WorldWideScience

Sample records for ranges shoreline displacement

  1. Linking shoreline displacement to environmental conditions in the Wax Lake Delta, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleynse, N.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of river deltas are not well-understood in part because of scarcity of historical data that document the growth or retreat of their channel networks, islands and shorelines. In particular, the mapping of deltaic shorelines is not trivial, however recent developments allow for their extraction from satellite and aerial imagery. Here, we present an analysis of environmental data and Landsat imagery of the Wax Lake Delta, a naturally-developing river delta in the shallow Atchafalaya Basin, Gulf of Mexico, USA. The image-based shoreline corresponds to the hydrodynamic shoreline, that is, the boundary of the subaerial and subaqueous portions of the delta, however, can be related to a morphodynamically-relevant shoreline by application of our method [Geleynse et al., 2012] to bathymetric-topographic data. Moreover, the effect of tides, river floods, wind, and vegetation cover on the extracted shorelines of the Wax Lake Delta can be identified.

  2. Palaeoenvironment and shoreline displacement on Suursaari Island, the Gulf of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atko Heinsalu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The island of Suursaari in the middle of the Gulf of Finland is exceptionally high (175 m a.s.l.. Sediment profiles from one mire and three lakes were investigated using diatom and pollen analysis, radiocarbon dating and levelling of the elevations of ancient shorelines. The pollen stratigraphy of the Lounatkorkiasuo Mire sediment suggests a sedimentary record dating from the late Allerød.The development of late-glacial vegetation went through the same phases as in southern Finland, however these are probably somewhat earlier on the island of Suursaari. There are differences in the Holocene vegetation history of the higher and lower areas of the island. Lake Ruokalahenjärvi was isolated around 10 000 BP during the initial phase of the Yoldia Sea and the diatom assemblage indicates that at that time brackish-water flow had not penetrated into the Gulfof Finland. Diatoms from the isolation sediments of Lake Liivalahenjärvi and Lake Veteljärvi indicate a freshwater environment for the Yoldia Sea final phase at 9500–9600 BP. Levelling of coastal formations on Suursaari Island reveals that the Late Weichselian and early Holocene ancient shorelines are 5–15 m higher than expected from the isobase data for similar land uplift areas on the mainland.The anomalous shoreline levels on Suursaari Island may be explained byirregular land uplift. By the time of the Litorina Sea differences in shoreline altitudes had disappeared.

  3. Tilt displacement range testing for a piezoelectric deformable mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Cheng, Xuemin; Fan, Fan; Li, Heng

    2016-10-01

    In our previous works, we presented a zoom system and image stabilization design based on deformable mirrors (DMs). According to the high bandwidth and free edge characteristics of the piezoelectric deformable mirror (PDM), we tested the system's image-stable capability. We found the PDM could realize some tilt displacements while keeping a certain stable surface shape, it could obtain higher image stabilizing precision when integrated with the traditional mechanical image stabilization systems. In the design of the image stabilization system, the PDM's tilt displacement range is a key factor for consideration. So in this paper, we carried out a tilt displacement range testing experiment by using the OKO's 37-channel PDM. We measured and analyzed the variation of the tilt displacements in optical image stabilization process, and calculated the maximum tilt angle as the PDM surface shape was stabilized. We built an experimental platform consisting of a fixed target, an imaging system based on PDM, and a CCD camera. We used the ZYGO interferometer as an evaluation instrument to measure the surface shape stability. When the PDM surface had a tilt displacement, the image point of the fixed target on the camera sensor shifted correspondingly. The tilt angle of the PDM could be obtained by calculating this shift. The results showed that the maximum tilt angle of the PDM was 0.2mrad. The paper also analyzed the experiment errors when concerning about the off-axis error of the PDM deflection center.

  4. CENTIMETER COSMO-SKYMED RANGE MEASUREMENTS FOR MONITORING GROUND DISPLACEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fratarcangeli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR, based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano – Northern Italy, where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS, taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one stable PS’s are

  5. Paleoclimatic implications of fossil shoreline deposits in the southern basin and range province during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowler, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Paleolake shoreline deposits throughout the southern Basin and Range (SBAR) signify past intervals of steady-state climatic conditions occuring during the late Pleistocene slightly before, as well as after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~23-19 Ka). Unfortunately, a lack of knowledge about the age of fossil shoreline deposits—due to C-14 related uncertainties and incomplete dating of shorelines—has resulted in a large gap in our knowledge about past climatic and surface hydrologic conditions in the SBAR. Several studies collectively reveal multiple lake level oscillations during the LGM and last part of the Pleistocene, with reasonably well dated shoreline deposits existing for only four paleolakes: one in central New Mexico (Estancia), two in southwestern New Mexico (Playas and Cloverdale), and one in southeastern Arizona (Cochise). In summary, there is evidence for a pre-LGM high-stand at Cochise (>26 Ka), LGM high-stands at Estancia and Cloverdale (>20-16 Ka), deglacial age high-stands at Playas and Cochise (16-13 Ka), and latest Pleistocene-early Holocene still stands of as yet undetermined elevation at Playas and Estancia (13-9K). Further, the absence of high-stands from 11-10 Ka suggests that the Younger Dryas climatic reversal—which is detected in the stable O isotopic composition of speleothems from Cave-of-the-Bells in southeastern Arizona—was marked there by a decrease in mean annual air temperature without a significant increase in precipitation. Alternatively, if a return to glacial precipitation levels did occur, then it was for an interval so short that sedimentological evidence was not preserved. This presentation will cover the afore mentioned chronologies, along with discussion about associated atmospheric circulation patterns in the SBAR and across western North America.

  6. A Static Displacement Monitoring System for VLBI Antenna Using Close-Range Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukgil Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a static displacement monitoring program was developed to maintain the accurate performance of a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI antenna by monitoring its structural stability. The monitoring program was designed to measure static displacement, among the many displacements of the antenna’s main reflector, which can directly affect its performance. The program measures the position of a monitored object with mm-level accuracy through close-range photogrammetry that uses high-resolution Charge Coupled Device (CCD cameras. The developed program will be used to evaluate the structural soundness of an antenna based on continuous displacement measurements, which can also be used as basic data for repair and reinforcement work in the future.

  7. Novel Absolute Displacement Sensor with Wide Range Based on Malus Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel wide range absolute displacement sensor based on polarized light detection principle. The sensor comprises of two sets of polarized light detecting systems which are coupled by pulleys. The inherent disadvantage in optic system like light source intensity drift is solved and absolute measurement with wide-range is achieved. A prototype and the relevant test bed have been built. The test results are in good agreement with expectation. Its measurement range is 540 mm, and its linearity is better than 0.05%.

  8. Icing events trigger range displacement in a high-arctic ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stien, Audun; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle; Severinsen, Torbjørn; Kohler, Jack; Langvatn, Rolf

    2010-03-01

    Despite numerous studies of how climate change may affect life history of mammals, few have documented the direct impact of climate on behavior. The Arctic is currently warming, and rain-on-snow and thaw-freeze events leading to ice formation on the ground may increase both in frequency and spatial extent. This is in turn expected to be critical for the winter survival of arctic herbivores. Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus plathyrynchus) have small home ranges and may therefore be vulnerable to local "locked pasture" events (ice layers limit access to plant forage) due to ground-ice formation. When pastures are "locked," Svalbard reindeer are faced with the decision of staying and live off a diminishing fat store, or trying to escape beyond the unknown spatial borders of the ice. We demonstrate that Svalbard reindeer do the latter, as icing events cause an immediate increase in range displacement between 5-day observations. Population-level responses of previous icing events may therefore not accurately predict future responses if the spatial extent of icing increases. The impact of single events may be more severe if it exceeds the maximum movement distances, so that the spatial displacement strategy reported here no longer buffers climate effects.

  9. A novel fiber bundle configuration for concurrent improvement of displacement range and sensitivity of self-referenced fiber optic displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Shrikant; Buchade, P. B.; Shaligram, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, efforts done towards simultaneous improvement in linear displacement range and sensitivity of self-referenced fiber optic displacement sensor (FODS) are reported. A comparative study of three different configurations of self-referenced FODS having same geometrical structure has done. All configurations contain one transmitting fiber and two receiving fiber groups. The self-referencing is effected by taking the ratio of outputs of second to first receiving group. A transmitting and a receiving fiber in a first receiving group are same. In type I configuration, the second receiving group has three optical fibers are collinear. In type II configuration, the second receiving group has an optical fiber having core diameter three times to transmitting fiber. In type III configuration, the second receiving group has seven optical fibers which are arranged in a circular fashion. In type I and III configuration, all optical fibers are identical and the output of second receiving group is taken as a sum of outputs of receiving fibers. The simulations and experimentations are carried out for all configurations. The obtained linear displacement ranges are 2.1, 1.3 and 2 mm with sensitivities of 0.42, 1.25 and 1.31 mm-1 having less than 2% nonlinearity error for type I, II and III configurations. Type III configuration offers improved linear displacement range and sensitivity as compared to type I and II.

  10. High-resolution and wide range displacement measurement based on planar grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Guan, Jian; Wen, Feng; Tan, Jiubin

    2017-12-01

    High/ultra-precision motion measurements for precision translation stages are highly desired in modern manufacturing systems and instruments. In this work, we introduce a wide range three-axis grating encoder with nanometric resolution, which can measure the x-, y- and z-axial translational motions of a stage simultaneously. The grating encoder is composed of a reflective-type planar scale grating with a period of 8 μm and an optical reading head. A planar reference grating, which is the same as the planar scale grating except the length and width, is employed in the optical reading head. The x- and y- directional ±1st order diffractive beams of the planar scale grating interfere with the corresponding diffractive beams of the planar reference grating, forming the measurement signals. The x- and y- directional ±1st order diffractive beams of the two planar gratings propagate against their original incident path, working as the autocollimatic diffractive beams. Therefore, the z-axial measurement range of the proposed grating encoder is greatly enhanced. The x- and y- axial measurement ranges depend on the size of the planar scale grating. To make the grating encoder more compact, a double grating beam-splitting (DGBS) unit and two diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are introduced. The experimental results indicate that the z-axial displacement resolution is as high as 4 nm with an electronic data division card of 80 segments developed by our lab.

  11. Landslide Displacement Monitoring Using 3D Range Flow on Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An active landslide in Doren, Austria, has been studied by multitemporal airborne and terrestrial laser scanning from 2003 to 2012. To evaluate the changes, we have determined the 3D motion using the range flow algorithm, an established method in computer vision, but not yet used for studying landslides. The generated digital terrain models are the input for motion estimation; the range flow algorithm has been combined with the coarse-to-fine resolution concept and robust adjustment to be able to determine the various motions over the landslide. The algorithm yields fully automatic dense 3D motion vectors for the whole time series of the available data. We present reliability measures for determining the accuracy of the estimated motion vectors, based on the standard deviation of components. The differential motion pattern is mapped by the algorithm: parts of the landslide show displacements up to 10 m, whereas some parts do not change for several years. The results have also been compared to pointwise reference data acquired by independent geodetic measurements; reference data are in good agreement in most of the cases with the results of range flow algorithm; only some special points (e.g., reflectors fixed on trees show considerably differing motions.

  12. A parameterization of momentum roughness length and displacement height for a wide range of canopy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhoef

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Values of the momentum roughness length, z0, and displacement height, d, derived from wind profiles and momentum flux measurements, are selected from the literature for a variety of sparse canopies. These include savannah, tiger-bush and several row crops. A quality assessment of these data, conducted using criteria such as available fetch, height of wind speed measurement and homogeneity of the experimental site, reduced the initial total of fourteen sites to eight. These datapoints, combined with values carried forward from earlier studies on the parameterization of z0 and d, led to a maximum number of 16 and 24 datapoints available for d and z0, respectively. The data are compared with estimates of roughness length and displacement height as predicted from a detailed drag partition model, R92 (Raupach, 1992, and a simplified version of this model, R94 (Raupach, 1994. A key parameter in these models is the roughness density or frontal area index, λ. Both the comprehensive and the simplified model give accurate predictions of measured z0 and d values, but the optimal model coefficients are significantly different from the ones originally proposed in R92 and R94. The original model coefficients are based predominantly on measured aerodynamic parameters of relatively closed canopies and they were fitted `by eye'. In this paper, best-fit coefficients are found from a least squares minimization using the z0 and d values of selected good-quality data for sparse canopies and for the added, mainly closed canopies. According to a statistical analysis, based on the coefficient of determination (r2, the number of observations and the number of fitted model coefficients, the simplified model, R94, is deemed to be the most appropriate for future z0 and d predictions. A CR value of 0.35 and a cd1 value of about 20 are found to be appropriate for a large range of canopies varying in density from closed to very sparse. In this case, 99% of the total variance

  13. Shorelines of the Central Beaufort Sea, Alaska coastal region (Hulahula River to the Colville River) used in shoreline change analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes shorelines from 63 years ranging from 1947 to 2010 for the north coast of Alaska between the Hulahula River and the Colville River. Shorelines...

  14. Shorelines of the Western Beaufort Sea, Alaska coastal region (Colville River to Point Barrow) used in shoreline change analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes shorelines from 65 years ranging from 1947 to 2012 for the north coast of Alaska between the Colville River and Point Barrow. Shorelines were...

  15. The National Assessment of Shoreline Change:A GIS Compilation of Vector Shorelines and Associated Shoreline Change Data for the Sandy Shorelines of the California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Reid, David

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector shorelines and shoreline change rates for the sandy shoreline along the California open coast. These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Beach erosion is a chronic problem along many open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of shoreline migration. There is also a critical need for shoreline change data that is consistent from one coastal region to another. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates of shorelines and shoreline change rates can be made at a National Scale. This data compilation for open-ocean, sandy shorelines of the California coast is one in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeast Atlantic Coast (Morton et al., 2004; Morton et al., 2005) and will eventually cover Washington, Oregon, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. Short- and long-term shoreline change evaluations are determined by comparing the positions of three historical shorelines digitized from maps, with a modern shoreline derived from LIDAR (light detection and ranging) topographic surveys. Historical shorelines generally represent the following time-periods: 1850s-1880s, 1920s-1930s, and late 1940s-1970s. The most recent shoreline is from data collected between 1997 and 2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated by linear regression using all four shorelines. Short-term rates of change are end-point rate calculations using the two most recent shorelines. Please refer to our full report on shoreline change of the

  16. Numerical Modeling of Shoreline Undulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg

    The present thesis considers undulations on sandy shorelines. The aim of the study is to determine the physical mechanisms which govern the morphologic evolution of shoreline undulations, and thereby to be able to predict their shape, dimensions and evolution in time. In order to do so a numerical...... undulations are described by the model. The shoreline evolution is considered for both constant and varying wave forcing and both periodic model domains with a single undulation as well as periodic model domains with multiple undulation are considered. Three different shoreline shapes are found depending...... of the shoreline. Thirdly the shoreline evolution model is tuned to two naturally occurring shorelines. On one of the shorelines, the west coast of Namibia, the shoreline model is able to describe the observed shoreline features in both a qualitative and quantitative way. The model over-predicts the scale...

  17. NOAA Shoreline Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The original intent of this site was to alleviate confusion about shorelines generated by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) agencies. However,...

  18. The National Assessment of Shoreline Change: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the U.S. southeast Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tara L.; Morton, Robert A.; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2006-01-01

    The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline change rates for the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast (Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina). These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of shoreline migration. There is also a critical need for shoreline change data that is consistent from one coastal region to another. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates of shorelines and shoreline change rates can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This data compilation for open-ocean, sandy shorelines of the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast is the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico, and will eventually include the Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. Short- and long-term shoreline change evaluations are based on merging three historical shorelines with a modern shoreline derived from lidar (light detection and ranging) topographic surveys. Historical shorelines generally represent the following time periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s. The most recent shoreline is derived from data collected over the period of 1997-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated by linear regression using all four shorelines. Short-term rates of change are simple end-point rate calculations using the two most recent shorelines. Please refer to our full report on shoreline change for the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1401/ to get additional

  19. Range of motion, postural alignment, and LESS score differences of those with and without excessive medial knee displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Pennuto, Anthony P; Smith, Mason D; Olson, Matt E; Bell, David R

    2015-01-01

    To determine range of motion (ROM), postural alignment, and dynamic motion differences between those with and without medial knee displacement (MKD) during the overhead squat (OHS). We hypothesized those with MKD would have restricted ROM, differing postural alignment, and poorer quality dynamic motion than those without MKD. Observational. University Research Laboratory. Ninety-seven healthy recreationally active college-aged individuals. Groups were determined by the presence (MKD group) or absence (control group) of MKD during an OHS. Range of motion measures were active and passive ankle dorsiflexion with the knee straight and bent, hip internal and external rotation, and hip abduction. Postural alignment measures were Q angle, navicular drop, and genu recurvatum. Quality of dynamic motion was measured using total Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) score. The MKD group had significantly less active (P = 0.017) and passive (P = 0.045) ankle dorsiflexion with the knee straight, as well as significantly increased Q angle (P = 0.004) and decreased navicular drop (P = 0.009). There were no significant differences in total LESS score or the other outcome measures. There is select ROM, such as ankle dorsiflexion, and postural measures clinicians can screen for that may be related to increased MKD and theoretically elevated risk of injury.

  20. USGS Northern California Shoreline Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector shorelines and shoreline...

  1. Shoreline change analysis of Vedaranyam coast, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Usha; Thulasiraman, N; Deepthi, K; Kathiravan, K

    2013-06-01

    The coastal zone is one of the nation's greatest environmental and economic assets. The present research aims at studying the shoreline changes along Vedaranyam coast using conventional and modern techniques including field sampling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS). The study area was divided into three zones. Dynamic Land/Sea polygon analysis was performed to obtain the shore line changes at different time periods between 1930 and 2005. From the multidate shoreline maps, the rate of shoreline change was computed using linear regression rate and end point rate. Further, the shoreline was classified into eroding, accreting, and stable regions through GIS analysis. The eroding, accreting, and stable coastal stretch along Vedaranyam is observed as 18 %, 80.5 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Net shoreline movement is seaward, i.e., the coast is progressive with an average rate of 5 m/year. A maximum shoreline displacement of 1.3 km towards the sea is observed near Point Calimere. During the Asian Tsunami 2004, the eastern part of the study area showed high erosion. Sediment transport paths derived from the grain size analysis of beach sediments collected during different seasons help to identify the major sediment source and sinks. Point Calimere acts as the major sink for sediments whereas Agastiyampalli and Kodiakkarai are found to be the major sources for the sediment supply along the Vedaranyam coast. Shoreline change study from field and satellite data using GIS analysis confirms that Vedaranyam coast is accreting in nature.

  2. Multidecadal shoreline changes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2014-01-01

    -shore transect method based on the ArcGIS-based Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). The cross-shore transect method was more robust and performed better in the detection of local extremes in shoreline changes, which was crucial for the scope of the mapping. Countrywide shoreline-change distances and rates...

  3. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. La Peyre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y−1. Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects.

  4. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Serra, Kayla; Joyner, T. Andrew; Humphries, Austin T.

    2015-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed) and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y−1. Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects.

  5. Interferometric shoreline mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, C.G. van; Groot, J.S.; Vogelzang, J.; Dierikx-Platschorre, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the location and evolution of shorelines is valuable. This information can be obtained from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. Direct, unsupervised classifications methods give poor results because of the high noise level in SAR images and the scattering properties of

  6. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Living Shorelines: Coastal Resilience with a Blue Carbon Benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny L Davis

    Full Text Available Living shorelines are a type of estuarine shoreline erosion control that incorporates native vegetation and preserves native habitats. Because they provide the ecosystem services associated with natural coastal wetlands while also increasing shoreline resilience, living shorelines are part of the natural and hybrid infrastructure approach to coastal resiliency. Marshes created as living shorelines are typically narrow (< 30 m fringing marshes with sandy substrates that are well flushed by tides. These characteristics distinguish living shorelines from the larger meadow marshes in which most of the current knowledge about created marshes was developed. The value of living shorelines for providing both erosion control and habitat for estuarine organisms has been documented but their capacity for carbon sequestration has not. We measured carbon sequestration rates in living shorelines and sandy transplanted Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Newport River Estuary, North Carolina. The marshes sampled here range in age from 12 to 38 years and represent a continuum of soil development. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 58 to 283 g C m-2 yr-1 and decreased with marsh age. The pattern of lower sequestration rates in older marshes is hypothesized to be the result of a relative enrichment of labile organic matter in younger sites and illustrates the importance of choosing mature marshes for determination of long-term carbon sequestration potential. The data presented here are within the range of published carbon sequestration rates for S. alterniflora marshes and suggest that wide-scale use of the living shoreline approach to shoreline management may come with a substantial carbon benefit.

  8. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    shoreline change analyses incorporated only four total shorelines to represent specific time periods. This assessment of the PNW incorporates all available shorelines that meet minimum quality standards for resolution and positional accuracy. Shoreline change evaluations are based on a comparison of historical shoreline positions digitized from maps or aerial photographic data sources with recent shorelines, at least one of which is derived from lidar surveys. The historical shorelines cover a variety of time periods ranging from the 1800s through the 1980s, whereas the lidar shoreline is from 2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using all available shoreline data and short-term rates of change are calculated using the lidar shoreline and the historical shoreline that will produce an assessment for a 15- to 35-year period. The rates of change presented in this report represent conditions up to the date of only the most recent shoreline data and therefore are not intended for predicting future shoreline positions or rates of change. The PNW coast was subdivided into eight analysis regions for the purpose of graphically reporting regional trends in shoreline change rates. The average rate of long-term shoreline change for the entire PNW coast was 0.9 meter per year (m/yr) of progradation with an uncertainty of 0.07 m/yr. This rate is based on 8,823 individual transects, of which 36 percent was determined to be eroding. Long-term shoreline change was generally more progradational in Washington than in Oregon. This is primarily due to the influence of the Columbia River and human perturbations to the natural system, particularly the construction of jetties at both the mouth of the Columbia River and at Grays Harbor, Washington. The majority of the beaches in southwestern Washington have responded to these large-scale engineered structures by experiencing dramatic beach progradation during the past century. Although these beaches are still responding to the human

  9. The National Assessment of Shoreline Change: A GIS Compilation of Vector Shorelines and Associated Shoreline Change Data for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tara L.; Morton, Robert A.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Moore, Laura J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline change rates for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of shoreline migration. There is also a critical need for shoreline change data that is consistent from one coastal region to another. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This data compilation for open-ocean, sandy shorelines of the Gulf of Mexico is the first in a series that will eventually include the Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. Short- and long-term shoreline change evaluations are based on merging three historical shorelines with a modern shoreline derived from lidar (light detection and ranging) topographic surveys. Historical shorelines generally represent the following time periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s. The most recent shoreline is derived from data collected over the period of 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated by linear regression using all four shorelines. Short-term rates of change are simple end-point rate calculations using the two most recent shorelines. Please refer to our full report on shoreline change in the Gulf of Mexico, National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Part 1, Historical Shoreline Changes and Associated Coastal Land Loss Along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (USGS Open File

  10. National assessment of shoreline change: A GIS compilation of updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the Southeast Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzmann, Meredith; Himmelstoss, Emily; Thieler, E. Robert

    2017-01-01

    Sandy ocean beaches in the United States are popular tourist and recreational destinations and constitute some of the most valuable real estate in the country.The boundary between land and water along the coastline is often the location of concentrated residential and commercial development and is frequently exposed to a range of natural hazards, which include flooding, storm effects, and coastal erosion.  In response, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a national assessment of coastal change hazards.  One component of this research effort, the National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/shoreline-change/), documents changes in shoreline position as a proxy for coastal change. Shoreline position is an easily understood feature representing the historical location of a beach position through time. All data can be viewed on the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Portal at https://marine.usgs.gov/coastalchangehazardsportal/

  11. Crustal block movements from Holocene shorelines: Rhodes Island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzoli, P. A.; Montaggioni, L. F.; Saliège, J. F.; Segonzac, G.; Thommeret, Y.; Vergnaud-Grazzini, C.

    1989-12-01

    Signs of up to eight stepped Holocene shorelines, which have been reported in a previous study on the east coast of Rhodes Island, have been reinvestigated in detail on the basis of a new geomorphological survey, identification and petrological analysis of many new samples of exposed marine organic crusts and over 30 radiocarbon datings. Confirmation was obtained of the view that the island can be charactered by considering small crustal blocks up to a dozen kilometres long with each block being affected by a specific tectonic history, and a general trend towards an uplift increasing from south to north. Two successive phases of submergence-emergence have been revealed by petrogenetic sequences in many samples, which give evidence of the occurrence of positive and negative vertical movements. This implies possible rejuvenation effects of the later submergence phase on the apparent age of pre-existing algal crusts, and those have been taken into account and estimated. The most likely sequence of vertical crustal movements to have occurred has been specified for each block and a time range has been ascribed to each former shoreline. Independent up and down movements, increasing in amplitude from south to north, appear in most blocks. There is a recurrent periodicity varying from a few hundred to one or at most two thousand years. The largest vertical displacement observed during the late Holocene—a sudden uplift movement of about 3.8 m in the northernmost part of the island—is likely to be linked with the earthquake which destroyed the Colossus in 222 B.C.

  12. Coaching of patients with an isolated minimally displaced fracture of the radial head immediately increases range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Teun; Thornton, Emily R; Guitton, Thierry G; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Ring, David

    2016-01-01

    Prospective cohort. Elbow stiffness is the most common adverse event after isolated radial head fractures. To assess the effect of coaching on elbow motion during the same office visit in patients with such fractures. We enrolled 49 adult patients with minimally displaced radial head fractures, within 14 days of injury. After diagnosis, we measured demographics, catastrophic thinking, health anxiety, symptoms of depression, upper extremity-specific symptoms and disability, pain, and elbow and wrist motion. The patient was taught to apply an effective stretch in spite of the pain to limit stiffness, and elbow motion was measured again. With the exception of radial deviation and pronation, motion measures improved slightly but significantly on average immediately after coaching. Elbow flexion improved from 79% (110° ± 22°) of the uninjured side to 88% (122° ± 18°) after coaching (P coaching patients regarding painful stretches might help clarify the optimal approach. Therapeutic level 4. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Decoupling Shoreline Behavior Over Variable Time and Space Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C. J.; Plant, N. G.; Henderson, R.; Schwab, W. C.; Nelson, T. R.

    2016-12-01

    A combination of small-scale sediment transport processes and large-scale geologic, oceanographic, and morphologic processes drives shoreline change on time scales ranging from single storm events to decades. The relative importance of storm processes versus geological control on event response and long-term evolution of barrier islands is largely unknown but is important for understanding decadal-scale evolution Here, we investigate the primary controls on shoreline response along Fire Island, NY, a 50-km long barrier island, on timescales that resolve storms and decadal variations over a period of 80 yrs. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is applied to a time series of shoreline positions to identify coherent patterns of shoreline variability that can be correlated to oceanographic or geologic framework parameters to help identify the controlling short-term or long-term processes. The analysis shows that storm response and recovery dominates the shoreline behavior on the largest spatial scales in the form of alternating episodes of shoreline retreat and advance that have a length scale of 1 km. The shoreline response to and recovery from Hurricane Sandy is included in this EOF analysis and indicates that this historic storm is not notable or distinguishable from several other large storms of the prior decade. This suggests that Fire Island is historically, and continues to be, resilient to severe storms. A secondary mode of the EOF analysis supports that the framework geology of the barrier island system, represented by known variations in inner shelf bathymetry, sediment availability, beach-shoreface morphology, and long-term rates of shoreline change, controls multi-decadal shoreline evolution. The geologic processes that control the long-term morphodynamics result in the ends of the island responding in opposite phase to the central portion. A third mode reveals an intermediate-scale pattern that persists over both long and short-term time scales

  14. USGS Map service: National Shoreline Change - Historic Shorelines by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital...

  15. Shoreline relaxation at pocket beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Imen; Medina, Raul; Kakeh, Nabil; González, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    A new physical concept of relaxation time is introduced in this research as the time required for the beach to dissipate its initial perturbation. This concept is investigated using a simple beach-evolution model of shoreline rotation at pocket beaches, based on the assumption that the instantaneous change of the shoreline plan-view shape depends on the long-term equilibrium plan-view shape. The expression of relaxation time is developed function of the energy conditions and the physical characteristics of the beach; it increases at longer beaches having coarse sediments and experiencing low-energy conditions. The relaxation time, calculated by the developed model, is validated by the shoreline observations extracted from video images at two artificially embayed beaches of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) suffering from perturbations of sand movement and a nourishment project. This finding is promising to estimate the shoreline response and useful to improve our understanding of the dynamic of pocket beaches and their stability.

  16. County Boundaries with Shorelines (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with shorelines cut in (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and...

  17. NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products from the Remote Sensing Division are primarily for application to the nautical charts produced by NOAA's Office of Coast...

  18. Temperature dependence of the thermal diffusivity of GaAs in the 100-305 K range measured by the pulsed photothermal displacement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanolkotabi, M.; Bennis, G. L.; Gupta, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have measured the variation of the value of the thermal diffusivity of semi-insulating GaAs in the 100-305 K range. The method used is the pulsed photothermal displacement technique. This is a noncontact technique, and the value of the thermal diffusivity is derived from the temporal evolution of the signal rather than its amplitude. This makes the technique less susceptible to uncertainties. We find that the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of semi-insulating GaAs follows a power law as T-1.62, in disagreement with results obtained previously. Possible reasons for the deviation within this very important intermediate temperature range are discussed.

  19. NOAA Composite Shoreline - Vectorized Shoreline Derived From NOAA-NOS Coastal Survey Maps and Aerial Photographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Composite Shoreline is primarily intended for high-resolution cartographic representation of the shoreline. It is a high-resolution vector shoreline based...

  20. Coastal bluffs, dunes and the future of New York's ocean shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Bokuniewicz, H.

    2016-02-01

    The ocean coast of New York is protected naturally by dunes, bluffs and beaches. The distribution and combination of these natural protect features (NPFs) control the response of the shoreline to both extreme storms and rising sea level. Hurricane Sandy recently impacted this coast in October 2012, and sea level may rise over a meter by 2100. Geometries of NPFs were analyzed at 750 cross-shore transects along 36 km of the New York's easternmost ocean shoreline. Profile data was compiled from NOAA Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) surveys between November, 2011 and April, 2012 by NOAA. Low relief beaches are only found as the seawardmost NPF only in front of coastal ponds covering less than one percent of the shoreline. Steep bluffs of unconsolidated, or semi consolidated, sediment, without dunes, comprised 33% of the shoreline. Dunes, often multiple dune lines, constitute the most seaward NPF in 66% of the study area, but were often found in combination with bluffs. In some places a dune has formed on top of a bluff (8%), in others a dune is found in front of a bluff (10%). The average elevation of bluff crest was 11.6 m; dunes formed in front of the bluff face reaching average dune-crest elevations of 6.8 m. Where the overlap exists, the dune would provide the first line of protection against erosion and flooding during storms. Numerical modeling with CSHORE showed that the storm of record (Hurricane Sandy) excavated about 71m3/m of the dune. With rising sea level, dunes that have formed in front of the bluff at the present time would be displaced onto the bluff crest. Whereas the bluff crest above sea level would necessarily decrease as sea level rises, the elevation of the dune above sea should be expected to remain the same, being controlled by the site-specific nature of aeolian transport. The excavation of the bluff is likely to be the controlling factor in the face of a long-term rise in sea level. Further recession of the shoreline would then require the

  1. Operational shoreline mapping with high spatial resolution radar and geographic processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E; Chi, Zhaohui; Ramsey, Elijah W.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive mapping technology was developed utilizing standard image processing and available GIS procedures to automate shoreline identification and mapping from 2 m synthetic aperture radar (SAR) HH amplitude data. The development used four NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) data collections between summer 2009 and 2012 and a fall 2012 collection of wetlands dominantly fronted by vegetated shorelines along the Mississippi River Delta that are beset by severe storms, toxic releases, and relative sea-level rise. In comparison to shorelines interpreted from 0.3 m and 1 m orthophotography, the automated GIS 10 m alongshore sampling found SAR shoreline mapping accuracy to be ±2 m, well within the lower range of reported shoreline mapping accuracies. The high comparability was obtained even though water levels differed between the SAR and photography image pairs and included all shorelines regardless of complexity. The SAR mapping technology is highly repeatable and extendable to other SAR instruments with similar operational functionality.

  2. Historical shoreline changes along the US Gulf of Mexico: A summary of recent shoreline comparisons and analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Miller, T.; Moore, L.

    2005-01-01

    The US Geological Survey is systematically analyzing historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the United States. This National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project is developing standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that internally consistent updates can periodically be made to record coastal erosion and land loss along US shores. Recently, shoreline change maps and a report were published for states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. Long-term and short-term average rates of change were calculated by comparing three historical shorelines (1800s, 1930s, 1970s) with an operational mean high water shoreline derived from lidar (light detection and ranging) surveys (post-1998). The rates of change, statistical uncertainties, original shorelines, and complementary geographic information system layers, such as areas of beach nourishment, are available on an Internet Map Server (IMS). For the Gulf of Mexico region, rates of erosion are generally highest in Louisiana along barrier island and headland shores associated with the Mississippi delta. Erosion also is rapid along some barrier islands and headlands in Texas, whereas barrier islands in Mississippi are migrating laterally. Highest rates of erosion in Florida are generally localized around tidal inlets. The most stable Gulf beaches generally are along the west coast of Florida, where low wave energy and frequent beach nourishment minimize erosion. Some long beach segments in Texas have accreted as a result of net longshore drift convergence and around tidal inlets that have been stabilized by long jetties. Individuals and some communities have attempted to mitigate the effects of erosion by emplacement of coastal structures, but those efforts largely have been abandoned in favor of periodic beach nourishment.

  3. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  4. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  5. Massachusetts shoreline change project: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Theresa L.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the rates and trends associated with the position of the shoreline through time presents vital information on potential impacts these changes may have on coastal populations and infrastructure, and supports informed coastal management decisions. This report publishes the historical shoreline data used to assess the scale and timing of erosion and accretion along the Massachusetts coast from New Hampshire to Rhode Island including all of Cape Cod, Martha’s Vineyard, Nantucket and the Elizabeth Islands. This data is an update to the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management Shoreline Change Project. Shoreline positions from the past 164 years (1845 to 2009) were used to compute the shoreline change rates. These data include a combined length of 1,804 kilometers of new shoreline data derived from color orthophoto imagery collected in 2008 and 2009, and topographic lidar collected in 2007. These new shorelines have been added to previously published historic shoreline data from the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management and the U.S. Geological Survey. A detailed report containing a discussion of the shoreline change data presented here and a summary of the resulting rates is available and cited at the end of the Introduction section of this report.

