and the current growth of sequencing-based genomics experiments further extends its potential. These diverse experiments often generate sequence lists ranked by some functional property. There is therefore...... advantage of the regular expression feature, including enrichments for combinations of different microRNA seed sites. The method is implemented and made publicly available as an R package and supports high parallelization on multi-core machinery....... a growing need for motif analysis methods that can exploit this coupled data structure and be tailored for specific biological questions. Here, we present an exploratory motif analysis tool, Regmex (REGular expression Motif EXplorer), which offers several methods to evaluate the correlation of motifs...
Ranked retrieval of Computational Biology models.
Henkel, Ron; Endler, Lukas; Peters, Andre; Le Novère, Nicolas; Waltemath, Dagmar
2010-08-11
The study of biological systems demands computational support. If targeting a biological problem, the reuse of existing computational models can save time and effort. Deciding for potentially suitable models, however, becomes more challenging with the increasing number of computational models available, and even more when considering the models' growing complexity. Firstly, among a set of potential model candidates it is difficult to decide for the model that best suits ones needs. Secondly, it is hard to grasp the nature of an unknown model listed in a search result set, and to judge how well it fits for the particular problem one has in mind. Here we present an improved search approach for computational models of biological processes. It is based on existing retrieval and ranking methods from Information Retrieval. The approach incorporates annotations suggested by MIRIAM, and additional meta-information. It is now part of the search engine of BioModels Database, a standard repository for computational models. The introduced concept and implementation are, to our knowledge, the first application of Information Retrieval techniques on model search in Computational Systems Biology. Using the example of BioModels Database, it was shown that the approach is feasible and extends the current possibilities to search for relevant models. The advantages of our system over existing solutions are that we incorporate a rich set of meta-information, and that we provide the user with a relevance ranking of the models found for a query. Better search capabilities in model databases are expected to have a positive effect on the reuse of existing models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Guo
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Point-of-interest (POI recommendation has been well studied in recent years. However, most of the existing methods focus on the recommendation scenarios where users can provide explicit feedback. In most cases, however, the feedback is not explicit, but implicit. For example, we can only get a user’s check-in behaviors from the history of what POIs she/he has visited, but never know how much she/he likes and why she/he does not like them. Recently, some researchers have noticed this problem and began to learn the user preferences from the partial order of POIs. However, these works give equal weight to each POI pair and cannot distinguish the contributions from different POI pairs. Intuitively, for the two POIs in a POI pair, the larger the frequency difference of being visited and the farther the geographical distance between them, the higher the contribution of this POI pair to the ranking function. Based on the above observations, we propose a weighted ranking method for POI recommendation. Specifically, we first introduce a Bayesian personalized ranking criterion designed for implicit feedback to POI recommendation. To fully utilize the partial order of POIs, we then treat the cost function in a weighted way, that is give each POI pair a different weight according to their frequency of being visited and the geographical distance between them. Data analysis and experimental results on two real-world datasets demonstrate the existence of user preference on different POI pairs and the effectiveness of our weighted ranking method.
Are contemporary tourists consuming distance?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunvor Riber
2012. Background The background for this research, which explores how tourists represent distance and whether or not distance can be said to be consumed by contemporary tourists, is the increasing leisure mobility of people. Travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives is increasing...... of understanding mobility at a conceptual level, and distance matters to people's manifest mobility: how they travel and how far they travel are central elements of their movements. Therefore leisure mobility (indeed all mobility) is the activity of relating across distance, either through actual corporeal...... metric representation. These representations are the focus for this research. Research Aim and Questions The aim of this research is thus to explore how distance is being represented within the context of leisure mobility. Further the aim is to explore how or whether distance is being consumed...
A LDA-based approach to promoting ranking diversity for genomics information retrieval.
Chen, Yan; Yin, Xiaoshi; Li, Zhoujun; Hu, Xiaohua; Huang, Jimmy Xiangji
2012-06-11
In the biomedical domain, there are immense data and tremendous increase of genomics and biomedical relevant publications. The wealth of information has led to an increasing amount of interest in and need for applying information retrieval techniques to access the scientific literature in genomics and related biomedical disciplines. In many cases, the desired information of a query asked by biologists is a list of a certain type of entities covering different aspects that are related to the question, such as cells, genes, diseases, proteins, mutations, etc. Hence, it is important of a biomedical IR system to be able to provide relevant and diverse answers to fulfill biologists' information needs. However traditional IR model only concerns with the relevance between retrieved documents and user query, but does not take redundancy between retrieved documents into account. This will lead to high redundancy and low diversity in the retrieval ranked lists. In this paper, we propose an approach which employs a topic generative model called Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to promoting ranking diversity for biomedical information retrieval. Different from other approaches or models which consider aspects on word level, our approach assumes that aspects should be identified by the topics of retrieved documents. We present LDA model to discover topic distribution of retrieval passages and word distribution of each topic dimension, and then re-rank retrieval results with topic distribution similarity between passages based on N-size slide window. We perform our approach on TREC 2007 Genomics collection and two distinctive IR baseline runs, which can achieve 8% improvement over the highest Aspect MAP reported in TREC 2007 Genomics track. The proposed method is the first study of adopting topic model to genomics information retrieval, and demonstrates its effectiveness in promoting ranking diversity as well as in improving relevance of ranked lists of genomics search
Distance : between deixis and perspectivity
Meermann, Anastasia; Sonnenhauser, Barbara
2015-01-01
Discussing exemplary applications of the notion of distance in linguistic analysis, this paper shows that very different phenomena are described in terms of this concept. It is argued that in order to overcome the problems arising from this mixup, deixis, distance and perspectivity have to be distinguished and their interrelations need to be described. Thereby, distance emerges as part of a recursive process mediating between situation-bound deixis and discourse-level perspectivity. This is i...
