WorldWideScience

Sample records for rangifer tarandus calves

  1. Orphan caribou, Rangifer tarandus, calves: A re-evaluation of overwinter survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Low sample size and high variation within populations reduce power of statistical tests. These aspects of statistical power appear to have affected an analysis comparing overwinter survival rates of non-orphan and orphan Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calves by an earlier study for the Porcupine Caribou Herd. A re-evaluation of the data revealed that conclusions about a lack of significant difference in the overwinter survival rates between orphan and non-orphan calves were premature.

  2. Clinical outbreak of babesiosis caused by Babesia capreoli in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Sprong, Hein; Broens, Els M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Kik, Marja J L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/080432565

    2017-01-01

    From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult

  3. Clinical outbreak of babesiosis caused by Babesia capreoli in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Sprong, Hein; Broens, Els M; Kik, Marja J L

    From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult

  4. Effect of "owners" selection strategies on autumn weight in reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Weladji

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Many northern indigenous peoples, including the Sami are dependent on reindeer herding for their livelihood. In view of the socio-cultural and economical importance of reindeer herding, emphasis should be put on appropriate herd structure and selection strategies that maximise marketable products, such as meat (the primary marketable product nowadays. Empirical observations reveal that within a herd, some owners seem to have better productivity in term of carcass autumn weight of calves, than others. We hypothesized that there may be an "owner" effect in reindeer herding, i.e. some owners may be applying particular selection strategies that might be beneficial. We investigated this in three reindeer grazing districts in South Norway, using mixed linear models. We found that autumn carcass weight of calves varied significantly with year and "owner" within herd in all three districts. Consistently some particular owners within a herd had higher average autumn carcass weight of their calves than others. We attributed this difference to "individual selection strategies", meaning that some owners may follow more accurately the sex, age and weight-based recommended strategy and in addition, they may make superior choices when selecting animals for slaughtering. We conclude that individual owners have the capability, through appropriate selection decisions to improve the average annual autumn weight of their reindeer calves. This might be an important aspect of "Traditional Ecological Knowledge", in addition to the recommended modern sex, age and weight-based selection criteria.

  5. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Chernyavskii

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  6. Digital Necrobacillosis in Norwegian Wild Tundra Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handeland, K.; Boye, Mette; Bergsjø, B.

    2010-01-01

    Outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are described. The outbreaks occurred in late summer and autumn 2007 and 2008, subsequent to periods with an unusually high number of days with precipitation and high air temperature. Lesions were....... necrophorum was cultured from the foot lesions of six animals. Five of these isolates were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The sequences were identical and differed from all other strains listed in GenBank. These results are consistent with circulation of a reindeer-adapted pathogenic strain of F....... necrophorum in the wild reindeer population, causing outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis following warm and humid summers....

  7. Salivary glands in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to compare the size of salivaty glands in Svalbard reindeer {Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus in relation to feeding strategy, season and reproductive status. The mean body mass (BM, standard deviation j in adult non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer was 72.0, s = 4.2, kg (n = 8 in September and 46.7, s = 7.1, kg (« = 4 in April. The mean BM of adult non-lactating Norwegian reindeer was 67.5, s = 7.7, kg (» = 8 in September and 59.2, s = 9.6, kg (n = 9 in March. In non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer the mean combined mass of parotid glands was 82.7, s = 4.5, g in September and 58.8, s = 8.7, g in April (P < 0.05. In the Norwegian reindeer the mean combined mass of the parotid glands was 95.2, s = 14.4, g in Septembet and 68.1, s = 9.5, g in Match (P < 0.05. We wete not able to find any sub-species differences in the size of the salivaty glands which could be related to phenotypic difference in feeding strategy. Both sub-species had parotid glands sizes similar to that of intermediate ruminant types, ranging from 0.11-0.14% of BM. The larger absolute size of salivaty glands in summer compared to winter reflects the importance of high rates of production of saliva when the dry matter intake and microbial fermentation is high.

  8. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eLarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linneus 1758 includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies and North America (caribou subspecies. Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990’s. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2 closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the

  9. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linnaeus, 1758) includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies) and North America (caribou subspecies). Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however, the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however, a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990's. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2) closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the susceptibility of reindeer

  10. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linnaeus, 1758) includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies) and North America (caribou subspecies). Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however, the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however, a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990’s. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2) closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the susceptibility of

  11. Clinical outbreak of babesiosis caused by Babesia capreoli in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Sprong, Hein; Broens, Els M; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-08-01

    From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult females and a one-year-old male were Babesia-positive. Molecular characterization of the 18S rDNA of the parasite showed complete identity with known B. capreoli sequences. Ixodes ricinus has been demonstrated to be a competent vector for B. capreoli from infected roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), the natural host of B. capreoli. The B. capreoli infection in these reindeer may have been transmitted by infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus) originating from roe deer living in the forest and meadows surrounding the enclosure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    climate may cause an altitudinal upward shift in the production of mat-forming lichens in alpine, sub-arctic regions. This is due to an increased potential for lichen growth at high altitudes, combined with increased competition from taller-growing vascular plants at lower altitudes, where the biomass of Betula nana in particular will increase. Matforming lichens dominant on dry, windblown ridges are easily overgrazed at high reindeer densities. This has longterm effects due to lichens’ slow regeneration rate, but may also reduce competition from vascular plants in a long time perspective. Fires may act in a similar way in some forested areas. Accessibility of winter forage depends on plant biomass, snow depth and hardness; ice crusts or exceptionally deep snow may result in starvation and increased animal mortality. Calf recruitment appears to be low and/or highly variable where winter ranges are overgrazed and hard or deep snow is common. Population decline in several Rangifer tarandus spp. has been associated with snow-rich winters. Effects tend to be delayed and cumulative, particularly on calves. This is mainly ascribed to feeding conditions for young animals which later affect age at maturation. Global warming may increase the frequency of deep or hard snow on reindeer ranges in Norway, due to increased precipitation and more frequent mild periods in winter. We hypothesise that potential benefits from increased plant productivity due to global warming will be counteracted by shifts in the distribution of preferred lichen forage, reduction of the areas of suitable winter ranges, and generally reduced forage accessibility in winter.

  13. Genetic variation in caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M A; Patton, J C; Balmysheva, N; MacNeil, M D

    2003-02-01

    Genetic variation at seven microsatellite DNA loci was quantified in 19 herds of wild caribou and domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) from North America, Scandinavia and Russia. There is an average of 2.0-6.6 alleles per locus and observed individual heterozygosity of 0.33-0.50 in most herds. A herd on Svalbard Island, Scandinavia, is an exception, with relatively few alleles and low heterozygosity. The Central Arctic, Western Arctic and Porcupine River caribou herds in Alaska have similar allele frequencies and comprise one breeding population. Domestic reindeer in Alaska originated from transplants from Siberia, Russia, more than 100 years ago. Reindeer in Alaska and Siberia have different allele frequencies at several loci, but a relatively low level of genetic differentiation. Wild caribou and domestic reindeer in Alaska have significantly different allele frequencies at the seven loci, indicating that gene flow between reindeer and caribou in Alaska has been limited.

  14. Calf mortality of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in the Finnish reindeer-herding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} During 1999-2008 calf mortality was studied in six reindeer-herding cooperatives in Northern Finland, where 3942 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were equipped with radio mortality collars. The calves were weighed and earmarked mostly at 2-5 days of age, or at 2-8 weeks of age. Altogether 460 dead radio-collared calves were found from calving in May until winter round-ups in October-January. In northern mountain herding cooperatives, the average mortality of calves varied between 7-12%. On average, 39-54% of calves found dead were attributed to predation. Golden eagles killed 0-3.5% of calves in different years and areas in Ivalo and Käsivarsi cooperatives. Golden eagles were responsible for 33-43% of the cases and 84-93% of all identified predation. Most calves killed by golden eagles were found in July-August and in open areas. Calves killed by golden eagles were significantly (P<0.01 lighter than those not predated. No predation occurred in the Poikajärvi cooperative, but the annual mortality of calves varied between 0-35% in cooperatives near the Russian border. In Oivanki cooperative brown bears killed on average 2% of the radio-collared calves. Most predation (87% occurred at the end of May and in early June. In the Kallioluoma cooperative, predator-killed calves found

  15. Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus response towards human activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the question of how human activities and infrastructure influence reindeer/caribou’s (Rangifer tarandus behaviour and habitat use and review studies based on current methodologies. Anthropogenic activities have a direct affect on Rangifer behaviour through the senses hearing, sight and smell, and all of these are important tools for behavioural risk assessment. Short term indirect responses, such as habituation, sensitisation, avoidance, and displacement, develop through neutral, positive or negative associations towards stimulus in terms of Rangifer’s ability to experience, learn, and remember. Long term behavioural responses develop through interaction with predators and, for reindeer, also domestication. A survey of the literature dealing with behavioural studies reveals that although Rangifer in most cases retreat from anthropogenic activities, comfort distances (i.e. distances beyond which animal behaviour or activity are not influenced are relatively short. In most cases, energetic implications appear moderate and small compared to other natural, biotic influences such as disturbance (and death caused by insect and/or predator harassment. Unless obstructing access, physical constructions of various kinds apparently have limited effects on Rangifer behaviour or habitat use. On the other hand, constructions that do obstruct or limit access and recreational or other motorized and non-motorized activities appear to have stronger impacts on avoidance and redistribution of Rangifer. Behavioural effects that might decrease survival and reproduction include retreat from favourable habitat near disturbance sources and reduction of time spent feeding with resulting energy depletion over time. Rangifer habitat use, habitat avoidance, and feeding preferences are governed by a complexity of natural interacting factors. Domestication, habituation and sensitisation are essential in shaping Rangifer’s adaptability, and should be included

  16. Allosuckling in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus): milk-theft, mismothering or kin selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Sacha C; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; de Rioja, Covadonga M; Ehmann, Rosina K; Nieminen, Mauri

    2014-09-01

    Allosuckling, the suckling of offspring from females other than their own mother, has been reported in a number of mammalian species, including reindeer. The causes and function of this behaviour are still being investigated. We monitored 25 doe-calf pairs of semi-domestic reindeer Rangifer tarandus over 10 weeks to test three allosuckling/allonursing hypotheses: (1) milk theft, calves opportunistically allosuckle; (2) mismothering, misdirected maternal care; and (3) kin-selected allonursing. A calf soliciting an allosuckling bout was categorized as non-filial (NF), and a calf soliciting a suckling bout from its mother was categorized as filial (F). We recorded 9757 solicitations, of which 5176 were successful F bouts and 1389 were successful NF bouts. The rejection rates were greater for NF than F calves. The proportions of antiparallel positions adopted were greater for F than NF calves. The odds of an allobout were lower for calves arriving 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th or 6th than for those arriving 2nd, but the odds did not vary with position adopted and relatedness. Our results provided support to the milk-theft hypothesis, whereas limited support for the mismothering hypothesis was found. Our results did not support the hypothesized kin selection function of allosuckling in reindeer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon B Mitchell

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, remains prevalent in North American elk, white-tailed deer and mule deer. A natural case of CWD in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus has not been reported despite potential habitat overlap with CWD-infected deer or elk herds. This study investigates the experimental transmission of CWD from elk or white-tailed deer to reindeer by the oral route of inoculation. Ante-mortem testing of the three reindeer exposed to CWD from white-tailed deer identified the accumulation of pathological PrP (PrP(CWD in the recto-anal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT of two reindeer at 13.4 months post-inoculation. Terminal CWD occurred in the two RAMALT-positive reindeer at 18.5 and 20 months post-inoculation while one other reindeer in the white-tailed deer CWD inoculum group and none of the 3 reindeer exposed to elk CWD developed disease. Tissue distribution analysis of PrP(CWD in CWD-affected reindeer revealed widespread deposition in central and peripheral nervous systems, lymphoreticular tissues, the gastrointestinal tract, neuroendocrine tissues and cardiac muscle. Analysis of prion protein gene (PRNP sequences in the 6 reindeer identified polymorphisms at residues 2 (V/M, 129 (G/S, 138 (S/N and 169 (V/M. These findings demonstrate that (i a sub-population of reindeer are susceptible to CWD by oral inoculation implicating the potential for transmission to other Rangifer species, and (ii certain reindeer PRNP polymorphisms may be protective against CWD infection.

  18. Evidence of parapox-, alphaherpes- and pestivirus infections in carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus from Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tryland

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available During March to May 2000, 48 carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus were collected on winter pastures and calving grounds from two herds in western Finnmark and two herds in eastern Finnmark, northern Norway. The animals were autopsied and blood and tissue samples were collected for serology (alphaherpes- and pestivirus; virus neutralization test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; parapoxvirus; B2L gene investigations. Autopsy revealed that 39 of 48 animals (81% had died of emaciation. Parapoxvirus-specific DNA was detected in samples from 6 of 48 animals (12.5%; liver, parotid salivary gland and/or pulmonary lymph nodes. A DNA sequence of 376 base pairs from a PCR amplicon obtained from a liver sample from one animal showed 98-99% identity with orf virus strain Orf-11 and reindeer parapoxvirus isolates from Norway and Finland (1992 and 1994, 92-93% similarity with pseudocowpoxvirus and 87% similarity with bovine papular stomatitis virus. Alphaherpes- and pestivirus antibodies were detected in 10% and 33% of the animals, respectively. These results indicates that parapoxvirus, presumably orf-virus, is present among reindeer also in Finnmark, although contagious ecthyma has never been reported in reindeer in this important reindeer herding area. Furthermore, they show that herpes- and pestiviruses are still endemic in reindeer herds in Finnmark. The nature of these viruses and their impact on reindeer health and reproduction and reindeer herding economy should be further addressed, as well as the possibility that these viruses may be transferred between reindeer and domestic animals in this region.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: I løpet av perioden mars-mai 2000 ble 48 reinsdyrkadavre (Rangifer tarandus tarandus samlet inn fra vinterbeiter og kalvingsområder fra to flokker i Vest-Finnmark og to i Øst-Finnmark, Norge. Dyrene ble obdusert, og blod og vevsprøver ble samlet for påvisning av antistoffer mot

  19. Biochemical and hematologic reference values for free-ranging, chemically immobilized wild norwegian reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) during early winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Evans, Alina L; Os, Øystein; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemistry values were evaluated in free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) as part of a reintroduction program in southwestern Norway in November 1995 and 1996. Animals were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine by dart from a helicopter. Blood was drawn for serum chemistry from 31 adults (nine males and 22 females) and for hematology from 29 adults (eight males and 21 females). Significant differences (Ppaper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry reference ranges for free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer during early winter.

  20. Fibre composition and enzyme activities in six muscles of the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K-H. Kiessling

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Six skeletal muscles have been studied as regards fibre properties and enzyme activities. The muscles are cranial part of M. gluteobiceps, M. semitendinosus, M. semimembranosus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. brachiocephalicus and M. sternocephalicus. Two histochemical methods were used for fibre identification, one based on myosin ATPase activities after preincubation at pH 4.3 and 4.6 and the other on oxidative capacity measured as NADH dehydrogenase activity. The two methods gave slightly differing results but allowed the general conclusion that of the three fibre types (I, II A and II B the type II B fibres, which are fast-twitch, glycolytic, make up some 40 - 60 % (mean 50 % of the muscles. Type I fibres, which are slow-twitch, oxidative, account for 30% of the total muscle volume in the two neck muscles but for only 20% or less in the rest. The third type, II A, which is fast-twitch, oxidative, glycolytic, accounts for only 20% of the volume in the neck muscles but as much as 40% in M. longissimus dorsi. Oxidative capacity is high throughout. This is valid also to the capacity to oxidize fatty acids, though reaching only half the activity previously found in the Svalbard reindeer (Kiessling and Kiessling, 1983. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is comparatively low in all muscles. The high respiratory chain activity and fatty acid oxidation and the low lactate dehydrogenase activities do not fit at all well with the high content of type II B fibres in the muscles. This high II B content is also unexpected when considering the activity pattern of the reindeer. An altogether different role for the type II B fibres, besides the traditional one, is therefore discussed.Fibersammansåttning och enzymaktiviteter i sex muskler från svensk tamren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Sex skelettmuskler har undersokts med avseende på fiberegenskaper och enzymaktiviteter. De sex musklerna år kranial del av M. gluteobiceps. M

  1. Ultrastructure of the cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from skeletal muscle of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Gjerde

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Mature muscle cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from Rangifer tarandus were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The long and slender cysts were located within skeletal muscle cells, and were bounded by a unit membrane, the cyst membrane. The cysts were provided with closely spaced flexible, hairlike surface processes, measuring up to 12.6 |im in length and 0.3 to 0.6 \\lm in diameter. The projections had a smooth surface, whereas the cyst membrane formed numerous hexagonally packed vesicular invaginations between the bases of the projections. The cyst membrane was reinforced by an underlying thin layer of electron-dense material, except at the points where it was invaginated. Cyst ground substance formed a thin layer at the periphery of the cysts, filled the core of the projections, and formed thin septa that divided the interior of the cysts into numerous compartments. Most compartments contained a large number of tightly packed cystozoites, whereas a few metrocytes were forund in each of a few compartments at the periphery of the cysts. Some of the cystozoites multiplied by endodyogeny. The metrocytes displayed a vacuolation of their cytoplasm. The cysts of S. rangi were similar in surface morphology to the sarcocysts of certain other Sarcocystis species reported from other intermediate hosts.Ultrastrukturen til cyster av Sarcocystis rangi frå skjelettmuskulaturen hos rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Samandrag: Muskelcyster av S. rangi frå rein vart undersøkt ved transmisjonselektronmikroskopi. Dei lange cystene låg intracellulært i skjelettmuskelceller, og var avgrensa av ein elementærmembran, cystemembranen. Cystene var utstyrt med talrike hårliknande overflateprosessar, som strekte seg langsetter cysteoverflata. Prcsessane var opptil 12.6 Hm lange, og målte 0.3 til 0.6 \\lm i diameter. Prosessane hadde ei glatt overflate, medan cystemembranen danna talrike regelmessige ordna, små invaginasjonar innimellom basis av prosessane

  2. Effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on serum glucose and cortisol levels in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M. Arnemo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Serum concentrations of glucose and Cortisol were measured in five adult captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus at 24 h and 10 min before, and at 0.5, 1,2,4, 8, 12 and 24 h after, treatment with 60 p.g/kg of medetomidine i.v. followed by 300 jig/kg of atipamezole i.v. 60 min later. The experiments were performed in January and repeated in July-August. The animals were used as their own controls and treated with saline in July-August. The wash-out period between experiments in summer was 2 weeks or more. No obvious seasonal differences were observed. Mederomidine induced a 2.5-fold increase in glucose (mean ± standard error of the mean being 15.4 ± 0.6 mmol/1 at 1 h and a 3.5-fold increase Cortisol (349 ± 28 nmol/1 at 0.5 h. Serum glucose reached control levels within 12 h, and Cortisol declined to baseline levels within 4 h after injection og medetomidine. The use of blood concentrations of glucose and Cortisol to assess nutritonal status, body condition and stress may be significantly biased in animals chemically immobilized with medetomidine or other alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists.

  3. Structure and annual increase in a population of West Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1982-05-01

    Calving adds as much as 40% new individuals to the herd, but following their two first months of life calf numbers were reduced to only 17 - 18% of the population (Fig. 6. This drastic die-off is mainly caused by an epidemical Escherischia coli arthritis. The mean calf mortality from September through May is only about 2 - 3% (Fig. 7, and consequently the annual recruitment averages 15%. Considering the average mortality rates of the other age classes in the population (approx. 7% the herd increment at the start of the hunting season (August amounts to only 10%. Mortality in the first year of life (60% is comparable to that of a broad spectrum of other wild Rangifer populations in northern regions (Fig. 7. However, in the Sisimiut herd reduction of calf numbers almost exclusively takes place during the first three months after birth, while in the other Rangifer populations calf mortality is more evenly distributed throughout the whole year. Struktur og årlig tilvækst i en bestand af vestgønlandsk vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Som et led i en større økologisk undersøgelse af den vestgrønlandske vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus er bestanden i Sisimiut-området (ca. 67 gr N blevet studeret med hensyn til køns- og aldersstruktur, flokstørrelse, kalv-simle forhold og kalvetilvækst. Sisimiut-bestanden tæller mellem 2500 og 3000 dyr, og består det meste af året hovedsagelig af ganske små flokke på op til 5 dyr. Koncentrationer på flere hundrede dyr ses kun i sommertiden i forbindelse med insektforstyrrelser. Der er en tydelig årsrytme i gennemsnitsstørrelsen af flokkene, således at der sker en jævn stigning fra midvinterens 1,4 dyr pr. flok til et højdepunkt i efter-kælvningstiden med knap 25 dyr pr. flok. Manglen på ulve samt de dårlige, nedslidte føderessourcer i området gør, at dyrene på alle årstider har en meget lille flokstørrelse sammenlignet med andre landes vildrenbestande. Omkring 50% af

  4. Growth and relationship of live weight to body measurements in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of live weight from measurements of body dimensions is useful in many management activities with domestic animals. In present study live weight was measured from 2932 female and 1037 male semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. during different seasons in 1969-85. The age of reindeer varied between 1 day and 14 yrs. Back length (along back from second spinous process to base of tail and chest girth (just behind front legs were taken also from 1490 female and 510 male reindeer. The growth of reindeer from birth to adulthood was cumulative consisting of a rapid weight accretion during summers followed by a weight loss or stasis during winters. The mathematical analyses of the growth based on exponential solutions gave average values for growth of female and male reindeer. Body weight of females increased until the age of 4.5 yrs and that of males until the age of 5.5 yrs. During winter and spring body weight of hinds decreased 10 to 15 kg and that of stags 30 to 50 kg in different age groups. Significant linear regressions were found between live weight and back length (r = 0.809 and 0.892, live weight and chest girth (r = 0.860 and 0.872 and live weight and combined body measure (back length + chest girth (r = 0.877 and 0.941 and live weight and body volume (r = 0.905 and 0.954, respectively in female and male reindeer. Exponential regressions gave, however, the best estimations of live weight with combined body measure.

  5. Snow conditions and usability value of pastureland for semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in northern boreal forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kumpula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied variation in snow conditions and selection of pasture area according to altitude by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus during 1999 - 2002 in a pine forest area utilised by forest industry in the Ivalo reindeer herding district, northern Finland. Snow conditions were measured over the course of three winters along equilateral triangles (side 3.5 km for three times per winter. The altitudinal selection of pasture area by reindeer was studied using GPS tracking data (10 977 locations from 29 female reindeer. We observed that interannual weather variation mostly affected the depth, density and hardness of snow in the study area. At the forest landscape level, snow depth and density increased with altitude. Thinnest and deepest snow cover occurred on western and northern slopes, respectively. In contrast, forest harvesting did not seem to affect snow conditions. From spring to autumn, reindeer mainly used higher altitudes in pastures. In early and mid-winter, when snow conditions were easy or moderate reindeer still preferred higher altitudes, but in late winter when snow conditions and food accession were at their most difficult, they preferred lower altitudes. We conclude that especially the use of high elevation forestland pastures may become more difficult for reindeer if the global climatic change causes higher winter precipitation to the northern boreal forest area. In general, the low-elevation forestland areas have primary winter grazing value for reindeer but these areas are also intensively used by forest industry.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Lumiolosuhteet ja laidunten käyttöarvo poronhoidossa pohjoisella havumetsäaluella Lumiolosuhteiden vaihtelua ja porojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus laidunalueen valintaa maaston korkeuden perusteella tutkittiin vuosina 1999–2002 metsätalouden hyödyntämällä mäntymetsäalueella Ivalon paliskunnassa, Pohjois-Suomessa. Lumiolosuhteet mitattiin kolme kertaa

  6. Pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus infections in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautto, Arja H; Alenius, Stefan; Mossing, Torgny; Becher, Paul; Belák, Sándor; Larska, Magdalena

    2012-04-23

    Herding semi-domesticated reindeer has economic and social value for Sami people in the northern territories of Fennoscandia. However, with the intensification of reindeer husbandry, interspecies transmission of pathogens between reindeer and domestic animals may become a problem, especially for countries such as Sweden, Norway, and Finland where pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus have been eradicated in domestic ruminants. This study, which included 1158 Swedish reindeer, showed relatively high prevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) (32%) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) (53%). Adult animals were more often seropositive for BVDV and BoHV-1 (50% and 78%, respectively) than were calves (18 and 11%, respectively). While the seroprevalence of alphaherpesvirus was similar in different herding districts, pestivirus seropositivity was highest in the South and diminished towards the North of the Swedish reindeer herding area. High correlation of the seropositivity against both pathogens at both individual and herd levels may indicate possible mutual synergetic effects and may be explained by the immunosuppressive nature of the viruses. While alphaherpesvirus seroprevalence was probably related to putative cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2), the pestivirus infecting reindeer remains undefined. The virus neutralisation test of reindeer sera using different pestivirus strains, revealed higher titres against Border disease virus strains like 137/4 (BDV-1) and Reindeer-1 (BDV-2) than against BVDV-1. However, the virus was not identified by real time RT-PCR in any of the samples (n=276) from seronegative reindeers. The study showed that pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus infections are endemic in the Swedish reindeer population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flexible mating tactics and associated reproductive effort during the rutting season in male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eliana PINTUS; Stefania UCCHEDDU; Knut H RED; Javier Prez GONZALZ; Juan CARRANZA; Mauri NIEMINEN; ystein HOLAND

    2015-01-01

    Polygynous males can change their mating tactics across their lifetime, but information is scarce on the flexibility of this trait within a given season and the relative costs and benefits of using different tactics. Here, we monitored individually marked male reindeerRangifer tarandus and classified their mating tactics as harem-defense, sneaking, or mixed. The costs of the male reproductive effort were assessed using both direct (i.e. percentage of body mass lost) and indirect measures (i.e. activity patterns such as feeding, standing, and walking), while mating group size and reproductive success were recorded as mating ef-fort benefits. Our results show that reindeer males may switch between the harem-defense and sneaking tactics throughout the same breeding season, providing further support to the notion that reproductive tactics are flexible in ungulates. The costs and benefits of male mating effort vary according to the mating tactic, reaching the highest values in harem-holders and the lowest values in sneaking males. Moreover, males who switched between the sneaking tactic and the harem-defence tactic tended to achieve higher mating success than males who consistently used the least costly tactic. Indeed, all harem-holders successfully sired offspring, whereas only two out of three mixed-tactic males sired one calf, and sneaking males did not sire any calves. In conclusion, our results show that reindeer males can modulate their mating efforts during the same breeding season by switching between the most costly harem-defense tactic and the least costly sneaking tactic, suggesting individual solutions to the balance between reproductive effort and mating opportunities [Current Zoology 61 (5): 802–810, 2015].

  8. Forage chemistry and the digestive system in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in northern Norway and on South Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chemical and botanical analyses of the reticulo-rumen content (RR and the fill of the digestive system were carried out in free-living Norwegian reindeer {Rangifer t. tarandus on South Georgia (SG in summer (mean body mass (BM = 74 kg, n - 10, and in northern Norway in late summer (NS (mean BM = 77 kg, n = 6 and winter (NW (mean BM = 60 kg, n = 11. The RR of SG reindeer contained mainly grasses, while grasses dominated in NS reindeer and woody plants and lichens in NW reindeer. Mean ruminal plant cell-wall contents (CWC comprised 37% of organic dry matter (OM in SG reindeer and 50 and 69% in NS and NW reindeer, respectively. The high CWC in NW reindeer was due to high intake of lichens containing as much as 45% hemi-cellulose. Mean ruminal content of lignin was as low as 5% of OM in SG reindeer, which was different (P < 0.05 from NS (14% and NW reindeer (15%, respectively. The mean total gastro-inresrinal tract (GIT (fill and tissue weight was 27% of BM in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (18% of BM and NW reindeer (22% of BM, respectively. Wet weight RR content was 14.5% of BM in SG reindeer, not different from NS (12.2% of BM and NW reindeer (14.2% of BM. The ratio between the wet weight content of the distal fermentation chamber (DFC and the RR wet weight content was 1:10 in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (1:14 and NW reindeer (1:14. We did not find any significant differences between the intestinal lengths of the groups investigated. It was concluded that the degree of fill of the different parts of GIT in reindeet seems to be related to the lignin content of plants eaten and not only of seasonal changes in appetite and availability of plants. Our data stress the fact that reindeer are highly adaptable to a wide range of different dietary plants, even in the southern hemisphere.

  9. Lymphatic dwelling filarioid nematodes in reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus, (cervidae) in Finland, identified as Rumenfilaria andersoni Lankester & Snider, 1982 (nematoda: Onchocercidae: Splendidofilariinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, S; Saari, S; Nikander, S; Oksanen, A; Bain, O

    2010-03-01

    A filarioid nematode inhabiting the lymphatic vessels of the subserosal rumen and mesenteries associated with a high prevalence of its microfilariae in peripheral blood was observed in Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in 2004 and 2006. Adult specimens were collected by dissecting lymphatic vessels from slaughtered animals, where some of the nematodes were seen through the wall of the dilated vessels as thin white winding threads obscuring the vessel. The morphology of adult worms and microfilaria is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. These filariae belong to the subfamily Splendidofilariinae of the Onchocercidae and resemble Rumenfilaria andersoni, recovered from different host and localization, the ruminal veins of Alces alces in Canada. Comparison of paratypes of this species revealed only minor differences which were not sufficient to separate the filarioid parasitic in R. tarandus in Finland and we identify the nematode as R. andersoni. However, the findings suggest two different parasite populations. The finalizing of this taxonomic question in the future requires an integrated approach, in which the DNA-based and morphological identifications are consistent.

  10. Lymphatic dwelling filarioid nematodes in reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus, (Cervidae in Finland, identified as Rumenfilaria andersoni Lankester & Snider, 1982 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Splendidofilariinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laaksonen S.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A filarioid nematode inhabiting the lymphatic vessels of the subserosal rumen and mesenteries associated with a high prevalence of its microfilariae in peripheral blood was observed in Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in 2004 and 2006. Adult specimens were collected by dissecting lymphatic vessels from slaughtered animals, where some of the nematodes were seen through the wall of the dilated vessels as thin white winding threads obscuring the vessel. The morphology of adult worms and microfilaria is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. These filariae belong to the subfamily Splendidofilariinae of the Onchocercidae and resemble Rumenfilaria andersoni, recovered from different host and localization, the ruminal veins of Alces alces in Canada. Comparison of paratypes of this species revealed only minor differences which were not sufficient to separate the filarioid parasitic in R. tarandus in Finland and we identify the nematode as R. andersoni. However, the findings suggest two different parasite populations. The finalizing of this taxonomic question in the future requires an integrated approach, in which the DNAbased and morphological identifications are consistent.

  11. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus feeding on lichens and mushrooms: traditional ecological knowledge among reindeer-herding Sami in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Inga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed in four reindeer-herding districts (Sami villages in northern Sweden. Reindeer herding Sami, born in 1950 or earlier, were interviewed about reindeer foraging behaviour on lichens and mushrooms, especially relating to non-summer grazing habits, and about characteristics of a good winter feeding ground. The informants claimed that lichens are preferably grazed in the wintertime, but that they also may be eaten in the summertime when the weather is cold and humid. Mushrooms were chosen in the autumn months August and September, but according to some informants mushrooms may also be eaten during late autumn (from Oct. when frozen and under the snow. The reindeer herders had different names for lichens, which in general terms describe their appearance and habitat. For mushrooms they only used one Sami name. Ground lichens preferred by reindeer are Cladonia species, while the nitrogen-fixing lichen species such as Nephroma arcticum and Stereocaulon pascale were said not to be preferred by the reindeer. Snow conditions are very important, and the less snow (and the softer it is, the better. Habitats where reindeer herders know from experience that snow conditions tend to be problematic, e.g. in moist and open areas with small trees, are used early in the winter (Oct.–Jan., before too much snow has accumulated. A good winter grazing area should have lichens. It is preferably a dry pine (Pinus sylvestris forest heath with large, old and wide-crowned trees to shelter the ground from snow and thereby ease the cratering by reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Renens (Rangifer tarandus tarandus bete av lavar och svampar: Traditionell ekologisk kunskap bland renskötande samer i norra Sverige Studien genomfördes i fyra renskötseldistrikt (samebyar i norra Sverige. Totalt 22 renskötande samer, födda 1950 eller tidigare, blev intervjuade om renens betande av lavar och svampar, renens vinterbete och om vad som karakt

  12. Mineral constraints on arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus): a spatial and phenological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, K. W.; Barboza, P.S.; Gustine, David D.; Joly, Kyle; Shively, R. D.

    2018-01-01

    Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus) have the longest terrestrial migration of any ungulate but little is known about the spatial and seasonal variation of minerals in summer forages and the potential impacts of mineral nutrition on the foraging behavior and nutritional condition of arctic caribou. We investigated the phenology, availability, and mechanistic relationships of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in three species of woody browse, three species of graminoids, and one forb preferred by caribou over two transects bisecting the ranges of the Central Arctic (CAH) and Western Arctic (WAH) caribou herds in Alaska. Transects traversed three ecoregions (Coastal Plain, Arctic Foothills and Brooks Range) along known migration paths in the summer ranges of both herds. Concentrations of mineral in forages were compared to estimated dietary requirements of lactating female caribou. Spatial distribution of the abundance of minerals in caribou forage was associated with interactions of soil pH and mineral content, while temporal variation was related to plant maturity, and thus nitrogen and fiber content of forages. Concentrations of sodium were below caribou requirements in all forage species for most of the summer and adequate only on the Coastal Plain during the second half of summer. Phosphorus declined in plants from emergence to senescence and was below requirements in all forages by mid‐summer, while concentrations of copper declined to marginal concentrations at plant senescence. Interactions of sodium with potassium, calcium with phosphorus, and copper with zinc in forages likely exacerbate the constraints of low concentrations sodium, phosphorus, and copper. Forages on the WAH contained significantly more phosphorus and copper than forages collected on the CAH transect. We suspect that migrations of caribou to the Arctic Coastal Plain may allow parturient females to replenish sodium stores depleted by

  13. Status of northern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy M. Hegel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are an important ecological, cultural and economic resource in Yukon, Canada. Three caribou ecotypes occur within Yukon: Grant’s (R. t. granti, northern mountain (R. t. caribou, and boreal (R. t. caribou. Northern mountain caribou are classified as a species of special concern under Canada’s Species at Risk Act, and a national management plan for northern mountain caribou was recently completed. Twenty-six northern mountain caribou herds occur at least partially within Yukon, representing approximately 30,000 – 35,000 animals. Active monitoring of Yukon’s northern mountain caribou began in earnest in the early 1980s. To date, over 200 fall composition surveys have been carried out, over 1000 animals have been fitted with radio-collars, and nearly 40 formal population estimates have been completed. Disease and contaminant monitoring of these caribou has indicated relatively low disease prevalence and contaminant loading. Northern mountain caribou are harvested in Yukon, with an average of 230 caribou harvested per year by licensed hunters (1995 – 2012 and an unknown number by First Nation hunters. Future challenges related to caribou management and conservation in Yukon include increasing levels of industrial development primarily through mineral exploration and development, ensuring harvest of these herds is conducted sustainably given the absence of total harvest information, inter-jurisdictional management of shared herds, existing uncertainty surrounding herd distribution and delineation, and dealing with vehicle-related mortality of caribou for certain herds. Overall, the population status (i.e., trend of eight herds is known, with two increasing, two decreasing, and four stable.

  14. Comparative response of Rangifer tarandus and other northern ungulates to climatic variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Weladji

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the factors influencing life history traits and population dynamics, attention is increasingly being given to the importance of environmental stochasticity. In this paper, we review and discuss aspects of current knowledge concerning the effect of climatic variation (local and global on population parameters of northern ungu¬lates, with special emphasis on reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We also restrict ourselves to indirect effects of climate through both forage availability and quality, and insect activity. Various authors have used different weather variables; with sometime opposite trends in resulting life history traits of ungulates, and few studies show consistent effects to the same climatic variables. There is thus little consensus about which weather variables play the most sig¬nificant role influencing ungulate population parameters. This may be because the effects of weather on ungulate pop¬ulation dynamics and life history traits are scale dependent and it is difficult to isolate climatic effects from density dependent factors. This confirms the complexity of the relationship between environment and ecosystem. We point out limits of comparability between systems and the difficulty of generalizing about the effect of climate change broadly across northern systems, across species and even within species. Furthermore, insect harassment appears to be a key climate-related factor for the ecology of reindeer/caribou that has been overlooked in the literature of climatic effects on large herbivores. In light of this, there is a need for further studies of long time series in assessing effects of climate variability on reindeer/caribou.

  15. Occurrence of Babesia species in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Lisa; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Karnath, Carolin; Langer, Sandra; Ternes, Kerstin; Kämmerling, Jens; Osmann, Christine; Pfeffer, Martin

    2015-06-30

    Two cases of acute babesiosis in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in two German zoos in 2009 and 2012 triggered this study to investigate the occurrence and species diversity of Babesia parasites infecting reindeer in different zoos and deer parks in Germany. Between June and December 2013, blood samples were taken from 123 clinically inapparent reindeer from 16 different facilities. Samples were tested for the presence of Babesia species DNA by conventional PCR and sequence analysis of part of the 18S rRNA gene. Also, Giemsa-stained smears of reindeer blood samples were examined for parasitaemia by light microscopy. The overall PCR-prevalence in blood samples was 23.6% (n=29). Comparison of sequenced amplicons with GenBank entries possibly revealed up to five different Babesia species: B. venatorum (n=19), B. capreoli (n=2) and B. capreoli-like (n=4), B. odocoilei-like (n=2) and B. divergens (n=1), while one sample turned out to be a Theileria sp. Out of the 16 facilities in the study, 12 housed at least one positive animal. In Giemsa-stained blood smears, intra-erythrocytic Babesia parasites were detected in samples of three reindeer from three locations. The high prevalence of Babesia infections implicates babesiosis to be a relevant infectious disease threat for captive reindeer in Germany. Consequently, reindeer with clinical signs compatible to those of acute babesiosis should either be tested for the presence of Babesia spp. DNA or blood smears should be examined for parasitaemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of In-Situ Oil Sands Development on Caribou (Rangifer tarandus Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Muhly

    Full Text Available In-situ oil sands development (ISD involves a network of facilities, wells, roads and pipelines to extract and transport subsurface bitumen. This technology is rapidly expanding and there is uncertainty whether ISDs restrict animal movement, leading to increased extinction probabilities for some wide-ranging species. Here we test for effects of simulated future (i.e., 50 years from now and current ISDs on simulated movements of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus, a threatened species across North America. In simulations of future scenarios, we varied the spacing and permeability of ISDs and the presence/absence of protected areas. Permeability was measured as the number of times simulated caribou crossed ISDs with different levels of modelled permeability. We estimated the effects of these factors on caribou step length and annual home range size, key metrics of small and large spatiotemporal scales of movement, respectively. Current caribou crossings of above-ground pipeline features of ISDs were measured using camera traps and compared to expected caribou crossing rates based on present-day caribou movement simulations. Current crossing rates were evaluated within the context of predicted future crossing success rates necessary to maintain caribou step lengths and home ranges. With few exceptions, permeability across ISDs was the main factor affecting caribou movement, more so than spacing between developments or the presence of protected areas. However, minimal permeability (crossing rates of c. 15% to 60%, relative to an undisturbed site was needed to maintain existing home range size and step lengths. The effect of permeability on home range size and step length was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in permeability would provide a disproportionately greater benefit to caribou movement. Our predictions demonstrate that maintaining permeability across ISDs is more important than spacing between leases or including protected areas

  17. Pathology, clinical signs, and tissue distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Bouchard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii via stomach intubation to assess clinical signs of infection, pathology, and tissue distribution. An unexposed reindeer served as a negative control. Signs of stress, aggression, and depression were noted for the first two weeks following infection. By 4 weeks post infection, all infected reindeer were positive on a modified agglutination test at the highest titer tested (1:200 for antibodies to T. gondii. At 20 weeks post infection, no gross abnormalities were observed on necropsy. Following histopathology and immunohistochemistry, tissue cysts were visualized in the reindeer given the highest and lowest dose of oocysts. Focal pleuritis and alveolitis were associated with respiratory problems in reindeer given the middle dose. DNA of T. gondii was detected following traditional DNA extraction and conventional PCR on 25 mg samples from 17/33 muscles and organs, and by magnetic capture DNA extraction from 100 g samples from all 26 tissues examined. This research demonstrated that reindeer/caribou can serve as intermediate hosts for T. gondii, and that the parasite may be associated with health effects in wildlife. The presence of T. gondii in all tissues tested, many of which are commonly consumed raw, smoked, or dried in northern communities, suggests that caribou may serve as a source of human exposure to T

  18. Concentrations and geographical variations of selected toxic elements in meat from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in mid- and northern Norway: evaluation of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-05-01

    Meat samples (n = 100) from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) were randomly collected from 10 grazing districts distributed over four Norwegian counties in 2008 and 2009. The main aim was to study concentrations and geographical variations in selected toxic elements; cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) in order to assess the risk associated with reindeer meat consumption. Sample solutions were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometer (ICP-HRMS), whereas analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Geographical variations in element concentrations were revealed, with As and Cd demonstrating the largest geographical differences. No clear geographical gradient was observed except for the east-west downward gradient for As. The As concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Russian border, and only Cd was shown to increase with age (p < 0.05). Sex had no significant effect on the concentration of the studied elements. The concentrations of all the studied elements in reindeer meat were generally low and considerably below the maximum levels (ML) available for toxic elements set by the European Commission (EC). Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a significant contributor to the human body burden of toxic elements.

  19. Growth, condition, and mortality of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in the Sisimiut Population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar Holthe

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and condition of the Sisimiut caribou was anlysed by means of mandible length, carcass weight, and back fat indices. Mandible lenght showed unchanged growth conditions since the late 1960s, and growth stops at 4 years of age. The Sisimiut caribou seems to be smaller than North American caribous, Greenlandic semi-domesticated reindeer and of same size or smaller than Scandinavian reindeer. Carcass weight showed similar results, however cow growth rate seems not to prolong sexual maturation. Back fat deposits were less than what is known from other reindeer and caribou populations. Sex and age distribution of mandibles from various materials and survival curves based on the same material shows — an uneven distribution between bulls and cows and a relatively large proportion of old cows in the bag from the last years, which seems to be caused by a light hunting pressure when the population peaked in the 1960s. Heavy natural mortality for animals born before or after a winter with unfavorable snow conditions was also showed.Vækst, kondition og dødelighed hos vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus i Sisimiut-bestanden, Vestgrønland.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Vækst- og konditionsforhold for Sisimiut-vildrenbestanden i Vestgrønland er beskrevet ved hjæip af underkæbelængde, slagtevægt og rygfedt. Undersøgelsen af kæbelængde viste, at vækstforholdene havde været uforandret siden sidste halvdel af 1960-erne, at væksten standser ved 4-års alderen, samt at Sisimiut-vildrenen er mindre end de nordamerikanske caribou, Itinnera-tamrenen og på størrelse med eller mindre end skandinaviske rensdyr. Dette viste sig også ved sammenligninger af slagtevægt. Vægten af simlerne er dog ikke så ringe, at der kan iagttages nogen forsinkelse i kønsmodningen. Fedtreserverne ved indgangen til vinteren synes at være dårligere end i andre undersøgte rensdyrbestande. Køns- og aldersfordelingen blandt forskellige typer af indsamlet k

  20. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Flores, Alejandro; Hagen, Live H; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Wright, André-Denis G; Pope, Phillip B; Sundset, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4), or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3). Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa) were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads), with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences). Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001) and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027), were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively). UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-Flichen-fed reindeer.

  1. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salgado-Flores

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4, or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3. Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads, with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences. Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001 and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027, were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively. UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05. Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the

  2. High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012 revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively. A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community.

  3. Phylogeographical analysis of mtDNA data indicates postglacial expansion from multiple glacial refugia in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelya F C Klütsch

    Full Text Available Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ~1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544-22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou.

  4. An examination of recovery planning for forest-dwelling woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. A. Wilkinson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ontario’s population of forest-dwelling woodland caribou is listed both federally and provincially as a species at risk. It is estimated that 20 000 woodland caribou remain in Ontario, of which approximately one quarter inhabit the boreal forest and are described as the sedentary forest-dwelling population. This paper examines the recovery strategy for this population developed by the Ministry of Natural Resources, as well as discussing the implications of provincial forestry policy on woodland caribou management. Commercial timber harvesting will likely soon be allowed in parts of the northern third of the province, in which woodland caribou habitat currently is relatively unimpaired by industrial development. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Planlegging for bevaring av skogsøkotypen av Rangifer tarandus caribou i Ontario, CanadaSkogsvillreinen av skogsøkotypen i Ontario er vurdert som sårbar både føderalt og på provinsnivå. Av provinsens rundt 20 000 skogsvillrein hører omtrent en fjerdepart til den stasjonære skogsboende skogsøkoypen. Artikkelen ser på bevaringsstrategien som er utarbeidet av naturressursdepartementet i Ontario for denne spesielle bestanden og diskuterer konsekvensene for villreinen av provinsens skogpolitikk. Kommersiell hogst vil mest sannsynlig og snart bli tillatt i deler av Ontarios nordlige tredel der skogvillreinens leveområder er relativt upåvirket av industriell virksomhet.

  5. Level of selected nutrients in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ali Hassan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To acquire new knowledge on the nutritional composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L. and their nutritional value for humans. The results could be useful in updating the Norwegian Food Composition Database, whose current data on reindeer is limited. Study design: Cross-sectional study on population of semi-domesticated reindeer from 2 northern Norwegian counties (Finnmark and Nordland. Methods: Semi-domesticated reindeer carcasses (n=31 were randomly selected, from which meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow samples were collected. Selected vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and total lipids were studied. Results: As expected, reindeer meat was found to be lean (2% total lipid, thus it is a good source of low-fat meat. The meat was also found to be a good source of vitamin B12, docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 in most of the nutrient levels between meat and the rest of the studied reindeer tissues were observed. In most cases, the liver, tallow and bone marrow had higher nutritional values when compared to meat. Liver had the highest concentrations of vitamin A, all vitamin B types, vitamin C, iron, selenium and the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3. Additionally, liver was the only edible tissue that contained vita-mins B9 and C. The vast majority of the vitamin concentrations in liver, tallow and bone marrow were significantly correlated with the concentrations in meat (p<0.05. Conclusions: The studied tissues from reindeer demonstrated that reindeer is a valuable food source that could meet or contribute to the consumers’ nutritional recommended daily allowance (RDA.

  6. Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickbeil, Gregory J M; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984-2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen's slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006-2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou

  7. Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C.; White, Joanne C.; Wulder, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984–2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen’s slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006–2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou

  8. Effect of calf stimulation on milk ejection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Gjøstein

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish methods for stimulating the milk ejection in reindeer kept for milking purpose. Calves were used to stimulate milk does’ let down. In experiment 1, five does were allowed olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with their calves during milking, whereas four does were milked in isolation. The treatment of the groups was alternated every day during the eight days experiment. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with the calf did not influence the doe’s milk yield. The milk yield varied significantly between individual females within treatment (P < 0.01. In experiment 2, the calves were allowed to suckle their mother for a short period (two seconds prior to milking being initiated. The same alternate design as in experiment 1 with groups consisting of three and two animals respectively was used, and the experiment lasted four days. The pre-suckling stimulation significantly increased the milk ejection measured as milk yield (P < 0.05, and the residual milk after the treatment was negectible. Moreover, the milk ejection varied between individual females within treatment (P < 0.05. We conclude that it is possible to achieve a complete milk removal by machine milking after the does have been pre-stimulated by suckling of calves. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with calves during milking failed to influence the milk ejection in this study. However, the results have to be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Formålet med dette forsøket var å prøve ut ulike metoder for å stimulere nedgivninga av melk hos rein. Kalvene ble tatt i bruk for å stimulere nedgivninga. I forsøk 1 hadde simla lyd-, lukt og synskontakt med kalven mens melkingen pågikk. Vi benyttet et ”switch back design” der fem simler hadde kontakt med kalven under melkingen og fire ble melket uten kontakt. Behandlingen ble byttet om annenhver dag i de åtte dagene fors

  9. The nitrogen window for arctic herbivores: plant phenology and protein gain of migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Perry S.; Van Someren, Lindsay L.; Gustine, David D.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial plants are often limited by nitrogen (N) in arctic systems, but constraints of N supply on herbivores are typically considered secondary to those of energy. We tested the hypothesis that forage N is more limiting than energy for arctic caribou by collecting key forages (three species of graminoids, three species of woody browse, and one genus of forb) over three summers in the migratory range of the Central Arctic Herd in Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Coastal Plain on the Arctic Ocean. We combined in vitro digestion and detergent extraction to measure fiber, digestible energy, and usable fractions of N in forages (n = 771). Digestible energy content fell below the minimum threshold value of 9 kJ/g for one single forage group: graminoids, and only beyond 64–75 d from parturition (6 June), whereas all forages fell below the minimum threshold value for digestible N (1% of dry matter) before female caribou would have weaned their calves at 100 d from parturition. The window for digestible N was shortest for browse, which fell below 1% at 30–41 d from parturition, whereas digestible N contents of graminoids were adequate until 46–57 d from parturition. The low quality of browse as a source of N was also apparent from concentrations of available N (i.e., the N not bound to fiber) that were <1% at 72–80 d from parturition. The Coastal Plain may be favored by female caribou because available and digestible concentrations of N are not only greater than those on the Brooks Range, the window of usable N on the Coastal Plain extends the period of protein gain for females and their calves by 17 d. Conversely, inland areas with greater biomass and densities of digestible N than the Coastal Plain may be more favorable for large male caribou that begin gaining protein from spring to breed in autumn. Our study provides evidence that phenological windows for protein gain in caribou are both spatially and temporally dynamic and likely to affect the

  10. The nitrogen window for arctic herbivores: plant phenology and protein gain of migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Perry S.; Van Someren, Lindsay L.; Gustine, David D.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial plants are often limited by nitrogen (N) in arctic systems, but constraints of N supply on herbivores are typically considered secondary to those of energy. We tested the hypothesis that forage N is more limiting than energy for arctic caribou by collecting key forages (three species of graminoids, three species of woody browse, and one genus of forb) over three summers in the migratory range of the Central Arctic Herd in Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Coastal Plain on the Arctic Ocean. We combined in vitro digestion and detergent extraction to measure fiber, digestible energy, and usable fractions of N in forages (n = 771). Digestible energy content fell below the minimum threshold value of 9 kJ/g for one single forage group: graminoids, and only beyond 64–75 d from parturition (6 June), whereas all forages fell below the minimum threshold value for digestible N (1% of dry matter) before female caribou would have weaned their calves at 100 d from parturition. The window for digestible N was shortest for browse, which fell below 1% at 30–41 d from parturition, whereas digestible N contents of graminoids were adequate until 46–57 d from parturition. The low quality of browse as a source of N was also apparent from concentrations of available N (i.e., the N not bound to fiber) that were distribution and growth of the population.