  6. Interactions of Estuarine Shoreline Infrastructure With Multiscale Sea Level Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo-Qian; Herdman, Liv M.; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Hummel, Michelle; Stacey, Mark T.

    2017-12-01

    Sea level rise increases the risk of storms and other short-term water-rise events, because it sets a higher water level such that coastal surges become more likely to overtop protections and cause floods. To protect coastal communities, it is necessary to understand the interaction among multiday and tidal sea level variabilities, coastal infrastructure, and sea level rise. We performed a series of numerical simulations for San Francisco Bay to examine two shoreline scenarios and a series of short-term and long-term sea level variations. The two shoreline configurations include the existing topography and a coherent full-bay containment that follows the existing land boundary with an impermeable wall. The sea level variability consists of a half-meter perturbation, with duration ranging from 2 days to permanent (i.e., sea level rise). The extent of coastal flooding was found to increase with the duration of the high-water-level event. The nonlinear interaction between these intermediate scale events and astronomical tidal forcing only contributes ˜1% of the tidal heights; at the same time, the tides are found to be a dominant factor in establishing the evolution and diffusion of multiday high water events. Establishing containment at existing shorelines can change the tidal height spectrum up to 5%, and the impact of this shoreline structure appears stronger in the low-frequency range. To interpret the spatial and temporal variability at a wide range of frequencies, Optimal Dynamic Mode Decomposition is introduced to analyze the coastal processes and an inverse method is applied to determine the coefficients of a 1-D diffusion wave model that quantify the impact of bottom roughness, tidal basin geometry, and shoreline configuration on the high water events.

  7. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...... medical conditions. Displacing use can be a valuable strategy for design, revealing some of the contextual conditions that influence an artefact's use, and broadening the space of alternatives explored in design. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Modeling Shoreline Evolution on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, E. R.; Ashpaug, E. I.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2003-05-01

    Geomorphic evidence of surface water on Mars has important implications for planetary surface evolution, as well as for the continuing exploration of the planet as future landing sites are selected. Here we present the initial results from forward models of crater lake basin evolution motivated by the identification of intracrater landforms on Mars which exhibit possible evidence for a history of surface water. Proposed lacustrine Martian landforms include shorelines, terraces, and wave cut benches - features that have received considerable attention in terrestrial lacustrine geomorphology but which have never been quantitatively addressed with sufficient rigor on Mars. In particular, the existing body of terrestrial research has yet to be applied adequately to planets of different gravity, temperature (or working fluid) and atmospheric pressure, such as Mars and Titan. The 2-D model includes wave generation, shore erosion, and other factors. Wave generation depends primarily on wind speed and basin size. The erosive power of the generated waves along the shoreline depends on wave size and period, initial topography, rock hardness, and the effects of crater impact formation on the bedrock. Other factors include water loss to evaporation and infiltration, sediment transport within the basin, wind transported sediment, and ice cover. Waves are generated using terrestrial empirical equations that have been modified for the lower gravity on Mars. Erosion is based on equations for terrestrial rocky coastline evolution models that have been modified for Martian conditions. Results presented here will focus on the first two aspects, wave generation and shoreline erosion. Additional research will include exploring the effect of different air pressures on the system as well as modifying the model for application to possible crater lakes of liquid hydrocarbons on Titan.

  9. CENCAL_BIASVALUES - Central California Shoreline Bias Values

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines by compiling shoreline positions from pre-existing historical shoreline databases and by...

  10. NORCAL_BIASVALUES - Northern California Shoreline Bias Values

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines by compiling shoreline positions from pre-existing historical shoreline databases and by...

  11. SOCAL_BIASVALUES - Southern California Shoreline Bias Values

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines by compiling shoreline positions from pre-existing historical shoreline databases and by...

  12. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Shoreline features extracted from these two datasets and appended for shoreline change analysis recorded a total positional error of 3.98 m. The study has shown that the original scale (large) of the Town Sheet may have contributed significantly to the quality of data extracted. In the orthophoto, though.

  13. Shoreline response to detached breakwaters in prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuong, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of shoreline changes behind detached breakwaters is, in regard to the adjustment to the environmental impact, still a challenge for designers and coastal managers. This research is expected to fill the gaps in the estimation of shoreline changes by developing new and

  14. USGS science for the Nation's changing coasts; shoreline change assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2011-01-01

    The coastline of the United States features some of the most popular tourist and recreational destinations in the world and is the site of intense residential, commercial, and industrial development. The coastal zone also has extensive and pristine natural areas, with diverse ecosystems providing essential habitat and resources that support wildlife, fish, and human use. Coastal erosion is a widespread process along most open-ocean shores of the United States that affects both developed and natural coastlines. As the coast changes, there are a wide range of ways that change can affect coastal communities, habitats, and the physical characteristics of the coast?including beach erosion, shoreline retreat, land loss, and damage to infrastructure. Global climate change will likely increase the rate of coastal change. A recent study of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic coast, for example, found that it is virtually certain that sandy beaches will erode faster in the future as sea level rises because of climate change. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for conducting research on coastal change hazards, understanding the processes that cause coastal change, and developing models to predict future change. To understand and adapt to shoreline change, accurate information regarding the past and present configurations of the shoreline is essential. A comprehensive, nationally consistent analysis of shoreline movement is needed. To meet this national need, the USGS is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean coasts of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii, as well as the coasts of the Great Lakes.

  15. Understanding coastal change using shoreline trend analysis supported by cluster-based segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burningham, Helene; French, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Shoreline change analysis is a well defined and widely adopted approach for the examination of trends in coastal position over different timescales. Conventional shoreline change metrics are best suited to resolving progressive quasi-linear trends. However, coastal change is often highly non-linear and may exhibit complex behaviour including trend-reversals. This paper advocates a secondary level of investigation based on a cluster analysis to resolve a more complete range of coastal behaviours. Cluster-based segmentation of shoreline behaviour is demonstrated with reference to a regional-scale case study of the Suffolk coast, eastern UK. An exceptionally comprehensive suite of shoreline datasets covering the period 1881 to 2015 is used to examine both centennial- and intra-decadal scale change in shoreline position. Analysis of shoreline position changes at a 100 m alongshore interval along 74 km of coastline reveals a number of distinct behaviours. The suite of behaviours varies with the timescale of analysis. There is little evidence of regionally coherent shoreline change. Rather, the analyses reveal a complex interaction between met-ocean forcing, inherited geological and geomorphological controls, and evolving anthropogenic intervention that drives changing foci of erosion and deposition.

  16. National assessment of shoreline change: A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the sandy shorelines of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Bradley M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, and often are surrounded by communities that consist of valuable real estate. Development is increasing despite the fact that coastal infrastructure may be repeatedly subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, the demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes is increasing. Working with researchers from the University of Hawaii, investigators with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project have compiled a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline-change rates for the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii. No widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change currently exists. Current measurement and rate-calculation methods vary from study to study, precluding the combination of study results into statewide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the National Assessment was to develop a standardized method for measuring changes in shoreline position that is consistent from coast to coast. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the measurements in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for Kauai, Maui, and Oahu that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in the Geospatial Data section of this report.

  17. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...... in the room and in the inhalation of both manikins. Tracer gas was added in the heat plume above a sitting manikin, or in the exhalation through either the nose or the mouth. The other manikin moved back and forth at different speeds on a low trolley. The mentioned experimental conditions have a significant...

  18. Archaeological sites as indicators of ancient shorelines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Archaeological Sites as Indicators of Ancient Shorelines K H Vora, A. S. Gnur. Sundaresh and S. Tripati National Institute of Oceanogr-aplzy, Dona Paula, Goa Ernail: vora@nio.org Abstract During the late... BC to the mid 2"d millennium BC. These are be- lieved to be the ancient ports or centres busy in ex- ploiting the marine resources and clearly suggest a migration of shoreline. Several studies have reported the changes in sea levels and shoreline...

  19. Remote sensing and gis applications in determining shoreline and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of shoreline changes is essential for updating the changes in shoreline maps and management of natural resources as the shoreline is one of the most important features on the earth's surface. Shorelines are the key element in coastal GIS that provide information on coastal landform dynamics. The purpose of ...

  20. Forced Displacement and State Council. The Judge who Had a Wide Range of Arguments but not a Broad Extent of Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Andrés López Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available People in forced displacement can receive reparations through the State liability declarations by a judge. Judgment could involve some disadvantages but it is still probably to overcome them if the judge attends experts’ recommendations. Theorists were inspired in unconstitutional statu quo showed by Constitutional Court in T-025 case in 2004. We attempt to identify the proposals that influenced the State liability area and specifically the way in which they changed the frame of administrative judge’s decisions. First, we identified 18 theoretical scape lines, as alternatives to understand in a wider sense the damage, its imputation and reparation in a judicial landscape. Second, we attempt to establish if the State Council was influenced by the theorists’ suggestions, by studying four decisions published from 2004 until 2010. The evidence has shown that the administrative judge was far from the theorists’ proposals, although his attempts to offer better conditions to the victims.

  1. Historical Shoreline for Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, NOAA (2001) [shoreline_la_NOAA_1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data were automated to provide a suitable geographic information system (GIS) data layer depicting the historical shoreline for Louisiana. These data are...

  2. Numerical prediction of shoreline adjacent to breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahadevan, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Existing mathematical models for prediction of shoreline changes in the vicinity of a breakwater were reviewed The analytical and numerical results obtained from these models have been compared Under the numerical approach, two different implicit...

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Shoreline REST Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for the U.S. and its territories, classified according to the...

  4. Digital displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...... digital reforms in Denmark and shows how citizen service is transformed from service to support. The frontline employee’s classical tasks such as casework are being displaced into educational and support-oriented tasks with less professional content. Thus an unintended effect of digitisation is blurred......In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...

  5. Sub-weekly to interannual variability of a high-energy shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Jeff E. Hansen,

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-one Global Positioning System (GPS), sub-aerial beach surveys were completed at 7 km long Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA (USA), between April 2004 and March 2009. The five-year time series contains over 1 million beach elevation measurements and documents detailed changes in beach morphology over a variety of spatial, temporal, and physical forcing scales. Results show that seasonal processes dominate at Ocean Beach, with the seasonal increase and decrease in wave height being the primary driver of shoreline change. Storm events, while capable of causing large short-term changes in the shoreline, did not singularly account for a large percentage of the overall observed change. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis shows that the first two modes account for approximately three-quarters of the variance in the data set and are represented by the seasonal onshore/offshore movement of sediment (60%) and the multi-year trend of shoreline rotation (14%). The longer-term trend of shoreline rotation appears to be related to larger-scale bathymetric change. An EOF-based decomposition technique is developed that is capable of estimating the shoreline position to within one standard deviation of the range of shoreline positions observed at most locations along the beach. The foundation of the model is the observed relationship between the temporal amplitudes of the first EOF mode and seasonally-averaged offshore wave height as well as the linear trend of shoreline rotation. This technique, while not truly predictive because of the requirement of real-time wave data, is useful because it can predict shoreline position to within reasonable confidence given the absence of field data once the model is developed at a particular site.

  6. National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Part 1, Historical Shoreline Changes and Associated Coastal Land Loss Along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.; Moore, Laura J.

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This report on states bordering the Gulf of Mexico (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) represents the first in a series that will eventually include the Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. The report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results, provides explanations regarding the historical and present trends and rates of change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. Shoreline change evaluations are based on comparing three historical shorelines with a recent shoreline derived from lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) topographic surveys. The historical shorelines generally represent the following periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s, whereas the lidar shoreline is 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using all four shorelines (1800s to lidar shoreline), whereas short-term rates of change are calculated for the most recent period (1970s to lidar shoreline). The historical rates of change presented in this report represent past conditions and therefore are not

  7. National Assessment Of Shoreline Change: Part 2, Historical Shoreline Changes And Associated Coastal Land Loss Along The U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This report on states comprising the Southeast Atlantic Coast (east Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina) represents the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico and will eventually include the Northeast Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. The report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results, provides explanations regarding the historical and present trends and rates of change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. Shoreline change evaluations are based on comparing three historical shorelines with a recent shoreline derived from lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) topographic surveys. The historical shorelines generally represent the following periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s, whereas the lidar shoreline is 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using four shorelines (1800s to lidar shoreline), whereas short-term rates of change are calculated for the most recent period (1970s to lidar shoreline). The historical rates of change presented in

  8. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics Boston coastal region from Carson Beach in South Boston to Weymouth River, including the Boston Harbor Islands (Boston_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  9. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  10. National assessment of shoreline change—Summary statistics for updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2017-07-18

    Long-term rates of shoreline change for the Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Atlantic regions of the United States have been updated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change project. Additional shoreline position data were used to compute rates where the previous rate-of-change assessment only included four shoreline positions at a given location. The long-term shoreline change rates also incorporate the proxy-datum bias correction to account for the unidirectional onshore bias of the proxy-based high water line shorelines relative to the datum-based mean high water shorelines. The calculation of uncertainty associated with the long-term average rates has also been updated to match refined methods used in other study regions of the National Assessment project. The average rates reported here have a reduced amount of uncertainty relative to those presented in the previous assessments for these two regions.

  11. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  12. Eureka Littoral Cell CRSMP Humboldt Bay Shoreline Types 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2011 Aldaron Laird walked and kayaked the entire shoreline of Humboldt Bay mapping the shoreline conditions onto 11x17 laminated fieldmaps at a scale of 1' = 200'...

  13. Monitoring Shoreline Change using Remote Sensing and GIS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: remote sensing, geographic information system (GIS), aerial photographs, shoreline change. Data from aerial photographs taken in 1981, 1992 and 2002 of the Kunduchi shoreline off the Dar es Salaam coast were integrated in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine shoreline change in that locality.

  14. Observations of shoreline-sandbar coupling on an embayed beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Bryan, K.R.; Coco, G.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a seven-year dataset (1999–2005) of shoreline and sandbar variations derived from video observations at the embayed Tairua Beach, New Zealand, to explore sandbar–shoreline coupling and to determine how this coupling is related to alongshore-averaged sandbar–shoreline separation and beach

  15. Miniaturised optical displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindele, Frank; Gaul, Frank; Kraus, Silvio; Sigloch, Susanne; Teubner, Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    The primary object presented in this contribution is the miniaturization of a displacement sensor system with the potential for high accuracy measurements and for cost-effective production in polymers. The measurement of linear displacements can be performed by different methods e.g. magnetoresistive, potentiometric, electromagnetic or inductive encoder systems. For movements in the millimeter range and above the most precise systems are based on optical methods. The displacement measurement of our sensor system uses the intensity modulation of two amplitude gratings, moving relative to each other and illuminated by a LED. To increase the system resolution and the signal quality the grating/detector combination is divided into four areas which are phase shifted to each other. The grating period is 25 μm with a geometrical accuracy below 1 μm. The amplitude gratings have been processed on a glass substrate lithographically. Applying electro-discharge machining a miniaturised optical bench for the passive alignment of the optical and the opto-electronic components has been realised. The sensor has an overall size of 6x4x3 mm3 and is designed for the future replication in one single polymer part. In combination with an electronic interpolation the sensor will be capable for a sub-micrometer accuracy.

  16. Shoreline response to seismically induced land-level changes - A case study from West Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, K.; Meilianda, E.; Walstra, D. J.; Hill, E.; Mc Adoo, B. G.; Qiu, Q.; Storms, J. E. A.; Masputri, A. S.; Mayasari, C. D.; Nasir, M.; Riandi, I.; Setiawan, A.; Templeton, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    A cross-shore morphodynamic model can be used to simulate shoreline recovery after extreme events, as shown here for the coast of West Aceh, Indonesia, a region largely affected by the December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and ensuing Indian Ocean tsunami. Subsidence of 50-100 cm and tsunami scouring during the 2004 event caused the complete destruction of the beach and the landward displacement of the western Acehnese coast by an average of 110 m. Modeled post-seismic land elevation changes as a result of afterslip and viscoelastic mantle relaxation, indicate rapid uplift of 4.4 cm/year in the year following the earthquake, but more moderate uplift rates of 1.4 cm/year since mid-2006. Comparing a series of topographic surveys and satellite images, we reconstruct the build-up of a new beach ridge along a 10 km long stretch of coastline in the years following the event. We then use the cross-shore model UNIBEST-TC developed for a wave-dominated sandy shoreline to determine the controlling factors of shoreline recovery. Input parameters include bathymetric data measured in 2015, grain size characteristics of offshore sediment samples, modeled wave data computed in 7m water depth and tidal elevation data from a nearby tide gauge station. After establishing a cross-shore profile in equilibrium with the prevailing hydrodynamic conditions, we simulate post-seismic land level changes for up to 10 years and compare to the observed coastal development. Our data indicates that the recovery of the Western Acehnese shoreline after the 2004 event was incomplete with the shoreline stabilizing 40-80 meter landward of its pre-2004 tsunami position. Measured variability in shoreline position in the order of a few tens of meters since 2009 can be attributed to seasonal wave climate variability related to the monsoon cycle. The effect of postseismic uplift on shoreline position is small and in the order of only a few meters over 10 years. In the near future, continuing post

  17. Monitoring shoreline and topographic changes using remotely sensed data: Example from east coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jinah; Choi, Jong-Kuk; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Park, Chanhong

    2014-05-01

    Sandy beaches are important habitats for coastal organisms and act as buffer zones during coastal disasters. Along the eastern coast of Korea, most of the coastal zone consists of sandy beaches. However, beach erosion has accelerated in recent years. In this study, we analyzed topographic and shoreline changes in Uljin County on the east coast of Korea. We used remotely sensed data collected from 1971 to 2009, airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data for 2008 and 2010, and terrestrial LiDAR data for 2008 and 2009. Three coastal locations were studied: the area around a nuclear power plant, the area around a stream, and the area around the East Sea Research Institute (ESRI), a branch of the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST). Analysis of shoreline changes showed the occurrence of sand deposition, resulting in shoreline movement toward the nuclear power plant by a maximum of 120 m. Deposition also occurred near ESRI, causing shoreline movement of a maximum of 45 m from 1971 to 2003; however, a maximum of 44 m erosion was detected from 2003 to 2009. Topographic changes were determined using the airborne LiDAR data and indicated approximately 1 m of sand deposition in the area around the nuclear power plant. In the area around the stream, both deposition and erosion were found, whereas around the ESRI region, erosion of approximately 3 m was identified. The analysis of terrestrial LiDAR data showed trends in shoreline change that were similar to those obtained from airborne LiDAR. Changes in the shoreline near the stream included sedimentation of approximately 7 m between 2008 and 2009, which was identified by terrestrial LiDAR data. The shoreline around ESRI changed by approximately 15 m owing to erosion. Our results suggest that construction of the nuclear power plant caused topographic and shoreline changes in our study area. Such shoreline changes will influence coastal management and preservation policy, and thus continuous monitoring

  18. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    no significantly increasing trend prior to displacement; and the crime rate of workers who will be displaced is not significantly higher than the crime rate of workers who will not be displaced. In contrast, displaced workers’ probability to commit any crime increases by 0.52 percentage points in the year of job...

  19. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  20. Modeling of Titan's surface processes constrained by shoreline fractal analysis and comparison with terrestrial analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Byrne, S.

    2011-12-01

    Lacustrine features have been observed in both the north and south polar regions of Titan, by multiple instruments onboard the NASA Cassini orbiter, including the Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) instrument, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS). Although the RADAR and Infrared data have provided a number of lines of evidence for these features being potential lakes, their formation mechanism is currently not well understood. Using Cassini RADAR data, we have performed a statistical analysis of the shorelines of Titan's north polar lakes and found them to be closely approximated by fractal shapes, a property also demonstrated by terrestrial lake shorelines. We calculated the fractal dimensions of the shorelines via two methods: the divider/ruler method and the box-counting method, at length scales of (1-10) km and found them to average 1.27 and 1.32, respectively. The inferred power-spectral exponent of Titan's topography (β) was found to be ≤ 2, which is lower than the values obtained from the global topography of the Earth or Venus. In order to interpret the fractal dimensions of Titan's shorelines in terms of the surficial processes at work, we repeated the same fractal analysis with terrestrial analogues using C-band radar backscatter data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). We calculated and compared statistical parameters including fractal dimension, shoreline development index and a linearity index and found different lake generation mechanisms on the Earth produce shorelines with overlapping ranges of these statistical parameters. On the basis of our statistical analyses, we concluded there is no one mechanism or set of mechanisms that can be deduced to be responsible for forming the depressions enclosing the lakes on Titan. Also, irrespective of the surface process responsible for their initial formation, these Titanian lake shorelines, like their terrestrial counterparts, could have

  1. National assessment of shoreline change: Historical shoreline change in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Romine, Bradley M.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Sandy beaches of the United States are some of the most popular tourist and recreational destinations. Coastal property constitutes some of the most valuable real estate in the country. Beaches are an ephemeral environment between water and land with unique and fragile natural ecosystems that have evolved in equilibrium with the ever-changing winds, waves, and water levels. Beachfront lands are the site of intense residential and commercial development even though they are highly vulnerable to several natural hazards, including marine inundation, flooding and drainage problems, effects of storms, sea-level rise, and coastal erosion. Because the U.S. population continues to shift toward the coast where valuable coastal property is vulnerable to erosion, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a national assessment of coastal change. One aspect of this effort, the National Assessment of Shoreline Change, uses shoreline position as a proxy for coastal change because shoreline position is one of the most commonly monitored indicators of environmental change (for example, Fletcher, 1992; Dolan and others, 1991; Douglas and others, 1998; Galgano and others, 1998). Additionally, the National Research Council (1990) recommended the use of historical shoreline analysis in the absence of a widely accepted model of shoreline change.

  2. Validation assessment of shoreline extraction on medium resolution satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Syaifulnizam Abd; Mustapha, Norwati; Sulaiman, Md Nasir; Husin, Nor Azura; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring coastal zones helps provide information about the conditions of the coastal zones, such as erosion or accretion. Moreover, monitoring the shorelines can help measure the severity of such conditions. Such measurement can be performed accurately by using Earth observation satellite images rather than by using traditional ground survey. To date, shorelines can be extracted from satellite images with a high degree of accuracy by using satellite image classification techniques based on machine learning to identify the land and water classes of the shorelines. In this study, the researchers validated the results of extracted shorelines of 11 classifiers using a reference shoreline provided by the local authority. Specifically, the validation assessment was performed to examine the difference between the extracted shorelines and the reference shorelines. The research findings showed that the SVM Linear was the most effective image classification technique, as evidenced from the lowest mean distance between the extracted shoreline and the reference shoreline. Furthermore, the findings showed that the accuracy of the extracted shoreline was not directly proportional to the accuracy of the image classification.

  3. Preliminary study of soil liquefaction hazard at Terengganu shoreline, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, H.; Suhatril, M.; Hashim, R.

    2017-06-01

    Terengganu is a shoreline state located in Peninsular Malaysia which is a growing hub for port industries and tourism centre. The northern part offers pristine settings of a relax beach areas whereas the southern part are observed to be a growing centre for development. The serious erosion on soil deposit along the beach line presents vulnerable soil condition to soil liquefaction consists of sandy with low plasticity and shallow ground water. Moreover, local earthquake from nearby fault have present significant tremors over the past few years which need to be considered in the land usage or future development in catering the seismic loading. Liquefaction analysis based on field standard penetration of soil is applied on 546 boreholes scattered along the shoreline areas ranging 244 km of shoreline stretch. Based on simplified approach, it is found that more than 70% of the studied areas pose high liquefaction potential since there are saturated loose sand and silt deposits layer ranges at depth 3 m and up to 20 m. The presence of clay deposits and hard stratum at the remaining 30% of the studied areas shows good resistance to soil liquefaction hence making the area less significant to liquefaction hazard. Result indicates that liquefaction improving technique is advisable in future development of shoreline areas of Terengganu state.

  4. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  5. Extended Kalman Filter framework for forecasting shoreline evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2012-01-01

    A shoreline change model incorporating both long- and short-term evolution is integrated into a data assimilation framework that uses sparse observations to generate an updated forecast of shoreline position and to estimate unobserved geophysical variables and model parameters. Application of the assimilation algorithm provides quantitative statistical estimates of combined model-data forecast uncertainty which is crucial for developing hazard vulnerability assessments, evaluation of prediction skill, and identifying future data collection needs. Significant attention is given to the estimation of four non-observable parameter values and separating two scales of shoreline evolution using only one observable morphological quantity (i.e. shoreline position).

  6. Vector shorelines and associated shoreline change rates derived from Lidar and aerial imagery for Dauphin Island, Alabama: 1940-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rachel; Nelson, Paul R.; Long, Joseph W.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2017-01-01

    In support of studies and assessments of barrier island evolution in the Gulf of Mexico, rates of shoreline change for Dauphin Island, Alabama, were calculated using two different shoreline proxy datasets with a total temporal span of 75 years.  Mean High Water line (MHW) shorelines were generated from 14 lidar datasets from 1998 to 2014, and Wet Dry Line (WDL) shorelines were digitized from ten sets of georeferenced aerial images from 1940 to 2015. Rates of change for the open-ocean (south-facing) and back-barrier (north-facing) coast were calculated for three groups of shorelines:  MHW (lidar), WDL (aerial) and MHW and WDL shorelines combined. Calculations were performed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.3, an ArcGIS extension developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Thieler and others, 2009).  Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Ergul, Ayhan, 2009, Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0—An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1278, https://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/DSAS/version4/.

  7. Comparing mean high water and high water line shorelines: Should prosy-datum offsets be incorporated into shoreline change analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L.J.; Ruggiero, P.; List, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    More than one type of shoreline indicator can be used in shoreline change analyses, and quantifying the effects of this practice on the resulting shoreline change rates is important. Comparison of three high water line (proxy-based) shorelines and a mean high water intercept (datum-based) shoreline collected from simultaneous aerial photographic and lidar surveys of a relatively steep reflective beach (tan ?? = 0.07), which experiences a moderately energetic wave climate (annual average Hs = 1.2 m), reveals an average horizontal offset of 18.8 m between the two types of shoreline indicators. Vertical offsets are also substantial and are correlated with foreshore beach slope and corresponding variations in wave runup. Incorporating the average horizontal offset into both a short-term, endpoint shoreline change analysis and a long-term, linear regression analysis causes rates to be shifted an average of -0.5 m/y and -0.1 m/y, respectively. The rate shift increases with increasing horizontal offset and decreasing measurement intervals and, depending on the rapidity of shoreline change rates, is responsible for varying degrees of analysis error. Our results demonstrate that under many circumstances, the error attributable to proxy-datum offsets is small relative to shoreline change rates and thus not important. Furthermore, we find that when the error associated with proxy-datum offsets is large enough to be important, the shoreline change rates themselves are not likely to be significant. A total water level model reveals that the high water line digitized by three independent coastal labs for this study was generated by a combination of large waves and a high tide several days before the collection of aerial photography. This illustrates the complexity of the high water line as a shoreline indicator and calls into question traditional definitions, which consider the high water line a wetted bound or "marks left by the previous high tide.".

  8. Spatial variability in shoreline change along the Atlantic coast of Delaware: Influence of the geologic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Maria Grace

    documented in the geologic framework. Geostatistical analyses of shoreline-change data revealed spatial dependence up to an alongshore range of 8 to 11 km, which is equivalent to the large geologic transitions in the shoreface (e.g., Pleistocene versus Holocene, lagoonal sediments versus relict shorelines). Thus, the results presented here can be used by coastal managers, scientists, and engineers to provide a scientific basis for incorporating geologic data into the identification of future erosion hazard areas and in other hazard mitigation activities.

  9. Shorelines extracted from Landsat imagery: Cat Island, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-01-01

    The deployment of Landsat and other earth-observing satellites within the last few decades has provided an opportunity to observe barrier islands at frequent intervals, often many times a year. A variable of persistent interest as a metric for coastal erosion or change is the shoreline. Shorelines derived from imagery have value to resolve coastal changes. This data release includes shoreline positions extracted from Landsat satellite imagery. The shorelines are released in shapefiles with both line and polygon feature types to support a variety of user needs. The data (lines or polygons) are released as individual shapefiles for each sample date and are also released as combined shapefiles with all dates, again to provide users of these data with more options for selecting data of interest. The methods used to identify the shorelines are presented in Guy (2015).

  10. Shoreline changes and Coastal Flooding impacts: South Gujarat coast (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    South Gujarat coast (India) is experiencing increased coastal inundation and erosion caused by sea-level rise affecting the population, infrastructure, and environment. The area falls under low elevation coastal zone (LEZ) and its topography of the area is also making coast highly susceptible to flooding, especially at high tides and during the rainy season. As part of studies on shoreline changes field trip carried on the coastal taluka's of South Gujarat coast i.e. Surat, Navsari and Valsad shows various temporal changes is taking place at coastal belt. There are ample of studies on coastal dynamics and impacts. The study focus on spatial temporal analysis shows the vulnerable zones covering various physical elements at risk. These coastal areas are attractive in nature for all kind of economic development and growth because of availability of the water & fertile land for house hold use, fishing and transportation. On the contrary, South Gujarat coast being tectonically active; makes this region high vulnerable for any kind of infrastructure development. The region had also witnessed loss of life and property, disruptions to transport & power and incidences of epidemics during the floods of 2006 in Surat. Coastal flooding would, under these scenarios, threaten region that are home of 370,000 approx (Census, 2011) people in seven coastal taluka's of Surat, Navsari and Valsad district. Among the people residing in the region, the most vulnerable communities are fishermen, farmer and industrial labours. The wide range of infrastructure such as roads, hospitals, schools, power plants, industries and port will also be at risk. Shoreline changes are inevitably changing the characteristics of south Gujarat coast; practices and policies should be put in place to mitigate the potentially adverse impacts on environment and human settlements. Key words: sea level rise, LEZ, vulnerable, erosion, inundation, spatial temporal analysis, landuse changes.

  11. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  12. NOAA's Shoreline Survey Maps - Raster NOAA-NOS Shoreline Survey Manuscripts that define the shoreline and alongshore natural and man-made features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOS coastal survey maps (often called t-sheet or tp-sheet maps) are special use planimetric or topographic maps that precisely define the shoreline and alongshore...

  13. UAV survey of a Thyrrenian micro-tidal beach for shoreline evolution update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Pugliano, Giovanni; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Mucerino, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Coastal geomorphology requires increasingly accurate topographic information of the beach systems to perform reliable simulation of coastal erosion, flooding phenomena, and coastal vulnerability assessment. Among the range of terrestrial and aerial methods available to produce such a dataset, this study tests the utility of low-altitude aerial imageries collected by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The image-based approach was selected whilst searching for a rapid, inexpensive, and highly automated method, able to produce 3D information from unstructured aerial images. In particular, it was used to generate a high-resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) of the micro-tidal beach of Serapo - Gaeta (LT) in order to obtain recent update of erosional/accretional trends already established through historical shoreline evolution. A UAV exacopter (fig. 1a) was used, weighing about 2500g, carrying on board a GPS and multi-directional accelerometer to ensure a recovery of the beach features (fig. 1b) through a sweep with constant speed, direction and altitude. The on-board camera was a Canon 16M pixels, with fixed and constant focal takeoff in order to perform the 3D cloud points. Six adjacent strips were performed for the survey realization with pictures taken every second in sequence, in order to allow a minimum 80% overlap. A direct on site survey was also carried out with a DGPS for the placement of GPS markers and the geo-referencing of the final product (fig. 1c). Each flight with constant speed, direction and altitude recorded from 500 to 800 shots. The height of flight was dictated by the scale of the final report, an altitude of 100m was used for the beach survey. The topographic survey on the ground for the placement of the control points was performed with the Trimble R6 DGPS in RTK mode. The long-term shoreline evolution was obtained by a sixty-year historical shoreline time-series, through the analysis of a number of aerial photographs dating from 1954 to 2013. The

  14. Massachusetts Shoreline Change Mapping and Analysis Project, 2013 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Smith, Theresa L.; Knisel, Julia M.; Sampson, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Information on rates and trends of shoreline change can be used to improve the understanding of the underlying causes and potential effects of coastal erosion on coastal populations and infrastructure and can support informed coastal management decisions. In this report, we summarize the changes in the historical positions of the shoreline of the Massachusetts coast for the 165 years from 1844 through 2009. The study area includes the Massachusetts coastal region from Salisbury to Westport, including Cape Cod, as well as Martha’s Vineyard, Nantucket, and the Elizabeth Islands. New statewide shoreline data were developed for approximately 1,804 kilometers (1,121 miles) of shoreline using color aerial orthoimagery from 2008 and 2009 and topographic lidar from 2007. The shoreline data were integrated with existing historical shoreline data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) to compute long- (about 150 years) and short-term (about 30 years) rates of shoreline change. A linear regression method was used to calculate long- and short-term rates of shoreline change at 26,510 transects along the Massachusetts coast. In locations where shoreline data were insufficient to use the linear regression method, short-term rates were calculated using an end-point method. Long-term rates of shoreline change are calculated with (LTw) and without (LTwo) shorelines from the 1970s and 1994 to examine the effect of removing these data on measured rates of change. Regionally averaged rates are used to assess the general characteristics of the two-rate computations, and we find that (1) the rates of change for both LTw and LTwo are essentially the same; (2) including more data slightly reduces the uncertainty of the rate, which is expected as the number of shorelines increases; and (3) the data for the shorelines from the 1970s and 1994 are not outliers with respect to the long-term trend. These findings are true for regional

  15. Integrating data types to enhance shoreline change assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J.; Henderson, R.; Plant, N. G.; Nelson, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Shorelines represent the variable boundary between terrestrial and marine environments. Assessment of geographic and temporal variability in shoreline position and related variability in shoreline change rates are an important part of studies and applications related to impacts from sea-level rise and storms. The results from these assessments are used to quantify future ecosystem services and coastal resilience and guide selection of appropriate coastal restoration and protection designs. But existing assessments typically fail to incorporate all available shoreline observations because they are derived from multiple data types and have different or unknown biases and uncertainties. Shoreline-change research and assessments often focus on either the long-term trajectory using sparse data over multiple decades or shorter-term evolution using data collected more frequently but over a shorter period of time. The combination of data collected with significantly different temporal resolution is not often considered. Also, differences in the definition of the shoreline metric itself can occur, whether using a single or multiple data source(s), due to variation the signal being detected in the data (e.g. instantaneous land/water interface, swash zone, wrack line, or topographic contours). Previous studies have not explored whether more robust shoreline change assessments are possible if all available data are utilized and all uncertainties are considered. In this study, we test the hypothesis that incorporating all available shoreline data will lead to both improved historical assessments and enhance the predictive capability of shoreline-change forecasts. Using over 250 observations of shoreline position at Dauphin Island, Alabama over the last century, we compare shoreline-change rates derived from individual data sources (airborne lidar, satellite, aerial photographs) with an assessment using the combination of all available data. Biases or simple uncertainties in the

  16. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  17. XY displacement device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerens, W.C.; Laham, C.D.; Holman, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    An XY-displacement device (1) with a four-fold symmetry comprises a reference frame (10); an object mount (20) for holding an object (22) to be displaced; an X-manipulator (100) coupled between the reference frame (10) and the object mount (20), which provides a rigid coupling between the object

  18. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Glad, Aslaug Clemmensen; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup

    2017-01-01

    . During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well......-preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal...... imprints is related to either the formation of thin mud layers, formed during a period of calm water when winds blew offshore for a longer period, or to the growth of bacterial mats. The orientation of the wave-formed bedforms indicates a local palaeoshoreline trending NE–SW and facing a large ocean...