National Student Feedback Surveys in Distance Education: An Investigation at the UK Open University
Ashby, Alison; Richardson, John T. E.; Woodley, Alan
2011-01-01
National student feedback surveys are administered in a number of countries, and several of these encompass both campus-based and distance learning students. The UK Open University achieves a high ranking in the annual National Student Survey (NSS), but there are some anomalies in the results. The NSS questionnaire was administered to three…
Saleem, Naifa Eid; Al-Suqri, Mohammed Nasser
2015-01-01
This research paper aims to investigate the beliefs (perceptions) about distance education(DE) held by the faculty members of Sultan Qaboos Uuniversity (SQU) at the Sultanate of Oman as well as the differences between their beliefs (perceptions) with regards to gender, teaching experience, college academic rank, nationality, etc. This study used a…
Reflective journaling: developing an online journal for distance education.
Kessler, Penny D; Lund, Carole H
2004-01-01
Reflective journal writing can be a useful heuristic tool to foster critical thinking skills and develop reflective clinical practice in nursing. When combined with a distance education delivery format, the online journal helps to leverage the strengths of reflective learning with educational technology as well as provide a seamless record of learning outcomes across the curriculum. The authors discuss the incorporation of an online reflective journal into a distance education clinical course and provide guidelines for educators considering a similar approach.
Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking
Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson
2012-01-01
As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…
Feature ranking and rank aggregation for automatic sleep stage classification: a comparative study.
Najdi, Shirin; Gharbali, Ali Abdollahi; Fonseca, José Manuel
2017-08-18
Nowadays, sleep quality is one of the most important measures of healthy life, especially considering the huge number of sleep-related disorders. Identifying sleep stages using polysomnographic (PSG) signals is the traditional way of assessing sleep quality. However, the manual process of sleep stage classification is time-consuming, subjective and costly. Therefore, in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the sleep stage classification, researchers have been trying to develop automatic classification algorithms. Automatic sleep stage classification mainly consists of three steps: pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. Since classification accuracy is deeply affected by the extracted features, a poor feature vector will adversely affect the classifier and eventually lead to low classification accuracy. Therefore, special attention should be given to the feature extraction and selection process. In this paper the performance of seven feature selection methods, as well as two feature rank aggregation methods, were compared. Pz-Oz EEG, horizontal EOG and submental chin EMG recordings of 22 healthy males and females were used. A comprehensive feature set including 49 features was extracted from these recordings. The extracted features are among the most common and effective features used in sleep stage classification from temporal, spectral, entropy-based and nonlinear categories. The feature selection methods were evaluated and compared using three criteria: classification accuracy, stability, and similarity. Simulation results show that MRMR-MID achieves the highest classification performance while Fisher method provides the most stable ranking. In our simulations, the performance of the aggregation methods was in the average level, although they are known to generate more stable results and better accuracy. The Borda and RRA rank aggregation methods could not outperform significantly the conventional feature ranking methods. Among
Using incomplete citation data for MEDLINE results ranking.
Herskovic, Jorge R; Bernstam, Elmer V
2005-01-01
Information overload is a significant problem for modern medicine. Searching MEDLINE for common topics often retrieves more relevant documents than users can review. Therefore, we must identify documents that are not only relevant, but also important. Our system ranks articles using citation counts and the PageRank algorithm, incorporating data from the Science Citation Index. However, citation data is usually incomplete. Therefore, we explore the relationship between the quantity of citation information available to the system and the quality of the result ranking. Specifically, we test the ability of citation count and PageRank to identify "important articles" as defined by experts from large result sets with decreasing citation information. We found that PageRank performs better than simple citation counts, but both algorithms are surprisingly robust to information loss. We conclude that even an incomplete citation database is likely to be effective for importance ranking.
Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits
von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald
Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bouchra Sojod
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases.
Sojod, Bouchra; Chateau, Danielle; Mueller, Christopher G.; Babajko, Sylvie; Berdal, Ariane; Lézot, Frédéric; Castaneda, Beatriz
2017-01-01
Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg) and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases. PMID:28596739
Ministerial formation of theological students through distance education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marilyn Naidoo
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Ministerial formation is a multifaceted activity involving critical thinking, the acquisition of knowledge, skills development, religious identity formation and the development of ministerial and spiritual maturity expected of church ministers. Education is not merely the accumulation of a prescribed set of academic credits but includes the holistic formation of all aspects of the individual. However, theological educators are concerned about the capacity to foster such values and skills in the distance and electronic environment. Some see distance education as ‘distancing’ the students in more significant ways than simply geographic distance. These issues are of fundamental importance for they reflect the deeper convictions of theologians that distance education may not be a suitable medium for ministerial formation. This article creates a conceptual map of the theological and pedagogical challenges for ministerial formation and highlights how the possibility of formation is being carried out in the distance-learning environment.
Discovering author impact: A PageRank perspective
Yan, Erjia; Ding, Ying
2010-01-01
This article provides an alternative perspective for measuring author impact by applying PageRank algorithm to a coauthorship network. A weighted PageRank algorithm considering citation and coauthorship network topology is proposed. We test this algorithm under different damping factors by evaluating author impact in the informetrics research community. In addition, we also compare this weighted PageRank with the h-index, citation, and program committee (PC) membership of the International So...
Ranking agricultural, environmental and natural resource economics journals: A note
Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos
2012-01-01
This paper by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) ranks for the first time Economics journals in the field of Agricultural, Environmental and Natural Resource. Specifically, by using one composite input and one composite output the paper ranks 32 journals. In addition for the first time three different quality ranking reports have been incorporated to the DEA modelling problem in order to classify the journals into four categories (‘A’ to ‘D’). The results reveal that the journals with t...
Is there a 'Mid-Rank Trap' for Universities'
Chang Da Wan
2015-01-01
The middle-income trap is an economic phenomenon to describe economies that have stagnated at the middle-income level and failed to progress into the high-income level. Inspired by this economic concept, this paper explores a hypothesis: is there a 'mid-rank trap' for universities in the exercise to rank universities globally' Using the rankings between 2004 and 2014 that were jointly and separately developed by Times Higher Education and Quacquarelli Symonds Company, this paper argues that t...
Asympotic efficiency of signed - rank symmetry tests under skew alternatives.
Alessandra Durio; Yakov Nikitin
2002-01-01
The efficiency of some known tests for symmetry such as the sign test, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test or more general linear signed rank tests was studied mainly under the classical alternatives of location. However it is interesting to compare the efficiencies of these tests under asymmetric alternatives like the so-called skew alternative proposed in Azzalini (1985). We find and compare local Bahadur efficiencies of linear signed-rank statistics for skew alternatives and discuss also the con...