  11. Genetic variation in meat production related traits in reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Muuttoranta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} In reindeer husbandry, animal breeding could offer tools for improving productivity by selection. The traits affecting meat production efficiency are primarily related to calf growth and survival, and to dam’s longevity and lifetime ability to raise heavy calves. Information on genetic (covariation in these traits is scarce but needed in estimating the potential and effectiveness of selection as well as biological constraints. The objectives of the study were to estimate these genetic parameters from the data of an experimental reindeer herd at Kutuharju (Inari, Finland. Heritabilities (h2 and genetic correlations (rg among the average daily gain of calves (ADG, dams’ age at maturity, individual fitness (λind and the cumulative sum of her calves’ weaning weight over seven years (WW7 were studied with AS-Reml software using the dataset from the experimental herd. The pedigree included also sire information to allow the separation of the maternal effects. Direct and maternal heritabilities of ADG were moderate (0.24±0.09 and 0.18±0.05, respectively and the direct-maternal correlation was highly negative (-0.73±0.17. Indeed, selection on growth necessitates information on both calf and dam. The genetic correlation of growth with birth date and birth weight could not be detected with the data. The age

  12. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus response to feces and urine from sheep (Ovis aries and reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein R. Moe

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In many Norwegian alpine and tundra areas sheep and reindeer graze sympatrically. Areas covered with dung or urine may have consequences for reindeer pasture utilization. Experiments were conducted on 5 stall fed male reindeer calves where animals were individually presenred with two troughs (experimental and control containing 200 g of concentrate. Fresh and dry sheep and reindeer pellets (50 g wet weight were mixed with the concentrate in the experimental trough and the aversive response was tested against the control. Both fresh sheep (P < 0.0001 and reindeer (P < 0.0001 pellets were associated with aversive response by reindeer. A similar response was found for dry sheep (P = 0.006 and dry reindeer (P = 0.0009 pellets. Similar trials were conducted using sheep and reindeer urine (20 g sprayed evenly on the food and the aversive response by reindeer was tested against the control (sprayed with 20 g of water. Both sheep and reindeer urine stimulated an aversive response by reindeer {P = 0.03 for both tests. The differences in the aversive response of reindeer ro fresh sheep and reindeer pellets, dry sheep and reindeer pellets and sheep and reindeer urine were also tested. No differences by reindeer were found between sheep and reindeer pellets, either for fresh (P = 0.28 or dry (P = 0.07, or between food treated with sheep and reindeer urine (P = 0.28. Possible habituation to sheep and reindeer pellets was tested using 8 consecutive trials with dry pellets, followed by 2 additional trials when dry pellets were soaked in water. This was done to simulate natural dry periods followed by rain showers. Habituation effects were found in trials with dry sheep and reindeer pellets. Subsequent trials with fecal pellets soaked in water significantly reduced food intake when compared with the last habituation trial with dry pellets (P < 0.05.

  13. Use of length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR as non-invasive approach for dietary analysis of Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbae Joo

    Full Text Available To efficiently investigate the forage preference of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, we applied length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR based on length differences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of ribosomal RNA (rRNA to fecal samples from R. tarandus platyrhynchus. A length-heterogeneity (LH database was constructed using both collected potential food sources of Svalbard reindeer and fecal samples, followed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, eighteen fecal samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 from 2 geographic regions and 15 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The LH-PCR analysis detected abundant peaks, 18.6 peaks on an average per sample, ranging from 100 to 500 bp in size and showing distinct patterns associated with both regions and years of sample collection. Principal component analysis (PCA resulted in clustering of 15 fecal samples into 3 groups by the year of collection and region with a statistically significant difference at 99.9% level. The first 2 principal components (PCs explained 71.1% of the total variation among the samples. Through comparison with LH database and identification by cloning and sequencing, lichens (Stereocaulon sp. and Ochrolechia sp. and plant species (Salix polaris and Saxifraga oppositifolia were detected as the food sources that contributed most to the Svalbard reindeer diet. Our results suggest that the use of LH-PCR analysis would be a non-invasive and efficient monitoring tool for characterizing the foraging strategy of Svalbard reindeer. Additionally, combining sequence information would increase its resolving power in identification of foraged diet components.

  14. Influence of production system, age an sex on carcass parameters and some biochemical meat quality characteristics of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Sampels

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcass composition in reindeer is affected by feed intake and the age and sex of the animal. Studies have also shown that age, sex, carcass trim fat content and total intramuscular fat content (IMF influence lipid class composition. The aim of this study was to compare lipid class composition and IMF in relation to carcass weight, conformation and trim fat content, and to investigate how these parameters are affected by age, sex and different feed sources. Five groups of reindeer were studied. Two groups of calves were fed two grain-based pelleted feeds with different lipid compositions for approximately two months before slaughter. One of these groups was fed with conventional pellets, and the other with pellets enriched with linseed cake to increase the amount of n-3 fatty acids in the diet. Three groups of grazing reindeer were also included in the study, consisting of adult males, adult females or calves. Reindeer calves fed pellets had higher slaughter weights, higher trim fat content and better carcass conformation scores compared to the grazing calves. However, there was no significant difference in IMF between pellet-fed and grazing calves. Adult female reindeer had the highest and grazing calves the lowest slaughter weights, trim fat and IMF. There was no difference in lipid class composition in meat from calves fed with the two pelleted feeds, whereas grazing calves had a higher amount of phospholipids. Squalene was identified and quantified as a component of intramuscular lipids in reindeer meat. Effekt av produktionssystem, ålder och kön på slaktkroppskvalitet och några biokemiska egenskaper hos renköttAbstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Slaktkroppssammansättningen hos renar påverkas av både foderintag, fodersammansättning och djurens ålder och kön. Tidigare har vi visat att renens kön, ålder, mängden intramuskulärt fett (IMF och putsfett på slaktkroppen påverkar sammansättningen av lipidklasser. Syftet med denna

  15. Observation of Arctic island barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus migratory movement delay due to human induced sea-ice breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Dumond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The seasonal migration of the Dolphin and Union caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus herd between Victoria Island and the mainland (Nunavut/Northwest Territories, Canada relies on the formation of sea-ice that connects the Island to the mainland from late-October to early-June.  During an aerial survey of the Dolphin and Union caribou herd in October 2007 on southern Victoria Island, Nunavut, Canada, we documented the short-term effects of the artificial maintenance of an open water channel in the sea-ice on caribou migratory movements during staging along the coast.

  16. Sensory meat quality, ultimate pH values, blood metabolites and carcass parametersin reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. fed various diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was made to study and compare the effects of different diets on sensory meat quality and ultimate pH values in reindeer muscles and to relate stress-induced blood metabolites and carcass parameters to the meat quality traits measured. Altogether 23 female reindeer calves were included in the study. During an adaptation period, all reindeer were allowed free access to a mimicked natural diet containing 80% lichens (lichen diet. On January 28, 8 reindeer (group Cjan were slaughtered. Five reindeer (group C.Mar were allowed continuous free access to the lichen diet throughout the experiment. During 8 days, the other reindeer (groups PL and PS were given the lichen diet, half of the amount offered to the control group, and were then starved for one day. Thereafter, these reindeer were fed 80% commercial reindeer feed (pellets and either 20% lichens (group PL, or 20% silage (group PS for 5 weeks. After this, all animals were slaughtered. The average carcass weight and dressing percentage in the group fed commercial reindeer feed and lichens (PL were higher than in group CMar- Fat registrations were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in the groups Cj2n and CMar- Ultimate pH values in M. triceps brachii and M. longissimus were significantly lower in the group CMST than in PL. The levels of all blood metabolites (urea, ASAT and Cortisol were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in groups Cja„ and CMEF- NO significant differences were found in any of sensory attributes of the meat (monitored according to ISO standards. The present study shows that muscle and fat depots in reindeer can be improved by feeding a diet based on reindeer pellets but suggests that a feeding period of 35 days might be too short to affect the sensory properties of reindeer meat.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth seasonality in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus - comparisons with temperate and tropical cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Suttie

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth in temperate and arctic deer is seasonal, with higher growth rates in spring and summer while growth rates are low or negative in autumn and winter. We have measured IGF1 concentrations in the plasma of reindeer calves exposed to a manipulated photoperiod, indoors, of either 16 hours light followed by 8 hours dark each day (16L:8D (n = 3 or 8L:16D (n = 3 from about the autumnal to the vernal equinox, to determine whether the seasonal growth spurt normally seen in spring is associated with changes in the circulating level of IGF1. A high quality concentrate diet was available ad libitum. The animals were weighed, and bled every 2 weeks and plasma samples assayed for IGF1 by radioimmunoassay. 6-8 weeks after the start of the study those calves exposed to 16L.-8D showed a significant increase in plasma IGF1 concentration which was maintained until the close of the experiment, 24 weeks after the start. In contrast IGF1 plasma concentrations in those calves exposed to a daylength of 8L:16D did not significantly alter during the study. The elevated IFG1 in the 16L:8D group was associated with rapid weight gain compared with the 8L:16D group. We have shown that the seasonal growth spurt is preceded by an elevation in plasma IFG1 concentration. Further, this elevation in IGF1 is daylength dependent. For comparison IGF1 and growth rate seasonal profiles from temperate and tropical deer are included. This comparison reveals that seasonal increases in IGF1 take place only in animals with a seasonal growth spurt. Thus IGF1 plasma level elevations seem most closely associated with the resumption of rapid growth in spring following the winter.

  18. Productivity factors of the Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t.tarandus stock during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kumpula

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive reindeer grazing and the increase of other land use forms have caused a decline in the amount of arboreal (Alectoria, Bryoria spp. and reindeer (Cladina spp. lichens in the Finnish reindeer management area during the last few decades. Supplementary feeding of reindeer has increasingly compensated for the lack of natural winter fodder. The amount of the supplementary feeding and the quantity and quality of summer pastures should therefore have an increasing effect on the productivity of reindeer stock. In order to outline better the present carrying capacity problems on pastures in the Finnish reindeer management area we focused some of the most important productivity factors of Finnish reindeer stock from 1993 to 1999. The results showed that the productivity of reindeer stock in Finland was dependent especially on two main elements: amount of reindeer feeding and reindeer densities on summer pastures. Winter pastures had no clear effect on productivity when analysing the entire management area. High productivity figures in reindeer stock (calf production, carcass mass and meat production per reindeer were reached in the management districts where winter feeding was the most abundant, reindeer densities relatively low and summer pastures abundant. An increase in reindeer density on summer pastures raised meat production per total summer pasture area but decreased carcass mass of reindeer calves and meat production per reindeer. It seems that the fundamental factor for keeping the reindeer stock productivity sustainable at a high enough level is to optimize the longterm reindeer densities on pastures. Summer pastures may gradually become a limiting factor for reindeer stock productivity in some areas if overgrazed and decreased winter pastures are only compensated for by winter feeding of reindeer. 

  19. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Katherine L.

    1989-01-01

    Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti) from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse kn...

  20. Effective Field Sampling for Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Reindeer(Rangifer tarandus) with Help of the Gibbs Sampler%借助吉布斯抽样器有效地进行野外抽样预测驯鹿(Rangifer tarandus)的空间分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex Teterukovskiy; Lars Edenius

    2003-01-01

    我们介绍一种估计驯鹿(Rangifer mrandus)的空间分布的方法。描述野生动物物种分布的数据,其内在的空间自相关性包含可以用来提高野外调查效率的信息。我们的数据包括驯鹿粪便小球数、卫星图像和一个数字化地形模型。基于这些综合数据,我们采用普通逻辑回归、自动逻辑回归和吉布斯抽样器预测驯鹿的空间分布。通过训练数据集.对每种方法所采取的不同抽样设计结果讲行比较.结果表明.

  1. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  2. 我国驯鹿 Rangifer tarandus 的种群分布、数量及致危原因%Current Distribution,Population Trends and Causes of Decline of Reindeer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾治; 孟凡露; 王朋; 孟秀祥

    2016-01-01

    2012年7月至2013年8月间,在大兴安岭对我国驯鹿 Rangi f er tarandus开展了野外调查,以确定其分布及种群数量波动,并分析其致危原因.结果表明:我国驯鹿仅分布于大兴安岭西北麓的内蒙古根河地区(E 121°11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′),其分布区与我国鄂温克族聚居区完全重叠.我国现存驯鹿种群718头,分布于12个彼此隔离的种群,各驯鹿种群数量分布极不均匀,每个种群由9~240头驯鹿组成,大部分种群呈典型小种群状态,其平均种群大小仅为59.83头(±18.42, n=12);驯鹿分布生境的海拔区间为700~926 m ,平均海拔为813.67 m (±21.72 m , n=12);小种群及相关的近交衰退、生境丧失及适宜性下降、管理政策不合理、高强度的生态旅游和盗猎及天敌捕杀是制约我国驯鹿种群发展的主要因素.%The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is an endangered species distributed in the sub‐arctic region in the northeastern part of China .To determine the current status of the population and the distribution pat‐terns of reindeer ,this study was conducted in the Great Xing’Anling of China during July 2012 to August 2013 .The results showed that the reindeer in China only occurs in Genhe area of Inner Mongolia (E 121° 11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′) ,where has been the dwelling region of Ewenki people .There were 718 reindeer in 12 populations in 2013 with the population range from 9 to 240 and the average population size of 59.83 ( ± 18.42 ,n=12) ,which indicated that the most reindeer populations in China were small popula‐tions .The preferred habitats of reindeer locates from 700 to 926 m with the average of 813.67 m (± 21.72 , n=12) .Small populations and the related inbreeding ,habitat loss and degradation ,management policy ,in‐tensive tourism and poaching and the predation have been the main factors influencing the population increase

  3. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Parker

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse knokkel-lengder og kropps-overflate areal ble målt hos flaske-oppfødde kalver av barren-ground karibu (Rangifer tarandus granti fra Porcupine-stammen opp til 1 års alder. Kroppsvekter ble sammelignet med normalt oppfødde kalver av samme type i det fri og fra Delta-stam-men. Det presenteres et vellykket system for flaske-oppforing av karibu-kalver.Porcupine-lauman karibuvasojen kasvunopeus ja morfologiset mitat.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Porcupine -lauman pulloruokinnalla olleiden tundrakaribuvasojen ruumiinpainot, jalanpituu-det ja ruumiin pinta-alat mitattiin 1 vuoden ikäään saakka. Ruumiinpainoja verrattiin vastaaviin luonnon-oloissa kasvaneisiin saman lauman ja Delta -lauman vasoihin. Tutkimus kuvaa toimivan vasojen pulloruo-kintamenetelmän.

  4. Traditional behaviour and fidelity to caribou calving grounds by barren-ground caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the fidelity of female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp. of each herd to specific calving grounds is convincing. Involvement of learned behaviour in the annual return of those cows to the same calving grounds implies such actions are a form of «traditional» behaviour. Even wide variations in population size have not yet knowingly led to marked changes in size or location of calving grounds or prolonged abandonment of established ones. Rarely is the adoption of new calving grounds reported and emigration to another herd's calving ground or interchange between calving grounds has not yet been unequivocally documented. The calving experience of individual caribou and environmental pressures may modify the cow's use patterns of her calving grounds. The current definition of herds based on traditional calving grounds may require modification, if increasing caribou numbers result in changes in traditions. However, current data do not contradict either the fidelity to traditional calving grounds or the concept of herd identity based on that fidelity.

  5. Grizzly bears and calving caribou: What is the relation with river corridors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Researchers have debated the effect of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline (TAP) and associated developments to caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the central Arctic herd (CAH) since the 1970s. Several studies have demonstrated that cows and calves of the CAH avoided the TAP corridor because of disturbance associated with the pipeline, whereas others have indicated that female caribou of the CAH avoided riparian habitats closely associated with the pipeline. This avoidance was explained as a predator-avoidance strategy. We investigated the relation between female caribou and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) use of river corridors on the yet undisturbed calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH) in northeastern Alaska. On the coastal plain, caribou were closer to river corridors than expected (P = 0.038), but bear use of river corridors did not differ from expected (P = 0.740). In the foothills, caribou use of river corridors did not differ from expected (P = 0.520), but bears were farther from rivers than expected (P = 0.001). Our results did not suggest an avoidance of river corridors by calving caribou or a propensity for bears to be associated with riparian habitats, presumably for stalking or ambush cover. We propose that PCH caribou reduce the risks of predation to neonates by migrating to a common calving grounds, where predator swamping is the operational antipredator strategy. Consequently, we hypothesize that nutritional demands, not predator avoidance strategies, ultimately regulate habitat use patterns (e.g., use of river corridors) of calving PCH caribou.

  6. Linguatula serrata in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available A high prevalence (24,2% of the tongue-worm Lingutula serrata was found in reindeer yearlings. Apparently the high incidence found in this material indicates that the parasite is well adapted to reindeer; the reaction of the nasal mucosa is very mild. The abscence of clinical manifestations and the hidden localization in sinuses which are rarely inspected at slaughter or autopsy is most probably the reason why L. serrata is seldom observed.Tungmask (Linguatula serrata hos svensk skogsren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: En hög frekvens(24,2% av tungmask (Linguatula serrata påvisades hos årskalv av skogsren. Den ringa våvnadsreaktion som forelag antyder att L serrata troligen ar val anpassad till ren. Att endast ett fåtal rapporter om forekomst av L serrata hos ren foreligger torde bero på att parasiten inte ger några kliniska symptom samt dess i huvudsak gomda lokalisation i overkåkshåligheterna vilka sållan inspekteras vid slakt eller obduktion. L serrata år dårfor sannolikt vanligare hos svenska renar ån man tidigare antagit.

  7. Rutting behavior and androgen variation in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossing, T; Damber, J E

    1981-03-01

    The rutting behavior of captive reindeer was studied during three rutting seasons. Blood samples from three males were taken for androgen analysis before, during, and afterthe rut. The amount of androgen increased at the end of August to a peak during late September-early October and decreased thereafter. Flehmen, urinating on the hindlegs, and two different low-stretch displays emerged during the prerut period. The preorbital gland enlarged and secretion occurred at the rim of the pocket. A conspicuous breath odor appeared very abruptly during the most intense period of rutting. A few days later a strong odor also appeared in the urine. The urination behavior and the two odors were confined to a brief period during the rut, while other behavior persisted afterwards.

  8. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.D.; Reed, D.J.; Smith, W.T.; Dau, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km 2 ) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus: Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mørk Torill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting, analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18% and effusions to body cavities (18%. Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi, throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack of appropriate amounts and/or appropriate quality of feed has been the main cause of emaciation, though heavy infestation of parasites may have contributed to the emaciation in some cases.

  10. Is transport distance correlated with animal welfare and carcass quality of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Sauli; Jokelainen, Pikka; Pusenius, Jyrki; Oksanen, Antti

    2017-03-15

    Slaughter reindeer are exposed to stress caused by gathering, handling, loading and unloading, and by conditions in vehicles during transport. These stress factors can lead to compromised welfare and trauma such as bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, and abnormal odour in carcasses, and causing condemnations in meat inspection and lower meat quality. We investigated the statistical association of slaughter transport distance with these indices using meat inspection data from years 2004-2016, including inspection of 669,738 reindeer originating from Finnish reindeer herding areas. Increased stress and decreased welfare of reindeer, as indicated by higher incidence of carcass condemnation due to bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, or abnormal odour, were positively associated with systems involving shorter transport distances to abattoirs. Significant differences in incidence of condemnations were also detected between abattoirs and reindeer herding cooperatives. This study indicates that in particular the short-distance transports of reindeer merit more attention. While the results suggest that factors associated with long distance transport, such as driver education, truck design, veterinary supervision, and specialist equipment, may be favourable to reducing pre-slaughter stress in reindeer when compared with short distance transport systems, which occur in a variety of vehicle types and may be done by untrained handlers. Further work is required to elucidate the causal factors to the current results.

  11. Remote blood collection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE was used successfully to collect blood samples from two reindeer. During blood sampling, two methods of restraint were applied which caused no short term changes in plasma concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or total protein. Plasma Cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated by the two restraint techniques. The value of ABSE in studies of stress in reindeer is discussed.

  12. Case report: Malnutrition and undernutrition as cause of mortality in farmed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik O. Ågren

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhoea evolved during the third year of farming in a group of six reindeer farmed in central Sweden. The first death occurred in July, and despite offering supplemental feed, the deaths continued. Within 9 months five animals (83% were dead. The necropsy findings indicated emaciation in all cases. The initially adequate clover vegetation in the paddock had been depleted over the years, leading to malnutrition and undernutrition of reindeer in the summer season.

  13. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Rahko

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The histological structure and secretory function of the common bile duct (ductus hepaticus communis has not been previously described in reindeer. Macroscopical studies were thus performed in 25 reindeer to reveal the morphology and topography of the ductus hepaticus communis and adjoining organs. Histologic structure of the common bile duct was investigated in 20 animals. Our studies showed that the ductus hepaticus communis and pancreaticus join about 2 cm before the duodenal opening to form the common duct. The common bile duct is an elastic tube about 3 to 5 cm long and 2 to 3 mm thick partly surrounded by fat and pancreatic tissues. The wall of the duct, being about 1 mm thick by light microscopy, consisted of folded mucosa surrounded by connective tissue fibres and a serosal layer. Distally, also muscular bands were seen. In some areas separate leucocytes and even lymphatic nodules were present. Surprisingly pancreatic acini occurred in certain areas of the wall, even in close contact to subepithelial tissues. Mucosal epithelium consisted of surface and glandular epithelial cells with mucous secretion. Numerous intraepithelial globule leucocytes were identifiable within the lamina epithelialis.Tutkimus yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteesta porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Yhteisen sappikäytävän (ductus hepaticus communis histologista rakennetta ja eritystoimintaa ei ole aikaisemmin kuvattu porolla. Makroskooppisia tutkimuksia suoritettiin 25 porolla yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteen ja topografian selvittämiseksi. Seinämän histologinen rakenne selvitettiin 20 porolla. Tutkimukset osoittivat, että porolla ductus hepaticus communis ja ductus pancreaticus yhtyvät noin 2 cm ennen ohutsuolta muodostaakseen yhteisen tiehyeen. Ductus hepaticus communis on noin 3-5 cm pitkä ja 2-3 mm:n läpimittainen käytävä. Se on elastinen ja osit-tain rasva- ja haimakudoksen ympäröimä. Seinämä on mikroskooppisesti noin 1 mm paksu. Sisäosan muodostaa poimuuntunut limakalvo. Limakalvoa ympäröivät sidekudossäikeet ja serosa, sappikäytävän loppuosassa myös lihassäikeistö. Seinämässä havaittiin yksittäisiä valkosoluja ja imusolukasautumia. Poikkeuksellisena anatomisena piirteenä voidaan pitää haimasaarekkeiden esiintymistä sappikäytäväseinämän kudoksissa jopa läheisessä kosketuksessa pintaepiteeliin. Limakalvon epiteelikudos on sekä pinta- että rauhassolukkoa, joka erittää limaa. Epiteelissä tunnistettiin lukuisia kerässoluja huolimatta siitä, että poroille oli suoritettu loishäätö edellisenä syksynä.Studier av gallgången (ductus hepaticus communis hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Den gemensamma gallgångens histologi och sekretoriska funktion hos renen har inte tidigare beskrivits. För att klarlägga den makroskopiska byggnaden och topografin av den gemensamma gallgången (ductus hepaticus communis undersöktes dessa i 25 renar. Väggen i 20 gallgånger granskades histologiskt. Undersökningarna visade att ductus pancreaticus mynnar ut i ductus hepaticus communis bildande en gemensam utforselgång till duodenum. Ductus hepaticus communis är c. 2-3 mm i diameter och 3-5 cm lång. Den elastiska gangens vägg är c. 1 mm tjock delvis omgiven av fett- och pankreasvävnad. Gangens vägg består av serosa, bindvävsfibrer och nära mynningen ses muskelfibrer. Insidan av gången är beklädd med en veckad slemhinna. Lymfatisk vävnad och enstaka lymfocyter observeras. Anmärkningsvärt är att pankreasvävnad förekommer i gallgångens vägg och under slemhinnan. Slemhinnans epitel består av yt- och körtelepitel som avsöndrar slem. De globulära leukocyterna var talrika i epitelet trots att renarna avmaskats på hösten.

  14. Preliminary assessment of habitat characteristics of woodland caribou calving areas in the Claybelt region of Québec and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Lantin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou require a diversity of forested habitats over large areas and may thus be particularly affected by the large-scale changes in the composition and age-class distribution of forest landscapes induced by the northern expansion of forest management. In this study we examine habitat characteristics associated to the use of calving areas by woodland caribou females and calves at different spatial scales. Thirty females were captured and collared with Argos satellite transmitters that allowed to locate 14 calving areas. Field surveys were conducted at each of these areas to measure the landscape composition of forest cover types and local vegetation characteristics that are used for both forage conditions and protection cover. At the scale of the calving area, univariate comparisons of the amount of forest cover types between sites with and without calves showed that the presence of calves was associated to mature black spruce forest with a high percent cover of terrestrial lichens. Within calving grounds, univariate comparisons showed that vegetation features like ericaceans and terrestrial lichens, that are important food resources for lactating females, were more abundant in calving areas where females were seen with a calf in mid-July than in areas where females were seen alone. The protection of the vegetation cover against predators was however similar between calving areas with or with¬out a calf. Logistic regression results also indicated that vegetation characteristics associated to forage conditions were positively associated to calf presence on calving grounds. Our results suggest that foraging conditions should be given more attention in analyses on habitat requirements of woodland caribou.

  15. Caribou distribution during calving in the northeast National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, June 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn E. Noel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti of the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd (TCH inhabit the western portion of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain within the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska (NPR-A. Alaska's North Slope communities, management agencies, and private industry are interested in this herd because of its importance as a subsistence resource and location relative to potential petroleum development. From 1998 through 2000, we monitored caribou distribution during the calving period within the Northeast Planning Area of the NPR-A using systematic strip-transect aerial surveys, as well as VHF and satellite telemetry for cow caribou. Aerial survey and telemetry data indicated cows with calves were distributed around Teshekpuk Lake, with a concentration south of the lake in 1999 and 2000. Inconsistencies in weather conditions, survey timing (both strip-transect and VHF surveys, 100% coverage survey areas, and small sample sizes confound interpretations of our results. However, several patterns were apparent. Later transect survey timing (7—12 June versus 4—7 and 5—8 June resulted in more cow/calf pairs recorded. Our 18% coverage area, originally based on VHF telemetry data for the extent of TCH calving, covered a consistently high proportion (95% to 100% of the annual calving ranges (95% kernel utilization distributions, but accounted for only 24% to 46% of the adult cows in the TCH based on the current Alaska Department of Fish and Game population estimate (1999 and average 1998¬2000 herd composition. It appears that either our transect survey methodology significantly underestimated the true number of caribou cows in the study area, many cows calved outside the area or moved into the area and calved after our surveys, or we have over estimated the number of reproductive cows in the herd. Our 100% coverage transect areas covering oil and gas lease areas, contained 38% of the calving range with 23% of TCH cows in 1999; and 18% of

  16. Woodland caribou calf recruitment in relation to calving/post-calving landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. McCarthy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Newfoundland’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population has declined by an estimated 66%. Low calf recruitment has been associated to the decline, possibly triggered by increasing calf predation and/or decreasing resources. To investigate the role of landscape composition in this system, we studied the yearly (2005-2008 calving/post-calving range (CPCR of 104 satellite-collared females belonging to six herds. We mapped nine disturbance factors (e.g. roads, logging, etc, as well as vegetation cover types (e.g. coniferous, deciduous forests, etc, and determined the total area they occupied within CPCRs yearly for each herd. Using an information theoretic approach, we assessed the model that best explained variation in recruitment using these components. Based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion, the model that best explained variation in calf recruitment included total disturbance and deciduous forest area, both showing the expected negative relationship with calf recruitment. Other landscape variables among the models with ΔAICc < 2 were mixed forest, also with a suggested negative relationship, and barrens and wetlands with a significant positive trend. This study highlights the need to minimize total disturbance footprint and account for resulting changes in forest composition within CPCRs during land use planning. Expanding forestry operations and road infrastructure in critical woodland caribou habitat across Canada may additionally contribute to habitat loss via fragmentation. This in turn, may lead to range recession beyond the initial local avoidance footprint. We see the possibility of using calf recruitment models based on landscape parameters, among others, to predict the impact of new industrial developments on calf recruitment.

  17. Grizzly bear predation rates on caribou calves in northeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    During June 1993 and 1994, 11 radiocollared and 7 unmarked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) were monitored visually (observation) from fixed-wing aircraft to document predation on calves of the Porcupine Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (PCH) in northeastern Alaska. Twenty-six (72%) grizzly bear observations were completed (???60 min) successfully (median duration = 180 min; ??95% CI = 136-181 min; range = 67-189 min) and 10 were discontinued (duration ???24 min) due to disturbance to the bear, or unfavorable weather conditions. Of the 26 successfully completed observations, 15 (58%) included predatory activity (encounter) directed at caribou calves and 8 (31%) included kills. Of 32 encounters, 9 resulted in kills, for a success rate of 28%. The median duration of encounters was 1 minute (??95% CI = 1-2 min; range = 1-6 min; n = 32;), and the median time spent at a kill was 14 minutes (??95% CI = 9-23 min; range = 6-56 min; n = 9). Sows with young (n = 4) killed more frequently (75%; P = 0.0178) than barren sows, boars, and consorting pairs combined (17%; n = 18). Estimated kill rate was highest for sows with young (6.3 kills/bear/day; n = 4), followed by barren sows (4.6 kills/bear/day; n = 5), boars (1.9 kills/bear/day; n = 5), and, finally, consorting pairs (1.0 kills/bear/day; n = 8). Estimated kill rate obtained via conventional radiotracking point surveys (4.8 kills/bear/day) was higher than that obtained via concurrent bear observations (3.1 kills/bear/day). Our research provides baseline estimates of predation rates by grizzly bears on caribou calves that will enhance the capability of wildlife professionals in managing populations of both predators and their prey.

  18. A hypothesis to explain lichen-Rangifer dynamic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar Gaare

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A small group of fruticous lichen species, viz. Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia mitis, C. stellaris, and Stereocaulon paschale forms extensive mats in the most winter habitats of Rangifer tarandus populations in Norway. The plant communities accessible for grazing are often found on easily drained, moraine ridges. These lichen species are perennial, lying on the ground while growing slowly at the top. As they decompose they add humus to the top of the soil profile. The lichen mats catch all water from small showers, thus preventing vascular plants from obtaining a more regular water supply. Grazing removs whole plants and gradually makes larger and larger holes in the lichen mats. Wind and water erode the humus, with only coarse gravel remaining. This diminishes the soil water storage capacity. Without grazing, lichens will gradually build a humus layer, which would improve the soil water storage capacity. In time vascular plants then would take the place of the lichens. I propose the hypothesis that by (over-grazing Rangifer improve their winter pastures by making conditions more favourable for lichens than for vascular plants.The fact that lichens are more scarce on habitats with more and regular precipitation, 1 in more oceanic climates, 2 on soils with more silt, and 3 on bird perches with thick peat due to regular fertilising, support this hypothesis.

  19. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finstad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår undersökning ingick 14 renar (8 kastrerade sarvar (härkaroch 6 vajor för att jämföra effekter av två olika renfoder (baserade på korn, hö och soja- (SBM eller fiskmjöl (WFM som proteintillskott med avseende på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet. Köttprover från naturbetande renar (n=4; 2 härkar och 2 vajor från Seward Peninsula inkluderades i studien för att representera kvaliteten på traditionellt producerat renkött från Alaska. Inga signifikanta skillnader i tillväxt observerades, varken mellan SBM- och WFM-grupperna eller mellan härkar och vajor. Foderutnyttjandet var dock signifikant bättre hos WFM-renarna. Slaktutbytet var högst för renarna i SBM-gruppen, däremot rapporterades inga skillnader i levandevikt, slaktkroppsegenskaper, pH-värde och temperatur i ytterfilén, skärmotstånd, färg eller vattenhållande förmåga i köttet när de tre grupperna av renar jämfördes (SBM, WFM och naturbetande djur. Köttet från de naturbetande renarna hade det signifikant högsta innehållet av både omega-3-fettsyror och av fleromättade fettsyror. Kött från SBM-renarna hade det högsta innehållet av triglycerider och det lägsta innehållet av fosfolipider jämfört med de andra två grupperna. Den tränade smakpanelen kunde inte hitta några skillnader i sensoriska egenskaper hos köttet från renarna i de tre olika grupperna. I en konsumentundersökning rapporterades kommentarer om olika ”vilt-relaterade” bismaker i kött från naturbetande renar (24% av konsumenterna och från WFM-gruppen (15% av konsumenterna, men inga ”fisk-liknande” bismaker i köttet kunde påvisas. Att byta ut sojamjöl mot fiskmjöl som proteintillskott i renfoder hade inga negativa effekter på renarnas tillväxt, foderutnyttjande eller på renköttets kvalitet.

  20. Impacts of introduced Rangifer on ecosystem processes of maritime tundra on subarctic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Eviner, Valerie T.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of mammalian herbivores to remote islands without predators provide a natural experiment to ask how temporal and spatial variation in herbivory intensity alter feedbacks between plant and soil processes. We investigated ecosystem effects resulting from introductions of Rangifer tarandus (hereafter “Rangifer”) to native mammalian predator- and herbivore-free islands in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. We hypothesized that the maritime tundra of these islands would experience either: (1) accelerated ecosystem processes mediated by positive feedbacks between increased graminoid production and rapid nitrogen cycling; or (2) decelerated processes mediated by herbivory that stimulated shrub domination and lowered soil fertility. We measured summer plant and soil properties across three islands representing a chronosequence of elapsed time post-Rangifer introduction (Atka: ~100 yr; Adak: ~50; Kagalaska: ~0), with distinct stages of irruptive population dynamics of Rangifer nested within each island (Atka: irruption, K-overshoot, decline, K-re-equilibration; Adak: irruption, K-overshoot; Kagalaska: initial introduction). We also measured Rangifer spatial use within islands (indexed by pellet group counts) to determine how ecosystem processes responded to spatial variation in herbivory. Vegetation community response to herbivory varied with temporal and spatial scale. When comparing temporal effects using the island chronosequence, increased time since herbivore introduction led to more graminoids and fewer dwarf-shrubs, lichens, and mosses. Slow-growingCladonia lichens that are highly preferred winter forage were decimated on both long-termRangifer-occupied islands. In addition, linear relations between more concentrated Rangifer spatial use and reductions in graminoid and forb biomass within islands added spatial heterogeneity to long-term patterns identified by the chronosequence. These results support, in part, the hypothesis that Rangifer

  1. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  2. Macro-microscopic research in reideer (Rangifer tarandus hoof suitable for efficient locomotion on complex grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reindeer are adapted to long distance migration. This species can cope with variations in substrate, especially in ice and snow environment. However, few detailed studies about reindeer hoof are available. Thus this article describes the results of studies on macro- and micro-structures of reindeer hoof.

  3. The method by which Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer larvae invade reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Anderson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory electrostimulated C. trompe (Modeer females forcefully expelled (sprayed larvae for 5-20 cm. The watery spray consisted of about 20 tiny droplets containing two to several larvae. Crawling first-instar larvae exhibited negative geotactic and phototropic responses; they were subject to rapid desiccation and became immobile as the tiny droplets dried within a few seconds. When 5-50 larvae from dissectedfemales were dropped in physiological saline onto different areas of the muzzle of restrained reindeer, only larvae placed deep within the nostrils and on the lips crawled out-of-sight down the nostril passage or into the mouth. Drops of larvae placed elsewhere quickly desiccated and the larvae became immobile. Larvae deposited by wild females onto a COz-baited reindeer model with the muzzle, lips and nostrils coated with insect trapping adhesive all were stuck only along the dorsal lip below the philtrum. All experimental evidence supports a natural per os mode of invasion.

  4. Accuracy of the tritium water dilution method for determining water flux in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R D; White, R G; Luick, J R

    1976-06-01

    The accuracy of the tritium water dilution method in estimating water flux was evaluated in reindeer under various conditions of temperature and diet. Two non-pregnant female reindeer were restrained in metabolism stalls, within controlled-environment chambers, at temperatures of +10, -5, and -20/sup 0/C; varying amounts of a commercial pelleted ration (crude protein, 13 percent) or mixed lichens (crude protein, 3 percent) were offered, and water was provided ad libitum either as snow or in liquid form. Total body water volume and water turnover were estimated using tritiated water, and the daily outputs of feces and urine were measured for each of 12 different combinations of diet and temperature. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the tritium water dilution technique gives accurate determinations of total body water flux over a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions.

  5. The Scandinavian Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) after the last glacial maximum: time, seasonality and human exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Erik Brinch; Aaris Sørensen, Kim; Mühldorff, Rudi

    2006-01-01

    in the area with ca. 1300 14C yr. Thus the first occurrence is pushed back to ca. 12 500 14C yr BP (late Bølling chronozone) while the youngest date lies at ca. 9200 14C yr BP (late Preboreal chronozone) establishing that the reindeer survives well into the Holocene. The seasonal dates of the reindeer...

  6. Seasonal variations in general activity, behaviour and cutaneous glandular structures in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mossing, Torgny

    1980-01-01

    The locomotor activity of the reindeer is separated into a diurnal and a nocturnal phase which, in turn, consists of a  number of short-term activity bursts. The onset and termination  of diurnal and nocturnal activity are largely in synchrony  with sunrise and sunset. Since the diurnal phase is  longer, total activity is dependent on the photoperiod. Total  activity as well as the number of activity bursts is greater  in Jùne with continuous daylight than in December with 6  hours daylight. ...

  7. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was very high. There was little to no overlap between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units, but distances between adjacent unit boundaries were relatively low. Additional sampling effort is needed to further delineate demographic structure in Ontario caribou.

  8. Clarification of some api characteristics in relation to caribou (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Pruitt, Jr.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2177 comparisons of api hardness vs. density in northern Saskatchewan, southeastern Manitoba and northeastern Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.70 to -.17. A total of 1395 comparisons of horizontal hardness of the top layer of api to vertical hardness of the same layer of api in southeastern Manitoba, northeastern Finland and far eastern middle Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.99 to -.20. Therefore one cannot substitute density for hardness nor horizontal hardness of the top layer for vertical hardness of the top layer in the terms of the Värriö Snow Index.

  9. The influence of stress on substrate utilization in skeletal muscle fibres of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Essén-Gustavsson

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Moderate stress in connection with handling, sampling and herding of reindeer caused a very pronounced depletion of glycogen in mainly type IIA and IIB fibres. Also intramuscular triglyceride levels decreased but mainly in type I fibres. Muscle lactate levéls increased in all animals but not to the levels found in pigs exposed to stress or exertion. Reindeer muscles appeared to have a great capacity to oxidize both carbohydrates and lipids. All animals showed increased Cortisol, urea and AS AT values. A marked depletion of glycogen and lipids in many of the fibres may be a factor involved in the development of skeletal muscle degeneration in connection with mental stress and exertion as there seems to be a correlation between high ASAT values and substrate depleted musclefibres. A connection may therefore exist between high instramuscular substrate stores and the ability of a muscle to tolerate stress.Av stress påverkat substratutnyttjande i skelettmuskelfibrer hos renAbstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Måttlig stress betingad av hantering, provtagning och drivning av ren orsakade en mycket kraftig minskning av muskelglykogen i fråmst typ IIA och typ IIB fibrer. Aven triglycerider minskade framfor allt i typ I fibrer. Muskellaktatnivåerna okade i samtliga undersokta djur, men inte till nivåer som ses hos gris utsatta for stress eller fysisk anstrångning.Renens muskler uppvisade en mycket hog kapacitet att oxidera, forbranna, både kolhydrat och fett. Alla djur uppvisade forhojda Cortisol, urea och ASAT varden. Den mycket kraftiga tomningen av kolhydrat och fett i många muskelfibrer kan vara en faktor medverkande till muskeldegeneration i samband med mental stress och anstrangning då hoga ASAT-vården synes vara korrelerade till uttomda muskelfibrer. Ett samband mellan hog instramuskulår substratupplagring och formåga att tåla stress kan således foreligga.Stressin vaikuttaneen poron substraattihyvåk-sikåytto luurangon lihaksiston kuiduissa.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Kohtuullinen stressi edellyttåen kåsittelyå, kokeenottoa ja poronajoa aiheutti hyvin voimakkaan lihasglykogeenin våhentymisen etenkin II A ja II B tyyppisisså fiibereisså. Myoskin triglyseriidit våhentyivåt kaikissa tutkituissa elåimissa, muttei kuitenkaan niihin tasoihin asti kuin sijoissa, jotka ovat joutuneet alttiiksi stressiin tai fyysilliseen rasitukseen. porojen lihakset osoittivat hyvin korkeaa kapasiteettia sekå hiilihydraatin ettå rasvan palamiseen. Kaikki elåimet osoittivat kohonnutta cortisoolin, urean ja ASATin arvoa. Hyvin voimakas hiilihydraatin ja rasvan tyhjentyminen monissa lihaskuiduissa voi olla vaikutin lihasrappeutumiseen henkisen stressin ja rasituksen yhteydesså, jolloin korkea ASAT-arvo nåyttåå olevan vastaavuussuhteessa tyhjentyneisiin lihaskuituihin. Lihaksiston korkean substraattivarastoimisin ja stressin sietokyvyn suhde voi siis olla olemassa.

  10. A remarkable collection of Late Pleistocene reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) remains from Woerden (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kolfschoten, Thijs; van der Jagt, Inge; Beeren, Zoe; Argiti, Vasiliki; van der Leije, Judith; van Essen, Hans; Busschers, Freek S.; Stoel, Pieter; van der Plicht, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Woerden, in the central part of The Netherlands, is a locality where the amateur-archaeologist Pieter Stoel collected several thousands of fossil mammalian remains of Pleistocene age. The stratigraphically-mixed assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa including species that are indicative of

  11. Variations in mountain vegetation use by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) affects dry heath but not grass heath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, J.; Boogerd, C.; Skarin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Question: Are differences in landscape use of semi-domesticated reindeer reflected in the vegetation of summer grazing grounds? Location: Alpine heaths, central east Sweden. Methods: Dry heath and grass heath vegetation plots with inferred grazing intensities (high, intermediate and low) were

  12. Comparative ecological and behavioral adaptations of Ovibos moschatus and Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou/reindeer and muskoxen are the only two ungulate species that have successfully occupied arctic tundra habitats. Although confronted with similar environmental constraints, their morphological dissimilarities have enabled them to develop unique behavioral and ecological adaptations that under most circumstances result in minimal overlap in use of forage resources. The large body and gut capacity of muskoxen have enabled them to adopt a strategy maximizing rate of forage intake and energy conservation, whereas caribou/reindeer of substantially smaller body size must pursue selective feeding, requiring high mobility and high energy expenditure. Responses to predators and insects by the two species show similar contrasts in associated energy costs. When confronted with environmental extremes that limit forage availability, competition for food may occur and the resulting differential success is a reflection of their divergent evolutionary routes.

  13. Population genetics of the native caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) and the semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Southwestern Greenland: evidence of introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, B.I.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Fredholm, Merete

    2002-01-01

    . Although the reindeer and caribou were initially kept separated, mixing has occurred since the 1970's. We investigated the genotypic structure of caribou and reindeer in South-west Greenland, using five polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from cattle, sheep, goat and red deer. A total of ninety...

  14. Feed intake, gastrointestinal system and body composition in reindeer calves fed early harvested first cut timothy silage (Phleum pratense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri J. Norberg

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Early harvested first cut (EFC timothy silage was fed to five reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. taken from their natural summer pasture and brought to Tromsø for feeding trial. The calves were housed indoors in metabolism cages and fed EFC timothy silage ad lib. during the trial, which lasted from late November 1994 until the end of February 1995, when animals subsequently were slaughtered. Daily feed intake, gastrointestinal (GI anatomy, body weight and body composition of the animals were examined. Timothy silage {Phleum praténse was harvested 21 June, 1994 in Tromsø, prewilted and stored as round bales containing 97% leaves. The EFC silage contained 42.1% dry matter (DM, and 18.1% crude protein, 20.7% cellulose, 16.9% hemicellulose and 28.0% water soluble carbohydrates (WSC of DM. Mean feed intake (DM 24 hours after the trial started (day 1 was 9-4 g/kg body mass (BM (S.D.+ 3-9, while the mean daily DM intake during days 15-74 comprised 24.2 g/kg BM (S.D.+ 6.1. All animals except one gained body weight during the trial. The median (range BM at start and at slaughter was 48.5 kg (34.5¬58.0 kg and 50.0 kg (42.0-53.5 kg, respectively. Median (range carcass weight % of BM was 58.0% (51.2-58.7% and muscle index value 0.0132 (0.0106-0.0176. The median reticulo-rumen (RR content wet weight (WW was 4601 g (range 2697-5000 g comprising 9.3% of the BM, and 85.1% of the total gastrointestinal wet weight content. The median (range gastrointestinal tract weight was 14.1% of BM (10.7-16.4%. Based on feed intake during the trial and body composition at slaughtet we conclude that first cut timothy silage is suitable as emergency feed to reindeer, as long as it is harvested in early growth stage with high proportion of leaves.

  15. Does connectivity exist for remnant boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou along the Lake Superior Coastal Range? Options for landscape restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C. Drake

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis can provide important information on the dynamic and spatial structure of groups of animals or populations. Little is known of the genetic population structure of caribou that inhabit the Lake Superior Coastal Range (LSCR and the level of gene flow between individuals within the range and beyond. From a landscape perspective, this range is spatially isolated and genetic connectivity within the range is presumed limited due to large water crossings on Lake Superior. This study aims to answer if animal movement can be discerned, using genetic population and relatedness analyses, within and beyond the LSCR. Faecal and hair samples collected between 2005 and 2015 in Pukaskwa National Park were analyzed for genetic markers and compared to 131 unique genotypes previously obtained from both within the LSCR and in the two next closest ranges. Animals from one nearshore island (i.e. Otter were more closely associated with offshore islands than other mainland caribou, likely a result of past movement and translocation rather than ongoing movement. Conversely, on another nearshore island (i.e. Pic, individuals assigned to a different genetic cluster and were related to animals further north outside the range, demonstrating some connectivity through the discontinuous distribution to the coast. Long-term population declines have been observed in the LSCR range despite genetic connectivity within the range and relatively low total habitat disturbance. Restoring connectivity of the LSCR so that it is not isolated from populations to the north is required for the recovery of the mainland portion of the coastal range. These genetic analyses provide some insights on where movements may occur and where landscape restoration efforts may best be directed to enhance connectivity.

  16. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the only population of Aoluguya Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan; Liu, Huamiao; Rong, Min; Zhang, Ranran; Dong, Yimeng; Zhou, Yongna; Xing, Xiumei

    2018-04-16

    Aoluguya Reindeer is the only reindeer species in China and currently approximately 1000 Aoluguya Reindeer remain semi-domesticated. A relative low diversity estimate was found by investigating genetic variability and demographic history of its population. Mismatch distribution curve of its nucleotide sequences and neutral test indicate its population has not experienced expansion. Genetic diversity and population structure were also analysed by using its mtDNA and microsatellites technology. Statistical results of these analyses showed there were varying degrees of population inbreeding and suggested that gene flow existed among its populations at one time. Three mutation models were also used to detect the bottleneck effect of reindeer population. The genetic variation of eight populations is relatively small. In addition, the clustering program STRUCTURE was used to analyse Aoluguya Reindeer population structure, to determine its optimal K and first time to analyse the phylogenetic status of Aoluguya Reindeer among other reindeer subspecies. It is recommended that the government establish a natural conservation area in Aoluguya Reindeer growing geography, forbade the trade and hunting of Aoluguya Reindeer, and strengthen the protection of this endangered species.