  19. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from the North Shore B coastal region from the Annisquam River in Gloucester to the west side of Deer Island in Boston Harbor (NorthShoreB_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  20. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from the Outer Cape Cod coastal region from Long Point in Provincetown to Monomoy Island, Massachusetts (OuterCapeCod_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  1. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from the North Shore A coastal region from North Salisbury at the New Hampshire border to the Annisquam River in Gloucester (NorthShoreA_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  2. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from within the Nantucket coastal region including the Nantucket Sound and Atlantic Ocean-facing coasts of Nantucket, Muskeget and Tuckernuck Islands (Nantucket_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  3. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from the Buzzards Bay coastal region of Massachusetts from Nobska Point in Woods Hole to Westport at the Rhode Island border (BuzzardsBay_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  4. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from the Elizabeth Islands coastal region of Massachusetts from Nonamesset Island southwest of Woods Hole to Cuttyhunk Island north of Martha's Vineyard (ElizabethIslands_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  5. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from Cape Cod Bay coastal region from the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich to Long Point in Provincetown (CapeCodBay_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  6. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from the Martha's Vineyard coastal region including Vineyard Sound, Nantucket Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean-facing coasts of Martha's Vineyard and Nomans Land (MarthasVineyard_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  7. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from the South Shore coastal region from Hewitts Cove in Hingham to the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich (SouthShore_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  8. Uncertainty table for lidar-derived shorelines used when calculating rates in the Digital Shoreline Analysis System software for the Cape Cod region from Provincetown to the southern end of Monomoy Island, Massachusetts (OuterCapeCod_shorelines_uncertainty.dbf)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  9. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics for the South Shore coastal region from Hewitts Cove in Hingham to the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  10. Shorelines used to calculate shoreline change statistics from the South Cape Cod coastal region of Massachusetts from Stage Harbor Light in Chatham to Nobska Point in Woods Hole (SouthCapeCod_shorelines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  11. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) Version 4.0 - An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Zichichi, Jessica L.; Ergul, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 is a software extension to ESRI ArcGIS v.9.2 and above that enables a user to calculate shoreline rate-of-change statistics from multiple historic shoreline positions. A user-friendly interface of simple buttons and menus guides the user through the major steps of shoreline change analysis. Components of the extension and user guide include (1) instruction on the proper way to define a reference baseline for measurements, (2) automated and manual generation of measurement transects and metadata based on user-specified parameters, and (3) output of calculated rates of shoreline change and other statistical information. DSAS computes shoreline rates of change using four different methods: (1) endpoint rate, (2) simple linear regression, (3) weighted linear regression, and (4) least median of squares. The standard error, correlation coefficient, and confidence interval are also computed for the simple and weighted linear-regression methods. The results of all rate calculations are output to a table that can be linked to the transect file by a common attribute field. DSAS is intended to facilitate the shoreline change-calculation process and to provide rate-of-change information and the statistical data necessary to establish the reliability of the calculated results. The software is also suitable for any generic application that calculates positional change over time, such as assessing rates of change of glacier limits in sequential aerial photos, river edge boundaries, land-cover changes, and so on.

  12. Medium-term shoreline evolution of the mediterranean coast of Andalusia (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Messina, Enrica; Anfuso, Giorgio; Suffo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    to Garrucha harbor, with values of +2 m/y. Erosion rates ranged from -0.4 m/y (at Playa Casarones, Rubite) and -0.7 m/y (at Playa Castillos de Baños, Granada) to c. -2 m/y (at Punta de los Hornicos, Almeria). The analysis of coastline evolution revealed as the distribution of erosion areas is strictly related to the incorrect design of coastal structures and their negative effects on downdrift areas. Obtained results clearly evidenced as, in order to evaluate the efficiency of emplaced coastal defense structures, a continuous coastal evolution monitoring plan should be implemented. Keywords: coast, shoreline, coastal erosion, rate-of-change, aerial photographs.

  13. Rising waters, displaced lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Brickle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Pakistan and Colombia have relatively advanced disaster management frameworks, they were unprepared and ill-equipped to assist and protect people displaced by recent floods.

  14. Alabama ESI: ESI (Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Alabama, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  15. Louisiana ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Louisiana classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  16. Estuarine shoreline and sandline change model skill and predicted probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E. L.; Passeri, Davina; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment was created to calibrate and test probability models of barrier island estuarine shoreline and sandline change for study areas in Virginia, Maryland, and New Jersey. The models examined the influence of hydrologic and physical variables related to long-term and event-driven (Hurricane Sandy) estuarine back-barrier shoreline and overwash (sandline) change. Input variables were constructed into a Bayesian Network (BN) using Netica. To evaluate the ability of the BN to reproduce the observations used to train the model, the skill, log likelihood ratio and probability predictions were utilized. These data are the probability and skill metrics for all four models: the long-term (LT) back-barrier shoreline change, event-driven (HS) back-barrier shoreline change, long-term (LT) sandline change, and event-driven (HS) sandline change.

  17. 2014 Vectorized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines were derived from a U.S. Geological Survey topographic lidar survey that was conducted on January 16-18, 2014 over Breton Island, Louisiana and released...

  18. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Lower Derby Lake shoreline expansion project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Project Completion Report is to document the completion of the Lower Derby Lake Shoreline Expansion Project and summarize project highlights....

  19. 2008 Digitized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines were derived from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center high-resolution orthorectified images collected on...

  20. Estuarine Back-barrier Shoreline and Beach Sandline Change Model Skill and Predicted Probabilities: Event-driven backshore shoreline change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment was created to calibrate and test probability models of barrier island estuarine shoreline...

  1. Some Considerations on Horizontal Displacement and Horizontal Displacement Coefficient B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining-induced deformations of the ground surface and within the rock mass may pose danger not only for surface constructions but also for underground objects (e.g., tunnels, underground storages, garages, diverse types of pipelines, electric cables, etc. For a proper evaluation of hazard for surface and underground objects, such parameters as horizontal displacement and horizontal deformations, especially their maximum values, are of crucial importance. The paper is an attempt at a critical review of hitherto accomplished studies and state of the art of predicting horizontal displacement u, in particular the coefficient B, whose value allows determination of the value of maximum displacement if the value of maximum slope is known, or the value of maximum deformation if the value of maximum trough slope is recognized. Since the geodesic observations of fully developed subsidence troughs suggest that the value of the coefficient depends on the depth H, radius of main influences range r and properties of overburden rock, in particular the occurrence of sub-eras Paleogene and Neogene layers (old name: Quaternary and Tertiary with low strength parameters, therefore a formula is provided in the present paper allowing for the estimation of the influence of those factors on the value of coefficient B.

  2. Digital shoreline analysis system-based change detection along the highly eroding Krishna-Godavari delta front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepalli, Akhil; Kakani, Nageswara Rao; James, David B.; Richardson, Mark A.

    2017-07-01

    Coastal regions are highly vulnerable to rising sea levels due to global warming. Previous Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) predictions of 26 to 82 cm global sea level rise are now considered conservative. Subsequent investigations predict much higher levels which would displace 10% of the world's population living less than 10 m above sea level. Remote sensing and GIS technologies form the mainstay of models on coastal retreat and inundation to future sea-level rise. This study estimates the varying trends along the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) delta region. The rate of shoreline shift along the 330-km long K-G delta coast was estimated using satellite images between 1977 and 2008. With reference to a selected baseline from along an inland position, end point rate and net shoreline movement were calculated using a GIS-based digital shoreline analysis system. The results indicated a net loss of about 42.1 km2 area during this 31-year period, which is in agreement with previous literature. Considering the nature of landforms and EPR, the future hazard line (or coastline) is predicted for the area; the predication indicates a net erosion of about 57.6 km2 along the K-G delta coast by 2050 AD.

  3. Application of Low-Cost Fixed-Wing UAV for Inland Lakes Shoreline Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Tomasz; Popielarczyk, Dariusz; Kosecki, Rafał

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important factors that influences the performance of geomorphologic parameters on urban lakes is the water level. It fluctuates periodically, causing shoreline changes. It is especially significant for typical environmental studies like bathymetric surveys, morphometric parameters calculation, sediment depth changes, thermal structure, water quality monitoring, etc. In most reservoirs, it can be obtained from digitized historical maps or plans or directly measured using the instruments such as: geodetic total station, GNSS receivers, UAV with different sensors, satellite and aerial photos, terrestrial and airborne light detection and ranging, or others. Today one of the most popular measuring platforms, increasingly applied in many applications is UAV. Unmanned aerial system can be a cheap, easy to use, on-demand technology for gathering remote sensing data. Our study presents a reliable methodology for shallow lake shoreline investigation with the use of a low-cost fixed-wing UAV system. The research was implemented on a small, eutrophic urban inland reservoir located in the northern part of Poland—Lake Suskie. The geodetic TS, and RTK/GNSS measurements, hydroacoustic soundings and experimental aerial mapping were conducted by the authors in 2012-2015. The article specifically describes the UAV system used for experimental measurements, the obtained results and the accuracy analysis. Final conclusions demonstrate that even a low-cost fixed-wing UAV can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying a shallow lake shoreline and generate valuable geoinformation data collected definitely faster than when traditional geodetic methods are employed.

  4. Shoreline resilience to individual storms and storm clusters on a meso-macrotidal barred beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angnuureng, Donatus Bapentire; Almar, Rafael; Senechal, Nadia; Castelle, Bruno; Addo, Kwasi Appeaning; Marieu, Vincent; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the impact of individual storms and storm clusters on shoreline recovery for the meso-to macrotidal, barred Biscarrosse beach in SW France, using 6 years of daily video observations. While the study area experienced 60 storms during the 6-year study period, only 36 storms were analysed due to gaps in the video data. Based on the 36 individual storms and 13 storm clusters analysed, our results show that clustering impact is cumulatively weak and shoreline retreat is governed by the first storms in clusters, while the impact of subsequent events is less pronounced. The average post-storm beach recovery period at this site is 9 days, consistent with observations at other beaches. Apart from the dominant effect of present storm conditions, shoreline dynamics are also significantly affected by previous storm influence, while recovery is strongly modulated by tidal range and the bar location. Our results reveal that not only is the storm energy important but also the frequency of recurrence (storms result in greater retreat when time intervals between them are longer), which suggests an interaction between short storm events and longer-term evolution.

  5. Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: Evidence for cumulative and threshold effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, Megan N.; Raymond, Wendel W.; McBride, Aundrea N.; Toft, Jason D.; Cordell, Jeffery R.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Heerhartz, Sarah M.; Berry, Helen D.

    2016-06-01

    Shoreline armoring is widespread in many parts of the protected inland waters of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A, but impacts on physical and biological features of local nearshore ecosystems have only recently begun to be documented. Armoring marine shorelines can alter natural processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales; some, such as starving the beach of sediments by blocking input from upland bluffs may take decades to become visible, while others such as placement loss of armoring construction are immediate. We quantified a range of geomorphic and biological parameters at paired, nearby armored and unarmored beaches throughout the inland waters of Washington State to test what conditions and parameters are associated with armoring. We gathered identical datasets at a total of 65 pairs of beaches: 6 in South Puget Sound, 23 in Central Puget Sound, and 36 pairs North of Puget Sound proper. At this broad scale, demonstrating differences attributable to armoring is challenging given the high natural variability in measured parameters among beaches and regions. However, we found that armoring was consistently associated with reductions in beach width, riparian vegetation, numbers of accumulated logs, and amounts and types of beach wrack and associated invertebrates. Armoring-related patterns at lower beach elevations (further vertically from armoring) were progressively harder to detect. For some parameters, such as accumulated logs, there was a distinct threshold in armoring elevation that was associated with increased impacts. This large dataset for the first time allowed us to identify cumulative impacts that appear when increasing proportions of shorelines are armored. At large spatial and temporal scales, armoring much of a sediment drift cell may result in reduction of the finer grain-size fractions on beaches, including those used by spawning forage fish. Overall we have shown that local impacts of shoreline armoring can scale-up to have cumulative and

  6. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  7. Bioremediation process on Brazil shoreline. Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Anabela P; Triguis, Jorge A

    2007-11-01

    to be more susceptible to microbial attack. Data from bioremediation unit shows a bigger reduction of the saturated fraction, followed by some smaller reduction of aromatic fractions, compensated by a relative increase from polar compounds (NSO). n-C17/pristane, n-C18/ fitane and pristane/fitane rates show constant values for the unity control, different from bioremediation samples which have a significant reduction, especially on subsurface areas, where a strong fall in the rates, seen to be reduced to zero over twenty days, had occurred during the first ten days. However, sample surfaces are reduced to zero in thirty days of experiments, proving that biodegradation is better on subsurfaces. Gaseous chromatography/mass spectrometry (CG/MS) analysis shows constant values to cyclic biomarker rates and aromatic compounds, suggesting that the biodegradation process is not strong enough to reduce these composites. Microbial analysis shows a reduction on heterotrophic (total bacteria) number from control unit, probably because the bacteria uses the spill oil like carbon source and energy. However, the number increases on bioremediation unit, because it uses NPK like a biostimulator. The hydrocarbonoclastic number isn't enough on the first moment, but it's detected after 30 days and quantified in all units, showing big values especially in bioremediation. Toxicity tests confirm that NPK fertilizer does not intoxicate the shoreline during the application of the bioremediation technique. Some nutrient concentration shows high values of ammonium and phosphate per bioremediation unit, reducing by the end of the experiment. Results reached the goal, finding a proper nutrient (NPK fertilizer) to stimulate the biodegradation process, growing bacteria responsible for reducing impact-contaminated coast ambient by oil spills. Chemical analysis of oil shows a reduction in the saturated fraction with a relative enrichment in polar composites (NSO) and the aromatic fraction from oil

  8. Forced Displacement and Refugee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutinwa: Forced Displacement and Refugee Rights in the Great Lakes 1 3 with the new problems associated with refugees, such as those outlined above. An effective system for refugee protection must be holistic and address the refugee problem at the levels of pre- vention, response and solution. At the level of prevention, ...

  9. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  10. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis PDMC 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ms... infographic /iraq_cccm_idp_settlement_status_map_ 16_July_2015 xxii DTM ROUND XXII JUNE 2015 xxiii REACH, Vulnerability, Needs and Intentions of

  11. Coupling centennial-scale shoreline change to sea-level rise and coastal morphology in the Gulf of Mexico using a Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Robert Thieler, E.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2016-05-01

    Predictions of coastal evolution driven by episodic and persistent processes associated with storms and relative sea-level rise (SLR) are required to test our understanding, evaluate our predictive capability, and to provide guidance for coastal management decisions. Previous work demonstrated that the spatial variability of long-term shoreline change can be predicted using observed SLR rates, tide range, wave height, coastal slope, and a characterization of the geomorphic setting. The shoreline is not sufficient to indicate which processes are important in causing shoreline change, such as overwash that depends on coastal dune elevations. Predicting dune height is intrinsically important to assess future storm vulnerability. Here, we enhance shoreline-change predictions by including dune height as a variable in a statistical modeling approach. Dune height can also be used as an input variable, but it does not improve the shoreline-change prediction skill. Dune-height input does help to reduce prediction uncertainty. That is, by including dune height, the prediction is more precise but not more accurate. Comparing hindcast evaluations, better predictive skill was found when predicting dune height (0.8) compared with shoreline change (0.6). The skill depends on the level of detail of the model and we identify an optimized model that has high skill and minimal overfitting. The predictive model can be implemented with a range of forecast scenarios, and we illustrate the impacts of a higher future sea-level. This scenario shows that the shoreline change becomes increasingly erosional and more uncertain. Predicted dune heights are lower and the dune height uncertainty decreases.

  12. Coupling centennial-scale shoreline change to sea-level rise and coastal morphology in the Gulf of Mexico using a Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Predictions of coastal evolution driven by episodic and persistent processes associated with storms and relative sea-level rise (SLR) are required to test our understanding, evaluate our predictive capability, and to provide guidance for coastal management decisions. Previous work demonstrated that the spatial variability of long-term shoreline change can be predicted using observed SLR rates, tide range, wave height, coastal slope, and a characterization of the geomorphic setting. The shoreline is not suf- ficient to indicate which processes are important in causing shoreline change, such as overwash that depends on coastal dune elevations. Predicting dune height is intrinsically important to assess future storm vulnerability. Here, we enhance shoreline-change predictions by including dune height as a vari- able in a statistical modeling approach. Dune height can also be used as an input variable, but it does not improve the shoreline-change prediction skill. Dune-height input does help to reduce prediction uncer- tainty. That is, by including dune height, the prediction is more precise but not more accurate. Comparing hindcast evaluations, better predictive skill was found when predicting dune height (0.8) compared with shoreline change (0.6). The skill depends on the level of detail of the model and we identify an optimized model that has high skill and minimal overfitting. The predictive model can be implemented with a range of forecast scenarios, and we illustrate the impacts of a higher future sea-level. This scenario shows that the shoreline change becomes increasingly erosional and more uncertain. Predicted dune heights are lower and the dune height uncertainty decreases.

  13. Permeability of displaced fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Christian; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Flow along fractures or in fissured systems becomes increasingly important in the context of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), shale gas recovery or nuclear waste deposit. Commonly, the permeability of fractures is approximated using the Hagen-Poiseuille solution of Navier Stokes equation. Furthermore, the flow in fractures is assumed to be laminar flow between two parallel plates and the cubic law for calculating the velocity field is applied. It is a well-known fact, that fracture flow is strongly influenced by the fracture surface roughness and the shear displacement along the fracture plane. Therefore, a numerical approach was developed which calculates the flow pattern within a fracture-matrix system. The flow in the fracture is described by a free fluid flow and the flow in the matrix is assumed to be laminar and therefore validates Darcy's law. The presented approach can be applied for artificially generated fractures or real fractures measured by surface scanning. Artificial fracture surfaces are generated using the power spectral density of the surface height random process with a spectral exponent to define roughness. For calculating the permeability of such fracture-matrix systems the mean fracture aperture, the shear displacement and the surface roughness are considered by use of a 3D numerical simulator. By use of this approach correlation between shear displacement and mean aperture, shear displacement and permeability, as well as surface roughness and permeability can be obtained. Furthermore, the intrinsic measured permeability presents a combination of matrix and fracture permeability. The presented approach allows the separation and quantification of the absolute magnitudes of the matrix and the fracture permeability and the permeability of displaced fractures can be calculated. The numerical approach which is a 3D numerical simulation of the fracture-matrix system can be applied for artificial as well as real systems.

  14. Ancient shoreline reconstruction at a Maritime Maya Port in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaijel, Roy; Goodman, Beverly; Glover, Jeffrey; Rissolo, Dominique; Beddows, Patricia; Carter, Alice; Smith, Derek; Ben Avraham, Zvi

    2017-04-01

    to relative sea-level curves published for the region. By looking at the reconstructed ancient shoreline maps, we emphasis the need of site-specific shoreline reconstruction rather than relying solely on moving the sea level up or down relative to the modern bathymetry and topography. Continued analysis of results from the research, and future research activities, may make it possible to recognize hurricane proxies in the sediment, locate underwater manmade seafaring artifacts and facilities, determine the range of economic opportunities for past inhabitants and quantify the availability of potable water sources.

  15. USGS science for the Nation's changing coasts: shoreline change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The demands of increasing human population in the coastal zone create competition with coastal habitat preservation and with recreational and commercial uses of the coast and nearshore waters. As climate changes over the coming century, these problems facing coastal communities will likely worsen. Good management and policy decision-making require baseline information on the rates, trends, and scientific understanding of the processes of coastal change on a regional to national scale. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is engaged in a research project of national scope to measure, report, and interpret historical shoreline change along open-ocean coasts of the United States. One of the primary goals of this project is to understand shoreline change hazards using methods that are comparable from one area of the country to another and that will allow for future, repeatable analyses of shoreline movement, coastal erosion, and land loss.

  16. Assimilating models and data to enhance predictions of shoreline evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Smith, Jane McKee; Lynett, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    A modeling system that considers both long- and short-term process-driven shoreline change is presented. The modeling system is integrated into a data assimilation framework that uses sparse observations of shoreline change to correct a model forecast and to determine unobserved model variables and free parameters. Application of the assimilation algorithm also provides quantitative statistical estimates of uncertainty that can be applied to coastal hazard and vulnerability assessments. Significant attention is given to the estimation of four non-observable quantities using the data assimilation framework that utilizes only one observable process (i.e. ,shoreline change). The general framework discussed here can be applied to many other geophysical processes by simply changing the model component to one applicable to the processes of interest.

  17. Effect of climate change on the shoreline at Udupi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan Radhamma, Rajasree; Makrand Chintamani, Deo

    2017-04-01

    The configuration of a shoreline continuously undergoes changes either due to the effect of natural processes or because of human interventions. Concerns have been raised since recent past of additional effects because of the climate change induced by global warming. The prediction of the rate of shoreline shifts as well as that of erosion and accretion over future considering the impact of climate change is done in this work at a location called Udupi along the west coast of India. Historic satellite imageries are compiled to determine the shoreline change rate for the past 35 years. Wave data are generated for past and future 35 years using a numerical model (Mike21-SW) forced by wind from a high resolution regional climate model: CORDEX, with a spatial resolution of 0.440 x 0.440 and run for a moderate pathway of global warming: RCP 4.5. The output from the wave model formed the input to the shoreline evolution model: LITPACK, which simulated the erosion/accretion and shoreline shifts for past 35 years as well as future 35 years. The results indicate that at this site the wind and wave activity will significantly increase in future. The probability of getting higher waves in future could increase with corresponding reduction in the occurrence of lower waves. The area under consideration presently undergoes high erosion and this would intensify in future. As against the past rate of erosion of +0.11 to -1.46 m/year the future rate would be -1.67 to -2.21 m/year. The volume of total sediment transport will also substantially increase over the future. This study highlights the importance of predicting changes in shorelines at a given location considering the impact of the climate change induced by global warming.

  18. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Laysan Albatrosses , and the recovery of a shoreline/littoral zone when human traffic is limited to security vehicles and personnel. This range...Requirements Module (ARRM) and feed the Installation Status C-8 July 2007 2007 SUSTAINABLE RANGES REPORT Report-Natural Infrastructure (see

  19. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics excluding the 1970-1979 and 1994 shorelines within the South Cape Cod coastal region from Stage Harbor Light in Chatham to Nobska Point in Woods Hole (SouthCapeCod_intersects_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  20. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Cat Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Cat Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  1. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polyline: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polyline: Individual Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  2. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates) is a polygon shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  3. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Ship Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Ship Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  4. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Petit Bois Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Petit Bois Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Individual Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines...

  5. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Petit Bois Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Petit Bois Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates) is a polygon shapefile representing shorelines...

  6. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Combined Dates) is a polygon shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  7. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Ship Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Ship Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Individual Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  8. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polyline: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polyline: Combined Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  9. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Petit Bois Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Petit Bois Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated...

  10. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Ship Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Ship Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates) is a polygon shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  11. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  12. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Individual Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  13. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Cat Island, Mississippi (dates_meta.txt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Cat Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Individual Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  14. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Cat Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Cat Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates) is a polygon shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  15. Shoreline changes in and around the Thubon River mouth, Central Vietnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mau, L.D.; Nayak, G.N.; SanilKumar, V.

    Application of GENESIS model (GENEralized model for Simulating Shoreline change) for studying the shoreline change in and around the Thubon River Mouth, Central Vietnam is presented in this paper The input parameters used are the near shore wave...

  16. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics excluding the 1970-1979 and 1994 shorelines within the Martha's Vineyard coastal region including the Vineyard Sound-, Nantucket Sound- and Atlantic Ocean- facing coasts of Martha's Vineyard and Nomans Land (MarthasVineyard_intersects_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  17. Shoreline Change Rates for Barnegat and Great Bay, NJ: 1839 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents shoreline change rates for the New Jersey coastline (Point Pleasant, NJ to Longport, NJ) from 1839 to 2012. Shoreline data were obtained from...

  18. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics excluding the 1970's and 1994 shorelines within the Outer Cape Cod coastal region from Long Point in Provincetown to Monomoy Island (OuterCapeCod_intersects_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  19. Historical Shoreline for New Jersey (1971 to 1978): Vector Digital Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — New_Jersey_1971_78_Digitized_Shoreline.zip features a digitized historic shoreline for the New Jersey coastline (Point Pleasant, NJ to Longport, NJ) from 1971 to...

  20. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics excluding the 1970-1979 and 1994 shorelines within the South Shore coastal region from Hewitts Cove in Hingham to the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich (SouthShore_intersects_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  1. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics excluding the 1970-1979 and 1994 shorelines for the North Shore coastal region from North Salisbury at the New Hampshire border to the west side of Deer Island in Boston harbor (NorthShore_intersects_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  2. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics excluding the 1970-1979 and 1994 shorelines within the Nantucket coastal region including the Nantucket Sound- and Atlantic Ocean- facing coasts of Nantucket, Muskeget and Tuckernuck Islands Massachusetts-Rhode Island border (Nantucket_intersects_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  3. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics excluding the 1970-1979 and 1994 shorelines within the Buzzards Bay coastal region from Nobska Point in Woods Hole, to Westport at the Rhode Island border (BuzzardsBay_intersects_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  4. Tests for character displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D F; Mosimann, J E; Meeter, D A

    1985-12-01

    Character displacement is an important concept in ecology which has been surrounded by controversy due largely to a lack of clearly stated hypotheses and statistical tests. Existing tests implicity assume random species sizes estimated without error--a random-effects model. We introduce the log-uniform distribution for species sizes and show that it has properties of direct relevance to character displacement. We present tests which assume uniform and log-normal species sizes and have the log-uniform distribution as an alternative. The tests have low power for sample sizes typically encountered in ecology. The effect of estimating species sizes is small. The results exemplify the shortcomings of the traditional random-effects model for species sizes.

  5. National assessment of shoreline change—Summary statistics for updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian Border to Icy Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2017-09-25

    Long-term rates of shoreline change for the north coast of Alaska, from the U.S.-Canadian border to the Icy Cape region of northern Alaska, have been updated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Short-term shoreline change rates are reported for the first time. Additional shoreline position data were used to compute rates where the previous rate-of-change assessment only included two shoreline positions at a given location. The calculation of uncertainty associated with the long-term average rates has also been updated to match refined methods used in other study regions of the National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. The average rates of this report have a reduced amount of uncertainty compared to those presented in the first assessment for this region.

  6. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...... and market as mutually exclusive (Mol 2008), care and market appear to be intertwined in political patient figures through which the organization is trying to manage and transform itself from the inside...

  7. 78 FR 33051 - Non-Rock Alternatives to Shoreline Protection Demonstration Project (LA-16) Iberia, Jefferson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Non-Rock Alternatives to Shoreline Protection Demonstration Project... environmental impact statement is not being prepared for the Non-Rock Alternatives to Shoreline Protection... rock structures. The shoreline protection systems will be demonstrated in up to three (3) test sites in...

  8. 15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning... erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The management program must include a planning process for assessing the... planning process may be within the broader context of coastal hazard mitigation planning. (b) The basic...

  9. Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black sands rich in chromian spinel commonly occur in pockets along the eastern shoreline of Andaman Island where various types of peridotites and volcanics belonging to the Andaman ophiolite suite are exposed in close vicinity. The chemistry of these detrital chromian spinels has been extensively used here in ...

  10. Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of Andaman Island. 1389. Figure 1. (a) Regional tectonic framework of southeast Asia (redrawn after Mitchell 1985) and (b) the geological map of. Andaman Island (modified from Bandopadhyay 2005) showing the distribution of the Ophiolite Group along with other.

  11. Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 1: Constant wave climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the non-linear development of alongshore undulations up to fully developed quasi-steady equilibrium. A numerical model which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines is applied, based on a spectral wave model, a depth...

  12. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Shoreline Changes in Bonny Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the shoreline changes over time in Bonny Island of Rivers State, Nigeria. Satellite images comprising of Landsat TM of 30m by 30m of 1986, 2001, 2003 and 2006; and Nigersat image of 30m by 30m of 2004 were used as the sources of data. The satellite images underwent series of geo-processing.

  13. Subtidal Bathymetric Changes by Shoreline Armoring Removal and Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Salish Sea, a region with a diverse coastline, is altered by anthropogenic shoreline modifications such as seawalls. In recent years, local organizations have moved to restore these shorelines. Current research monitors the changes restoration projects have on the upper beach, lower beach, and intertidal, however little research exists to record possible negative effects on the subtidal. The purpose of this research is to utilize multibeam sonar bathymetric data to analyze possible changes to the seafloor structure of the subtidal in response to shoreline modification and to investigate potential ecosystem consequences of shoreline alteration. The subtidal is home to several species including eelgrass (Zostera marina). Eelgrass is an important species in Puget Sound as it provides many key ecosystem functions including providing habitat for a wide variety of organisms, affecting the physics of waves, and sediment transport in the subtidal. Thus bathymetric changes could impact eelgrass growth and reduce its ability to provide crucial ecosystem services. Three Washington state study sites of completed shoreline restoration projects were used to generate data from areas of varied topographic classification, Seahurst Park in Burien, the Snohomish County Nearshore Restoration Project in Everett, and Cornet Bay State Park on Whidbey Island. Multibeam sonar data was acquired using a Konsberg EM 2040 system and post-processed in Caris HIPS to generate a base surface of one-meter resolution. It was then imported into the ArcGIS software suite for the generation of spatial metrics. Measurements of change were calculated through a comparison of historical and generated data. Descriptive metrics generated included, total elevation change, percent area changed, and a transition matrix of positive and negative change. Additionally, pattern metrics such as, surface roughness, and Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), were calculated. The comparison of historical data to new data

  14. Displacement Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, J. M.; Rosenthal, S.; Venkataramani, S.

    2013-05-01

    Geometric corrections are blended with nonlinear/non-Gaussian estimation methods to produced improved data assimilation outcomes on problems where features are critical. Problems of this sort are the estimation of hurricane tracks, tracking jet meandering, front propagation, among many others. The geometric correction is made possible by a data preserving map. It makes corrections on phase, primarily, as well as in the amplitude. The displacement assimilation is embedded in the analysis stage of a nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian data assimilation scheme, such as the path integral method. In addition to showing how the method improves upon the results, as compared to more standard methodologies.

  15. Displaced patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Extent and degree of shoreline oiling: Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Michel

    Full Text Available The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of oiled marshes and associated habitats. One year after the spill began, oil remained on 847 km; two years later, oil remained on 687 km, though at much lesser degrees of oiling. For example, shorelines characterized as heavily oiled went from a maximum of 360 km, to 22.4 km one year later, and to 6.4 km two years later. Shoreline cleanup has been conducted to meet habitat-specific cleanup endpoints and will continue until all oiled shoreline segments meet endpoints. The entire shoreline cleanup program has been managed under the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT Program, which is a systematic, objective, and inclusive process to collect data on shoreline oiling conditions and support decision making on appropriate cleanup methods and endpoints. It was a particularly valuable and effective process during such a complex spill.

  17. Book Review of The New Digital Shoreline: How Web 2.0 and Millennials are Revolutionizing Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Bodewes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In higher education, the integration of new technologies and pedagogies of instruction is often a source of apprehension. The New Digital Shoreline, written by Roger McHaney of Kansas State University, is a guide for understanding millennial learners along with current technologies and strategies used in college classrooms. The audience for this book would likely be faculty and administrators with limited knowledge of the shifting expectations for technology in higher education. On the spectrum of technology adoption ranging from innovators to laggards, The New Digital Shoreline is best suited for late majority adopters. The book is organized around the metaphor of exploring a new world, one with an unfamiliar population, landscape, and culture; the author is your guide on a journey to successfully adapt to the realities of this new world.

  18. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  19. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  20. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  1. Wave energy fluxes and multi-decadal shoreline changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of multidecadal shoreline changes in two microtidal, low-energetic embayments of southern Zealand, Denmark, were investigated by using the directional distribution of wave energy fluxes. The sites include a barrier island system attached to moraine bluffs, and a recurved spit...... variability of directional distributions of wave energy fluxes furthermore outlined potential sediment sources and sinks for the evolution of the barrier island system and for the evolution of the recurved spit....

  2. Impacts of shoreline erosion on coastal ecosystems in Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn Chusrinuan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrastructure and reduced beach esthetics for recreation. In this study, shoreline changes were compared between 1975 and 2006 using aerial photographs and Landsat imageries using Geographic Information System (GIS. The results revealed that 18.5 km2 of the coastal areas were altered during the period. Of this, 17.3 km2 suffered erosion and 1.2 km2were subjected to accretion. The most significant changes occurred between 1975-2006. Shoreline erosion was found at Ban Paktrae, Ranot District, with an average erosion rate of 5.3 m/year, while accretion occurred at Laem Samila, MuangSongkhla District with an average accretion rate of 2.04 m/year. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of coastal soil and water quality, destruction of beach and mangrove forests, loss of human settlements and livelihood.These processes have led to deterioration of the quality of life of the residents. Prevention and mitigation measures to lessen economic and social impacts due to shoreline erosion are discussed.