Reduced Rank Adaptive Filtering in Impulsive Noise Environments
Soury, Hamza
2014-01-06
An impulsive noise environment is used in this paper. A new aspect of signal truncation is deployed to reduce the harmful effect of the impulsive noise to the signal. A full rank direct solution is derived followed by an iterative solution. The reduced rank adaptive filter is presented in this environment by using two methods for rank reduction. The minimized objective function is defined using the Lp norm. The results are presented and the efficiency of each algorithm is discussed.
Reduced Rank Adaptive Filtering in Impulsive Noise Environments
Soury, Hamza; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
An impulsive noise environment is used in this paper. A new aspect of signal truncation is deployed to reduce the harmful effect of the impulsive noise to the signal. A full rank direct solution is derived followed by an iterative solution. The reduced rank adaptive filter is presented in this environment by using two methods for rank reduction. The minimized objective function is defined using the Lp norm. The results are presented and the efficiency of each algorithm is discussed.
A Citation-Based Ranking of Strategic Management Journals
Azar, Ofer H.; Brock, David M.
2007-01-01
Rankings of strategy journals are important for authors, readers, and promotion and tenure committees. We present several rankings, based either on the number of articles that cited the journal or the per-article impact. Our analyses cover various periods between 1991 and 2006, for most of which the Strategic Management Journal was in first place and Journal of Economics & Management Strategy (JEMS) second, although JEMS ranked first in certain instances. Long Range Planning and Technology An...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)
2016-11-01
M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully–Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)
2016-07-20
Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.
McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert
2016-07-01
Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
Distance criterion for hydrogen bond
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.
Social Distance and Intergenerational Relations
Kidwell, I. Jane; Booth, Alan
1977-01-01
Questionnaires were administered to a sample of adults to assess the extent of social distance between people of different ages. The findings suggest that the greater the age difference (younger or older) between people, the greater the social distance they feel. (Author)
Quality Content in Distance Education
Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin
2016-01-01
In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…
Virtual Bioinformatics Distance Learning Suite
Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno
2004-01-01
Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…
The Psychology of Psychic Distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja
2016-01-01
and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...
Cognitive Styles and Distance Education.
Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean
1999-01-01
Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…
Distance Learning: Practice and Dilemmas
Tatkovic, Nevenka; Sehanovic, Jusuf; Ruzic, Maja
2006-01-01
In accordance with the European processes of integrated and homogeneous education, the paper presents the essential viewpoints and questions covering the establishment and development of "distance learning" (DL) in Republic of Croatia. It starts from the advantages of distance learning versus traditional education taking into account…
Connectivity ranking of heterogeneous random conductivity models
Rizzo, C. B.; de Barros, F.
2017-12-01
To overcome the challenges associated with hydrogeological data scarcity, the hydraulic conductivity (K) field is often represented by a spatial random process. The state-of-the-art provides several methods to generate 2D or 3D random K-fields, such as the classic multi-Gaussian fields or non-Gaussian fields, training image-based fields and object-based fields. We provide a systematic comparison of these models based on their connectivity. We use the minimum hydraulic resistance as a connectivity measure, which it has been found to be strictly correlated with early time arrival of dissolved contaminants. A computationally efficient graph-based algorithm is employed, allowing a stochastic treatment of the minimum hydraulic resistance through a Monte-Carlo approach and therefore enabling the computation of its uncertainty. The results show the impact of geostatistical parameters on the connectivity for each group of random fields, being able to rank the fields according to their minimum hydraulic resistance.
Multirelational Social Recommendations via Multigraph Ranking.
Mao, Mingsong; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Zhang, Jinlong
2017-12-01
Recommender systems aim to identify relevant items for particular users in large-scale online applications. The historical rating data of users is a valuable input resource for many recommendation models such as collaborative filtering (CF), but these models are known to suffer from the rating sparsity problem when the users or items under consideration have insufficient rating records. With the continued growth of online social networks, the increased user-to-user relationships are reported to be helpful and can alleviate the CF rating sparsity problem. Although researchers have developed a range of social network-based recommender systems, there is no unified model to handle multirelational social networks. To address this challenge, this paper represents different user relationships in a multigraph and develops a multigraph ranking model to identify and recommend the nearest neighbors of particular users in high-order environments. We conduct empirical experiments on two real-world datasets: 1) Epinions and 2) Last.fm, and the comprehensive comparison with other approaches demonstrates that our model improves recommendation performance in terms of both recommendation coverage and accuracy, especially when the rating data are sparse.
Improving CBIR Systems Using Automated Ranking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. D. Reljin
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The most common way of searching images on the Internet and in private collections is based on a similarity measuring of a series of text words that are assigned to each image with users query series. This method imposes strong constraints (the number of words to describe the image, the time necessary to thoroughly describe the subjective experience of images, the level of details in the picture, language barrier, etc., and is therefore very inefficient. Modern researches in this area are focused on the contentbased searching images (CBIR. In this way, all described disadvantages are overcome and the quality of searching results is improved. This paper presents a solution for CBIR systems where the search procedure is enhanced using sophisticated extraction and ranking of extracted images. The searching procedure is based on extraction and preprocessing of a large number of low level image features. Thus, when the user defines a query image, the proposed algorithm based on artificial intelligence, shows to the user a group of images which are most similar to a query image by content. The proposed algorithm is iterative, so the user can direct the searching procedure to an expected outcome and get a set of images that are more similar to the query one.
Method ranks competing projects by priorities, risk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeckel, D.R.