  17. Methods for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi Mitskevich (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea larvae in faeces from reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Halvorsen

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi larvae in reindeer faeces that have been deep frozen is described. The method involves the use of an inverted microscope with plankton counting chambers. Statistical data on the efficiency and sensitivity of the method are given. With fresh faeces, the results obtained with the method were not significantly different from those obtained with the Baermann technique. With faeces that had been stored in deep freeze, the method detected on average 30 per cent more larvae than the Baermann technique.Metoder for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring fra reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En metode for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring som har vært dypfryst blir beskrevet. Anvendelse av et invertert mikroskop med plankton tellekammer inngår i metoden. Det blir gitt statistiske data for metodens effektivitet og følsomhet. Ved undersøkelse av fersk avføring skilte ikke de resultatene metoden ga seg fra de som ble oppnådd med Baermanns metode. Ved undersøkelse av avføring som hadde vært lagret dypfrosset ga metoden i gjennomsnitt 30 prosent flere larver enn Baermanns metode.

  18. Size and composition of the wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus population in the Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alendal, Einar; Bie, Steven de; van Wieren, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    In the summer of 1977 we studied the reindeer population on the islands Barentsøya and Edgeøya in the eastern part of the Svalbard archipelago. A total of 1374 reindeer were observed: 326 animals in the western parts of Barentsøya and 1048 animals on Edgeøya. Considering those parts of Edgeøya which

  19. Morphological keys to advance the understanding of protostrongylid biodiversity in caribou (Rangifer spp. at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kafle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Protostrongylidae is a diverse family of nematodes capable of causing significant respiratory and neuromuscular disease in their ungulate and lagomorph hosts. Establishing the species diversity and abundance of the protostrongylid fauna has been hindered because the first stage larvae, commonly referred as dorsal spined larvae (DSL, that are shed in the feces are morphologically very similar among several genera. We aimed to determine the protostrongylid diversity and distribution in caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and R. t. pearyi in the central and high Canadian Arctic. We first developed, tested and validated a morphological diagnostic guide for the DSL of two important protostrongylids, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis, and then applied this guide to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection of these parasites in fecal samples from 242 caribou. We found that DSL of V. eleguneniensis and P. andersoni can be differentiated morphologically based on the structural differences at the caudal extremity. The presentation and morphology of the dorsal spine, and caudoventral bulging at the start of the tail extension were identified as the key identifying features. The two species were found in caribou on the arctic mainland and southern Victoria Island in single and co-infections, but the prevalence and intensity of infection was low. No protostrongylids were detected in caribou from the high arctic islands. Through this study, we provide a simple, efficient, and robust method to distinguish the DSL of the two protostrongylids, and present the current status of infection in different herds of caribou of the central Canadian Arctic. We report new geographic and host records for P. andersoni infection in Dolphin and Union caribou herd. Keywords: Parelaphostrongylus andersoni, Varestrongylus eleguneniensis, Diagnostic parasitology, Morphological diagnosis, Dorsal spined larvae, Canadian Arctic

  20. Rangifer 1981 Vol. 1 (1: 1-56

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available The first issue/volume of Rangifer was published in autumn 1981 and contained six articles, two of them in English. Besides the scientific contributions, the publication included information about the mandates of the Nordic Council for Reindeer Research (NOR and Rangifer. The aims of the journal were to give reindeer researchers possibilities for "high speed" publishing and to create a link between the researchers and the management/reindeer husbandry advisors to the best of the reindeer industry. Therefore abstracts were provided in several languages.

  1. Selected Vitamins and Essential Elements in Meat from Semi-Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in Mid- and Northern Norway: Geographical Variations and Effect of Animal Population Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Brustad, Magritt

    2012-01-01

    Meat samples (n = 100) were collected from semi-domesticated reindeer originating from 10 grazing districts in Norway. We aimed at studying concentrations, correlations, geographical variations and the effect of animal population density on vitamins A, B3, B7, B12 and E, and calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, chromium and cobalt. Mean concentrations of vitamins A, B3, B7; B12 and E were Vitamin E and selenium were the nutrients that exhibited the largest geographical variations (p vitamin B12 with zinc (r = 0.35, p vitamin B12, iron, zinc and selenium concentrations when compared to Norwegian beef, lamb, mutton, pork and chicken meat. PMID:22852060

  2. Selected vitamins and essential elements in meat from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in mid- and northern Norway: geographical variations and effect of animal population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Brustad, Magritt

    2012-07-01

    Meat samples (n = 100) were collected from semi-domesticated reindeer originating from 10 grazing districts in Norway. We aimed at studying concentrations, correlations, geographical variations and the effect of animal population density on vitamins A, B3, B7, B12 and E, and calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, chromium and cobalt. Mean concentrations of vitamins A, B3, B7; B12 and E were Vitamin E and selenium were the nutrients that exhibited the largest geographical variations (p vitamin B12 with zinc (r = 0.35, p vitamin B12, iron, zinc and selenium concentrations when compared to Norwegian beef, lamb, mutton, pork and chicken meat.

  3. Estimation of biodiversity and population structure of Russian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus breeds inhabiting Northeastern Siberia (Republic of Sakha - Yakutia using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Ruslanovna Kharzinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Three semi-domesticated reindeer breeds inhabiting the Republic of Sakha – Yakutia have been characterized using nine microsatellite markers. Genomic DNA was isolated from tissue samples of 123 individuals of the Chukotka (Khargin (CHU, n=47, the Evenk (EVK, n=32 and the Even (EVN, n=44 breeds, collected from different regions of Yakutia. Fragment analysis and sizing were run on ABI 3131xl genetic analyzer. Allele frequencies were calculated and used for the characterization of reindeer breeds and the evaluation of their genetic biodiversity. Nei’s standard genetic distance was calculated and used for the construction of a neighbor-joining tree. Statistical analysis was conducted with GenAIEx 6.5.1, PAST2.15 and STRUCTURE2.3.4 software. The highest number of alleles, such as informative (with a frequency more than 5%, effective (Ne and private (Pr, was detected in the CHU breed: Na≥5%=5.333±0.441, Ne=4.517±0393 and Pr =1.111±0.389, while the EVN breed had the lowest number: 4.778±0.324, 4.315±0.488 and 0.444±0.242, respectively. The EVN breed occupied an intermediate position (5.000±0.373, 4.408±0.315 and 0.889±0.261. Among reindeer breeds, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.729 ± 0.026 to 0.608±0.050 with the lowest value found in CHU reindeer and the highest in EVK reindeer. A heterozygotes’ deficiency was observed in all reindeer breeds. At K=3, STRUCTURE analysis matches with the data of Nei's genetic distance dimension results, indicating the presence of a common consistent pattern. CHU and EVK reindeer breeds are characterized by a closer genetic relationship in comparison with the EVN breed, which formed a separate cluster.

  4. A study of nutritional status of Finnish reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus L. in differents months: I. Composition and volume of the rumen microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Syrjälä

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota were studied in free-ranging semi-domestic reindeer in Finnish Lapland under the nutritional conditions obtaining at two different sampling times. Qualitative and quantitative investigations were made of the rumen ciliate fauna and quantitative investigations of the rumen bacterial flora. The volume coefficients for rumen ciliates obtained by Westerling (1970 and that for rumen bacteria obtained by Warner (1962 were used to obtain an indication of the volume of the rumen microbe mass in reindeer. The rumen samples were collected in connection with the round-up and slaughter of reindeer, being taken from 30 animals in December and 29 animals in March. The reindeer slaughtered in December had normal access to food, but those slaughtered in March had grazed on better pastures and received a supplementary feed of hay. The total number of ciliate cells was over six times as high in March as in December, the numbers being 1 182900 and 188 300 per ml rumen contents, respectively. The corresponding total numbers of bacterial cells were 9.65 x 109 in March and 6.65 x 109 in December. The reason for the statistically significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers in March than in December is probably the better nutritional conditions of the herd slaughtered in March, not the time of the year. The ciliate fauna consisted of 19 different species, although not all the species were found in every sample. The percentage composition of the ciliate fauna did not vary considerably between the two sampling times. The volume of the total microbe mass constituted 8.2% of the rumen contents in March and 1.9 % in December, the average being 5.1 %. The proportion of the ciliate volume in the total microbe mass was clearly higher than that of the bacteria at both sampling times: 7.2 times as high in March and 1.7 times in December, the average being 4.7 times.

  5. Assessing risk of mercury exposure and nutritional benefits of consumption of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation community of Old Crow, Yukon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; Gamberg, Mary; Dickson, Cindy; Chan, Hing Man

    2011-08-01

    The contamination of traditional foods with chemical pollutants is a challenge to the food security of Aboriginal Peoples. Mercury levels are generally low in terrestrial animals; however renal mercury levels have been shown to change over time in the Porcupine Caribou Herd, the principal food source for the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation of Old Crow in Yukon, Canada. Seventy-five Porcupine Caribou muscle, sixty-three kidney and three liver samples were analyzed for total mercury. Average concentrations were 0.003, 0.360 and 0.120mg/kg wet weight total mercury for muscle, kidney and liver, respectively. Consumption data of caribou muscle, kidney and liver were collected from twenty-six adults in Vuntut Gwitchin households. Women of child-bearing age (n=5) consumed a median of 71.5g/person/day of caribou muscle and 0.0g/person/day kidney but consumed no liver; median consumptions for all other adults (women aged 40+ and all men, n=21) were 75.8, 3.2 and 2.5g/person/day for meat, kidney and liver, respectively. Median dietary exposures to total mercury from caribou tissues were estimated to be 0.138μg/kg body weight for women of child-bearing age and 0.223μg/kg body weight for other adults. Caribou tissues were found to contribute high levels of important nutrients to the diet and pose minimal health risk from mercury exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The motivation-based calving facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    To ease calving and safeguard animal welfare, cows are moved to individual calving pens when calving is due. However, cows may be moved too late and disturbed, which prolongs calving and challenges welfare. Development of calving systems based on dairy cows’ pre-calving motivation to seek isolation...

  7. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  8. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance of calves born to dams with different calving dates and calving intervals. Early calving dams produced calves with the lowest birth weights, the highest actual weaning weights and the highest pre-breeding heifer weights. The higher weaning weights of early ...

  9. A new Eimeria species (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from caribou in Ameralik, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, K; Cuyler, C

    2016-04-01

    Fecal samples of 11 calves shot in the Ameralik area, West Greenland, in August-September 2014 were examined for coccidian parasites. The calves belonged to a population of interbreeding indigenous caribou Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and feral semi-domestic Norwegian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Two coccidian species were found: Eimeria rangiferis and a coccidium that was identified and described as a new species. The latter's sporulated oocyst is spherical or slightly subspherical. Average size is 25.6 × 24.8 μm. The oocyst has two distinct walls. Wall thickness is ∼1.4 μm. The unicolored outer wall is brown, the inner wall is dark gray. The oocysts contain a small polar granule but are devoid of a microphyle. The oocysts enclose four ovoid-shaped sporocysts with a rounded end opposite to the Stieda body. The average size of sporocysts is 15.2 × 7.8 μm. Sporocysts contain a granular sporocyst residuum that forms a spherical cluster between the sporocysts, one large refractile body is present in each sporozoite. The spherical form easily distinguishes oocysts of the new species from the seven previously described eimerid species in R. tarandus. This is the first eimerid described as a new species to the sciences from caribou in the Nearctic.

  10. The relationship between weather and caribou productivity for the La-Poile Caribou Herd, Newfoundland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Ferguson

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship between weather and caribou (Rangifer tarandus productivity, we compared weather variables (snow on ground, winter temperature and measures of growing season with measures of productivity (calves seen by hunters, calves and yearlings in the harvest and percent calves and yearlings and pregnancy rate for caribou classified during fall and spring surveys for the LaPoile Caribou Herd in southwestern Newfoundland. Hunter statistics reliably estimated changes in population demography. Percent calves seen by hunters was correlated with calves/100 females classified in fall. Weather may have influenced productivity for the LaPoile Caribou Herd in Newfoundland. Colder winter temperatures were associated with fewer calves the next fall and pregnancy rates and yearlings/100 females in the spring were negatively correlated with snow on ground the previous winter. These relationships appear to be density related.

  11. Anatomic Observation of Nose,Pharynx and Throat of Chinese Reindeers(Rangifer Tarandus)%中国驯鹿鼻、咽、喉的解剖学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为民; 乔灵; 都格尔斯仁; 杨银凤; 嘎拉扎布; 额尔德木图

    2001-01-01

    采用大体解剖学的方法对驯鹿上呼吸道的形态结构进行了观察,结果如下:驯鹿鼻部较长,鼻翼内有内、外鼻翼软骨.固有鼻腔发达,每侧鼻腔内含一大的下鼻甲和一小的上鼻甲.鼻泪管开口于鼻前庭腹外侧壁.咽部的软腭长而厚,鼻咽部的后壁上形成咽隐窝,内含一杯状粘膜褶.喉前庭深陷,会厌大而弹性较弱,喉室平坦,不形成喉小囊,但具有喉中室,位于喉前庭底壁上,环状软骨板宽.

  12. Chronic lead intoxication in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, G

    1963-01-01

    Four calves born in the winter of 1961-1962 died on a farm after a disease which had run its course for periods ranging from six weeks to a few months. A calf had also died showing similar symptoms during the previous year. All calves showed identical symptoms. Initially, their liveliness diminished; subsequently, they drank less and showed signs of pica. They finally died after the disease had run its course for about six weeks. The last calf, born late in February 1962, was in poor health as early as May, improved slightly when it had been sent out to grass but died in September, having fallen ill again in August. Autopsy was performed on three calves; all three were affected with chronic interstitial nephritis and uraemic endocarditis of the left auricle was present as well. The results obtained on toxicological investigation were indicative of lead poisoning. The liver of the calf was found to contain two mg of lead per kg, the cortex of the kidney containing twenty-five mg of lead per kg. These figures did not provide direct evidence of lead poisoning, but in evaluating these figures the fact was taken into account that the calf had no longer been able to ingest any lead for several months. Meanwhile, it was found that the stock-owner had fitted an old painted door in the calf-shed, which door was constantly being licked by the calves. The paint contained 18.6% of lead. This finding was followed by examination of the liver of a calf that had died previously. It was found to contain 49.7 mg of lead per kg. Accordingly, the calves had been affected with a form of lead poisoning running a relatively slow course, as a result of which the animals had developed chronic interstitial nephritis. The calves eventually died from uraemia. 4 references.

  13. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], 250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  14. Perinatal mortality in caribou from the Porcupine herd, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T J

    1993-04-01

    During the 1989 caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calving season on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (USA), 61 calf carcasses were examined for cause of death and associated pathology. Dead calves were located by low-level aerial searches with two fixed-wing aircraft and a helicopter over high density calving areas between the Hulahula and Aichilik rivers. Primary diagnoses included emaciation (39%), malnutrition (8%), stillbirth (21%), trauma (16%), other primary causes (7%), and undetermined causes (8%). Twenty calves had contributory renal tubular degeneration. The findings indicate that factors contributing to nutritional deprivation in calves were the major cause of neonatal mortality; however, factors affecting stillbirth, abortion, or the urogenital system may have major effects on neonatal caribou and warrant further investigation.

  15. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  16. [Diprosopus in calves of different breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, C; Beineke, A; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-04-01

    Three calves of the breeds German Holstein, German Angus and German Fleckvieh from three farms were born showing different forms of facial duplication. Two calves were classified as diprosopus with tetraophthalmus and in one calf a partial duplication of the forehead with a third nostril was observed. Further relatives of these affected calves or animals in the same herds were not affected by diprosopus. The calves with diprosopus were examined by means of clinical and pathological-anatomical methods. The increased occurrence of twin births and inbreeding could be of importance for the observed congenital anomaly, whereas conception early in life and conception during the winter months of the mothers of the affected calves are unlikely as reasons for the observed congenital anomaly of these calves. Even if the cases of diprosopus showed no increased frequency by paternal half sib groups, it is likely that diprosopus is genetically influenced and a larger number of genes may determine the phenotype.

  17. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare.......The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...

  19. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  20. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  1. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-10

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  2. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of antlerless adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus was studied in four separate populations in west Greenland. Between the herds antlerlessness varied from 21% to 79%. An inverse relationship between winter range quality and percentage of unantlered cows is demonstrated. Relationship between calf percentage and maternal antler status was studied in one population and antlerless cows showed higher reproductive rate than antlered ones. In another population antlerless cows were almost absent outside the calving area. Calves of antlerless mothers were more susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation, and length of period between calving and midsummer is discussed.

  3. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...... preference between degrees of isolation or difference in calving behavior in the different calving pens was found. However, cows experiencing a longer calving duration chose to calve in the most secluded calving pen (tall and wide). These results cannot determine cause and effect, but may suggest...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  4. How to Start Growing Beef Calves on Feed

    OpenAIRE

    ZoBell, Dale R

    2003-01-01

    Starting calves on feed takes time and effort because of the stress young calves are susceptible to at this point in their lives. The reduction of stress will result in calves consuming more feed, thus remaining healthier. To successfully start calves on feed, dry matter intake must be maximized while minimizing health problems. The following is a 5-step applied method for starting calves on a silage-based ration.

  5. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving....... Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access...... at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because...

  6. Laboratory experiments inform iceberg-calving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, L. M.; Burton, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Globally detected glacial earthquakes are produced during cubic-kilometer scale calving events. The mechanism producing these earthquakes and the dependence of the seismic moment on iceberg size and glacial calving front geometry are not well established. We use a laboratory-scale model of the post-fracture calving process to measure aspects of the calving process not observable in nature. In our experiments, buoyant plastic blocks rest against against a force plate (glacial terminus) which measures both the total force and the torque exerted during the calving process. The blocks are gravitationally unstable, so that they will spontaneously capsize and rotate away from the terminus. We find that hydrodynamics are crucial when considering the coupling between the calving process and the solid earth. There is both a pushing contact force and a simultaneous pulling hydrodynamic force created by a reduced pressure along the terminus face. This suggests that a single couple force mechanism is a more appropriate mode for glacial earthquakes than the commonly used centroid single force model.

  7. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens.

  8. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens. PMID:29346399

  9. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  11. [Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein; Terjesen, Terje

    2011-05-20

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is characterized by avascular necrosis of the head of the femur. This article deals with the epidemiology, possible causes, treatment and prognostic factors connected with the disease. The article is based on a non-systematic literature search and own clinical practice, with special emphasis on a Norwegian countrywide study of children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The incidence of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease varies in different countries and regions. Those who are older than six years at the time of diagnosis and have over 50% femoral head necrosis have a worse prognosis than younger children where the necrosis is less extensive. Treatment has been discussed extensively over the past 100 years, and still varies considerably. The Norwegian countrywide investigation showed that the results in children who were over six years at the time of diagnosis and had more than 50% femoral head necrosis were significantly better after varus femoral osteotomy than after physiotherapy or orthosis. This agrees with the only other prospective study that has been published. Operative treatment should be considered in children who are six years old or older and have over 50% femoral head necrosis when the diagnosis Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is made. Those who are younger than six years at the time of diagnosis or who have less than 50% femoral head necrosis should be treated symptomatically. Abduction orthosis has no place in the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  12. Osteogenesis imperfecta in Holstein-Friesian calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Lund, A.M.; Bloch, B.; Reibel, J.; Basse, A.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Eight calves with osteogenesis imperfecta were born in a Danish Holstein-Friesian herd during a two-year period. In total 92 calves were born (84 normal), and all were sired by a clinically normal Holstein-Friesian bull. The defect was probably due to a de novo dominant mutation present as a gonadal mosaicism in the bull. Affected calves were characterised by multiple fractures, congenital bone deformations, generaljoint laxity, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and light blue sclerae. The skin seemed normal. Electron microscopical studies revealed slightly decreased average diameter of cutaneous collagen fibrils, while the diameter of collagen fibrils in tendons and ligaments was severely reduced. Abnormalities of collagen type I from skin and compact bone were not detected by biochemical analyses

  13. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    . Within minutes after calving cows stood up and licked their calves; second parity cows had a longer latency to stand than later parity cows. Sniffing and licking the calf peaked during the first hour after calving and decreased during the five successive hours, while calves’ sniffing the cow peaked...

  14. Wolf predation on caribou calves in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.; Dale, B.; Mech, L. David; Carbyn, Ludwig N.; Fritts, Steven H.; Seip, Dale R.

    1995-01-01

    During 1987-1991, 29 to 45 radio-collared caribou cows were monitored daily during calving each year and their calves were radio-collared (n = 147 calves) to investigate calf production and survival. We determined characteristics of wolf predation on caribou calves and, utilizing information from a companion wolf study, evaluated the role of spacing by caribou cows in minimizing wolf predation on neonates (calves wolf abundance doubled. On average, 49% of the neonates died, ranging from 30% in 1987 to 71% in 1991. Overall, wolves killed 22% of the neonates produced and were the most important mortality agent. Wolves preyed on calves primarily during six days following the peak of calving and usually killed calves five to 15 days old. The mortality rate for neonates was strongly inversely correlated with average birthweight. Neonatal losses to wolves were also correlated with birthweight but not spring wolf density or mean calving elevation. Caribou concentrated on a calving ground when spring snow conditions allowed and adjusted their distribution on the calving ground depending on snow conditions and wolf distribution and abundance. Even though the wolf population doubled, the exposure of caribou calves to wolf predation did not increase, when spacing by caribou at the wolf pack territory scale was accounted for.

  15. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern Nigeria. VA Pam, DA Dakul, COE Onwuliri. Abstract. This study investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in calves from Jos, Northern Nigeria. Two hundred fecal samples were collected from the calves, recruited for an all year ...

  16. Calving interval and survival breeding values as measure of cow fertility in a pasture based production system with seasonal calving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olori, V.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    In a grass-based production system with seasonal calving, fertility is of major economic importance. A delay in conception due to poor fertility prolongs intercalving interval and causes a shift in calving pattern, which can lead to culling. Calving interval (CIV) information is readily available

  17. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...

  18. Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Ambrose, Robert E.; Garner, Gerald W.; Weiler, Greg J.; Reynolds, Harry V.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Reed, Dan J.; Griffith, Brad; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the Central Arctic herd, Alaska, have avoided the infrastructure associated with the complex of petroleum development areas from Prudhoe Bay to Kuparuk (Cameron et al. 1992, Nellemann and Cameron 1998, and Section 4 of this document). Calving females of the Porcupine caribou herd may similarly avoid any oil field roads and pipelines developed in areas traditionally used during the calving and post-calving periods. This may displace the caribou females and calves to areas east and south of the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.Increased calf mortality could occur if calving caribou are displaced into areas that have a higher density of predators, higher rates of predation, or where a higher proportion of the predators regularly use caribou as a food source (Whitten et al. 1992).Our study assessed predation risks to caribou calving in the 1002 Area versus calving in potential displacement areas. Due to funding constraints, our research focused on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), with wolves (Camus lupus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) receiving only cursory attention. Our research objectives were 1) to compare relative abundance of predators within the 1002 Area with that in adjacent peripheral areas, 2) to determine factors affecting predator abundance on the calving grounds, and 3) to quantify the use of caribou as a food source for predators and the importance of caribou to the productivity of predator populations using the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

  19. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  20. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  1. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of

  2. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for ef...... no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves.......Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested...... for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...

  3. Epidemiological investigation of rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M.A.; Ahmed, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    A study on rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh was carried out to detect its association with diarrhoea. An overall 28% incidence of diarrhoeal diseases was recorded in rural buffalo calves. Rotavirus was detected in faecal samples from both diarrhoeic (12%) and non-diarrhoeic (3%) calves by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. An association between diarrhoea and rotavirus infection was recorded in buffalo calves below 1 month of age in both diarrhoeic (27%) and non-diarrhoeic (7%) calves. Rotavirus infection in diarrhoeic buffalo calves was found to be highest in winter (16.7%), followed by summer (9.1%) and lowest in the rainy season (7.7%). Further studies on the epidemiological and prophylactic aspects of rotavirus infection should be conducted to control this infection in Bangladesh. (author). 21 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Intrapulmonary concentration of enrofloxacin in healthy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTOMARU, Konosuke; HIRATA, Masaya; IKEDO, Tomonobu; HORINOUCHI, Chie; NOGUCHI, Michiko; ISHIKAWA, Shingo; NAGATA, Shun-ichi; HOBO, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    To determine the intrapulmonary concentration of enrofloxacin (ERFX) in calves, plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and alveolar cells samples were obtained from clinically healthy calves. Four clinically healthy calves were administered a single dose of ERFX (5 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection. Samples of plasma were obtained for each subjects at 0 (before administration), 1 and 2 hr after administration of ERFX. Samples of BALF were obtained from each subject at 0, 1 and 2 hr after administration of ERFX. This examination was conducted two times, one week apart. The mean EFRX concentrations in plasma at 1 and 2 hr after administration were l.23 and 1.29 µg/ml, respectively. The mean EFRX concentrations in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) at 1 and 2 hr after administration 8.53 µg/ml and 9.42 µg/ml, respectively. The mean ERFX concentrations of alveolar cells in BALF at 1 and 2 hr after administration were 4.04 µg/ml and 5.19 µg/ml, respectively. These results suggest that the ERFX concentrations in ELF and alveolar cells concentrations in BALF at 1 and 2 hr after administration were higher than the plasma concentrations. PMID:26668174

  5. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte......A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect...

  6. Metabolic Disorders in Dairy Calves in Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Podhorský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was, in terms of analysis of causes of disorders in calves on dairy farms, to evaluate occurrence of metabolic disorders in their postnatal period. In 23 agricultural farms (14 farms with the incidence of clinical forms of disease in calves during milk nutrition period - group D; 9 farms with no clinical disease - group H clinical examination was performed, blood samples were collected and data concerning the provision of permanent day and night care for calves (PDC during delivery and in early postpartum period were collected. The samples were taken from 3 - 5 calves in every farm (totally 97, H - 38, D - 59. Biochemical indicators that have some relations to the quality of colostral nutrition were determined (the concentrations of immunoglobulins - Ig, total protein - TP, albumin - A, globulins - G, vitamin E and A, the activity of gammaglutamyl transferase - GMT and to the microelement metabolism (the activities of glutathione peroxidase - GSH-Px for evaluation of selenium (Se status, the concentrations of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn. While evaluating the entire group of examined calves, we found a high occurrence of metabolic disorders in calves connected with colostral nutrition and also high occurrence of microelement deficiencies. The decrease in TP was diagnosed in 80%, the decrease in G in 78%, the decrease in concentration of Ig in 78% and 74% of calves had higher A/G ratio. Insufficient intake of colostrum showed also lower activities of GMT in 76% of calves. Hypovitaminosis E was diagnosed in 67% of calves and hypovitaminosis A in 19% of calves. Microelement deficiencies were found in 77% (Cu, 39% (Se, and 10% (Zn of calves. While comparing the results for calves in groups H and D, in the group of calves from farms with no clinical disease (H a significantly higher (p p p p < 0.01 A/G ratio, which proves a higher-quality colostral nutrition. The results thus prove that the incidence of metabolic disorders in dairy

  7. Management practices for male calves on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, D L; Duffield, T F; LeBlanc, S J; Haley, D B; Kelton, D F

    2017-08-01

    Morbidity, mortality, and antimicrobial use and resistance are major concerns in the rearing of male dairy calves, so information to support disease prevention is important. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe management practices associated with the care of male calves during their first days of life on Canadian dairy farms. A survey was completed by dairy producers across Canada between March 1 and April 30, 2015. The survey included 192 questions covering producer background, farm characteristics, biosecurity practices, disease prevalence, calf health, animal welfare, lameness, milking hygiene, reproduction, and Internet and social media use. A total of 1,025 surveys were completed online, by telephone, or by mail, representing 9% of all dairy farms in Canada. Five percent of respondents (n = 49) answered that they had euthanized at least 1 male calf at birth in the previous year, and blunt force trauma was commonly used in these cases. The majority of respondents always fed colostrum to male calves; however, 9% (n = 80) did not always feed colostrum. Almost 40% (n = 418) of respondents reported always dipping the navels of male calves, 12% (n = 123) vaccinated male calves, and 17% (n = 180) did not provide the same quantity of feed to male calves as heifer calves. The care of male calves differed greatly depending on the geographical region of the respondents. However, some regional effects may be confounded by economic conditions and the logistics of marketing male dairy calves in different parts of the country. Herd size was another important variable in many aspects of the management of male calves on dairy farms. Larger herd sizes were more likely to use an appropriate method of euthanasia at birth but were less likely to always feed colostrum to their male calves or feed them the same as female calves. Familiarity with the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle (National Farm Animal Care Council) by respondents

  8. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Sellers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  9. Caribou calf deaths from intraspecific strife — a debatable diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available led to the deaths of several newborn barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus calves within a short period of time and on a small area. This event took place during calving in June 1958 on the calving ground of the Beverly caribou herd in the Northwest Territories. The lack of other examples of multiple deaths of newborn caribou calves from intraspecific strife and our findings on the same calving ground during a study of calf mortality in June 1981, 1982, and 1983 and a study of cow-calf behaviour in June 1981 and 1982 cause us to question the published explanation. As we rarely saw aggressive behaviour among cows and newborn calves that involved actual physical contact and none that resulted in injury or death and because we found instances of multiple killings of calves by wolves {Canis lupus we suggest that a probable alternative explanation of the 1958 findings is surplus killing by wolves. Most importantly, only direct observation of an event allows separation of a death caused by injuries due to intraspecific strife from a death caused by accidental injuries.

  10. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  11. Comparison of three methods of feeding colostrum to dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, T E; Gay, C C; Pritchett, L

    1991-02-01

    Absorption of colostral immunoglobulins by Holstein calves was studied in 3 herds in which 3 methods of colostrum feeding were used. Failure of passive transfer, as determined by calf serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration less than 10 mg/ml at 48 hours of age, was diagnosed in 61.4% of calves from a dairy in which calves were nursed by their dams, 19.3% of calves from a dairy using nipple-bottle feeding, and 10.8% of calves from a dairy using tube feeding. The management factor determined to have the greatest influence on the probability of failure of passive transfer in the herds using artificial methods of colostrum feeding (bottle feeding or tube feeding) was the volume of colostrum fed as it affected the amount of IgG1 received by the calf. In dairies that used artificial feeding methods, failure of passive transfer was infrequent in calves fed greater than or equal to 100 g IgG1 in the first colostrum feeding. In the dairy that allowed calves to suckle, prevalence of failure of passive transfer was greater than 50% even among calves nursed by cows with above-average colostral IgG1 concentration. Analysis of the effect of other management factors on calf immunoglobulin absorption revealed small negative effects associated with the use of previously frozen colostrum and the use of colostrum from cows with long nonlactating intervals.

  12. Calving Interval Covariance Structures for dairy breeds in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    Abstract. Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the ... Calving Interval (CI), Days Open and Pregnancy Rate. The last group of ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA. VanRaden ...

  13. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  14. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...

  16. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depoorter, M.A.; Bamber, J.L.; Griggs, J.A.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Moholdt, G.

    2013-01-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year1, 2. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near

  17. Effect of calving distribution on beef cattle progeny performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Musgrave, J A; Meyer, T L; Larson, D M

    2012-12-01

    Records collected between 1997 and 2010 were used to determine the effect of calving period on heifer (n = 1,019) and steer (n = 771) progeny from the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman, NE. Progeny were classified as being born in the first, second, or third 21-d period of the spring calving season within year. Heifer birth BW was lightest (P Birth to weaning ADG tended (P = 0.10) to be least for heifers born in the first calving period; however, weaning BW decreased (P = 0.03) with advancing calving period. Weaning to prebreeding ADG tended (P = 0.07) to be least for heifers born in the first period; however, prebreeding BW was greatest (P rates were lowest (P = 0.02) for heifers born in the third calving period (90, 86, and 78%, respectively). Birth date of the first calf of the heifer and birth BW decreased (P rates compared with heifers born in the third period. First calf progeny also had an earlier birth date and greater weaning BW. Steer calves born during the first 21 d of the calving season had greater weaning, final, and carcass weights; greater marbling scores; a greater percentage grading USDA modest or greater; and greater carcass value. Calving period of progeny significantly impacts performance.

  18. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van

    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  19. Staphylococcal milk poisoning in calves | Ngatia | Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty out of 89 dairy calves fed on unsold raw milk returned from the fresh milk market, became sick within one hour after consuming the milk. The main clinical signs observed were sudden collapse, bloating, tetany, and diarrhea, seven of the sick calves died and two were submitted for necropsy. Postmortem findings ...

  20. The birth and survival of wildebeest calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, R D; Estes, R K

    1979-05-01

    This paper describes social organization, parturition, post partum behavior of wildebeest mothers and offspring, and calf predation during the annual birth peak in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. The wildebeest's "follower-calf" system, unique among the Bovidae, is remarkably effective in protecting neonates. Even during hte one-month peak, the major predator on calves, the spotted hyena, is unable to feed to satiation. Calf survival is consistently high, despite large fluctuations in the numbers of wildebeest, with consequent effects on the size of the yearly calf crop.

  1. Complex social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Daros, R R; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2014-12-01

    Animals are often reluctant to consume novel feeds. Research suggests that social housing can reduce fearfulness in animals. The aim of this study was to test the prediction that social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves. Beginning immediately at birth, Holstein bull calves were either reared individually (n=18) or in a complex social group with other calves and cows (n=18). In food neophobia tests, calves were exposed to 2 identical buckets, one empty and the other filled with a novel food (chopped hay in trial 1 and chopped carrots in trial 2). Calves were tested for 30 min/d on 3 consecutive days starting at 70 d of age. Regardless of the type of food, socially housed calves consumed more of the novel feed compared with individually housed calves. In trial 1, intake of hay as fed averaged 35 ± 6 versus 18 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves. In trial 2, intake of chopped carrots as fed averaged 27 ± 6 versus 6 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves, respectively. Social rearing decreased the latency to eat the novel feed. Calves housed in a complex social group began eating the hay after 1:23 ± 1:13 versus 3:58 ± 1:10 min:s for individually housed calves. Latency to begin eating the chopped carrots averaged 3:09 ± 1:17 versus 6:38 ± 1:13 min:s for socially versus individually housed calves. Treatment had no effect on time spent eating, latency to approach the food bucket or the empty bucket in either trial, or on time spent manipulating the empty bucket. These results indicate that housing dairy calves in a complex social group reduces food neophobia. More generally, this study contributes to a series of studies showing that calves raised in more complex social environments may be better able to transition to other changes in their environment. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  3. Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism

  4. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive

  5. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo-Salazar, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of passive immunity was determined in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented of total serum protein (TSP) have corresponded to measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, during the months of August and November in 50 dairy farms. 2500 heifer calves born from Holstein cows, Jersey, HolsteinxJersey crosses and others were evaluated. When the TSP concentration has been less than 5,5 g / dl, it was considered as a failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPTI). TSP concentration has ranged between 2,0 and 10,0 g/dl, with an overall mean of 5,9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. The animals sampled have presented 38,8% of FPTI. A significantly higher TSP concentration (P<0,05) to the Holstein breed and others were obtained from the animals from the Jersey breed and HolsteinxJersey crosses. When considering calving of the dam, the concentration of TSP of the offsprings remains without significant differences. The offspring of first calving cows have showed the lowest proportion of animals with FPTI. The TSP concentration has varied significantly (P <0,05) between calves that have remained with the dams and were fed with colostrum by bottle. The FPTI has been higher when calves have stayed with their mother (44 vs. 33%). (Author) [es

  6. Social behavior of young dairy calves housed with limited or full social contact with a peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    grouping in duration of rest and rest with a neighbor. In conclusion, from the age of 3wk of life, calves housed with full social contact performed more social behaviors than calves housed individually with limited social contact, whereas only minor differences were found in the social behavior of calves......This study compared the effect of individual and pair housing and age at pair housing on the social behavior of young dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 wk either individually (limited social contact between bars; L calves), in pairs (full social contact; F...... sniffing and licking another calf more than were the L calves. No difference was found in duration of lying down in body contact with another calf between F and LF calves on d 22; however, on d 34, LF calves performed more of this behavior than did F calves. Continuous recordings of social behavior were...

  7. Genetic parameters for milk yield, age at first calving and interval between first and second calving in milk buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Aspilcueta Borquis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters for the relation between the traits of milk yield (MY, age at first calving (AFC and interval between first and second calving (IBFSC were estimated in milk buffaloes of the Murrah breed. In the study, data of 1578 buffaloes at first lactation, with calvings from 1974 to 2006 were analyzed. The MTDFREML system was used in the analyses with models for the MY, IBFSC traits which included the fixed effects of herd-year-season of calving, linear and quadratic terms of calving age as covariate and the random animal effects and error. The model for AFC consisted of the herd-year-season fixed effects of calving and the random effects of animal and error. Heritability estimates MY, AFC and IBFSC traits were 0.20, 0.07 and 0.14, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the traits were: MY and AFC = -0.12 and -0.15, MY and IBFSC = 0.07 and 0.30, AFC and IBFSC = 0.35 and 0.37, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and AFC traits showed desirable negative association, suggesting that the daughters of the bulls with high breeding value for MY could be physiological maturity to a precocious age. Genetic correlation between MY and IBFSC showed that the selection of the animals that increased milk yield is also those that tend to intervals of bigger calving.

  8. Effect of early calving of Simmentaler heifers under an extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is concluded that improved productivity is unlikely in an early mating system without additional inputs. ... heifers are managed to calve for the first time at three years of age. ..... It should therefore not be considered as a standard management.

  9. [Familial occurrence of diprosopus in German Holstein calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Ursula; Kuiper, Heidi; Doeleke, Renate; Ulrich, Reiner; Gerdwilker, Axel; Distl, Ottmar

    2006-01-01

    Diprosopus was diagnosed in six German Holstein calves born on different dairy farms. The degree of facial duplication varied from a partial doubling of the nostrils and upper jaw to complete duplication of the face with formation of two mouths, four eyes and four ears. Further calves descending from the same parents or dams and calves from the same farms were not affected. A joint pedigree was ascertained for the calves with diprosopus. Furthermore, a previously reported case of diprosopus could be traced back to the same ancestors of this pedigree. Consequently, we detected the first time a familial accumulation of diprosopus. Since the ancestors showed no signs of diprosopus and the frequency of diprosopus in German Holsteins is presumably low, an oligogenic inheritance is likely. Recessive genes or a combination of recessive and dominant genes may cause this anomaly.

  10. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined...

  11. Appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Y.; Aleksandrova, V.

    2010-01-01

    The appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves were studied by means of radiotelemetry. Rumen contractions were registered right after birth. Their amplitude was growing gradually and that was observed best in the first month after birth

  12. Thyroidal status of neonatal and young buffalo calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, S P; Saini, M S; Sengupta, B P; Agarwal, V K [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hissar (India)

    1989-12-01

    Serum thyroidal hormones in four male and four female neonatal buffalo calves up to an age of 117 days were estimated by radiommunoassay technique. Both thyroxine(T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine(T{sub 3}) levels radioimmunoassay were significantly higher at birth through six days of post-natal life. An appreciable sex difference was recorded during this period with male calves having higher values. However, the difference disappeared afterwards. The levels gradually declined by day 27 and then stabilised. T{sub 4}:T{sub 3} ratio was relatively lower in neonatal than young calves and in male than female calves. The higher thyroid hormone levels at birth seem to help in spontaneous adaptation from intrauterine to extrauterine life. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Thyroidal status of neonatal and young buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.; Saini, M.S.; Sengupta, B.P.; Agarwal, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    Serum thyroidal hormones in four male and four female neonatal buffalo calves up to an age of 117 days were estimated by radiommunoassay technique. Both thyroxine(T 4 ) and triiodothyronine(T 3 ) levels radioimmunoassay were significantly higher at birth through six days of post-natal life. An appreciable sex difference was recorded during this period with male calves having higher values. However, the difference disappeared afterwards. The levels gradually declined by day 27 and then stabilised. T 4 :T 3 ratio was relatively lower in neonatal than young calves and in male than female calves. The higher thyroid hormone levels at birth seem to help in spontaneous adaptation from intrauterine to extrauterine life. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs

  14. Incidence of lead poisoning in calves in Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J R

    1964-08-01

    The concentrations of lead in kidneys of slaughtered calves from three slaughterhouses in Northern Ireland were analyzed for lead content to determine the frequency of lead-poisoning-attributable deaths. It was found that about 4% of the calves had concentrations of lead exceeding 25 ppm in the kidney, a level generally accepted to indicate lethality. This finding is substantially higher than previous estimates. 6 references, 1 table.

  15. An Intensive Observation of Calving at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, David M.; Voytenko, Denis; Christianson, Knut; Dixon, Timothy H.; Mei, M. Jeffrey; Parizek, Byron R.; Vankova, Irena; Walker, Ryan T.; Walter, Jacob I.; Nicholls, Keith; hide

    2016-01-01

    Calving of glacial ice into the ocean from the Greenland Ice Sheet is an important component of global sea-level rise. The calving process itself is relatively poorly observed, understood, and modeled; as such, it represents a bottleneck in improving future global sea-level estimates in climate models. We organized a pilot project to observe the calving process at Helheim Glacier in east Greenland in an effort to better understand it. During an intensive one-week survey, we deployed a suite of instrumentation, including a terrestrial radar interferometer, global positioning system (GPS) receivers, seismometers, tsunameters, and an automated weather station. We were fortunate to capture a calving process and to measure various glaciological, oceanographic, and atmospheric parameters before, during, and after the event. One outcome of our observations is evidence that the calving process actually consists of a number of discrete events, spread out over time, in this instance over at least two days. This time span has implications for models of the process. Realistic projections of future global sea level will depend on an accurate parametrization of calving, and we argue that more sustained observations will be required to reach this objective.

  16. Radiographic and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging in healthy calves and calves naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeff, J.; Brom, W.E. van den; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den

    1992-01-01

    Nine calves between three and 18 weeks old with serologically confirmed natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined clinically, radiographically and by radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. The results were compared with those from seven healthy calves. The diseased calves were euthanased and examined pathologically, virologically and bacteriologically. The clinical signs indicated that the disease was in an acute stage. Radiography of the diseased animals revealed cysts, corresponding morphologically with bullous emphysema, and infiltrations roughly corresponding in distribution with atelectatic and, or, pneumonic areas. Radionuclide lung perfusion imaging revealed no perfusion shifts between the left and right lungs and a normal perfusion pattern in five of the nine diseased calves. The abnormalities in the perfusion patterns of three calves were probably caused by anatomical disorders such as cysts and pleural adhesions, but no cause of the abnormality could be found in one calf. These findings suggest that in calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, the normal perfusion pattern is maintained until anatomical disorders occur. The pathological examination and radiography revealed that the cranioventral lung fields were particularly poorly ventilated. This finding and the normal perfusion pattern indicate that these parts of the lungs are probably the sites where shuntings and perfusion-ventilation mismatchings occur

  17. Reproduction performance of cows with single, twin and triplet calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse data on 74,081 calvings, subsequent lactation performance and culling of 23,588 Black-and-White cows improved with Holstein-Friesians. The animals represented the active population in Pomerania and Kujavia, first calved in 2000 and 2001, and were culled before the end of 2008. Frequency of calvings, which averaged 1.5% for twin births and just 0.02% for triplet births, increased with age of cow and also with increasing milk yield in the preceding lactation. Performance results showed that mothers of twins were superior to mothers of single calves in terms of milk yield (1.3 kg milk/day milking. Despite the greater perinatal mortality of twins and triplets, multiple pregnancies gave rise to a greater number of calves compared to single pregnancies. However, multiple pregnancies were accompanied by adverse effects such as increased proportion of complications requiring human assistance, mechanical assistance and veterinary intervention (1.2 × more. Fertility of the cows deteriorated after multiple pregnancies, with particularly unfavourable indicators of fertility found for triplet births, decreased chance of survival to the next calving, and increased culling rates in cows, especially due to udder diseases, infertility, reproductive diseases, old age, metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases, and locomotor system diseases. It was found that the increasing milk yield was paralleled by the increasing proportion of multiple pregnancies. This has highlighted the need for early and reliable diagnosis and management of twin pregnancies, which is supposed to facilitate parturition and ensure survival of calves.

  18. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  19. RESEARCH ON THE INFLLUENCE OF THE CALVING INTERVAL ON MILK YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  20. Measurements of normal joint angles by goniometry in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengöz Şirin, O; Timuçin Celik, M; Ozmen, A; Avki, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normal reference values of the forelimb and hindlimb joint angles in normal Holstein calves. Thirty clinically normal Holstein calves that were free of any detectable musculoskeletal abnormalities were included in the study. A standard transparent plastic goniometer was used to measure maximum flexion, maximum extension, and range-of-motion of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints. The goniometric measurements were done on awake calves that were positioned in lateral recumbency. The goniometric values were measured and recorded by two independent investigators. As a result of the study it was concluded that goniometric values obtained from awake calves in lateral recumbency were found to be highly consistent and accurate between investigators (p <0.05). The data of this study acquired objective and useful information on the normal forelimb and hindlimb joint angles in normal Holstein calves. Further studies can be done to predict detailed goniometric values from different diseases and compare them.

  1. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  2. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  3. Assessing values of Arctic wildlife and habitat subject to potential petroleum development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge system of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is predicated on the principle of conserving and perpetuating the natural diversity and abundance of wildlife and wildlands. The prospect of petroleum development on the 1002 area of the 10,000 km 2 pristine coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) has been a contentious national issue. The FWS assessed the habitat and its constituent wildlife species to determine potential impacts from this development. As part of the assessment effort, research was conducted on the 163,000 member porcupine caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herd, its primary predator at calving, brown bear (Ursus arctos), and the vegetation communities on the coastal plain. We found the traditional calving area within the 1002 area had significantly greater forage species availability and nutrient quality than areas peripheral to the 1002 area. Increased post-perinatal, predator-related mortality has been associated with the foothills and mountains adjacent to the 1002 area. Displacement of the calving caribou from the 1002 area would mean a lesser abundance of high quality forage for calving cows, and calves would be subjected to a potentially higher predation risk. These factors could have a negative impact on the population dynamics of the Porcupine herd. If petroleum development were authorized on the 1002 area of ANWR, the challenge for the FWS will be to assure that the dynamics of the tundra ecosystem are adequately understood and to conserve the abundance and diversity of natural wildlife populations and their habitat

  4. Report: Tamreinen på Grønland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Larsen, P. & Aastrup, P. 1981: Undersøgelser over tamrenbestanden (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. ved Itivnera, Vestgrønland. - Viltundersøgelser, Hæfte 35. Viltbiologisk Station, Kalø, DK-8410 Rønde.

  5. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...... between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation...

  6. Conception rate of beef cows and growth of suckling calves as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optimizing preweaning growth of suckling calves and reconcep- tion of the lactating cow. ... daily requirements of a lactating beef cow grazing spring grass. ...... buffalo cows which had the greatest mass at calving also lost most thereafter, when ...

  7. Housing and environment for dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J E

    1980-03-01

    Many cases of poor health in calves have been traced to bad management and inadequate ventilation in the calf nursery. Important management principles for improved calf health include calf housing isolated from the adult herd and periodic depopulation and sanitizing of the calf nursery area. In good weather, low-cost calf rearing portables such as the "calf hutch" can provide alternative housing during the cleanup period.Calf nursery ventilation systems must have flexibility to give the full winter-to-summer range of controlled ventilation rates and critical air inlet adjustments. Earlier recommendations were for three stepped ventilation rates of 3.3, 6.6 and 24 L/s per calf to cover the range from cold winter to warm summer weather. Later recommendations are for a simpler two stepped fan system starting at 6.7 L/s (continuous winter rate) and increasing to 50 L/s for temperature control in warm to hot weather. Even with the best insulated construction, increased supplementary heating is required to support this increased continuous winter ventilation. To save energy the heating must be controlled to stop before the higher-rate ventilation starts. Other design features for more uniform temperatures and improved calf nursery ventilation include: 1) preheating the ventilation air before it enters the calf room, 2) distributing air to the ceiling with round holes and adjustable slots adjusted to give at least 4 m/s inlet velocity, 3) using a properly sized centrifugal fan running continuously to exhaust air from near the floor in winter and 4) protecting air intakes and fan openings from the effects of wind. Air recirculation systems and variable-speed fans are not recommended.

  8. How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two syste....../days). The prevalence of both diarrhoea and respiratory disease were more than twice as high among calves in dynamic groups compared to calves in stable groups....

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    George Cosmin Nadas; Flore Chirila; Cosmina Bouari; Nicodim Fit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders...

  10. Boundary layer models for calving marine outlet glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schoof

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers that are laterally confined in a channel of prescribed width. In that case, the drag exerted by the channel side walls on a floating ice shelf can reduce extensional stress at the grounding line. If ice flux through the grounding line increases with both ice thickness and extensional stress, then a longer shelf can reduce ice flux by decreasing extensional stress. Consequently, calving has an effect on flux through the grounding line by regulating the length of the shelf. In the absence of a shelf, it plays a similar role by controlling the above-flotation height of the calving cliff. Using two calving laws, one due to Nick et al. (2010 based on a model for crevasse propagation due to hydrofracture and the other simply asserting that calving occurs where the glacier ice becomes afloat, we pose and analyse a flowline model for a marine-terminating glacier by two methods: direct numerical solution and matched asymptotic expansions. The latter leads to a boundary layer formulation that predicts flux through the grounding line as a function of depth to bedrock, channel width, basal drag coefficient, and a calving parameter. By contrast with unbuttressed marine ice sheets, we find that flux can decrease with increasing depth to bedrock at the grounding line, reversing the usual stability criterion for steady grounding line location. Stable steady states can then have grounding lines located on retrograde slopes. We show how this anomalous behaviour relates to the strength of lateral versus basal drag on the grounded portion of the glacier and to the specifics of the calving law used.