  3. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Reservoir Shoreline Revegetation Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    contribute to prob- lems such as shoreline erosion and water turbidity, a lack of or degradation of fish and wildlife habitat, and degraded aesthetics. Bare...include root reinforcement of the soil, restraint and filtering of soil particles, restraint of soil masses on slopes by soil arching effects, interception...signs. 85. Wattling bundles. Wattling bundles are cigar -shaped bundles of live switches of willow or other easy-sprouting woody species that are tied

  4. SOCAL_INTERSECTS_LT - Long-Term Transect-Shoreline Intersection Points for Southern California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  5. SOCAL_INTERSECTS_ST - Short-Term Transect-Shoreline Intersection Points for Southern California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  6. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  7. Shoreline Change Monitoring Using High Resolution Digital Photogrammetric Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y.; Lee, H.; Kim, K. H.; Shin, B. S.; Huh, K. I.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline change has been measured with conventional surveying techniques such as Total station, GNSS, EDM etc. These measurements provide short/long term variation of nearshore evolution which enables us to estimate erosional and accretion sediment volume of the beach. This observation of ocean morphology currently has been utilized through the advance of optical imaging system and related digital image analysis. When deployed with proper viewing geometry, ground based digital imaging system can provide higher spatial/temporal resolution of shoreline change than satellite remote sensing data. In this study, we focus on generating time series of shore line change in Gwangan/Songjung beach in Busan, Korea where two DSLR imaging station have been successfully installed nearly at the end of each beach span. Via single photo photogrammetric techniques such as lens calibration, interior/exterior orientation, feature tracking, projection toward water surface, we aim to 1) calibrate out time lapse camera system, 2) verify with conventionally observed shorelines and finally 3) quantify the trend of ocean morphology in target sites.

  8. Uncertainties in shoreline position analysis: the role of run-up and tide in a gentle slope beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Giorgio; Lo Re, Carlo; Ciraolo, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades in the Mediterranean Sea, high anthropic pressure from increasing economic and touristic development has affected several coastal areas. Today the erosion phenomena threaten human activities and existing structures, and interdisciplinary studies are needed to better understand actual coastal dynamics. Beach evolution analysis can be conducted using GIS methodologies, such as the well-known Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), in which error assessment based on shoreline positioning plays a significant role. In this study, a new approach is proposed to estimate the positioning errors due to tide and wave run-up influence. To improve the assessment of the wave run-up uncertainty, a spectral numerical model was used to propagate waves from deep to intermediate water and a Boussinesq-type model for intermediate water up to the swash zone. Tide effects on the uncertainty of shoreline position were evaluated using data collected by a nearby tide gauge. The proposed methodology was applied to an unprotected, dissipative Sicilian beach far from harbors and subjected to intense human activities over the last 20 years. The results show wave run-up and tide errors ranging from 0.12 to 4.5 m and from 1.20 to 1.39 m, respectively.

  9. Effect of displaced versus non-displaced pelvic fractures on long-term racing performance in 31 Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, S E; Muurlink, M A; Anderson, G A; Puksmann, T N; Whitton, R C

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term racing prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced versus non-displaced fractures of the pelvis identified by scintigraphy. Retrospective case analysis. Medical records of 31 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting to the University of Melbourne Equine Centre with fractures of the pelvis that were identified by scintigraphy were reviewed. Pelvic fracture site was determined and defined as displaced or non-displaced based on ultrasound and/or radiographic findings. Race records were analysed for each horse, with a minimum of 24 months' follow-up, and correlated with fracture type to determine long-term prognosis for racing. Results are expressed as median and range. Fractures at a single site were more common (n = 22) than fractures involving two sites (n = 9) and the ilial wing was the most commonly affected (n = 12). Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced pelvic fractures at any site (n = 12) raced fewer times within 24 months of diagnosis than horses with non-displaced fractures (n = 19) (median 0.5, range 0-13 vs 7, 0-24; P = 0.037), but there was no clear statistical difference in race earnings between the two groups (median A$0, range A$0-$123,250 vs A$14,440, A$0-$325,500, respectively; P = 0.080). Four horses with displaced fractures (33%) were euthanased on humane grounds because of persistent severe pain. When these horses were excluded from the analysis, there were no differences in performance variables between horses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture. Thoroughbred racehorses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture that survive the initial post-injury period have a good prognosis for racing. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Shoreline response to environmental forcings: A case study in the Wax Lake Delta, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleynse, Nathanael; Hiatt, Matt; Sangireddy, Harish; Passalacqua, Paola; Mohrig, David

    2013-04-01

    River deltas are well-known landforms within both hydrology and geology. However, both their hydrodynamics and morphodynamics are not well understood, in part because of scarcity of historical data that document the growth or retreat of their channel networks, islands and associated shorelines. Here, we present an analysis of Landsat imagery of the Wax Lake Delta, a young and relatively rapidly prograding delta in the shallow Atchafalaya Basin, Gulf of Mexico. Taking advantage of a recently developed semi-automatic shoreline extraction method [Geleynse et al, 2012], we show how suitably-defined shorelines can be retrieved from satellite imagery. The effect of tides, river floods, storm surges, and vegetation cover on the extracted shoreline of Wax Lake Delta can be quantified as well as the physical relationship between the boundary of the subareal and subaqueous portions of the delta (hydrodynamic shoreline) and the morphodynamic shoreline.

  11. Extraction of shoreline changes in Selangor coastal area using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, S. N.; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Jaafar, O.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, coastal zones are facing shoreline changes that stemming from natural and anthropogenic effect. The process of erosion and accretion will affect the physical environment of the shoreline. Therefore, the study of shoreline changes is important to identify the patterns of changes over time. The rapid growth of technology nowadays has facilitated the study of shoreline changes. Geographical Information System (GIS) alongside Remote Sensing (RS) technology is a useful tool to study these changes due to its ability to generate information, monitoring, analysis and prediction of the shoreline changes. Hence, the future projection of the trend for a specific coastal area can be done effectively. This study investigates the impact of shoreline changes to the community in Selangor area which mainly focus on the physical aspects. This study presents preliminary result using satellite image from SPOT 5 to identify the shoreline changes from the year 1984 to 2013 at Selangor coastal area. Extraction of shoreline from satellite image is vital to analyze the erosion and accretion along the shoreline area. This study shows that a shoreline change for the whole area is a categorized as a medium case. The total eroded and accretion of Selangor area from 1984 to 2013 is 2558 hectares and 2583 hectares respectively. As a result, Kapar, Jugra, Telok Panglima Garang and Kelanang are categorized as high risk erosion area. Shoreline changes analysis provides essential information to determine on the shoreline changes trends. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as essential information for conservation and preservation of coastal zone management.

  12. Gaas Displacement Damage Dosimeter Based on Diode Dark Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GaAs diode dark currents are correlated over a very large proton energy range as a function of displacement damage dose (DDD. The linearity of the dark current increase with DDD over a wide range of applied voltage bias deems this device an excellent candidate for a displacement damage dosimeter. Additional proton testing performed in situ enabled error estimate determination to within 10% for simulated space use.

  13. Evaluation of shoreline change using optical satellite images, case study of Progreso, Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Rubio, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    A technique to extract the shoreline from optical satellite images has been developed, evaluated and applied to the case study site of Progreso, Yucatán, México. This site was chosen as it is frequently subject to hurricanes, shows shoreline erosion and has a paucity of coastal data. The area under investigation is an 8 km length of shoreline that faces north into the Gulf of México. A novel method to extract satellite-derived shorelines (SDS) was developed ensuring the maxi...

  14. California Shoreline Sand Retention: Existing Structure Performance and Future Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, N. E.; Griggs, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    Amidst rising sea level, climate change and expanding coastal populations, sandy beaches are frequently exposed to erosional processes. Effective sea level rise will lead to recreational beach loss as a result of coastal inundation. Beach nourishment is growing in popularity as a mitigation approach to meet the increasing need to protect coastal resources. The practice of beach nourishment along high energy shorelines, such as in California, is often improved by the construction of sediment retention structures (groins) to enhance project lifespans. However, our current ability to design effective littoral barriers is extremely limited. An underutilized and cost-effective resource for critically analyzing engineered retention structure performance is the record of existing structures within California. The impacts of 205 structures along California's 1700 km shoreline have been systematically explored though measurements collected from aerial imagery and historic shoreline positions. The findings of this study suggest that approximately 30 million m3 of sand and 18% of California's total exposed sandy beach area is presently retained in fillet and salient beaches associated with man-made structures such as groins, breakwaters, piers and jetties. Preliminary results suggest statistically significant correlations between structure effectiveness and key characteristics such as orientation, littoral cell position and construction materials. The central product of this study is a complete and robust GIS catalog of retention structures along California's coastline. A detailed analysis of historic structure performance combined with a systematically measured record of structure characteristics for the entire state results in a useful product to help coastal planners use the lessons of the past to plan future beach management.

  15. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Bagger, Jens; Sylvest, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  16. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rae

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  17. Changes in the Position of the Zambales Shoreline Before and After the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo Eruption: Controls of Shoreline Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline changes along the southern Zambales coast, both short-term - a few to several tens of years - and long-term - hundreds to a few thousands of years - have been determined from bathymetric and topographic maps, satellite images, space shuttle data, and aerial photographs. The dramatic increase of sediment input along the Zambales coast due to the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption resulted in immediate, extensive, and rapid rates of coastal progradation at and adjacent to river mouths. The Bucao River mouth experienced the highest rates of progradation following the eruption, but rapid retreats also occurred. Furthermore, similar advances and retreats of this shoreline were also observed prior to the 1991 eruption; thus, the net change in shoreline position has been minimal. In contrast, progradation has been more pronounced along the discharge area of the Pamatawan and Sto. Tomas Rivers. This is surprising, given that their combined sediment yield is less than that of the Bucao River. Along the more southern segment of the coast, there has been greater progradation which may be attributed to the relatively gentler gradient of the adjacent shelf. Off the Bucao River, a submarine canyon taps the river mouth directly; thus, most of the sediments bypass the coast and shelf.The deltaic promontory that now characterizes the mouth of Sto. Tomas River was formed only after 1944. The delta formation cannot be due to the shifting of the river mouth because the Sto. Tomas River had been emptying at the same point even before the delta buildup. An increase in precipitation in the early 60's increased the river's discharge, which could have elevated the sediment yield leading to the delta buildup.Autocyclic changes in the distributary system of the Sto. Tomas alluvial fan redirected the flow of sediment to the Pamatawan River probably during the two episodes of eruption of Mt. Pinatubo prior to 1991. This resulted in the buildup of a delta much larger than

  18. Shorelines_Oct2012_Sept2014: Hurricane Sandy Beach Response and Recovery at Fire Island, New York: Shoreline and Beach Profile Data, October 2012 to October 2014.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile consists of Fire Island, NY pre- and post-storm shoreline data collected from October 2012 to September 2014. This dataset contains 13 Mean High Water...

  19. Estuarine Back-barrier Shoreline and Sandline Change Model Skill and Predicted Probabilities: Long-term back-barrier shoreline change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment was created to calibrate and test probability models of barrier island estuarine shoreline...

  20. Effect of wave frequency and directional spread on shoreline runup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guza, R. T.; Feddersen, Falk

    2012-06-01

    Wave breaking across the surf zone elevates the mean water level at the shoreline (setup), and drives fluctuations about the mean (runup). Runup often is divided into sea-swell (0.04-0.3 Hz) and lower frequency infragravity (0.00-0.04 Hz) components. With energetic incident waves, runup is dominated by infragravity frequencies, and total water levels (combined setup and runup) can exceed 3 m, significantly contributing to coastal flooding and erosion. Setup and runup observations on sandy beaches are scattered about empirical parameterizations based on near-shoreline beach slope and deep water wave height and wavelength. Accurate parameterizations are needed to determine flooding and erosion risk to coastal ecosystems and communities. Here, numerical simulations with the Boussinesq wave model funwaveC are shown to statistically reproduce typical empirical setup and runup parameterizations. Furthermore, the model infragravity runup Rs(ig) strongly depends on the incident wave directional and frequency spread (about the mean direction and peak frequency). Realistic directional spread variations change Rs(ig) equivalent to a factor of two variation in incident wave height. The modeled Rs(ig) is shown to vary systematically with a new, non-dimensional spreading parameter that involves peak frequency, frequency spread, and directional spread. This suggests a new parameterization for Rs(ig) potentially useful to predict coastal flooding and erosion.

  1. NORCAL_BASELINES - Offshore Baseline for Northern California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  2. SOCAL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Southern California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  3. Comparison of Two Simplification Methods for Shoreline Extraction from Digital Orthophoto Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, B.; Sen, A.; Selbesoglu, M. O.; Vārna, I.; Petersons, P.; Aykut, N. O.; Seker, D. Z.

    2017-11-01

    The coastal ecosystems are very sensitive to external influences. Coastal resources such as sand dunes, coral reefs and mangroves has vital importance to prevent coastal erosion. Human based effects also threats the coastal areas. Therefore, the change of coastal areas should be monitored. Up-to-date, accurate shoreline information is indispensable for coastal managers and decision makers. Remote sensing and image processing techniques give a big opportunity to obtain reliable shoreline information. In the presented study, NIR bands of seven 1:5000 scaled digital orthophoto images of Riga Bay-Latvia have been used. The Object-oriented Simple Linear Clustering method has been utilized to extract shoreline of Riga Bay. Bend and Douglas-Peucker methods have been used to simplify the extracted shoreline to test the effect of both methods. Photogrammetrically digitized shoreline has been taken as reference data to compare obtained results. The accuracy assessment has been realised by Digital Shoreline Analysis tool. As a result, the achieved shoreline by the Bend method has been found closer to the extracted shoreline with Simple Linear Clustering method.

  4. COMPARISON OF TWO SIMPLIFICATION METHODS FOR SHORELINE EXTRACTION FROM DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal ecosystems are very sensitive to external influences. Coastal resources such as sand dunes, coral reefs and mangroves has vital importance to prevent coastal erosion. Human based effects also threats the coastal areas. Therefore, the change of coastal areas should be monitored. Up-to-date, accurate shoreline information is indispensable for coastal managers and decision makers. Remote sensing and image processing techniques give a big opportunity to obtain reliable shoreline information. In the presented study, NIR bands of seven 1:5000 scaled digital orthophoto images of Riga Bay-Latvia have been used. The Object-oriented Simple Linear Clustering method has been utilized to extract shoreline of Riga Bay. Bend and Douglas-Peucker methods have been used to simplify the extracted shoreline to test the effect of both methods. Photogrammetrically digitized shoreline has been taken as reference data to compare obtained results. The accuracy assessment has been realised by Digital Shoreline Analysis tool. As a result, the achieved shoreline by the Bend method has been found closer to the extracted shoreline with Simple Linear Clustering method.

  5. Integrated Shoreline Extraction Approach with Use of Rasat MS and SENTINEL-1A SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, N.; Oy, S.; Erdem, F.; Şeker, D. Z.; Bayram, B.

    2017-09-01

    Shorelines are complex ecosystems and highly important socio-economic environments. They may change rapidly due to both natural and human-induced effects. Determination of movements along the shoreline and monitoring of the changes are essential for coastline management, modeling of sediment transportation and decision support systems. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to obtain rapid, up-to-date and reliable information for monitoring of shoreline. In this study, approximately 120 km of Antalya-Kemer shoreline which is under the threat of erosion, deposition, increasing of inhabitants and urbanization and touristic hotels, has been selected as the study area. In the study, RASAT pansharpened and SENTINEL-1A SAR images have been used to implement proposed shoreline extraction methods. The main motivation of this study is to combine the land/water body segmentation results of both RASAT MS and SENTINEL-1A SAR images to improve the quality of the results. The initial land/water body segmentation has been obtained using RASAT image by means of Random Forest classification method. This result has been used as training data set to define fuzzy parameters for shoreline extraction from SENTINEL-1A SAR image. Obtained results have been compared with the manually digitized shoreline. The accuracy assessment has been performed by calculating perpendicular distances between reference data and extracted shoreline by proposed method. As a result, the mean difference has been calculated around 1 pixel.

  6. Calibration of Numerical Model for Shoreline Change Prediction Using Satellite Imagery Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Sutikno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for calibration of numerical model for shoreline change prediction using satellite imagery data in muddy beach. Tanjung Motong beach, a muddy beach that is suffered high abrasion in Rangsang Island, Riau province, Indonesia was picked as study area. The primary numerical modeling tool used in this research was GENESIS (GENEralized Model for Simulating Shoreline change, which has been successfully applied in many case studies of shoreline change phenomena on a sandy beach.The model was calibrated using two extracted coastlines satellite imagery data, such as Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS. The extracted coastline data were analyzed by using DSAS (Digital Shoreline Analysis System tool to get the rate of shoreline change from 1990 to 2014. The main purpose of the calibration process was to find out the appropriate value for K 1 and K coefficients so that the predicted shoreline change had an acceptable correlation with the output of the satellite data processing. The result of this research showed that the shoreline change prediction had a good correlation with the historical evidence data in Tanjung Motong coast. It means that the GENESIS tool is not only applicable for shoreline prediction in sandy beach but also in muddy beach.

  7. Oil characterization and distribution in shoreline sediments of Pensacola Bay, Florida following the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier islands of Northwest Florida were heavily oiled during the Deepwater Horizon spill, but less is known about the impacts to the shorelines of the associated estuaries. Shoreline sediment oiling was investigated at 18 sites within the Pensacola Bay, Florida system prior to...

  8. 78 FR 23289 - Public Review of Draft National Shoreline Data Content Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... suggested domains for the elements. The functional scope includes definition of data models, schemas... highly defined logical data structure that is interoperable, efficient and applicable to a broad base of... users of shoreline data. Shoreline definition protocols currently limit agencies and organizations from...

  9. Two and three-dimensional shoreline behaviour at a MESO-MACROTIDAL barred beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angnuureng, Donatus Bapentire; Almar, Rafael; Senechal, Nadia; Castelle, Bruno; Appeaning Addo, Kwasi; Marieu, Vincent; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

    2017-01-01

    The present work investigates cross-shore shoreline migration as well as its alongshore variability (with deformation) on timescales of days to years using 6 years of time-averaged video images. The variability of the shoreline is estimated through empirical statistical methods with comprehensive

  10. Soil erosion and deposition in the new shorelines of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaolei; Nilsson, Christer; Pilotto, Francesca; Liu, Songping; Shi, Shaohua; Zeng, Bo

    2017-12-01

    During the last few decades, the construction of storage reservoirs worldwide has led to the formation of many new shorelines in former upland areas. After the formation of such shorelines, a dynamic phase of soil erosion and deposition follows. We explored the factors regulating soil dynamics in the shorelines of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) on the Yangtze River in China. We selected four study sites on the main stem and three on the tributaries in the upstream parts of the reservoir, and evaluated whether the sites close to the backwater tail (the point at which the river meets the reservoir) had more soil deposition than the sites far from the backwater tail. We also tested whether soil erosion differed between the main stem and the tributaries and across shorelines. We found that soil deposition in the new shorelines was higher close to the backwater tail and decreased downstream. Soil erosion was higher in the main stem than in the tributaries and higher at lower compared to higher shoreline altitudes. In the tributaries, erosion did not differ between higher and lower shoreline levels. Erosion increased with increasing fetch length, inundation duration and distance from the backwater tail, and decreased with increasing soil particle fineness. Our results provide a basis for identifying shorelines in need of restorative or protective measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CENCAL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Central California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  12. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Methods Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Results Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on

  13. Medium-Range Dispersion Experiments Downwind from a Shoreline in Near Neutral Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Lyck, E.

    1980-01-01

    Five atmospheric dispersion experiments, all assigned Pasquill stability class D, were performed at Risø National Laboratory. The tracer sulphurhexafluoride was released at a height of 60 m from the Risø meteorological tower, situated on a peninsula in the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark, and was sampled...

  14. Acoustic displacement triangle based on the individual element test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Correa

    Full Text Available A three node -displacement based- acoustic element is developed. In order to avoid spurious rotational modes, a higher order stiffness is introduced. This higher order stiffness is developed from an incompatible strain field which computes element volume changes under nodal rotational displacements fields. The higher order strain resulting from the incompatible strain field satisfies the Individual Element Test (IET requirements without affecting convergence. The higher order stiffness is modulated, element by element, with a factor. As a result, the displacement based formulation presented on this paper is capable of placing the spurious rotational modes above the range of the physical compressional modes that can be accurately calculated by the mesh.

  15. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (Linear Regression Rate) shoreline change statistics for the Cape Cod Bay coastal region from Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich to Long Point in Provincetown (CapeCodBay_intersects_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  16. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics without shorelines from 1970-1979 and 1994 within the Cape Cod Bay coastal region from the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich to Long Point in Provincetown (CapeCodBay_transects_rates_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  17. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (End Point Rate) shoreline change statistics for the Cape Cod Bay coastal region from the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich to Long Point in Provincetown (CapeCodBay_intersects_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  18. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics without shorelines from 1970-1979 and 1994 within the South Cape Cod coastal region from Stage Harbor Light in Chatham to Nobska Point in Woods Hole (SouthCapeCod_transects_rates_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  19. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (Linear Regression Rate) shoreline change statistics for the South Cape Cod coastal region from Stage Harbor Light in Chatham to Nobska Point in Woods Hole (SouthCapeCod_intersects_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  20. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics without shorelines from 1970-1979 and 1994 in the Boston coastal region from Carson Beach in South Boston to Weymouth River, including the Boston Harbor Islands (Boston_transects_rates_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  1. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics for the Outer Cape Cod coastal region from Long Point in Provincetown to Monomoy Island (OuterCapeCod_intersects_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  2. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (End Point Rate) shoreline change statistics for the North Shore coastal region from North Salisbury at the New Hampshire border to the west side of Deer Island in Boston Harbor (NorthShore_intersects_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  3. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics without shorelines from 1970s and 1994 within the Outer Cape Cod coastal region from Long Point in Provincetown to Monomoy Island (OuterCapeCod_transects_rates_LTwo.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  4. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (End Point Rate) shoreline change statistics for the Elizabeth Islands coastal region from Nonamesset Island southwest of Woods Hole to Cuttyhunk Island north of Martha's Vineyard (ElizabethIslands_intersects_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  5. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (Linear Regression Rate) shoreline change statistics for the Boston coastal region from Carson Beach in South Boston to Weymouth River, including the Boston Harbor Islands (Boston_intersects_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  6. ElizabethIslands_transects_rates_LTwo.shp - Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics without shorelines from 1970-1979 and 1994 in the Elizabeth Islands coastal region from Nonamesset Island southwest of Woods Hole to Cuttyhunk Island north of Martha's Vineyard.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  7. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics for the North Shore coastal region from North Salisbury at the New Hampshire border to the west side of Deer Island in Boston Harbor (NorthShore_intersects_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  8. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (End Point Rate) shoreline change statistics within the Nantucket coastal region including the Nantucket Sound- and Atlantic Ocean- facing coasts of Nantucket, Muskeget and Tuckernuck Islands (Nantucket_intersects_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  9. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics for the Boston coastal region from Carson Beach in South Boston to Weymouth River, including the Boston Harbor Islands (Boston_intersects_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  10. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (Linear Regression Rate) shoreline change statistics for the Outer Cape Cod coastal region from Long Point in Provincetown to Monomoy Island (OuterCapeCod_intersects_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  11. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term linear regression rate (LRR) shoreline change statistics for the South Shore coastal region from Hewitts Cove in Hingham to the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich (SouthShore_intersects_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  12. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (End Point Rate) shoreline change statistics for the Boston coastal region from Carson Beach in South Boston to Weymouth River, including the Boston Harbor Islands (Boston_intersects_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  13. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (Linear Regression Rate) shoreline change statistics for the Buzzards Bay coastal region from Nobska Point in Woods Hole, to Westport at the Rhode Island border (BuzzardsBay_intersects_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  14. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (Linear Regression Rate) shoreline change statistics for the North Shore coastal region from North Salisbury at the New Hampshire border to the west side of Deer Island in Boston Harbor (NorthShore_intersects_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  15. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics for the Cape Cod Bay coastal region from Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich to Long Point in Provincetown (CapeCodBay_intersects_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  16. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (End Point Rate) shoreline change statistics within the Martha's Vineyard coastal region including the Vineyard Sound-, Nantucket Sound- and Atlantic Ocean- facing coasts of Martha's Vineyard and Nomans Land (MarthasVineyard_intersects_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  17. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (End Point Rate) shoreline change statistics for the Buzzards Bay coastal region from Nobska Point in Woods Hole, to Westport at the Rhode Island border (BuzzardsBay_intersects_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  18. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (End Point Rate) shoreline change statistics for the South Cape Cod coastal region from Stage Harbor Light in Chatham to Nobska Point in Woods Hole (SouthCapeCod_intersects_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  19. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate long-term shoreline change statistics for the South Cape Cod coastal region from Stage Harbor Light in Chatham to Nobska Point in Woods Hole (SouthCapeCod_intersects_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  20. Nantucket_intersects_STlr.shp - Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 shoreline intersection points used to calculate short-term (Linear Regression Rate) shoreline change statistics within the Nantucket coastal region including the Nantucket Sound- and Atlantic Ocean- facing coasts of Nantucket, Muskeget and Tuckernuck Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  1. A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for Breton Island, Louisiana: 1869-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrano, Joseph F.; Flocks, James G.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.

    2015-01-01

    Many barrier islands in the United States are experiencing substantive erosion and elevation loss due to storm surge, waves, and sea-level changes; this is particularly true for the deltaic barrier system in Louisiana. Breton Island is located near the mouth of the Mississippi River in the southern end of the Chandeleur Island chain in southeast Louisiana. This report expands on previous geomorphic studies of Breton Island by incorporating additional historic and recent datasets. Multiple analyses focused on long- and short-term shoreline change, as well as episodic events and anthropogenic modification. Analyses time periods included the long-term (1869–2014), long-term historic (1869–1950), post Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (1950–2014), pre/post Hurricane Katrina (2004–2005), and recent (2005–2014) change. In addition to shoreline change, barrier island geomorphology was evaluated using island area, elevation, and sediment volume change. In the long term (1969–2014), Breton Island has experienced landward transgression, island narrowing, and elevation loss. Major storm events are exacerbating the long-term trends. However, the short-term trends (2005–2014) show that Breton Island is eroding at a slower rate than long-term and has gained area and total sediment volume. The short-term accretion is likely due to the lack of major storms since Hurricane Katrina (2005).

  2. Rapid adjustment of shoreline behavior to changing seasonality of storms : Observations and modelling at an open-coast beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Splinter, Kristen D.; Turner, Ian L.; Reinhardt, Mika; Ruessink, B.G.

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year time series of weekly shoreline data collected at the Gold Coast, Australia, is used to examine the temporal evolution of a beach, focusing on the frequency response of the shoreline to time-varying wave height and period. Intriguingly, during 2005 the movement of the shoreline at this

  3. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  4. Displacement Processes in Stable Drainage Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Pride, S. R.; Manga, M.

    2016-12-01

    Drainage fronts are stabilized at large bond number, when a low density nonwetting fluid displaces a high density wetting fluid from above. This is an ideal flow scenario for studying the correspondence between pore scale processes and continuum models because the front is a persistent macroscale feature that is propagated by discrete, multiplepore scale displacements. We present new observations of stable air/water drainage in thin, threedimensional, poured bead packs at varying capillary number. With backlighting and a high speed camera, we observe short range front velocities that are an order of magnitude larger than bulk pore velocity, consistent with previous studies in ordered 2D structures. We also quantify displacement lengths and front width. For comparison to continuum simulations, we measure saturation by light transmission continuously over a series of 1 cm length voxels. We focus on the critical nonwetting saturation (CNS, or "emergence point") at which voxels are percolated by air and continuum air permeability becomes nonzero. We find that mean CNS is capillary number dependent even at large bond number, with larger CNS at lower capillary number. Continuum simulations with an equivalent discretization demonstrate that CNS is a significant source of uncertainty for predictions of the time and saturation profile at chamber-length air breakthrough.

  5. Character displacement promotes cooperation in bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Hochberg, Michael E; Bell, Thomas; Buckling, Angus

    2006-10-24

    Resource competition within a group of cooperators is expected to decrease selection for cooperative behavior but can also result in diversifying selection for the use of different resources, which in turn could retard the breakdown of cooperation. Diverse groups are likely to be less susceptible to invasion by noncooperating social cheats: First, competition repression resulting from character displacement may provide less of a selective advantage to cheating; second, cheats may trade off the ability to exploit cooperators that specialize in one type of resource against cooperators that specialize in another ; third, diverse communities of any kind may have higher invasion resistance because there are fewer resources available for an invader to use . Furthermore, diverse groups are likely to be more productive than clonal groups if a wider range of total resources are being used . We addressed these issues by using the cooperative trait of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Character displacement through resource competition evolved within biofilms; productivity increased with increasing character displacement, and diverse biofilms were less susceptible to invasion by cheats. These results demonstrate that diversification into different ecological niches can minimize selection against cooperation in the face of local resource competition.

  6. Ship traffic and shoreline erosion in the Lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Gian Marco; Zaggia, Luca; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Parnell, Kevin; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Rapaglia, John; Gionta, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    A study based on the analysis of a historical sequence of aerial photographs and satellite images combined with in situ measurements revealed an unprecedented shoreline regression on the side of a major waterway in the Venice Lagoon, Italy. The study considered long and short-term recession rates caused by ship-induced depression wakes in an area which was reclaimed at the end of the '60 for the expansion of the nearby Porto Marghera Industrial Zone and never used since then. The GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of about 4 m yr-1 in the period between 1965 and 2015. Field measurements carried out between April 2014 and January 2015 also revealed that the shoreline's regression still proceed with a speed comparable to the long-term average regardless of the distance from the navigation channel and is not constant through time. Periods of high water levels determined by astronomical tide or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat proceeds by collapse of slabs of the reclaimed muddy soil after erosion and removal of the underlying original salt marsh sediments and is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on morphology, intrinsic propertiesand vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. Digitalization of historical maps and new bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 allowed for the reconstruction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period between 1970 and 2015. The results of this study shows as ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins and permitted to better understand how this part of the Venice Lagoon reacted to the pressure of human activities in the post-industrial period. Evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial to predict future

  7. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  8. Tolerable Displacement for Perceiving a Natural Scene as Stable across Saccadic Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Taiichiro; Ikeda, Mitsuo

    1996-01-01

    We conducted an experiment in which subjects observed a picture of a natural scene while the picture was displaced according to a subject’s saccades. The threshold displacement ratio (the length of picture displacement/the length of saccade) that allowed subjects to perceive the stable picture was measured. In experiment 1 the threshold ratio was measured for each of five pictures when the picture was displaced in the same direction as each saccade. In experiment 2 the direction of the picture displacement was set in the same, opposite or orthogonal to the movement of the eye to examine effects of the relative displacement direction. The results showed that the subjects perceived a picture as stable despite fairly large displacement during saccades; the threshold ratio was influenced by the pictures and ranged from 18% to 26%. It was also found that the displacement in the same direction as the eye was more detectable than that in the opposite direction.

  9. Climate and shoreline in Sweden during Weichsel and the next 150,000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Paasse, T. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    determines the changes of the subsidence/ uplift rate over time. The download factor is related to the ice load and represents the subsidence/uplift at the time for the maximal subsidence/uplift rate (A{sub T}). The ice thickness is of great importance for the amount of isostatic depression, due to the inertia and slow development of the viscous flow of mantle material the duration of the load is also of importance. To describe the shoreline displacement during the Weichselian and the next 150,000 years download factors (A{sub T}) and times for maximum subsidence uplift (T) have been determined given the postulated ice sheet scenarios. The inertial factor has been determined from Late Weichselian and Holocene observations. The presented scenarios involve great uncertainty. The climate and ice sheet scenario for the Weichselian is based on observations, and the involved uncertainties are related to lack of data and uncertain dating. (abstract truncated)

  10. Persistent shoreline shape induced from offshore geologic framework: Effects of shoreface connected ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar; List, Jeffrey; Warner, John C.; Schwab, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms relating offshore geologic framework to shoreline evolution are determined through geologic investigations, oceanographic deployments, and numerical modeling. Analysis of shoreline positions from the past 50 years along Fire Island, New York, a 50 km long barrier island, demonstrates a persistent undulating shape along the western half of the island. The shelf offshore of these persistent undulations is characterized with shoreface-connected sand ridges (SFCR) of a similar alongshore length scale, leading to a hypothesis that the ridges control the shoreline shape through the modification of flow. To evaluate this, a hydrodynamic model was configured to start with the US East Coast and scale down to resolve the Fire Island nearshore. The model was validated using observations along western Fire Island and buoy data, and used to compute waves, currents and sediment fluxes. To isolate the influence of the SFCR on the generation of the persistent shoreline shape, simulations were performed with a linearized nearshore bathymetry to remove alongshore transport gradients associated with shoreline shape. The model accurately predicts the scale and variation of the alongshore transport that would generate the persistent shoreline undulations. In one location, however, the ridge crest connects to the nearshore and leads to an offshore-directed transport that produces a difference in the shoreline shape. This qualitatively supports the hypothesized effect of cross-shore fluxes on coastal evolution. Alongshore flows in the nearshore during a representative storm are driven by wave breaking, vortex force, advection and pressure gradient, all of which are affected by the SFCR.

  11. Analysis of Shoreline Change along Cape Coast-Sekondi Coast, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael Yaw Dadson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most important factors constantly impinging on the net movement of shorelines are erosion and accretion. This study analyzed the role of erosion and accretion in shoreline changes along the coast between Cape Coast and Sekondi in the central and western regions of Ghana, respectively. Aerial photographs, satellite images, and topographical maps were used. In addition, field survey using Global Positioning System (GPS was conducted at selected locations due to the unavailability of satellite image for 2013. Shoreline change analysis was conducted using Digital Shoreline Analysis Systems based on End Point Rate formula. In addition, community interactions were also conducted to get first-hand information from the local inhabitants. The study finds that the shoreline under study has been fluctuating. The sea advanced inland between 1972 and 2005, which is attributed mainly to intense erosion. The study further reveals that, in the past five years, the shoreline had been retreating mainly due to increased accretion. It is recommended that the shoreline under study should be monitored regularly to keep abreast with net movements that will occur in either the short term or the long term so as to factor the net effect into the management of the coastal zone.

  12. Persistent Shoreline Shape Induced From Offshore Geologic Framework: Effects of Shoreface Connected Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar; List, Jeffrey H.; Warner, John C.; Schwab, William C.