1993-01-01
A practical, objective guide for ranking projects based on risk-based priorities has been developed by Sun Pipe Line Co. The deliberately simple system guides decisions on how to allocate scarce company resources because all managers employ the same criteria in weighing potential risks to the company versus benefits. Managers at all levels are continuously having to comply with an ever growing amount of legislative and regulatory requirements while at the same time trying to run their businesses effectively. The system primarily is designed for use as a compliance oversight and tracking process to document, categorize, and follow-up on work concerning various issues or projects. That is, the system consists of an electronic database which is updated periodically, and is used by various levels of management to monitor progress of health, safety, environmental and compliance-related projects. Criteria used in determining a risk factor and assigning a priority also have been adapted and found useful for evaluating other types of projects. The process enables management to better define potential risks and/or loss of benefits that are being accepted when a project is rejected from an immediate work plan or budget. In times of financial austerity, it is extremely important that the right decisions are made at the right time
A Survey of Binary Similarity and Distance Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seung-Seok Choi
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The binary feature vector is one of the most common representations of patterns and measuring similarity and distance measures play a critical role in many problems such as clustering, classification, etc. Ever since Jaccard proposed a similarity measure to classify ecological species in 1901, numerous binary similarity and distance measures have been proposed in various fields. Applying appropriate measures results in more accurate data analysis. Notwithstanding, few comprehensive surveys on binary measures have been conducted. Hence we collected 76 binary similarity and distance measures used over the last century and reveal their correlations through the hierarchical clustering technique.
Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances
Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo
2015-01-01
Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353
Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian eFort
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.
A Note on the PageRank of Undirected Graphs
Grolmusz, Vince
2012-01-01
The PageRank is a widely used scoring function of networks in general and of the World Wide Web graph in particular. The PageRank is defined for directed graphs, but in some special cases applications for undirected graphs occur. In the literature it is widely noted that the PageRank for undirected graphs are proportional to the degrees of the vertices of the graph. We prove that statement for a particular personalization vector in the definition of the PageRank, and we also show that in gene...
Rank diversity of languages: generic behavior in computational linguistics.
Cocho, Germinal; Flores, Jorge; Gershenson, Carlos; Pineda, Carlos; Sánchez, Sergio
2015-01-01
Statistical studies of languages have focused on the rank-frequency distribution of words. Instead, we introduce here a measure of how word ranks change in time and call this distribution rank diversity. We calculate this diversity for books published in six European languages since 1800, and find that it follows a universal lognormal distribution. Based on the mean and standard deviation associated with the lognormal distribution, we define three different word regimes of languages: "heads" consist of words which almost do not change their rank in time, "bodies" are words of general use, while "tails" are comprised by context-specific words and vary their rank considerably in time. The heads and bodies reflect the size of language cores identified by linguists for basic communication. We propose a Gaussian random walk model which reproduces the rank variation of words in time and thus the diversity. Rank diversity of words can be understood as the result of random variations in rank, where the size of the variation depends on the rank itself. We find that the core size is similar for all languages studied.
Rank Diversity of Languages: Generic Behavior in Computational Linguistics
Cocho, Germinal; Flores, Jorge; Gershenson, Carlos; Pineda, Carlos; Sánchez, Sergio
2015-01-01
Statistical studies of languages have focused on the rank-frequency distribution of words. Instead, we introduce here a measure of how word ranks change in time and call this distribution rank diversity. We calculate this diversity for books published in six European languages since 1800, and find that it follows a universal lognormal distribution. Based on the mean and standard deviation associated with the lognormal distribution, we define three different word regimes of languages: “heads” consist of words which almost do not change their rank in time, “bodies” are words of general use, while “tails” are comprised by context-specific words and vary their rank considerably in time. The heads and bodies reflect the size of language cores identified by linguists for basic communication. We propose a Gaussian random walk model which reproduces the rank variation of words in time and thus the diversity. Rank diversity of words can be understood as the result of random variations in rank, where the size of the variation depends on the rank itself. We find that the core size is similar for all languages studied. PMID:25849150
Tensor rank of the tripartite state |W>xn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Nengkun; Guo Cheng; Duan Runyao; Chitambar, Eric
2010-01-01
Tensor rank refers to the number of product states needed to express a given multipartite quantum state. Its nonadditivity as an entanglement measure has recently been observed. In this Brief Report, we estimate the tensor rank of multiple copies of the tripartite state |W>=(1/√(3))(|100>+|010>+|001>). Both an upper bound and a lower bound of this rank are derived. In particular, it is proven that the rank of |W> x 2 is 7, thus resolving a previously open problem. Some implications of this result are discussed in terms of transformation rates between |W> xn and multiple copies of the state |GHZ>=(1/√(2))(|000>+|111>).
Quantum probability ranking principle for ligand-based virtual screening
Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Himmat, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal
2017-04-01
Chemical libraries contain thousands of compounds that need screening, which increases the need for computational methods that can rank or prioritize compounds. The tools of virtual screening are widely exploited to enhance the cost effectiveness of lead drug discovery programs by ranking chemical compounds databases in decreasing probability of biological activity based upon probability ranking principle (PRP). In this paper, we developed a novel ranking approach for molecular compounds inspired by quantum mechanics, called quantum probability ranking principle (QPRP). The QPRP ranking criteria would make an attempt to draw an analogy between the physical experiment and molecular structure ranking process for 2D fingerprints in ligand based virtual screening (LBVS). The development of QPRP criteria in LBVS has employed the concepts of quantum at three different levels, firstly at representation level, this model makes an effort to develop a new framework of molecular representation by connecting the molecular compounds with mathematical quantum space. Secondly, estimate the similarity between chemical libraries and references based on quantum-based similarity searching method. Finally, rank the molecules using QPRP approach. Simulated virtual screening experiments with MDL drug data report (MDDR) data sets showed that QPRP outperformed the classical ranking principle (PRP) for molecular chemical compounds.
Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium
Learning to rank for information retrieval and natural language processing
Li, Hang
2014-01-01
Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work.The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as tw
Rank of quantized universal enveloping algebras and modular functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majid, S.; Soibelman, Ya.S.
1991-01-01
We compute an intrinsic rank invariant for quasitriangular Hopf algebras in the case of general quantum groups U q (g). As a function of q the rank has remarkable number theoretic properties connected with modular covariance and Galois theory. A number of examples are treated in detail, including rank (U q (su(3)) and rank (U q (e 8 )). We briefly indicate a physical interpretation as relating Chern-Simons theory with the theory of a quantum particle confined to an alcove of g. (orig.)
Extreme learning machine for ranking: generalization analysis and applications.