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG is a potential probiotic for calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Diarrhea is a common occurrence in neonatal calves. Several veterinary probiotics claiming to prevent or treat calf diarrhea are available, but have not been well studied. This study assessed the capability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) to maintain viability in the gastrointestinal tract of calves. We also determined whether LGG can be administered in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) without compromising the efficacy of the ORS or the viability of LGG, and whether LGG produces D-lactate or not. To investigate the intestinal survival of LGG, 15 calves were randomized into 3 groups and LGG was administered orally with their morning milk feeding on 3 consecutive days at a low (LD), medium (MD), or high (HD) dosage. Fecal samples were collected on days 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 and incubated for 72 h on deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar. Twenty-four hours after the 1st feeding, LGG was recovered from 1 out of 5 calves in the LD group, 4 out of 5 calves in the MD group, and 5 out of 5 calves in the HD group. To determine if LGG caused the glucose levels in the ORS to drop below effective levels, 1.5 L of the ORS was incubated with LGG for 2 h at 37°C and the glucose concentration was measured every 20 min using a glucose meter. This ORS was then further incubated for 10 h and aliquots analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to determine if D-lactate was produced by LGG. Glucose concentrations did not change over the 2 h of incubation, and no D-lactate was produced after 48 h. The LGG maintained viability in ORS. Therefore, this study demonstrated that LGG survives intestinal transit in the young calf, produces no D-lactate, and can be administered in an ORS. PMID:15581218

  12. Influence of puberty and antral follicle count on calving day in crossbred beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeel, Anthony K; Cushman, Robert A

    2015-10-15

    Lifetime productivity and longevity are greater in beef cows that give birth early in their first calving season. The ability of heifers to conceive early in the breeding season is traditionally thought to be a function of pubertal status; however, recent evidence suggests that antral follicle count is positively associated with calving day in pubertal beef heifers. Additionally, there is evidence to suggest that the total number of ovarian follicles may alter response to hormonal synchronization protocols. The objectives of this study were to confirm the beneficial influence of antral follicle count on calving day in beef heifers and to determine whether response to PGF2α is associated with differences in antral follicle counts. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was designed to investigate the interaction between calving period (early vs. late) and PGF2α (control vs. PGF) on calving day and antral follicle count in yearling beef heifers (n = 95). As intended, calving day was less in the early calving period compared to the late calving period (P 0.05). There was a significant interaction between calving period and PGF2α on age at first calving (P reproductive tract scoring for commercial production because of its association with calving day. As a prebreeding ovarian phenotype, antral follicle counts may hold additional applicability for organic beef producers looking to reduce the length of their calving season without increasing the total number of replacement heifers retained. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  14. Reaction of calves to two flooring materials offered simultaneously in one pen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanowska, J.; Swierstra, D.; Smits, A.C.; Berg, van den J.V.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Now that group housing is replacing individual crates, so that calves can lie, stand and walk on the pen floor, the quality of the floor for group-housed calves has become the focus of attention. The reaction of two groups of four calves to a double area of floor made from two materials (wooden

  15. Tidal and seasonal variations in calving flux observed with passive seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; West, Michael E.; O'Neel, Shad; Pettit, Erin C.; Truffer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The seismic signatures of calving events, i.e., calving icequakes, offer an opportunity to examine calving variability with greater precision than is available with other methods. Here using observations from Yahtse Glacier, Alaska, we describe methods to detect, locate, and characterize calving icequakes. We combine these icequake records with a coincident, manually generated record of observed calving events to develop and validate a statistical model through which we can infer iceberg sizes from the properties of calving icequakes. We find that the icequake duration is the single most significant predictor of an iceberg's size. We then apply this model to 18 months of seismic recordings and find elevated iceberg calving flux during the summer and fall and a pronounced lull in calving during midwinter. Calving flux is sensitive to semidiurnal tidal stage. Large calving events are tens of percent more likely during falling and low tides than during rising and high tides, consistent with a view that deeper water has a stabilizing influence on glacier termini. Multiple factors affect the occurrence of mechanical fractures that ultimately lead to iceberg calving. At Yahtse Glacier, seismology allows us to demonstrate that variations in the rate of submarine melt are a dominant control on iceberg calving rates at seasonal timescales. On hourly to daily timescales, tidal modulation of the normal stress against the glacier terminus reveals the nonlinear glacier response to changes in the near-terminus stress field.

  16. Including gene networks to predict calving ease in Holstein, Brown Swiss and Jersey cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Calving difficulty or dystocia has a great economic impact in the US dairy industry. Reported risk factors associated with calving difficulty are feto-pelvic disproportion, gestation length and conformation. Different dairy cattle breeds have different incidence of calving difficulty, wit...

  17. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  18. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M

    2002-01-01

    Earlier reports indicate that calves derived from in vitro produced (IVP) embryos are more susceptible to neonatal disease than calves produced after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether calves born after IVP embryos show...

  19. [High incidence of jaundice in young calves in Southern Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, M; Wieland, M; Rademacher, G; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Langenmayer, M C; Ammer, H; Klee, W

    2012-10-17

    Between September, 2010, and August, 2011, a series of cases of jaundice of unknown origin in young calves was detected in a number of farms in Southern Germany. This paper describes the syndrome on the basis of 57 cases, and the approach taken to discover the cause. The clinical course of the disease is described in 19 patients. Using a case definition (calves aged 1-3 weeks, total serum bilirubin > 20 µmol/l and/or serum glutamate dehydrogenase [GLDH] activity >50U/l and/or autopsy findings with striking liver pathology [jaundice, liver dystrophy, cirrhosis]), 36 farms were included in an epidemiological survey. In a feeding trial, two batches of a dietary supplement feed, previously used in diseased calves on farms, were fed at the dosage recommendations of the manufacturer to four clinically healthy calves over 5days. Four other calves served as controls. The calves were clinically monitored daily, and blood samples were investigated using clinical chemistry and haematology. Clinical examination revealed behavioural alterations (weakness, tonic-clonic seizures and bawling just before death), recumbency, jaundice and discolouration of faeces. In less severe cases without clinical signs, there was an increase in serum bilirubin concentration and/or GLDH activity. In the epidemiological survey of affected farms, the feeding of a diet supplement feed was registered in 54 of 57 cases. The feeding of two batches of that diet supplement feed to four clinically healthy calves resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in bilirubin and lactate concentrations, as well as the GLDH activity in serum, but without serious impairment of the general condition, whereas in control calves, no comparable changes were observed. The results of the epidemiological survey and the feeding trial suggest a causal involvement of a dietary supplement feed. The toxic principle is unknown. Knowledge of the clinical picture and the probable feed-related context is important to detect this

  20. Mortality, diarrhea and respiratory disease in Danish dairy heifer calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiten, M.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    system (conventional/organic), season (summer/winter) and calf mortality risk, diarrhea, signs of respiratory disease and ocular discharge, respectively, for dairy heifer calves aged 0–180 days. Sixty Danish dairy herds, 30 conventional and 30 organic, were visited once during summer and once during......Diarrhea and respiratory disease are major health problems for dairy calves, often causing calf mortality. Previous studies have found calf mortality to be higher in organic dairy herds compared to conventional herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between production...... variables and in certain age groups, dependent on production system and season....

  1. Management of Preconditioned Calves and Impacts of Preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, W Mark

    2015-07-01

    When studying the practice of preconditioning (PC) calves, many factors need to be examined to determine if cow-calf producers should make this investment. Factors such as average daily gain, feed efficiency, available labor, length of the PC period, genetics, and marketing options must be analyzed. The health sales price advantage is an additional benefit in producing and selling PC calves but not the sole determinant of PC's financially feasibility. Studies show that a substantial advantage of PC is the selling of additional pounds at a cost of gain well below the marginal return of producing those additional pounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acid-base disorders in calves with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, M; Kupczyński, R; Sobiech, P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze disorders of acid-base balance in calves with chronic diarrhea caused by mixed, viral, bacterial and Cryptosporydium parvum infection. We compared results ob- tained with the classic model (Henderson-Hasselbalch) and strong ion approach (the Steward model). The study included 36 calves aged between 14 and 21 days. The calves were allocated to three groups: I - (control) non-diarrheic calves, group II - animals with compensated acid-base imbalance and group III calves with compensated acid-base disorders and hypoalbuminemia. Plasma concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl-, C12+, Mg2+, P, albumin and lactate were measured. In the classic model, acid-base balance was determined on the basis of blood pH, pCO2, HCO3-, BE and anion gap. In the strong ion model, strong ion difference (SID), effective strong anion difference, total plasma concentration of nonvolatile buffers (A(Tot)) and strong ion gap (SIG) were measured. The control calves and the animals from groups II and III did not differ significantly in terms of their blood pH. The plasma concentration of HCO3-, BE and partial pressure of CO2 in animals from the two groups with chronic diarrhea were significantly higher than those found in the controls. The highest BE (6.03 mmol/l) was documented in calves from group II. The animals from this group presented compensation resulted from activation of metabolic mechanisms. The calves with hypoal- buminemia (group III) showed lower plasma concentrations of albumin (15.37 g/L), Cl (74.94 mmol/L), Mg2+ (0.53 mmol/L), P (1.41 mmol/L) and higher value of anion gap (39.03 mmol/L). This group III presented significantly higher SID3 (71.89 mmol/L), SID7 (72.92 mmol/L) and SIG (43.53 mmol/L) values than animals from the remaining groups (P acid-base disturbance in these cases suggests that classic model have some limitations. This model can not be recommended for use whenever serum albumin or phosphate concentrations are markedly abnormal.

  3. Comparisons of housing, bedding, and cooling options for dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-04-01

    Housing, bedding, and summer cooling were management options evaluated. Holstein calves (42±2 kg of body weight) initially 2 to 5 d of age were managed in southwest Ohio in poly hutches or wire mesh pens in a curtain-sided nursery with no supplemental heat. Calves were fed milk replacer (27% crude protein, 17% fat fed at 0.657 kg of dry matter per calf daily), starter (20% crude protein dry matter, textured, fed free-choice), and water (free-choice). Measurements were for 56 d. In trial 1, 28 calves per treatment were bedded with straw and housed in either hutches or nursery pens. This trial was conducted from September to March; the average temperature was 8°C and ranged from -17 to 31°C. In trial 2a, 16 calves per treatment were managed in nursery pens bedded with straw, in nursery pens bedded with sand, or in hutches bedded with sand. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 21°C and ranged from 7 to 33°C. In trial 2b, 26 calves per treatment were housed in nursery pens and bedded with straw. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 22°C and ranged from 8 to 34°C. One treatment was cooled with fans between 0800 and 1700 h and the other was not. Data were analyzed as repeated measures in a completely randomized block design by trial, with calf as the experimental unit. In trial 3, air in the nursery and calf hutches used above was sampled 35 d apart for calves aged 5 and 40 d. Air in individual hutches on 2 commercial farms was sampled for 5- and 40-d-old calves for 2 hutch types. Air in the multi-calf hutches was sampled for calves of 75 and 110 d of age. Bacterial concentrations of air samples were analyzed (log10) as odds ratios by Proc Logistic in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); differences were declared at Pbedding were greater and scouring was less than that in calves bedded with sand in the nursery or hutches. The relative humidity was greater in the hutches than in

  4. Clinical mastitis from calving to next conception negatively affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis between calving and next conception on reproductive performance in Chinese Holstein cows. Six hundred and three multiparous Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm were divided into three groups respectively: cows with first clinical mastitis ...

  5. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar to induce pneumonia in healthy calves under conditions closely resembling the supposed natural way of infection, viz, by inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the microorganisms. The infections were...

  6. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute

  7. Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves. P.T.C. Johnson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  8. The effect of yeast culture addition on utility of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, examined was the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Strain 47 on performance (especially on daily gains, feed conversion and condition in an experiment with a group of Holstein calves within the period of plant nutrition. Animals received a diet consisting of 3 kg of good maize silage, 5.5 kg of grass haylage, 1 kg of meadow hay and 1.6 kg of supplementary starter feed mixture ČOT B. The yeast culture was added to the starter in the dose of 1 g.kg–1. This means that each experimental calf received 1.6 g of yeast culture per day. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on daily gains and on the final body weight of calves; however, the differences were statistically not significant (P>0.05. In control and experimental groups, the mean conversion rates of concentrate were 2.19 kg and 2.13 kg, respectively. There was no difference in feed intake and feed conversion efficiency. The difference in final live body weights of calves in the control and experimental groups was also not significant. However, the condition of calves in the experimental group was much better and the scours were in general less frequent.

  9. CLOSTAT alters the serum metabolome of Holstein Steer Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are gaining increased interest in calf feeding operations as some producers seek novel, non-antibiotic technologies to improve health and performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum metabolomic compounds of Holstein steer calves supplemented with C...

  10. Characterization of bifidobacteria suitable for probiotic use in calves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Domig, K. J.; Killer, Jiří; Vlková, E.; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Ročková, Š.; Rada, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), 166-168 ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091; GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Identification * calves Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.022, year: 2012

  11. The immunological response of RB51 vaccinated buffalo calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune status of RB51 vaccinated buffaloes was evaluated using tube agglutination test (TAT) and ELISA, using both periplasmic protein antigen (PPA) and lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS). For this purpose, three groups of buffalo calves were used. The first one received S19 vaccine subcutaneously; the second was ...

  12. Performance and physiological responses of milk-fed calves to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCB) on calf performance and some blood parameters. Sixteen female Holstein calves with a mean age of 3 ± 1 d were divided into two equal groups and fed a milk replacer supplemented with 3 g of coated calcium butyrate (CCB)/day or with no ...

  13. Biological evaluation of mechanical circulatory support systems in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; VanDerMeer, J; Kik, C; Mihaylov, D; Havlik, P; Trinkl, J; Monties, [No Value

    Data from animal experiments with mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS) performed in Groningen and Marseille over the past years were used to obtain normal values of hematological, coagulation, rheological and blood chemistry parameters in calves. These parameters were divided between two

  14. Consequences of Selection for Yield Traits on Calving Ease Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez de Maturana, E.; Ugarte, E.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the

  15. Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the negative effects that selection for production have on fertility. CI can be derived from milk recording data, therefore this fertility trait can easily be implemented in the National Dairy Genetic Evaluations of South Africa. The aim of this ...

  16. Genetic relationships between calving interval and linear type traits in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic correlations between first calving interval (CI) and linear type traits in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle were estimated to assess the possibility of using type information as selection criteria for CI. All linear type traits routinely evaluated under the National Genetic Evaluation Programme (18 for Jersey and 17 ...

  17. Natural markings and their use in determining calving intervals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-10-06

    Oct 6, 1987 ... Since 1979, 245 right whales (excluding calves) have been individually identified in aerial ... From a simple model it is shown that .... were exposed, and notes taken of associated information .... predominantly male, or that their female component is ... In order to compare the incidence of partial albinism.

  18. Ferrokinetic studies in normal and iron deficiency anemic calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellerberg, L.; Ekman, L.; Jacobsson, S.-O.

    1975-01-01

    inetic studies were performed on control calves and on calves with experimentallally induced iron deficiency anemia, all 15 weeks old. The plasma iron clearance half time was about 4 times shorter in the experimental than in the control group. The low plasma iron concentration in the anemic calves was partially compensated by a more rapid plasma iron disappearance. Therefore the difference in the plasma iron turnover rate was reduced. The mean value of plasma iron renewal rate was about 3 times higher in the experimental than in the control group. The maximum uptake of injected 59 Fe into blood cells was reached 14 to 16 days after injection. The uptake of 59 Fe was about 10 % higher in the control than in the experimental group. Using the values from the ferrokinetietic study, the iron need for calves could be estimated. The requirement of iron to maintain a normal and constant Hb in a calf weighing 100 kg at a growth rate of 1 kg/daily was estimated as being 17.5 mg/day. Based on information in the literature and assuming a retention of dietary Fe of 25 %, the total daily iron need for such a calf gaining 1 kg/day would be 160-180 mg. (author)

  19. A note on the early calving of beef heifers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and weaning mass (156,3 versus 174,4) of the progeny produced by the two groups ... production in the early calving group due to reduced udder development. ..... adipose tissue is different to that of a lean heifer and that this storage adipose ...

  20. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  1. Atypical pestivirus and severe respiratory disease in calves, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Cirone, Francesco; Cordioli, Paolo; Camero, Michele; Sciarretta, Rossana; Losurdo, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-08-01

    In 2010, a HoBi-like pestivirus was isolated from clinically affected calves in Italy. This European virus reproduced a milder form of disease under experimental conditions and was genetically related to previously reported HoBi-like strains. Isolation of this novel virus from a clinical outbreak may have implications for cattle health and prophylactic programs.

  2. Host differences in response to trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo, Ongole and Bali calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedosari, E; Hayakawa, H; Copeman, B

    2006-01-01

    Progressive weight gain, faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, percent eosinophils in blood, serum antibody and serum levels of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were recorded in seven swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis), 7 Ongole (Bos indicus) and four Bali calves (Bos sundiacus) which were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks. Similar observations were made on four buffalo, 4 Ongole calves and 3 Bali calves maintained fluke-free as controls. Flukes were counted at slaughter 36 weeks after initial infection. Mean daily weight gains of infected Bali (228 +/- 100 (SD) g/day) and infected Ongole calves (328 +/- 57 (SD) g/day) were lower (p = 0.026 and 0.067, respectively) than those of control calves (405 +/- 107 (SD) g/day), but infected buffalo calves (379 +/- 78 (SD) g/day) had similar weight gains to those of the controls (p = 0.57). Throughout the trial, faecal Fasciola egg counts in buffaloes were about one-fifth of counts of Ongole calves, and counts in Bali calves were intermediate. Ongole calves had three times the number of flukes at slaughter in their liver compared to buffalo and Bali calves, which had similar numbers. However, there was evidence that Bali calves had acquired a degree of resistance about 24 weeks after infection commenced and may have lost adult flukes as a consequence.

  3. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  4. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, S.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF AGE AT FIRST CALVING IN KARAN FRIES CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 571 Karan Fries (crossing Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows with American Holstein Friesian sires at NDRI, Karnal was studied for determination of optimum age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis (Harvey, 1975 was used to see the effect of sire, period and season of calving and was corrected for significant effect of non-genetic factors. The genetic and phenotypic parameters was estimated for the sires which had five or more progenies. The relationship between age at first calving with other traits were studied by using regression analysis and class interval method. The least squaqres means of age at first calving (AFC, first lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FL305Y, first lactation total milk yield (FLTMY, milk yield per day of first lactation length (MY/FLL and milk yield per day of first calving interval (MY/FCI was estimated as 940.98 ± 44.24 days, 3199+ 44.24 kgs, 3599.06 ± 54.96 kgs, 10.50 ± 0.14 kgs and 7.52 ± 0.26 kgs , respectively. The heritability estimates of these traits were moderate. The AFC had significant and positive phenotypic correlation with FL305Y, FLTMY, MY/FLL and MY/FCI. The genetic correlation of AFC with FLTMY was positive. Relationship between AFC and first lactation production traits could not be explained through regression analysis therefore class interval method was used to find at the relationship. Eight classes of AFC was used to find out the relationship. Optimum AFC was identified based on higher milk production and numbers of animals in various classes as 26-36 months. To determine the optimum range of AFC, much emphasis should be given as maximum profit rather than maximizing milk production.

  6. Effects of Topical Anaesthetic and Buccal Meloxicam Treatments on Concurrent Castration and Dehorning of Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Van der Saag

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of pain relief during castration and dehorning of calves on commercial beef operations can be limited by constraints associated with the delivery of analgesic agents. As topical anaesthetic (TA and buccal meloxicam (MEL are now available in Australia, offering practical analgesic treatments for concurrent castration and dehorning of beef calves, a study was conducted to determine their efficacy in providing pain relief when applied separately or in combination. Weaner calves were randomly allocated to; (1 no castration and dehorning/positive control (CONP; (2 castration and dehorning/negative control (CONN; (3 castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam (BM; (4 castration and dehorning with topical anaesthetic (TA; and (5 castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam and topical anaesthetic (BMTA. Weight gain, paddock utilisation, lying activity and individual behaviours following treatment were measured. CONP and BMTA calves had significantly greater weight gain than CONN calves (p < 0.001. CONN calves spent less time lying compared to BMTA calves on all days (p < 0.001. All dehorned and castrated calves spent more time walking (p = 0.024 and less time eating (p < 0.001 compared to CONP calves. There was a trend for CONP calves to spend the most time standing and CONN calves to spend the least time standing (p = 0.059. There were also trends for the frequency of head turns to be lowest in CONP and BMTA calves (p = 0.098 and tail flicks to be highest in CONN and BM calves (p = 0.061. The findings of this study suggest that TA and MEL can potentially improve welfare and production of calves following surgical castration and amputation dehorning.

  7. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a HoBi-...

  8. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a H...

  9. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Carr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  10. Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkby G. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.

  11. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP in some calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlin Annette

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP, is characterized by multiple (external and internal haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every

  12. Effect of acetate Ringer's solution with or without 5% dextrose administered intravenously to diarrheic calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukano, Kenji; Kato, Satoko; Sarashina, Shinya; Abe, Izumi; Ajito, Tadaharu; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2017-04-20

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of intravenous acetate Ringer's solution, with or without dextrose, on diarrheic calves with either experimentally induced or spontaneous diarrhea. In the experimental model, diarrhea was induced in nine healthy calves by administering cold milk (below 4°C) twice a day for 2 days. The calves were randomly assigned to the isotonic saline (ISS), acetated Ringer's (AR) or acetated Ringer's with 5% dextrose (ARD) groups, with three calves assigned to each group. The calves received 80 ml/kg of their designated solution, at a flow rate of 20 ml/kg/hr. Infusion of ISS, AR and ARD were all found to be safe and effective in increasing plasma volume. Intravenous (IV) infusion of ISS resulted in the acidification secondary to dilution, while AR and ARD infusion inhibited acidification. In addition, prevention of catabolism was observed only with IV infusion of ARD. Sixteen calves with spontaneous diarrhea were enrolled in the clinical study. The calves were randomly assigned to the AR or ARD groups, with eight calves being assigned to each group. The calves received 100 ml/kg of their designated solution, at a flow rate of 25 ml/kg/hr. Intravenous infusion of AR and ARD was found to be effective in increasing plasma volume and inhibiting acidification. Only infusion of ARD prevented catabolism, but it also led to hyperglycemia. Our results suggest that a solution containing dextrose may be beneficial for wasting diarrheic calves.

  13. VITAL SIGNS AND FIRST OCCURRENCES IN NORMAL AND ABNORMAL NEWBORN ASIAN ELEPHANT ( ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) CALVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Ellen; Kiso, Wendy K; Aria, Janice; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William; Jacobson, Gary; Jacobson, Kathy; Schmitt, Dennis

    2017-12-01

    Sixteen years of medical records documenting 19 births within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) at a private facility in the southeastern United States were reviewed. Of the 19 calves, 11 were normal at birth, requiring no additional veterinary care, and eight were abnormal, requiring veterinary care immediately or within the first week of birth. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate morphometrics, vital signs, and behavioral milestones in newborn calves both normal and abnormal. Blood work and urinalysis results from all calves were compared to values for adult elephants. Medical management of abnormal calves is described. All calves had faster heart rates and respiratory rates than did adult elephants, but rectal temperatures were the same. Calves were precocious with regard to sitting and standing but could be very slow to nurse. The most-common medical conditions of newborn calves were umbilical abnormalities and problems associated with nursing. Two calves required cardiopulmonary resuscitation after birth but made full recoveries. Some conditions were not apparent at birth but were recognized a few hours or days later. Following veterinary intervention, six of the eight calves made full recoveries, suggesting that early identification and treatment of problems can greatly decrease mortality. This is the first report of multiple veterinary and behavioral parameters in normal and abnormal neonatal Asian elephants from a facility with a calf survival rate above 90%. This information may be helpful to other elephant-holding facilities in providing care to their newborn elephant calves.

  14. Neonatal morbidity and mortality of 31 calves derived from somatic cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisville, A-C; Fecteau, G; Boysen, S; Desrochers, A; Dorval, P; Buczinski, S; Lefebvre, R; Hélie, P; Blondin, P; Smith, L C

    2013-01-01

    The neonatal period is associated with high morbidity and mortality in cloned calves. To describe morbidity and mortality in cloned calves from birth to 2 years of age. Thirty-one somatic cell-derived Holstein calves delivered at a veterinary teaching hospital. Medical files were retrospectively analyzed. Four calves were stillborn. Five calves born alive had physical congenital defects. Twenty-three calves had an enlarged umbilical cord. Laboratory abnormalities included acidemia, respiratory acidosis, hyperlactatemia, anemia, stress leukogram, decreased total protein, albumin and globulins, and increased creatinine. Twenty-five calves survived the 1st hour of life. Among them, 11 stood without assistance within 6 hours of birth, 10 calves took longer than 6 hours to stand, and 4 never stood. Twenty-two calves suffered from anorexia. Twelve calves had complications arising from umbilical cord infections. Three calves developed idiopathic hyperthermia (>40°C). Eight calves suffered from gastrointestinal problems, including ruminal distension, abomasal ulcers, neonatal enteritis, intussusception, and abomasal displacement. Mortality between birth and 3 weeks of age was 32% (10/31). Causes of death and reasons for euthanasia included stillbirths, respiratory failure, and limb deformities. Mortality between 3 weeks and 2 years of age was 19% (4/21), with deaths in this group attributed to generalized peritonitis and complications arising from umbilical infections. Overall, mortality rate within 2 years of age was 14/31 (45%). Respiratory problems, limb deformities, and umbilical infections were the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in these cloned calves. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Accelerated Growth Programme with Polyherbal Formulations for Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Hadiya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental field study in approximately one month old, forty eight Jaffrabadi buffalo calves was carried out to evaluate efficacy of herbal formulations on growth & average daily gain. Calves were randomly divided into four groups, one control & three treatments. Treated groups were administered herbal formulations; Ruchamax, AV/DAC/16 @5gm/calf/day & Yakrifit @1 bolus/calf/day following treatment regimen of once a week per month for three consecutive months therapy. Growth related parameters were recorded for ninety days of experimental trial. It was observed that supplementation of herbal growth promoter & liver tonic products significantly improved liver function, feed assimilation & digestibility of ration ultimately leading to gain in body weight as compared to untreated control group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 62-64

  16. The effect of group composition and age on social behaviour and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færevik, G.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Bøe, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were...... period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas...... time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves...

  17. Is The Bovine Pedal Bone Sinking Around Calving?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Kurt; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Capion, Nynne

    weeks. The correlation between “days from calving” and “thickness of the soft tissue” was 0.31 (Pearson’s, p...Introduction Softening of connective tissue of the claw suspensory apparatus around calving as described by Tarlton, et al. (2002) may lead to sinking of the bovine pedal bone resulting in compression of the digital cushion. The objective of this study was to describe changes in the thickness...

  18. Serum Protein Electrophoretic Pattern in Neonatal Calves Treated with Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Marc

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine the effects of clinoptilolite supplemented in colostrum on the blood serum protein electrophoretic pattern of new-born calves. Methods: Romanian Black and White new-born calves involved in the study were divided into 3 groups: the control group (C that received colostrum without clinoptilolite, and experimental groups I (E1 and II (E2 that received colostrum supplemented with 0.5% and 2% clinoptilolite, respectively. The concentration of total protein and protein fractions (albumin, α1-globulin, α2-globulin, β-globulin and γ-globulin were analyzed by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate. Results: At hour 30 after birth, concentrations of γ-globulins, β-globulin and total protein in E1 group of calves were higher than in control group by 42.11% (p < 0.05, 28.48% (p > 0.05 and 18.52% (p > 0.05, respectively, and were higher, but not significantly, in group E2 compared to the control group. This was in accordance with a significant lower albumin/globulin ratio in groups E1 and E2 (29.35%, p < 0.05 and 35.87%, p < 0.05, respectively than in control group at 30 h postpartum, which indicates an obvious increase of the globulins fraction in experimental groups. The conclusion: Clinoptilolite was effective in improving passive transfer in new-born calves, but it was more effective if added in colostrum with a dose of 0.5% than with a dose of 2%.

  19. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... via esophageal tube before feeding; increased, in which calves were fed half milk ration at the previous feeding, or control, in which calves were fed normal ration at the previous feeding) on feeding behavior of calves fed via different tube diameters (6.0, 3.0, or 1.5 mm). Behavior observed during...... levels. The present results show that only a rather high reduction in tube diameter led to reduced drinking rate. Neither reduced nor increased hunger levels led to changes in drinking rate, but calves showed reduced nonnutritive sucking and butting when they were less hungry and increased nonnutritive...

  20. Minimising the stress of weaning of beef calves: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerfeld Rodolfo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weaning of beef calves is usually done abruptly and early compared to the natural weaning of the species, and is associated with simultaneous exposure of calves to a range of social and environmental stressors. Behavioural and physiological responses to weaning indicate detrimental effects on the welfare of these animals. The development and assessment of weaning methods aiming at reducing or avoiding this problem must be supported by scientific knowledge of the morphological, physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and braking of the cow-calf bond. Solutions also depend on the understanding of the various stressors associated with weaning, among which are the change in diet, cessation of nursing, separation from the dam, the change to a new spatial environment and the need for social reorganization following removal of the adults from the group. This review discusses these issues and assesses the effectiveness of the methods so far proposed for improving the welfare of beef calves during the weaning period.

  1. Dermatophilosis in Nelore calves in Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbieri Bacha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe two outbreaks of dermatophilosis in Nelore calves in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul with epidemiological characteristics peculiar to the Midwest. Morbidity and mortality rates were 50% and 0.0025% in the outbreak 1, and 12.5% and 10% in the outbreak 2, respectively. Only Nelore calves aging between 5 and 60 days were affected. Most cases occurred on pastures of Brachiaria brizantha during the rainy season. In both outbreaks, the signs started with skin thickening followed by weeping and crusting around the eyes and muzzle. In more severe cases, lesions disseminated throughout the face and the body, evolving to generalized marked thickening of the skin and wrinkling. Histology of skin lesions showed suppurative dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by viewing basophilic filamentous structures morphologically consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis in Gram stained smears. The treatment with streptomycin, oxytetracycline or penicillin associated with streptomycin used in calves demonstrated to be effective. The disease has been misdiagnosed, by the farmers, with hepatic photosensitization caused by Brachiaria spp. ingestion. This article discusses these results with the aim to help in the correct diagnosis of dermatophilosis, which is important to achieve the adequate treatment and effective control measures to minimize the losses caused by this disease.

  2. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Donnelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, n=5 or CPAP (Group 2, n=5 as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations.

  3. Septicaemic listeriosis in reindeer calves – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Nyyssönen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4 reindeer calves as a nearly pure growth from several internal organs, pointing to a septicaemic form of listeriosis. The calves were born in a calving corral. Silage feeding was considered the most probable source of the infection.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys poronvasoilla – tapausselostus Toukokuussa 2005 Suomen poronhoitoalueen kaakkoisosassa sijaitsevassa vasotustarhassa kuoli neljä poronvasaa pian syntymän jälkeen 5-11 päivän ikäisinä. Kaikkien vasojen kuolinsyyksi todettiin Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys. Tartunnan todennäköisin lähde oli vaatimien lisäruokinnassa käytetty säilörehu. Kyseessä on ensimmäinen poronvasoilla todettu Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys Suomessa. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tilfelle av sjukdomsfremkallende Listeriabakterie i reinkalver Listeria monocytogenes ble isolert fra 4 reinkalver som en nesten ren vekst fra flere indre organer, noe som antyder en sykdomsfremkallende form av listeriose. Kalvene nedkom i en kalveinnhegning, og man antok at dårlig silofôr var smittekilden.

  4. Immunization of zebu calves against Fasciola gigantica, using irradiated metacercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younis, S.A.; Yagi, A.I.; Haroun, E.M.; Gameel, A.A.; Taylor, M.G.

    1986-06-01

    The pathogenesis of unirradiated, 3 krad-irradiated and 20 krad-irradiated metacercarial infections was compared in zebu calves studied over 10 weeks. Calves exposed to 1000 unirradiated metacercariae (MC) became hypoalbuminaemic, and showed elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes, whereas neither of the other groups was significantly affected. At slaughter, a mean of 332 flukes was recovered from the 0 krad group, while only 23% and 12% of this number were recovered from the 3 krad and 20 krad groups, respectively. All the worms recovered from the 20 krad group were stunted, but a mean of 13% of the flukes recovered from the 3 krad group were large. Liver lesions typical of acute fascioliasis were present in the 0 krad group, but lesions in the other groups, were far less severe. A single vaccination of calves with 10003 krad-irradiated mc induced partial resistance to a challenge with 1000 normal mc eight weeks later, but the reduction in worm recovery was not statistically significant. There was less evidence of protection when two vaccinating doses of 3 krad mc were given within four weeks, with challenge at week 8, and a single vaccination was ineffective against a challenge four weeks later. However, when the irradiation dose was increased to 20 krad, a high level of resistance was induced by a single vaccination, given eight weeks before challenge, and liver pathology was strikingly reduced in the vaccinated animals.

  5. Immunization of zebu calves against Fasciola gigantica, using irradiated metacercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, S.A.; Yagi, A.I.; Haroun, E.M.; Gameel, A.A.; Taylor, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The pathogenesis of unirradiated, 3 krad-irradiated and 20 krad-irradiated metacercarial infections was compared in zebu calves studied over 10 weeks. Calves exposed to 1000 unirradiated metacercariae (mc) became hypoalbuminaemic, and showed elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes, whereas neither of the other groups was significantly affected. At slaughter, a mean of 332 flukes was recovered from the 0 krad group, while only 23% and 12% of this number were recovered from the 3 krad and 20 krad groups, respectively. All the worms recovered from the 20 krad group were stunted, but a mean of 13% of the flukes recovered from the 3 krad group were large. Liver lesions typical of acute fascioliasis were present in the 0 krad group, but lesions in the other groups, were far less severe. A single vaccination of calves with 10003 krad-irradiated mc induced partial resistance to a challenge with 1000 normal mc eight weeks later, but the reduction in worm recovery was not statistically significant. There was less evidence of protection when two vaccinating doses of 3 krad mc were given within four weeks, with challenge at week 8, and a single vaccination was ineffective against a challenge four weeks later. However, when the irradiation dose was increased to 20 krad, a high level of resistance was induced by a single vaccination, given eight weeks before challenge, and liver pathology was strikingly reduced in the vaccinated animals. (author)

  6. Feeding calves with hydrosoluble soybean extract. I. Performance and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Novita Esteves

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study the total replacement of powder milk protein (SL for hydrosoluble soybean extract (EHS in feeding 5-day-old Holstein male calves. The experiment was carried out using 3 treatment throughout the period of milk intake (5 to 90 days of life. In treatment I, SL was supplied from the 5th to 90th day of life. In treatment II, SL was supplied until the 29th day, and, from the 30th to 90th day, EHS was supplied. In treatment III, EHS was supplied from the 5th day of life. After this period the calves were weaned and received the same hay and concentrate feed as in the milk intake period, up to 180 days. During the milk intake period, the animals of treatment II, showed in average lower food intake, decreased daily weight gain and poorer digestibility of nutrients than animals from treatment I (P<0.05. In the post-weaning period food intake and average daily gain were similar. Calves of treatment III lost weight throughout the experiment, showed very weak body condition and were sacrified.

  7. Effect of Cobalt Supplementation on Performance of growing Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Nagabhushana

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of critical supplementation of wheat straw with cobalt on fibre utilization and nutrient utilization in growing cross-bred male calves. Twenty-one crossbred (HF X Local male growing calves of 3-4 months age were fed with wheat straw based diet consisting without (Co0 and with 1 (Co1 and 6 (Co6 ppm cobalt as cobaltous chloride. There was no significant difference in intake of wheat straw, concentrate and DMI between the three groups and the ratio between concentrate and wheat straw was maintained at 40:60 irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. Similarly, average cumulative body weight, net gain in body weight or feed efficiency did not differ significantly between treatments. No significant effect was observed on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and fibre constituents like NDF, ADF, hemicellulose or cellulose by supplementation of 1 and 6 ppm Co to the diet of growing calves. Balance of nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium and Phosphorus was similar and positive in all the treatment groups. TDN and DCP values of the experimental diets remained almost similar irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 299-302

  8. Intramyocardial oxygen transport by quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbergh, Tobias; Larsson, Marcus; Szabó, Zoltán; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik; Strömberg, Tomas

    2010-03-01

    Intramyocardial oxygen transport was assessed during open-chest surgery in calves by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using a small intramuscular fiber-optic probe. The sum of hemo- and myoglobin tissue fraction and oxygen saturation, the tissue fraction and oxidation of cytochrome aa3, and the tissue fraction of methemoglobin were estimated using a calibrated empirical light transport model. Increasing the oxygen content in the inhaled gas, 21%-50%-100%, in five calves (group A) gave an increasing oxygen saturation of 19+/-4%, 24+/-5%, and 28+/-8% (panimals increased with LVAD pump speed (p<0.001, ANOVA) and with oxygen content in inhaled gas (p<0.001, ANOVA). The cytochrome aa3 oxidation level was above 96% in both group A and group B calves, including the two cases involving cardiac arrest. In conclusion, the estimated tissue fractions and oxygenation/oxidation levels of the myocardial chromophores during respiratory and hemodynamic provocations were in agreement with previously presented results, demonstrating the potential of the method.

  9. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees...... that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation....

  10. Intestinal infection following aerosol challenge of calves with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberg Susanne WF

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge experiment was performed to investigate whether administration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP via the respiratory route leads to MAP infection in calves. Eighteen calves from test negative dams were randomly allocated to four groups. Six calves were challenged with MAP nasally and six calves were challenged by transtracheal injection; three orally challenged calves served as positive controls, and three non challenged calves as negative controls. The challenge was performed as a nine-fold trickle dose, 107 CFU in total. Blood and faecal samples were collected frequently. Calves were euthanized three months post-challenge and extensively sampled. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies and interferon gamma producing cells by ELISA. Faecal and tissue samples were cultured in a liquid culture system and the presence of MAP was confirmed by IS900 realtime PCR. Fourteen out of fifteen calves had no MAP antibody response. The negative controls remained negative; all positive controls became infected. Two nasally challenged calves showed a Purified Protein Derivative Avian (PPDA specific interferon gamma response. In all nasally challenged calves, MAP positive intestinal samples were detected. In three calves of the nasal group MAP positive retropharyngeal lymph nodes or tonsils were detected. In all calves of the transtracheal group MAP positive intestinal tissues were detected as well and three had a MAP positive tracheobronchial lymph node. These findings indicate that inhalation of MAP aerosols can result in infection. These experimental results may be relevant for transmission under field conditions since viable MAP has been detected in dust on commercial dairy farms.

  11. The assessment of colostral immunity in dairy calves based on serum biochemical indicators and their relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Šlosárková; Petr Fleischer; Oldřich Pěnkava; Miloslav Skřivánek

    2014-01-01

    Passive transfer of immunity in dairy calves is routinely monitored in North America. This study analyzes such type of biochemistry monitoring in 591 calves (Holstein, Fleckvieh) from 19 large farms in the Czech Republic. All calves, aged 1–6 days, were blood sampled once. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, zinc sulphate turbidity units and γ-glutamyltransferase activity were analysed by photometry methods. The samples were divided according to concentrations of total protein and...

  12. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, J. H. C.; Meagher, R. K.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and hence higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves), or pair...

  13. Health and performance of calves with forestomach-bypass fed milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, D M; Cason, J L; Albert, T F; Sass, B

    1976-02-01

    Ten male Holstein calves were placed in groups of two calves each on similarity of age. On calf in each group was subjected to forestomach-bypass surgery at about 1 mo of age. Fortified commercial milk replacer with added minerals and vitamins was fed as the sole diet. The calves were housed indoors on slatted platforms. Weight gain was determined biweekly. Feed intake was determined daily. Necropsies were performed upon termination of the study. Recurrent ruminal bloat, fever, and anorexia of varying degrees and combinations occurred in four of the calves with forestomach bypass. Two of these calves showed slow weight gain. One of the four calves died following acute bloat while the other three calves were sacrificed following repeated episodes of bloat. The time of termination varied between 3 and 10 mo. One calf with forestomach bypass and all control calves appeared healthy throughout the experiment. Necropsies indicated that the ruminal bloat, seen in most of the forestomach-bypass calves, could be attributed to the back-flow of ingesta via the omasal-abomasal orifice. This ingesta appeared to produce gas which became trapped in the bypassed rumen.

  14. CEACAM18 as candidate for the Holstein calving QTL on BTA18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Xiaowei; Kadri, Naveen Kumar; de Koning, DirkJan

    . Phenotypes used were estimated breeding values (EBV) for six direct calving traits and one compound index trait. A SNP by SNP mixed model approach was first applied using HD genotypes. Haplotypes in the significant region were fitted in a mixed model. Finally, NGS variants in the significant region were...... utilized to precisely locate causative mutations. Results identified 21 QTL regions associated with one or more calving traits on 16 autosomes. These findings contribute to an improved understanding of the genetic architecture of the calving traits. They may help in improving calving performance in dairy...... breeding programs...

  15. Association between birth conditions and glucose and cortisol profiles of periparturient dairy cows and neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L; Furtado, P V; Oliveira, C A; Nichi, M

    2015-04-04

    Parturition in cattle is a stressful event for both the dam and the offspring. Stress and pain can alter the energy profile of calves and calving cows, producing a metabolic imbalance at birth. This study aimed to assess the effects of dystocia and oxytocin and calcium infusion on metabolic homeostasis in dairy cows and calves. Thirty Holstein cows and their calves were divided into three groups: an eutocia group (n=10), in which no calving assistance was needed; a dystocia group, which required mild-to-severe obstetric assistance (n=10); and a uterine inertia group, which was treated with oxytocin and calcium (n=10). To assess serum cortisol and blood glucose levels, blood samples were collected during the peripartum period from cows and during the first hour since birth from calves. All groups were hyperglycaemic following parturition. Infusion of oxytocin and calcium resulted in lower maternal glucose concentrations and lower levels of stress than in cows in the dystocia group. Birth condition was significantly associated with blood glucose and cortisol concentrations in calves. Glucose concentration was lower in calves born with oxytocin and calcium infusion than those born with fetal extraction. In conclusion, assisted calving with fetal extraction causes important metabolic changes for the dam and calf. Conversely, the practice of oxytocin and calcium infusion for hypotonic cows has no harmful effects on metabolic balance and can be safely employed as a medical treatment. British Veterinary Association.

  16. The susceptibility differences of buffalo and Ongole calves against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A pen trial was carried out in order to determine the susceptibility differences of a trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo and Ongole calves. Treated animals were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and were slaughtered at 36 weeks. The results showed that buffalo calves had significantly lower fluke burdens than Ongole calves (P<0 .01 . All of the infected Ongole calves had fasciola eggs in their faeces 18 weeks after the commencement of infection. In contrast, eggs were detected only in 3 out of 7 infected buffalo calves at week 20, in 4 at week 28 and in 6 at week 30. Faeces of the seventh buffalo remained free of eggs until week 36. Rates of growth were reduced by 25%and 10,3% in infected Ongole and buffalo calves respectively . Circulating blood eosinophilia ofboth hosts, ahallmark of helminth infections, increased following infection, but values in buffaloes was greater than Ongole calves mainly in week 4 and 8 after infection (P<0.01. These results might be concluded that the susceptibility of buffalo calves to trickle infection with F. gigantica was lower compared to Ongole calves.

  17. Supplementation of suckling beef calves with different levels of crude protein on tropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sidnei Antonio; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Valente, Eriton Egídio Lisboa; Barros, Lívia Vieira; Cardenas, Javier Enrique Garces; Almeida, Daniel Mageste; Martins, Leandro Soares; Silva, Aline Gomes

    2014-02-01

    The effects of supplementation with different levels of crude protein on performance, intake and nutrient digestibility and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in suckling beef calves on pasture were assessed. Fifty-five calves, with an average age of 100 days and an initial average body weight of 110 ± 7.5 kg and their respective dams, were used. The experimental design was completely randomised with five treatments and 11 replications. The experimental treatments for calves were as follows: control = calves received only mineral mixture; supplementation levels = calves received supplement containing 8, 19, 30 or 41% of crude protein (CP, at a rate of 0.5% of body weight (BW)). The cows received only mineral mixture ad libitum. Supplemented calves had higher (P calves. There was no difference in total dry matter (DM) intake (P > 0.1). However, intake of dry matter forage (DMF) presented cubic profiles (P calves on creep feeding. The intake of supplements with CP levels between 8 and 30% partially replaces of the pasture ingested by calves and increases the digestibility of the diet.

  18. Comparative study of obstructive urolithiasis and its sequelae in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin H. Bayoumi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was designed to study the incidence of obstructive urolithiasis and to apply comparative diagnosis to urine retention cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 non-castrated buffalo calves aging 3-11 months were included in this study, 68 calves were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Zagazig University, Egypt, during the study period with a history of anuria, and they were classified into three groups; intact bladder group (19 calves, uroperitoneum group (45 calves, and ruptured urethra group (4 calves. 10 apparently healthy calves were used for comparison. On the basis of history, clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings diagnosis was achieved. Results: There was a marked increase in the incidence of obstructive urolithiasis in winter season, especially in winter months of 2016. Calves within the age of 3-4 months and 6-8 months were mostly affected. Inappetence to anorexia, restlessness or depression, and abdominal distension were the most observed signs in the diseased calves. Laboratory findings revealed hemoconcentration and a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels in all diseased groups. Hyperproteinemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia with electrolytes imbalance were recorded in the uroperitoneum group. Ultrasonographically, distended urinary bladder with distal acoustic enhancement revealed obstructive urolithiasis with intact bladder while anechoic fluid in abdominal cavity indicates uroperitoneum. Conclusion: On the basis of all findings, calves with intact bladder were in superior condition than those with a ruptured urethra and both were better than those with uroperitoneum.

  19. Effects of recent climate warming on caribou habitat and calf survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Brad; Douglas, David C.; Russell, Donald E.; White, Robert G.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Whitten, Kenneth R.; Green, Rhys E.; Harley, Mike; Spalding, Mark; Zöckler, Christoph

    2001-01-01

    Migratory Barren-Ground Caribou Rangifer tarandus granti are the most important subsistence resource for northern indigenous peoples. They are likely to respond to global climatic changes that affect the distribution of their forage resources and the availability of forage through the year. The Porcupine Caribou herd is a large, internationally migratory herd of about 128,000 individuals that occupies the Alaska-Canada borderlands and uses a 300,000 km 2 annual range. The calving ground is a traditionally-used portion of the annual range that comprises 23,000 km2 at approximately 70° north. Caribou migrate several hundred kilometres from winter ranges to the calving ground, arriving in mid- to late-May each year. Calves are born during the first week of June, and cows and calves remain on the calving ground for 4-6 weeks before dispersing to late-summer, fall, and winter ranges.We measured the relative amount of green vegetation using data from polar orbiting satellites (Figure 1) to assess decade-long temporal trends in large scale habitat conditions on the calving ground and to investigate Caribou response to this habitat change. The vegetation index has shown a tendency toward earlier greening in spring and later plant senescence (dying off) in much of the northern hemisphere the 1980s, concurrent with independent estimates of climate change. High density calving was consistently located where the daily rate of increase in the amount of green plant biomass during lactation was greatest, in the period 1985-1996. This was probably because of the lactating cows' need for highly digestible new plant growth. Nutritional requirements of lactating cows are about double those during the remainder of the year.

  20. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  1. PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTION IN BUFFALO CALVES IN JKHADAGZAI, DISTRICT DIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  2. Blood interaction with a Bioline heparin coated HIA-VAD : A study on calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKamp, KWHJ; Magielse, CPE; Elstrodt, JM; vanderMeer, J; vanOeveren, W; Rakhorst, G

    The blood compatibility of ventricular assist devices developed by the Helmholtz institute Aachen (HA-VAD's) was tested on calves. Seven calves received a non-coated HIA-VAD (control) and three a Bioline heparin coated device. The circulatory support of these HIA-VAD's lasted one week. Mechanical

  3. Genetic parameters for production and fertility in spring-calving Irish dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk production and selected fertility traits in Irish dairy cattle. Data were derived from 74 seasonal spring-calving dairy herds with a potential cow population of 6,783 in the 1999 calving season. The average 305-day yields (kg)

  4. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  5. Chopped or long roughage: what do calves prefer? Using cross point analysis of double demand functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Bak Jensen, M.; Engel, B.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify calves'(Bos taurus) preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were

  6. A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digestion in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Calf milk replacers commonly contain 40-50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. Ileal disappearance of starch was only 60% in calves, whereas lactose disappeared for 97% (Coombe and Smith,

  7. Influence of puberty and antral follicle count on calving day in crossbred beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of a cow to produce a calf every 12 months beginning at 24 months of age is one of the primary factors contributing to the long-term profitability of a cow-calf operation. Cows that calve early in the calving season have the greatest productive lifespan, but which factors contribute the...