    2017-11-01

    Mechanisms relating offshore geologic framework to shoreline evolution are determined through geologic investigations, oceanographic deployments, and numerical modeling. Analysis of shoreline positions from the past 50 years along Fire Island, New York, a 50 km long barrier island, demonstrates a persistent undulating shape along the western half of the island. The shelf offshore of these persistent undulations is characterized with shoreface-connected sand ridges (SFCR) of a similar alongshore length scale, leading to a hypothesis that the ridges control the shoreline shape through the modification of flow. To evaluate this, a hydrodynamic model was configured to start with the US East Coast and scale down to resolve the Fire Island nearshore. The model was validated using observations along western Fire Island and buoy data, and used to compute waves, currents and sediment fluxes. To isolate the influence of the SFCR on the generation of the persistent shoreline shape, simulations were performed with a linearized nearshore bathymetry to remove alongshore transport gradients associated with shoreline shape. The model accurately predicts the scale and variation of the alongshore transport that would generate the persistent shoreline undulations. In one location, however, the ridge crest connects to the nearshore and leads to an offshore-directed transport that produces a difference in the shoreline shape. This qualitatively supports the hypothesized effect of cross-shore fluxes on coastal evolution. Alongshore flows in the nearshore during a representative storm are driven by wave breaking, vortex force, advection and pressure gradient, all of which are affected by the SFCR.

  13. Using a Bayesian Network to predict shore-line change vulnerability to sea-level rise for the coasts of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sea-level rise is an ongoing phenomenon that is expected to continue and is projected to have a wide range of effects on coastal environments and infrastructure during the 21st century and beyond. Consequently, there is a need to assemble relevant datasets and to develop modeling or other analytical approaches to evaluate the likelihood of particular sea-level rise impacts, such as coastal erosion, and to inform coastal management decisions with this information. This report builds on previous work that compiled oceanographic and geomorphic data as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for the U.S. Atlantic coast, and developed a Bayesian Network to predict shoreline-change rates based on sea-level rise plus variables that describe the hydrodynamic and geologic setting. This report extends the previous analysis to include the Gulf and Pacific coasts of the continental United States and Alaska and Hawaii, which required using methods applied to the USGS CVI dataset to extract data for these regions. The Bayesian Network converts inputs that include observations of local rates of relative sea-level change, mean wave height, mean tide range, a geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and observed shoreline-change rates to calculate the probability of the shoreline-erosion rate exceeding a threshold level of 1 meter per year for the coasts of the United States. The calculated probabilities were compared to the historical observations of shoreline change to evaluate the hindcast success rate of the most likely probability of shoreline change. Highest accuracy was determined for the coast of Hawaii (98 percent success rate) and lowest accuracy was determined for the Gulf of Mexico (34 percent success rate). The minimum success rate rose to nearly 80 percent (Atlantic and Gulf coasts) when success included shoreline-change outcomes that were adjacent to the most likely outcome. Additionally, the probabilistic approach determines the

  14. Detection of Oil near Shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Garcia-Pineda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During any marine oil spill, floating oil slicks that reach shorelines threaten a wide array of coastal habitats. To assess the presence of oil near shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, we scanned the library of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery collected during the event to determine which images intersected shorelines and appeared to contain oil. In total, 715 SAR images taken during the DWH spill were analyzed and processed, with 188 of the images clearly showing oil. Of these, 156 SAR images showed oil within 10 km of the shoreline with appropriate weather conditions for the detection of oil on SAR data. We found detectable oil in SAR images within 10 km of the shoreline from west Louisiana to west Florida, including near beaches, marshes, and islands. The high number of SAR images collected in Barataria Bay, Louisiana in 2010 allowed for the creation of a nearshore oiling persistence map. This analysis shows that, in some areas inside Barataria Bay, floating oil was detected on as many as 29 different days in 2010. The nearshore areas with persistent floating oil corresponded well with areas where ground survey crews discovered heavy shoreline oiling. We conclude that satellite-based SAR imagery can detect oil slicks near shorelines, even in sheltered areas. These data can help assess potential shoreline oil exposure without requiring boats or aircraft. This method can be particularly helpful when shoreline assessment crews are hampered by difficult access or, in the case of DWH, a particularly large spatial and temporal spill extent.

  15. Oyster reefs as natural breakwaters mitigate shoreline loss and facilitate fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B Scyphers

    Full Text Available Shorelines at the interface of marine, estuarine and terrestrial biomes are among the most degraded and threatened habitats in the coastal zone because of their sensitivity to sea level rise, storms and increased human utilization. Previous efforts to protect shorelines have largely involved constructing bulkheads and seawalls which can detrimentally affect nearshore habitats. Recently, efforts have shifted towards "living shoreline" approaches that include biogenic breakwater reefs. Our study experimentally tested the efficacy of breakwater reefs constructed of oyster shell for protecting eroding coastal shorelines and their effect on nearshore fish and shellfish communities. Along two different stretches of eroding shoreline, we created replicated pairs of subtidal breakwater reefs and established unaltered reference areas as controls. At both sites we measured shoreline and bathymetric change and quantified oyster recruitment, fish and mobile macro-invertebrate abundances. Breakwater reef treatments mitigated shoreline retreat by more than 40% at one site, but overall vegetation retreat and erosion rates were high across all treatments and at both sites. Oyster settlement and subsequent survival were observed at both sites, with mean adult densities reaching more than eighty oysters m(-2 at one site. We found the corridor between intertidal marsh and oyster reef breakwaters supported higher abundances and different communities of fishes than control plots without oyster reef habitat. Among the fishes and mobile invertebrates that appeared to be strongly enhanced were several economically-important species. Blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus were the most clearly enhanced (+297% by the presence of breakwater reefs, while red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus (+108%, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus (+88% and flounder (Paralichthys sp. (+79% also benefited. Although the vertical relief of the breakwater reefs was reduced over the course of our study

  16. Special Programming for Displaced Homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, John S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Displaced homemakers returning to college need special services. These programs were developed by one university's center for women: Project Succeed, Back to School Workshops, and Special Programs to Build Self-Confidence. These programs were developed to provide on-the-job training while in college, help adults returning to college earn a degree,…

  17. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  18. Hawaii ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector arcs and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Hawaii classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  19. Western Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Western Alaska classified according to the Environmental...

  20. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Cat Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Cat Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates) is a dataset consisting of 268 polygon shapefiles...

  1. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Ship Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Ship Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates) is a dataset consisting of 280 polygon shapefiles...

  2. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Petit Bois Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Petit Bois Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates) is a dataset consisting of 271 polygon shapefiles...

  3. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Individual Dates) is a dataset consisting of 223 polygon shapefiles...

  4. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates) is a dataset consisting of 254 polygon shapefiles...

  5. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Long Island, New York, classified according to the Environmental...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: ESIP (ESI Shoreline Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIP data set contains vector polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Florida Panhandle, classified according to the Environmental...

  7. Columbia River ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Columbia River classified according to the Environmental...

  8. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Bristol Bay Subarea, classified according to the...

  9. Southeast Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Southeast Alaska classified according to the Environmental...

  10. NOAA's Medium Resolution Digital Vector Shoreline (1998) for the Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Medium Resolution Digital Vector Shoreline is a high-quality, Geographic Information System-ready, general-use digital vector data set created by the...

  11. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, classified according to...

  12. North Slope, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for the North Slope of Alaska classified according to the...

  13. Assateague Island Back-Island Shorelines Extracted from orthoimagery, 1989 – 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Assessing the physical change to shorelines and wetlands is critical in determining the resiliency of wetland systems that protect adjacent habitat and communities....

  14. Shoreline Change Along Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Monitoring Report, 2011-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the first of a series of reports documenting the change in shoreline position along the ocean front of Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. This report follows...

  15. Assateague Island Open-Ocean Shorelines Extracted from Orthoimagery, 1989 – 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Assessing the physical change to shorelines and wetlands is critical in determining the resiliency of wetland systems that protect adjacent habitat and communities....

  16. Assateague Island Back-Island Shoreline Points Extracted from Orthoimagery, 1989 – 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Assessing the physical change to shorelines and wetlands is critical in determining the resiliency of wetland systems that protect adjacent habitat and communities....

  17. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Mean-high-water shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mean-high-water (MHW) shoreline for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines were derived from lidar data collected...

  18. A Collaborative Geospatial Shoreline Inventory Tool to Guide Coastal Development and Habitat Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gies

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We are developing a geospatial inventory tool that will guide habitat conservation, restoration and coastal development and benefit several stakeholders who seek mitigation and adaptation strategies to shoreline changes resulting from erosion and sea level rise. The ESRI Geoportal Server, which is a type of web portal used to find and access geospatial information in a central repository, is customized by adding a Geoinventory tool capability that allows any shoreline related data to be searched, displayed and analyzed on a map viewer. Users will be able to select sections of the shoreline and generate statistical reports in the map viewer to allow for comparisons. The tool will also facilitate map-based discussion forums and creation of user groups to encourage citizen participation in decisions regarding shoreline stabilization and restoration, thereby promoting sustainable coastal development.

  19. SOCAL_1998 - Vectorized Shoreline of Southern California Derived from 1998 Lidar Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  20. NORCAL1952_1971 - Vectorized Shoreline of Northern California Derived from 1952-1971 Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  1. CENCAL1853_1910 - Vectorized Shoreline of Central California Derived from 1853-1910 Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  2. American Samoa ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of American Samoa classified according to the Environmental...

  3. The Anatomy of the Observed Shoreline Response to Extreme Wave Events: Ipan, Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Reyns, J.; O'Grady, J.; Hoeke, R. K.; Mcinnes, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Wave-driven inundation of reef-fringed coastlines is of growing societal concern as sea level is predicted to rise, and the potential for more energetic storms increases. To assess coastal hazards due to storm generated waves, observations from an ongoing field campaign at Ipan, Guam of wave-driven water levels from a series of energetic typhoons during the recent El Nino event are presented. Incident conditions that produce the observed extreme shoreline water levels are assessed, and the behavior of the shoreline response to prior history is determined using analytical and numerical models. The largest observed shoreline response occurred during typhoon Dolphin and is shown to be due in part to the sustained, large breaking wave setup that provided a significant contribution to the shoreline water level.

  4. Breton Island Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Pre/Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Pre/Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector transect data that were derived...

  5. Breton Island, Louisiana Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector transect data that was derived from...

  6. Virginia ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Virginia, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  7. SOCAL1920_1934 - Vectorized Shoreline of Southern California Derived from 1920-1934 Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: ESIP (ESI Shoreline Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIP data set contains vector polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of South Florida classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: ESIL (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIL data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of South Florida classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  10. NORCAL2002 - Vectorized Shoreline of Northern California Derived from 2002 Lidar Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  11. NORCAL1928_1936 - Vectorized Shoreline of Northern California Derived from 1928-1936 Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital...

  12. NORCAL1854_1880 - Vectorized Shoreline of Northern California from 1854-1880 Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  13. SOCAL_1971_1976 - Vectorized Shoreline of Southern California Derived from 1971-1976 Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  14. SOCAL1852_1889 - Vectorized Shoreline of Southern California Derived from 1852-1889 Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  15. CENCAL1929_1942 - Vectorized Shoreline of Central Califonia Derived from 1929-1942 Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  16. Semi-automated procedures for shoreline extraction using single RADARSAT-1 SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Fugura, A.'kif; Billa, Lawal; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2011-12-01

    Coastline identification is important for surveying and mapping reasons. Coastline serves as the basic point of reference and is used on nautical charts for navigation purposes. Its delineation has become crucial and more important in the wake of the many recent earthquakes and tsunamis resulting in complete change and redraw of some shorelines. In a tropical country like Malaysia, presence of cloud cover hinders the application of optical remote sensing data. In this study a semi-automated technique and procedures are presented for shoreline delineation from RADARSAT-1 image. A scene of RADARSAT-1 satellite image was processed using enhanced filtering technique to identify and extract the shoreline coast of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. RADSARSAT image has many advantages over the optical data because of its ability to penetrate cloud cover and its night sensing capabilities. At first, speckles were removed from the image by using Lee sigma filter which was used to reduce random noise and to enhance the image and discriminate the boundary between land and water. The results showed an accurate and improved extraction and delineation of the entire coastline of Kuala Terrenganu. The study demonstrated the reliability of the image averaging filter in reducing random noise over the sea surface especially near the shoreline. It enhanced land-water boundary differentiation, enabling better delineation of the shoreline. Overall, the developed techniques showed the potential of radar imagery for accurate shoreline mapping and will be useful for monitoring shoreline changes during high and low tides as well as shoreline erosion in a tropical country like Malaysia.

  17. Wettability controls slow immiscible displacement through local interfacial instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Michael; Brinkmann, Martin; Seemann, Ralf; Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Immiscible fluid displacement with average front velocities in the capillary-dominated regime is studied in a transparent Hele-Shaw cell with cylindrical posts. Employing various combinations of fluids and wall materials allows us to cover a range of advancing contact angles 46∘≤θa≤180∘ of the invading fluid in our experiments. In parallel, we study the displacement process in particle-based simulations that account for wall wettability. Considering the same arrangement of posts in experiments and simulation, we find a consistent crossover between stable interfacial displacement at θa≲80∘ and capillary fingering at high contact angles θa≳120∘ . The position of the crossover is quantified through the evolution of the interface length and the final saturation of the displaced fluid. A statistical analysis of the local displacement processes demonstrates that the shape evolution of the fluid front is governed by local instabilities as proposed by Cieplak and Robbins for a quasistatic interfacial displacement [Cieplak and Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2042 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.2042]. The regime of stable front advances coincides with a corresponding region of contact angles where cooperative interfacial instabilities prevail. Capillary fingering, however, is observed only for large θa, where noncooperative instabilities dominate the invasion process.

  18. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid [Ain-Shams University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  19. Automatic Extraction of Tide-Coordinated Shoreline Using Open Source Software and Landsat Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, G.; Duro, N.; Sousa, E.; Figueiredo, I.

    2015-04-01

    Due to both natural and anthropogenic causes, the coastal lines keeps changing dynamically and continuously their shape, position and extend over time. In this paper we propose an approach to derive a tide-coordinate shoreline from two extracted instantaneous shorelines corresponding to a nearly low tide and high tide events. First, all the multispectral images are panshaperned to meet the 15 meters spatial resolution of the panchromatic images. Second, by using the Modification of Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) and the kmeans clustering method we extract the raster shoreline for each image acquisition time. Third, each raster shoreline is smoothed and vectorized using a penalized least square method. Fourth, a 2D constrained Delaunay triangulation is built from the two extracted instantaneous shorelines with their respective heights interpolated from a Tidal gauche station. Finally, the desired tide-coordinate shoreline is interpolated from the previous triangular intertidal surface. The results show that an automatic tide-coordinated extraction method can be efficiently implemented using free available remote sensing imagery data (Landsat 8) and open source software (QGIS and Orfeo toolbox) and python scripting for task automation and software integration.

  20. Measuring Sea Level Rise-Induced Shoreline Changes and Inundation in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, F.; Waetjen, D.; Grijalva, E.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a method to monitor shoreline inundation and changes in response to sea level rise (SLR) using a network of time-lapse cameras. We found for coastal tidal marshes that this method was sensitive to vertical changes in sea level of 20 cm has occurred in the San Francisco Bay and other US coastal areas and is likely to rise by another 30-45 cm by mid-century, which will flood and erode many coastal ecosystems, highways, and urban areas. This rapid degree of rise means that it is imperative to co-plan for natural and built systems. Many public facilities are adjacent to shoreline ecosystems, which both protect infrastructure from wave and tide energy and are home to regulated species and habitats. Accurate and timely information about the actual extent of SLR impacts to shorelines will be critical during built-system adaptation. Currently, satellite-sourced imagery cannot provide the spatial or temporal resolution necessary to investigate fine-scale shoreline changes, leaving a gap between predictive models and knowing how, where and when these changes are occurring. The method described is feasible for near-term (1 to 10 years) to long-term application and can be used for measuring fine-resolution shoreline changes (mashup. This information could be used to validate models predicting shoreline inundation and loss, inform SLR-adaptation planning, and to visualize SLR impacts to the public.

  1. Identifying environmental controls on the shoreline of a natural river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleynse, N.; Hiatt, M.; Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.

    2015-05-01

    River deltas form where sediment-laden water debouches into a basin. The spatial delineation of a delta is nontrivial and yet is fundamental to systematically evaluating fluxes across its surface. Here we study shoreline dynamics of the Wax Lake Delta (WLD), a naturally developing delta, downstream of the Atchafalaya River, USA. We demonstrate the ability to extract hydrodynamic and morphodynamic shorelines from time series of satellite imagery and topography data, respectively. The hydrodynamic shoreline corresponds to the traditional dry-wet interface, whereas we introduce the concept of a morphodynamic shoreline demarcating the topset-foreset transition of a delta to quantitatively express the degree of inundation of a delta plain. These shorelines enable us to assess environmental controls on inundation of the WLD delta plain, noting the abundance of satellite imagery, whereas time series of bathymetric data from delta plains are scarce. From the analysis of NOAA and U.S. Geological Survey environmental data, we identify the effects of river discharge, tides, wind, and vegetation on shoreline position. In particular, using Delft3D simulations and a simplified momentum balance, we highlight the nonuniform and nonlinear effect of wind on delta plain inundation. Our analyses reveal that wind, riverine discharge, and tides significantly contribute to inundation of the WLD, and hence, incorporating their interaction is essential to the accurate modeling of hydrodynamics and ecodynamics of the WLD delta plain, as well as to the dynamic shape of delta plains in general.

  2. THE EFFICIENCY OF RANDOM FOREST METHOD FOR SHORELINE EXTRACTION FROM LANDSAT-8 AND GOKTURK-2 IMAGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal monitoring plays a vital role in environmental planning and hazard management related issues. Since shorelines are fundamental data for environment management, disaster management, coastal erosion studies, modelling of sediment transport and coastal morphodynamics, various techniques have been developed to extract shorelines. Random Forest is one of these techniques which is used in this study for shoreline extraction.. This algorithm is a machine learning method based on decision trees. Decision trees analyse classes of training data creates rules for classification. In this study, Terkos region has been chosen for the proposed method within the scope of "TUBITAK Project (Project No: 115Y718 titled "Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Sustainable Coastal Zone Monitoring Model – Three-Dimensional Automatic Coastline Extraction and Analysis: Istanbul-Terkos Example". Random Forest algorithm has been implemented to extract the shoreline of the Black Sea where near the lake from LANDSAT-8 and GOKTURK-2 satellite imageries taken in 2015. The MATLAB environment was used for classification. To obtain land and water-body classes, the Random Forest method has been applied to NIR bands of LANDSAT-8 (5th band and GOKTURK-2 (4th band imageries. Each image has been digitized manually and shorelines obtained for accuracy assessment. According to accuracy assessment results, Random Forest method is efficient for both medium and high resolution images for shoreline extraction studies.

  3. The Efficiency of Random Forest Method for Shoreline Extraction from LANDSAT-8 and GOKTURK-2 Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, B.; Erdem, F.; Akpinar, B.; Ince, A. K.; Bozkurt, S.; Catal Reis, H.; Seker, D. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Coastal monitoring plays a vital role in environmental planning and hazard management related issues. Since shorelines are fundamental data for environment management, disaster management, coastal erosion studies, modelling of sediment transport and coastal morphodynamics, various techniques have been developed to extract shorelines. Random Forest is one of these techniques which is used in this study for shoreline extraction.. This algorithm is a machine learning method based on decision trees. Decision trees analyse classes of training data creates rules for classification. In this study, Terkos region has been chosen for the proposed method within the scope of "TUBITAK Project (Project No: 115Y718) titled "Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Sustainable Coastal Zone Monitoring Model - Three-Dimensional Automatic Coastline Extraction and Analysis: Istanbul-Terkos Example". Random Forest algorithm has been implemented to extract the shoreline of the Black Sea where near the lake from LANDSAT-8 and GOKTURK-2 satellite imageries taken in 2015. The MATLAB environment was used for classification. To obtain land and water-body classes, the Random Forest method has been applied to NIR bands of LANDSAT-8 (5th band) and GOKTURK-2 (4th band) imageries. Each image has been digitized manually and shorelines obtained for accuracy assessment. According to accuracy assessment results, Random Forest method is efficient for both medium and high resolution images for shoreline extraction studies.

  4. Effect of sampling frequency on shoreline microbiology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leecaster, Molly K.; Weisberg, Stephen B. [Southern California Coastal Water, Research Project, Westminster, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    More than 80,000 shoreline bacteriological samples are collected annually in southern California to protect beachgoer health, but sampling frequency varies from daily to monthly among sampling sites. To assess the effectiveness of various sampling frequencies, we used five years of data from 24 Los Angeles area sites that have been monitored daily to simulate five alternative sampling strategies: five weekdays, five days per week including a weekend day, three days per week, weekly, and monthly. For each of these sampling strategies, we included in the simulation the local custom of adaptive sampling, in which a site is resampled the following day if bacterial concentrations exceed the State of California's beach water quality standards. We found that sampling five times per week resulted in observing about 80% of the events in which State standards were exceeded. This frequency dropped to 55%, 25%, and 5% for three times per week, weekly, and monthly sampling, respectively. Adaptive sampling was ineffective because nearly 70% of the water quality exceedences were single-day events, even at the most frequently contaminated sites. This high frequency of single-day events is of concern because the public is typically notified about water quality conditions 24-48 h after samples are collected, meaning that most warnings are out-of-date when they are issued. (Author)

  5. Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines woldwide: sources and sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Crump, Phillip; Niven, Stewart J; Teuten, Emma; Tonkin, Andrew; Galloway, Tamara; Thompson, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Plastic debris microplastic) is accumulating in marine habitats. Ingestion of microplastic provides a potential pathway for the transfer of pollutants, monomers, and plastic-additives to organisms with uncertain consequences for their health. Here, we show that microplastic contaminates the shorelines at 18 sites worldwide representing six continents from the poles to the equator, with more material in densely populated areas, but no clear relationship between the abundance of miocroplastics and the mean size-distribution of natural particulates. An important source of microplastic appears to be through sewage contaminated by fibers from washing clothes. Forensic evaluation of microplastic from sediments showed that the proportions of polyester and acrylic fibers used in clothing resembled those found in habitats that receive sewage-discharges and sewage-effluent itself. Experiments sampling wastewater from domestic washing machines demonstrated that a single garment can produce >1900 fibers per wash. This suggests that a large proportion of microplastic fibers found in the marine environment may be derived from sewage as a consequence of washing of clothes. As the human population grows and people use more synthetic textiles, contamination of habitats and animals by microplastic is likely to increase.

  6. Habitat structure and zonation patterns of northwestern Mediterranean shoreline strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mariani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat structure (macrofaunal assemblages and bottom types and zonation patterns of 29 unvegetated shoreline strands along the 900-km coast of Catalonia (NW Mediterranean Sea. Organisms were sampled with grabs, pitfall traps, sticky traps, clam nets and spades to ensure capture of the different proportions of macrofaunal assemblages from the supra-, medio- and infralittoral levels. We collected 211 taxa: 194 animals and 17 algae. The most abundant and dominant organisms collected with van Veen grabs were Nematoda, Oligochaeta and Collembola at the supralittoral level; the polychaetes Saccocirrus spp. and Pisione remota, the amphipod Corophium orientale, Nematoda, and Turbellaria at the mediolittoral level; and Nematoda at the upper infralittoral level. SIMPER analysis revealed great dissimilarity between the organisms inhabiting the supralittoral and the other littoral levels. Regarding the epifauna, the sticky traps used at the supralittoral level mainly collected Collembola, which were nearly absent in pitfall traps. The qualitative study performed with a clam net and a small spade revealed that Nematoda, Saccocirrus spp., Turbellaria, Nemertea and the polychaete P. remota were the most abundant animals at both the medio- and the infralittoral levels and no differences were found between these levels. Different qualitative sampling methodologies showed that in fine sediments the bivalves Donax trunculus and D. semistriatus determined more than 97% of dissimilarity from coarse-sand sites. Richness increased in protected sandy and cobble shores. Littoral level and bottom-type features were only to a certain extent valid indicators of specific biotic components for a specific habitat.

  7. Displacement determinations of synergistic motion platform jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Кабанячий

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Urgency, statement and precise solution of displacement determinations problem of synergistic motion platform jacks depending on construction parameters and desired displacements along degrees of freedom are represented

  8. Shoreline surveys of oil-impacted marsh in southern Louisiana, July to August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Heckman, David; Holloway, JoAnn; Piazza, Sarai C.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Mills, Christopher T.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes shoreline surveys conducted in the marshes of Louisiana in areas impacted by oil spilled from the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Three field expeditions were conducted on July 7-10, August 12-14, and August 24-26, 2010, in central Barataria Bay and the Bird's Foot area at the terminus of the Mississippi River delta. This preliminary report includes locations of survey points, a photographic record of each site, field observations of vegetation cover and descriptions of oil coverage in the water and on plants, including measurements of the distance of oil penetration from the shoreline. Oiling in Barataria Bay marshes ranged from lightly oiled sections of stems of the predominant species Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus to wide zones of oil-damaged canopies and broken stems penetrating as far as 19 m into the marsh. For the 34 survey points in Barataria Bay where dimensions of oil damaged zones were measured, the depth of the oil-damaged zone extended, on average, 6.7 m into the marsh, with a standard deviation of 4.5 m. The median depth of penetration was 5.5 m. The extent to which the oil-damaged zone stretched along the shore varied with location but often extended more than 100 m parallel to the shoreline. Oil was observed on the marsh sediment at some sites in Barataria Bay. This oiled sediment was observed both above and a few centimeters below the water surface depending on the level of the tide. Phragmites australis was the dominant vegetation in oil-impacted zones in the Bird's Foot area of the Mississippi River delta. Oiling of the leaves and portions of the thick stems of P. australis was observed during field surveys. In contrast to the marshes of Barataria Bay, fewer areas of oil-damaged canopy were documented in the Bird's Foot area. In both areas, oil was observed to be persistent on the marsh plants from the earliest (July 7) to the latest (August 24) surveys. At sites

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline change of a 280-km high-energy disrupted sandy coast from 1950 to 2014: SW France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelle, Bruno; Guillot, Benoit; Marieu, Vincent; Chaumillon, Eric; Hanquiez, Vincent; Bujan, Stéphane; Poppeschi, Coline

    2018-01-01

    A dataset of 15 geo-referenced orthomosaics photos was generated to address long-term shoreline change along approximately 270 km of high-energy sandy coast in SW France between 1950 and 2014. The coast consists of sandy beaches backed by coastal dunes, which are only disrupted by two wide tidal inlets (Arcachon and Maumusson), a wide estuary mouth (Gironde) and a few small wave-dominated inlets and coastal towns. A time and spatially averaged erosion trend of 1.12 m/year is found over 1950-2014, with a local maximum of approximately 11 m/year and a maximum local accretion of approximately 6 m/year, respectively. Maximum shoreline evolutions are observed along coasts adjacent to the inlets and to the estuary mouth, with erosion and accretion alternating over time on the timescale of decades. The two inlet-sandspit systems of Arcachon and Maumusson show a quasi-synchronous behaviour with the two updrift coasts accreting until the 1970s and subsequently eroding since then, which suggests that shoreline change at these locations is controlled by allocyclic mechanisms. Despite sea level rise and the well-established increase in winter wave height over the last decades, there is no capture of significant increase in mean erosion rate. This is hypothesized to be partly the result of relevant coastal dune management works from the 1960s to the 1980s after a long period of coastal dune disrepair during and after the Second World War. This study suggests that long-term shoreline change of high-energy sandy coasts disrupted by inlets and/or estuaries is complex and needs to consider a wide range of parameters including, non-extensively, waves, tides, inlet dynamics, sea level rise, coastal dune management and coastal defences, which challenges the development of reliable long-term coastal evolution numerical models.

  10. The Cosmic Shoreline: The Evidence that Escape Determines which Planets Have Atmospheres, and what this May Mean for Proxima Centauri B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Catling, David C.

    2017-07-01

    The planets of the solar system are neatly divided between those with atmospheres and those without when arranged by insolation (I) and escape velocity ({v}{esc}). The dividing line goes at I\\propto {v}{esc}4. Exoplanets with reported masses and radii are shown to crowd against the extrapolation of the solar system trend, making a metaphorical cosmic shoreline that unites all the planets. The I\\propto {v}{esc}4 relation may implicate thermal escape. We therefore address the general behavior of hydrodynamic thermal escape models ranging from Pluto to highly irradiated extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). Energy-limited escape is harder to test because copious XUV radiation is mostly a feature of young stars, and hence requires extrapolating to historic XUV fluences ({I}{xuv}) using proxies and power laws. An energy-limited shoreline should scale as {I}{xuv}\\propto {v}{esc}3\\sqrt{ρ }, which differs distinctly from the apparent {I}{xuv}\\propto {v}{esc}4 relation. Energy-limited escape does provide good quantitative agreement to the highly irradiated EGPs. Diffusion-limited escape implies that no planet can lose more than 1% of its mass as H2. Impact erosion, to the extent that impact velocities {v}{imp} can be estimated for exoplanets, fits a {v}{imp}≈ 4{--}5 {v}{esc} shoreline. The proportionality constant is consistent with what the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 showed us we should expect of modest impacts in deep atmospheres. With respect to the shoreline, Proxima Centauri b is on the metaphorical beach. Known hazards include its rapid energetic accretion, high impact velocities, its early life on the wrong side of the runaway greenhouse, and Proxima Centauri’s XUV radiation. In its favor is a vast phase space of unknown unknowns.

  11. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic centimeter...

  12. a Study on Variations of Shoreline Changes and Temporal-Spatial Potentiality for Cloud Seeding at Urumia Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha Taher, R.; Jafari, M.; Fallah, M.; Alavi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Protecting the living environment has become one of the greatest human concerns; sudden increase of population, industry and technology development, unrestrained over consumption of the citizens and climate changes, have all caused many problems for mankind. Shores are special zones that are in contact with three Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere environments of earth. Shore lines are of the most important linear features of the earth's surface which have an animated and alive nature. In this regard, optimized management of the shores and environmental protection for stable development require observing the shorelines and their variations. Protection of shorelines within appropriate time periods is of high importance for the purpose of optimized management of the shores. The twenty first century has been called the era of information explosion. A time that, through benefits of new technologies, information experts attempt to generate more and up to date information in various fields and to provide them for managers and decision makers in order to be considered for future planning and also to assist the planners to arrange and set a comprehensive plan. Aerial images and remote sensing technology are economic methods to acquire the required data. Such methods are free from common time and place limitations in survey based methods. Among remote sensing data, the ones acquired from optical images have several benefits which include low cost, interpretation simplicity and ease of access. That is why most of the researches concerning extraction of shorelines are practiced using optical images. On the other hand, wide range coverage of satellite images along with rapid access to them caused these images to be used extensively for extracting the shorelines. The attempt in this research is to use satellite images and their application in order to study variations of the shorelines. Thus, for this purpose, Landsat satellite images from TM and ETM+ sensors in the 35

  13. A STUDY ON VARIATIONS OF SHORELINE CHANGES AND TEMPORAL-SPATIAL POTENTIALITY FOR CLOUD SEEDING AT URUMIA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agha Taher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protecting the living environment has become one of the greatest human concerns; sudden increase of population, industry and technology development, unrestrained over consumption of the citizens and climate changes, have all caused many problems for mankind. Shores are special zones that are in contact with three Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere environments of earth. Shore lines are of the most important linear features of the earth’s surface which have an animated and alive nature. In this regard, optimized management of the shores and environmental protection for stable development require observing the shorelines and their variations. Protection of shorelines within appropriate time periods is of high importance for the purpose of optimized management of the shores. The twenty first century has been called the era of information explosion. A time that, through benefits of new technologies, information experts attempt to generate more and up to date information in various fields and to provide them for managers and decision makers in order to be considered for future planning and also to assist the planners to arrange and set a comprehensive plan. Aerial images and remote sensing technology are economic methods to acquire the required data. Such methods are free from common time and place limitations in survey based methods. Among remote sensing data, the ones acquired from optical images have several benefits which include low cost, interpretation simplicity and ease of access. That is why most of the researches concerning extraction of shorelines are practiced using optical images. On the other hand, wide range coverage of satellite images along with rapid access to them caused these images to be used extensively for extracting the shorelines. The attempt in this research is to use satellite images and their application in order to study variations of the shorelines. Thus, for this purpose, Landsat satellite images from TM and ETM

  14. Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.

    2012-12-01

    Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of

  15. Ancient shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilization (Late Mid-Holocene): A study based on archaeological evidences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    in Ancient Indian literature about the behaviour of shoreline which significantly affected the coastal human settlement. It is now generally agreed that glaceo-eustatic sea-level stood higher than the present in and around 6000 years BP 6–8 . During...) and developed full scale. Archaeological evidences such as Ancient shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilization (Late Mid- Holocene): A study based on archaeological evidences Page 1 of 8Ancient shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus...

  16. a Method of Extracting Shoreline Based on Semantic Information Using Dual-Length LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Wu, J.; Yuan, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Shoreline is a spatial varying separation between water and land. By utilizing dual-wavelength LiDAR point data together with semantic information that shoreline often appears beyond water surface profile and is observable on the beach, the paper generates the shoreline and the details are as follows: (1) Gain the water surface profile: first we obtain water surface by roughly selecting water points based on several features of water body, then apply least square fitting method to get the whole water trend surface. Then we get the ground surface connecting the under -water surface by both TIN progressive filtering method and surface interpolation method. After that, we have two fitting surfaces intersected to get water surface profile of the island. (2) Gain the sandy beach: we grid all points and select the water surface profile grids points as seeds, then extract sandy beach points based on eight-neighborhood method and features, then we get all sandy beaches. (3) Get the island shoreline: first we get the sandy beach shoreline based on intensity information, then we get a threshold value to distinguish wet area and dry area, therefore we get the shoreline of several sandy beaches. In some extent, the shoreline has the same height values within a small area, by using all the sandy shoreline points to fit a plane P, and the intersection line of the ground surface and the shoreline plane P can be regarded as the island shoreline. By comparing with the surveying shoreline, the results show that the proposed method can successfully extract shoreline.

  17. Shoreline and beach volume change between 1967 and 2007 at Raine Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, John L.; Smithers, Scott G.