Chen, Hong; Peng, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yicong; Li, Luoqing; Pan, Zhibin
2014-05-01
The extreme learning machine (ELM) has attracted increasing attention recently with its successful applications in classification and regression. In this paper, we investigate the generalization performance of ELM-based ranking. A new regularized ranking algorithm is proposed based on the combinations of activation functions in ELM. The generalization analysis is established for the ELM-based ranking (ELMRank) in terms of the covering numbers of hypothesis space. Empirical results on the benchmark datasets show the competitive performance of the ELMRank over the state-of-the-art ranking methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Treatment plan ranking using physical and biological indices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, M. A.; University of Western Asutralia, WA
2001-01-01
Full text: The ranking of dose distributions is of importance in several areas such as i) comparing rival treatment plans, ii) comparing iterations in an optimisation routine, and iii) dose-assessment of clinical trial data. This study aimed to investigate the influence of choice of objective function in ranking tumour dose distributions. A series of physical (mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation of dose) dose-volume histogram (DVH) reduction indices and biologically-based (tumour-control probability - TCP; equivalent uniform dose -EUD) indices were used to rank a series of hypothetical DVHs, as well as DVHs obtained from a series of 18 prostate patients. The distribution in ranking and change in distribution with change in indice parameters were investigated. It is found that not only is the ranking of DVHs dependent on the actual model used to perform the DVH reduction, it is also found to depend on the inherent characteristics of each model (i.e., selected parameters). The adjacent figure shows an example where the 18 prostate patients are ranked (grey-scale from black to white) by EUD when an α value of 0.8 Gy -1 is used in the model. The change of ranking as α varies is evident. Conclusion: This study has shown that the characteristics of the model selected in plan optimisation or DVH ranking will have an impact on the ranking obtained. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
Quantum probability ranking principle for ligand-based virtual screening.
Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Himmat, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal
2017-04-01
Chemical libraries contain thousands of compounds that need screening, which increases the need for computational methods that can rank or prioritize compounds. The tools of virtual screening are widely exploited to enhance the cost effectiveness of lead drug discovery programs by ranking chemical compounds databases in decreasing probability of biological activity based upon probability ranking principle (PRP). In this paper, we developed a novel ranking approach for molecular compounds inspired by quantum mechanics, called quantum probability ranking principle (QPRP). The QPRP ranking criteria would make an attempt to draw an analogy between the physical experiment and molecular structure ranking process for 2D fingerprints in ligand based virtual screening (LBVS). The development of QPRP criteria in LBVS has employed the concepts of quantum at three different levels, firstly at representation level, this model makes an effort to develop a new framework of molecular representation by connecting the molecular compounds with mathematical quantum space. Secondly, estimate the similarity between chemical libraries and references based on quantum-based similarity searching method. Finally, rank the molecules using QPRP approach. Simulated virtual screening experiments with MDL drug data report (MDDR) data sets showed that QPRP outperformed the classical ranking principle (PRP) for molecular chemical compounds.
Ranking accounting, banking and finance journals: A note
Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos
2012-01-01
This paper by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) ranks Economics journals in the field of Accounting, Banking and Finance. By using one composite input and one composite output the paper ranks 57 journals. In addition for the first time three different quality ranking reports have been incorporated to the DEA modelling problem in order to classify the journals into four categories (‘A’ to ‘D’). The results reveal that the journals with the highest rankings in the field are Journal of Fi...
Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-01-01
Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.
Econophysics of a ranked demand and supply resource allocation problem
Priel, Avner; Tamir, Boaz
2018-01-01
We present a two sided resource allocation problem, between demands and supplies, where both parties are ranked. For example, in Big Data problems where a set of different computational tasks is divided between a set of computers each with its own resources, or between employees and employers where both parties are ranked, the employees by their fitness and the employers by their package benefits. The allocation process can be viewed as a repeated game where in each iteration the strategy is decided by a meta-rule, based on the ranks of both parties and the results of the previous games. We show the existence of a phase transition between an absorbing state, where all demands are satisfied, and an active one where part of the demands are always left unsatisfied. The phase transition is governed by the ratio between supplies and demand. In a job allocation problem we find positive correlation between the rank of the workers and the rank of the factories; higher rank workers are usually allocated to higher ranked factories. These all suggest global emergent properties stemming from local variables. To demonstrate the global versus local relations, we introduce a local inertial force that increases the rank of employees in proportion to their persistence time in the same factory. We show that such a local force induces non trivial global effects, mostly to benefit the lower ranked employees.
Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer.
Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods.
Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...
Tracking frequency laser distance gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, J.D.; Reasenberg, R.D.
2005-01-01
Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require laser distance gauges of substantially improved performance. We describe a laser gauge, based on Pound-Drever-Hall locking, in which the optical frequency is adjusted to maintain an interferometer's null condition. This technique has been demonstrated with pm performance. Automatic fringe hopping allows it to track arbitrary distance changes. The instrument is intrinsically free of the nm-scale cyclic bias present in traditional (heterodyne) high-precision laser gauges. The output is a radio frequency, readily measured to sufficient accuracy. The laser gauge has operated in a resonant cavity, which improves precision, can suppress the effects of misalignments, and makes possible precise automatic alignment. The measurement of absolute distance requires little or no additional hardware, and has also been demonstrated. The proof-of-concept version, based on a stabilized HeNe laser and operating on a 0.5 m path, has achieved 10 pm precision with 0.1 s integration time, and 0.1 mm absolute distance accuracy. This version has also followed substantial distance changes as fast as 16 mm/s. We show that, if the precision in optical frequency is a fixed fraction of the linewidth, both incremental and absolute distance precision are independent of the distance measured. We discuss systematic error sources, and present plans for a new version of the gauge based on semiconductor lasers and fiber-coupled components
Forward projections of energy market competitiveness rankings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-01-01
By July 2007, the provisions of the second Internal Market Directives for Electricity and Gas had been implemented in the majority of EU Member States. These fundamental changes in market opening, ownership structures and network access conditions, together with the increasing maturity of liberalised trading and retail markets, can be expected to affect the behaviour of existing and potential market participants, consequently affecting the energy market competitiveness of alternative countries. While the UK was the most competitive of the EU and G7 energy markets in 2006, the dynamic effect of the liberalisation programme across Continental Europe may challenge that position in the future. This report assesses how competitiveness rankings may evolve in the future, identifying changes that could take place in the UK and the rest of the EU from 2007 to 201 1. It goes on to explore the potential risk that the competitiveness of the UK's energy markets will decline relative to those of other countries in the EU and G7, to the extent that the PSA target will not be met. A detailed analysis of the potential changes in the UK markets is undertaken, including the development of upside and downside scenarios showing the positive and negative effects of changes in market structure and behaviour on the UK's competitiveness score. Changes in market structures required for energy markets in both the 2006 comparator group and the rest of the EU to become as competitive as the UK are then assessed, along with the plausibility of these changes given the current and future market, legislative and regulatory environments
Reducing the distance in distance-caregiving by technology innovation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lazelle E Benefield
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Lazelle E Benefield1, Cornelia Beck21College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; 2Pat & Willard Walker Family Memory Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USAAbstract: Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1 the elder and the family caregiver(s may reside in the same household; or 2 the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation.Keywords: caregiving, family, distance, technology, elders
Equivalence of massive propagator distance and mathematical distance on graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filk, T.