  8. Genome-wide Association Study for Calving Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2011-01-01

    A total of 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on 19 chromosomes for direct and maternal calving traits in cattle using a genome-wide association study. Calving performance is affected by the genotypes of both the calf (direct effect) and dam (maternal effect). To identify the QTL cont...

  9. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or

  10. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833169; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126322864

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or

  11. Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Borges de Castro Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate milk composition and metabolic profile of Holstein cows at different calving orders in the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. One hundred ten Holstein cows were housed in a free stall system receiving the same diet and were grouped according to calving order (first, second, third, and fourth calving and days in milk (DIM: early (1-90 DIM, middle (91-180 DIM, and end of lactation (over 181 DIM for comparing milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolic profile between the calving orders within the same lactation period. These parameters were also evaluated between lactation periods of the cows in different calving orders. The calving order, in any lactation stage, had no influence on milk yield per day and blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows receiving the same diet. However, calving order in all stages of lactation influenced milk composition. The first, second, third, and fourth calving order had no effect on the blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows, in any lactation stage. On the other hand, the different stages of lactation influenced milk yield and milk composition of Holstein cows.

  12. Natural (auto)antibodies in calves are affected by age and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khobondo, J.O.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Webb, L.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural autoantibodies (N(a)ab) were found in every species tested so far, and are likely important in maintaining homeostasis. Objectives: (1) To determine N(a)ab in Bos taurus calves, (2) evaluate effects of diet and age on N(a)ab binding repertoires in calves, and (3) delineate bovine

  13. The benzodiazepine brotizolam reduces fear in calves exposed to a novel object test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Hopster, H.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Korte, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the intravenous administration of the anxiolytic drug brotizolam on the behavioral and physiological responsiveness of calves to novelty in a dose response fashion. Holstein Friesian heifer calves (39¿41 weeks of age; body weight 200¿300 kg) received an

  14. What do calves choose to eat and how do preferences affect calf behaviour and welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Engel, B.; Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Calves raised for milk or meat are fed diets that differ from feral-herd calf diets and are based on the nutritional requirements of the ‘average calf’. These diets may not meet the dietary preferences of each individual calf. This study explored diet preferences in calves with free dietary choice,

  15. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  16. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Røjen, B.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180 ± 3.7 kg of body

  17. The assessment of colostral immunity in dairy calves based on serum biochemical indicators and their relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Šlosárková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive transfer of immunity in dairy calves is routinely monitored in North America. This study analyzes such type of biochemistry monitoring in 591 calves (Holstein, Fleckvieh from 19 large farms in the Czech Republic. All calves, aged 1–6 days, were blood sampled once. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, zinc sulphate turbidity units and γ-glutamyltransferase activity were analysed by photometry methods. The samples were divided according to concentrations of total protein and zinc sulphate turbidity units, and the age of calves. These groups were compared using nonparametric tests. The samples had good mean values (total protein 63.5 g·l-1, albumin 30.5 g·l-1, zinc sulphate turbidity 11.5 U, γ-glutamyltransferase 10.7 μkat·l-1 but 41% and 54% of calves had low total protein (-1 and zinc sulphate turbidity (P P -1; calves aged 3–6 days had significantly lower activity. It is newly suggested that samples be taken from calves 1–3 days old for γ-glutamyltransferase analysis and traditionally anytime during the first week of life for all other indicators. This first extensive analysis of passive transfer in Central Europe shows that there are widespread deficiencies in the feeding of colostrum to calves.

  18. Factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Nelson, Sindre T; Martin, Adam D; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2017-05-01

    A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows. Production data from 20,541 cows in 2210 herds slaughtered over a three-year period (1st of January 2010 to 23rd of January 2013) were extracted from the national beef cattle registry. This study's inclusion criteria were met for 16,917 cows (from 1858 herds) which gave birth to 50,578 calves. The median number of calves born per cow was 2 (min 1, max 18). Two multilevel Poisson regression models with herd random effects showed that early maturing breeds (Hereford and Aberdeen Angus) gave birth to more calves than late maturing breeds (Charolais and Limousin) in four out of five areas of Norway. The significant breed-region interaction indicated that the coastal South East region of Norway, which has a relatively long growing season and gentle topography, yielded the highest number of calves born for all but one breed (Simmental). Cows that needed assistance or experienced dystocia at their first calving produced fewer calves than those that did not: incidence rate ratio 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.91) for assistance and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.75) for dystocia, respectively. Cows in larger herds (>30 cows) produced 11% more calves in their lifetime compared to cows in smaller herds (≤30 cows) (Pcow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Legg-Perthes-Calve disease: staging by MRI using gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducou le Pointe, H. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Haddad, S. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Silberman, B. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Filipe, G. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Monroc, M. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Montagne, J.P. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one patients (26 hips) with typical signs of Legg-Perthes-Calve (LPC) disease on plain radiographs were explored by MRI. Patients were imaged with a 0.5 T MR unit. Gadolinium-enhanced spinecho MR images were obtained after nonenhanced T1-weighted (spin-echo) and T2[sup *]-weighted (gradient-echo) images. Four different areas were identified in the femoral epiphysis (necrosis, regenerative, cartilaginous and normal fatty bone tissue). The histological evolution of LPC is well described by Catterall and others. Comparing their descriptions with out MR findings, we suggest classification ofLPC into five phases: necrosis: regeneration, reconstruction, reossification and sequelae. (orig.)

  20. A brief history of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Dennis R; Pandya, Nirav K

    2011-09-01

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) disease has an extensive history that has provided an ongoing intellectual challenge for the orthopaedic community. Debate around etiology and treatment of LCP disease continues even after its initial description in the early 1900 s. In order for modern day clinicians to have a full understanding of the condition, one must be a scholar of its development. The purpose of our review will be to discuss the scientific communities' understanding of presentation, etiology, and treatment of LCP disease over time.

  1. Benchmarking passive transfer of immunity and growth in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2017-05-01

    Poor health and growth in young dairy calves can have lasting effects on their development and future production. This study benchmarked calf-rearing outcomes in a cohort of Canadian dairy farms, reported these findings back to producers and their veterinarians, and documented the results. A total of 18 Holstein dairy farms were recruited, all in British Columbia. Blood samples were collected from calves aged 1 to 7 d. We estimated serum total protein levels using digital refractometry, and failure of passive transfer (FPT) was defined as values below 5.2 g/dL. We estimated average daily gain (ADG) for preweaned heifers (1 to 70 d old) using heart-girth tape measurements, and analyzed early (≤35 d) and late (>35 d) growth separately. At first assessment, the average farm FPT rate was 16%. Overall, ADG was 0.68 kg/d, with early and late growth rates of 0.51 and 0.90 kg/d, respectively. Following delivery of the benchmark reports, all participants volunteered to undergo a second assessment. The majority (83%) made at least 1 change in their colostrum-management or milk-feeding practices, including increased colostrum at first feeding, reduced time to first colostrum, and increased initial and maximum daily milk allowances. The farms that made these changes experienced improved outcomes. On the 11 farms that made changes to improve colostrum feeding, the rate of FPT declined from 21 ± 10% before benchmarking to 11 ± 10% after making the changes. On the 10 farms that made changes to improve calf growth, ADG improved from 0.66 ± 0.09 kg/d before benchmarking to 0.72 ± 0.08 kg/d after making the management changes. Increases in ADG were greatest in the early milk-feeding period, averaging 0.13 kg/d higher than pre-benchmarking values for calves ≤35 d of age. Benchmarking specific outcomes associated with calf rearing can motivate producer engagement in calf care, leading to improved outcomes for calves on farms that apply relevant management changes. Copyright

  2. Pathophysiological and parasitological studies on Cooperia oncophora infections in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Bairden, K; Holmes, P H; Parkins, J J; Ploeger, H; Salman, S K; McWilliam, P N

    1987-05-01

    Calves which had received daily infections of Cooperia oncophora over a six week period showed inappetence, weight loss, impaired nitrogen retention and a loss of plasma proteins into the gut. During this period the infections occurred in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum and many larval stages were present in the mucosa of the small intestine. At necropsy, on weeks 3, 6 and 10 after the first infection, stunting and thickening of the villi were noted with excessive mucus production. Prior administration of a morantel slow release bolus prevented these changes. By week 12 most of the worms had been expelled yet a loss of plasma proteins to the gut was still occurring.

  3. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Karin; English, Patti; Vera, Raúl R.; Briones, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at rand...

  4. Effect of serum calcium status at calving on survival, health, and performance of postpartum Holstein cows and calves under certified organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, A L; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Brick, T A; Weiss, W P; Bothe, H; Velez, J S; Schuenemann, G M

    2017-04-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of hypocalcemia (HYPO; ≤2.0 mmol/L) of the dam at calving on survival, health, and performance of lactating dairy cows and their calves under certified organic management. Prepartum dairy cows (primiparous, n = 445; multiparous, n = 328) from 1 dairy herd were monitored (prepartum pen) for imminent signs of parturition (appearance of amniotic sac outside the vulva) until birth. All calves were subject to the same newborn care, colostrum management, and failure of passive transfer assessment (serum total protein ≤5.5 mg/dL). Serum total calcium of cows was determined in samples taken within 2 h after calving. To define HYPO cows after calving, a cut-point of total serum Ca concentration with optimal sensitivity and specificity to predict metritis or calf diarrhea was established by using the receiver operator characteristic. The effect of HYPO on survival (died or culled within 60 DIM), health status, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) for first services of lactating cows were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Additionally, the effect of HYPO at calving on days in milk (DIM) at first service (DIMFS), milk yield (kg), milk components (percent fat and protein), and somatic cell count were analyzed for the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) tests using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The effect of parity (primiparous and multiparous), body condition score at calving, and manure hygiene score at calving were also included in the statistical models. The effect of HYPO at calving on calf survival, serum total protein, and diarrhea within 10 d of age were assessed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. The overall prevalence of HYPO was 14.6% (2.7% for primiparous and 30.8% for multiparous cows). Cows experiencing HYPO at calving had greater proportion of metritis (25.1 vs. 14.7%) and culling within 60 DIM (15.9 vs. 6.8%) compared with non-HYPO cows, respectively

  5. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of D-a-tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of preruminant dairy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 weeks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received mod...

  7. Vigilance and foraging behaviour of female caribou in relation to predation risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille S. Bøving

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of female caribou (Rangifer tarandus was investigated during the calving season on ranges in Alaska and West Greenland with the purpose of determining whether investment in vigilance behaviour differed between areas with and without natural predators of caribou. Female caribou in Alaska foraged in larger groups, displayed a higher rate of vigilance during feeding, spent less time feeding and, when lying, more often adopted a vigilant posture (with head up than did female caribou in West Greenland. Moreover, a predation-vulnerable posture of lying down flat was observed in West Greenland but not in Alaska. Within Alaska, females with calves spent more time searching the environment than did those without calves. Finally, the amount of time individuals spent searching declined more gradually with group size in Alaska than in West Greenland, suggesting that what caribou perceive as a predator-safe threshold differs in the two areas. These results indicate that caribou, like several other species of ungulates, show behavioural adaptations to the risk of prédation which are relaxed when this risk is reduced.

  8. The early behaviour of cow and calf in an individual calving pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the early behaviour in dairy cows and their calves. Thirty-eight multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows and their calves were housed in individual calving pens during the first twelve days post-partum and their behaviour was observed during 24 h on days 3, 7 and 11....... Cows gradually reduced the time spent sniffing and licking their calves from 59 to 49 min over the days studied (P cow from less than half a minute on days 3 and 7 to 1 min on day 11 (P ... studied (P cows’ behavioural priorities, the cows were tested on either day 4, 8 or 12 after calving by removing them from their pens during 3 h and subsequently reintroducing them. Behavioural observations during 3 h after reintroduction showed...

  9. Health Status of Beef Cows and their Calves in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Slavík

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the health status and the most common health problems occurring in beef cattle in the Czech Republic. Thirty five beef herds of different breeds were monitored from 1 January to 31 December 2006. The health status of 4872 animals (2601 cows and 2271 of their calves was analyzed. Herds of up to 50 cows and those over 50 cows were evaluated both separately and together. Farm management data were collected by means of a questionnaire completed by the farmers. Both geographic and herd characteristics were evaluated, as well as the course of calving, mortality and morbidity in calves, and disease occurrence in cows. Calving was unassisted in about 80% of the cows, and the conception rate was approximately 90%. More difficult courses of calving were reported from the small herds than from the large ones (p p p p p < 0.001.

  10. Extent, causes and timing of moose calves mortality in western interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourne, Timothy O.; Paragi, Thomas F.; Bodkin, James L.; Loranger, Andre J.; Johnson, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the causes and timing of moose (Alces alces) calf mortality during 1988­ 90 in 2 locations in western interior Alaska. Annual survival rates of all calves in 1988 (0.34, n = 42) and 1989 (0.29, n =47) on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and in 1990 (0.25, n = 62) on the Koyukuk NWR were not significantly different. Survival rates of male and female calves were not significantly different during any year. Annual survival of single calves was significantly higher than that for twins in 1989 (0.56 vs. 0.20) and 1990 (0.37 vs. 0.21), but not in 1988. Black bears (Ursus americanus) killed 40% of all calves. Wolves (Canis lupus) killed 9% of the calves, unknown predators killed 8%, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) killed 3%, and 5% died from other causes.

  11. Predatory behavior of grizzly bears feeding on elk calves in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.

    1990-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) were observed preying on elk calves (Cervus elaphus) on 60 occasions in Yellowstone National Park, with 29 confirmed kills. Some bears were deliberate predators and effectively preyed on elk calves for short periods each spring, killing up to 1 calf daily. Primary hunting techniques were searching and chasing although some bears used a variety of techniques during a single hunt. They hunted both day and night and preyed on calves in the open and in the woods. Excess killing occurred when circumstances permitted. One bear caught 5 calves in a 15-minute interval. Elk used a variety of antipredator defenses and occasionally attacked predacious bears. The current level of this feeding behavior appears to be greater than previously reported. This is probably related to the increased availability of calves providing a greater opportunity for learning, and the adaptation of a more predatory behavior by some grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

  12. Management of tibial fractures using a circular external fixator in two calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, Hari Prasad; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Pawde, Abhijit Motiram; Singh, Gaj Raj; Setia, Harish Chandra

    2010-07-01

    To report the repair of tibial diaphyseal fractures in 2 calves using a circular external skeletal fixator (CEF). Clinical report. Crossbred calves (n=2; age: 6 months; weight: 55 and 60 kg). Mid-diaphyseal tibial fractures were repaired by the use of a 4-ring CEF (made of aluminum rings with 2 mm K-wires) alone in 1 calf and in combination with hemicerclage wiring in 1 calf. Both calves had good weight bearing with moderate lameness postoperatively. Fracture healing occurred by day 60 in 1 calf and by day 30 in calf 2. The CEF was well maintained and tolerated by both calves through fracture healing. Joint mobility and limb usage improved gradually after CEF removal. CEF provided a stable fixation of tibial fractures and healing within 60 days and functional recovery within 90 days. CEF can be safely and successfully used for the management of selected tibial fractures in calves.

  13. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  14. Irruptive dynamics of introduced caribou on Adak Island, Alaska: an evaluation of Riney-Caughley model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores introduced to islands without predators are predicted to undergo irruptive population and spatial dynamics, but only a few well-documented case studies support this paradigm. We used the Riney-Caughley model as a framework to test predictions of irruptive population growth and spatial expansion of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) introduced to Adak Island in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska in 1958 and 1959. We utilized a time series of spatially explicit counts conducted on this population intermittently over a 54-year period. Population size increased from 23 released animals to approximately 2900 animals in 2012. Population dynamics were characterized by two distinct periods of irruptive growth separated by a long time period of relative stability, and the catalyst for the initial irruption was more likely related to annual variation in hunting pressure than weather conditions. An unexpected pattern resembling logistic population growth occurred between the peak of the second irruption in 2005 and the next survey conducted seven years later in 2012. Model simulations indicated that an increase in reported harvest alone could not explain the deceleration in population growth, yet high levels of unreported harvest combined with increasing density-dependent feedbacks on fecundity and survival were the most plausible explanation for the observed population trend. No studies of introduced island Rangifer have measured a time series of spatial use to the extent described in this study. Spatial use patterns during the post-calving season strongly supported Riney-Caughley model predictions, whereby high-density core areas expanded outwardly as population size increased. During the calving season, caribou displayed marked site fidelity across the full range of population densities despite availability of other suitable habitats for calving. Finally, dispersal and reproduction on neighboring Kagalaska Island represented a new dispersal front

  15. Multidisciplinary approach to evaluating welfare of veal calves in commercial facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, C L; McDonough, S P

    1994-09-01

    Due to pending legislation and public concerns, a multidisciplinary approach was designed to investigate the welfare of special-fed veal calves in commercial veal facilities. Concerns included housing conditions, dietary regimens, management practices, and behavioral aspects imposed on special-fed calves. Four categories of parameters including environment and housing, nutrition, health and stress, and behavior provided a broad base of evaluating veal systems. Observations and samples were collected on 550 Holstein bull calves located in 10 commercial veal facilities. Each facility was visited to collect data during wk 0 (week of arrival of the calves), 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16. Nine facilities used individual stalls 48 to 55 cm in width with tethers attached to the front of the stalls. One facility housed 30 calves in group pens after obtaining calves at 8 wk of age. Ammonia, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide gas did not exceed the permissible limit for humans in any facility. All facilities exceeded the 2-foot-candle recommendation for lighting. The average daily gain of calves was .85 kg during wk 0 to 8 and 1.18 kg during wk 8 to 16. Dietary iron levels decreased from 209 ppm at wk 0 to 32 ppm at wk 16. At 16 wk, 25% of calves were marginally anemic and 10% clinically anemic. Overall mortality was 4.2%. Stress indices such as plasma cortisol concentrations or neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios declined as calves approached market weight. In either pens or stalls, calves spent approximately 25 and 75% of time in standing and lying positions, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  17. Influence of oxytetracycline on carprofen pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2013-08-01

    A tissue cage model of inflammation in calves was used to determine the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of individual carprofen enantiomers, following the administration of the racemate. RS(±) carprofen was administered subcutaneously both alone and in combination with intramuscularly administered oxytetracycline in a four-period crossover study. Oxytetracycline did not influence the pharmacokinetics of R(-) and S(+) carprofen enantiomers, except for a lower maximum concentration (Cmax ) of S(+) carprofen in serum after co-administration with oxytetracycline. S(+) enantiomer means for area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-96 h were 136.9 and 128.3 μg·h/mL and means for the terminal half-life (T(1/2) k10 ) were = 12.9 and 17.3 h for carprofen alone and in combination with oxytetracycline, respectively. S(+) carprofen AUC0-96 h in both carprofen treatments and T(1/2) k10 for carprofen alone were lower (P oxytetracycline in calves and indicate that no alteration to carprofen dosage is required when the drugs are co-administered. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  19. Effects of medetomidine on serum glucose in cattle calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad; Kalhoro, Amir Bukhsh; Sarwar, Mian Saeed; Khan, Hamayun; Ahmad, Shakoor; Hassan, Sayed Mubashir; Zahoor, Arshad

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study was carried out to compare physiological effects (serum glucose level) of medetomidine in Red Sindhi cattle calves at three different doses i.e. 8, 10 and 12µg/kg body weight intravenously. Medetomidine produced a dose dependent significant (P<0.01) increase in serum glucose level with a maximum increase observed at 30 minutes with 8µg/kg, 10μg/kg and 12μg/kg body weight respectively. Start of sedation, degree of sedation and total duration of sedation were all dose dependent and the values obtained were significantly (P<0.01) different from each other. It was observed that the sedation was rapid, deep and longer with the higher doses of medetomidine i.e. 12μg/kg. The results of the present study shows that medetomidine is a very effective and safest drug use as sedative for calves which in lower doses (8μg/kg) can be used as a pre-anesthetic and for restraining of the animal, while higher calculated doses (10μg/kg, 12μg/kg) can be used to execute the minor surgical procedures.

  20. The effect of palatability of protein source on dietary selection in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Terré, M; DeVries, T J; Bach, A

    2014-07-01

    Evidence has shown that soybean meal is perceived as more palatable than canola meal by dairy calves in short-term preference tests. This study evaluated the effect of protein source on longer-term dietary selection of dairy calves. In experiment 1, 40 Holstein bull calves (11.4 ± 4.3 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets for 6 wk: base starter pellet (S; 12% crude protein; CP) and high-protein pellet (40% CP) containing either (1) soybean meal (SB) or (2) canola meal (CM). In wk 7 to 8, all calves were offered a single pelleted diet containing the protein source to which they were previously exposed. In experiment 2, 22 Holstein bull calves (9.9 ± 4.6d of age) were offered, for 6 wk, a choice of 2 mixed pelleted diets: (1) 70% S and 30% SB (SB mix), or (2) 70% S and 30% CM (CM mix). In wk 7 to 8, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets, as in experiment 1: (1) SB + S, or (2) CM + S. All feeds were provided ad libitum. Calves received 6 L/d of milk replacer [0.75 kg/d of dry matter (DM)] for the duration of both experiments. Feed intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed every 14 d. Feeds were sampled weekly to analyze DM and nutrient intake. Mixed diets in experiment 2 were analyzed for CP in wk 4 and 6 to assess feed sorting (calculated as actual CP intake as a percentage of predicted intake). In experiment 1, calves offered SB + S in wk 1 to 6 consumed more high-protein pellet than calves offered CM + S [73 vs. 42% of DM intake (DMI)] and, consequently, more CP (168 vs. 117 g/d). Solid feed DMI and average daily gain were similar between treatments. When offered a single diet in wk 7 to 8, calves offered starter containing soybean meal increased intake to a greater extent than calves offered the starter containing canola meal. In experiment 2, calves preferred the SB mix to CM mix (preference ratio: 0.7). Calves consumed more CP than predicted from SB mix in wk 4 and 6 (108 ± 2.0%), indicating that they were sorting in

  1. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), lenght of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The QUICKI was estimated to be lower in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.030) and longer DP (P=0.058). Moreover, the AIR (P=0.009) and DI (P=0.049) were estimated to be lower in male compared with female calves. Furthermore, the AIR

  2. Performance, nutritional behavior, and metabolic responses of calves supplemented with forage depend on starch fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedi, S; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M; Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F

    2018-05-16

    This study evaluated the interactive effects of forage provision on performance, nutritional behavior, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of dairy calves when corn grains with different fermentability were used. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments were (1) steam-flaked (SF) corn without alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation (SF-NO), (2) SF corn with AH supplementation (SF-AH), (3) cracked (CR) corn without AH supplementation (CR-NO), and (4) CR corn with AH supplementation (CR-AH). All calves received the same amount of pasteurized whole milk and weaned on d 56 of the experiment; the study was terminated on d 70. Steam-flaked corn contained higher amounts of gelatinized starch in comparison with cracked corn (44.1 vs. 12.5% of total starch, respectively). Starter intake was not affected by corn processing methods or AH provision during the pre- or postweaning periods. However, we noted an interaction between corn processing methods and forage supplementation for starter intake during d 31 to 50 of the experiment, where calves fed on SF-AH starter had greater starter intake than those fed SF-NO starter, but the starter intake was not different between CR-NO and CR-AH fed calves. Furthermore, AH increased average daily gain (ADG) of calves fed an SF-based diet but not in calves fed a CR-based diet during the preweaning and overall periods. Interaction between forage provision and time was significant for ADG and feed efficiency, as calves supplemented with forage had higher ADG (0.982 vs. 0.592, respectively) and feed efficiency compared with forage unsupplemented calves at the weaning week. Forage supplementation resulted in more stable ruminal condition compared with nonforage-fed calves, as evidenced by higher ruminal pH (5.71 vs. 5.29, respectively) at postweaning and lower non-nutritive oral behavior around weaning time (55 vs. 70.5 min

  3. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  4. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P intake was greater (P calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.

  5. Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-07-01

    Research to date has suggested that access to forage before weaning can limit rumen development in calves, but no research has yet addressed the role of forage for calves fed higher quantities of milk. This study compared performance and rumen development of calves provided high volumes (equivalent to approximately 20% of calf birth weight) of milk with and without access to hay. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly assigned to treatment (either ad libitum access to chopped grass hay or no forage; n=15 calves per treatment, 10 heifers, and 5 bulls). All calves were provided ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were offered 8L of milk/d from a nipple bottle from d 3 to 35, 4 L/d from d 36 to 53, and 2L/d until weaning at d 56. Solid feed intake and growth parameters were monitored from d 3 to 70. At d 70, males from both treatments were slaughtered to measure rumen development parameters. Overall dry matter (DM) intake from solid feed did not differ between treatments before wk 5. However, during wk 6 to 10, calves fed forage consumed more total DM (starter plus hay) than did calves fed no forage. Hip and wither height, heart girth, and body barrel at d 3, 56, and 70 did not differ between treatments. Reticulorumen weight was heavier in calves fed hay versus those fed only starter (12.77±1.29 vs. 7.99±0.69 kg with digesta; 1.89±0.05 vs.1.60±0.09 kg without digesta). Body weight without digesta was similar in calves fed forage or no forage. Mean rumen pH was higher in calves fed hay compared with those fed no forage (5.49±0.08 vs. 5.06±0.04). In conclusion, provision of chopped hay to calves fed high volumes of milk can promote solid feed DM intake and rumen development without affecting BW gain. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Feeding Acidified Milk Replacer on the Growth, Health and Behavioural Characteristics of Holstein Friesian Calves

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Mete; GÜLER, Olcay; BAYRAM, Bahri; METİN, Jale

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of calves fed acidified milk replacer (AMR) or sweet (regular) milk replacer (SMR) at 8% of birth weight. Twenty-one calves (10 males, 11 females) were offered replacers reconstituted to 12% of dry matter over 5 weeks. In the group fed AMR, daily body weight gains of calves at the different stages of growth were comparable to those for calves fed SMR. In the preweaning period, calves offered AMR had similar dry matter intakes from st...

  7. Effect of physical form of forage on performance, feeding behavior, and digestibility of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J; Bach, A

    2013-02-01

    The physical form of forage may influence rumen development and, consequently, the body weight gain, dry matter (DM) consumption, digestibility, and welfare of dairy calves. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different physical forms of forage on performance, apparent digestibility, and feeding behavior of young calves. Twenty Holstein male calves (46.8 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly assigned at birth to 1 of 2 feeding treatments in which they were exposed to a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 90% crumb starter concentrate and either (1) 10% coarsely chopped (3 to 4 cm) grass hay (CRS; n=10) or (2) 10% finely ground (2mm) grass hay (FN; n=10). All calves were offered 8L/d of milk replacer (MR; 1.2 kg of DM) from birth; the amount of MR was progressively reduced after 5 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. The study finished after wk 8. Consumption of the mixed ration, MR, and water was recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice weekly. Samples of feed and orts were taken in wk 7 and 8 for nutrient content analysis. Behavioral data for each calf were obtained for 2h/d during wk 6 and 8, for a total observation time per animal of 28 h. Total feces were collected during wk 8 to determine apparent digestibility. Calves fed CRS had greater DM intake than those fed FN (2.70 vs. 2.45 ± 0.11 kg/d, respectively) during the week after weaning (wk 8). Body weight gain was similar between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to have a greater gain-to-feed ratio than calves fed FN (0.68 vs. 0.63 ± 0.02 kg of gain/kg of DM intake). No differences were observed in crude protein and acid detergent fiber consumption between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to consume more neutral detergent fiber than calves fed FN during the last week of the study (719.2 vs. 610.5 ± 25.84 g/d). Calves receiving CRS sorted in favor of neutral detergent fiber to a greater extent than calves consuming FN, whereas calves fed FN sorted in favor of

  8. Cryptosporidium Infection in Dairy Cattle Calves and its Public Health Significance in Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyazewal Anberber Zeleke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoan parasites that causes diarrhoea in neonates and young calves. This longitudinal study was conducted at two large dairy cattle farms in central Ethiopia during February/2014 to June/2015 to determine the age-related distribution of Cryptosporidium species, to identify risk factors of the disease and to assess the public health significance of the parasite. Thirty calves born to these dairy farms were followed-up from birth to three months of age, and 270 faecal samples were collected and examined by the Modified Ziehl-Neelsen, PCR-RFLP and Sequencing. Cryptosporidium was detected from week 1 to 3 months of age with an overall prevalence of 14.8%, Peak of the infection was at two weeks of age when 12 of the 30 calves (40% shedded oocysts. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. andersoni were identified in pre-weaned and post-weaned calves, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of the C. parvum isolates from this study with GenBank sequences for C. parvum bovine genotype IIa and IId subtypes. This study showed the predominance of the zoonotic C. parvum species in pre-weaned calves and demonstrated that this age group of calves pose the greatest risk for human infection. Due attention on the management of pre-weaned calves is recommended to prevent transmission of the infection to humans and lessen contamination of the environment by oocysts.

  9. OBSERVATIONS ON CLINICAL TREATMENT TRIALS OF INDUCED ESCHERICHIA COLI DIARRHOEA IN BUFFALO NEONATAL CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Javed, A. Khan, Abid Hussain and Babar Niaz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 24 calves of one week-age, randomly divided into four groups, of six calves each. First three groups were experimentally infected with E. coli and given treatment in various combinations, while group four was taken as uninfected untreated control. Results obtained on different parameters were, green to yellow-white diarrhoea with variable consistency from watery to semisolid. Generally in all groups during first two days, calves passed faeces around 6-10 times a day and this frequency lowered in about 2-4 days. During first 3-4 days of treatment, all calves appeared weak, dull, depressed with cold skin and wetness of the muzzle, while oral mucosa was pale and eyes were sunken. Overall mean respiration rate of treatment groups was slower (P<0.05 than control group. However, pulse rate showed no difference between treatment and control group. Overall mean rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic alone and with antibiotic + electrolytes, while body weight was higher (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic but was lower along with creatinine (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic + electrolytes and those treated with electrolytes alone.

  10. Phosphorus kinetics in calves experimentally submitted to a trickle infection with Cooperia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvandini, H; Rodrigues, R R; Gennari, S M; McManus, C M; Vitti, D M S S

    2009-07-07

    Ten male Holstein calves (74.3+/-3.2 kg LW) were used for a trial with trickle infection with Cooperia punctata to evaluate phosphorus (P) kinetics. Five calves were inoculated with 10,000 L(3) stage larvae per week during 35 days, while the other group of five calves was kept as a control. On the 29th day each calf was intravenously injected with 29.6 MBq of a (32)P solution. Blood samples were taken at 24 h periods for 7 days, after which all calves were slaughtered and worms burdens. Faeces, urine and tissue samples were taken for analysis using isotopic dilution and modeling techniques. The number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 1920+/-168 on 28th day and the total number of worms burdens was 11,131+/-1500. Infected calves showed lower feed intake and live weight gain, as well as lower P intake, absorption and retention than control calves. The P flows between body compartments were lower for blood to gastrointestinal tract (TGI), TGI to blood, blood to soft tissues, bone balance and soft tissue balance in infected calves when compared to the control. The trickle infection of C. punctata affected P metabolism due to the decrease in P retained and live weight due to fall in feed intake.

  11. Influence of high dietary lead on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Alfaro, E.; Fielding, A.S.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism of orally dosed 75 Se was studied in 10 intact male Holstein calves that were fed ad libitum a control diet containing no added Pb or supplemented with 1000 ppm Pb as PbSO 4 for 4 wk. Lead-supplemented calves did not exhibit any clinical signs of Pb toxicity. Voluntary feed intake was reduced by 9.5% and average daily gain by 23%. Lead content of rib, liver, and kidney increased. Serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase activity was increased during the last 2 wk of the experiment in calves fed Pb. In calves receiving supplemental Pb, 75 Se absorption, blood concentration, and urine concentration were reduced by 26, 21, and 42%, respectively. Tissue 75 Se concentrations were significantly lower in kidney, liver, testicle, pancreas, small intestine, heart, spinal cord, and muscle in calves fed Pb. There was a significant negative correlation (r = -.78) between 75 Se and stable Pb concentrations in the liver. It is not clear whether the ingestion of subclinical amounts of Pb could affect the absorption and utilization of Se in dairy calves to the extent of Se deficiency when dairy calves are kept in areas known to be low in Se

  12. Towards a Universal Calving Law: Modeling Ice Shelves Using Damage Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, M.; Bassis, J. N.; Price, S. F.; Lipscomb, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling iceberg calving from ice shelves and ice tongues is a particularly difficult problem in glaciology because of the wide range of observed calving rates. Ice shelves naturally calve large tabular icebergs at infrequent intervals, but may instead calve smaller bergs regularly or disintegrate due to hydrofracturing in warmer conditions. Any complete theory of iceberg calving in ice shelves must be able to generate realistic calving rate values depending on the magnitudes of the external forcings. Here we show that a simple damage evolution law, which represents crevasse distributions as a continuum field, produces reasonable estimates of ice shelf calving rates when added to the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM). Our damage formulation is based on a linear stability analysis and depends upon the bulk stress and strain rate in the ice shelf, as well as the surface and basal melt rates. The basal melt parameter in our model enhances crevasse growth near the ice shelf terminus, leading to an increased iceberg production rate. This implies that increasing ocean temperatures underneath ice shelves will drive ice shelf retreat, as has been observed in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. We show that our model predicts broadly correct calving rates for ice tongues ranging in length from 10 km (Erebus) to over 100 km (Drygalski), by matching the computed steady state lengths to observations. In addition, we apply the model to idealized Antarctic ice shelves and show that we can also predict realistic ice shelf extents. Our damage mechanics model provides a promising, computationally efficient way to compute calving fluxes and links ice shelf stability to climate forcing.

  13. Immune response of calves inoculated with proteins ofAnaplasma marginale bound to an immunostimulant complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ribeiro Gasparini

    Full Text Available Despite our current knowledge of the immunology, pathology, and genetics of Anaplasma marginale, prevention in cattle is currently based on old standbys, including live attenuated vaccines, antibiotic treatment, and maintaining enzootic stability in cattle herds. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an immunostimulant complex (ISCOMATRIX adjuvant, associated with a pool of recombinant major surface proteins (rMSP1a, rMSP1b, rMSP4 and rMSP5 to improve the humoral immune response triggered in calves mainly by IgG2. Ten calves were divided in three groups: 4 calves were inoculated with the ISCOMATRIX/rMSPs (G1; 2 calves were inoculated with ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (G2; and 4 calves received saline (G3. Three inoculations were administered at 21-day intervals. In G1, the calves showed significant increases in total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels 21 days after the second inoculation, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, and G1 calves remained above the cut-off value 28 days after the third inoculation (p < 0.05. The post-immunized sera from calves in G1 reacted specifically for each of the rMSPs used. In conclusion, the ISCOMATRIX/rMSPs induced antigen-specific seroconversion in calves. Therefore, additional testing to explore the protection induced by rMSPs, both alone and in conjunction with proteins previously identified as subdominant epitopes, is warranted.

  14. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  15. Effect of Moringa oleifera on hematological parameters of calves reared in industrial fluorotic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti Debnath Mandal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative potential of dried Moringa oleifera fruit powder in fluorosis affected calves reared around the vicinity of aluminium smelter plant. Materials and Methods: Total 107 calves were screened on the basis of clinical signs and higher plasma fluoride (more than 0.2 ppm level for evidence of fluorosis. Out of that, 90 samples found positive and from them 18 calves of 6-12 months age group were selected and divided equally into three groups named as Group II, III, and IV. Group II remained as disease control group whereas Group III calves were supplemented with dried M. oleifera fruit powder of 25 g/calve for 60 days. Group IV calves were supplemented with calcium carbonate at 100 mg/kg body weight and boric acid at 10 mg/kg for the same experimental period. Group I consisted of six numbers of healthy calves taken from the non-fluorotic zone, i.e. Bhubaneswar. Plasma fluoride level, hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total leukocyte count (TLC, differential count (DC, total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and MCH concentration (MCHC were estimated on day 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment. Results: Supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder to fluorosis affected calves resulted in significant reduction in plasma fluoride level and increase in Hb%, PCV, TLC and altered DC. Similar results were also recorded in calcium+boron group, except PCV and Hb. No significant changes were observed in MCV, MCH, and MCHC values. Conclusion: The present study concluded that supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder daily for 60 days has shown protection against chronic fluoride toxicity in calves.

  16. Creep feeding effects on male Nellore calves influencing behavior and performance of their dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Leandro Soares; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; Detmann, Edenio; de Almeida, Daniel Mageste; Ortega, Roman Maza; Moreno, Deilen Paff Sotelo; Cárdenas, Javier Enrique Garces

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different schemes of calves' supplementation in a creep feeding system, on the behavior of Bos indicus calves and dams, and also the influence of the calves' supplementation on dams' performance. Forty-eight Nellore male calves (147 ± 7 kg body weight and 3 months of age) in the suckling phase and their dams (476 ± 9 kg and 6 years of age) were studied in a completely randomized design. The experiment was divided into two periods of 71 days. The treatments were 5- and 10-g supplement dry matter (DM)/kg BW day offered in periods 1 and 2, respectively (5S/10S); 10- and 5-g supplement DM/kg BW day offered in periods 1 and 2, respectively (10S/5S); 7.5-g supplement DM/kg BW day in both periods 1 and 2 (7.5S); and mineral mix ad libitum in both periods 1 and 2 (MM). No differences (P  0.05) in the first evaluated period. Calves from 10S/5S treatment spent more time suckling and less time eating supplements (P < 0.05) than 5S/10S treatment animals, in the second evaluated period. Dams of MM treatment's calves had more idle time and lower grazing time when compared with the mothers of calves from 5S/10S and 10S/5S treatments. It was concluded that different schedules of Nellore calves' supplementation on pasture do not affect their mothers' performance, and supplementation decreases the grazing time of calves in the suckling phase.

  17. Short communication: Absorption of protein and immunoglobulin g in calves fed a colostrum replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G W; Foster, D M

    2007-06-01

    A well-managed colostrum program on farms is the most important step in reducing disease in neonatal calves. In the last few years, colostrum replacers have increased in popularity and are designed to be an alternative to colostrum on farms that have poor colostrum quality, limited colostrum reserves, or to break the cycle of transmission for certain infectious diseases. However, it is important to make sure these products are effective and are capable of providing adequate serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available colostrum replacer product in dairy calves. Holstein calves from a single dairy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups at birth. Group 1 (n = 21) calves were given 4 quarts of colostrum via esophageal feeder within 3 h of birth and served as the control group for this study. Group 2 (n = 21) received 2 packages of a colostrum replacer product, and group 3 (n = 21) received 3 packages of the colostrum replacer product within 3 h of birth. Blood samples from all calves were collected 24 h after colostrum administration and analyzed for serum total protein and IgG concentrations. Calves fed fresh colostrum had significantly higher serum total protein levels and IgG concentrations compared with calves fed the colostrum replacer product. Calves fed the colostrum replacer also had a significantly higher percentage of calves with failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <1,000 mg/dL). The colostrum replacer product evaluated in this study failed to routinely provide adequate IgG concentrations when fed according to label directions.

  18. Effect of halofuginone lactate on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum and growth of neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, B D; Trotz-Williams, L A; McKnight, D R; Leslie, K E; Wallace, M M; Todd, C G; Sharpe, P H; Peregrine, A S

    2005-05-01

    Thirty-one Holstein bull calves were purchased at birth from 3 dairy farms in Eastern Ontario. Each calf was assigned at random to oral treatment with either 5 mg of halofuginone lactate in 10.0 mL of aqueous carrier solution (Halocur, base comprised 10 mg of benzoic acid, 100 mg of lactic acid, and 0.3 mg of tartrazine) or 10 mL of placebo (Halocur base minus the active ingredient, halofuginone lactate) administered 15 to 30 min after morning milk feeding for the first 7 d of life. Intakes of milk, calf starter, and water, and fecal consistency score were recorded daily for 56 d. Calf weights were recorded weekly for 56 d. Fecal samples were taken from all calves at approximately 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d of age for isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to assess the effect of treatment on the incidence of diarrhea and C. parvum infection status. The odds of C. parvum shedding among calves in the halofuginone lactate-treated group was 70% lower than the odds of shedding among calves in the placebo group. In calves treated with halofuginone lactate, no oocyst shedding occurred until 2 wk of age, whereas 12.5% of calves in the placebo group began shedding oocysts during wk 1. From all ages of placebo-treated calves, 31 of 73 samples (42.5%) were positive for C. parvum, whereas only 15 of 67 samples (22.4%) from all ages of halofuginone lactate-treated calves tested positive. The largest number of C. parvum-positive samples occurred in the third week of life. There was a significant delay of 3.1 d in the incidence of diarrhea among calves treated with halofuginone lactate. Intake of milk and starter, body weight gains, and age at weaning were not significantly different between treatment groups.

  19. Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values <100% indicate sorting against. Feed presentation did not affect dry matter intake or growth. Prior to weaning, all calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the novel TMR, sorting against long particles (86.5%) and for short (101.8%) and fine (101.2%) particles. These results indicate that initially providing dairy calves with solid feeds as separate components, compared with as a mixed ration, reduces the extent of

  20. Technical note: Use of accelerometers to describe gait patterns in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passillé, A. M. de; Jensen, Margit Bak; Chapinal, N.

    2010-01-01

    Developments in accelerometer technology offer new opportunities for automatic monitoring of animal behavior. Until now, commercially available accelerometers have been used to measure walking in adult cows but have failed to identify walking in calves. We described the pattern of acceleration...... associated with various gaits in calves and tested whether measures of acceleration could be used to count steps and distinguish among gait types. A triaxial accelerometer (sampling at 33 readings/s with maximum measurement at +/-3.2 g) was attached to 1 hind leg of 7 dairy calves, and each calf was walked...

  1. Production indicators and health status of calves fed different amounts of rumen undegradable starch and protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Koturić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether increase in proportion of the rumen undegradable starch (RUS and rumen undegradable protein (RUP affects the production performance and health status of calves. The experiment was done on 36 Holstein, seven-day-old calves, divided into three groups of 12 calves, with equal sex ratio. The experiment was conducted in two periods. In the first period, calves were fed with full pasteurized milk and milk replacer and additionally fed with starter mixture with different proportions of rumen undegradable protein and starch: Group I 36.6% RUP and 16.5% RUS, Group II 49.1% RUP and 27.6% RUS and Group III 53.5% RUP and 36.5% RUS. In the second period, calves were fed with milk replacer and grower mixture with different proportions of rumen undegradable protein and starch: Group I 33.5% RUP and 15.8% RUS, Group II 48% RUP and 26.3% RUS and Group III 54.3% RUP and 34.6% RUS. In the first period, calves from the Group III had significantly (P<0.01 higher body weight compared to calves in Group I and II (74.75; 59.36; 66.58 kg, as well as daily weight gain (0.76, 0.49, 0.61 kg/d. At the end of the experiment, there was no significant difference in body weight and daily weight gain. The calves in Group I and III had significantly (P<0.05 higher consumption of starter mixture compared to the calves in Group II (7.48; 7.11; 4.33 kg/d, and a significantly (P<0.05 higher overall feed consumption compared to the calves in Group II. The calves in Group II and III had significantly (P<0.05 better feed conversion ratio than the calves in Group I (1.37; 1.50; 2.08 kg/kg. The results of health monitoring (diarrhea, pneumonia indicate a different proportion of rumen undegradable starch and protein ratio did not have significant effect on calves’ health.

  2. Construction and validation of a decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trefz Florian M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate whether a decision tree based on basic clinical signs could be used to determine the treatment of metabolic acidosis in calves successfully without expensive laboratory equipment. A total of 121 calves with a diagnosis of neonatal diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were included in the study. The dosages of sodium bicarbonate administered followed simple guidelines based on the results of a previous retrospective analysis. Calves that were neither dehydrated nor assumed to be acidemic received an oral electrolyte solution. In cases in which intravenous correction of acidosis and/or dehydration was deemed necessary, the provided amount of sodium bicarbonate ranged from 250 to 750 mmol (depending on alterations in posture and infusion volumes from 1 to 6.25 liters (depending on the degree of dehydration. Individual body weights of calves were disregarded. During the 24 hour study period the investigator was blinded to all laboratory findings. Results After being lifted, many calves were able to stand despite base excess levels below −20 mmol/l. Especially in those calves, metabolic acidosis was undercorrected with the provided amount of 500 mmol sodium bicarbonate, which was intended for calves standing insecurely. In 13 calves metabolic acidosis was not treated successfully as defined by an expected treatment failure or a measured base excess value below −5 mmol/l. By contrast, 24 hours after the initiation of therapy, a metabolic alkalosis was present in 55 calves (base excess levels above +5 mmol/l. However, the clinical status was not affected significantly by the metabolic alkalosis. Conclusions Assuming re-evaluation of the calf after 24 hours, the tested decision tree can be recommended for the use in field practice with minor modifications. Calves that stand insecurely and are not able to correct their position if pushed

  3. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment...... was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced...

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Escherichia coli isolates from healthy and diarrhoeic calves in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barzan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates. Certain Escherichia coli strains have been associated with neonatal diarrhoea in ruminants. These strains can be assigned to one of the four main phylogenetic groups, A, B1, B2 and D. Several studies have shown the rela-tionship between phylogeny and pathogenicity of E. coli, a great deal can be obtained by determining the phylogroup of unknown E. coli strains. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diar-rhoea on the genetic composition of E. coli populations isolated from calves. A total of 80 Es-cherichia coli isolates were obtained from healthy and diarrhoeic calves. Phylogenetic grouping was done based on the Clermont triplex PCR method using primers targeted at three genetic markers, chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2. According to our results, phylogenetic group A strains was the most prevalent in both healthy (37.5% and diarrhoeic calves (55%. Group B1 contained 27.5% of isolates in healthy calves, followed by group B2 (17.5%, and group D (7.5%. Also, four isolates from healthy calves were not included in the major phylogenetic groups or subgroups. A total of 14% and 4% of isolates from diarrhoeic calves beloned to phylogroups B2 and D respectively. Although no isolate from diarrhoeic calves was found to belong to group B1, there was no significant difference between healthy and diarrhoeic calves for other phylogroups. There was not a dramatic shift in E. coli phylogroup/subgroup due to occurrence of diarrhoea in calves, except for phylogroup B1 which was higher in healthy calves. This can be due to the difference in secretions of digestive system in diarrhoeic calves which can prevent the conditions for instability of Escherichia coli isolates of phy-logroup B1. The majority of isolates from both healthy and diarrhoeic calves belonged to non-pathogenic phylogentic group A and B1.

  5. Habituating to handling: Factors affecting preorbital gland opening in red deer calves

    OpenAIRE

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; García, Andrés J.; Bartoš, Ludek; Komárková, Martina; Gallego, Laureano

    2014-01-01

    The preorbital gland plays not only an olfactory role in cervids but also a visual one. Opening this gland is an easy way for the calf to communicate with the mother, indicating hunger/satiety, stress, pain, fear, or excitement. This information can be also useful for farm operators to assess how fast the calves habituate to handling routines and to detect those calves that do not habituate and may suffer chronic stress in the future. Thirty-one calves were subjected to 2 consecutive experime...

  6. Performance and health responses of dairy calves offered different milk replacer allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Terré, M; Pinto, A

    2013-01-01

    Eighty female Holstein calves (12±4.1 d of age and 42±4.3 kg of BW) were collected from different herds, brought to the study site, and blocked by age and assigned to either a 6 L/d maximum daily milk replacer (MR) allowance (LMR) or a maximum MR allowance of 8 L/d (HMR). Calves were kept in individual hutches until 52 d of age and then moved into pens, forming groups of 10. All calves had ad libitum access to a mash starter feed. Calves in both treatments received the MR distributed in 3 separate allotments between 1 wk after the beginning of the study and 52 d of age. Then, all calves were moved to group pens and preweaned by offering 2 L/calf of the same MR twice daily in a trough until the age of 59 d, when MR offer was further reduced to a single dose of 2 L until the age of 73 d, when all calves were completely weaned. Individual starter feed and MR consumption was recorded on a daily basis until 52 d of age, and on a group basis until weaning time. Body weight was measured at the beginning of the study and at 52 (preweaning), 73 (weaning), and 110, 160, and 228 d of age. Solid feed consumption (mean ± SE) was greater in LMR (821±42.1 g/d) than in HMR calves (462±42.1 g/d) between 42 d of age and 52 d (preweaning). As expected, as age increased, solid feed consumption increased, and LMR showed a more marked increase than HMR calves. Despite the greater solid feed intake of LMR calves, HMR grew faster than LMR calves until preweaning time, but from preweaning to weaning, LMR calves grew more than HMR calves (977 vs. 857±30.7 g/d, respectively; mean ± SE). No differences in feed efficiency were observed. While calves were individually housed, no differences were observed in the incidence of bovine respiratory disease or diarrhea between treatment groups. We concluded that, under the milk regimen, age range of calves, and weaning method used in the current study, before preweaning, HMR calves grow more than LMR calves, but between preweaning and weaning

  7. Changes of cartilaginous contour of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumasaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Higashihara, Tokuro; Kishimoto, Haruyoshi; Harada, Koushi; Kozuka, Takahiro.