    2010-06-01

    Raine Island is a vegetated coral cay located on the far northern outer Great Barrier Reef (GBR), recognised as a globally significant turtle rookery. Cay geomorphology, specifically the morphology of the beach and swale, dictate the availability of nesting sites and influence nesting success. Understanding short and long-term shoreline change is critical for managers charged with protecting the nesting habitat, particularly as climate change progresses. Historical topographic surveys, a simple numerical model and geographic information system (GIS) techniques were used to reconstruct a 40-year (1967-2007) shoreline history of Raine Island. Results show that significant shoreline change has occurred on 78% of the island's shoreline between 1967 and 2007; 34% experienced net retreat and 44% net progradation during the study interval. Shoreline retreat is mainly concentrated on the east-southeast section of the shoreline (average annual rate of - 0.3 ± 0.3 m/yr), while the shore on the western side of the island prograded at a similar rate (0.4 ± 0.2 m/yr). A seasonal signal was detected relating to oscillations in wind direction and intensity, with the southeast and west-southwest shorelines migrating an average of ˜ 17 m from season to season. The volume of sediment deposited on Raine Island between 1967 and 2007 increased by ˜ 68,000 m 3 net, but accretion rates varied significantly seasonally and from year to year. The largest volumetric changes have typically occurred over the last 23 years (1984-2007). Despite the recent concern that Raine Island is rapidly eroding, our data demonstrate net island growth (6% area, 4% volume) between 1967 and 2007. Perceptions of erosion probably reflect large morphological changes arising from seasonal, inter-annual and inter-decadal patterns of sediment redistribution rather than net loss from the island's sediment budget.

  18. Sterile neutrino searches via displaced vertices at LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    We explore the sensitivity of displaced vertex searches at LHCb for testing sterile neutrino extensions of the Standard Model towards explaining the observed neutrino masses. We derive estimates for the constraints on sterile neutrino parameters from a recently published displaced vertex search at LHCb based on run 1 data. They yield the currently most stringent limit on active-sterile neutrino mixing in the sterile neutrino mass range between 4.5 GeV and 10 GeV. Furthermore, we present forecasts for the sensitivities that could be obtained from the run 2 data and also for the high-luminosity phase of the LHC.

  19. Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.

  20. Shanghai Shoreline Evolution Interpreted from Historical Atlas and Remote Sensing Imagery Over the Past 2,200 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, H.; Wang, W.; Qiao, G.

    2016-06-01

    Shanghai, the axis of economic development in China and holding the most prosperous metropolis in the world, is located at Yangtze Estuary which is susceptible to shoreline changes affected by different factors, such as sediment supply and sea level changes, making it very important to study the shoreline changes over long time period. This paper presents the Shanghai shoreline evolution process from BC 221 up to 2015, by employing both the cartographic data (historical atlas) and the remote sensing images. A series of image processing techniques were applied to seamlessly register the historical atlas and satellite images to the same orthophoto base map, followed by the semi-automatic extraction of shoreline from images. Results show that since BC 221, the Shanghai shoreline has been witnessing distinct progradation, and the rate of shoreline advance varied in different areas. The average shoreline change in southern Yangtze Estuary was about 2,573 km2 (accretion) between BC 221 and 1948 with a 40 km progradation, while the shoreline in northern Hangzhou Bay kept relatively steady after 1671. Overall, 3,119 km2 of Shanghai area was added between BC 221 and 1948 with an average rate of 75 km2/50yr, and the addition went to 4,372 km2 in 2015. In this paper, the possible drives of the shoreline evolution was discussed. This study is important for understanding the coastal dynamics in Shanghai over a long time period for the management and development of coastal environments.

  1. Clinical and magnetic resonance evaluation of the temporomandibular joint with rotational disc displacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Masatoshi; Sakurada, Motoyuki; Echigo, Seishi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Dentistry; Kumagai, Masahiro; Kochi, Shoko

    1998-03-01

    The most common direction of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement is anterior. Anterior disc displacement is associated with lateral or medial disc displacement, termed rotational disc displacement (RDD). There have been few systematic studies of the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of TMJs with RDD. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of RDD and to evaluate the relations between the direction of disc displacement (anteromedial RDD, anterolateral RDD, and pure anterior disc displacement) and clinical findings, including joint pain, joint sound, and range of motion, as well as MRI findings, including disc shape, disc reduction, disc mobility, degree of disc displacement, bone changes of the condyle, and degree of condylar translation. The study was based on MRI of 529 TMJs in 409 patients with symptoms and signs of TMJ. Sagittal and coronal T1-weighted SE images (1.5 Tesla) were used. MRI showed anteromedial RDD in 96 joints (18.1%), anterolateral RDD in 64 joints (12.1%), and anterior disc displacement in 207 joints (39.1%). There were no statistical differences between anterolateral RDD, anteromedial RDD, and anterior disc displacement with regard to clinical findings. The incidence of reducible disc was higher in anterolateral RDD than in anteromedial RDD or anterior disc displacement. The incidence of bone changes was lower in anterolateral RDD than in anterior disc displacement. There were no significant differences between anteromedial RDD and anterior disc displacement with regard to MRI findings. In conclusion, anteromedial RDD may represent the same clinical entity as anterior disc displacement, but it remains unclear whether or not anterolateral RDD differs from anteromedial RDD or anterior disc displacement. (author)

  2. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip

  3. Late Holocene Shoreline Dynamics and Sediment Partitioning in the Waipaoa Sedimentary System, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, M. A.; Swenson, J. B.; Bever, A.; Harris, C. K.

    2006-12-01

    Over the course of the late Holocene highstand the shoreline at Poverty Bay has actively prograded due to sediment influx from the Waipaoa river. Mapping of paleo-shoreline positions has shown that the progradation rate has decreased through time. We use sedimentary process modeling on multiple time scales to evaluate potential causes of this decrease, and to constrain long-term sediment fluxes entering the coastal plain and exiting Poverty Bay. We consider three factors which could potentially contribute to the decelerating progradation: (1) Increasing basin width as the shoreline progrades seaward, (2) decreasing sediment supply to the shore due to upstream decreases in erosion or increases in storage, and (3) increasing sediment removal from the nearshore as the shoreline approaches the mouth of Poverty Bay and the coast becomes less sheltered from energetic waves. Simplified (1D diffusive) long-term stratigraphic modeling of the fluvial system is used to explore the effects of variations in upstream sediment and water supply on floodplain storage and shoreline progradation. We use a detailed 3D hydrodynamic model of sediment transport by waves and currents to explore the fate of sediment which reaches the shore. Results from these 3D simulations of single flood and storm events are scaled up to constrain the partitioning of sediment between the nearshore and outer shelf.

  4. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  5. Tors, Eustatic Shorelines, and Mammoths: Evidence Against Ice Sheets on Wrangel Island, East Siberian/Chukchi Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, L.; Vartanyan, S.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Anderson, P.

    2001-12-01

    Assumed glacial flutings on the Chukchi Rise (Polyak et al., 2001) have reinvigorated hypotheses concerning the past presence of the same type of ice sheet or ice shelf on the Chukchi and/or East Siberian Sea shelf. Fieldwork on wrangle Island has been aimed at determining the glacial and sea level history of this geographically strategic island to address these various hypotheses. Cosmogenic isotope ages (Be and Al) on bedrock are all older that 35 ka , at a minimum, the rates of pervasive pariglacial processes. Tors, commonly forming columns 10 m high, are ubiquitous throughout the mountains of Wrangel Island. Eustatic shorelines (and not glacioisostatic shorelines) across the northern tundra plain marked by remnant marine sediments and ancient barrier beaches up to 40 m above seal level are all older than the range of radiocarbon dating and yield amino acid age estimates (D/L Aspartic as well as aIle/Ile) in excess of 400-500 ka, similar to sediments found in the Alaskan North Slope. Radiocarbon dates on mammoth borres, teeth and tusks and other animals (rhinos, bison) yield ages that range continuously through time from >38 ka to 3700 years ago indicating the local presence of large mammals during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and most of the Holocene. These data preclude the presence of an ice sheet during the LGM and probably over the past half million years. Glacial ice extent on the island during the LGM was limited to a few small north facing cirque glaciers. The flutings on the Chukchi Rise could not have been formed by an ice sheet over or near Wrangel Island in at least the last four or five major glacial/interglacial cycles.

  6. Hurricane Sandy beach response and recovery at Fire Island, New York: Shoreline, beach profile data, and breach shoreline data: October 2012 to June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rachel E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Brenner, Owen T.; Reynolds, Billy J.

    2017-01-01

    Fire Island, New York is the site of a long term coastal morphologic change and processes project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). One of the objectives of the project was to understand the morphologic evolution of the barrier system on a variety of time scales (months–years–decades–centuries). In response to Hurricane Sandy (October 2012), this effort continued with the intention of resolving storm impacts, post-storm beach response, and recovery. The day before Hurricane Sandy made landfall a USGS field team conducted surveys at Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) to quantify the pre-storm morphologic state of the beach and dunes. The area was re-surveyed after the storm, as soon as access to the island was possible. In order to fully capture the recovery of the barrier system, the USGS Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Fire Island Study was established to include regular surveying in the weeks, months, and years following the storm. As part of the USGS Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Fire Island Study, the beach is monitored periodically to enable better understanding of post-Sandy recovery. The alongshore state of the beach is recorded using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) to collect data around the mean high water (MHW; 0.46 meter North American Vertical Datum of 1988) to derive a shoreline, and the cross-shore response and recovery are measured along a series of 15 profiles (Figure 1). Monitoring continued in the weeks following Hurricane Sandy with additional monthly collection through April 2013, and repeat surveys every 2–3 months thereafter until October 2014. Additional bi-annual surveys have been collected through September 2016. Beginning in October 2014 the USGS also began collecting a shoreline at the Wilderness breach, in the location of Old Inlet, in the Otis Pike High Dunes Wilderness area. The shoreline collected was an approximation of the MHW shoreline. The operator walked along an estimated MHW elevation above

  7. Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hovil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

  8. Modeling Displacement Measurement using Vibration Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOSTON Katalin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects regarding to small displacement measurement using vibration transducers. Mechanical faults, usages, slackness’s, cause different noises and vibrations with different amplitude and frequency against the normal sound and movement of the equipment. The vibration transducers, accelerometers and microphone are used for noise and/or sound and vibration detection with fault detection purpose. The output signal of the vibration transducers or accelerometers is an acceleration signal and can be converted to either velocity or displacement, depending on the preferred measurement parameter. Displacement characteristics are used to indicate when the machine condition has changed. There are many problems using accelerometers to measure position or displacement. It is important to determine displacement over time. To determinate the movement from acceleration a double integration is needed. A transfer function and Simulink model was determinate for accelerometers with capacitive sensing element. Using these models the displacement was reproduced by low frequency input.

  9. Automatic Detection of Decadal Shoreline Change on Northern Coastal of Gresik, East Java – Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, M. A. Z.; A, M. Fais D.

    2017-12-01

    The Coastal zone is a dynamic region that has high environmental and economic values. This present research focuses on the analyzing the rate of shoreline change using multi-temporal Landsat Imagery and Digital Shoreline Analysis Systems (DSAS) along the northern part of Gresik coastal area, East Java Indonesia. Five village were selected for analysis; Campurejo, Dalegan, Prupuh, Ngemboh, and Banyuurip. Erosion and Accretion were observed and detected on Multi-temporal satellite Images along the area of interest from 1972 – 2016. Landsat Images were radiometrically and geometrically corrected before using for analysis. Coastline delineation for each Landsat image was performed by MNDWI method before digitized for quantitative shoreline change analysis. DSAS was performed for quantitative analysis of Net Shoreline Movement (NSM) and End Point Rate (EPR). The results indicate that in the study area accretion and abrasion was occurred, but overall abrasion was dominated than accretion. The remarkable shoreline changes were observed in the entire region. The highest abrasion area was occurred in Ngemboh village. From 1972 to 2016, coastline was retreat 242.56 meter to the land and the rate of movement was -5.54m/yr. In contrast, Campurejo area was relatively stable due to the introduction of manmade structure, i.e. Jetty and Groin. The Shoreline movement and the rate of movement in this area were -6.11m and -0.12 m/yr respectively. The research represents an important step in understanding the dynamics of coastal area in this area. By identification and analysis of coastline evolution, the stake holder could perform a scenario for reducing the risk of coastal erosion and minimize the social and economic lost.

  10. Determinants of Hip Displacement in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia Hsieh; Wang, Ying Chih; Ho, Pei Chi; Hwang, Ai Wen; Kao, Hsuan Kai; Lee, Wei Chun; Yang, Wen E; Kuo, Ken N

    2015-11-01

    Coxa valga and femoral anteversion often are seen in patients with spastic hip displacement and osteotomy is recommended. However, the relationship between femoral deformities and hip displacement has not been clearly defined and other factors, such as joint motion and posture, should be considered before recommending treatment. For children with cerebral palsy with Gross Motor Function Classification System Level IV or V, we questioned (1) whether hip abduction range correlates with hip displacement, (2) what the relationships are between proximal femoral deformities and hip displacement, and (3) whether the patient with a windblown posture has greater degrees of femoral anteversion? We retrospectively studied 31 consecutive children with cerebral palsy with Level IV or V gross motor function who underwent three-dimensional CT for preoperative assessment of hip displacement between January 2010 and December 2013. Among the children, 23 had a windblown posture and eight had symmetric hip motion. Femoral anteversion and true neck-shaft angle were measured from the three-dimensional CT images. Migration percentage was the dependent variable we chose to study in relation to femoral anteversion, neck-shaft angle, maximal hip abduction, and hip flexion contracture, using correlations and multiple linear regressions. Using ANOVA and Scheffé's post hoc tests, we analyzed and compared the data of 23 abducted hips and 23 adducted hips in the 23 children with windblown posture and in 16 displaced hips in the eight children with symmetric hip abduction. Greater migration percentage was associated with less hip abduction range (r = -0.86; p < 0.001). Femoral anteversion had a weak correlation (r = 0.28; p < 0.05) to migration percentage, and the association became insignificant after considering hip abduction motion. Adducted windblown hips had greater femoral anteversion than the symmetric displaced hips and abducted windblown hips (46° vs 36° and 38°, respectively; p < 0

  11. Outcome of alternative approach to displaced acetabular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K S; Chan, C K; Lee, G W; Ahn, H W; Yoon, T R

    2017-02-01

    Anatomical reduction of displaced acetabular fracture is not without its' limitations and complications. This study is conducted to assess clinical and radiological outcomes as well as complications of treating displaced acetabular fractures with emphasis on anatomical reduction in weight-bearing area, mainly the posterior column, and imperfect reduction of the anterior column is acceptable. However, stability of both columns is mandatory. It was a retrospective study carried out in a Level 1 arthroplasty and trauma centre. 23 patients (17 males, 6 females) with average age of 50.1 years (range, 36-68 years) with displaced acetabular fracture treated with combined incisions and plate-cable systems were included. There were 3 elementary and 18 associated fractures according to Letournel classification. Average follow-up was 23.5 months (range, 12-38.7 months). Mean operation time was 160min (range: 75-320min). Functional scores were evaluated using Harris Hip Score (HHS) whilst reduction was assessed by Matta criteria. Any displacement of reduction, osteoarthritis, heterotopic ossification, and other complications was recorded. 65.2% (15/23) of the patients obtained excellent HHS and 21.7% (5/23) had good HHS. There were 12 anatomical, 6 imperfect, and 5 poor reductions. No displacement was recorded in final follow-up. Complications documented: three lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injuries, two conversions to total hip arthroplasty, three Brooker stage 1 heterotrophic ossification, one pulmonary embolism and one screw irritation. No incidence of wound breakdown, infection and radiological osteoarthritis was reported. Imperfect reduction of the anterior column provided clinical outcomes that are as good as total anatomical reduction. This approach minimizes soft tissue damage and reduces perioperative morbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Articular disc displacement in mandibular asymmetry patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boonsiva Buranastidporn; Hisano, Masataka; Soma, Kunimichi

    2004-01-01

    ...) inmandibular asymmetry have not been clearlydefined. This study examines the degree anddirection of disc displacement and their relationshipwith vertical asymmetry in terms of both clinicaland biomechanical aspects...

  13. Percutaneous Fixation of Displaced Calcaneal Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Yip-Kan

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Percutaneous fixation of displaced tongue-type calcaneal fractures is an effective treatment with acceptable clinical outcome, short hospital stay, minimal skin complications, and quick recovery.

  14. Further ecological and shoreline stability reconnaissance surveys of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.S.; Strand, J.A.; Ecker, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island was performed to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and marine plant resources occurring at three proposed alternate pier sites on the west side of Back Island. Additionally, a limited survey of terrestrial vegetation was conducted in the vicinity of one of the proposed alternate pier sites to describe the littoral community and to list the dominant plant species found there. Finally, a reconnaissance survey of the shoreline of Back Island was conducted to evaluate potential changes in shoreline stability resulting from construction of onshore portions of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC).

  15. A study on reflection pattern of swells from the shoreline of peninsular India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.

    & Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India URL: www.nio.org Corresp.: V. Sanil Kumar (Tel: 0091 832 2450 327; Fax: 0091 832 2450 602; Email:sanil@nio.org) Abstract Information on reflected surface gravity waves from the shoreline is required...; Ardhuin et al. 2011) and to study these noises, information on waves reflected from the shoreline is necessary. The phase velocities depend on the spatial gradients of the wave action which can be over-predicted at locations where wave reflection...

  16. Post-dispersal probability of germination and establishment on the shorelines of slow-flowing or stagnant water bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, J.M.; Soons, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Question: In Dutch fens, species that colonize open water and induce the formation of floating peat mats have become rare. Many such riparian pioneer species occur predominantly on shorelines sheltered from the wind, whereas the majority of seeds tend to be deposited on exposed shorelines, as seeds

  17. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Cape Krusenstern. These shoreline...

  18. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge. These shoreline...

  19. OFR2012-1247 Shoreline Management Tool NAVD88 v20130410 -- version for lower Wood River Valley, Oregon using NAVD88 vertical datum

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains directory structure for use with the Shoreline Management Tool as described in Open File Report 2012-1247 entitled "The Shoreline Management...

  20. Baseline_OpenOcean.shp - Baseline Along the Open-Ocean (South-Facing) Coast of Dauphin Island, Alabama, Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Analysis of shoreline change for Dauphin Island, Alabama was conducted using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) v.4.3 for...

  1. Transects_OpenOcean.shp - Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 Transects with Linear Regression Rate Calculations for the Open Ocean coast of Dauphin Island, Alabama.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of shoreline change for Dauphin Island, Alabama were generated for three analysis periods, using two different shoreline proxy datasets. Mean High Water line...

  2. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  3. Types and Origins of Debris Found on Maui Shorelines: Implications for Mitigation Policies and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickley, L.; Currie, J. J.; Kaufman, G. D.

    2016-02-01

    Marine debris is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific Ocean. The proximity of the Main Hawaiian Islands to these "garbage patches" represents an ongoing concern with little understanding of debris origins or efficacy of current mitigation policies. Debris accumulation surveys were conducted monthly between October 2013 and August 2014 and daily during January 2015 at 3 beaches on Maui's coastline. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites and were influenced by both environmental and anthropogenic factors. Debris accumulation was strongly influenced by the temporal scale of sampling, with daily surveys showing a significant increase in accumulation rate. Plastics were the most common debris item at each site ranging from local, land-based debris including cigarette butts, straws, and food wrappers, to foreign, ocean-based debris such as oyster spacer tubes and hagfish traps. The results of this study indicate that the passage of a tobacco free beaches bill on Maui has not significantly reduced the amount of tobacco related debris. Alternatively, a ban on plastic grocery bags has eliminated this type of debris from Maui's shorelines, with no bags found at any of the sampling sites. The wide spread origins of collected debris further suggests that mitigation strategies to reduce debris will need to take place across hundreds of local municipalities. The efficacy of marine debris policies furthermore depends on enforcement and implementation strategy, as current results suggest policy enforcement at the producer level affords more effective results than that at the consumer level. Local debris mitigation actions have nevertheless been shown to affect debris loads, and municipalities are therefore encouraged to adopt a holistic combination of policy, community-based debris removal programs, increased public awareness, and ongoing monitoring to address marine debris.

  4. Shoreline type and subsurface oil persistence in the Exon Valdez spill zone of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D. [Exponent Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Neff and Associates, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The grounding of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in the spring of 1989 resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil into the marine environment. Nearly 800 km of shoreline were oiled to some degree. There was an unprecedented oil spill cleanup effort following the spill. The shoreline surveys of the spill zone were synthesized in this paper in an effort to demonstrate the relationship between shoreline type and persistence of subsurface oil (SSO) residues. Shoreline surveys of surface and SSO indicate rapid initial oil loss with a decline from about 800 linear km of PWS shoreline in 1989 to about 10 km of oiled shoreline in 1992. The period of rapid loss was attributed to natural physical process, biodegradation and cleanup activities that removed accessible spill remnants from shorelines. This was followed by a slower natural average loss rate for less accessible surface and SSO deposits of about 22 per cent per year for the period 1992-2001. This paper emphasized that shoreline type plays a key role in determining SSO persistence. The geology of PWS is complex. Many of the shorelines where SSO persists have armouring layers composed of hard, dense clasts, such as the quartzite boulders and cobblestones that can protect SSO deposits. Eighteen years after the spill, persistent SSO deposits in PWS shorelines remain protected from tidal water-washing and biodegradation by a surface boulder/cobble armour and low sediment porosity. The SSO deposits are in a physical/chemical form and location where they do not pose a health risk to intertidal biological communities and animals. The surveys continue to substantiate that remaining SSO deposits in PWS continue to degrade and go away slowly. 37 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Seismic displacement of gravity retaining walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismic displacement of gravity walls had been studied using conventional static methods for controlled displacement design. In this study plain strain numerical analysis is performed using Plaxis dynamic program where prescribed displacement is applied at the bottom boundary of the soil to simulate the applied seismic load. Constrained absorbent side boundaries are introduced to prevent any wave reflection. The studied soil is chosen dense granular sand and modeled as elasto-plastic material according to Mohr–Column criteria while the gravity wall is assumed elastic. By comparing the resulted seismic wall displacements calculated by numerical analysis for six historical ground motions with that calculated by the pseudo-static method, it is found that numerical seismic displacements are either equal to or greater than corresponding pseudo-static values. Permissible seismic wall displacement calculated by AASHTO can be used for empirical estimation of seismic displacement. It is also found that seismic wall displacement is directly proportional with the positive angle of inclination of the back surface of the wall, soil flexibility and with the earthquake maximum ground acceleration. Seismic wall sliding is dominant and rotation is negligible for rigid walls when the ratio between the wall height and the foundation width is less than 1.4, while for greater ratios the wall becomes more flexible and rotation (rocking increases till the ratio reaches 1.8 where overturning is susceptible to take place. Cumulative seismic wall rotation increases with dynamic time and tends to be constant at the end of earthquake.

  6. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  7. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  8. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 68; Issue 4. Atomic displacements in bcc ... metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method.

  9. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  10. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has been...

  11. Antibodies Targeting Closely Adjacent or Minimally Overlapping Epitopes Can Displace One Another.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Noubia Abdiche

    Full Text Available Here we describe how real-time label-free biosensors can be used to identify antibodies that compete for closely adjacent or minimally overlapping epitopes on their specific antigen via a mechanism of antibody displacement. By kinetically perturbing one another's binding towards their antigen via the formation of a transient trimolecular complex, antibodies can displace one another in a fully reversible and dose-dependent manner. Displacements can be readily identified when epitope binning assays are performed in a classical sandwich assay format whereby a solution antibody (analyte is tested for binding to its antigen that is first captured via an immobilized antibody (ligand because an inverted sandwiching response is observed when an analyte displaces a ligand, signifying the antigen's unusually rapid dissociation from its ligand. In addition to classifying antibodies within a panel in terms of their ability to block or sandwich pair with one another, displacement provides a hybrid mechanism of competition. Using high-throughput epitope binning studies we demonstrate that displacements can be observed on any target, if the antibody panel contains appropriate epitope diversity. Unidirectional displacements occurring between disparate-affinity antibodies can generate apparent asymmetries in a cross-blocking experiment, confounding their interpretation. However, examining competition across a wide enough concentration range will often reveal that these displacements are reversible. Displacement provides a gentle and efficient way of eluting antigen from an otherwise high affinity binding partner which can be leveraged in designing reagents or therapeutic antibodies with unique properties.

  12. [New estimation method for displacement characteristic of teeth with occlusal force records].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kosuke; Sato, Yuji; Kitagawa, Noboru; Uchida, Keiichiro; Sugawara, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    To establish adequate occlusion for prostheses, evaluation of degree of displacement of teeth and implant is essential. However, it cannot be attained without complex equipment, which limits clinical application. To develop a new estimation method for displacement characteristic of teeth and implant by both occlusal force of individual teeth and existing data on degree of displacement, the relationship between increase of total occlusal force and occlusal force of individual teeth was evaluated. Ten male subjects (mean age: 28.5, [range: 26-31] years) with clinically normal healthy dentition were selected. Electromyograms at maximum clenching at intercuspal position were recorded as 100 MVC. Then, clenching at 80, 60, 50, 30, 20, and 10 MVC was instructed with visual feedback. Occlusal forces were recorded with pressure-sensitive sheet (Dental-Prescale). The occlusal contacts were recorded by a silicone occlusal contact checking material (Black Silicone). The change of occlusal forces at first premolar was converted to displacement with existing data of degree of displacement (Goto et al). Then displacement characteristic of second premolar and first molar was calculated. The displacement characteristic of second premolar was similar to existing data on first premolar. Although the displacement characteristic of first molar was similar, the degree of displacement was small, which means occlusal force at the first molar increased more than at the first premolar as increase of the displacement. The results of this study, indicating similarity to past studies with complex equipment, suggest that the displacement characteristic of teeth could be estimated with both occlusal force of individual teeth and existing data on degree of displacement.

  13. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  14. Simulations of threshold displacement in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew L. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fossati, Paul C. M.; Grimes, Robin W. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-28

    Atomic scale molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage have been performed on beryllium. Direct threshold displacement simulations along a geodesic projection of directions were used to investigate the directional dependence with a high spatial resolution. It was found that the directionally averaged probability of displacement increases from 0 at 35 eV, with the energy at which there is a 50% chance of a displacement occurring is 70 eV and asymptotically approaching 1 for higher energies. This is, however, strongly directionally dependent with a 50% probability of displacement varying from 35 to 120 eV, with low energy directions corresponding to the nearest neighbour directions. A new kinetic energy dependent expression for the average maximum displacement of an atom as a function of energy is derived which closely matches the simulated data.

  15. A survey of potential bald eagle nesting habitat along the Great Lakes shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Bowerman; Teryl G. Grubb; Allen J. Bath; John P. Giesy; D.V. Chip Weseloh

    2005-01-01

    We used fixed-wing aircraft to survey the entire shoreline and connecting channels of the five Great Lakes to determine potential nesting habitat for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) during 1992. Habitat was classified as either good, marginal, or unsuitable, based on six habitat attributes: (a) tree cover, (b) proximity and (c) type/amount...

  16. Decadal shoreline assessment using remote sensing along the central Odisha coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Dhiman, R.; Choudhary, R.; Jayakumar, S.; Ilangovan, D.; Vethamony, P.

    sensing data (Landsat and IRS P6) were used in the study. Digital shoreline analysis system discovered the eroded and accreted parts of the study area. Gahirmatha and coast above Devi River experienced heavy erosion during 2000–2012 compared with 1990...

  17. 36 CFR 327.30 - Shoreline Management on Civil Works Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., hydro-electric power stations, work areas, water intake structures, etc. No shoreline use permits will... initial formulation stage and must be broad-based to cover all aspects of public interest. The key to... natural features. Anchoring to vegetation is prohibited. (7) Electrical service and equipment leading to...

  18. The influx of marine debris from the Great Japan Tsunami of 2011 to North American shorelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Maximenko, Nikolai; Lippiatt, Sherry

    2018-01-10

    Marine debris is one of the leading threats to the ocean and the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 washed away an estimated 5million tons of debris in a single, tragic event. Here we used shoreline surveys, disaster debris reports and ocean drift models to investigate the temporal and spatial trends in the arrival of tsunami marine debris. The increase in debris influx to surveyed North American and Hawaiian shorelines was substantial and significant, representing a 10 time increase over the baseline in northern Washington State where a long term dataset was available. The tsunami event brought different types of debris along the coast, with high-windage items dominant in Alaska and British Columbia and large, medium-windage items in Washington State and Oregon. Recorded cumulative debris landings to North America were close to 100,000 items in the four year study period. The temporal peaks in measured shoreline debris and debris reports match the ocean drift model solutions. Mitigation and monitoring activities, such as shoreline surveys, provide crucial data and monitoring for potential impacts should be continued in the future. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short and medium-term evolution of shoreline undulations on curvilinear coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel; Baquerizo, Asunción; Losada, Miguel A.

    2012-07-01

    This article proposes a one-line type model to explain the formation and evolution of shoreline undulations on circular or elliptic curvilinear coasts, such as littoral spits. The model takes into account the variation of the surf zone width stemming from the convergence and divergence of the waves propagating over a conical bathymetry with a small radius of curvature. The alongshore sediment transport varies with the angle formed by the wave crests and the coastline, as well as with surf zone width and sediment grain size. This model was applied to the shoreline undulations observed at the mouth of the River Guadalquivir (Gulf of Cádiz, Spain) and those at El Puntal Spit (Cantabrian Sea, Spain). In the first case, the model was forced with several sets of five-year wave climate simulations. At the El Puntal Spit, three different wave conditions, corresponding to the growth, saturation, and decay stages of the undulations, were simulated. In both cases, a net longitudinal growth of the spits was observed. Despite simplifications, the amplitude and wavelength of the shoreline undulations agree with the observations. Furthermore, both the zone and development time of the shoreline undulations can be estimated. The mechanism proposed for their generation and evolution may be complementary to other mechanisms, such as the instability mechanism of the coastline associated with high-angle waves.

  20. The use of video imagery to analyse groundwater and shoreline dynamics on a dissipative beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, C.E.; Bryan, K.R.; Coco, G.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater seepage is known to influence beach erosion and accretion processes. However, field measurements of the variation of the groundwater seepage line (GWSL) and the vertical elevation difference between the GWSL and the shoreline are limited. We developed a methodology to extract the

  1. Video monitoring of sandbar-shoreline response to an offshore submerged structure at a microtidal beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Clément; Balouin, Yann; Castelle, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    In early 2013, an 800-m long and 12-m wide submerged breakwater with its crest in 2-m depth was implemented at the wave-dominated barred beach of Sète, SE France, to fight against erosion and submersion hazards. Daily video images from April 2011 to April 2016 covering an alongshore distance of 3.5 km are used to analyse the response of both the sandbar(s) and the shoreline to the structure implementation. Results show that the breakwater had a profound impact on the nearshore system, both shoreward of the structure and well away from it alongshore. A progressive rotation and linearisation of the sandbar was observed shoreward of the submerged breakwater. This resulted in the splitting of the sandbar adjacent to the structure during a net offshore sandbar migration event driven by a severe storm in December 2013. The typical formation of a salient or tombolo was not observed. Instead, shoreline coupled to the sandbar geometry, which resulted in a slight seaward migration of the shoreline in front of the structure. Overall, this study highlights that the role of the sandbar is critical to shoreline response to the implementation of breakwaters on barred beaches.

  2. Shoreline changes along Tamil Nadu coast: A study based on archaeological and coastal dynamics perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; ManiMurali, R.; JayaKumar S.; Gaur, A.S.

    s of coast line over a period of 2000 years Shoreline changes have been calculated to about 497 m and 380 m at Poompuhar and Tranquebar during the last 75 years Apart from prevailing waves and currents, past sea level change estimates, tectonic movement...

  3. Multidecadal Shoreline Evolution Due to Large-scale Beach Nourishment in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, M.; Takewaka, S.; Kuriyama, Y.

    2016-12-01

    A large-scale beach nourishment in the Netherlands, the Sand Engine, is getting attention as a new type of nourishment. As a similar case in Japan, here, we investigated morphological changes from 1961 to 2013 on the Hasaki coast, where approximately 50 million cubic meters of sands were dumped into the nearshore zone. The Hasaki coast, which is located in the eastern Japan facing the Pacific Ocean, has 16 km long sandy beach. From 1965 to 1977, approximately 50 million cubic meters of sediments were dumped into the nearshore zone on the north side of the beach for disposal of the earth and sand generated during the construction of the Kashima Port, which is an artificially-excavated port. A part of the shoreline-advanced area due to the dump was reclaimed for a land space. Therefore, in practice, approximately 26 million cubic meters of them was the volume of the sediment supply contributed to the morphological change. The volume is comparable to the nourishment of the Sand Engine, of which the volume is 21.5 million cubic meters. An increase in the sediment budgets due to the dump resulted in the mean shoreline advance of approximately 40 meters from 1969 to 1984. After that, although the advance was abated from 1984 to 1993, the shoreline began to advance again from 1993. As the result, the mean shoreline position in 2013 was located approximately 70 meters seaward compared to the position in 1961.

  4. Eustatic cycles, shoreline stacking, and stratigraphic traps: Atkinson field, Live Oak and Karnes Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, T.P.; Smith, W.M.; Breyer, J.A. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth (USA))

    1987-02-01

    Atkinson field in south Texas produces gas from the updip pinch-out of a shoreline sand body deposited during a stillstand or minor regression within the early middle Eocene transgression of the Texas Gulf Coast. The sand body is elongate parallel to depositional strike and pinches out downdip into marine shales of the Reklaw Formation. The sand has a maximum thickness of 60 ft, extends 9 mi along strike, and reaches a width of 2 mi. Electric log patterns indicate interfingering between sand and shale on the updip edge of the sand body and a coarsening-upward sequence from shale to sand on the downdip edge of the sand body. Most logs from wells in the central part of the sand body have blocky patterns, indicating abrupt transitions with the overlying and underlying shales and no systematic variation in grain size. Many ancient shoreline sandstones have similar characteristics. The producing sand in Atkinson field occurs in the regressive phase of a fourth-order cycle of change in relative sea level, within the transgressive phase of the third-order cycle that comprises the early middle Eocene advance and retreat of the sea in the Gulf Coast region. Other shoreline sand bodies occur at the same stratigraphic zone along depositional strike. Models of shoreline stacking patterns within third-order cycles indicate that similar sand bodies and traps should be present in younger fourth-order cycles higher on paleoslope.

  5. Multi-link laser interferometry architecture for interspacecraft displacement metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Samuel P.; Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; McClelland, David E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2017-09-01

    Targeting a future Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, we present a new laser interferometry architecture that can be used to recover the displacement between two spacecraft from multiple interspacecraft measurements. We show it is possible to recover the displacement between the spacecraft centers of mass in post-processing by forming linear combinations of multiple, spatially offset, interspacecraft measurements. By canceling measurement error due to angular misalignment of the spacecraft, we remove the need for precise placement or alignment of the interferometer, potentially simplifying spacecraft integration. To realize this multi-link architecture, we propose an all-fiber interferometer, removing the need for any ultrastable optical components such as the GRACE Follow-On mission's triple mirror assembly. Using digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry, the number of links is readily scalable, adding redundancy to our measurement. We present the concept, an example multi-link implementation and the signal processing required to recover the center of mass displacement from multiple link measurements. Finally, in a simulation, we analyze the limiting noise sources in a 9 link interferometer and ultimately show we can recover the 80nm/√{Hz} displacement sensitivity required by the GRACE Follow-On laser ranging interferometer.