1992-01-01
It is shown in this paper that the assignment of distance according to the massive propagator method and according to the mathematical definition (length of minimal path) on arbitrary graphs with a bound on the degree leads to equivalent large scale properties of the graph. Especially, the internal scaling dimension is the same for both definitions. This result holds for any fixed, non-vanishing mass, so that a really inequivalent definition of distance requires the limit m → 0
Language distance and tree reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio
2008-01-01
Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others
Language distance and tree reconstruction
Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio
2008-08-01
Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.
Development and first application of an operating events ranking tool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Šimić, Zdenko; Zerger, Benoit; Banov, Reni
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A method using analitycal hierarchy process for ranking operating events is developed and tested. • The method is applied for 5 years of U.S. NRC Licensee Event Reports (1453 events). • Uncertainty and sensitivity of the ranking results are evaluated. • Real events assessment shows potential of the method for operating experience feedback. - Abstract: The operating experience feedback is important for maintaining and improving safety and availability in nuclear power plants. Detailed investigation of all events is challenging since it requires excessive resources, especially in case of large event databases. This paper presents an event groups ranking method to complement the analysis of individual operating events. The basis for the method is the use of an internationally accepted events characterization scheme that allows different ways of events grouping and ranking. The ranking method itself consists of implementing the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) by means of a custom developed tool which allows events ranking based on ranking indexes pre-determined by expert judgment. Following the development phase, the tool was applied to analyze a complete set of 5 years of real nuclear power plants operating events (1453 events). The paper presents the potential of this ranking method to identify possible patterns throughout the event database and therefore to give additional insights into the events as well as to give quantitative input for the prioritization of further more detailed investigation of selected event groups
University Rankings: How Well Do They Measure Library Service Quality?
Jackson, Brian
2015-01-01
University rankings play an increasingly large role in shaping the goals of academic institutions and departments, while removing universities themselves from the evaluation process. This study compares the library-related results of two university ranking publications with scores on the LibQUAL+™ survey to identify if library service quality--as…
Jackknife Variance Estimator for Two Sample Linear Rank Statistics
1988-11-01
Accesion For - - ,NTIS GPA&I "TIC TAB Unann c, nc .. [d Keywords: strong consistency; linear rank test’ influence function . i , at L By S- )Distribut...reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD IGROUP SUB-GROUP Strong consistency; linear rank test; influence function . 19. ABSTRACT
Monte Carlo methods of PageRank computation
Litvak, Nelli
2004-01-01
We describe and analyze an on-line Monte Carlo method of PageRank computation. The PageRank is being estimated basing on results of a large number of short independent simulation runs initiated from each page that contains outgoing hyperlinks. The method does not require any storage of the hyperlink
Positioning Open Access Journals in a LIS Journal Ranking
Xia, Jingfeng
2012-01-01
This research uses the h-index to rank the quality of library and information science journals between 2004 and 2008. Selected open access (OA) journals are included in the ranking to assess current OA development in support of scholarly communication. It is found that OA journals have gained momentum supporting high-quality research and…
Feeding rank in the Derby eland: lessons for management ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
High-ranking individuals in good condition limited access to supplementary feeding to their lower-ranking herdmates. Effective supplementary feeding should therefore be provided in excess amounts to enable younger and weaker individuals in need to benefit from it, despite their lower positions in the hierarchy. Keywords: ...
Balancing exploration and exploitation in learning to rank online
Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.
2011-01-01
As retrieval systems become more complex, learning to rank approaches are being developed to automatically tune their parameters. Using online learning to rank approaches, retrieval systems can learn directly from implicit feedback, while they are running. In such an online setting, algorithms need
Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth
League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical...
Trachomatous Scar Ranking: A Novel Outcome for Trachoma Studies.
Baldwin, Angela; Ryner, Alexander M; Tadesse, Zerihun; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Callahan, Kelly; Fry, Dionna M; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Lietman, Thomas M; Keenan, Jeremy D
2017-06-01
AbstractWe evaluated a new trachoma scarring ranking system with potential use in clinical research. The upper right tarsal conjunctivas of 427 individuals from Ethiopian villages with hyperendemic trachoma were photographed. An expert grader first assigned a scar grade to each photograph using the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. Then, all photographs were ranked from least (rank = 1) to most scarring (rank = 427). Photographic grading found 79 (18.5%) conjunctivae without scarring (C0), 191 (44.7%) with minimal scarring (C1), 105 (24.6%) with moderate scarring (C2), and 52 (12.2%) with severe scarring (C3). The ranking method demonstrated good internal validity, exhibiting a monotonic increase in the median rank across the levels of the 1981 WHO grading system. Intrarater repeatability was better for the ranking method (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74-0.94). Exhibiting better internal and external validity, this ranking method may be useful for evaluating the difference in scarring between groups of individuals.
Optimal ranking regime analysis of TreeFlow dendrohydrological reconstructions
The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify 6-100 year time windows containing significant ranking sequences in 55 western U.S. streamflow reconstructions, and reconstructions of the level of the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay salinity during 1500-2007. The method’s ability t...