    1991-01-01

    T 1 -weighted MR images of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) were classified into three groups on the basis of radiographic stage, and morphological differentiation for staging was attempted. In the stage of fragmentation, both enlargement and flattening of the cartilaginous contour surrounding the epiphysis could be recognized on MRI, and the growth plate showed more curvature than normal. This produced flattening of the epiphysis in the shape of a crescent. We confirmed these findings using four indices for the measurement of cartilaginous outline, and the stage of avascular necrosis and fragmentation could be clearly differentiated. Cartilaginous deformities on MRI are very useful for differentiating between the stage of avascular necrosis and fragmentation. (author)

  8. Using automated feeders to wean calves fed large amounts of milk according to their ability to eat solid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, Anne Marie; Rushen, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Dairy calves weaned off milk at an early age show signs of hunger and can lose weight. We examined whether using automated feeders to wean calves according to individual voluntary solid feed intake reduced the effects of weaning. Female Holstein calves were housed in groups of 5 to 9. All calves were fed 12 L/d milk and ad libitum grain starter and hay from automated feeders immediately after grouping, and were allocated to 3 weaning strategies: (1) early-weaned (EW; n=14): weaning began on d 40, and milk allowance gradually decreased until weaning was complete on d 48; (2) late-weaned (LW; n=14): weaning began on d 80 and was completed on d 89; (3) weaned by starter intake (WSI; n=28): weaning began when calves consumed 200g/d of starter and was completed when the calves consumed 1,400g/d. Each day, the automated feeders recorded quantities of milk, starter, and hay eaten by all calves, as well as the frequency of visits to the milk feeder; we used unrewarded visit frequency as a sign of hunger. Body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. We estimated daily digestible energy (DE) intake for each calf based on the milk, hay, and starter consumed. Average daily gains (ADG) were expressed as percent of BW. For calves in WSI, weaning began at 54.7±18.9 d (mean ± SD) of age, the duration of weaning was 21.1±10.6 d, and weaning ended at 75.8±10.7 d of age. Both LW and WSI calves had better ADG from wk 3 to 13 than EW calves. Calves in the WSI group drank less milk and ate more starter than LW calves but had similar ADG. During the period of weaning, EW calves made more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder than LW and WSI calves. Three EW calves lost weight during weaning, whereas all LW and WSI calves gained weight. Calves differ greatly in when they begin to eat solid feed and how quickly they increase the intake in response to a decrease in milk allowance. An advantage of automated feeders is that calves can be weaned at variable ages depending on their ability and

  9. Influence of different seasons during late gestation on Holstein cows' colostrum and postnatal adaptive capability of their calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifković, Julijana; Jovanović, Ljubomir; Đurić, Miloje; Stevanović-Đorđević, Snežana; Milanović, Svetlana; Lazarević, Miodrag; Sladojević, Željko; Kirovski, Danijela

    2018-02-01

    Season may affect calves' thermal comfort and behavior, but the data related to the overall influence of seasonal variations on dams' colostrum and postnatal adaptive capability of calves are limited. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of a 49-day-long low air temperature (LAT) season (5.20 ± 0.46 °C mean air temperature) and a 53-day-long high air temperature (HAT) season (27.40 ± 0.39 °C mean air temperature) on dams' colostrum quality and physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress parameters of their calves during the first 7 days of life. The dams' colostrum was sampled at 2, 14, and 26 h after calving, before feeding of their calves. Calves' blood samples were taken before the first colostrum intake and on days 1, 2, 3, and 7 of life. Calves' physiological parameters were measured on days 0 and 7. HAT season significantly reduced the quality of dams' colostrum. The ingestion of the low-quality colostrum, combined with the thermal discomfort during HAT season, probably provoked impaired physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress parameters in samples taken from the post-colostral calves. Additionally, intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed on day 7, which suggested an enhanced insulin response in HAT season calves. This study highlights the importance of adequate supporting strategies for the care of the late gestation cows and postnatal calves during the HAT season.

  10. Antlers on the Arctic Refuge: capturing multi-generational patterns of calving ground use from bones on the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua H; Druckenmiller, Patrick; Bahn, Volker

    2013-05-22

    Bone accumulations faithfully record historical ecological data on animal communities, and owing to millennial-scale bone survival on high-latitude landscapes, have exceptional potential for extending records on arctic ecosystems. For the Porcupine Caribou Herd, maintaining access to calving grounds on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR, Alaska) is a central management concern. However, variability in calving ground geography over the 30+ years of monitoring suggests establishing the impacts of climate change and potential petroleum development on future calving success could benefit from extended temporal perspectives. Using accumulations of female antlers (shed within days of calving) and neonatal skeletons, we test if caribou calving grounds develop measureable and characteristic bone accumulations and if skeletal data may be helpful in establishing a fuller, historically integrated understanding of landscape and habitat needs. Bone surveys of an important ANWR calving area reveal abundant shed antlers (reaching 10(3) km(-2)) and high proportional abundance of newborn skeletal individuals (up to 60% neonate). Openly vegetated riparian terraces, which compose less than 10 per cent of ANWR calving grounds, yield significantly higher antler concentrations than more abundant habitats traditionally viewed as primary calving terrain. Differences between habitats appear robust to potential differences in bone visibility. The distribution of antler weathering stages mirrors known multi-decadal calving histories and highlights portions of the antler accumulation that probably significantly extends records of calving activity. Death assemblages offer historically integrated ecological data valuable for the management and conservation of faunas across polar latitudes.

  11. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained in 6 separate studies concerned with the effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood calcium, magnesium and phosphorus status around calving. The experiments were conducted on 5 different farms, and comprised a total of 117 cows. Two...... of the experiments (exp. 5 and 6) were conducted under extensive farming conditions whereas the rest (exp. 1-4) were conducted on intensively driven farms. All cows included in the experiments had completed at least 2 lactations. The cows were allocated as either untreated control cows or zeolite treated...... experimental cows according to expected date of calving and parity. The experimental cows were fed between 0.5 and 1.0 kg of zeolite A per day during the last 2 to 4 weeks of the dry period. Blood samples were drawn on the day of calving and day one and two after calving (all experiments), three weeks before...

  12. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves

  13. Eimeriosis in Danish Dairy Calves – Correlation between Species, Oocyst Excretion and Diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg M Dehn

    2013-01-01

    The study collected up-to-date data on prevalence and importance of Eimeria infections in Danish dairy calves with suspected clinical eimeriosis and analysed correlation between Eimeria spp., oocyst excretion and diarrhoea. From October 2010 through August 2011, veterinarians collected faecal...... determined, along with opg values for the specific Eimeria spp. Association between opg and faeces consistency was evaluated in a multinomial, logistic regression model. Overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 96.2 % with a prevalence of 60.9 % in individual calves. E. zuernii and/or E. bovis were detected...... in 88.5 % of herds and 41.5 % of the calves. Mean opg was 2,040 (range 0–114,000) in the calves, of which 18.1 % had opg values ≥ 1,000. A total of 12 Eimeria spp. was found with the following calf prevalences: E. ellipsoidalis (37 %), E. zuernii (32 %), E. bovis (28 %), E. cylindrica (23 %), E...

  14. Study of Serum Drug Levels in Calves Following Intramuscular Administration of Three Tetracycline Drug Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Black, W. D.; Claxton, J.; Robinson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Three antibiotic formulations, oxytetracycline (A) in propylene glycol and oxytetracycline (B) in polyvinyl pyrrolidine and pyrrolidino-methyltetracycline in an oil suspension were given to calves by the intramuscular route. Only oxytetracycline (A) appeared to cause much pain after injection.

  15. Chromosome evaluation of Angus calves with unilateral congenital cleft lip and jaw (cheilognathoschisis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, H A; Vogt, D W; Kintner, L D

    1982-04-01

    Two purebred Angus calves with unilateral cleft lip and jaw were karyotyped and anatomically described. Both calves, 1 male and 1 female, were from the same farm and were born in March and April 1980. The defect was most pronounced in the female calf. Both calves exhibited an elevated midline of the hard palate. The female calf also manifested characteristics indicative of proportionate dwarfism. Karyotypes were constructed after a 72-hour culture of peripheral blood. The 2N number was 60 with no apparent chromosome abnormality. The coefficient of relationship between the 2 affected calves was calculated to be 0.78%. The cause of the defect could not be ascertained from the limited data available.

  16. Sublingual administration of detomidine to calves prior to disbudding: a comparison with the intravenous route.

    OpenAIRE

    Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Raekallio, Marja R.; Salla, Kati; Hänninen, Laura; Viitasaari, Elina Anna Maria; Norring, Marianna; Raussi, Satu; Rinne, Valtteri; Scheinin, Mika; Vainio, Outi M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of oromucosal detomidine gel administered sublingually to calves prior to disbudding, and to compare its efficacy with intravenously (IV) administered detomidine. Study design Randomised, prospective clinical study. Animals Twenty dairy calves aged 12.4 ± 4.4days (mean ± SD), weight 50.5 ± 9.0 kg. Methods Detomidine at 80 μg kg−1 was administered to ten calves sublingually (GEL) and at 30 μg kg−1 to ten control calves IV (V. jugularis). Meloxicam (0.5 mg kg−1) a...

  17. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  18. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  19. Genetic parameters for cow weight at calving and cow weight at calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brad Crook

    1 Agricultural Business Research Institute, UNE Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia .... Table 1 provides summary statistics of cow age and weight at calving and weaning .... Genetic evaluation for the beef industry in. Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Agric.

  20. Effects and detection of Nandrosol and ractopamine administration in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divari, Sara; Berio, Enrica; Pregel, Paola; Sereno, Alessandra; Chiesa, Luca; Pavlovic, Radmila; Panseri, Sara; Bovee, Toine F.H.; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes different effects of the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) nandrolone phenylpropionate (Nandrosol) and the β-agonist ractopamine administration in veal calves, and it investigates different strategies applied to trace these molecules. Morphological changes

  1. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat A. Bhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana calves. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2 of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2nd November to 8th February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection while the calves of G2 were protected against the cold weather by providing heat using the infrared lamps. The body weight (kg of the calves was recorded at weekly interval. The blood samples collected within 6 h of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV, %, hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl. Besides, the serum biochemical parameters, viz., Total serum protein (TSP, g/l, albumin (g/l, globulin (g/l, albumin globulin ratio (A:G and important stress parameters, viz., triiodothyronine (T3, ng/ml, thyroxine (T4, ng/ml and cortisol (ng/ml were also estimated. Results: The calves of G2 showed higher body weight gain as compared to G1. The differences were found to be highly significant (p<0.01. The calves in G1 showed comparatively higher values of PCV and Hb and the differences were found to be significant (p<0.05 on 45th day for PCV and highly significant (p<0.01 on 60th day for PCV and on 45th day for Hb. The values of TSP and albumin were comparatively higher in calves of G1 as compared to G2 and the differences were highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day for both TSP and albumin and significant (p<0.05 on 60th day for albumin. Significantly (p<0.01 higher values of cortisol and T4 were observed on 15 and 45th day in calves of G1 as compared to G2. The T3 levels were also found higher in calves of G1 than G2 and the differences were significant (p<0.05 on 15 and 30th day and highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day of the study

  2. Ultrasonographic examination of the forestomachs and the abomasum in ruminal drinker calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study investigated the ultrasonographic appearance of the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum of calves with ruminal drinking syndrome. Methods In ten milk-fed calves with ruminal drinking syndrome the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum were examined by ultrasonography using a 5-MHz linear transducer before, during and after the ingestion of milk. Results The reticulum could be imaged in eight of ten calves before feeding. The reticular wall appeared as an echoic line, similar to mature cattle, and reticular folds were seen in eight calves. The reticular content appeared as echoic heterogeneous fluid. Reticular contractions were biphasic with 1.0 ± 0.38 contractions per minute. The rumen had a mean wall thickness of 2.1 mm dorsally, 3.5 mm at the level of the longitudinal groove, and 3.2 mm ventrally. The ventral sac of the rumen of all calves contained echoic heterogeneous liquid. During feeding the milk entering the rumen could be seen as hyperechoic liquid in five calves. The omasum was seen on the right side as a crescent-shaped line medial to the liver in seven calves. Only the omasal wall closest to the transducer was seen as an echoic line with a mean thickness of 2.7 mm. The ultrasonographic appearance of the omasum did not change during or after feeding. The abomasum was seen immediately caudal to the xyphoid on both sides of the midline before feeding. The mean length at the ventral midline was 22.2 cm. The ingesta were heterogeneous in all calves and the abomasal folds were distinct in eight. The mean lateral expansion of the abomasum from the ventral midline to the left and right varied from 8.7 to 13.8 cm and from 4.3 to 11.3 cm. The milk entering the abomasum was observed in all calves, and signs of milk clotting were seen in all calves 15 minutes after feeding. Conclusion This study showed that ultrasonography is useful for detecting milk in the reticulum and rumen of calves with ruminal drinking syndrome. PMID:23298472

  3. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Meagher, R K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-09-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and, hence, higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves) or paired with another calf at 6±3 d (n=8 pairs) or 43±3 d of age (n=8 pairs). All calves were fed 8 L of milk/d for 4 wk, 6 L/d from 4 to 7 wk, and then milk was reduced by 20%/d until calves were completely weaned at 8 wk of age. Calves were provided ad libitumaccess to calf starter and a total mixed ration (TMR). Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly from 3 to 10 wk of age.Intake of calf starter was significantly higher for the early-paired calves than for individually reared and late-paired calves throughout the experimental period. At 10 wk of age, starter dry matter intake averaged 2.20±0.22, 1.09±0.25, and 1.26±0.33kg/d for early-paired, late-paired, and individually housed calves, respectively. Intake of TMR did not differ among treatments, TMR dry matter intake averaged 3.27±0.72, 3.08±0.46, and 2.89±0.54kg/d for the same 3 treatments. Calves in the early paired treatment also showed significantly higher average daily gain over the experimental period (0.89±0.04 vs. 0.76±0.04 and 0.73±0.04kg/d for the early-paired, individual, and late-paired calves, respectively). These results indicate that social housing soon after birth can increase weight gains and intake of solid feed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Kara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG] at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI were statistically similar (p>0.05 but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05 than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p0.05 in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

  5. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  6. Changes in leukocyte populations of cows with milk fever or displaced abomasum after calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Kudo, Katsunori; Tomioka, Michiko; Koiwa, Masateru; Kimura, Kayoko

    2013-07-01

    Most of the metabolic diseases of dairy cows occur within the first 2 wk after calving, and cows with a metabolic disease are prone to infectious diseases. Although metabolic diseases are generally recognized as a risk factor for infectious diseases owing to the associated decrease in immune function, the difference in immune status between cows with milk fever (MF) or displaced abomasum (DA) during the lactation period has not been clarified. Therefore, the peripheral blood leukocyte populations in 38 multiparous Holstein cows from 1 herd were analyzed after calving. The cows were divided into 3 groups according to health: 21 cows that remained clinically healthy throughout the experimental period (control group), 9 cows that had MF on the day of calving, and 8 cows with an onset of DA within 4 wk after calving. The T- and B-cell numbers were lowest at week 0, and they increased gradually after calving. There was no significant difference between the 3 groups in the number of each subset of leukocytes on the day of calving, but the number of CD8⁺ T-cells was significantly lower in the MF and DA groups than in the control group at week 1. The numbers of CD4⁺, CD8⁺, and WC1⁺ T-cells tended to be lower in the DA group than in control group from weeks 4 to 12, a tendency not observed in the MF group. These data suggest that when cows have DA around the time of calving, their lymphocyte numbers remain lower until 12 wk after calving.

  7. Causes for culling first calving cows on farms with different levels of production

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić P.; Beskorovajni R.; Pantelić V.; Novaković Ž.; Bojković-Kovačević S.; Stanojević D.

    2013-01-01

    It is general knowledge that management influences results in cattle production to the highest extent, and that the culling of cows is a very good indicator of the success of farm management. A comparison of results of culling for first calving cows on farms with various levels of production in 2011 established differences both for the number of culled animals and the reasons for culling. On farms with higher levels of production, the share of first calving...

  8. Effects of milk intake on forage intake and performance of suckling range calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansotegui, R P; Havstad, K M; Wallace, J D; Hallford, D M

    1991-03-01

    A study to examine the relationships between milk intake, forage intake, and performance of Hereford-Angus suckling range calves was conducted during July, August, and September of 1984 and 1985. Twenty calves were used each year. The study was conducted at the Red Bluff Research Ranch located 56 km west of Bozeman, Montana. Average daily gain, milk intake (MI), forage digestibility, and fecal output (FO) were measured at 28-d intervals, beginning when the average calf age was 66 +/- 4 d. Milk intake was estimated using weigh-suckle-weigh techniques. Total fecal collections were used to measure FO. Forage digestibility and rates of passage were determined using nylon bag in situ techniques and external markers in ruminally cannulated calves of the same age. Fecal output by calves increased as body weight and age increased. Milk intake was higher (P less than .05) in 1985 than in 1984, but FO was higher (P less than .01) in 1984 than in 1985. Fecal output by calves was negatively correlated to MI in July (r = -.62; P less than .05) and August (r = -.56; P less than .05). No significant correlations were detected between MI and ADG (P greater than .10). Forage intake estimates were derived from FO, rate of passage, and in situ digestibility values. During July, calves consumed .3 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .05). In both August and September, calves consumed .6 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .10). Calves maintained similar digestible energy (DE) intake both years, although the source of DE varied.

  9. Preorbital gland opening in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves: signal of hunger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, L; Víchová, J; Lancingerová, J

    2005-01-01

    The opening of the preorbital gland in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves has been hypothesized to be a signal to the mother that her calf is hungry. Closing of the gland should indicate that the calf has received a sufficient amount of milk, and thus the mother should stop the suckling. We tested the hypothesis that the calf signals hunger when its preorbital gland is open and signals satiation when the gland is closed. To test this, the behavior of eight bottle-reared calves was monitored for 6 mo. For each meal during this time period, opening of the preorbital gland was recorded before calves were offered the meal and after they ate. Satiation of the calf was estimated (not begging for more food after the meal = satiated; begging = not satiated). The data set contained 3,116 records of paired measurements of preorbital gland opening (before and after the meal). Calves were satiated after feeding for 90.15% of the meals. The opening of the preorbital gland was associated with feeding and achieving satiety. In most cases (77%), calves opened their preorbital glands before their meal. Eighty-five percent of hungry calves still had preorbital glands open after the meal, whereas preorbital gland opening was decreased (P preorbital gland opening before and after the meal, and also according to whether the calf reached satiety. The heavier calves in this study tended to have their preorbital glands open more frequently than the lighter ones, which may indicate the need for an increased amount of milk intake. There was no clear trend in the frequency of preorbital gland opening with age. In conclusion, preorbital opening is likely to be a signal of calf satiety, as suggested earlier. Nevertheless, preorbital glands were not always open when the calves were hungry and did not vanish during the feeding in all cases.

  10. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Uys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120 in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV, consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV, consisting of 2 twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age.Adjusting for birth mass, birth date,damparity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG, both pre-weaning (days 0–42 and overall (days 0–60, was higher inHMVthan inRMVcalves (P<0.001.After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001. The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMVcalves. Overall feed conversion rate ofHMVcalves was 9.6%better thanRMVcalves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea.We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation.

  11. The effect of calving season on reproductive performance of Jersey cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Soydan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy records, containing 1269 lactation record of 462 Jersey dairy cows collected over 16 years, from an agricultural state farm were used. Data for reproductive performance of cows were also collected. Means of the herd for lactation milk yield, calving interval, days open, interval from calving to the first insemination, lactation length, gestation length and dry period were 3195.7±20.2 kg, 366.6±1.7 d, 92.9±1.6 d, 78.0±1.3 d, 301.7±1.1 d, 275.2±0.2 d and 69.3±0.8 d, respectively. The effect of calving season (winter, spring, summer and autumn on reproductive performance for high, low and moderate milk-yield cows was investigated. Calving season affected the days from calving to first insemination in high and moderate yielding cows (P<0.001 while didn’t affect low yielding cows. In summer, days open in high yielding cows were 35 days longer compared to winter season (P<0.001 as observed for moderate yielding cows (P<0.01. In high yielding cows, calving interval was 18 days longer in spring compared to winter calving season. Calving season also affected the first service conception rate in high yielding cows (P<0.05. Services per conception in autumn were lower than the other seasons (P<0.001. In conclusion, high yielding dairy cows need more attention in summer season with respect to body condition score, dietary energy: protein ratio, uterus health and elimination of heat stress, to get more profit in dairy farm.

  12. Immunological responses of pregnant swamp and murrah buffalo cows and calves to Toxocara (Neoascaris) vitulorum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerasinghe, P.; Masoodi, M.A.; Samarasinghe, B.; Sivanathan, S.; Gunawardana, V.K.; Fernando, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    Swamp buffalo cows from an area where T. vitulorum infection was heavy were examined for serum antibodies. Serum from all cows showed strongly positive precipitin reactions from the 4th to 6th months of pregnancy and after parturition using homologous larval, adult worm and adult excretory and secretory antigens; these precipitins were still being detected in the sera 4-6 months after calving. The sera of calves born to these cows were negative for T. vitulorum precipitins before feeding with colostrum but a precipitin reaction was evident from 24 hours of birth. Nevertheless, patent infections developed from 19-21 days after birth and one calf died with severe diarrhoea; the remainder revealed heavy faecal Toxocara egg counts. In six calves the infection was spontaneously eliminated between 40 and 60 days after birth suggesting a 'self-cure' reaction. In a similar study involving 30 Murrah cows sera precipitins were not observed during the first 4-6 months of pregnancy. In 14 calves born to these animals serum precipitins were never observed, but the animals had T. vitulorum egg counts comparable with those in swamp buffalo calves. After an initial natural infection a strong resistance to reinfection was acquired by most calves of both breeds in that larvae did not generally develop beyond the second stage. (author)

  13. Calves Use an Automated Brush and a Hanging Rope When Pair-Housed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosia Zobel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calf housing often only meets the basic needs of calves, but there is a growing interest in providing enrichments. This study described the behaviour of calves when they were given the opportunity to interact with two commonly available enrichment items. Female and male calves (approximately 11 days old were pair-housed in 8 identical pens fitted with an automated brush and a hanging rope. Frequency and duration of behaviours were recorded on 3 separate days (from 12:00 until 08:00 the following day. Calves spent equal time using the brush and rope (27.1 min/day, but there was less variation in the use of the brush as opposed to the rope (coefficient of variation, CV: 23 vs. 78%, respectively. Calves had more frequent (94 bouts, CV: 24% and shorter (17.8 s/bout, CV: 24% brush use bouts compared to fewer (38 bouts, CV: 43% and longer (38.3 s/bout, CV: 53% rope use bouts. There was a diurnal pattern of use for both items. Frequency of play was similar to rope use, but total time playing was 8% of rope and brush use. Variability among calves suggested that individual preference existed; however, the social dynamics of the pair-housed environment were not measured and therefore could have influenced brush and rope use. Multiple enrichment items should be considered when designing improvements to calf housing.

  14. Technical note: preorbital gland opening in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves as an indicator of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosová-Víchová, J; Bartos, L; Svecová, L

    2007-02-01

    The opening of the preorbital gland of red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves has been previously associated with feeding and satiety. However, it has been suggested to be most likely affected by some other factor or factors, possibly by excitement of the calf. If so, a calf should open its preorbital gland while being exposed to any stressful procedure. The hypothesis was tested that the preorbital gland is closed in a relaxed calf, whereas it is opened in a stressed calf. Preorbital opening was observed in 41 newborn red deer farm calves during a regular daily routine consisting of a search for newborn calves, their inspection, weighing, and painful marking with an ear tag. The openness of the preorbital gland (preorbital gland closed or opened) was recorded just before manipulation of a lying calf (i.e., in a calm calf) and then during the manipulation (i.e., in a distressed calf). Before manipulation, in all but 3 calves (7.3%, all of which were males), the preorbital gland was closed. All calves observed (100%) opened their preorbital gland during their manipulation, at least by the time the ear was punctured by the ear tag. The proportion of individuals with an open gland was lower (P preorbital gland in newborn red deer calves was associated with a stressful manipulation by the humans, which suggests that it may be a simple and easily recognized indicator of calf stress.

  15. Effects of Topical Anaesthetic and Buccal Meloxicam Treatments on Concurrent Castration and Dehorning of Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Saag, Dominique; White, Peter; Ingram, Lachlan; Manning, Jaime; Windsor, Peter; Thomson, Peter; Lomax, Sabrina

    2018-02-28

    The use of pain relief during castration and dehorning of calves on commercial beef operations can be limited by constraints associated with the delivery of analgesic agents. As topical anaesthetic (TA) and buccal meloxicam (MEL) are now available in Australia, offering practical analgesic treatments for concurrent castration and dehorning of beef calves, a study was conducted to determine their efficacy in providing pain relief when applied separately or in combination. Weaner calves were randomly allocated to; (1) no castration and dehorning/positive control (CONP); (2) castration and dehorning/negative control (CONN); (3) castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam (BM); (4) castration and dehorning with topical anaesthetic (TA); and (5) castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam and topical anaesthetic (BMTA). Weight gain, paddock utilisation, lying activity and individual behaviours following treatment were measured. CONP and BMTA calves had significantly greater weight gain than CONN calves ( p castrated calves spent more time walking ( p = 0.024) and less time eating ( p castration and amputation dehorning.

  16. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event.

  17. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  18. Assessing values of Arctic wildlife and habitat subject to potential petroleum development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Thomas R. (USFWS, Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Fairbanks, AK (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge system of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is predicated on the principle of conserving and perpetuating the natural diversity and abundance of wildlife and wildlands. The prospect of petroleum development on the 1002 area of the 10,000 km[sup 2] pristine coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) has been a contentious national issue. The FWS assessed the habitat and its constituent wildlife species to determine potential impacts from this development. As part of the assessment effort, research was conducted on the 163,000 member porcupine caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herd, its primary predator at calving, brown bear (Ursus arctos), and the vegetation communities on the coastal plain. We found the traditional calving area within the 1002 area had significantly greater forage species availability and nutrient quality than areas peripheral to the 1002 area. Increased post-perinatal, predator-related mortality has been associated with the foothills and mountains adjacent to the 1002 area. Displacement of the calving caribou from the 1002 area would mean a lesser abundance of high quality forage for calving cows, and calves would be subjected to a potentially higher predation risk. These factors could have a negative impact on the population dynamics of the Porcupine herd. If petroleum development were authorized on the 1002 area of ANWR, the challenge for the FWS will be to assure that the dynamics of the tundra ecosystem are adequately understood and to conserve the abundance and diversity of natural wildlife populations and their habitat

  19. Growth, intake, and health of Holstein heifer calves fed an enhanced preweaning diet with or without postweaning exogenous estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; James, R E; Akers, R M

    2016-05-01

    Research has shown that changes in nutrition both before and after weaning can affect mammary development. Additionally, estrogen is known to be a potent mammogenic stimulant. Our objectives were to determine effects of altered preweaning feeding and exogenous estradiol postweaning on growth, intake, and health. Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were reared on (1) a restricted milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg powder dry matter (DM)/day [R; 20.9% crude protein (CP), 19.8% fat, DM basis], or (2) an enhanced MR fed at 1.08kg powder DM/d (EH; 28.9% CP, 26.2% fat, DM basis). The MR feeding was reduced 50% during wk 8 to prepare for weaning. Starter was offered after wk 4 but balanced between treatments. Body weight and frame were measured weekly with intakes and health monitored daily. At weaning, a subset of calves were slaughtered (n=6/diet). Enhanced-fed calves had greater carcass, thymus, liver, spleen, and mammary gland (parenchyma and mammary fat pad) weights. The EH calves also had greater average daily gain (ADG) starting during wk 1 (0.36 vs. -0.06kg/d) and lasting through wk 7 (1.00 vs. 0.41kg/d). Remaining calves received estrogen implants or placebo and were slaughtered at the end of wk 10, creating 4 treatments: (1) R, (2) R + estrogen (R-E2), (3) EH, and (4) EH + estrogen (EH-E2). Postweaning ADG was similar between R, EH, and EH-E2 calves, but greater in R-E2 calves than E calves. The EH-E2 calves had the heaviest mammary glands, and R-E2 calves had heavier mammary glands than R calves. The EH calves consumed more MR DM, CP, and fat preweaning. The R-fed calves consumed more starter DM preweaning. Fecal score was greater for EH calves (1.74 vs. 1.50) preweaning, but days medicated did not differ. Fecal scores were lower for R-E2 calves postweaning. Improved preweaning feeding of calves increased body weights and frame measures. Differences in body weights remained postweaning. Enhanced-fed calves showed greater ADG during the preweaning period but

  20. Effect of early feed type exposure on diet-selection behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle exhibit characteristic feeding behavior patterns that may be influenced by early experiences. The objective of this study was to determine how early exposure to different feed types affects diet selection behavior of dairy calves once fed a mixed ration after weaning off milk. Eight Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned at birth to a feed exposure treatment: concentrate or grass/alfalfa hay, offered ad libitum. All calves were offered 8 L/d of milk replacer [1.2 kg of dry matter (DM)] from birth, which was incrementally reduced after 4 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. After milk weaning, all calves were fed a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 60% concentrate and 40% grass/alfalfa hay for 9 wk. Intake was recorded daily, and calves were weighed 3 times/wk. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken in wk 8, 12, and 16 for particle size analysis. The separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake. Calves exposed to concentrate tended to have greater DM intake than calves exposed to hay both before (0.49 vs. 0.16 kg/d) and after weaning off milk (3.3 vs. 2.6 kg/d). Weights were similar during the milk-feeding stage, but calves exposed to concentrate had greater weights overall in the postweaning stage (129.8 vs. 112.6 kg). Initially after weaning, calves sorted for familiar feed; calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted for short particles (126.4%), which were primarily concentrate, whereas calves previously exposed to hay did not (94.2%). Calves previously exposed to hay tended to sort for long particles (113.4%), which were solely hay, whereas calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted against them (56.4%). The sorting observed for short particles was associated with consuming a diet with a greater concentration of protein, nonfiber carbohydrates, and metabolizable energy

  1. Air quality in barns for milk-fed calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy per cent of the veal produced in Canada comes from Quebec. This paper reported on the air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves. It is known that air quality inside livestock buildings has an impact on both workers and animals, particularly in winter when air circulation is reduced. In this study, air quality inside barns was studied during the winter, spring and summer. Three types of barns with 3 different types of ventilation typically found in Quebec were evaluated. These included those with preheated corridors, lateral air entries, and central chimneys. Gases were measured in order to determine concentrations and emissions of: ammonia (NH 3 ) which is toxic, colourless and flammable; hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) which is very toxic, flammable; carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) which is colourless and odourless; nitrous oxide (N 2 O) which is colourless and flammable, but harmless to health in the short-term; carbon monoxide (CO) which is colourless, odourless and flammable; and methane (CH 4 ) which is the principal constituent released by animals, and is also colourless, odourless and extremely flammable. When exposed to air, both methane and carbon monoxide can produce an explosive mix especially in an enclosed area. Bacteria, mold, endotoxins, and dust are also present in barns. Samples of gases were analyzed with the help of different portable apparatuses. Results revealed that there are no significant problems with air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves in Quebec. It was determined that the inside temperature was appropriate even during summer periods, and although the relative humidity was higher than the recommended values for the care and handling of farm animals, it was still acceptable. In winter, ammonia was the only gas present in concentrations that reached values of weighted average exposure. Also, concentrations of bacteria were higher during winter. It was suggested that better air ventilation during the winter period would lower ammonia

  2. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-02-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or infertility during the rearing period and the variation in culling rate of lactating cows. The objective of this study is to provide insight in the economically optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as replacements. A herd-level stochastic simulation model was developed specific for this purpose with a herd of 100 dairy cows; the biological part of the model consisted of a dairy herd unit and rearing unit for replacement heifers. The dairy herd unit included variation in the number of culled dairy cows. The rearing unit incorporated variation in the number of heifers present in the herd by including uncertainty in mortality and variation in fertility. The dairy herd unit and rearing unit were linked by the number of replacement heifers and culled dairy cows. When not enough replacement heifers were available to replace culled dairy cows, the herd size was temporarily reduced, resulting in an additional cost for the empty slots. When the herd size reached 100 dairy cows, the available replacement heifers that were not needed were sold. It was assumed that no purchase of cows and calves occurred. The optimal percentage of 2-wk-old heifer calves to be retained was defined as the percentage of heifer calves that minimized the average net costs of rearing replacement heifers. In the default scenario, the optimal retention was 73% and the total net cost of rearing was estimated at €40,939 per herd per year. This total net cost was 6.5% lower than when all heifer calves were kept. An earlier first-calving age resulted in an optimal retention of 75%, and the net costs of rearing were €581 per herd per year lower than in the default scenario. For herds with a lower or

  3. Best management practices for newly weaned calves for improved health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B K; Richards, C J; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R

    2017-05-01

    Morbidity and mortality in newly weaned calves resulting from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continue to be the most significant problems facing the beef industry. Morbidity attributed to BRD accounts for approximately 75% of total feedlot morbidity. Several experiments have documented the economic impacts of BRD. Direct costs attributable to BRD include death loss, treatment and labor costs, and prevention costs, while indirect costs associated with BRD include decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, increased days on feed, and decreased carcass merit and market value. In recent years, cattle treated for BRD have returned $50 to $250 less per head at harvest than cattle never treated for BRD. Best management practices for newly weaned calves vary depending on a multitude of factors including: season of year calves are purchased, calf genetics, length of time in the marketing and transport channels, previous management and vaccination programs, and other factors. In general, calves purchased directly from a ranch have fewer health problems than calves purchased through auction markets. The longer a calf is in the marketing chain, the more likely health problems will be encountered. Calves that have spent several days in the marketing chain may develop clinical BRD before or very soon after arrival, whereas cattle with less time in the marketing chain may get sick later (2 to 4 wk), due to the length of time it takes for BRD to develop. On or before arrival, calves should be given a risk score (high, medium, or low) that relates to the quantity and magnitude of stress they have encountered and the probability they will develop BRD. High-risk calves typically will have been recently weaned, received no vaccinations, not been castrated or dehorned, been commingled, and moved through an auction market. Low-risk calves will often originate from a single source and will have gone through a preconditioning program that includes vaccination, castration

  4. Mortality risk factors for calves entering a multi-location white veal farm in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Charlotte B; Kelton, David F; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-12-01

    Mortality in preweaned dairy-breed calves, whether they are replacement dairy heifers, veal animals, or dairy beef animals, represents both a welfare issue and a source of economic loss for the industries involved. Studies describing morbidity and mortality in veal calves have illustrated different management practices and requirements in terms of housing and nutrition around the world. Studies examining the rearing of replacement dairy heifers have shown that rates of morbidity and mortality can vary dramatically between farms, perhaps reflecting differences in management strategies. It has been over 2 decades since morbidity and mortality in veal calves in Ontario were described. The objective of this retrospective population cohort study was to describe mortality and determine whether on-arrival information could be used to predict mortality risk. Predictors could be used to both better classify and group calves on arrival and provide feedback to suppliers about the characteristics of the highest- and lowest-risk calves. We collected data from 10,910 calves entering 7 barns of a single white veal farm, all in Ontario, from January 1 to December 31, 2014. Calves were followed until death or marketing (typically 140 to 150 d). We developed logistic regression models to determine the effects of weight on arrival, season of arrival, supplier, sex, barn, and purchase price on the risk of total mortality, early mortality (0-21d after arrival), and late mortality (>21d after arrival). We identified significant associations between season, barn, supplier, weight, and total mortality risk, with lighter-weight calves arriving in winter being at increased risk. Early mortality was significantly associated with weight, season, barn, and supplier, and tended to be associated with standardized price; lighter-weight calves arriving in winter at lower prices were at increased risk. Late mortality was significantly associated with season of arrival, barn, and supplier. On

  5. Amelioration of salmonellosis in pre-weaned dairy calves fed Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products in feed and milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matthew T; Anderson, Kristi L; Yoon, Ilkyu; Scott, Mark F; Carlson, Steve A

    2014-08-06

    Salmonellosis is an insidious and potentially epidemic problem in pre-weaned dairy calves. Managing this disease, or any other diarrheal disease, is a financial burden to producers. Calf mortalities and medicinal treatments are overt costs of salmonellosis, while hidden costs include hampered weight gains and persistent intestinal colonization of the pathogen. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) incorporated into both the milk replacer and the starter grain. In a blinded study, 2-8 day-old calves were fed SCFP (n=20 calves) or an SCFP-free Control (n=20 calves) for two weeks before and three weeks after experimental challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Following the challenge, calves were monitored for clinical signs and parameters associated with salmonellosis. Calves were then euthanized and examined for rumen development and intestinal Salmonella colonization. When compared to calves that received milk replacer and feed lacking SCFP, calves fed SCFP had fewer bouts of diarrhea and fever. Rumens from these calves were more developed, as measured by the length of papillae, which is consistent with the enhanced weight gain observed in this treatment group. Additionally, Salmonella intestinal colonization was reduced in SCFP-fed calves and Salmonella fecal shedding disappeared at an earlier stage in these calves. This study revealed that the combination of two proprietary S. cerevisiae fermentation products provide marked benefit for preventing the negative effects of salmonellosis in pre-weaned dairy calves, while also boosting productivity. The mechanism of action needs to be clarified, but it may be related to the observed decrease in colonization by the pathogen and increase in rumen development. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc Deficiency‐Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Majzoub‐Altweck, M.; Trefz, F.M.; Seifert, C.; Knubben‐Schweizer, G.; Fries, R.; Hermanns, W.; Gollnick, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency‐like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. Objectives To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Animals Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Methods Prospective and retrospective case series. Results The 9 calves (age: 5–53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. Conclusions and Clinical Importance ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. PMID:29424482

  7. Zinc Deficiency-Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayer, M C; Jung, S; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Trefz, F M; Seifert, C; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Fries, R; Hermanns, W; Gollnick, N S

    2018-03-01

    Zinc deficiency-like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Prospective and retrospective case series. The 9 calves (age: 5-53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. The Effects of Feeding Raw Fiber Concentrate on Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites of Suckling Holstein Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky; Fridoon Niazi; Mohsen Ghiasvand

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen female Holstein calves allocated in three treatments including: 1: control, 2: fed raw fiber concentrate (RFC) for 45 days and 3: fed RFC for 90 days. RFC supplement (Vitacel® 200) was added to milk immediately before feeding (10 g/L milk). Withers height and body weights of calves were measured monthly. Individual dry matter intake was recorded daily. Blood samples were taken monthly. The result showed that calves consumed RFC had significantly greater weaning an...

  9. Development of temperature regulation in newborn reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hissa

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of temperature regulation was investigated by determining the ability of newborn reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus to maintain a normal body temperature when exposed to an incrementially decreasing ambient temperature. Newborn calves (1 day old can maintain their body temperature even at -15 °C. They can increase their metabolic rate five- to sixfold. Heat production is primarily stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. The response to exogenous administration of noradrenaline and propranolol was investigated.Poronvasan låmmonsååtelyn syntymånjålkeinen kehittyminen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vastasyntyneiden poronvasojen kylmansietoa ja lammonsaatelya tutkittiin toukokuussa 1981 Inarin Kaamasessa Paliskuntain yhdistyksen koetarhassa. Tutkittavat vasat olivat 1-10 vuorokauden ikaisia. Vasa asetettiin jååhdytettåvaån mittauskammioon. Sen aineenvaihdunta, lampotilat niin ihon eri kohdista kuin perasuolesta, lihasvarina ja sydanfrekvenssi rekisteroitiin jatkuvasti. Tulosten mukaan nayttåa siltå kuin 1 vuorokauden ikaiselle vasalle -15 °C olisi ehdoton alaraja låmpotilan sååtelyssa. Se kykeni kohottamaan hapenkulutusta talloin 5-kertaisesti. Lihasvarinan merkitys on vahainen verrattuna kemialliseen låmmontuottoon kylmassa. Tama voitiin osoittaa injisoimalla vasaan sympaattisen hermoston valittajaainetta noradrenaliinia.Temperaturreguleringens utvikling hos nyfødte reinkalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Temperaturreguleringens utvikling er studert ved å bestemme nyfødte reinkalvers evne til å opprettholde normal kroppstemperatur under påvirkning av gradvis synkende omgivelsestemperatur. Nyfødte kalver (1 døgn gamle kan opprettholde sin kroppstemperatur selv ved -15 °C. De kan øke sin omsetningshastighet fem til seks ganger. I starten er varmeproduksjonen stimulert av det sympatiske nervesystem. Virkningen av tilført noradrenalin og propranolol ble studert og skjelving synes å spille

  10. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  11. Experimental induction of abdominal tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration by intraruminal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens type A in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G; Avery, T B; Kennedy, G A

    1988-02-01

    The etiologic role of Clostridum perfringens type A in the acute abdominal syndrome characterized by abomasal and rumen tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration was investigated in neonatal calves. Eight calves, 4 to 12 days old, were inoculated intraruminally with toxigenic C perfringens type A. Before and after C perfringens inoculation, blood samples were collected from all calves for blood gas and serum biochemical analysis and for determination of serum copper concentration; ruminal fluid was obtained for isolation of C perfringens. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of the syndrome and, depending on the severity of clinical signs, they were either euthanatized or redosed within 4 to 7 days. After necropsy, specimens obtained from the abomasum and rumen for macroscopic and microscopic examination and for anaerobic bacteriologic culture were processed in routine manner. Intraruminal inoculation of C perfringens type A into healthy calves induced anorexia, depression, bloat, diarrhea, and in some calves, death. Serum copper concentration was within normal range. Necropsy revealed variable degrees of abomasitis, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, and ulcers (ranging from pinpoint to nearly perforate) in the abomasum. Seven of those calves also had multiple trichobezoars in the rumen. These necropsy findings were not seen in calves (controls) given distilled H2O only. In affected calves, acute abdominal syndrome was unrelated to copper deficiency, and C perfringens type A given intraruminally was able to induce clinical signs similar to those of the naturally acquired disease.

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND COTTONSEED CAKES IN THE FEED OF CROSSBRED CALVES FOR MEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. JABBAR, M. I. ANJUM1, S. REHMAN2 AND W. SHAHZAD2

    2006-01-01

    Thirty crossbred (Sahiwal x Friesian) male calves of 9-10 months age and weighing 70 to 90 kg, were used in completely randomized design to investigate the possibility of replacing cottonseed cakes (CSC) with sunflower meal (SFM), partially or completely, in rations for fattening of crossbred calves for meat production. Three concentrate rations viz. A, B and C were formulated. Ration A containing CSC was fed to the calves of group A, ration B containing SFM was fed to calves of group B and...

  13. A complex relationship between calving glaciers and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, A.; O'Neel, S.; Motyka, R.J.; Streveler, G.

    2011-01-01

    Many terrestrial glaciers are sensitive indicators of past and present climate change as atmospheric temperature and snowfall modulate glacier volume. However, climate interpretations based on glacier behavior require careful selection of representative glaciers, as was recently pointed out for surging and debris-covered glaciers, whose behavior often defies regional glacier response to climate [Yde and Paasche, 2010]. Tidewater calving glaciers (TWGs)mountain glaciers whose termini reach the sea and are generally grounded on the seaflooralso fall into the category of non-representative glaciers because the regional-scale asynchronous behavior of these glaciers clouds their complex relationship with climate. TWGs span the globe; they can be found both fringing ice sheets and in high-latitude regions of each hemisphere. TWGs are known to exhibit cyclic behavior, characterized by slow advance and rapid, unstable retreat, largely independent of short-term climate forcing. This so-called TWG cycle, first described by Post [1975], provides a solid foundation upon which modern investigations of TWG stability are built. Scientific understanding has developed rapidly as a result of the initial recognition of their asynchronous cyclicity, rendering greater insight into the hierarchy of processes controlling regional behavior. This has improved the descriptions of the strong dynamic feedbacks present during retreat, the role of the ocean in TWG dynamics, and the similarities and differences between TWG and ice sheet outlet glaciers that can often support floating tongues.

  14. Eight calves of cervical ectopia cordis and their sternums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, T.; Abe, M.

    1986-01-01

    Four male and four female Holstein-Friesian calves affected with cervical ectopia cordis were examined macroscopically and their sternums were radiographed using soft X-rays. Their lifespan ranged from 3 minutes to 312 days. The heart was located within the pericardium under the muscles and skin at the ventral cervical area and its double apex was directed craniodorsally, and the base was pointed caudoventrally. The branching pattern of arteries from the aortic arch was similar to that of dog in all cases. Double cranial vena cava and double azygos vein were observed in many cases. The manubrium was very wide to enlarge the cranial thoracic aperture. The short and wide sternum consisted of 13 to 26 sternebrae, and the ossification centers of manubrium and body of sternum showed paired appearance. The thoracic portion of the thymus was absent, while the cervical portions were gathered together on the craniodorsal side of the heart. The ligaments extending from the fibrous pericardium were attached to the mandibles and parotid fasciae cranially, to the cervical fasciae laterally, and also to the first ribs or manubrium caudally and held the heart in its position. Based on these findings, the pathogenesis of this anomaly was discussed from an embryological point of view

  15. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  16. Detomidine-diazepam-ketamine anaesthesia in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawde, A M; Amarpal; Kinjavdekar, P; Aithal, H P; Pratap, K; Bisht, G S

    2000-04-01

    Eight buffalo calves (8-12 months, 70-100 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups of four animals each. Animals of group I were given detomidine (100 micrograms/kg), whereas animals of group II received a mixture of detomidine (100 micrograms/kg), diazepam (100 micrograms/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg) (DDK) intravenously. Various clinical parameters, such as weak time, down time, pedal and pinprick reflexes, muscle relaxation and extent of sedation, as well as heart and respiratory rates and electrocardiograms were measured before (time 0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min after treatment. In all the animals of group II (DDK), the pedal reflex was completely abolished (score: 3.00 +/- 0.00) within 5 min, the pinprick response was either very weak or it was completely abolished at this interval. Muscle relaxation and sedation were excellent within 5 min of DDK administration. The depth of sedation and analgesia was maximum from 5 to 15 min postinjection. Detomidine alone, however, failed to produce appropriate depression of the pedal and pinprick reflexes, sedation was mild and muscle relaxation was inadequate. Heart rate showed a significant (P detomidine. The results indicated that DDK combination is safe and suitable for 15 min of anaesthesia with excellent muscle relaxation and has only limited cardiorespiratory effects in buffaloes.

  17. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: Diagnostics and contemporary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease represents avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a growing child. It commonly affects children aged 2-14 years, mostly boys, and has familiar pattern. The etiology of this disease is unknown. It is based on avascular necrosis due to variations of the femoral head vascular supply, trauma, coagulation of endocrine disturbances. The disease presents with limping and pain localized in the hip with projection to thigh and knee, frequently accompanied by the limitation of abduction and internal rotation, as well as slight limitation in flexion of about 20 degrees. Plain radiography is most informative additional diagnostic procedure, enabling assessment of the stage of disease, containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum, acetabular coverage and the extent of disease. Main treatment goal is obtaining the spherical congruity of the hip joint. This can be achieved by abduction bracing, varization femoral osteotomies and various innominate osteotomies (sometimes combined with femoral osteotomies. Children younger than four years of age, with minimal femoral head involvement, do not need any treatment. These children with a larger involvement, older than four years of age, with possible containment in hip abducion, should be treated by one of the following procedures: Salter innominate osteotomy, Salter innominate osteotomy with femoral shortening, or triple pelvic osteotomy. The patients with containment of the hip is not possible in abduction (related to subluxation and femoral head crush, should be treated by Chiari pelvic osteotomy.

  18. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  19. George’s Island, Labrador - A high-density predator-free refuge for a woodland caribou subpopulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Jeffery

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The movement patterns and demographic parameters were measured for caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou on George’s Island (Labrador, Canada to determine if the population is separate from the Mealy Mountain Caribou Herd. Movements between George’s Island caribou and nearby Mealy Mountain caribou were examined through satellite telemetry (April 2005 to April 2006. Demographic information was collected through aerial classification surveys. The predator-free island is currently maintaining a density of 22.5-26.5 caribou/km2. Female survival appears high and the recruitment rate in late fall-early spring was 19.0-29.2% calves. Mainland caribou moved very little throughout the year, travelling no more than 53.7 km on average from their initial collaring locations. Also, satellite data indicated no mixing between animals on George’s Island and the mainland. The elevated caribou density and high proportion of calves suggest that George’s Island could at times be acting as a predator-free recruitment area and that George’s Island may be a subpopulation from which animals disperse to the mainland.

  20. Biosafety of parenteral Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in bison calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.; Olsen, S.C.; Gidlewski, T.; Jensen, A.E.; Palmer, M.V.; Huber, R.

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination is considered among the primary management tools for reducing brucellosis prevalence in Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) ungulates. Before their use, however, vaccine safety and efficacy must be demonstrated. Twenty-seven female bison (Bison bison) calves (approx 5 months old) were vaccinated with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 (1.5 x 1010 colony forming units [CFU], subcutaneously) as part of routine management. We assessed the persistence, pathology, shedding, and transmission associated with RB51 by serial necropsy, bacteriology, histopathology, and serology of 20 of these 27 vaccinated calves, and RB51 serology of 10 nonvaccinated, commingling adult females. With the exception of 1 calf, RB51 dot-blot titers at necropsy were <1:80. Strain RB51 was cultured from lymph nodes in 4 of 4 calves at 14 weeks postvaccination (PV), 4 of 4 calves at 18 weeks PV, 1 of 4 calves at 22 weeks PV, 3 of 4 at 26 weeks PV, and 0 of 4 calves at 30 weeks PV. No gross lesions were observed. Mild histologic changes occurred only in a few draining lymph nodes early in sampling. Adverse clinical effects were not observed in vaccinates. Swabs from nasopharynx, conjunctiva, rectum, and vagina were uniformly culture negative for RB51. Strain RB51 dot-blot assays of bison cows were negative at a 1:20 dilution at 26 weeks PV. Our results suggest that RB51 persists longer in bison calves than in domestic cattle and is systemically distributed within lymphatic tissues. However, bison apparently clear the RB51 vaccine strain without shedding, transmission, or significant adverse reactions.