  6. Multi-link laser interferometry architecture for interspacecraft displacement metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Samuel P.; Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; McClelland, David E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2018-03-01

    Targeting a future Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, we present a new laser interferometry architecture that can be used to recover the displacement between two spacecraft from multiple interspacecraft measurements. We show it is possible to recover the displacement between the spacecraft centers of mass in post-processing by forming linear combinations of multiple, spatially offset, interspacecraft measurements. By canceling measurement error due to angular misalignment of the spacecraft, we remove the need for precise placement or alignment of the interferometer, potentially simplifying spacecraft integration. To realize this multi-link architecture, we propose an all-fiber interferometer, removing the need for any ultrastable optical components such as the GRACE Follow-On mission's triple mirror assembly. Using digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry, the number of links is readily scalable, adding redundancy to our measurement. We present the concept, an example multi-link implementation and the signal processing required to recover the center of mass displacement from multiple link measurements. Finally, in a simulation, we analyze the limiting noise sources in a 9 link interferometer and ultimately show we can recover the 80 {nm}/√{ {Hz}} displacement sensitivity required by the GRACE Follow-On laser ranging interferometer.

  7. Changes in the shoreline at Paradip Port, India in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopikrishna, B.; Deo, M. C.

    2018-02-01

    One of the popular methods to predict shoreline shifts into the future involves use of a shoreline evolution model driven by the historical wave climate. It is however understood by now that historical wave conditions might substantially change in future in response to climate change induced by the global warming. The future shoreline changes as well as sediment transport therefore need to be determined with the help of future projections of wave climate. In this work this is done at the port of Paradip situated along the east coast of India. The high resolution wind resulting from a climate modelling experiment called: CORDEX, South Asia, was used to simulate waves over two time-slices of 25 years each in past and future. The wave simulations were carried out with the help of a numerical wave model. Thereafter, rates of longshore sediment transport as well as shoreline shifts were determined over past and future using a numerical shoreline model. It was found that at Paradip Port the net littoral drift per metre width of cross-shore might go up by 37% and so also the net accumulated drift over the entire cross-shore width by 71%. This could be caused by an increase in the mean significant wave height of around 32% and also by changes in the frequency and direction of waves. The intensification of waves in turn might result from an increase in the mean wind speed of around 19%. Similarly, the horizontal extent of the beach accretion and erosion at the port's southern breakwater might go up by 4 m and 8 m, respectively, from the current level in another 25 years. This study should be useful in framing future port management strategies.

  8. Estuarine Shoreline Changes in Jamaica Bay, New York City: Implications for Management of an Urban National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Rebecca; Connolly, James; Christiano, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Jamaica Bay portion of Gateway National Recreation Area, located next to highly urbanized New York City, faces many challenges to preserve and protect its natural, cultural, and recreational resources. To aid in the management of the park resources, detailed estuarine shoreline analyses of Jamaica Bay were undertaken using imagery taken in 1951, 1974, and 2006. A 15-class land use/land cover (LULC) classification scheme was created after doing an initial examination of the types of LULC in the 2006 orthoimagery and then applied in the analyses of the previous years. By quantifying how and where the shoreline has changed over the past 60 years, park managers can better assess the impact of management practices by comparing LULC of the shoreline within the park boundary to the LULC of the shoreline outside the park boundary before and after the park was created in 1972. Despite the heavy development of New York City and the trend for shoreline modification, the overall shoreline of Jamaica Bay has maintained large percentages of undeveloped vegetation and sandy beaches. Much of the LULC change has occurred in the creeks as a result of dredging and shape modification for residential and commercial uses. Park management has been effective in limiting the alteration of undeveloped shoreline although there have been significant changes in the relative percentages of sand and vegetated beaches between 1974 and 2006.

  9. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from buried shoreline oil residues thirteen years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: a multispecies assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M; Bence, A Edward; Parker, Keith R; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Boehm, Paul D

    2006-04-01

    Seven taxa of intertidal plants and animals were sampled at 17 shoreline sites in Prince William Sound ([PWS]; AK, USA), that were heavily oiled in 1989 by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to determine if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from buried oil in intertidal sediments are sufficiently bioavailable to intertidal prey organisms that they might pose a health risk to populations of birds and wildlife that forage on the shore. Buried residues of EVOS oil are present in upper and middle intertidal sediments at 16 sites. Lower intertidal (0 m) sediments contain little oil. Much of the PAH in lower intertidal sediments are from combustion sources. Mean tissue total PAH (TPAH) concentrations in intertidal clams, mussels, and worms from oiled sites range from 24 to 36 ng/g (parts per billion) dry weight; sea lettuce, whelks, hermit crabs, and intertidal fish contain lower concentrations. Concentrations of TPAH are similar or slightly lower in biota from unoiled reference sites. The low EVOS PAH concentrations detected in intertidal biota at oiled shoreline sites indicate that the PAH from EVOS oil buried in intertidal sediments at these sites have a low bioavailability to intertidal plants and animals. Individual sea otters or shorebirds that consumed a diet of intertidal clams and mussels exclusively from the 17 oiled shores in 2002 were at low risk of significant health problems. The low concentrations of EVOS PAH found in some intertidal organisms at some oiled shoreline sites in PWS do not represent a health risk to populations of marine birds and mammals that forage in the intertidal zone.

  10. The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: Answering recent challenges to the paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedan, Keryn B.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Wolanski, Eric; Barbier, Edward B.; Silliman, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, coastal wetlands have been recognized for their ability to stabilize shorelines and protect coastal communities. However, this paradigm has recently been called into question by small-scale experimental evidence. Here, we conduct a literature review and a small meta-analysis of wave attenuation data, and we find overwhelming evidence in support of established theory. Our review suggests that mangrove and salt marsh vegetation afford context-dependent protection from erosion, storm surge, and potentially small tsunami waves. In biophysical models, field tests, and natural experiments, the presence of wetlands reduces wave heights, property damage, and human deaths. Meta-analysis of wave attenuation by vegetated and unvegetated wetland sites highlights the critical role of vegetation in attenuating waves. Although we find coastal wetland vegetation to be an effective shoreline buffer, wetlands cannot protect shorelines in all locations or scenarios; indeed large-scale regional erosion, river meandering, and large tsunami waves and storm surges can overwhelm the attenuation effect of vegetation. However, due to a nonlinear relationship between wave attenuation and wetland size, even small wetlands afford substantial protection from waves. Combining man-made structures with wetlands in ways that mimic nature is likely to increase coastal protection. Oyster domes, for example, can be used in combination with natural wetlands to protect shorelines and restore critical fishery habitat. Finally, coastal wetland vegetation modifies shorelines in ways (e.g. peat accretion) that increase shoreline integrity over long timescales and thus provides a lasting coastal adaptation measure that can protect shorelines against accelerated sea level rise and more frequent storm inundation. We conclude that the shoreline protection paradigm still stands, but that gaps remain in our knowledge about the mechanistic and context-dependent aspects of shoreline

  11. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  12. Mussels document loss of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the return to baseline conditions for oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D.; Brown, J.S. [Exponent, Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Battelle, MA (United States); Burns, W.A. [W.A. Burns Consulting Services, Houston, TX (United States); Bence, A.E. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected between 1990 and 2002 from 11 sites on the shores of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, that were heavily oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). This study, utilizing the methods of the NOAA Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, found that concentrations of PAH released from spill remnants have decreased dramatically with time and by 2002 were at or near the range of total PAH (TPAH) of 3-355 ng/g dry weight obtained for mussels from unoiled reference sites in PWS. Time-series TPAH data indicate a mean TPAH half-life in mussel tissues of 2.4 years with a range from 1.4 to 5.3, yielding an annual mean loss of bioaccumulated TPAH of 25%. The petroleum-derived TPAH fraction in mussel tissues has decreased with time, reflecting the decreasing release of EVOS residues in shoreline sediments. These results show that PAH from EVOS residues that remain buried in shoreline sediments after the early 1990s are in a form and at locations that have a low accessibility to mussels living in the intertidal zone. (author)

  13. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus: a review of observer studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.; Bagger, J.; Sylvest, A.

    2008-01-01

    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  14. The musculoskeletal loading profile of the thumb during pipetting based on tendon displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, John Z.; Sinsel, Erik W.; Shroyer, Justin F.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Zhao, Kristin D.; An, Kai-Nan; Buczek, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that highly repetitive manual work is associated with the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). One of the occupational activities that involves highly repetitive and forceful hand work is manual pipetting in chemical or biological laboratories. In the current study, we quantified tendon displacement as a parameter to assess the cumulative loading exposure of the musculoskeletal system in the thumb during pipetting. The maximal tendon displacement was found in the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon. Assuming that subjects’ pipetting rates were maintained constant during a period of 1 h, the average accumulated tendon displacement in the FPL reached 29 m, which is in the lower range of those observed in other occupational activities, such as typing and nail gun operations. Our results showed that tendon displacement data contain relatively small standard deviations, despite high variances in thumb kinematics, suggesting that the tendon displacements may be useful in evaluating the musculoskeletal loading profile. PMID:24018066

  15. Displacement from protein binding of sulphormethoxine by phenylbutazone using in vivo dialysis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, E. G.

    1969-01-01

    1. Displacement of the ultra-long-acting sulphonamide sulphormethoxine from binding to serum proteins by phenylbutazone has been demonstrated by in vivo dialysis in rats. The technique used involved the introduction of dialysis sacs into the peritoneal cavity. The regression line relating free to total sulphormethoxine was significantly displaced after addition of phenylbutazone to the regime although the mean level of free drug was not significantly raised. No significant effect was observed on the proportion of phenylbutazone in the free form. The range of concentrations employed corresponded to that encountered clinically. 2. In vitro experiments with comparable concentrations of both drugs confirmed displacement of sulphormethoxine by phenylbutazone. Insignificant displacement of phenylbutazone from binding occurred. These experiments indicated the relationships between the relative affinities of sulphormethoxine and phenylbutazone for serum proteins and the extent to which mutual displacement from binding occurred. PMID:5768126

  16. Validation of an accelerometer for determination of muscle belly radial displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagar, T; Krizaj, D

    2005-01-01

    A commercial variable-capacitance micromachined accelerometer was validated for muscle belly radial displacement measurement. The displacement was calculated by the acceleration data being integrated twice and was compared with the results obtained simultaneously by an accurate mechanical displacement sensor based on an optical encoder. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of an accelerometer for tensiomyography, which is a method for the detection of skeletal muscle contractile properties on the basis of muscle belly radial displacement. A hundred measurements at a bandwidth of 2300 Hz were performed. It was shown that the accuracy and precision in determination of the maximum displacement and the time of the maximum displacement from the calculated curve were satisfactory, in spite of the standard deviation of the twice-integrated acceleration growing approximately linearly with time. The results were accurate enough since the elapsed time from the beginning of the integration was small (less than 75 ms). The measured maximum displacement ranges were between 9.2 and 10.2 mm. The mean relative error was less than 1% (SD = 0.02mm) for the maximum displacement and about 1% (SD = 0.6 ms) for the time to maximum displacement. The accuracy of the half-relaxation time determination was more uncertain because of the relatively high relative error of -2.4% (SD = 3 ms). Results showed that a commercial micromachined accelerometer could be suitable for the measurement of muscle belly radial displacement and used for development of a future miniaturised and flexible system for the measurement of similar displacements.

  17. PDT - PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT TRACKING SOFTWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or

  18. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics for all data available within the Cape Cod Bay coastal region from the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich to Long Point in Provincetown (CapeCodBay_transects_rates_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  19. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) linear regression rate shoreline change statistics within the Cape Cod Bay coastal region from the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich to Long Point in Provincetown (CapeCodBay_transects_rates_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  20. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) linear regression shoreline change statistics for the South Cape Cod coastal region from Stage Harbor Light in Chatham to Nobska Point in Woods Hole (SouthCapeCod_transects_rates_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  1. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) linear regression shoreline change statistics for the South Shore coastal region from Hewitts Cove in Hingham to the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich (SouthShore_transects_rates_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  2. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) end point rate shoreline change statistics within the Cape Cod Bay coastal region from the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich to Long Point in Provincetown (CapeCodBay_transects_rates_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  3. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics for all data available within the Outer Cape Cod coastal region from Long Point in Provincetown to Monomoy Island (OuterCapeCod_transects_rates_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  4. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) end point shoreline change statistics within the Martha's Vineyard coastal region including the Vineyard Sound-, Nantucket Sound- and Atlantic Ocean- facing coasts of Martha's Vineyard and Nomans Land (MarthasVineyard_transects_rates_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  5. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics for all data available in the Boston coastal region Carson Beach in South Boston to Weymouth River, including the Boston Harbor Islands (Boston_transects_rates_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  6. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) end point shoreline change statistics for the Elizabeth Islands coastal region from Nonamesset Island southwest of Woods Hole to Cuttyhunk Island north of Martha's Vineyard (ElizabethIslands_transects_rates_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  7. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) end point shoreline change statistics for the South Shore coastal region from Hewitts Cove in Hingham to the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich (SouthShore_transects_rates_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  8. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) linear regression shoreline change statistics for the Buzzards Bay coastal region from Nobska Point in Woods Hole, to Westport at the Rhode Island border (BuzzardsBay_transects_rates_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  9. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics for all data available within the South Cape Cod coastal region from Stage Harbor Light in Chatham to Nobska Point in Woods Hole (SouthCapeCod_transects_rates_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  10. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics for all data available within the Nantucket coastal region including the Nantucket Sound- and Atlantic Ocean- facing coasts of Nantucket, Muskeget and Tuckernuck Islands (Nantucket_transects_rates_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  11. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics for all data available within the Martha's Vineyard coastal region including the Vineyard Sound-, Nantucket Sound- and Atlantic Ocean- facing coasts of Martha's Vineyard and Nomans Land (MarthasVineyard_transects_rates_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  12. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) linear regression shoreline change statistics for the Boston coastal region from Carson Beach in South Boston to Weymouth River, including the Boston Harbor Islands (Boston_transects_rates_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  13. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term end point shoreline change statistics for all data available within the South Cape Cod coastal region from Stage Harbor Light in Chatham to Nobska Point in Woods Hole (SouthCapeCod_transects_rates_STepr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  14. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) end point shoreline change statistics for the Buzzards Bay coastal region from Nobska Point in Woods Hole, to Westport at the Rhode Island border (BuzzardsBay_transects_rates_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  15. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and short-term (1970-2009) linear regression shoreline change statistics within the Nantucket coastal region including the Nantucket Sound- and Atlantic Ocean- facing coasts of Nantucket, Muskeget and Tuckernuck Islands (Nantucket_transects_rates_STlr.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  16. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 transects and long-term linear regression shoreline change statistics for all data available within the South Shore coastal region from Hewitts Cove in Hingham to the Cape Cod Canal in Sandwich (SouthShore_transects_rates_LTw.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Due to continued coastal population growth and increased threats of erosion, current data on trends and rates of shoreline movement are required to inform shoreline...

  17. Assisting the return of displaced Dinka Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Murphy

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues involved in supporting the return of internally displaced Dinka Bor communities highlight the complex, and often ignored, challenges of addressing the consequencesof South-South conflict.

  18. Colombia’s displaced indigenous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Escobar Cuero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples are one of the most vulnerable groups within Colombia’s internally displaced population, and a lack of understanding of their culture and needs constitutes a major challenge to their protection and assistance.

  19. Miscible, Porous Media Displacements with Density Stratification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RIAZ, AMIR; MEIBURG, ECKART

    2004-01-01

    A bstract : High accuracy, three‐dimensional numerical simulations of miscible displacements with gravity override, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, are discussed for the quarter five‐spot configuration...

  20. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  1. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  2. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  3. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  4. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    chromatin. The condensed nature of chromatin inhibits many DNA metabolizing activities, including NER. In order to promote efficient repair, detection of a lesion not only has to activate the NER pathway but also chromatin remodeling. In general, such remodeling is thought on the one hand to precede NER...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  5. Suppression of displacement in severely slowed saccades

    OpenAIRE

    MacAskill, Michael R; Tim J. Anderson; Jones, Richard D

    2000-01-01

    Severely slowed saccades in spinocerebellar ataxia have previously been shown to be at least partially closed-loop in nature: their long duration means that they can be modified in-flight in response to intrasaccadic target movements. In this study, a woman with these pathologically slowed saccades could modify them in-flight in response to target movements, even when saccadic suppression of displacement prevented conscious awareness of those movements. Thus saccadic suppression of displace...

  6. On the Importance of Wave Simulation Techniques for Forecasting Shoreline Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.; Alvarez Antolinez, J. A.; Mendez, F. J.; Ruggiero, P.

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is projected to alter large-scale atmospheric circulation, storm tracks, and consequently the regional wave climates produced by these patterns. Since shorelines naturally evolve towards dynamic equilibrium with the local wave climate, any redistribution of wave energy has the potential to result in morphological changes equal to or greater than those induced by sea-level rise over the next several decades. Because nearly all state of the art coastal modeling frameworks require a representation of the wave climate as input, the development of methodologies that create realistic wave climate scenarios is necessary to forecast possible shoreline change. Here we use a simple, one-line shoreline change model to assess the importance of wave simulation techniques on shoreline modeling. Our study site, the U.S. Pacific Northwest, exhibits significant seasonal to multi-decadal shoreline variability along relatively straight embayed beaches. One-line models, which calculate spatial gradients of alongshore sediment transport as a function of wave energy flux and angle, can represent this temporal variability if the wave input time series accurately represents the chronology and joint-probabilities of heights, periods, and directions. Because dynamically downscaling waves from general circulation models is computationally expensive, we explore several statistical input-reduction techniques for constructing time series that capture realistic seasonal to multi-decadal variability and the chronology of storm events. Methods include continuous-time Markov Chains, data mining techniques, fitting of non-stationary distribution functions, auto-regressive logistic models, and trivariate copula dependence structures formed from correlating observed wave records with coincident sea level pressures. The wave climates produced by each method places an emphasis on either the chronological progression or the joint probabilities of the wave parameters or both. We

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  8. Slip along the Sultanhanı Fault in Central Anatolia from deformed Pleistocene shorelines of palaeo-lake Konya and implications for seismic hazards in low-strain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Daniel; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Hillemann, Christian; Garcin, Yannick; Çiner, Attila; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-06-01

    Central Anatolia is a low-relief, high-elevation region where decadal-scale deformation rates estimated from space geodesy suggest low strain rates within a stiff microplate. However, numerous Quaternary faults have been mapped within this low-strain region and estimating their slip rate and seismic potential is important for hazard assessments in an area of increasing infrastructural development. Here we focus on the Sultanhanı Fault (SF), which constitutes an integral part of the Eskişehir-Cihanbeyli Fault System, and use deformed maximum highstand shorelines of palaeo-lake Konya to estimate tectonic slip rates at millennial scale. Some of these shorelines were previously interpreted as fault scarps, but we provide conclusive evidence for their erosional origin. We found that shoreline-angle elevations estimated from differential GPS profiles record vertical displacements of 10.2 m across the SF. New radiocarbon ages of lacustrine molluscs suggest 22.4 m of relative lake-level fall between 22.1 ± 0.3 and 21.7 ± 0.4 cal. ka BP, constraining the timing of abrupt abandonment of the highstand shoreline. Models of lithospheric rebound associated with regressions of the Tuz Gölü and Konya palaeo-lakes predict only ∼1 m of regional-scale uplift across the Konya Basin. Dislocation models of displaced shorelines suggest fault-slip rates of 1.5 and 1.8 mm yr-1 for planar and listric fault geometries, respectively, providing reasonable results for the latter. We found fault scarps in the Nasuhpınar mudflat that likely represent the most recent ground-breaking rupture of the SF, with an average vertical displacement of 1.2 ± 0.5 m estimated from 54 topographic profiles, equivalent to a M ∼ 6.5-6.9 earthquake based on empirical scaling laws. If such events were characteristic during the ultimate 21 ka, a relatively short recurrence time of ∼800-900 yr would be needed to account for the millennial slip rate. Alternatively, the fault scarp at Nasuhpınar might

  9. TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR DISPLACED FRACTURE OF THE CALCANEAL TUBEROSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva G. Prasad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to compare the outcome following conservative or surgical treatment for displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. MATERIALS AND METHODS 14 men and 4 women aged 20 to 44 years chose to undergo conservative (9 feet or surgical (10 feet treatment by a single surgeon for closed displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. The injury mechanism was a fall from a height of <1.5 m; the mean time from injury to treatment was 3 (range 1-7 days. Conservative treatment comprised immobilisation in a plaster cast. Surgical treatment involved fixation with a half thread cannulated screw for large fragments (in 6 feet or a mini-plate for comminuted fragments (in 4 feet. At the final follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle and hind foot score was evaluated. RESULTS The conservative and surgery groups were comparable in terms of age, gender and fracture displacement. The mean follow-up duration was 20 (range, 14-24 months. All patients had bone union; none had implant loosening or breakage. One patient with surgical treatment developed skin numbness at the medial aspect of the heel that resolved following neurotrophic drug treatment for 3 months. The surgery group achieved earlier full weight bearing (5.8 vs. 7.5 weeks, p<0.001 and return to work (5.9 vs. 8.2 weeks, p=0.048, but comparable AOFAS score (89.0 vs. 88.2, p=0.4. CONCLUSION Surgery for displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity enabled earlier full weight bearing and return to work, but comparable AOFAS score.

  10. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Aleutian Islands classified according to the Environmental...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for the Hudson River, classified according to the Environmental...

  12. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey, classified...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Northern California, classified according to the Environmental...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Mississippi classified according to the Environmental...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Central California classified according to the Environmental...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: ESI (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of North Carolina classified according to the Environmental...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: ESI (Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Southern California, classified according to the Environmental...

  18. Estuarine Back-barrier Shoreline and Beach Sandline Change Model Skill and Predicted Probabilities: Event-driven beach sandline change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment was created to calibrate and test probability models of barrier island estuarine shoreline...

  19. Lidar-derived beach morphology (dune crest, dune toe, and shoreline) for U.S. sandy coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara; Long, Joseph W.; Birchler, Justin; Brenner, Owen T.; Hardy, Matthew; Morgan, Karen L. M.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Torres, Miguel Loubriel

    2017-01-01

    The USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project aims to identify areas of the nation’s coastline that are most vulnerable to extreme storms and long-term shoreline change. These assessments require coastal elevation data across diverse geographic regions and covering a time span of many years.  The datasets published here, organized by individual field activity numbers (FANs), define the dune crest (denoted by DC in the feature_type attribute), dune toe (denoted by DT in the feature_type attribute), and shoreline (denoted by SL in the feature_type attribute) at 10m intervals alongshore for each processed lidar elevation survey. Beach width and beach slope as calculated from dune toe to shoreline are also included at each shoreline location.

  20. CENCAL_1998_2002 - Vectorized Shoreline of Central California Derived from 1998-2002 Lidar Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a comprehensive...

  1. Estuarine Back-barrier Shoreline and Beach Sandline Change Model Skill and Predicted Probabilities: Long-term sandline change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment was created to calibrate and test probability models of barrier island estuarine shoreline...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of New Hampshire classified according to the Environmental...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: ESIP (ESI Shoreline Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIP data set contains polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Upper Coast of Texas, classified according to the Environmental...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: ESIL (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIL data set contains lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Upper Coast of Texas, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  5. The analysis of instantaneous tool displacements during precise ball end milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the quantitative and qualitative analysis of monolithic ball end mill’s instantaneous displacements generated during precise milling of inclined surfaces. The conducted experiment involves the measurements of tool’s joining part displacements with the application of laser displacement sensor and cutting forces with piezoelectric dynamometer. The milling tests were carried out for the hardened alloy 55NiCrMoV6 steel in a range of variable feed per tooth and surface inclination angle values. The obtained results can be applied for the selection of effective milling parameters allowing the improvement of machined surface finish.

  6. The comparative study on analytical solutions and numerical solutions of displacement in transversely isotropic rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizeng; Zhao, Zhao; Li, Yongtao

    2016-06-01

    This paper attempts to verify the correctness of the analytical displacement solution in transversely isotropic rock mass, and to determine the scope of its application. The analytical displacement solution of a circular tunnel in transversely isotropic rock mass was derived firstly. The analytical solution was compared with the numerical solution, which was carried out by FLAC3D software. The results show that the expression of the analytical displacement solution is correct, and the allowable engineering range is that the dip angle is less than 15 degrees.

  7. Shoreline segment characteristics handbook for Smear Model application (for microcomputers). Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Five high-density floppy disks in R-Base format summarize the 6-volume 3,050 page data report which summarizes the data required to run the Coastline and Surf Zone Oil Spill Transport Model (also known as the Smear Model or COZOIL) for the majority of the coast of Alaska. The model is used to predict the transport and weathering of spilled oil onto and along shorelines deterministically or stochastically, assuming the presence of a spill. The data are organized by the shoreline segments and subsegments corresponding to the segments used by the Minerals Management Service in oil spill risk analysis. Data are included for beach morphology, near-shore oceanographic conditions, meteorological conditions and ocean fetch as affected by the presence of sea ice.

  8. Groundwater-dependent ecology of the shoreline of the subtropical Lake St Lucia estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ricky; Kelbe, Bruce; Haldorsen, Sylvi; Botha, Greg A.; Wejden, Bente; Været, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne B.

    2006-02-01

    The ecology of the St Lucia estuary in South Africa is of unique international importance. During droughts the estuary experiences high salinities, with values above that of seawater. Ion-poor groundwater flowing into the estuary from prominent sand aquifers along its eastern shoreline forms low-salinity habitats for salt-sensitive biota. During droughts, plants and animals can take refuge in the groundwater discharge zone until the condition in the estuary regains tolerable salinity. Simulations of the groundwater discharge indicate that the flow can persist during droughts over at least a decade, and be of great important for the resilience of the estuary. Anthropogenic activities have reduced the river inflow and made the St Lucia estuary more sensitive to droughts. The groundwater has thereby become increasingly important for the estuary’s ecology. Protection of the groundwater discharge along the shoreline itself and actions to increase the groundwater recharge are therefore important management tasks.

  9. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  10. Geographic information systems-based expert system modelling for shoreline sensitivity to oil spill disaster in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of adequate and appropriate actions, hazards often result in disaster. Oil spills across any environment are very hazardous; thus, oil spill contingency planning is pertinent, supported by Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI mapping. However, a significant data gap exists across many low- and middle-income countries in aspect of environmental monitoring. This study developed a geographic information system (GIS-based expert system (ES for shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It focused on the biophysical attributes of the shoreline with Rivers State as a case study. Data on elevation, soil, relative wave exposure and satellite imageries were collated and used for the development of ES decision rules within GIS. Results show that about 70% of the shoreline are lined with swamp forest/mangroves/nympa palm, and 97% have silt and clay as dominant sediment type. From the ES, six ranks were identified; 61% of the shoreline has a rank of 9 and 19% has a rank of 3 for shoreline sensitivity. A total of 568 km out of the 728 km shoreline is highly sensitive (ranks 7–10. There is a clear indication that the study area is a complex mixture of sensitive environments to oil spill. GIS-based ES with classification rules for shoreline sensitivity represents a rapid and flexible framework for automatic ranking of shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It is expected that this approach would kick-start sensitivity index mapping which is comprehensive and openly available to support disaster risk management around the oil producing regions of the country.

  11. Comparisons of Water Quality and Biological Variables from Colorado River Shoreline Habitats in Grand Canyon, Arizona, under Steady and Fluctuating Discharges from Glen Canyon Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Lauretta, Matthew V.; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam operations are known to affect mainstem Colorado River temperature and shoreline habitats for native fish. Options for ameliorating the impacts that operations have on young native fish include changing release volumes and/or changing the daily range of releases. Long-term alterations of operations that may produce a measurable biological response can be costly, particularly if the treatment involves reduced power generation. In September and October 2005, a series of two-week releases occurred that alternated between daily fluctuations that varied by 76 m3 s-1 and steady releases. The purpose of these short-term experiments was to study the effect of daily operations on water quality parameters and biotic constituents (phytoplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fishes) of associated shoreline habitats. Our results indicate that measured biological and physical parameters were, in general, unaffected by flow treatments. However, results should be interpreted cautiously as time within and between treatments was likely insufficient to affect measured parameters. These results lead to the recommendation that studies like this may be more amenable to laboratory experiments first and then applied to a large-scale setting, preferably for longer duration.

  12. Shoreline changes and its impact on activities in the coastal zone in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Bendixen, M.; Elberling, B.

    2015-12-01

    Almost all coastal environments in Greenland are developed in high-relief areas, along fjords, or hard-rock cliffs. The sedimentary shores often fringe these areas and a large number of small deltas (areal delta surface snow. There is a seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and frozen rivers in winter. The coastal processes by waves and tides are thus often limited to summer and early fall. Nowadays, global climate changes induce many changes along the arctic coasts. Global sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses, while ice coverage of the coastal waters decreases and the open water periods in summer extend. However, it is still unknown if the extra input of fluvial sediments can cope with increased erosion rates at the shores. Besides, the rate of actual sea-level rise in West Greenland is probably less than the local rate of isostatic uplift, leading to local relative sea level fall.The focus in this presentation is on shoreline changes and its impact on two coastal environments in Greenland: the Young Sound area (fjord environment in North-East Greenland), and the southern shore of Disko Island (open sea embayment in West Greenland). These coastal environments exhibit a wide variety of coastal landforms like deltas, spits, barriers, etc. The coastal landforms were mapped and aerial images, orthogonal photos, and satellite images were used to digitize successive shorelines. The shoreline changes were estimated using the digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) of the USGS. The spatial variability of accumulation and erosion patterns was detected and shows a surprising thread for ancient settlements and present-day activities in the coastal zone. The same patterns are finally discussed in terms of coastal risk assessment.

  13. Effects of lake surface elevation on shoreline-spawning Lost River Suckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hewitt, David A.; Rasmussen, J.E.; Hayes, Brian; Janney, Eric; Harris, Alta C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed remote detection data from PIT-tagged Lost River Suckers Deltistes luxatus at four shoreline spawning areas in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to determine whether spawning of this endangered species was affected by low water levels. Our investigation was motivated by the observation that the surface elevation of the lake during the 2010 spawning season was the lowest in 38 years. Irrigation withdrawals in 2009 that were not replenished by subsequent winter-spring inflows caused a reduction in available shoreline spawning habitat in 2010. We compared metrics of skipped spawning, movement among spawning areas, and spawning duration across 8 years (2006-2013) that had contrasting spring water levels. Some aspects of sucker spawning were similar in all years, including few individuals straying from the shoreline areas to spawning locations in lake tributaries and consistent effects of increasing water temperatures on the accumulation of fish at the spawning areas. During the extreme low water year of 2010, 14% fewer female and 8% fewer male suckers joined the shoreline spawning aggregation than in the other years. Both males and females visited fewer spawning areas within Upper Klamath Lake in 2010 than in other years, and the median duration at spawning areas in 2010 was at least 36% shorter for females and 20% shorter for males relative to other years. Given the imperiled status of the species and the declining abundance of the population in Upper Klamath Lake, any reduction in spawning success and egg production could negatively impact recovery efforts. Our results indicate that lake surface elevations above 1,262.3-1,262.5 m would be unlikely to limit the number of spawning fish and overall egg production.

  14. Marine archaeological investigations in inferring shoreline / sea level changes along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 177 Marine archaeological investigations in inferring shoreline / sea level changes along the Indian coast K H Vora National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula. Goa-403 004 vora...@nio.org Studies on sea level changes are of major interest to decipher implication of global warming and its impact on coastal belt. Out of many methods to draw inferences on cause and effect analysis, geological investigations, especially marine...

  15. Historical Sediment Budget (1860s to Present) for the United States Shoreline of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    was first stabilized in 1844 when wood cribs were built to fill breaches that threatened the safety of the harbor (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...reasonable for these data. As a comparison, Woods Hole Group and Aubrey Consulting (2004) estimated that line width error representing the shoreline for 1864...frames, respectively. A substantial pocket beach or fillet leads up to the East Pier at Vermilion, but this beach has not increased substantially in

  16. Hydrodynamic Modeling for Channel and Shoreline Stabilization at Rhodes Point, Smith Island, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    wave height, period, direction, and water depth) along the proposed structure footprints were used for the preliminary ERDC/CHL TR-16-17 7...fringe of the marsh vegetation north and south of the entrance shorelines. Figure 2-2. Channel and jetty dimensions and cross sections. NAB...modeling study results (e.g., wave height, period, direction, and water level) along the western side of the proposed jetty footprint were used in

  17. Morphodynamic implications for shoreline management of the western-Mediterranean sector of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frihy, Omran E.

    2009-09-01

    Although the western-Mediterranean coast of Egypt between Sallum and Alexandria, ~550 km long, has maintained a considerable equilibrium throughout history, developers have built traditional protective structures in an effort to form sheltered recreational beaches without taking into consideration its geomorphologic characteristics, coastal processes and their harmful impact on the coastal environment and human safety. The improper practices in this environmentally valuable region have induced us to undertake an initiative to carry out a morphodynamic analysis to provide a framework for understanding the relationship between coastal morphology and the prevailing dynamic forces. Based on the degree of natural protection or wave sheltering, the study shoreline can be categorized into four distinct morphotypical stretches: (1) high-energy wave-exposed shores and the outer margins of the rocky headlands, (2) moderate to high wave-energy beaches along semi-exposed embayments and bays mostly downdrift of the rocky headlands, (3) low-wave energy at semi-exposed headland lee-sided and pocket beaches, and (4) calm wave-sheltered enclosing water basins for safe anchorages, moorings and recreation beaches. The results deducted will have practical applications for shoreline management initiatives regarding sustained sites suitable for future beachfront development such as safe swimming conditions, sport facilities, water intakes and sheltered areas for vessels. In addition, benefits realized by the understanding of the morphodynamic processes would enhance our awareness of the significance of the role of western coast morphodynamics in supporting sustainable development via shoreline management. As far as sustainability is concerned, the selection of appropriate sites would help avoiding or minimizing the formation of the hard structures needed for creating safe recreation beaches. On a national scale, results reached could provide reliable database for information that can be

  18. Shoreline Erosion and Proposed Control at Experimental Facility 15-Spesutie Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-WMP-G Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5066 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-SR-0383 9...distribution is unlimited. 11 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms APG Aberdeen Proving Ground ARL US Army Research Laboratory EF 15...ARL-SR-0383 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Shoreline Erosion and Proposed Control at Experimental Facility 15–Spesutie

  19. Research into the further development of the LIMPET shoreline wave energy plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project focussing on technical issues associated with the design of the LIMPET shoreline oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy plant. Fifteen tasks are listed as the objectives of the project which was carried out to broaden the knowledge of the wave environment and the construction and operation of a wave energy plant. The experience gained in LIMPET instrumentation, control systems, and grid integration issues are discussed.

  20. Performance characterisation of a new photo-microsensor based sensing head for displacement measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Potdar, Akshay Anand; Fletcher, Simon; Longstaff, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robust displacement sensor with nanometre-scale resolution over a micrometre range. It is composed of low cost commercially available slotted photo-microsensors (SPMs). The displacement sensor is designed with a particular arrangement of a compact array of SPMs with specially designed shutter assembly and signal processing to significantly reduce sensitivity to ambient light, input voltage variation, circuit electronics drift, etc. The sensor principle and the characteri...

  1. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; {sup 60}Co and {sup 9O}Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area).

  2. Coral reefs as the first line of defense: Shoreline protection in face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliff, Carla I; Silva, Iracema R

    2017-06-01

    Coral reefs are responsible for a wide array of ecosystem services including shoreline protection. However, the processes involved in delivering this particular service have not been fully understood. The objective of the present review was to compile the main results in the literature regarding the study of shoreline protection delivered by coral reefs, identifying the main threats climate change imposes to the service, and discuss mitigation and recovery strategies that can and have been applied to these ecosystems. While different zones of a reef have been associated with different levels of wave energy and wave height attenuation, more information is still needed regarding the capacity of different reef morphologies to deliver shoreline protection. Moreover, the synergy between the main threats imposed by climate change to coral reefs has also not been thoroughly investigated. Recovery strategies are being tested and while there are numerous mitigation options, the challenge remains as to how to implement them and monitor their efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  4. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of three-dimensional shell habitats in coastal Louisiana presents a valuable and potentially self-sustaining approach to providing shoreline protection and critical nekton habitat and may contribute to water quality maintenance. The use of what has been called “living shorelines” is particularly promising because in addition to the hypothesized shoreline protection services, it is predicted that, if built and located in viable sites, these living shorelines may ultimately contribute to water quality maintenance through filtration of bivalves and may enhance nekton habitat. This approach, however, has not been tested extensively in different shallow water estuarine settings; understanding under what conditions a living shoreline must have to support a sustainable oyster population, and where these reefs may provide valuable shoreline protection, is key to ensuring that this approach provides an effective tool for coastal restoration. This project gathered preliminary data on the sustainability and shoreline stabilization of three large bioengineered fringing reefs located in Grand Isle, Lake Eloi, and Lake Fortuna, Louisiana. We collected preconstruction and postconstruction physiochemical and biological data by using a before-after-control-impact approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these living shoreline structures on reducing marsh erosion, enabling reef sustainability, and providing other ecosystem benefits. Although this project was originally designed to compare reef performance and impacts across three different locations over 2 years, delays in construction because of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in reefs being built from 12 to 18 months later than anticipated. As a result, monitoring postconstruction was severely limited. One reef, Grand Isle, was completed in March 2011 and monitored up to 18 months postcreation, whereas Lake Eloi and Lake Fortuna reefs were not completed until January 2012, and only 8 months of

  5. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  6. Determination of upstream boundary points on southeastern Washington streams and rivers under the requirements of the Shoreline Management Act of 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Johnna L.

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of the shorelines of the State of Washington, as mandated by the Shoreline Management Act of 1971, requires knowledge of the locations on streams and river reaches where specific regulatory criteria are satisfied. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 1971 to determine the upstream boundary points of these reaches for many of the State's streams and rivers. Updated upstream boundary points were determined in the current study for all the streams and rivers in southeastern Washington that fall under the jurisdiction of the Shoreline Management Act of 1971. Upstream boundary point locations where the mean annual discharge equals 20 cubic feet per second were determined for 149 streams. In addition, upstream boundary point locations where the mean annual discharge equals 200 cubic feet per second or the drainage area equals 300 square miles were determined for 22 rivers. Boundary point locations were determined by application of multiple-linear-regression equations that relate mean annual discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. Southeastern Washington was divided into five hydrologically distinct regions, and a separate regression equation was developed for each region. The regression equations are based on data for gaging stations with at least 10 years of record. The number of stations in the regression analysis for each of the five regions ranged from 5 to 33. The coefficient of determination, R2, of the regression equations ranged from 0.953 to 0.997. The equation for the Upper Yakima region had the lowest standard error, ranging from -7 to +9 percent for a regression estimate of 20 cubic feet per second. The equation for the Columbia Basin to Palouse region had the highest standard error, ranging from -36 to +55 percent for a regression estimate of 20 cubic feet per second. The approximate error in the location of an upstream boundary point can be calculated using the variables mean annual precipitation of the basin upstream

  7. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  8. Piezotransistive transduction of femtoscale displacement for photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Abdul; Faheem Khan, M.; Lee, Dongkyu; Kim, Seonghwan; Thundat, Thomas; Koley, Goutam

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of femtoscale displacements in the ultrasonic frequency range is attractive for advanced material characterization and sensing, yet major challenges remain in their reliable transduction using non-optical modalities, which can dramatically reduce the size and complexity of the transducer assembly. Here we demonstrate femtoscale displacement transduction using an AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistor-integrated GaN microcantilever that utilizes piezoelectric polarization-induced changes in two-dimensional electron gas to transduce displacement with very high sensitivity. The piezotransistor demonstrated an ultra-high gauge factor of 8,700 while consuming an extremely low power of 1.36 nW, and transduced external excitation with a superior noise-limited resolution of 12.43 fm Hz-1/2 and an outstanding responsivity of 170 nV fm-1, which is comparable to the optical transduction limits. These extraordinary characteristics, which enabled unique detection of nanogram quantity of analytes using photoacoustic spectroscopy, can be readily exploited in realizing a multitude of novel sensing paradigms.

  9. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...... the diffusers by rearranging the furniture. Half of the surveyed occupants were not satisfied with the indoor air quality. The main conclusion is that displacement ventilation needs careful design and room furnishing in order to ensure a comfortable environment. Occupants must understand the underlying...

  10. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  11. Temporomandibular joint loads in subjects with and without disc displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rei Iwasaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The likelihood of development of degenerative joint disease (DJD of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ is related to the integrity of the TMJ disc. Predilection for mechanical failure of the TMJ disc may reflect inter-individual differences in TMJ loads. Nine females and eight males in each of normal TMJ disc position and bilateral disc displacement diagnostic groups consented to participate in our study. Disc position was determined by bilateral magnetic resonance images of the joints. Three-dimensional (3D anatomical geometry of each subject was used in a validated computer-assisted numerical model to calculate ipsilateral and contralateral TMJ loads for a range of biting positions (incisor, canine, molar and angles (1-13. Each TMJ load was a resultant vector at the anterosuperior-most mediolateral midpoint on the condyle and characterized in terms of magnitude and 3D orientation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to test for effects of biting position and angle on TMJ loads. Mean TMJ loads in subjects with disc displacement were 9.5-69% higher than in subjects with normal disc position. During canine biting, TMJ loads in subjects with disc displacement were 43% (ipsilateral condyle, p=0.029 and 49% (contralateral condyle, p=0.015 higher on average than in subjects with normal disc position. Biting angle effects showed that laterally directed forces on the dentition produced ipsilateral joint loads, which on average were 69% higher (p=0.002 compared to individuals with normal TMJ disc position. The data reported here describe large differences in TMJ loads between individuals with disc displacement and normal disc position. The results support future investigations of inter-individual differences in joint mechanics as a variable in the development of DJD of the TMJ.

  12. Management of an extremely displaced maxillary canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Torsten; Stolze, Annemarie; Goldbecher, Heiko

    2005-07-01

    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. This case report illustrates the treatment of an extremely high displaced maxillary canine. The main diagnosis was the displacement and the retention of tooth 13 (in nearly horizontal position, apical to the neighboring teeth); further diagnoses were: transversal maxillary deficiency with frontal crowding and a distal bite of one premolar in width, a deep bite of 6 mm with contact in the palatal mucosa, mandibular midline deviation of 2.5 mm to the right, lingual eruption of teeth 32 and 42, retroinclination of the maxillary incisors, and retarded eruption of the permanent teeth. Initial treatment with active and functional appliances to correct the distal bite, midline deviation and deep bite. Surgical exposure of the high displaced canine at the age of 14. Onset of cuspid elongation with removable appliances and elastics, further movement with a transpalatinal bar and welded arm, and full alignment of the upper and lower arches with fixed appliances in both jaws. Stabilization of the orthodontic treatment results with retention devices. Duration of treatment: 5 years and 8 months. For the alignment of tooth 13, 2 years and 10 months were required; 1 year and 4 months were necessary with complete fixed appliance. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the potential of aligning an extremely displaced canine. Because of the esthetic and functional importance of the upper canines, therapeutic alignment should be initiated, provided there are no indications to the contrary.

  13. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should...

  14. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  15. Customizing Structure-Function Displacements in the Macula for Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Andrew; Chen, Siyuan; Sepulveda, Juan A; McKendrick, Allison M

    2015-09-01

    In the macula, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are displaced from their receptive fields. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to customize displacements for individual eyes by taking into account macular shape parameters, and determined the likely effect of individual anatomical differences on structure-function mapping in the central visual field. Using the population average model of Drasdo et al. as a starting point, we altered the RGC count in that model based on the ratio of an individual's RGC layer plus inner plexiform layer thickness to the population average on a pointwise basis as a function of eccentricity from the fovea. For 20 adults (age, 24-33; median age, 28) with normal vision, we computed displacements with the original model and our customized approach. We report the variance in displacements among individuals and compare the effects of such displacements on structure-function mapping of the commonly used the 10-2 visual field pattern. As expected, customizing the displacement using individual OCT data made only a small difference on average from the population-based values predicted by the Drasdo et al. model. However, the range between individuals was over 1° at many locations, and closer to 2° at some locations in the superior visual field. Individualizing macular displacement measurements based on OCT data for an individual can result in large spatial shifts in the retinal area corresponding to 10-2 locations, which may be important for clinical structure-function analysis when performed on a local, spatial scale.

  16. Dynamic displacement estimation by fusing LDV and LiDAR measurements via smoothing based Kalman filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiyoung; Sohn, Hoon

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a smoothing based Kalman filter to estimate dynamic displacement in real-time by fusing the velocity measured from a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and the displacement from a light detection and ranging (LiDAR). LiDAR can measure displacement based on the time-of-flight information or the phase-shift of the laser beam reflected off form a target surface, but it typically has a high noise level and a low sampling rate. On the other hand, LDV primarily measures out-of-plane velocity of a moving target, and displacement is estimated by numerical integration of the measured velocity. Here, the displacement estimated by LDV suffers from integration error although LDV can achieve a lower noise level and a much higher sampling rate than LiDAR. The proposed data fusion technique estimates high-precision and high-sampling rate displacement by taking advantage of both LiDAR and LDV measurements and overcomes their limitations by adopting a real-time smoothing based Kalman filter. To verify the performance of the proposed dynamic displacement estimation technique, a series of lab-scale tests are conducted under various loading conditions.

  17. On the relevance of uniaxial tensile testing of urogynecological prostheses: the effect of displacement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazi, Tony; Ammouri, Ali H; Hamade, Ramsey F

    2013-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile testing is commonly used to calculate values of mechanical properties of urogynecological prostheses used in stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse surgery in women. Clinical behavior of these products has been linked to their mechanical properties, hence influencing the clinician's preference for one brand or another. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of displacement rate used in uniaxial tensile testing on peak load, extension at peak load, and initial stiffness of Prolene® mesh, used as a proxy for urogynecological prostheses. Strips of Prolene® mesh measuring 10 × 30 mm were submitted to uniaxial tensile testing at the following rates: 1, 10, 50, 100, and 500 mm/min. Peak load, elongation at peak load, and initial stiffness were computed from load vs displacement curves at all displacement rates. The effect of displacement rate on these parameters was estimated by fitting linear trend lines through the data. The displacement rate at which uniaxial tensile testing is performed has significant effects on the values of extension at peak load and initial stiffness, but not on the peak load. When urogynecological prostheses are submitted to uniaxial tensile testing, studies at more than one displacement rate should be performed. More importantly, these displacement rates should be within the range of applicability.

  18. Validity of Ski Skating Center-of-Mass Displacement Measured by a Single Inertial Measurement Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Håvard; Gløersen, Øyvind; Hallén, Jostein

    2015-12-01

    In regard to simplifying motion analysis and estimating center of mass (COM) in ski skating, this study addressed 3 main questions concerning the use of inertial measurement units (IMU): (1) How accurately can a single IMU estimate displacement of os sacrum (S1) on a person during ski skating? (2) Does incorporating gyroscope and accelerometer data increase accuracy and precision? (3) Moreover, how accurately does S1 determine COM displacement? Six world-class skiers roller-ski skated on a treadmill using 2 different subtechniques. An IMU including accelerometers alone (IMU-A) or in combination with gyroscopes (IMU-G) were mounted on the S1. A reflective marker at S1, and COM calculated from 3D full-body optical analysis, were used to provide reference values. IMU-A provided an accurate and precise estimate of vertical S1 displacement, but IMU-G was required to attain accuracy and precision of < 8 mm (root-mean-squared error and range of displacement deviation) in all directions and with both subtechniques. Further, arm and torso movements affected COM, but not the S1. Hence, S1 displacement was valid for estimating sideways COM displacement, but the systematic amplitude and timing difference between S1 and COM displacement in the anteroposterior and vertical directions inhibits exact calculation of energy fluctuations.

  19. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using nominal engine values... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber...

  20. Displacement Damage Effects in Pinned Photodiode CMOS Image Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Virmontois, Cédric; Goiffon, Vincent; Corbière, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Girard, Sylvain; Bardoux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of displacement damage in Pinned Photodiode (PPD) CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) using proton and neutron irradiations. The DDD ranges from 12 TeV/g to ${1.2 times 10^{6}}$ TeV/g. Particle fluence up to $5 times 10^{14}$ n.cm $^{-2}$ is investigated to observe electro-optic degradation in harsh environments. The dark current is also investigated and it would appear that it is possible to use the dark current spectroscopy in PPD CIS. The dark current random telegr...

  1. Influence of Oceanic and Estuarine Drivers on Wetland Shoreline Change: Moving Towards a Framework for Assessment of Coastal Erosion Hazards Along Sheltered Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, N. G.; Smith, K. E. L.; Doran, K. S.; Smith, C. G.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    Barrier island and estuarine habitats act as natural buffers to wave energy and reduce erosion of mainland coasts; however, estuarine wetlands are under increasing threat from shoreline destabilization and erosion due to rising sea level and storms. Currently, the USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards estimates the vulnerability of shorelines to hurricane erosion hazards by combining physical parameters of dune, beach, and shoreline morphology with storm hydrodynamic predictions. These hazard assessments are limited to ocean-side sandy beaches. However, with the increasing availability of water-penetrating lidar and vegetation filtering algorithms, as well as estuarine wave and hydrodynamic modeling, extending physical process analyses and risk assessments to estuarine and back-barrier shorelines is possible. In this study, we investigate the relationship between shoreline type, sediment supply rate, long-term erosion rates, and shoreline geophysical features. We focus on long-term changes, such as those associated with barrier island landward migration, which is dominated by the processes of storm overwash and sea-level rise. This migration means that the long-term changes in estuarine and ocean-facing shorelines can be correlated. We focus on understanding these correlations with estuarine drivers of wetland shoreline erosion and accretion, such as waves, sediment supply, and shoreline features. Quantitatively assessing the variance of estuarine shoreline behavior relative to oceanic shorelines will improve knowledge of estuarine shoreline susceptibility to storm-induced erosion, help fine-tune estimates of future forecasts of coastal change, and provide an initial framework for estimating erosion hazards along sheltered coasts.

  2. Dynamic high-resolution sonography compared to magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disk displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Hadeel; Eran, Ayelet; Blumenfeld, Israel; Gaitini, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of dynamic high-resolution sonography for evaluation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk displacement compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the mouth closed and during the maximal mandibular range of motion. Dynamic high-resolution sonography with the mouth closed and during the maximal mandibular range of motion was performed on 39 consecutive patients (78 joints; 13 male and 26 female; age range, 18-77 years; mean age ± SD, 37.23 ± 16.26 years) with TMJ disorders. A TMJ MRI study was performed 1 to 7 days after sonography. We searched for signs of disk displacement and findings compatible with degenerative joint disease. Both studies were performed and interpreted independently by blinded operators. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted 22 normal joints (28.2%), 21 (26.9%) with anterior disk displacement with reduction, 15 (19.2%) with anterior disk displacement without reduction, and 20 (25.6%) with degenerative disease. Sonography depicted 30 normal joints (38.5%), 22 (28.2%) with anterior disk displacement with reduction, 12 (15.4%) with anterior disk displacement without reduction, and 14 (17.9%) with degenerative disease. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of sonography for diagnosis of disk displacement were 74.3%, 84.2%, and 77.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosis of disk displacement with reduction were 78.6%, 66.7%, and 73.0%, and the values for diagnosis of disk displacement without reduction were 66.7%, 78.6%, and 73.0%. Dynamic high-resolution sonography is a potential imaging method for diagnosis of TMJ disk displacement and degenerative diseases. Further studies are needed to make dynamic high-resolution sonography the first-line test for diagnosis of TMJ disk displacement. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  4. Education: protecting the rights of displaced children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Mahalingam

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

  5. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

    2000-01-01

    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  6. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  7. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Atomic displacements; crystal defects; crystalline solids. PACS Nos 63.43.j; 63.43.Dq; 61.66.Dk; 61.72.Ji. 1. Introduction. The transition metal dilute alloys are studied for their unique properties such as high strength ...... Even the recent techniques like EXAFS are inadequate for bcc alloys because in the EXAFS ...

  8. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  9. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury Extra. 2006;37:31-3. 4. Collier SG, Wynn-Jones CH. Displacement of the biceps with subscapularis avulsion. J Bone Joint. Surg Br. 1990;72:145. 5. Ogawa K, Takahashi M. Long-term outcome of isolated lesser tuberosity fractures of the humerus. J Trauma. 1997;42:955-9. 6. Robinson CM, Teoh KH, Baker A, et al.

  10. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Hoff, Lars; Pedersen, Lars Germann

    The paper describes measuring results of the air movement from three different types of diffusers for displacement ventilation. Two of the diffusers are lowlevel wall mounted diffusers, one with a low and one with a high initial entrainment. The third diffuser is of the floor mounted type....

  11. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...

  12. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean du Plessis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  13. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Jean du Plessis

    2007-01-01

    The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  14. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  15. Internal displacement in Nigeria: an urgent challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia McGoldrick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past five years an estimated 800,000 people have been displaced in Africa’s most populous state. AddressingNigeria’s neglected IDP crisis must be a key priority in the run-up to the country’s 2007 presidential elections.

  16. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ``geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is given and the associated projection-operator partitioning of the hardness and softness operators (kernels) is developed. The eigenvectors |á 〉 = \\{| 〉 \\} of the hardness operator define the complete (identity) projector P ^ = |  ...

  17. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  18. Inductive Displacement Sensors with a Notch Filter for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng-Chi Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Active magnetic bearing (AMB systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested.

  19. Inductive displacement sensors with a notch filter for an active magnetic bearing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

    2014-07-15

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested.

  20. Flow Characteristics and Sizing of Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Andersen, Torben O.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the steady-state flow characteristics and power losses of annular seat valves for digital displacement machines. Annular seat valves are promising candidates for active check-valves used in digital displacement fluid power machinery which excels in efficiency in a broad...... operating range. To achieve high machine efficiency, the valve flow losses and the required electrical power needed for valve switching should be low. The annular valve plunger geometry, of a valve prototype developed for digital displacement machines, is parametrized by three parameters: stroke length...... a valve prototype. Using the simulated maps to estimate the flow power losses and a simple generic model to estimate the electric power losses, both during digital displacement operation, optimal designs of annular seat valves, with respect to valve power losses, are derived under several different...

  1. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-08-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  2. Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikayoshi Sumi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy

  3. Spatial and temporal scales of shoreline morphodynamics derived from video camera observations for the island of Sylt, German Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossier, Brice; Bryan, Karin R.; Daly, Christopher J.; Winter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Spatial and temporal scales of beach morphodynamics were assessed for the island of Sylt, German Wadden Sea, based on continuous video camera monitoring data from 2011 to 2014 along a 1.3 km stretch of sandy beach. They served to quantify, at this location, the amount of shoreline variability covered by beach monitoring schemes, depending on the time interval and alongshore resolution of the surveys. Correlation methods, used to quantify the alongshore spatial scales of shoreline undulations, were combined with semi-empirical modelling and spectral analyses of shoreline temporal fluctuations. The data demonstrate that an alongshore resolution of 150 m and a monthly survey time interval capture 70% of the kilometre-scale shoreline variability over the 2011-2014 study period. An alongshore spacing of 10 m and a survey time interval of 5 days would be required to monitor 95% variance of the shoreline temporal fluctuations with steps of 5% changes in variance over space. Although monitoring strategies such as land or airborne surveying are reliable methods of data collection, video camera deployment remains the cheapest technique providing the high spatiotemporal resolution required to monitor subkilometre-scale morphodynamic processes involving, for example, small- to middle-sized beach nourishment.

  4. Drivers of shoreline change in atoll reef islands of the Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Salvat, Bernard; Salmon, Camille

    2017-11-01

    This paper increases by around 30% the sample of atoll reef islands studied from a shoreline change perspective, and covers an under-studied geographical area, i.e. the French Tuamotu Archipelago. It brings new irrefutable evidences on the persistence of reef islands over the last decades, as 77% of the 111 study islands exhibited areal stability while 15% and 8% showed expansion and contraction, respectively. This paper also addresses a key research gap by interpreting the major local drivers controlling recent shoreline and island change, i.e. tropical cyclones and seasonal swells, sediment supply by coral reefs and human activities. The 1983 tropical cyclones had contrasting impacts, depending on the shoreline indicator considered. While they generally caused a marked retreat of the stability line, the base of the beach advanced at some locations, as a result of either sediment reworking or fresh sediment inputs. The post-cyclone fair weather period was characterised by reversed trends indicating island morphological readjustment. Cyclonic waves contributed to island upwards growth, which reached up to 1 m in places, through the transfer of sediments up onto the island surface. However, the steep outer slopes of atolls limited sediment transfers to the reef flat and island system. We found that 57% of the study islands are disturbed by human activities, including 'rural' and uninhabited islands. Twenty-six percent of these islands have lost the capacity to respond to ocean-climate related pressures, including the 'capital' islands concentrating atolls' population, infrastructures and economic activities, which is preoccupying under climate change.

  5. Accurate Linking of Lake Erie Water Level with Shoreline Datum Using GPS Buoy and Satellite Altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chien Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to accurately link the water level to the shoreline vertical datum for various applications including coastal management, lake/river/estuary/wetland hydrological or storm surge modeling/forecasting. Coastal topography is historically surveyed and referenced to the predetermined vertical datum in terms of orthometric heights, or the heights above the geoid, which is poorly known in terms of accuracy and lack of adequate spatial resolution for coastal applications such as estuary or storm surge modeling. We demonstrate an accurate linking of the lake surface to a shoreline datum using satellite techniques, including GPS buoy and satellite altimetry, water level gauges, and local geoid and lake circulation models. The possible error sources are analyzed and an error budget is reported in this study. An innovated method to estimate geoid height near the water level gauge using a GPS buoy is proposed. It is found that at a 95% confidence interval, the method is consistent with the National Geodetic Survey GEOID03 geoid model. The lake surface represented using a lake circulation model provided by the Great Lakes Forecasting Systems is also verified with kriging based on the data (1999 - 2001 from the water level gauge, and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter. Mean discrepancies of 2.7 and 7.2 cm are found with the data from the gauges around Lake Erie, and from the combination of the gauges and the altimeter, respectively. It reveals that the current dominant limitation of more accurate linking of water surface to shoreline is the insufficient knowledge of geoid in the current models. Further improvement is feasible through more accurate and higher resolution modeling of the lake geoid.

  6. Soft Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Giffney

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The excellent compliance and large range of motion of soft actuators controlled by fluid pressure has lead to strong interest in applying devices of this type for biomimetic and human-robot interaction applications. However, in contrast to soft actuators fabricated from stretchable silicone materials, conventional technologies for position sensing are typically rigid or bulky and are not ideal for integration into soft robotic devices. Therefore, in order to facilitate the use of soft pneumatic actuators in applications where position sensing or closed loop control is required, a soft pneumatic bending actuator with an integrated carbon nanotube position sensor has been developed. The integrated carbon nanotube position sensor presented in this work is flexible and well suited to measuring the large displacements frequently encountered in soft robotics. The sensor is produced by a simple soft lithography process during the fabrication of the soft pneumatic actuator, with a greater than 30% resistance change between the relaxed state and the maximum displacement position. It is anticipated that integrated resistive position sensors using a similar design will be useful in a wide range of soft robotic systems.

  7. Global surface displacement data for assessing variability of displacement at a point on a fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Sickler, Robert; Feigelson, Leah; Abrahamson, Norman; Hassett, Will; Rosa, Carla; Sanquini, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a global dataset of site-specific surface-displacement data on faults. We have compiled estimates of successive displacements attributed to individual earthquakes, mainly paleoearthquakes, at sites where two or more events have been documented, as a basis for analyzing inter-event variability in surface displacement on continental faults. An earlier version of this composite dataset was used in a recent study relating the variability of surface displacement at a point to the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes on faults, and to hazard from fault rupture (Hecker and others, 2013). The purpose of this follow-on report is to provide potential data users with an updated comprehensive dataset, largely complete through 2010 for studies in English-language publications, as well as in some unpublished reports and abstract volumes.

  8. Mechanisms of sediment transport to shoreline salients onshore of fringing coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J.; Cuttler, M.; Traykovski, P.; Lowe, R.; Buckley, M. L.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Rosenberger, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    Shoreline salients, often extending several hundred metres seaward relative to the adjacent shoreline, are a common morphological feature found in the lee of many fringing coral reefs globally. However, the physical mechanisms that govern the formation and equilibrium dynamics of these salients remains poorly understood. A recent field experiment in NW Australia at Ningaloo Reef examined the mechanism of sediment delivery to a salient that extends 700 m seaward onshore of a 4 km long fringing reef that sits 2 km offshore. The experimental array consisted of wave, water level, and velocity measurements at >20 sites from 20 m depth offshore of the reef, the reef crest, and numerous sites throughout the 3 m depth lagoon shoreward of the reef. Two sites within the lagoon, one each side of the salient, also measured the migration of 0.5 m wavelength, 0.1 m high sand ripples using horizontal and vertically mounted echo sounders. Consistent with existing theory, mean (wave-averaged) flows in the lagoon shoreward of the reef and along the shoreline were divergent up to 0.2 m/s, corresponding to the circulation pattern resulting from wave breaking induced setup on the reef and associated mass flux into the lagoon, and seaward return flow through two lateral channels. These divergent alongshore mean flows are inconsistent the accreted shoreline morphology. However, the two sites that measured ripple properties and migration showed consistent migration in the local (salient following) onshore direction up to 2 m/day (mean 0.14 m/day across the two sites) resulting in onshore sediment fluxes as large as 200 kg/m/day (mean 10.1 kg/m/day) assuming ripple migration equates to net bedload transport. Despite the considerable infragravity energy within the lagoon ( 50% of the energy spectrum) the 0.5 m wavelength ripples were suborbital based on the orbital diameter of the 0.2-0.5 m high short waves which enter the lagoon via refraction through the lateral channels and incomplete

  9. Impact of port structures on the shoreline of Karnataka, west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deepa, N.; Kunte, P.D.

    river and the Arabian Sea. The port mostly handles fishing activities and sometimes cargo also. Malpe is the largest fishing harbor in Karnataka. The shoreline retreats - 95.4862m and forwarded +43.9900m during the period 1973-2014. IJARSG– An Open... cargo, etc. The major imports of the Port are Crude and POL products, LPG, wood pulp, timber logs, finished fertilizers, liquid ammonia, IJARSG– An Open Access Journal (ISSN 2320 – 0243) International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS 1741...

  10. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  11. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  12. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... height is examined by means of full-scale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone. In the case of non-passive, heated...

  13. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2018-01-01

    If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ →ℓ‧ γ but rather ℓ →ℓ‧ X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z‧ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ →ℓ‧ + inv , but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ → eX , X → γγ , ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  14. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  15. Stress Intensity Factor calculation from displacement fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beretta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, visual image techniques such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC enabled to experimentally determine the crack tip displacement and strain fields at small scales. The displacements are tracked during loading, and parameters as the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, opening and closing loads, T-stress can be readily measured. In particular, the SIFs and the T-stress can be obtained by fitting the analytical equation of the Williamstype expansion with the experimentally-determined displacement fields. The results in terms of fracture mechanics parameters strictly depend on the dimension of the area considered around the crack tip in conjunction with the crack length, the maximum SIF (and thus the plastic tip radius, and the number of terms to be considered in the Williams-type expansion. This work focuses in understanding the accuracy of the SIF calculation based on these factors. The study is based on Finite Element Analysis simulations where purely elastic material behavior is considered. The accuracy of the estimation of the SIF is investigated and a guide-line is provided to properly set the DIC measurements. The analysis is then experimentally validated for crack closure measurements adopting the SENT specimen geometry.

  16. Automating Recession Curve Displacement Recharge Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brennan; Schwartz, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Recharge estimation is an important and challenging element of groundwater management and resource sustainability. Many recharge estimation methods have been developed with varying data requirements, applicable to different spatial and temporal scales. The variability and inherent uncertainty in recharge estimation motivates the recommended use of multiple methods to estimate and bound regional recharge estimates. Despite the inherent limitations of using daily gauged streamflow, recession curve displacement methods provide a convenient first-order estimate as part of a multimethod hierarchical approach to estimate watershed-scale annual recharge. The implementation of recession curve displacement recharge estimation in the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) RORA program relies on the subjective, operator-specific selection of baseflow recession events to estimate a gauge-specific recession index. This paper presents a parametric algorithm that objectively automates this tedious, subjective process, parameterizing and automating the implementation of recession curve displacement. Results using the algorithm reproduce regional estimates of groundwater recharge from the USGS Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, with an average absolute error of less than 2%. The algorithm facilitates consistent, completely automated estimation of annual recharge that complements more rigorous data-intensive techniques for recharge estimation. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  18. Displacement, county social cohesion, and depression after a large-scale traumatic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Félice; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a common and potentially debilitating consequence of traumatic events. Mass traumatic events cause wide-ranging disruptions to community characteristics, influencing the population risk of depression. In the aftermath of such events, population displacement is common. Stressors associated with displacement may increase risk of depression directly. Indirectly, persons who are displaced may experience erosion in social cohesion, further exacerbating their risk for depression. Using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi (N = 708), we modeled the independent and joint relations of displacement and county-level social cohesion with depression 18-24 months after Hurricane Katrina. After adjustment for individual- and county-level socio-demographic characteristics and county-level hurricane exposure, joint exposure to both displacement and low social cohesion was associated with substantially higher log-odds of depression (b = 1.34 [0.86-1.83]). Associations were much weaker for exposure only to low social cohesion (b = 0.28 [-0.35-0.90]) or only to displacement (b = 0.04 [-0.80-0.88]). The associations were robust to additional adjustment for individually perceived social cohesion and social support. Addressing the multiple, simultaneous disruptions that are a hallmark of mass traumatic events is important to identify vulnerable populations and understand the psychological ramifications of these events.

  19. Considering Angle Selection When Using Ultrasound Electrode Displacement Elastography to Evaluate Radiofrequency Ablation of Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA is a minimally invasive treatment to thermally destroy tumors. Ultrasound-based electrode-displacement elastography is an emerging technique for evaluating the region of RFA-induced lesions. The angle between the imaging probe and the RFA electrode can influence electrode-displacement elastography when visualizing the ablation zone. We explored the angle effect on electrode-displacement elastography to measure the ablation zone. Phantoms embedded with meatballs were fabricated and then ablated using an RFA system to simulate RFA-induced lesions. For each phantom, a commercial ultrasound scanner with a 7.5 MHz linear probe was used to acquire raw image data at different angles, ranging from 30° to 90° at increments of 10°, to construct electrode-displacement images and facilitate comparisons with tissue section images. The results revealed that the ablation regions detected using electrode-displacement elastography were highly correlated with those from tissue section images when the angle was between 30° and 60°. However, the boundaries of lesions were difficult to distinguish, when the angle was larger than 60°. The experimental findings suggest that angle selection should be considered to achieve reliable electrode-displacement elastography to describe ablation zones.

  20. Coastal foredune displacement and recovery, Barrett Beach-Talisman, Fire Island, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psuty, N.P.; Pace, J.P.; Allen, J.R.; Psuty, Norbert P.; Sherman, Douglas J.; Meyer-Arendt, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Coastal foredune mobility has been tracked at Fire Island National Seashore since 1976 with annual field surveys and analysis of frequent aerial photography. Sequential mapping of the foredune crestline depicts nearly islandwide displacement during major storm events, such as in 1992, and localized displacement during alongshore passage of inshore circulation cells during other years. An instance of localized landward erosion and curvilinear displacement along approximately 400 m of foredune occurred in 1994, followed by recovery over the next nine years. Data from annual surveys and partially supported by four LIDAR flights establish that volume recovery rates in the foredune ranged from about 1.0 m3/m/yr to nearly 12.0 m3/m/yr. Analysis of the foredune morphology and location shows nearly complete recovery of foredune shape and dimension during this interval and it also demonstrates that there has been inland displacement of the foredune crestline of up to 40 m. Total volume recovery within the localized foredune erosion site was greatest, between 34 m3/m to 47 m3/m, in areas of greatest displacement and eventually contributed to creation of a foredune of similar dimension along the entire eroded zone. This process of erosion and recovery describes a mechanism for foredune dimension retention during episodic erosion and displacement and may be a model for foredune persistence accompanying barrier island migration.