The Ranking Phenomenon and the Experience of Academics in Taiwan
Lo, William Yat Wai
2014-01-01
The primary aim of the paper is to examine how global university rankings have influenced the higher education sector in Taiwan from the perspective of academics. A qualitative case study method was used to examine how university ranking influenced the Taiwanese higher education at institutional and individual levels, respectively, thereby…
Ranking Regime and the Future of Vernacular Scholarship
Ishikawa, Mayumi
2014-01-01
World university rankings and their global popularity present a number of far-reaching impacts for vernacular scholarship. This article employs a multidimensional approach to analyze the ranking regime's threat to local scholarship and knowledge construction through a study of Japanese research universities. First, local conditions that have led…
The Distribution of the Sum of Signed Ranks
Albright, Brian
2012-01-01
We describe the calculation of the distribution of the sum of signed ranks and develop an exact recursive algorithm for the distribution as well as an approximation of the distribution using the normal. The results have applications to the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Ranking Exponential Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers by Median Value
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Rezvani
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we want represented a method for ranking of two exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. A median value is proposed for the ranking of exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. For the validation the results of the proposed approach are compared with different existing approaches.
Rank dependent expected utility models of tax evasion.
Erling Eide
2001-01-01
In this paper the rank-dependent expected utility theory is substituted for the expected utility theory in models of tax evasion. It is demonstrated that the comparative statics results of the expected utility, portfolio choice model of tax evasion carry over to the more general rank dependent expected utility model.
Prototyping a Distributed Information Retrieval System That Uses Statistical Ranking.
Harman, Donna; And Others
1991-01-01
Built using a distributed architecture, this prototype distributed information retrieval system uses statistical ranking techniques to provide better service to the end user. Distributed architecture was shown to be a feasible alternative to centralized or CD-ROM information retrieval, and user testing of the ranking methodology showed both…
Long-distance communication facilitates cooperation among wild spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta
Gersick, Andrew S.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Schneider, Jennifer M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Holekamp, Kay E.
2015-01-01
Calls that catalyse group defence, as in the mobbing of predators, appear to facilitate cooperation by recruiting receivers to act collectively. However, even when such signals reliably precede cooperative behaviour, the extent to which the calls function as recruitment signals is unclear. Calls might simply arouse listeners’ attention, setting off a cascade of independent responses to the threat. By contrast, they might convey information, for example, about signaller identity and the nature of a threat that affects receivers’ decisions to participate. We explored this distinction by investigating a possible long-distance recruitment call used by spotted hyaenas. These social carnivores live in fission–fusion clans and individuals disperse widely within their territories. Putative recruitment calls must therefore attract receivers that are distant from the inciting threat and free to opt out of risky collective aggression. Hyaenas compete with lions over food, and neighbouring clans sometimes engage in violent border clashes. These high-stakes contests are decided based on numerical asymmetries, so hyaenas can only protect critical resources if the dispersed clan can converge quickly at conflict sites. We recorded and analysed whoop bouts produced in multiple contexts and found that bouts produced in response to signs of lion–hyaena conflict had shorter inter-whoop intervals than spontaneous ‘display’ bouts. In subsequent field playback experiments, resting hyaenas were significantly more likely to move in response to ‘recruitment’ bouts with shortened intervals than to otherwise identical ‘display’ bouts. Whereas only stimulus type predicted movement, lower-ranked subjects responded most quickly, perhaps because their feeding opportunities depend on arriving early at any kill site. Results demonstrate that hyaenas possess a signal that can reliably recruit allies across long distances, despite moderating effects of individual circumstances on
How Critical Is Critical Thinking?
Shaw, Ryan D.
2014-01-01
Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…
UTV Expansion Pack: Special-Purpose Rank-Revealing Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fierro, Ricardo D.; Hansen, Per Christian
2005-01-01
This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank-r...... values of a sparse or structured matrix. These new algorithms have applications in signal processing, optimization and LSI information retrieval.......This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank......-revealing VSV decompositions, we expand the algorithms for the ULLV decomposition of a matrix pair to handle interference-type problems with a rank-deficient covariance matrix, and we provide a robust and reliable Lanczos algorithm which - despite its simplicity - is able to capture all the dominant singular...
Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.
Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A
2017-11-01
Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.
A model-based approach to operational event groups ranking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simic, Zdenko [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)
2014-04-15
The operational experience (OE) feedback provides improvements in all industrial activities. Identification of the most important and valuable groups of events within accumulated experience is important in order to focus on a detailed investigation of events. The paper describes the new ranking method and compares it with three others. Methods have been described and applied to OE events utilised by nuclear power plants in France and Germany for twenty years. The results show that different ranking methods only roughly agree on which of the event groups are the most important ones. In the new ranking method the analytical hierarchy process is applied in order to assure consistent and comprehensive weighting determination for ranking indexes. The proposed method allows a transparent and flexible event groups ranking and identification of the most important OE for further more detailed investigation in order to complete the feedback. (orig.)
Feasibility study of component risk ranking for plant maintenance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ushijima, Koji; Yonebayashi, Kenji; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki; Sakata, Kaoru; Kumano, Tetsuji
1999-01-01
Nuclear power is the base load electricity source in Japan, and reduction of operation and maintenance cost maintaining or improving plant safety is one of the major issues. Recently, Risk Informed Management (RIM) is focused as a solution. In this paper, the outline regarding feasibility study of component risk ranking for plant maintenance for a typical Japanese PWR plant is described. A feasibility study of component risk raking for plant maintenance optimization is performed on check valves and motor-operated valves. Risk ranking is performed in two steps using probabilistic analysis (quantitative method) for risk ranking of components, and deterministic examination (qualitative method) for component review. In this study, plant components are ranked from the viewpoint of plant safety / reliability, and the applicability for maintenance is assessed. As a result, distribution of maintenance resources using risk ranking is considered effective. (author)
CNN-based ranking for biomedical entity normalization.