  1. Ice-ocean interaction and calving front morphology at two west Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauché, N.; Hubbard, A.; Gascard, J.-C.; Box, J. E.; Bates, R.; Koppes, M.; Sole, A.; Christoffersen, P.; Patton, H.

    2014-08-01

    Warm, subtropical-originating Atlantic water (AW) has been identified as a primary driver of mass loss across the marine sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), yet the specific processes by which this water mass interacts with and erodes the calving front of tidewater glaciers is frequently modelled and much speculated upon but remains largely unobserved. We present a suite of fjord salinity, temperature, turbidity versus depth casts along with glacial runoff estimation from Rink and Store glaciers, two major marine outlets draining the western sector of the GrIS during 2009 and 2010. We characterise the main water bodies present and interpret their interaction with their respective calving fronts. We identify two distinct processes of ice-ocean interaction which have distinct spatial and temporal footprints: (1) homogenous free convective melting which occurs across the calving front where AW is in direct contact with the ice mass, and (2) localised upwelling-driven melt by turbulent subglacial runoff mixing with fjord water which occurs at distinct injection points across the calving front. Throughout the study, AW at 2.8 ± 0.2 °C was consistently observed in contact with both glaciers below 450 m depth, yielding homogenous, free convective submarine melting up to ~200 m depth. Above this bottom layer, multiple interactions are identified, primarily controlled by the rate of subglacial fresh-water discharge which results in localised and discrete upwelling plumes. In the record melt year of 2010, the Store Glacier calving face was dominated by these runoff-driven plumes which led to a highly crenulated frontal geometry characterised by large embayments at the subglacial portals separated by headlands which are dominated by calving. Rink Glacier, which is significantly deeper than Store has a larger proportion of its submerged calving face exposed to AW, which results in a uniform, relatively flat overall frontal geometry.

  2. Predictors and impacts of colostrum consumption by 4h after birth in newborn beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homerosky, E R; Timsit, E; Pajor, E A; Kastelic, J P; Windeyer, M C

    2017-10-01

    Newborn beef calf vigor is a vital survival characteristic that promotes timely colostrum consumption. Modified APGAR scores intended to identify compromised calves are not widely adopted due to impracticality, inconsistent associations with blood gas disturbances, and unclear recommendations for intervention. The objectives were to: (1) determine differences in at-birth blood parameters between calves that were successful in colostrum consumption by 4h (CC4) compared to those that failed; (2) develop a Beef Calf Vigor Assessment by determining calving characteristics and clinical examination parameters associated with CC4; and (3) evaluate impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and treatment risk. As a predictor for CC4, suckle reflex had the highest specificity (98%), whereas calving ease had the highest sensitivity (89%). Calves with a weak suckle reflex had 41.6 (95% CI: 7.4-787.5) times greater odds of failed CC4 compared to calves with a strong suckle reflex (P24g/L serum IgG; OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.2-34.4; P=0.02), and higher odds of being treated (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4; P=0.03) than those that succeeded. Measuring suckle reflex in combination with calving ease was a quick and easy method to assess newborn beef calf vigor. The value of this Beef Calf Vigor Assessment was further emphasized by the negative impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and pre-weaning health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of Holstein calves having free access to milk and dosed with Megasphaera elsdenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukengela Claude Muya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Megasphaera elsdenii converts lactate and glucose into butyrate, the main volatile fatty acid responsible of papillae development and may benefit calf performance. Twenty-six Holstein calves (BW = 34.5 ± 1.65 kg were randomly assigned at birth to a control group (Meg0 and a group that received an oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 d of age (Meg14. Calves received colostrum for the first 3 d followed by free choice access to whole milk until weaning at 56 d. From d 4 onward, starter and water were offered ad libitum. Intakes were measured daily and body weights (BW weekly. Blood samples were collected on day 7, 21, 28, 42, and 56 for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA analysis. Performance was measured for an additional 14 d post-weaning. Pre-weaning milk intake was lower (p = 0.010 and starter DMI (dry matter intake greater (p = 0.001 for Meg14 than Meg0 calves. Total DMI, metabolisable energy (ME intake and average daily gain (ADG were similar (p > 0.05 for both groups, but Meg14 calves had greater weaning BW (p = 0.012 and feed efficiency (p < 0.029. The average BHBA between d 21 and 56 was greater for Meg14 (p = 0.03 compared to Meg0 calves. After weaning, Meg14 calves had greater DMI (p = 0.027, ME intake (p = 0.023 and ADG (p = 0.002 and tended to have better feed efficiencies (p = 0.07 than Meg0 calves. Administering M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 improved starter intake and feed efficiency, which was associated with high blood BHBA.

  5. Risk of Mycoplasma bovis transmission from contaminated sand bedding to naive dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D J; Justice-Allen, A; Goodell, G; Baldwin, T J; Skirpstunas, R T; Cavender, K B

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible transmission of Mycoplasma bovis from positive sand bedding to naïve dairy calves. Twelve preweaned Holstein bull calves were blocked in pairs and randomly assigned as unexposed controls (n=6) bedded with control sand, or exposed calves (n=6) bedded with sand previously positive for M. bovis at a dairy farm. Bedding sand was cultured weekly. Nasal and ear swabs and sera were collected weekly, tracheal swabs were collected monthly, and by the end of the 105-d study, all calves were euthanized (n=10) or died (n=2). Sera were tested for M. bovis-specific antibody. Mycoplasma spp. culture was performed on nasal and ear swabs; culture and a PCR differentiating multiple Mycoplasma spp. were performed on postmortem samples of lung, retropharyngeal lymph node, and trachea from each calf. A complete necropsy also was performed. During 6 wk, mycoplasma concentration in exposed group sand was between 200 and 32,000 cfu/g. All 166 tracheal swabs, nasal and ear swabs, and postmortem tests from all calves were negative for mycoplasma. All 94 sera were negative for M. bovis-specific antibody. No gross pathology suggestive of mycoplasma disease was detected. The probability of mycoplasma detection, if an exposed calf had become infected 4 wk after exposure, ranged between 97 and 99% depending on time of exposure for individual calves. There was no evidence that sand bedding contaminated with M. bovis might serve as a source of transmission to naïve dairy calves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oma, Veslemøy Sunniva; Tråvén, Madeleine; Alenius, Stefan; Myrmel, Mette; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-06-13

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Prevention of virus spread is impeded by a lack of basic knowledge concerning viral shedding and transmission potential in individual animals. The aims of the study were to investigate the duration and quantity of BCoV shedding in feces and nasal secretions related to clinical signs, the presence of virus in blood and tissues and to test the hypothesis that seropositive calves are not infectious to naïve in-contact calves three weeks after BCoV infection. A live animal experiment was conducted, with direct contact between animal groups for 24 h as challenge procedure. Four naïve calves were commingled with a group of six naturally infected calves and sequentially euthanized. Two naïve sentinel calves were commingled with the experimentally exposed group three weeks after exposure. Nasal swabs, feces, blood and tissue samples were analyzed for viral RNA by RT-qPCR, and virus isolation was performed on nasal swabs. Serum was analyzed for BCoV antibodies. The calves showed mild general signs, and the most prominent signs were from the respiratory system. The overall clinical score corresponded well with the shedding of viral RNA the first three weeks after challenge. General depression and cough were the signs that correlated best with shedding of BCoV RNA, while peak respiratory rate and peak rectal temperature appeared more than a week later than the peak shedding. Nasal shedding preceded fecal shedding, and the calves had detectable amounts of viral RNA intermittently in feces through day 35 and in nasal secretions through day 28, however virus isolation was unsuccessful from day six and day 18 from the two calves investigated. Viral RNA was not detected in blood, but was found in lymphatic tissue through day 42 after challenge. Although the calves were shedding BCoV RNA 21 days after infection the sentinel animals were not infected

  7. Fatty acid intake alters growth and immunity in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Vandehaar, M J; Sordillo, L M; Catherman, D R; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing milk replacer (MR) with NeoTec4 (Provimi North America, Brookville, OH), a commercially available blend of butyric acid, coconut oil, and flax oil, on calf growth, efficiency, and indices of immune function. In trial 1a, 48 male Holstein calves were fed either a control MR that contained only animal fat or the same MR with NeoTec4 (treatment) along with free-choice starter. The MR (28.7% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of dry matter (DM)/d. In trial 1b, weaned calves from trial 1a were all fed dry starter for 28 d without NeoTec4 (phase 1), and then half the calves were fed NeoTec4 for 28 d (phase 2). In trial 2, 40 male Holstein calves were fed a control MR with lard, coconut oil, and soy lecithin or the same MR supplemented with NeoTec4 (treatment). The MR (22.8% crude protein, 18.9% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of DM/d; no starter was fed. In trial 1a, NeoTec4 improved average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, reduced the number of days that calves experienced scours, and reduced the medical treatments for clostridium sickness. In trials 1a and 2, NeoTec4 altered the inflammatory response to vaccination with Pasteurella at 5 wk of age and to challenge with Salmonella toxin at less than 2 wk of age (fed NeoTec4 for 6 d), as observed by reduced hyperthermia and hypophagia, and altered the tumor necrosis factor-α response. In addition, NeoTec4 enhanced the response in IL-4 and globular protein estimates postchallenge and enhanced titers for bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3. Postchallenge serum concentrations of albumin were lower and urea nitrogen concentrations were greater in control calves than in calves fed NeoTec4. In trial 1b, performance did not differ during the first 28 d when no calves received NeoTec4, but calves receiving NeoTec4 in the second 28 d had greater average daily gain and feed efficiency. We conclude that

  8. Machine-learning-based calving prediction from activity, lying, and ruminating behaviors in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Proudfoot, K L; Wadsworth, B A; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use automated activity, lying, and rumination monitors to characterize prepartum behavior and predict calving in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 20 primiparous and 33 multiparous Holstein dairy cattle from September 2011 to May 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. The HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) automatically collected neck activity and rumination data in 2-h increments. The IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) automatically collected number of steps, lying time, standing time, number of transitions from standing to lying (lying bouts), and total motion, summed in 15-min increments. IceQube data were summed in 2-h increments to match HR Tag data. All behavioral data were collected for 14 d before the predicted calving date. Retrospective data analysis was performed using mixed linear models to examine behavioral changes by day in the 14 d before calving. Bihourly behavioral differences from baseline values over the 14 d before calving were also evaluated using mixed linear models. Changes in daily rumination time, total motion, lying time, and lying bouts occurred in the 14 d before calving. In the bihourly analysis, extreme values for all behaviors occurred in the final 24 h, indicating that the monitored behaviors may be useful in calving prediction. To determine whether technologies were useful at predicting calving, random forest, linear discriminant analysis, and neural network machine-learning techniques were constructed and implemented using R version 3.1.0 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). These methods were used on variables from each technology and all combined variables from both technologies. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies at the daily level yielded 100.0% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies in bihourly increments was

  9. Virus detection by PCR following vaccination of naive calves with intranasal or injectable multivalent modified-live viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Paul H; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Riddell, Kay P; Scruggs, Daniel W; Cortese, Victor S

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated duration of PCR-positive results following administration of modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines to beef calves. Twenty beef calves were randomly assigned to either group 1 and vaccinated intranasally with a MLV vaccine containing bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), or to group 2 and vaccinated subcutaneously with a MLV vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2), BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3. Deep nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and transtracheal washes (TTW) were collected from all calves, and whole blood was collected from group 2 calves and tested by PCR. In group 1, the proportions of calves that tested PCR-positive to BVDV, BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 on any sample at any time were 0%, 100%, 100%, and 10%, respectively. In group 1 calves, 100% of calves became PCR-positive for BoHV-1 by day 3 post-vaccination and 100% of calves became PCR-positive for BRSV by day 7 post-vaccination. In group 2, the proportions of calves that tested positive to BVDV, BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 on any sample at any time were 50%, 40%, 10%, and 0%, respectively. All threshold cycle (Ct) values were >30 in group 2 calves, irrespective of virus; however, Ct values PCR-positive results for BoHV-1 and BRSV. All calves were PCR-negative for all viruses after day 28. Following intranasal MLV viral vaccination, PCR results and Ct values for BRSV and BoHV-1 suggest that attempts to differentiate vaccine virus from natural infection is unreliable.

  10. Camel Calves as Opportunistic Milk Thefts? The First Description of Allosuckling in Domestic Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlová, Karolína; Bartoš, Luděk; Haberová, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a ‘milk-theft’ (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of ‘milk theft’, being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves. PMID:23326378

  11. Camel calves as opportunistic milk thefts? The first description of allosuckling in domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolína Brandlová

    Full Text Available Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus and to test whether it can be explained as a 'milk-theft' (opportunistic behaviour of calves or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female. Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of 'milk theft', being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.

  12. Diprosopia/dicephalia in calves in northern Italy: clinical and aetio-pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasibetti, E; D'Angelo, A; Bellino, C; Gay, L; Gianella, P; Capucchio, M T

    2011-12-01

    Cephalic parapagia, a rare congenital anomaly caused by the fusion of two monozygotic embryos, is characterized by a single body and a spectrum of duplication of craniofacial structures. The authors describe the clinical and pathological aspects of the parapagus conjoined twin defect in nine calves referred to the Department of Animal Pathology, Turin, between 1999 and 2009. The majority of the calves (eight cases) presented two snouts that shared three or four eyes (diprosopia); one calf presented two separate skulls fused at the foramen magnum (dicephalia). Bilateral inferior brachygnathia was observed in four calves. Post-mortem examination of the skull revealed complete brain duplication with fusion at the caudal portion of the brainstem in all calves. Histological features of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem were normal; moderate disorganization of the cerebellar cortex was noted in two cases. Cardiac malformations were observed in three calves. No aetiologic cause was determined. This article underscores the importance of diprosopia in cattle species and suggests the need for more detailed investigations to better understand its pathogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Stillbirth in dairy calves is influenced independently by dystocia and body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, A C; Mason, C; Dwyer, C M; Haskell, M J; Macrae, A I

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (1) if stillborn calves born following dystocia present with specific injuries/pathological changes compared to stillborns delivered without difficulty, and (2) whether such stillborns differ in conformation from dystocic calves that survive. Post-mortem examinations were carried out on 20 stillborns that were either unassisted (N) or were 'farm-staff'-assisted/normally presented (FN) at birth. Evidence of greater trauma and bruising was observed in the FN calves and parameters such as body length, birth-weight and thyroid:body weight were similar. In a second part of the study birth-weight, body length and height, girth length, body mass (BMI), and ponderal (PI) indices were assessed in 490 calves. Regardless of the severity of dystocia, stillborns had greater body lengths and lower BMIs and PIs than calves born alive (Pdystocia. Half of the stillborns had breathed indicating they were alive and possibly had experienced pain/distress at time of delivery. Body conformation was related to stillbirth independently of dystocia, a finding likely reflecting inadequate prenatal development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of crossbred calves raised on different dietary treatments under smallholder dairy farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyimo, H L N; Laswai, G H; Mtenga, L A

    2010-01-01

    and was formulated using locally available feed resources. Twenty-seven (27) male calves, with birth weight 32 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, whereby Treatment 1 (DC) calves were fed the developed concentrate, Treatment 2 (FC) calves were fed a common home made dairy cow concentrate (CP 130 g......An on-farm study was carried out in Tanzania to assess the performance of crossbred (Frisian/Ayrshire x Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu) dairy calves fed on a concentrate, previously developed and tested on-station. The developed concentrate contained 189 g crude protein (CP) and 13 ME MJ per kg DM...... and ME 13 MJ per kg DM) used by farmers in the study area. Treatment 3 (FP) was a control, where farmers followed their normal calf rearing practice with no interference. Restricted suckling, ad libitum feeding of forages and up to 1 kg concentrate were used for the calves on DC and FC. Weaning was at 12...

  15. Effects of lactoferrin feeding on growth, feed intake and health of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Maria L; Prgomet, Christian; Sauerwein, Helga; Pfaffl, Michael W; Broz, Jiri; Schwarz, Frieder J

    2007-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) exhibits a broad spectrum of anti-microbial properties and may have regulatory functions in the immune system. In the present study, 40 calves (20 males, 20 females) were used to examine the effects of supplemental bovine LF added to colostrum and milk replacer (at 0.16%) on health, weight development and feed intake during a 70-day experimental period. The calves were allocated to a treatment group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20); the groups were balanced in terms of sex, live weight and date of birth. Body weight and feed intake were measured at regular intervals. Blood and colostrum samples were collected to determine the content of IgG. In addition, colostrum and milk replacer samples were analysed for their LF concentrations. Significantly higher IgG values were observed in the LF treated than in the control group during the entire feeding experiment from week 2 to week 6. Calves receiving LF had less days of disease with less serious cases of diarrhoea than the control group. Body weight and feed intake were not significantly different between the treatments; in male calves LF-treated animals tended towards higher weight gains. This study indicates that LF is advantageous for health and may therefore be a beneficial supplement in the diets for neonatal calves.

  16. Effects of varying the amounts of dietary calcium on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Fielding, A.S.; Etheridge, R.E.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of dietary Ca on Se metabolism was studied with 16 intact male Holstein calves averaging 86 kg. Calves were assigned randomly and fed one of four diets containing .17, .67, 1.31, and 2.35% Ca at 3% of their body weight for 4 wk. The diets contained .062 ppm Se and .34% P. Four days prior to the end of the experiment, calves were dosed orally with radioactive 75 Se. Dietary Ca had no significant effect on 75 Se absorption. There was a slight curvilinear relationship between apparent 75 Se absorption and dietary Ca intakes. Urinary excretion of 75 Se and stable Se tended to decrease with increasing dietary Ca, but differences were not significant. No significant differences were found in concentration of 75 Se in several tissues. Kidney and liver had the highest concentration with that in kidney being about four times that of liver. Apparent 75 Se absorption was decreased 10 to 6%, respectively, in calves fed extremely low and high amounts of Ca, compared with those receiving the requirement (.67% Ca). These small reductions along with a small R 2 suggest that dietary Ca probably is of little practical importance relative to Se metabolism in calves

  17. Studies of Growth Rate of Limousine Calves Maintained on Pasture and Free Stabulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Parvu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to monitor the growth process from birth to weaning (six months old of the females and males Limousine calves maintained on pasture or free stabulation. The research was performed in a private farm situated in Covasna County. In this farm, the rearing of the calves was done without there being a technological guide. The calves had been grown along with the mother cows. The introduction of vegetal food into the calves ration is done at 3 weeks old. In the first period (one month old, all calves were housed in stabulation, having free access to the paddock. The daily gain was 666.7 g at females and 800 g at males. In the second period (from one month old until weaning, a group was maintained on pasture, and the other group in free stabulation. The daily gain was 1120 g at females and 1200 g at males on pasture; 1067 g and respectively 1140 g in stabulation. The stress of weaning was present only to the young females; for ten days, these were restlessness, having the desire for sucking and the appetite for food has decreased. Their bodyweight has decreased with 12%, the differences being significant (p≤0.05.

  18. Streptococcus bovis/S. equinus complex septicemia in a group of calves following intramuscular vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Fathke, Robert L; Sanchez, Susan; Stanton, James B

    2016-07-01

    Organisms previously classified as Streptococcus bovis (i.e., the S. bovis/S. equinus complex) are common in cattle feces, but may also act as opportunistic pathogens. In the current work, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, a member of this complex, was associated of a cluster of calves that died within hours of injection with a modified live viral vaccine. Within 12 h of vaccination of 46 calves at a cow/calf operation, 4 calves had died, 3 calves were ill, and 1 unvaccinated cow was dead. Autopsies were performed on the cow, 2 dead calves, and 1 affected surviving calf, which was euthanized ~24 h after vaccine administration. The animals had similar gross anatomic and microscopic lesions, including subcutaneous and intramuscular dark hemorrhage on the caudal neck, multiorgan ecchymosis and petechiation, and alveolitis to interstitial pneumonia. Gram-positive cocci were in the vasculature of the lung and skeletal muscle, and S. infantarius subsp. coli was cultured from tissues and from the vaccines used on affected animals, but not in vials used on unaffected animals. Together, these findings suggest death caused by streptococcal septicemia and toxemia as a result of contamination. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in prey abundance and vulnerability shapes the foraging tactics of an omnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayl, Nathaniel D; Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Organ, John F; Mumma, Matthew A; Mahoney, Shane P; Soulliere, Colleen E; Lewis, Keith P; Otto, Robert D; Murray, Dennis L; Waits, Lisette P; Fuller, Todd K

    2018-05-01

    Prey abundance and prey vulnerability vary across space and time, but we know little about how they mediate predator-prey interactions and predator foraging tactics. To evaluate the interplay between prey abundance, prey vulnerability and predator space use, we examined patterns of black bear (Ursus americanus) predation of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) neonates in Newfoundland, Canada using data from 317 collared individuals (9 bears, 34 adult female caribou, 274 caribou calves). During the caribou calving season, we predicted that landscape features would influence calf vulnerability to bear predation, and that bears would actively hunt calves by selecting areas associated with increased calf vulnerability. Further, we hypothesized that bears would dynamically adjust their foraging tactics in response to spatiotemporal changes in calf abundance and vulnerability (collectively, calf availability). Accordingly, we expected bears to actively hunt calves when they were most abundant and vulnerable, but switch to foraging on other resources as calf availability declined. As predicted, landscape heterogeneity influenced risk of mortality, and bears displayed the strongest selection for areas where they were most likely to kill calves, which suggested they were actively hunting caribou. Initially, the per-capita rate at which bears killed calves followed a type-I functional response, but as the calving season progressed and calf vulnerability declined, kill rates dissociated from calf abundance. In support of our hypothesis, bears adjusted their foraging tactics when they were less efficient at catching calves, highlighting the influence that predation phenology may have on predator space use. Contrary to our expectations, however, bears appeared to continue to hunt caribou as calf availability declined, but switched from a tactic of selecting areas of increased calf vulnerability to a tactic that maximized encounter rates with calves. Our results reveal that generalist

  20. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in prey abundance and vulnerability shapes the foraging tactics of an omnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayl, Nathaniel; Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Organ, John F.; Mumma, Matthew; Mahoney, Shane P.; Soulliere, Colleen; Lewis, Keith; Otto, Robert; Murray, Dennis; Waits, Lisette; Fuller, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Prey abundance and prey vulnerability vary across space and time, but we know little about how they mediate predator–prey interactions and predator foraging tactics. To evaluate the interplay between prey abundance, prey vulnerability and predator space use, we examined patterns of black bear (Ursus americanus) predation of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) neonates in Newfoundland, Canada using data from 317 collared individuals (9 bears, 34 adult female caribou, 274 caribou calves).During the caribou calving season, we predicted that landscape features would influence calf vulnerability to bear predation, and that bears would actively hunt calves by selecting areas associated with increased calf vulnerability. Further, we hypothesized that bears would dynamically adjust their foraging tactics in response to spatiotemporal changes in calf abundance and vulnerability (collectively, calf availability). Accordingly, we expected bears to actively hunt calves when they were most abundant and vulnerable, but switch to foraging on other resources as calf availability declined.As predicted, landscape heterogeneity influenced risk of mortality, and bears displayed the strongest selection for areas where they were most likely to kill calves, which suggested they were actively hunting caribou. Initially, the per‐capita rate at which bears killed calves followed a type‐I functional response, but as the calving season progressed and calf vulnerability declined, kill rates dissociated from calf abundance. In support of our hypothesis, bears adjusted their foraging tactics when they were less efficient at catching calves, highlighting the influence that predation phenology may have on predator space use. Contrary to our expectations, however, bears appeared to continue to hunt caribou as calf availability declined, but switched from a tactic of selecting areas of increased calf vulnerability to a tactic that maximized encounter rates with calves.Our results reveal that

  1. Isolation and characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from calves and piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Foditsch

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals. We identified 203 isolates of Faecalibacterium sp., which were clustered in 40 genetically distinct groups. One representative isolate from each cluster was selected for further characterization. The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography. We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate. Butyrate production correlated positively with bacterial growth. Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic. The effect of pH and concentration of bile salts on bacterial growth was also evaluated in order to mimic the conditions encountered by F. prausnitzii in vivo. The optimal pH for growth ranged between 5.5 and 6.7, while most isolates were inhibited by of the lowest concentration of bile salts tested (0.1%. Antimicrobial resistance profile showed that most isolates of Faecalibacterium sp. were resistant against ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amikacin, cefepime and cefoxitin. A total of 19 different combinations of multidrug resistance were observed among the isolates. Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future

  2. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS RELATED TO THE INTERVAL BETWEEN CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H C. Guse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the demand for products of bovine origin increases every day in the world, and Brazil, which has the largest commercial herd of cattle on the planet, does not stay behind when it comes to raising beef cattle and milk. Despite our efforts to offer the best product, we are faced with difficult challenges in the country when it comes to climate and soil. The tropical climate, with rainy and dry seasons, ends up greatly damaging the pastures, thus offering less quality nutrients to our herds. As a domino effect, with less nutrients, there is more stress on the animal, which implies a poor reproductive efficiency, which is a crucial factor for effective production. However, there are viable outputs to improve the statistics, and one of them is reducing the interval between calving in cows relating to nutritional aspects, the important theme that the work will address. The nutritional strategy used in the experiment was the supplementation before, during and after the synchronization protocols for IATF. It consisted in the supply of 5g / kg PV / animal / day, a multiple mixture containing 82% ground corn, 8% soybean meal, 4% protected fat (Megalac®, 3% protected urea , 2% calcium carbonate, 0.06% mineral core, 0.04% Sodium Chloride and 0.01% lasalocid sodium 15% (Taurotec®. Supplement delivery started 7 days prior to protocol (D0 and lasted up to 20 after TAI, totaling 38 days. It was observed that the results showed an increase in the pregnancy rate of the primiparas that were supplemented, especially those with ECC below 3 (on the scale of 1 to 5, the percentage variation in the increment was of 2.6 ( ECC ≥3 to 7.1 (ECC = 2.75, presenting lower values in multiparous women. It is evident that, with due planning, observing the moments of nutritional deficit, it is possible to improve the interval between deliveries, thus improving production.

  3. The legg-calve-perthes disease; Morbus Perthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, A. [Institut fuer CT- und MRT-Diagnostik, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Allgemeines und Orthopaedisches LKH, Stolzalpe (Austria); Tschauner, C.

    2002-06-01

    The Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is an idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip during early childhood. It is characterized by different stages with the main risk of persisting hip deformation, dysfunction of the joint movement, and the potential for early osteoarthritis. For the evaluation of prognosis and therapy planning patients age and extent of the necrotic area of the epiphysis are important factors. For an early diagnosis and sufficient therapy all radiological efforts have to be performed. MR imaging is an ideal method for the assessment of osteonecrotic changes of the Morbus Perthes. Compared to plain radiography by MR imaging pathologic alterations can be detected earlier and with higher specificity. However, conventional radiograms have to be still used as basic imaging modality. Nowadays x-rays and MR imaging should be the main methods for the evaluation of children suffering from Perthes disease. (orig.) [German] Beim Morbus Perthes handelt es sich um eine idiopathische Osteonekrose des Hueftgelenks im fruehkindlichen Alter (3.-12. Lebensjahr). Das Hauptrisiko dieser selbstlimitierenden Erkrankung mit suffizienter Reparatur und charakteristischem stadienhaftem Verlauf ist eine Defektheilung mit deformiertem Hueftkopf (Coxa magna) und sekundaer dysplastischer Pfanne. Diese praearthrotische Deformitaet fuehrt zur Einschraenkung der Hueftfunktion und einer fruehzeitigen Koxarthrose. Zur Abschaetzung der Prognose und Therapieplanung spielen Alter des Patienten bei Krankheitsbeginn sowie Groesse und Lokalisation des Nekroseareals eine entscheidende Rolle. Es ist somit augenscheinlich, dass alle radiologischen Register gezogen werden muessen, um eine moeglichst fruehe Diagnose und eine suffiziente Stadieneinteilung als Voraussetzung fuer eine risikoadaptierte Therapie zu gewaehrleisten. Die MRT eignet sich in idealer Weise zur Beurteilung ischaemischer Knochenmarkveraenderungen im Rahmen des Morbus Perthes. Verglichen mit dem konventionellen Roentgen ist die

  4. Short communication: Effect of age at group housing on behavior, cortisol, health, and leukocyte differential counts of neonatal bull dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, E M; Karousa, M M; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of age at grouping on behavior, health, and production of dairy bull calves, 90 Holstein-Friesian bull calves were housed in individual pens until moved to 1 of 3 treatments. Calves were housed in groups of 3 calves at 3 d old (GH3), 7 d old (GH7), or 14 d old (GH14) until 7 wk of age. Ten groups of 3 calves for each treatment were used, with 5 pens/treatment in each of 2 replications (10 pens/treatment, 3 treatments, 3 calves/treatment; 90 calves total). Direct behavioral observations using instantaneous scan sampling every 10 min were conducted twice per week for 7 wk. At the same times, video data were recorded for continuous observations at feeding time to observe the overall activity of group-housed calves. Hip height, heart girth, and health scores were recorded weekly and body weight was recorded at the start and end of the study. Calves in GH3 spent more time playing and but more time cross-sucking and displacing other calves from milk bottles. Calves engaged in social interaction as early as 3 d of age, and social interactions between 3 to 6 wk of age increased markedly. Calves housed in GH14 vocalized more than did calves in GH7 and GH3. No difference was found between treatments in growth performance. Calf fecal, cough, and nasal and ocular discharge scores, differential leukocyte counts, and plasma cortisol concentrations were not affected by age at grouping. However, during the first week of grouping, when calves were moved from individual pens to group pens, some calves were unable to find their milk bottles and required guidance. In conclusion, these data show no adverse effects on health or performance and some benefits on social behavior for early (d 3) grouping of calves. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of pre-ruminant dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal dairy calves throughout the United States are commonly fed pasteurized whole milk as the primary dietary component during their first several weeks of life. Whole milk fails to meet the recommendations for dietary inclusion of vitamins D and E for neonatal calves put forth by the National R...

  6. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors

  7. Potency of fiber rumen bacterial isolates from local buffalo inoculated into Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Prihantoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-digesting bacteria are the main rumen bacteria that play an important role in digesting feed. These bacteria are adapted to low quality forage from agricultural byproduct. The aim of these study was to determine the potency of fiber-digesting bacteria consortium obtained from buffalo rumen inoculated to Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning on feed consumption, utilization, mineral uptake and physiological status. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria obtained from collection of Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. The experimental unit consisted of six Frisian Holstein calves at two week old with the average body weight of 38.00 ± 6.23 kg. Calves were inoculated by 20 ml of fiber-digesting rumen bacterial isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/ml] every morning for four weeks. Experimental design used was based on a completly randomized design with three calves received the respective inoculation (treatment group and three calves without any inoculation (control group. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test method with α = 0.05 and 0.01. The results showed that fiber-digesting bacteria (FDB from rumen buffalo have adapted in the calves rumen since preweaning periode. Inoculation FDB increased the number of rumen bacteria, digestibility of protein and P uptake calves at eight weeks old. Increased feed intake, uptake of Mg and cobalt calves at 14 weeks old. Without causing any negative effects on ADG, physiological status and rumen fermentability.

  8. Utilization of roughages and concentrates relative to that of milk replacer increases strongly with age in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the feeding values of milk replacer (MR), roughage, and concentrates for veal calves in a paired-gain setting, thus avoiding any prior assumptions in feeding values and major differences in nutrient intakes. One hundred sixty male Holstein-Friesian calves at 2 wk of age and

  9. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2

  10. Cumulative impacts of an evolving oil-field complex on the distribution of calving caribou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellemann, C.; Cameron, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship between caribou density and road density as one means of assessing the reaction of caribou to activities associated with the evolving Prudhoe Bay oil-field complex in Alaska. Aerial surveys from 1987 to 1992 have shown that caribou density is inversely related to road density. The effects of avoidance were most apparent in preferred rugged terrain which are important habitats for foraging during the calving period. Female calves were found to be much more sensitive to surface development than adult males and yearlings. The biggest disturbances were caused by initial road construction and related facilities. The recent displacement of some calving activity within the Kuparuk Development area may result in heightened competition for forage, increased risk of predation, and lower productivity of the herd. 43 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  11. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF CALF STARTER AND CONVENTIONAL RATIONS IN BUFFALO SUCKLING CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad, M. A. Jabbar1, I. Ahmad2 , M. Rafique and I. Ahmad3

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four buffalo calves, having similar age and initial body weight, were divided into two groups with equal number of calves of both sexes in each group to study the effect of calf starter ration on feed intake and weight gain. Calf starter and conventional dairy rations with crude protein 18% and total digestible nutrients 75–80% along with green fodder were offered ad libitum to calves of respective groups for a period of 113 days. The average daily feed intakes were 0.95 and 0.57 kg, average daily weight gains were 0.47 and 0.34 kg and feed conversion ratio averaged 2.00 and 1.70 in calf starter and conventional groups respectively. On the overall performance, calf starter group was found better than the conventional ration.

  12. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplemention on periparturient serum mineral concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Anders; Pallesen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether supplementing dry cow rations with phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) would interfere with the beneficial effect of zeolite supplementation on the periparturient blood calcium (Ca) concentration in dairy cattle. Three groups (A-C) of 10 Danish Jersey...... cows were each given the following daily supplements from 2 weeks before the expected date of calving until actual calving: group A: zeolite, monoammonium phosphate, standard dry cow mineral and vitamin mix, containing 61g magnesium phosphate; group B: zeolite, standard mineral and vitamin mix without...... the magnesium phosphate and group C: standard mineral and vitamin mix, monoammonium phosphate. All cows in group B had an apparently less variable serum calcium concentration around calving with no cases of milk fever and no subclinical hypocalcaemia or hypomagnesaemia recorded. In contrast, a parturient drop...

  13. Effect of Shading on Physiological, Biochemical and Behaviour Changes in Crossbred Calves Under Hot Climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teama, F.E.I.; Gad, A.E.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance and the effect of shading and non-shading house on physiological changes, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), total antioxidant and thyroid hormones in crossbred calves under hot conditions. Thirty six growing crossbred calves (Friesian x Baladi) aged 8-10 months were divided into two groups (each 18 calves); the first group was maintained in shaded house and the second in house without shade (climatic house). The period of study was 79 days during hot conditions. Performance variables (BW, ADG) were measured and the blood samples were collected to assess some biochemical parameters including antioxidants such as total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT), total protein, thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and immunoglobulin factor (IgG). Respiration rates and behaviour parameters (feeding, drinking, standing, lying and agonistic) were also measured during the study. The data indicated that the shaded calves had higher ADG (P<0.05) and final BW than non-shaded ones. Also, a significant improvement in total protein levels and globulins were recorded in shaded house calves as compared to non-shaded ones. The same result was obtained for T3 level whereas non-significant changes were observed for T4 level as well as the level of IgG at different times. The present data indicated that using shaded house will decrease the effect of heat stress on calves which will increase the animal performance through improving BW and ADG as well as some biochemical parameters in addition to T3 hormonal level.

  14. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  15. POSSIBILITIES OF USING UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS TO AFFECT WEIGHT GAINS OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubo Zbransk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy and strong individuals are fundamental in every cattle breeding. The aim of this study was to find out which of these given supplement had the best influence on calf weight gain in the early period after weaning to milk nutrition. This research was carried out in cooperation with the farm in Haklovy Dvory. Calves were studied from March 2012 to February 2013. They were weaned into outdoor individual box after birth. There were added supplements into their ration in the first two weeks of life. Calves were partitioned according to the added supplement into three experimental groups and one control group. The first weight control of calves was after birth and the second weight control was at the age of thirty days. The average weight gain was calculated from the differences in these values. The best demonstrable effect was in the experimental Homeopathy and Prebiotics (Biopolym groups with the average increment of 26.9 kilograms, then in the experimental Probiotics (Lactovita group with the average increment of 26.1 kilograms. The last group was the Control one, there was not any change in the calves ration and their average increment was 23.5 kilograms. The results of the statistical evaluation was p = 0.0572 in the Biopolym group, p = 0.2570 in the Lactovita group and p = 0.2124 in the Homeopathy group versus the Control group. It can be concluded from the results of this study that calves had a positive reaction on the supplements added in the first days of life and these had a favourable effect on diarrhoea prevention. Prebiotics, homeopathic drugs and probiotics beneficially stimulate calvesdigestive system and, in general, they have a positive effect on the calves physiological condition.

  16. Perioperative management of calves undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D V; Kantrowitz, A; Pacholewicz, J; Salat, O; Paules, B R; Zhou, Y; Dawe, E J

    2000-01-01

    To describe perioperative management of calves that underwent left lateral thoracotomy, aortic cross-clamping, partial left heart bypass and implantation of a left ventricular assist device. A total of 43 healthy castrated male calves, weighing 121 +/- 24 kg. Diazepam (mean +/- SD, 0.26 +/- 0.07 mg/kg), ketamine (5.9 +/- 2.17 mg/kg) and isoflurane were used in the anesthetic management of calves undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device in the descending thoracic aorta. Other adjunctive agents administered were fentanyl (11 +/- 5.4 microg/kg), lidocaine (4.9 +/- 3.19 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.75%) and butorphanol (0.49 +/- 0.13 mg/kg). None of the calves regurgitated at induction or during intubation. A tube was used to drain the rumen and prevent bloat during the procedure. Partial left heart bypass was used to perfuse the caudal half of the body during the period of aortic cross clamp and device implantation. Initial mean systemic blood pressure was 96 +/- 25 mm Hg, and pressures measured in the auricular artery increased during aortic cross-clamping and bypass. Vasoconstrictor therapy was required to treat caudal arterial hypotension during the procedure in 9 calves. Mean systemic arterial pressures returned to baseline values by the end of the anesthetic period. Initial mean pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) were 22 +/- 3 mm Hg. A significant but transient increase in pulmonary arterial pressure occurred after both heparin and protamine administration. The described anesthetic protocol was effective for thoracotomy and implantation of an intra-aortic left ventricular assist device in normal calves. Partial left ventricular bypass was a useful adjunct during the period of aortic cross clamp. The doses of heparin and protamine administered were effective. Responsibility to monitor oxygenation of the cranial half of the animal continues during the bypass period as hypoxemia due to pulmonary dysfunction will not be detected by the perfusionist.

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cosmin Nadas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders (nasal discharge aged 6 to 9 weeks in 2 series, using sterile swabs. Samples were initially inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey agar following the characteristics of the colonies and microscopic examination that enabled the identification of bacterial species. Isolated strains were used to flood Mueller-Hinton agar to carry out sensitivity testing. The antibiotics tested were represented by: Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Florfenicol, Enrofloxacin, Marbofloxacin, Penicillin G, Cefquinone, Tulathromycin, Ceftiofur, Tylosin and Cephalotin. Results: Genus Streptococcus have been identified in 23 samples, followed by Staphylococcus identified in 14 samples, and Bacillus spp., in 10 nasal swabs; The most common bacteria associations were represented by Streptococcus-Staphylococcus, Streptococcus-Staphylococcus-Bacillus, and Streptococcus-E.coli. The most efficient antibiotic was Cefquinome (Cobactan, followed by Penicillin G and Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (Amoxiclav; the least effective antibiotics were Florfenicol and Tulathromycin. Conclusions: The study carried out on nasal discharge samples collected from calves with respiratory disorders and their antimicrobial profile testing led to the following conclusions: 1 Low susceptibility to Florfenicol is caused by previous treatments when this molecule was excessively used and without prior sensitivity testing. 2 Cefquinome may represent an emergency therapeutic antibiotic for respiratory

  18. Effects of alfalfa hay and its physical form (chopped versus pelleted) on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Mahjoubi, E; Hossein Yazdi, M; Cardoso, F C; Drackley, J K

    2015-06-01

    Inclusion of forage and its physical form in starter may affect rumen development, average daily gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI) of dairy calves. To evaluate the effects of forage and its physical form (chopped vs. pelleted) on growth of calves under a high milk feeding regimen, 32 Holstein calves (38.8±1.1kg) were assigned at birth to 1 of 3 treatments in a completely randomized block design. Dietary treatments (% of dry matter) were (1) 100% semi-texturized starter (CON); (2) 90% semi-texturized starter + 10% chopped alfalfa hay (mean particle size=5.4mm) as a total mixed ration (TMR; CH); and (3) 90% semi-texturized starter + 10% pelleted alfalfa (mean=5.8mm) hay as a TMR (PH). Data were subjected to mixed model analysis with contrasts used to evaluate effect of forage inclusion. Calves were weaned at 76 d of age and the experiment finished 2 wk after weaning. Individual milk and solid feed consumption were recorded daily. Solid feed consumption and ADG increased as age increased (effect of week), but neither forage inclusion nor physical form of forage affected these variables pre- or postweaning. Plasma urea N was affected by treatments such that the CON group had a lower concentration than forage-fed groups. Forage inclusion, but not physical form, resulted in increased total protein in plasma. Although days with elevated rectal temperature, fecal score, and general appearance were not affected by dietary treatments, calves fed alfalfa hay during the first month of life had fewer days with respiratory issues, regardless of physical form of hay. We concluded that provision of forage does have some beneficial effects in calves fed large amounts of milk replacer, but pelleted alfalfa hay did not result in any improvement in calf performance or health. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sublingual administration of detomidine to calves prior to disbudding: a comparison with the intravenous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Raekallio, Marja R; Salla, Kati; Hänninen, Laura; Viitasaari, Elina; Norring, Marianna; Raussi, Satu; Rinne, Valtteri M; Scheinin, Mika; Vainio, Outi M

    2014-07-01

    To study the effects of oromucosal detomidine gel administered sublingually to calves prior to disbudding, and to compare its efficacy with intravenously (IV) administered detomidine. Randomised, prospective clinical study. Twenty dairy calves aged 12.4 ± 4.4days (mean ± SD), weight 50.5 ± 9.0 kg. Detomidine at 80 μg kg(-1) was administered to ten calves sublingually (GEL) and at 30 μg kg(-1) to ten control calves IV (V. jugularis). Meloxicam (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) and local anaesthetic (lidocaine 3 mg kg(-1) ) were administered before heat cauterization of horn buds. Heart rate (HR), body temperature and clinical sedation were monitored over 240 minutes. Blood was collected from the V. cephalica during the same period for drug concentration analysis. Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated from the plasma detomidine concentration-time data using non-compartmental methods. Statistical analyses compared routes of administration by Student's t-test and linear mixed models as relevant. The maximum plasma detomidine concentration after GEL was 2.1 ± 1.2 ng mL(-1) (mean ±SD) and the time of maximum concentration was 66.0 ± 36.9 minutes. The bioavailability of detomidine was approximately 34% with GEL. Similar sedation scores were reached in both groups after administration of detomidine, but maximal sedation was reached earlier in the IV group (10 minutes) than in the GEL group (40 minutes). HR was lower after IV than GEL from 5 to 10 minutes after administration. All animals were adequately sedated, and we were able to administer local anaesthetic without resistance to all of the calves before disbudding. Oromucosally administered detomidine is an effective sedative agent for calves prior to disbudding. © 2014 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  20. Accumulation of xanthophylls from the phaffia yeast (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhrous) in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Chikako; Maoka, Takashi; Tani, Mineto; Moritomo, Yasuo; Okada, Toru; Kitahara, Go; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    An investigation into the absorption and accumulation of carotenoids from phaffia yeast in two to three-week-old calves was carried out. Carotenoid contents of the control cattle (n=1) were 615.0 ng/g in the liver, 263.7 ng/g in the duodenum, 218.0 ng/g in the pancreas, 170.0 ng/g in the blood, 140.3 ng/g in the jejunum, 115.0 ng/g in the spleen. Among the accumulated carotenoids, β-carotene was presented as a major component (86.0 to 94.3%) along with lutein (5.7 to 14.0%) as a minor component. On the other hand, carotenoid contents in phaffia yeast-supplemented (5 g/day for one month) calves (n=3) were 4 to 10 times higher than those of the control calf. Carotenoid contents of phaffia yeast-supplemented calves were 2570.1±782 ng/g in the liver, 1806.6±1064 ng/g in the pancreas, 1648.4±630.2 ng/g in the spleen, and 1255.9±300.2 ng/g in the blood. In addition to β-carotene, keto-carotenoids from phaffia yeast, echinenone, (3R)-3-hydroxyechinenone, and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin, were accumulated in all organs of phaffia yeast-supplemented calves. β-Carotene and (3R)-3-hydroxyechinenone were present as major carotenoids followed by echinenone. However, (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin, which was the major carotenoid in phaffia yeast, was found to be a minor carotenoid in calves. This indicated that calves well absorbed fewer polar xanthophylls, echinenone and (3R)-3-hydroxyechinenone compared to the polar xanthophyll, astaxanthin.

  1. Post-parturition habitat selection by elk calves and adult female elk in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, James W.; Cain, James W.; Liley, Stewart; Gould, William R.; Quintana, Nichole T.; Ballard, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal survival and juvenile recruitment are crucial to maintaining viable elk (Cervus elaphus) populations. Neonate survival is known to be influenced by many factors, including bed-site selection. Although neonates select the actual bed-site location, they must do so within the larger calf-rearing area selected by the mother. As calves age, habitat selection should change to meet the changing needs of the growing calf. Our main objectives were to characterize habitat selection at 2 spatial scales and in areas with different predator assemblages in New Mexico. We evaluated bed-site selection by calves and calf-rearing area selection by adult females. We captured 108 elk calves by hand and fitted them with ear tag transmitters in two areas in New Mexico: the Valle Vidal and Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area. In both study areas, we found that concealing cover structure and distance to that cover influenced bed-site selection of young calves (i.e., age). Older calves (i.e., 3–10 weeks of age) still selected areas in relation to distance to cover, but also preferred areas with higher visibility. At the larger spatial scale of calf-rearing habitat selection by the adult female, concealing cover (e.g., rocks, shrubs, and logs) and other variables important to the hiding calves were still in the most supported models, but selection was also influenced by forage availability and indices of forage quality. Studies that seek to obtain insight into microhabitat selection of ungulate neonates should consider selection by the neonate and selection by the adult female, changes in selection as neonates age, and potential selection differences in areas of differing predation risk. By considering these influences together and at multiple scales, studies can achieve a broader understanding of neonatal ungulate habitat requirements. 

  2. Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A.

    2014-01-01

    Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea...... recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW......)] were assigned to 1 of 4 SF levels [0, 9, 18, and 27 g of dry matter (DM) SF · kg BW2-0.75 . d-1] provided in addition to an identical amount of milk replacer. Urea recycling was quantified after a 24-h intravenous infusion of [15N2]urea by analyzing urea isotopomers in 68-h fecal and urinary...

  3. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleeson David E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h, after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds. Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P

  4. The effects of social contact and milk allowance on responses to handling, play, and social behavior in young dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D.M.; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    5 L of milk/d; (2) housed singly and fed 9 L of milk/d; (3) housed in pairs and fed 5 L of milk/d; (4) housed in pairs and fed 9 L of milk/d; or (5) kept with the dam and fed 9 L of milk/d. From 4 to 6 wk of age, all calves were offered 5 L of milk/d to promote intake of solid feed before weaning...... with the dam, and pair-housed calves struggled at an intermediate level. Play behavior was recorded for 20 min/wk after the provision of fresh straw; calves housed singly and fed a low milk allowance spent less time playing than did calves in all other treatments. Three days after grouping, calves were...