Li, Haodi; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Hua; Wang, Baohua; Huang, Dong
2017-10-03
Most state-of-the-art biomedical entity normalization systems, such as rule-based systems, merely rely on morphological information of entity mentions, but rarely consider their semantic information. In this paper, we introduce a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem and benefits from semantic information of biomedical entities. The CNN-based ranking method first generates candidates using handcrafted rules, and then ranks the candidates according to their semantic information modeled by CNN as well as their morphological information. Experiments on two benchmark datasets for biomedical entity normalization show that our proposed CNN-based ranking method outperforms traditional rule-based method with state-of-the-art performance. We propose a CNN architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem. Comparison results show that semantic information is beneficial to biomedical entity normalization and can be well combined with morphological information in our CNN architecture for further improvement.
Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS) -
Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...
Distance labeling schemes for trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben
2016-01-01
We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...
Distance Education in Technological Age
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R .C. SHARMA
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor, New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode, joining hands with private initiatives and making a presence in foreign waters, are some of the hallmarks of the open and distance education (ODE institutions in developing countries. The compilation of twenty six essays on themes as applicable to ODE has resulted in the book, Distance Education in Technological Age. These essays follow a progressive style of narration, starting from describing conceptual framework of distance education, how the distance education was emerged on the global scene and in India, and then goes on to discuss emergence of online distance education and research aspects in ODE. The initial four chapters provide a detailed account of historical development and growth of distance education in India and State Open University and National Open University Model in India . Student support services are pivot to any distance education and much of its success depends on how well the support services are provided. These are discussed from national and international perspective. The issues of collaborative learning, learning on demand, life long learning, learning-unlearning and re-learning model and strategic alliances have also given due space by the authors. An assortment of technologies like communication technology, domestic technology, information technology, mass media and entertainment technology, media technology and educational technology give an idea of how these technologies are being adopted in the open universities. The study
Distance Education in Technological Age
R .C. SHARMA
2005-01-01
Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor), New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode...
Ranking multiple docking solutions based on the conservation of inter-residue contacts
Oliva, Romina M.
2013-06-17
Molecular docking is the method of choice for investigating the molecular basis of recognition in a large number of functional protein complexes. However, correctly scoring the obtained docking solutions (decoys) to rank native-like (NL) conformations in the top positions is still an open problem. Herein we present CONSRANK, a simple and effective tool to rank multiple docking solutions, which relies on the conservation of inter-residue contacts in the analyzed decoys ensemble. First it calculates a conservation rate for each inter-residue contact, then it ranks decoys according to their ability to match the more frequently observed contacts. We applied CONSRANK to 102 targets from three different benchmarks, RosettaDock, DOCKGROUND, and Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions (CAPRI). The method performs consistently well, both in terms of NL solutions ranked in the top positions and of values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Its ideal application is to solutions coming from different docking programs and procedures, as in the case of CAPRI targets. For all the analyzed CAPRI targets where a comparison is feasible, CONSRANK outperforms the CAPRI scorers. The fraction of NL solutions in the top ten positions in the RosettaDock, DOCKGROUND, and CAPRI benchmarks is enriched on average by a factor of 3.0, 1.9, and 9.9, respectively. Interestingly, CONSRANK is also able to specifically single out the high/medium quality (HMQ) solutions from the docking decoys ensemble: it ranks 46.2 and 70.8% of the total HMQ solutions available for the RosettaDock and CAPRI targets, respectively, within the top 20 positions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
VisualRank: applying PageRank to large-scale image search.
Jing, Yushi; Baluja, Shumeet
2008-11-01
Because of the relative ease in understanding and processing text, commercial image-search systems often rely on techniques that are largely indistinguishable from text-search. Recently, academic studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of employing image-based features to provide alternative or additional signals. However, it remains uncertain whether such techniques will generalize to a large number of popular web queries, and whether the potential improvement to search quality warrants the additional computational cost. In this work, we cast the image-ranking problem into the task of identifying "authority" nodes on an inferred visual similarity graph and propose VisualRank to analyze the visual link structures among images. The images found to be "authorities" are chosen as those that answer the image-queries well. To understand the performance of such an approach in a real system, we conducted a series of large-scale experiments based on the task of retrieving images for 2000 of the most popular products queries. Our experimental results show significant improvement, in terms of user satisfaction and relevancy, in comparison to the most recent Google Image Search results. Maintaining modest computational cost is vital to ensuring that this procedure can be used in practice; we describe the techniques required to make this system practical for large scale deployment in commercial search engines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pippin Barr
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.
The structure of completely positive matrices according to their CP-rank and CP-plus-rank
Dickinson, Peter James Clair; Bomze, Immanuel M.; Still, Georg J.
2015-01-01
We study the topological properties of the cp-rank operator $\\mathrm{cp}(A)$ and the related cp-plus-rank operator $\\mathrm{cp}^+(A)$ (which is introduced in this paper) in the set $\\mathcal{S}^n$ of symmetric $n\\times n$-matrices. For the set of completely positive matrices, $\\mathcal{CP}^n$, we
Menachemi, Nir; Hogan, Tory H; DelliFraine, Jami L
2015-01-01
Health administration (HA) faculty members publish in a variety of journals, including journals focused on management, economics, policy, and information technology. HA faculty members are evaluated on the basis of the quality and quantity of their journal publications. However, it is unclear how perceptions of these journals vary by subdiscipline, department leadership role, or faculty rank. It is also not clear how perceptions of journals may have changed over the past decade since the last evaluation of journal rankings in the field was published. The purpose of the current study is to examine how respondents rank journals in the field of HA, as well as the variation in perception by academic rank, department leadership status, and area of expertise. Data were drawn from a survey of HA faculty members at U.S. universities, which was completed in 2012. Different journal ranking patterns were noted for faculty members of different subdisciplines. The health management-oriented journals (Health Care Management Review and Journal of Healthcare Management) were ranked higher than in previous research, suggesting that journal ranking perceptions may have changed over the intervening decade. Few differences in perceptions were noted by academic rank, but we found that department chairs were more likely than others to select Health Affairs in their top three most prestigious journals (β = 0.768; p journal prestige varied between a department chair and untenured faculty in different disciplines, and this perceived difference could have implications for promotion and tenure decisions.