  5. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calving ease (CE is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo, gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE and daughter calving ease (DCE evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving. A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5 and 100% (CE1. A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2 from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE and −0.71±0.09 (DCE. The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of

  6. Performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk with or without kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladgar, S; Shahraki, A D Foroozandeh; Ghalamkari, G R; Khani, M; Ahmadi, F; Erickson, P S

    2016-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests health-promoting effects of kefir consumption on different nonruminant species, leading to the speculation that kefir may act as a probiotic and benefit calf performance and health. Our objectives were to determine effects of feeding kefir on performance and health of calves in the first 70d of life. Thirty 3-d-old female Holstein calves (body weight=38.2±3.1kg) were blocked by initial body weight and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (1 calf per pen; 10 pens per treatment). Kefir was added to whole milk (vol/vol) at 0:1 (control; KF0), 1:3 (KF1), or 1:1 (KF2) and fed twice per day (0800 and 1600h) from d3 through 45 and then once per day until weaning, which occurred on d50. Pre- and postweaning intake of starter, daily body weight gain, and gain-to-feed ratio exhibited no difference among treatments. Adding kefir to whole milk fed directly to calves had no effect on concentration of blood metabolites collected on d20, 40, and 70. Body length on d50 (weaning) and 70 was greater in kefir-fed calves. Kefir intake improved fecal scores and reduced days with diarrhea during the first 2wk of life. Apparent digestibility of organic matter, ether extract, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber remained unaffected by treatment. Overall, it appears that directly feeding kefir to calves during the preweaning period did not improve the performance of calves under the conditions of the current study; however, its consumption marginally improved body length and fecal consistency in the first weeks of life, which is an important concern in intensive calf-rearing systems. Feeding kefir to neonatal calves may be a viable approach to improve the health of calves in commercial calf-rearing operations, although to validate its health-promoting effects additional research is needed to investigate its effects under different calf-rearing conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Peripartal rumination dynamics and health status in cows calving in hot and cool seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, S; Maunsell, F; Richeson, J; Risco, C; Donovan, A; Pinedo, P

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of season of calving, associated with variable levels of heat stress, on the dynamics of rumination during the prepartum period and early lactation of cows that were healthy or affected by peripartal health disorders. Three weeks before the estimated due date, 210 multiparous Holstein cows at the University of Florida Dairy Unit were affixed with a neck collar containing rumination loggers, providing rumination time (RT) in 2-h periods. One blood sample was collected in a subpopulation of cows (n=76) at 12 to 48h postcalving to assess metabolic status by determining serum calcium, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. The occurrence of peripartal health disorders (dystocia, clinical ketosis, clinical hypocalcemia, metritis, and mastitis) was assessed by University of Florida veterinarians and trained farm personnel. We analyzed the dynamics of daily RT over ± 14d relative to parturition in cows that were healthy or affected by specific health disorders by season of calving [hot season, June to September (n=77); cool season, November to April (n=118)] using repeated measures analysis and comparison of least squares means at different time points relative to calving. Rumination was consistently reduced on the day of calving in both healthy and sick cows in both the hot and cool seasons. Only hot-season calvings had shorter average daily RT prepartum and postpartum in cows affected by severe negative energy balance and subclinical ketosis. Dystocia during the hot season was associated with shorter daily RT prepartum; for cool-season calvings, cows with dystocia had reduced RT postpartum. We also observed reduced RT in cows with ketosis prepartum and postpartum in both the hot and cool seasons. Daily RT was reduced postpartum in cows with hypocalcemia and mastitis that calved during the cool season, and it was shorter in cows with metritis in both the hot and cool seasons. Our results indicated that

  8. Habituating to handling: factors affecting preorbital gland opening in red deer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, F; Landete-Castillejos, T; Bartošová, J; García, A J; Bartoš, L; Komárková, M; Gallego, L

    2014-09-01

    The preorbital gland plays not only an olfactory role in cervids but also a visual one. Opening this gland is an easy way for the calf to communicate with the mother, indicating hunger/satiety, stress, pain, fear, or excitement. This information can be also useful for farm operators to assess how fast the calves habituate to handling routines and to detect those calves that do not habituate and may suffer chronic stress in the future. Thirty-one calves were subjected to 2 consecutive experiments to clarify if observing preorbital gland opening is related to habituation to handling in red deer calves (Cervus elaphus). Calves were born in 3 different paddocks, handled as newborns (Exp. 1), and then subjected to the same routine handling but with different periodicity: every 1, 2, or 3 wk (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, preorbital gland opening was recorded in newborns during an initial handling (including weighing, ear tagging, and sex determination). Preorbital gland opening occurred in 93% of calves during this procedure and was not affected by sex, time since birth, or birth weight. Experiment 2 consisted of measuring preorbital opening during the same routine handling (weighing, blood sampling, and rump touching to assess body condition) when calves were 1, 3, and 5 mo old. Binary logistic regression showed that gland opening was associated with habituation to handling, since at 1 and 3 mo the probability of opening the gland decreased with the number of handlings that a calf experienced before (P = 0.008 and P = 0.028, respectively). However, there were no further changes in preorbital gland opening rate in the 5-mo-old calves (P = 0.182). The significant influence of the number of previous handlings on the probability of opening the preorbital gland was confirmed through generalized linear model with repeated measures (P = 0.007). Preorbital gland opening decreased along the phases of the study. Nevertheless, we found a significant trend in individuals to keep similar

  9. Consistency of feed efficiency ranking and mechanisms associated with inter-animal variation among growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Cohen-Zinder, M; Aharoni, Y; Miron, J; Agmon, R; Halachmi, I; Orlov, A; Haim, A; Tedeschi, L O; Carstens, G E; Johnson, K A; Brosh, A

    2018-04-03

    This study investigated the possible mechanisms for explaining interanimal variation in efficiency of feed utilization in intact male Holstein calves. Additionally, we examined whether the feed efficiency (FE) ranking of calves (n = 26) changed due to age and/or diet quality. Calves were evaluated during three periods (P1, P2, and P3) while fed a high-quality diet (calculated mobilizable energy [ME] of 11.8 MJ/kg DM) during P1 and P3, and a low-quality diet (calculated ME of 7.7 MJ/kg DM) during P2. The study periods were 84, 119, and 127 d, respectively. Initial ages of the calves in P1, P2, and P3 were 7, 11, and 15 mo, respectively, and initial body weight (BW) were 245, 367, and 458 kg, respectively. Individual dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), diet digestibility, and heat production (HP) were measured in all periods. The measured FE indexes were: residual feed intake (RFI), the gain-to-feed ratio (G:F), residual gain (RG), residual gain and intake (RIG), the ratio of HP-to-ME intake (HP/MEI), and residual heat production (RHP). For statistical analysis, animals' performance data in each period, were ranked by RFI, and categorized into high-, medium-, and low-RFI groups (H-RFI, M-RFI, and L-RFI). RFI was not correlated with in vivo digestibility, age, BW, BCS, or ADG in all three periods. The L-RFI group had lowest DMI, MEI, HP, retained energy (RE), and RE/ADG. Chemical analysis of the longissimus dorsi muscle shows that the L-RFI group had a higher percentage of protein and a lower percentage of fat compared to the H-RFI group. We suggested that the main mechanism separating L- from H-RFI calves is the protein-to-fat ratio in the deposited tissues. When efficiency was related to kg/day (DMI and ADG) and not to daily retained energy, the selected efficient L-RFI calves deposited more protein and less fat per daily gain than less efficient H-RFI calves. However, when the significant greater heat increment and maintenance energy requirement of

  10. Effects of physical form of a starter for dairy replacement calves on feed intake and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Giménez, A; Juaristi, J L; Ahedo, J

    2007-06-01

    One hundred six female Holstein calves [body weight (BW) = 41.5 +/- 0.37 kg and 11.2 +/- 0.3 d old] were used to evaluate the effects of physical form of a starter on animal performance and starter intake. Calves were randomly allocated to 2 treatments consisting of either a multiparticle or a pelleted starter. Both starters had exactly the same ingredient and nutrient composition but differed in their physical form. Calves received 4 L/d of the same milk replacer at a 150 g/kg dilution rate in 2 offers of 2 L each until they consumed an average of 300 g/d of starter (as fed) for 2 consecutive days; then the dilution rate was decreased to 120 g/kg until the age of 49 d when milk replacer was limited to 1 daily dose of 2 L until 57 d of age. Calves were kept in individual hutches for at least 1 wk after weaning. Body weight was measured at the beginning of the study and at 49 and 64 d of age. The median perimeters for the multiparticle and pelleted starters were 0.61 +/- 0.016 and 2.71 +/- 0.082 cm, respectively. Overall starter consumption was greater in calves receiving the multiparticle starter (944.8 +/- 30.01 g/d) than in those receiving the pelleted starter (863.9 +/- 32.04 g/d). There were no differences in the total milk replacer intake between the 2 treatments. Calf BW when leaving the individual hutches at the end of the study was similar between both treatments. Consequently, feed conversion efficiency was greater in calves consuming the pelleted than the multiparticle starter up to 64 d of age, mainly due to the greater conversion efficiency obtained with the pelleted than with the multiparticle starter after the preweaning period. It is concluded that pelleted starters may result in lower dry feed consumption compared with multiparticle starters, but because final BW was similar in both treatments, feed efficiency of calves consuming pelleted starters may be greater than that of calves consuming multiparticle starters. Therefore, when feeding a starter

  11. Urea metabolism in Zebu calves fed on diets of dierent crude protein contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.K.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Lal, M.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    The entry rates of urea into the body pool of urea have been estimated in Zebu calves using a single injection isotope dilution technique using 14 C-urea. The excretion rates of urea were calculated by estimating total urine over 24 h and urea content. The calves were fed 2 levels of crude protein, i.e., 25 percent lower and 25 percent higher than NRC recommendations. Results show that the degradation of urea is significantly better in animals given rations low in crude protein contents. (M.G.B.)

  12. Effects of late-gestation heat stress on immunity and performance of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, G E; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A

    2016-04-01

    Lactating cows that experience heat stress will have reduced dry matter intake and milk yield and shift metabolism, which ultimately reduces the efficiency of milk production. Dry cows that are heat stressed similarly experience lower intake, reduced mammary growth, and compromised immune function that ultimately results in a poorer transition into lactation and lower milk yield in the next lactation. A recent focus in our laboratory is on the effects of late gestation, in utero heat stress on calf survival and performance. We have completed a series of studies to examine preweaning growth and health, and later reproductive and productive responses, in an attempt to quantify acute and persistent effects of in utero heat strain. Late gestation heat stress results in calves with lower body weight at birth, shorter stature at weaning, and failure to achieve the same weight or height at 12 mo of age observed in calves from dams that are cooled when dry. A portion of the reduced growth may result from the lower immune status observed in calves heat stressed in utero, which begins with poorer apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin absorption and extends to lower survival rates through puberty. Heat-stressed calves, however, have permanent shifts in metabolism that are consistent with greater peripheral accumulation of energy and less lean growth relative to those from cooled dams. Comparing reproductive performance in calves heat stressed versus those cooled in utero, we observe that the cooled heifers require fewer services to attain pregnancy and become pregnant at an earlier age. Tracking the milk production in calves that were heat stressed in utero versus those cooled in late gestation revealed a significant reduction of yield in the first lactation, approximately 5 kg/d through 35 wk of lactation, despite similar body weight and condition score at calving. These observations indicate that a relatively brief period of heat stress in late gestation dramatically alters

  13. Level of cortisol and reactivity of adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH at neonatal period in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1992-01-01

    The studies were carried out on calves from 1st to 21st day of life. Cortisol level and reactivity of adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH were analysed. The highest level of cortisol in blood was observed in first days of life in the calves. Then the level became considerably decreased. In the experimental group two subgroups differing in cortisol level were distinguished. High or low level occurred on the first day and the difference kept over two weeks of their life. Adrenal cortex just on the day of birth showed full functional maturity of molecular receptors binding ACTH. (author). 15 refs

  14. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  15. Effects of milk replacer feeding strategies on performance, ruminal development, and metabolism of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Carvalho, A U; Ferreira, C S; Franzoni, A P S; Lima, J A M; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2014-02-01

    Performance, rumen development, and metabolism of male Holstein calves (n=54) were evaluated according to 1 of 3 liquid feeding strategies: 4 L of milk replacer (MR)/d until 60 d old (4 L-60 d), 6L of MR/d until 29 d old and 4 L/d from 30 to 60 d (6L-29 d/4 L-60 d), or 6L of MR/day until 60 d old (60 d-6L). Water and starter were provided ad libitum. Intakes of MR and starter were monitored daily and body weight (BW) weekly. Blood samples for glucose and insulin concentrations and ruminal content samples for volatile fatty acids and ruminal ammonia concentrations were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d of age. Six calves on each treatment were euthanized at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Empty weights of forestomach and abomasum, papillae length, and mitotic index were measured. Average MR intake/d (expressed as a percent of BW) was greater for calves receiving 6L/d than for those receiving 4 L/d until 30 d of age. Calves on the 6 L-29 d/4 L-60 d had the smallest MR intake from 30 to 60 d old, followed by the 4 L-60 d and 6L-60 d treatments. Starter intake (kg of dry matter/day) did not differ between groups. It increased from 0.065 kg/d in the first month to 0.386 kg/d in the second month, and to 2.065 kg/d after weaning. Weight gain was greater for calves fed more MR in the first month, but no difference was observed during the second month. After weaning, 6L-60 d calves had greater rate of weight gain than others and were heavier at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Weight of empty forestomachs, ruminal pH, and ammoniac nitrogen concentration were not different among groups. Propionate concentration was lower for 6 L-60 d calves, but acetate and butyrate concentrations were not influenced by MR feeding strategy. Calves fed more MR until d 30 had greater ruminal epithelium mitotic index. The different MR feeding strategies did not influence papillae length or ruminal epithelium thickness. Lesions such as ruminal parakeratosis or hyperkeratosis were not observed. The MR

  16. Growth, ruminal measurements, and health characteristics of Holstein bull calves fed an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, T T; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2015-09-01

    A fermentation extract of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae can be used as a prebiotic. The objective was to determine if dietary inclusion of a fermentation extract of A. oryzae as well as calf age would alter growth, health, performance parameters, and the growth and development of the rumen in Holstein calves from birth thru 1 wk postweaning; it was hypothesized that it would. Purchased bull calves (n=52) that originated from 1 of 13 farms were used in this experiment. All calves had serum IgG greater than 10 mg/mL. Calves were randomly assigned to a slaughter age, 4 (n=16) or 8 wk (n=36), and treatment, control (n=27) or fermentation extract of A. oryzae (AMF; n=25). Calves were housed and fed individually; no bedding was used and no forage was fed. Calves assigned to AMF were fed 2 g of AMF daily. Liquid AMF was delivered in milk replacer for the first 4 wk of the study; solid AMF was top-dressed on texturized starter thereafter. Calves were fed nonmedicated milk replacer twice daily (22.0% crude protein, 20.0% fat, dry matter basis; 680 g/d) and were weaned upon consumption of 0.91 kg of starter (20% crude protein, 2.0% fat; medicated with decoquinate) for 3 consecutive days or on d 45 of the study, whichever came first. Calves had ad libitum access to starter and water throughout the study. Feed intake as well as fecal and respiratory scores were recorded daily; body weight, withers height, and hip height were recorded weekly. Gross rumen measurements and rumen samples for future gross and histological analyses were taken at 4 and 8 wk. All calves grew similarly; weaning age averaged 40.39±0.77 d. Lifetime average daily gain was 0.60±0.05 kg/d and lifetime gain-to-feed ratio was 0.56±0.05. Milk replacer, starter, total dry matter intake, gross and histological rumen measurements, rumen pH, fecal and respiratory scores, and total medical costs were not affected by treatment. Despite total medical costs not differing by treatment, a lower percentage of AMF

  17. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.M.A; Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  18. Weaned beef calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay have an enriched nasal microbiota compared with healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A.; Isaiah, Anitha; Estill, Charles T.; Pirelli, Gene J.; Suchodolski, Jan S.

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral important for immune function and overall health of cattle. The nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle plays an important role in overall respiratory health, especially when stresses associated with weaning, transport, and adaptation to a feedlot affect the normal respiratory defenses. Recent evidence suggests that cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease complex have significantly less bacterial diversity. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding weaned beef calves Se-enriched alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay for 9 weeks in a preconditioning program prior to entering the feedlot alters nasal microbiota. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 45) were blocked by sex and body weight, randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups with 3 pens of 5 calves per treatment group, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 9 weeks. Alfalfa hay was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium selenate at a rate of 0, 45.0 or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected biweekly and analyzed for whole-blood Se concentrations. Nasal swabs were collected during week 9 from one or two calves from each pen (total n = 16). Calculated Se intake from dietary sources was 3.0, 15.6, and 32.2 mg Se/head/day for calves consuming alfalfa hay with Se concentrations of 0.34 to 2.42 and 5.17 mg Se/kg dry matter, respectively. Whole-blood Se concentrations after 8 weeks of feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay were dependent upon Se-application rates (0, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha) and were 155, 345, and 504 ng/mL (PLinear calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay compared with control calves showed that Se-supplementation tended to be associated with an enriched nasal microbiota. ANOSIM of unweighted UniFrac distances showed that calves fed high Se-biofortified alfalfa hay clustered separately when compared with control calves in the PCoA plot (R = 0.216, P = 0.04). The bacterial orders Lactobacillales and Flavobacteriales were increased in healthy

  19. Winter habitat selection by caribou in relation to lichen abundance, wildfires, grazing, and landscape characteristics in northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle Joly; F. Stuart III Chapin; David R. Klein

    2010-01-01

    Lichens are an important winter forage for large, migratory herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that can influence population dynamics through effects on body condition and in turn calf recruitment and survival. We investigated the vegetative and physiographic characteristics of winter range of the Western Arctic Herd in northwest Alaska, one...

  20. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    (PFGE). Methods and Results: The material, collected during the slaughter period in autumn 1998, comprised 399 faecal contents from the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), a semi-domesticated, meat-producing ruminant of northern Finland. These samples came from 16 herds in the areas of eight reindeer...

  1. Goose droppings as food for reindeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, R; Loonen, MJJE

    Feeding conditions for Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, on Spitsbergen are generally poor, owing to low availability of forage. We report on coprophagy: the use of goose faeces as an alternative food source for reindeer. Fresh droppings from Barnacle Geese, Branta leucopsis,

  2. Nitrogen allocation to offspring and milk production in a capital breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillon, Joëlle; Barboza, Perry S; Côté, Steeve D

    2013-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient for many herbivores, especially when plant availability and N content are low during the period of maternal investment, which is common for arctic ungulates. We used natural abundance of N isotopes to quantify allocation of maternal nitrogen to neonatal calves and milk in wild migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus). We contrasted female-calf pairs from two herds in northern Quebec/Labrador, Canada: Rivière-George herd (RG; low population size with heavy calves) and the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd (RAF; high population size and small calves). We assessed whether females of both herds relied on body protein or dietary N to produce the neonatal calf and milk at calving and weaning. Female caribou of both herds relied mostly on body N for fetal development. RAF females allocated less body N to calves than did RG females (92% vs. 95% of calf N), which was consistent with the production of calves that were 8% smaller in RAF than in RG. Allocation of body N to milk was also high for both herds, similar at calving for RAF and RG females (88% vs. 91% of milk N, respectively), but lower in RAF than RG females (95% vs. 99% of milk N) at weaning, which was consistent with a small but significantly greater reliance on dietary N supplies to support milk production at weaning. Female caribou used body protein stores to ensure a constant supply of N for fetal growth and milk production that minimized the effects of trophic mismatches on reproduction. The combination of migration and capital investment may therefore allow females to produce calves and attenuate the effects of both temporal and spatial mismatches between vegetation green-up and calf growth, which ultimately would reduce trophic feedbacks on population growth. Our data suggest that small changes in maternal allocation of proteins over the long period of gestation produce significant changes in calf mass as females respond to changes in resources that accompany changes in the size

  3. Efficiency of use of supplementary lighting in rearing of dairy calves during milk feeding stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledson L. P. de Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate programs of supplementary lighting for calves in individual shelters with different roof materials, as a strategy to stimulate concentrate consumption and the reduction of the milk feeding period and increase financial viability. Twenty seven dairy crossed Holstein × Gir female calves were randomly distributed in individual shelters with three different roofing materials (cement fiber tile, recycled tile and thatched roofs, associated with three different light duration (12, 16 and 20 h and with three repetitions. The experimental design was completely randomized in 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between the types of roofs × supplemental light; also, there was no significant effect of the covering types on the average consumption of concentrate and occurance of diarrhea in calves. On the other hand 20 h of lighting stimulated the consumption of concentrate and allowed weaning of calves at 55 days of age and 20% reduction in the cost of rearing animals during milk feeding stage.

  4. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  5. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  6. Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacers with or without probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Mulder, L.; Everts, H.; Espen, van D.C.; Wal, van der E.; Klaassen, G.; Rouwers, S.M.G.; Hartemink, R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beynen, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments with 1-wk-old veal calves were conducted to assess the influence of probiotics on growth and health indicators. In experiments 1 and 2, the liquid probiotic supplements were administered daily from experimental d 1 to 15. The treatment period in experiments 3 and 4 was extended to

  7. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P

    2009-01-01

    the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...... up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole......, and no change in muscle layer thickness, as compared to control. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 relative increase was higher in NaB group than in C group, and may be involved in rumen development. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet (milk replacer and starter diet) with NaB may enhance rumen development...

  8. Individual Heterosis for Birth Weight of N'dama Crossbred Calves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth weight records of 1137 calves of which 94 were straight bred and 1043 were crossbred (545 males and 592 females) from crosses with two indigenous breeds Muturu and Keteku and seven breeds, Brahman, Angus, Charolais, German Brown, Hereford, Jersey and Santa Getrudis collected from Fasola Stock Farm ...

  9. Economic evaluation and efficacy of strategic-selective treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuly Andrea Caicedo Blanco

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST or Conventional Treatment (CT. In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA. For statistical analysis, the frequency (% of fecal samples with count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG ≥300, count of oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG ≥500 and fecal samples with count of cysts of Giardia spp. ≥1 were conducted. The overall average frequency of fecal samples with EPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 and Giardia spp. cysts ≥1, respectively, was similar (p >0.05 between S-ST (20.3%; 17.3%; and 31.5% and CT (26.4%; 23.9%; and 37.3%. The effective operational cost, per animal, in 12 months, was of R$ 784.58 (US$ 241.41 and R$ 83.90 (US$ 25.81 in S-ST and CT, respectively. The S-ST requires adjustments to be used as a technically efficient and economically viable alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasitosis in female Holstein calves.

  10. Behaviour and welfare of veal calves in relation to husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilt, de J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional housing of veal calves in individual crates without roughage has received prolonged and serious criticism, since it denies the animals various social activities, freedom of movement and the possibility to consume roughage and to ruminate. In order to develop an economically

  11. A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digeston in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Berends, H.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Calf milk replacers (MR) commonly contain 40% to 50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. It is, however, unknown which enzyme limits the rate of starch digestion. The objectives were to

  12. A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digestion in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M. S.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Berends, H.; Pantophlet, A. J.; Schols, H. A.; Gerrits, W. J. J.

    Calf milk replacers (MR) commonly contain 40% to 50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. It is, however, unknown which enzyme limits the rate of starch digestion. The objectives were to

  13. Whole body and muscle energy metabolism in preruminant calves: effects of nutrient synchrony and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hocquette, J.F.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of asynchronous availability of amino acids and glucose on muscle composition and enzyme activities in skeletal muscle were studied in preruminant calves. It was hypothesized that decreased oxidative enzyme activities in muscle would explain a decreased whole body heat production with

  14. Parasitism level by helminths and weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production is a principle in which we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations. Despite the successful development of pesticides against endo and ectoparasites found in domestic ruminants, these parasites are still the major problem of the herbivore production system. The purpose of this study was to know the population of gastrintestinal parasites and their influence on weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing. Thus, organic and conventional calves were randomly selected in 2008 and 2009. The fecal egg count (FEC indentified the following genders of helminths: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Strongyloides, Trichuris and oocysts of Eimeria. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between FEC in organic and conventional animals. Calves younger than 6 months showed significant higher infection (p<0.05 than calves between 7 and 12 months of age. The weight gain observed during the study was of 327g/day and 280g/day for conventional and organic systems animals, respectively. Consequently, the combination of sustainable practices of grazing associated with the selective application of anthelmintics may be a feasible alternative for nematode control in a conventional system and in transition to an organic one.

  15. Effects of roughage source, amount, and particle size on behavior and gastrointestinal health of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union 1997 Directive, stipulating that veal calves should be fed a minimum of 50 to 250 g of fibrous feed from 8 to 20 wk of age, is vague. A fibrous feed ration maximum of 250 g has been implicated in welfare issues, namely the occurrence of abnormal oral behaviors and poor

  16. DynEarthSol3D: numerical studies of basal crevasses and calving blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, E.; Lavier, L. L.; Choi, E.; Tan, E.; Catania, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    DynEarthSol3D (DES) is a thermomechanical model for the simulation of dynamic ice flow. We present the application of DES toward two case studies - basal crevasses and calving blocks - to illustrate the potential of the model to aid in understanding calving processes. Among the advantages of using DES are: its unstructured meshes which adaptively resolve zones of high interest; its use of multiple rheologies to simulate different types of dynamic behavior; and its explicit and parallel numerical core which both make the implementation of different boundary conditions easy and the model highly scalable. We examine the initiation and development of both basal crevasses and calving blocks through time using visco-elasto-plastic rheology. Employing a brittle-to-ductile transition zone (BDTZ) based on local strain rate shows that the style and development of brittle features like crevasses differs markedly on the rheological parameters. Brittle and ductile behavior are captured by Mohr-Coulomb elastoplasticity and Maxwell viscoelasticity, respectively. We explore the parameter spaces which define these rheologies (including temperature) as well as the BDTZ threshold (shown in the literature as 10-7 Pa s), using time-to-failure as a metric for accuracy within the model. As the time it takes for a block of ice to fail can determine an iceberg's size, this work has implications for calving laws.

  17. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across calving lagoons in Eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Ramirez, Sergio Flores; Nigenda, Sergio; Ramirez, Jorge Urbán; Bracho, Lorenzo Rojas; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification studies and genetic studies suggest that gray whales may return to their natal lagoons to breed, potentially resulting in the buildup of genetic differences. However, an earlier genetic study used only one genetic marker and did not include samples from Bahia Magdalena, a major calving lagoon not currently designated as a wildlife refuge. To expand on this previous study, we collected genetic data from the mitochondrial control region (442 bp) and 9 microsatellite markers from 112 individuals across all 3 major calving lagoons. Our data suggest that migration rates between calving lagoons are high but that a small but significant departure from panmixia exists between Bahia Magdalena and Laguna San Ignacio (Fisher's Exact test, P 10% per generation). In addition, microsatellite data showed evidence of a severe population bottleneck. Eastern gray whales are still recovering from the impacts of whaling on their breeding grounds, and these populations should be protected and monitored for future genetic changes.

  18. Eimeria infection in calves under local farming system in and around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High infection rates occur from environments that were already contaminated with infected animals. A study on the prevalence, species and risk of occurrence of Eimeria species in calves was conducted at Asella, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Management systems, breed, age, sex, and site were considered as variables ...

  19. A child that presents with an acute limp: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease describesan idiopathic avascular necrosis of the proximal femoral epiphysis. Initial therapy includes maintenance of the femoral head within the acetabulum by an abduction splint. Additionally, daily abduction stretching exercises and physical therapy are recommended. Surgical containment ...

  20. Transfixation pinning and casting of tibial fractures in calves: five cases (1985-1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, G; Clem, M F; DeBowes, R M

    1991-01-01

    Medical records of 5 calves with tibial fractures that were reduced and stabilized by transfixation pinning and casting were reviewed. Multiple Steinmann pins were placed transversely through proximal and distal fracture fragments, and the pin ends were incorporated in fiberglass cast material after fracture reduction. Cast material serves as an external frame to maintain pin position and fracture reduction. Calves were between 2 weeks and 6 months old and weighed between 40 and 180 kg. Three fractures were spiral in configuration and 2 were comminuted. One tibial fracture was open. After surgery, all calves were ambulatory within 24 hours. To improve tarsal flexion and achieve normal stance in 3 calves, cast revision was required on the caudal aspect of the limb. Good radiographic and clinical evidence of stability was observed in 5 to 10 weeks (mean 8 weeks), at which time the pis and cast were removed. Return to normal function was rapid and judged to be excellent at follow-up evaluation 3 to 12 months later. Advantages of transfixation pinning and casting in management of tibial fractures include flexibility in pin positioning, adequate maintenance of reduction, early return to weight-bearing status, joint mobility, and ease of ambulation. The inability to adjust fixation and alignment after cast application is a disadvantage of this technique compared with other external fixators.

  1. Serial MR findings of metaphyseal cyst in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Chang Min; Na, Jae Boem; Moon, Haeng Jin

    2001-01-01

    Metaphyseal cysts are common findings in Lee-Calve-Perthes(LCP) disease, though usually disappear within 6-12 months several studies have described the MR imaging findings of these cysts, though serial MRI findings have not been documented. In this report, therefore, we report the serial MRI results of metaphyseal cyst in LCP patients

  2. Dominant inherited distal spinal muscular atrophy with atrophic and hypertrophic calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Sie, O G; van Weerden, T W

    The clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and morphological data of 3 members of a family with autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy (DSMA) are reported. One patient has the clinical picture of peroneal muscular atrophy with atrophic calves. His father and sister suffer from

  3. Fermentation in the small intestine contributes substantially to intestinal starch disappearance in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Berends, H.; Pluschke, A.M.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hendriks, W.H.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  4. Fermentation in the Small Intestine Contributes Substantially to Intestinal Starch Disappearance in Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S.; Pantophlet, Andre J.; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M.; van den Borne, Joost J. G. C.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Schols, Henk A.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  5. Effect of crossbreeding on market value of calves from dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bittante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Market values (¤/kg of calves obtained from six paternal breeds , Brown Swiss (BS, Holstein Friesian (HF, Simmental (SI, Alpine Grey (AG, Limousin (LI and Belgian Blue (BB, and four maternal breeds (BS, HF, SI, AG, were studied in order to estimate the crossbreeding effects. A total of 58,877 calves sold during 143 weekly auctions from 2003 to 2005 in Bolzano in Italy near the Austrian border, were analyzed using ANOVA procedure according to a linear model that included the effects of cross, sex and age of the calf, year and month of the auction. Coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.84; cross and sex effects resulted the most important. The BBxSI calves showed the highest commercial value (7.01 ¤/kg, while the BS purebreds the lowest one (2.74 ¤/kg. The LI and BB breeds used as sire breeds showed the greater commercial prices when crossbred with SI and AG respect to BS and HF. However, BB resulted the best sire breed. On average male calves showed greater commercial values than female ones (5.16 vs. 4.44 ¤/kg, but in HF and BS purebreds the commercial value of males and females was similar.

  6. Understanding the gut microbiome of dairy calves: Opportunities to improve early-life gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo

    2017-07-01

    Early gut microbiota plays a vital role in the long-term health of the host. However, understanding of these microbiota is very limited in livestock species, especially in dairy calves. Neonatal calves are highly susceptible to enteric infections, one of the major causes of calf death, so approaches to improving gut health and overall calf health are needed. An increasing number of studies are exploring the microbial composition of the gut, the mucosal immune system, and early dietary interventions to improve the health of dairy calves, revealing possibilities for effectively reducing the susceptibility of calves to enteric infections while promoting growth. Still, comprehensive understanding of the effect of dietary interventions on gut microbiota-one of the key aspects of gut health-is lacking. Such knowledge may provide in-depth understanding of the mechanisms behind functional changes in response to dietary interventions. Understanding of host-microbial interactions with dietary interventions and the role of the gut microbiota during pathogenesis at the site of infection in early life is vital for designing effective tools and techniques to improve calf gut health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. No foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission between individually housed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, A.; Dekker, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in The Netherlands in 2001 most likely started on a mixed veal-calf/dairy-goat farm. The outbreak among the 74 calves on this farm appeared to be limited to four animals, and no clinical signs of FMD were reported. Also on a second veal-calf farm minor clinical

  8. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb

    Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage component.

  9. Study on the pathophysiology of Haemonchus contortus (Rudolph, 1803) in calves with the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the pathophysiology of Haemonchus contortus infection in friesian calves. The animals were divided in two groups of four calves each. One group was infected, orally, with 500 Haemonchus contortus larvae per kg body weight and the other one as the worm-free control. Five weeks after infection they were all housed in metabolic crates and injected with 125 I-bovine albumin, 51 Cr-red cell and 59 Fe-transferrin to study the albumin metabolism, the erythokinetic and ferrokinetic. The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the mean haematocrit values and an evidence of lower weight gains over the period of experiment in the infected calves compared with the controls. There was also a change in the distribution of albumin from the extravascular to the intravascular pool and a significant increase in the plasma and blood volumes of infected calves. The study of ferrokinetic showed an increase in the iron turnover and in the rate of iron utilization in the infected group. The blood and albumin loss by the gastrointestinal tract were similar in both groups. (author)

  10. Economic and environmental effects of providing increased amounts of solid feed to veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Berends, H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, veal calves receive most of their nutrients from milk replacer (MR). Nowadays, however, solid feed (SF; i.e., concentrates and roughages) increasingly substitutes for MR. Studies have shown that providing SF reduces different types of nonnutritive oral behaviors. The objective of

  11. First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Werven, van T.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers attempting to reduce first-calving age (FCA) need to understand which rearing management factors influence FCA and first-lactation milk production (FLP). Reduced FCA might be associated with lower FLP. This study describes the association between herd FCA, FLP, and several herd-level health

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from calves in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hervé-Claude

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Description of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from calves <30 days of age from southern Chile. Material and methods: Necropsy and microbiology reports of 107 calves <30 days of age received at the Animal Pathology Institute between 2002 and 2015 were considered. Additionally, an antimicrobial resistance score was generated to allow comparisons among isolates with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Results: There was no clear trend in antimicrobial resistance during the study period, with similar levels of resistance for E. coli, β-hemolytic E. coli and Salmonella spp. Approximately 50% of isolates were sensitive to antimicrobials, and between 19 and 36% of samples showed possible extended- or pan- drug resistance. Multiple different antimicrobial resistance patterns were found, including 32 for E. coli, 17 for β-hemolytic E. coli and 10 for Salmonella spp. Conclusions: Overall, E. coli samples were most sensitive to ceftriaxone; β-hemolytic E. coli to florfenicol; and Salmonella spp. to gentamicin. In contrast, these agents were resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin and oxytetracycline respectively. This study is unique in its approach and provides useful information for veterinarians and producers on the antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria posing a serious threat to calves. These results can help field veterinarians to control and treat bacterial diarrhea in calves.

  13. Effect of waste milk pasteurization on fecal shedding of Salmonella in pre-weaned calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if pasteurization of non-saleable waste milk influences fecal Salmonella concentrations, prevalence, or antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype of cultured isolates, 211 Holstein dairy calves were housed on a single commercial dairy in the southwestern United States and randomly allot...

  14. pre. and post-weaning performance of artificially reared calves i ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weaned calves as measured by their live weight gain, feed conversion rate and .... Fish meal. Lucerne meal. Mineral premixt. Cement kiln dust. Chemical analysis: Dry matter. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Crude fat. Ash. Calcium. Phosphorus. 66,0. 16,0. 6,0. I1,0 ... Where supplementary feeding of dry concen- trate is being ...

  15. Calf health from birth to weaning. II. Management of diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. The second of this three part review series considers the management of diarrhoeic diseases in pre-weaned calves. In neonatal calf diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy is the single most important therapeutic measure to be carried out by the farmer and is usually successful if instigated immediately after diarrhoea has developed. Continued feeding of milk or milk replacer to diarrhoeic calves is important, to prevent malnourishment and weight loss in affected calves. Indiscriminative antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated diarrhoea is discouraged, whereas systemically ill calves can benefit from systemic antibiotic treatment for the prevention of septicaemia or concurrent diseases. Ancillary treatments and specific preventive measures are discussed. Eimeriosis has a high economic impact on the farming industries due to direct cost of treatment and calf losses, but especially due to decreased performance of clinically as well as sub-clinically affected animals. Emphasis lies on prophylactic or metaphylactic treatment, since the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa once diarrhoea has developed, makes therapeutic intervention unrewarding.

  16. The influence of postnatal nutrition on reproductive tract and endometrial gland development in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Meghan L; McCoski, Sarah R; Geiger, Adam J; Akers, R Michael; Johnson, Sally E; Ealy, Alan D

    2017-04-01

    Uterine gland development occurs after birth in cattle and other mammals. The timeline of gland development has been described in various species, but little is known about how postnatal diet influences uterine gland development. This is especially concerning in dairy heifers, where a variety of milk replacer and whole milk nutrition options exist. Little work also exists in cattle to describe how early exposure to steroids influences reproductive tract and uterine gland development. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of early postnatal plane of nutrition and estrogen supplementation on uterine gland development in calves. In both studies, Holstein heifer calves were assigned to restricted milk replacer (R-MR) or enhanced milk replacer (EH-MR) diets. In study 1, calves (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) were euthanized at 8 wk. In study 2, calves were weaned at 8 wk and administered estradiol (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 6) or placebo (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) for an additional 14 d before euthanasia. Average daily gain and final body weight was greater in both studies in heifers fed the enhanced diet. At 8 wk, EH-MR calves had a greater number of glands and a smaller average gland size, but total gland area was not different from the R-MR group. At 10 wk, uterine gland number and size were not affected by diet or estrogen. Expression profiles of several paracrine mediators of gland development were examined. Increases in transcript abundance for IGF1 and IGFBP3 and a decrease in abundance of WNT7A were detected in calves fed the enhanced diet at 8 wk of age. Plane of nutrition did not affect transcript profiles at 10 wk of age, but estradiol supplementation decreased MET and WNT7A transcript abundance. To conclude, heifer calves on a restricted diet exhibited a uterine morphology and transcript profile suggestive of delayed uterine gland development. These changes appear to be corrected by wk 10 of life. Also, this work provides evidence supporting the

  17. Reticulo-rumen temperature as a predictor of calving time in primiparous and parous Holstein females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J B G; Ahola, J K; Weller, Z D; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Barcellos, J O J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research was to define and analyze drops in reticulo-rumen temperature (Trr) as an indicator of calving time in Holstein females. Data were collected from 111 primiparous and 150 parous Holstein females between November 2012 and March 2013. Between -15 and -5 d relative to anticipated calving date, each female received an orally administered temperature sensing reticulo-rumen bolus that collected temperatures hourly. Daily mean Trr was calculated from d -5 to 0 relative to using all Trr values (A-Trr) or only Trr values ≥37.7°C (W-Trr) not altered by water intake. To identify a Trr drop, 2 methodologies for computing the baseline temperature were used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to estimate the probability of calving within the next 12 or 24 h for primiparous, parous, and all females, based on the size of the Trr drop. For all GLM, a large drop in Trr corresponded with a large estimated probability of calving. The predictive power of the GLM was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The ROC curve analyses showed that all models, regardless of methodology in calculation of the baseline or tested category (primiparous or parous), were able to predict calving; however, area under the ROC curve values, an indication of prediction quality, were greater for methods predicting calving within 24 h. Further comparisons between GLM for primiparous and parous, and using baseline 1 and 2, provide insight on the differences in predictive performance. Based on the GLM, Trr drops of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4°C were identified as useful indicators of parturition and further analyzed using sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios. Based on sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios, the best indicator of calving was an average Trr drop ≥0.2°C, regardless of methodology used to compute the baseline or category of animal evaluated. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  18. Is it Beneficial to Inseminate Cow Early after Calving in smallholder Dairy Herds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebe, B.O.; Udo, H.M.J.; Jalvingh, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Insemination of cows after calving is often more prolonged than recommended by the extension service in the smallholder dairy herds. The rationale behind the practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate through simulation, the potential benefits of implementing early insemination of cows after calving as recommended by the extension. The simulation was based on a reference herd reflecting an average performing smallholder dairy herd in the Kiambu peri-urban area. Data inputs displaying collapsed lactation curve were obtained from the National Dairy Development Project reports. The study used a dynamic stochastic model designed for on-farm decision support in dairying which can be modified to farm specific situation. Simulations was performed till steady state was derived reflecting the reproductive and productivity which corresponds with the estimated input and output variable of the reference herd. This form the basic situation in which insemination is on 165 days after calving. This resulted in 465 days calving interval (CI), and on annual basis 2355 kg milk per cow, 2.7 calvings, 25.8% culling rates giving gross margins of Ksh. 14,933 per cow. Compare to the basic situation, inseminating cows on day 105 after calving (60 days earlier) improved the annual gross margins per cow by Ksh 1060. The improved gross margins resulted from Shortened CI by 41 days, increased annual calvings in the herd by 0.1, increased milk production by 74 kg per cow annually and reduce culling rate by 4.8% annually. The resultant effect of these did offset the increased costs of feeding which was Ksh 473 and 11 per cow annually for the concentrates and Napier, respectively. The results showed that early insemination has potential economic benefits to smallholders. Implementing early insemination decisions need consider the investment feeding. The study showed that it is difficult to get a replacement heifer at the present level of reproductive performance in

  19. Impact of calving and ocean regime on the speed of Kangilerngata Sermia, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, E.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Iceberg calving from Greenland glaciers is an important process of mass ablation that is poorly understood at present, mostly due to a lack of detailed observations. Realistic projections of sea level rise however hinge on precise parameterization of iceberg calving. In this work, we utilize ground portable radar interferometry (GPRI) to collect the high temporal and spatial resolution observations of a calving front to analyze changes preceding, surrounding and following calving events. A 3-week field campaign took place at Kangilerngata Sermia, Greenland, a marine-terminating glacier that has undergone rapid retreat in 2002-2010. The GPRI was deployed at 100 m elevation, 3 km from the ice front, to scan the glacier every 3 minutes. Calving events include simple shedding of ice along the ice face and larger events that detach a large piece of ice from the glacier. Two such large events were observed, one in a section of the glacier that is nearly afloat and with large subglacial discharge; another over the grounded part of the glacier. We find that the calving in the floating part of the glacier generated no disturbance on the ice flow, whereas the other event generated an immediate speed increase of 35% that lasted 5 hours and extended 0.55 km upstream of the calving event. The section of ice removed was 120 m in length and 800 m in width. We posit that the removal of basal drag from that detached piece of grounded ice was responsible for the acceleration, whereas in the case of the floating extension, there was no change in force balance of the glacier. In conjunction with these measurements, we analyzed time series of CTD data taken in front of the glacier from 2008 to 2016, in addition to output products from the JPL/ECCO project to document the impact of ice ocean interaction, especially glacial undercutting, in triggering the retreat of the glacier in deeper waters. We also analyze how the glacier may evolve in the future based on the BedMachine topography

  20. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  1. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  2. The influence of sodium propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations in calves of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radojičić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of gluconeogenesis in ruminants is under the direct influence of insulin and glucocorticoid hormones. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of added Na-propionate on the neuroendocrine regulation of blood glucose in calves at three specific physiological periods: on exclusive milk nutrition; on mixed milk and forage nutrition; and with established ruminant digestion. The influence of Na-propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations was examined in the same 20 female Holstein calves at different stages of forestomach development (15 days, 2 months, and 4 months of age of calves. Group 1 of calves (n = 10 received Na-propionate intravenously; group 2 (n = 10 received Na-propionate mixed in milk. Blood sampling was performed 1 and 3 h after Na-propionate administration. After i.v. administration of Na-propionate, a significant increase (P < 0.05 in blood glucose concentration was observed 1 h after administration only in calves aged 2 and 4 months; blood insulin concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01 1 and 3 h after i.v. administration in 2-month-old calves; and cortisol concentration increased (P < 0.01 1 h after administration in each selected calf in all testing periods. Orally administered Na-propionate led to a significant increase (P < 0.01 of insulin concentration 1 and 3 h after administration in 15-day-old calves, and 3 h after administration in 2-month-old calves. Based on these results it could be assumed that i.v. and p.o. administration of Na-propionate affects the neuroendocrine regulation of glycaemia in calves of different age.

  3. Nutrient digestibility of veal calves fed large amounts of different solid feeds during the first 80 days of fattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating nutrients apparent digestibility in veal calves fed 3 feeding plans based on milk-replacer plus large amounts of solid feeds differing in their composition during the first 80 days of fattening. Twelve Polish Friesian male calves (70.6±1.9 kg were randomly assigned to one of the following feeding treatments: i milk-replacer plus corn grain (CG; ii milk-replacer plus 80:20 mixture (as fed basis of corn grain and wheat straw (CGS; and iii milk-replacer plus 72:20:8 mixture of corn grain, wheat straw and extruded soybean (CGSES. Calves received the same milk-replacer but the daily amount was restricted (96% for CGSES calves to balance dietary protein. Total dry matter intake from milk-replacer and solid feeds was similar among treatments, but CGSES calves showed better growth performance than CG ones. Calves were introduced into a metabolism stall (1/pen during week 9 of fattening for a 3- day adaptation period and a 4-day digestibility trial. Calves fed CG showed the greatest DM, NFC, and ash digestibility while CGSES calves showed the lowest CP digestibility. Haemoglobin concentrations measured at day 5, 31 and 80 were similar among feeding treatments and significantly decreased over time. In CGSES treatment, the combination of milkreplacer with solid feed closer to a complete diet for ruminants led to better calves’ growth performance. However, the reduced protein digestibility with CGSES indicates that protein quality becomes a key factor when formulating diets for veal calves using alternatives to dairy sources.

  4. Comparison of daily weight gain and fattening characteristics between buffalo and Holstein male calves with different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yousef-Elahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out over 180 days for comparison of daily weight gain and carcass characteristics of male buffalo (BW=200.8±8.00 Kg, days from birth day=360±28 calves to Holstein male calves (BW=195.2± 10 Kg, days from birth day= 240± 22 with different diets. The 27 male buffalo calves and 27 Holstein male calves after an adaptation period and health treatment (3 weeks allotted in factorial design (2×3 based on completely randomized design with 18 treatments. Experimental diets used to applying three treatments (three levels of NDF, including low NDF (LNDF, medium NDF (MNDF and high NDF (HNDF, so that final prices of these diets were different. All of these experimental calves weighted by 21 days intervals after a fasting for 12h and fed twice daily at 09.00 and 21.00 with Total Mix Ration (TMR ad-libitum. At the end of this experiment, three replicate from each treatment were slaughtered and used for carcass analysis. The result from this experiment shows that: There was no significant difference in initial body weight in the treatments of buffalo and Holstein male calves. Both Holstein and buffalo calves have the higher FBV and best FC in LNDF diet. There was no significant difference between MNDF and HNDF in buffalo calves treatments. The proportion of abdominal fat and fat of carcass in LNDF treatment was higher. The carcass efficiency and cost of meat production in better quality per Kg was higher and lower in buffalo calves respectively especially in treatments with higher NDF.

  5. Chopped or long roughage: what do calves prefer? Using cross point analysis of double demand functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Webb

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to quantify calves' (Bos taurus preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were trained to work for roughage rewards from two simultaneously available panels. The cost (number of muzzle presses required on the panels varied in each session (left panel/right panel: 7/35, 14/28, 21/21, 28/14, 35/7. Demand functions were estimated from the proportion of rewards achieved on one panel relative to the total number of rewards achieved in one session. Cross points (cp were calculated as the cost at which an equal number of rewards was achieved from both panels. The deviation of the cp from the midpoint (here 21 indicates the strength of the preference. Calves showed a preference for long versus chopped hay (cp = 14.5; P = 0.004, and for hay versus straw (cp = 38.9; P = 0.004, both of which improve rumen function. Long hay may stimulate chewing more than chopped hay, and the preference for hay versus straw could be related to hedonic characteristics. No preference was found for chopped versus long straw (cp = 20.8; P = 0.910. These results could be used to improve the welfare of calves in production systems; for example, in systems where calves are fed hay along with high energy concentrate, providing long hay instead of chopped could promote roughage intake, rumen development, and rumination.

  6. Chopped or Long Roughage: What Do Calves Prefer? Using Cross Point Analysis of Double Demand Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Laura E.; Bak Jensen, Margit; Engel, Bas; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.; de Boer, Imke J. M.; Bokkers, Eddie A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify calves'(Bos taurus) preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were trained to work for roughage rewards from two simultaneously available panels. The cost (number of muzzle presses) required on the panels varied in each session (left panel/right panel): 7/35, 14/28, 21/21, 28/14, 35/7. Demand functions were estimated from the proportion of rewards achieved on one panel relative to the total number of rewards achieved in one session. Cross points (cp) were calculated as the cost at which an equal number of rewards was achieved from both panels. The deviation of the cp from the midpoint (here 21) indicates the strength of the preference. Calves showed a preference for long versus chopped hay (cp  = 14.5; P  = 0.004), and for hay versus straw (cp  = 38.9; P = 0.004), both of which improve rumen function. Long hay may stimulate chewing more than chopped hay, and the preference for hay versus straw could be related to hedonic characteristics. No preference was found for chopped versus long straw (cp  = 20.8; P = 0.910). These results could be used to improve the welfare of calves in production systems; for example, in systems where calves are fed hay along with high energy concentrate, providing long hay instead of chopped could promote roughage intake, rumen development, and rumination. PMID:24558426

  7. Amelioration of Heat-Stress Conditions of Egyptian Summer Season on Friesian Calves Using Air Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.; Kamal, T.H.; Khalil, W.K.B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Friesian calves were used to evaluate cool air condition (AC) in alleviating heat stress (HS) determined by Heat Shock Protein genes expression (HSP), hormonal, biochemical and physiological parameters. The animals were exposed to summer heat stress (HS) under shade for two weeks (control). The maximum temperature humidity index (THI) during summer HS was from 81 to 88. Afterward the animals were exposed to AC, inside a climatic chamber for 6 hours daily for two weeks, where, the THI was from 70 to 71. The results revealed that expression level of the Hsp genes (Hsp72, Hsp70.1, Hsp70 and Hsp47) was lower under air condition treatment than under summer heat stress. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly lower (p< 0.01) under air condition treatment than those under heat stress. Total triiodothyronin (T3) level was significantly higher (P< 0.05) in AC cooling treatments than in HS, while cortisol level was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in AC cooling treatment than in HS calves. Creatinine and Urea -N levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in AC cooling treatment than in HS calves. Triglycerides, ALT and AST levels were significantly lower (p<0.01), (P< 0.01) and (p<0.05), respectively in AC cooling treatment than in HS calves. These results demonstrated that there is a relationship between the molecular weight of HSPs and the level of HSPs gene exprisson. The higher the molecular weight (HSP 72) the lower is the HSPs gene expression level (0.82 in HS and 0.39 in AC) and vise versa. This holds true in both heat stress and air condition. AC treatment is capable to ameliorate heat stress of Friesian calves under hot summer climate

  8. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  9. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  10. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves